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Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content.

Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))



A nuclear factor binds to the metal regulatory elements of the mouse gene encoding metallothionein-I.  

PubMed Central

The ability of vertebrate metallothionein (MT) genes to be induced by heavy metals is controlled by metal regulatory elements (MREs) present in the promoter in multiple, non-identical copies. The binding specificity of the mouse L-cell nuclear factor(s) that interact with the element MREd of the mouse MT-I gene was analyzed by in vitro footprinting, protein blotting, and UV cross-linking assays. In vitro footprinting analyses revealed that synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (oligomers) corresponding to the metal regulatory elements MREa, MREb, MREc, MREd and MREe of the mouse MT-I gene, as well as the MRE4 of the human MT-IIA gene and the MREa of the trout MT-B gene, all competed for the nuclear protein species binding to the MREd region of the mouse MT-I gene, the MREe oligomer being the weakest competitor. In addition, protein blotting experiments revealed that a nuclear protein of 108 kDa, termed metal element protein-1 (MEP-1), which specifically binds with high affinity to mouse MREd, binds with different affinities to the other mouse MRE elements, mimicking their relative transcriptional strength in vivo: MREd greater than or equal to MREa = MREc greater than MREb greater than MREe greater than MREf. Similarly, human MRE4 and trout MREa bind to MEP-1. A protein similar in size to MEP-1 was also detected in HeLa-cell nuclear extracts. In UV cross-linking experiments the major protein species, complexed with mouse MREd oligomers, migrated on a denaturating gel with an apparent Mr of 115,000 and was detected using each of the mouse MRE oligomers tested. These results show that a mouse nuclear factor can bind to multiple MREs in mouse, trout, and human MT genes. Images PMID:1870976

Labbé, S; Prévost, J; Remondelli, P; Leone, A; Séguin, C



Expression of mouse metallothionein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding mouse metallothionein was cloned into the shuttle vector pUC303, creating a translational fusion with the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. The resulting fusion protein has been expressed in the cyanobacteriumSynechococcus PCC7942. Cyanobacterial transformants expressed mouse metallothionein-specific mRNA species as detected by RNA slot blots. In addition, the transformants expressed a unique cadmium ionbinding protein corresponding to the predicted

J L Erbe; K B Taylor; L M Hall



Transcriptional induction of the mouse metallothionein-I gene in hydrogen peroxide-treated Hepa cells involves a composite major late transcription factor/antioxidant response element and metal response promoter elements.  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and heme oxygenase mRNAs is rapidly and transiently induced by H2O2 in mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa) and this effect is blocked by catalase. Menadione, which generates free radicals, also induces these mRNAs. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that a region between -42 and -153 in the mouse MT-I promoter was essential for induction of a CAT reporter gene. A multimer of a 16 bp sequence (-101 to -86) that includes an antioxidant response element and overlapping adenovirus major late transcription factor binding site elevated basal expression and allowed induction by H2O2 when inserted upstream of a minimal promoter. However, deletion of this region (-100 to -89) from the intact MT-I promoter (-153) did not completely eliminate response. Multiple copies of a metal response element also permitted response to H2O2. These results suggest that induction of MT-I gene transcription by H2O2 is mediated by at least two different elements within the proximal MT-I gene promoter and suggest a previously undescribed function of the MRE. Induction of MT gene transcription by ROS and the subsequent scavenging of ROS by the MT peptide is reminiscent of the metal regulatory loop and is consistent with the hypothesized protective functions of MT. Images PMID:7800494

Dalton, T; Palmiter, R D; Andrews, G K



Metallothionein genes in Drosophila melanogaster constitute a dual system.  

PubMed Central

We have selected a metallothionein (MT) cDNA clone from a cadmium-resistant Drosophila melanogaster cell line. This clone includes an open reading frame coding for a 43-amino acid protein whose characteristics are a high cysteine content (12 cysteines, 28% of all residues) and a lack of aromatic amino acids. This protein differs markedly from the Drosophila MT (Mtn gene) previously reported [Lastowski-Perry, D., Otto, E. & Maroni, G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1527-1530). The MT system of Drosophila thus consists of at least two distantly related genes, in sharp contrast with vertebrate MT systems, in which the different members of MT gene families display high similarity. The gene corresponding to our MT cDNA (Mto) is inducible in Drosophila cell lines and in both larval and adult flies. Images PMID:3106973

Mokdad, R; Debec, A; Wegnez, M



Characterization of DNA sequences through which cadmium and glucocorticoid hormones induce human metallothionein-IIA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletion experiments have defined two stretches of DNA (genetic elements), lying close to the promoter for a human gene for metallothionein, that separately mediate the induction of the gene by heavy metal ions, particularly cadmium, and by glucocorticoid hormones. The element responsible for induction by cadmium is duplicated, yet a single copy is fully functional; the element responsible for induction

Michael Karin; Alois Haslinger; Heidi Holtgreve; Robert I. Richards; Paul Krauter; Hannes M. Westphal; Miguel Beato



Metallothionein3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase levels in brains from the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using antiserum against the recombinant isoform 3 of mouse brain metallothionein (MT3), the amount of MT3 protein was determined\\u000a in whole brain homogenates from the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Twenty-two month old transgenic\\u000a positive mice showed a 27% decrease of MT3 normalized to the total protein in the extracts compared to same age, control transgenic\\u000a negative mice.

Bruce L. Martin; Abigail M. Tokheim; Patrick T. McCarthy; Brendan S. Doms; Andrew A. Davis; Ian M. Armitage



Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.  


Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50 years, and Jyväskylä, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28 days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Väisänen, A; Knott, K E



Glucose regulates free cytosolic Zn˛? concentration, Slc39 (ZiP), and metallothionein gene expression in primary pancreatic islet ?-cells.  


Zn˛? is an important cofactor for insulin biosynthesis and storage in pancreatic ?-cells. Correspondingly, polymorphisms in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule Zn˛? transporter ZnT8, are associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Using a genetically engineered (FRET)-based sensor (eCALWY-4), we show here that elevated glucose time-dependently increases free cytosolic Zn˛? ([Zn˛?](cyt)) in mouse pancreatic ?-cells. These changes become highly significant (853 ± 96 pm versus 452 ± 42 pm, p < 0.001) after 24 h and are associated with increased expression of the Zn˛? importer family members Slc39a6, Slc39a7, and Slc39a8, and decreased expression of metallothionein 1 and 2. Arguing that altered expression of the above genes is not due to altered [Zn˛?](cyt), elevation of extracellular (and intracellular) [Zn˛?] failed to mimic the effects of high glucose. By contrast, increases in intracellular cAMP prompted by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and forskolin partially mimicked the effects of glucose on metallothionein, although not ZiP, gene expression. Modulation of intracellular Ca˛? and insulin secretion with pharmacological agents (tolbutamide and diazoxide) suggested a possible role for changes in these parameters in the regulation of Slc39a6 and Slc39a7 but not Slc39a8, nor metallothionein expression. In summary, 1) glucose induces increases in [Zn˛?](cyt), which are then likely to facilitate the processing and/or the storage of insulin and its cocrystallization with Zn˛?, and 2) these increases are associated with elevated expression of zinc importers. Conversely, a chronic increase in [Zn˛?](cyt) following sustained hyperglycemia may contribute to ?-cell dysfunction and death in some forms of diabetes. PMID:21613223

Bellomo, Elisa A; Meur, Gargi; Rutter, Guy A



Engineering a mouse metallothionein on the cell surface of Ralstonia eutropha CH34 for immobilization of heavy metals in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe targeting of the mouse metallothionein I (MT) protein to the cell surface of the heavy metal-tolerant Ralstonia eutropha (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) CH34 strain, which is adapted to thrive in soils highly polluted with metal ions. DNA sequences encoding MT were fused to the autotransporter ?-domain of the IgA protease of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which targeted the hybrid protein

Marc Valls; Sílvia Atrian; Luis A. Fernández; Víctor de Lorenzo



Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function  

E-print Network

Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;Determining gene function · Mutagenesis approaches · Gene-driven, phenotype for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics

Goldschmidt, Christina


Copper accumulation and compartmentalization in mouse fibroblast lacking metallothionein and copper chaperone, Atox1.  


Copper (Cu) is the active center of some enzymes because of its redox-active property, although that property could have harmful effects. Because of this, cells have strict regulation/detoxification systems for this metal. In this study, multi-disciplinary approaches, such as speciation and elemental imaging of Cu, were applied to reveal the detoxification mechanisms for Cu in cells bearing a defect in Cu-regulating genes. Although Cu concentration in metallothionein (MT)-knockout cells was increased by the knockdown of the Cu chaperone, Atox1, the concentrations of the Cu influx pump, Ctr1, and another Cu chaperone, Ccs, were paradoxically increased; namely, the cells responded to the Cu deficiency despite the fact that cellular Cu concentration was actually increased. Cu imaging showed that the elevated Cu was compartmentalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Together, the results point to the novel roles of MT and cytoplasmic vesicles in the detoxification of Cu in mammalian cells. PMID:19362104

Miyayama, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Ogra, Yasumitsu



Copper accumulation and compartmentalization in mouse fibroblast lacking metallothionein and copper chaperone, Atox1  

SciTech Connect

Copper (Cu) is the active center of some enzymes because of its redox-active property, although that property could have harmful effects. Because of this, cells have strict regulation/detoxification systems for this metal. In this study, multi-disciplinary approaches, such as speciation and elemental imaging of Cu, were applied to reveal the detoxification mechanisms for Cu in cells bearing a defect in Cu-regulating genes. Although Cu concentration in metallothionein (MT)-knockout cells was increased by the knockdown of the Cu chaperone, Atox1, the concentrations of the Cu influx pump, Ctr1, and another Cu chaperone, Ccs, were paradoxically increased; namely, the cells responded to the Cu deficiency despite the fact that cellular Cu concentration was actually increased. Cu imaging showed that the elevated Cu was compartmentalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Together, the results point to the novel roles of MT and cytoplasmic vesicles in the detoxification of Cu in mammalian cells.

Miyayama, Takamitsu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Laboratory of Chemical Toxicology and Environmental Health, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuo T. [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Ogra, Yasumitsu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Laboratory of Chemical Toxicology and Environmental Health, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan)], E-mail:



n-hexane-induced synthesis of hepatic metallothionein is mediated by IL-6 in mouse.  


The mechanism of metallothionein (MT) synthesis in the liver by n-hexane (HX) was examined. The increased synthesis of MT in the liver by HX was inhibited by dexamethasone pretreatment. Serum IL-6 was increased soon after HX injection, reaching a maximum at 8-16 hr, and then decreased, but neither IL-1 nor TNF was increased. The hepatic MT concentration reached a maximum later than did the serum IL-6 concentration, at 2 days after administration. When the MT synthesis induced by HX was inhibited by dexamethasone pretreatment, the concentration of IL-6 in the serum was suppressed to a very low level. Furthermore, the increase in concentration of hepatic MT and plasma fibrinogen was significantly decreased by the anti-mouse IL-6 monoclonal antibody. The concentration of hepatic MT was higher when the concentration of HX in the olive oil of the solution for injection was higher, even when the amount of HX administered was the same. It is suggested that the cytokine(s) is produced by the macrophage and fibroblast through injury and inflammation at the site of administration. These findings suggest that MT synthesis resulting from HX is induced indirectly through cytokine(s) production, especially IL-6. PMID:8122271

Itoh, N; Okamoto, H; Ohta, M; Hori, T; Min, K S; Onosaka, S; Nakanishi, H; Okabe, M; Muto, N; Tanaka, K



Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman



Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection.  


Thimerosal, an ethyl mercury compound, is used worldwide as a vaccine preservative. We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. Thimerosal may penetrate the brain, but is undetectable when a clinical dose of thimerosal is injected; therefore, the induction of metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was observed in the cerebellum and cerebrum of mice after thimerosal injection, as MT is an inducible protein. MT-1 mRNA was expressed at 6 and 9 h in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, but MT-1 mRNA expression in the cerebellum was three times higher than that in the cerebrum after the injection of 12 microg/kg thimerosal. MT-2 mRNA was not expressed until 24 h in both organs. MT-3 mRNA was expressed in the cerebellum from 6 to 15 h after the injection, but not in the cerebrum until 24 h. MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs were expressed in the cerebellum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MT-1 protein was detected from 6 to 72 h in the cerebellum after 12 microg/kg of thimerosal was injected and peaked at 10 h. MT-2 was detected in the cerebellum only at 10 h. In the cerebrum, little MT-1 protein was detected at 10 and 24 h, and there were no peaks of MT-2 protein in the cerebrum. In conclusion, MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs but not MT-2 mRNA are easily expressed in the cerebellum rather than in the cerebrum by the injection of low-dose thimerosal. It is thought that the cerebellum is a sensitive organ against thimerosal. As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism. PMID:19357975

Minami, Takeshi; Miyata, Eriko; Sakamoto, Yamato; Yamazaki, Hideo; Ichida, Seiji



Glucose Regulates Free Cytosolic Zn2+ Concentration, Slc39 (ZiP), and Metallothionein Gene Expression in Primary Pancreatic Islet ?-Cells*  

PubMed Central

Zn2+ is an important cofactor for insulin biosynthesis and storage in pancreatic ?-cells. Correspondingly, polymorphisms in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule Zn2+ transporter ZnT8, are associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Using a genetically engineered (FRET)-based sensor (eCALWY-4), we show here that elevated glucose time-dependently increases free cytosolic Zn2+ ([Zn2+]cyt) in mouse pancreatic ?-cells. These changes become highly significant (853 ± 96 pm versus 452 ± 42 pm, p < 0.001) after 24 h and are associated with increased expression of the Zn2+ importer family members Slc39a6, Slc39a7, and Slc39a8, and decreased expression of metallothionein 1 and 2. Arguing that altered expression of the above genes is not due to altered [Zn2+]cyt, elevation of extracellular (and intracellular) [Zn2+] failed to mimic the effects of high glucose. By contrast, increases in intracellular cAMP prompted by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and forskolin partially mimicked the effects of glucose on metallothionein, although not ZiP, gene expression. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ and insulin secretion with pharmacological agents (tolbutamide and diazoxide) suggested a possible role for changes in these parameters in the regulation of Slc39a6 and Slc39a7 but not Slc39a8, nor metallothionein expression. In summary, 1) glucose induces increases in [Zn2+]cyt, which are then likely to facilitate the processing and/or the storage of insulin and its cocrystallization with Zn2+, and 2) these increases are associated with elevated expression of zinc importers. Conversely, a chronic increase in [Zn2+]cyt following sustained hyperglycemia may contribute to ?-cell dysfunction and death in some forms of diabetes. PMID:21613223

Bellomo, Elisa A.; Meur, Gargi; Rutter, Guy A.



The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress. PMID:24918294

Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo



Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the ? 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

Krze?lak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Chwatko, Gra?yna [Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Jó?wiak, Pawe?; Szymczyk, Agnieszka [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Wilkosz, Jacek; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar [2nd Department of Urology, Medical University of ?ód?, Pabianicka 62, 93-513 ?ód? (Poland); Bry?, Magdalena, E-mail: [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)



Functional characterization of four metallothionein genes in Daphnia pulex exposed to environmental stressors  

PubMed Central

We characterized the metallothionein genes (Mt1, Mt2, Mt3, and Mt4) in Daphnia pulex on both molecular and ecotoxicological level. We therefore conducted a bioinformatical analysis of the gene location and predicted protein sequence, and screened the upstream flanking region for regulatory elements. The number of these elements and their positions relative to the start codon varied strongly among the four genes and even among two gene duplicates (Mt1A and Mt1B), suggesting different roles of the four proteins in the organisms’ response to stress. We subsequently conducted a chronic 16-day exposure of D. pulex to different environmental stressors (at sublethal levels causing approximately 50% reduction in reproduction). Based on prior knowledge, we exposed them to the metals Cd, Cu, and Ni, the moulting hormone hydroxyecdysone (20E), and the oxidative stressors cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), and paraquat (Pq). We then compared mRNA expression levels of the four Mt genes under these stress conditions with control conditions in “The Chosen One” clone (TCO), for which the full genome was sequenced and annotated. All together, the mRNA expression results under the different stress regimes indicate that different Mt genes may play different and various roles in the response of D. pulex to stress and that some (but not all) of the differences among the four genes could be related to the pattern of regulatory elements in their upstream flanking region. PMID:22266576

Asselman, J.; Glaholt, S.P.; Smith, Z.; Smagghe, G.; Janssen, C.R.; Colbourne, J.K.; Shaw, J.R.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.



Suppression of metallothionein 3 gene expression by androgen in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.  


Androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, tumors often progress towards a more aggressive phenotype despite treatment. Prostate tissue has a high zinc concentration, which may correlate with prostate cancer progression. Therefore, we investigated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the gene expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and zinc transporters in prostate cancer with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MT3 gene expression in LNCaP cells was suppressed by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. However, it increased in a culture medium containing androgen-deficient charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bicalutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, increased the gene expression of MT3 and partially reversed the suppression of MT3 gene expression induced by DHT. In PC-3 cells lacking androgen receptors, DHT and bicalutamide exerted no effect on MT3 gene expression. The reporter gene assay with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing the 5'-flanking region of MT3 demonstrated a decrease in luciferase activity caused by DHT that was reversed by bicalutamide. These results suggest that MT3 gene expression is downregulated by androgen. PMID:24648996

Otsuka, Takashi; Hamada, Aki; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Usui, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Kazuyuki



Quantitative PCR analysis of two molluscan metallothionein genes unveils differential expression and regulation.  


The mRNA levels of two components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) metallothionein (MT) gene families, MT10 and MT20, were evaluated using real-time quantitative-PCR and Sybr Green I chemistry in animals exposed to heavy metals in vivo and in primary cell cultures. This method was highly specific in detecting the expression of the two genes over a widely dynamic range of starting DNA amounts, showing that the basal level of MT expression is mostly due to MT10 mRNA. Basal MT expression reflected the intracellular concentration of heavy metal as indicated by the use of the heavy metal chelator TPEN on primary cells. MT10 was observed to be inducible by Cd, Zn, and Cu ions, and to a lesser extent by Hg. By contrast, the MT20 expression level was very low under basal conditions, while its mRNA increased dramatically in response to Cd exposure, and to a lesser extend to Hg, leading to levels of expression similar to those of the MT10 gene. The essential metals Cu and Zn had a very small effect on the MT20 gene, whereas the concomitant exposure to Cu and H(2)O(2) produced a rapid rise of expression. In summary, data indicate that the MT isogenes are differentially regulated by heavy metals, while hydroxyl radicals may have a role in MT20 gene activation. Also, protein expression showed metal inducibility only after Cd exposure, suggesting the occurrence of posttranscriptional control mechanisms. PMID:15716106

Dondero, Francesco; Piacentini, Luciana; Banni, Mohamed; Rebelo, Mauro; Burlando, Bruno; Viarengo, Aldo



Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II gene sequences in cadmium-resistant CHO variants  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium-resistanc (Cd/sup r/) variants of the Chinese hamster cell line, CHO, have been derived by stepwise selection for growth in medium containing CdCl/sub 2/. These variants show coordinately increased production of both metallothionein (MT) I and II and were stably resistant to Cd/sup 2 +/ in the absence of continued selection. Genomic DNAs from these Cd/sup r/ sublines were analyzed for both MT gene copy number and MT gene organization, using cDNA sequence probes specific for each of the two Chinese hamster isometallothioneins. These analyses revealed coordinate amplification of MT I and II genes in all Cd/sup r/ variants which had increased copies of MT-encoding sequences. In situ hybridization of an MT-encoding probe to mitotic chromosomes of a Cd/sup r/ variant, which has amplified MT genes at least 14-fold, revealed a single chromosomal site of hybridization. These results suggest that the isoMTs constitute a functionally related gene cluster which amplifies coordinately in response to toxic metal stress.

Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.



Rat lung metallothionein and heme oxygenase gene expression following ozone and zinc oxide exposure.  


We have conducted exposures in rats to determine pulmonary responses following inhalation of two common components of welding fumes, zinc oxide and ozone. To examine their effects on target-inducible gene expression, we measured mRNA levels of two metal-responsive genes, metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase (HO), in lung tissue by RNA slot-blot analysis. A 3-hr exposure to ZnO fume via a combustion furnace caused a substantial elevation in lung MT mRNA at all concentrations tested. Exposures to 5 and 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO resulted in peak 8-fold increases in MT mRNA levels (compared to air-exposed control animal values) immediately after exposure, while 1 mg/m3 ZnO exposure caused a 3.5-fold elevation in MT mRNA. These levels returned to approximate control gene expression values 24 hr after exposure. In addition, ZnO exposure caused an immediate elevation in lung HO gene expression levels, with 8-, 11-, and 5-fold increases observed after the same ZnO exposure levels (p < 0.05). Like MT gene induction, HO mRNA values returned to approximate control levels 24 hr after exposure. In striking contrast to the induction of MT and HO gene expression after ZnO exposures, there was no elevation in gene expression following a 6-hr exposure to 0.5 and 1 ppm ozone, even when lungs were examined as late as 72 hr after exposure. Our results demonstrate the induction of target gene expression following the inhalation of ZnO at concentrations equal to, and below, the current recommended threshold limit value of 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Furthermore, the lack of effect of ozone exposure on MT and HO gene expression suggests no involvement of these genes in the acute respiratory response to this oxidant compound. PMID:1440616

Cosma, G; Fulton, H; DeFeo, T; Gordon, T



Deleterious Effects of Minocycline after in vivo Target Deprivation of Thalamocortical Neurons in the Immature, Metallothionein-Deficient Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Compared to adults, immature metallothionein I & II knockout (MT?/?) mice incur greater neuronal loss and a more rapid rate of microglia accumulation following target deprivation-induced injury. Since minocycline has been proposed to inhibit microglial activation and associated production of neuroinflammatory factors, we investigated its ability to promote neuronal survival in the immature, metallothionein-deficient brain. Following ablation of the visual cortex, 10-day-old MT?/? mice were treated with minocycline or saline and sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after injury. Using stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment. No effect on neuronal survival was observed at 24 hours, but 48 hours after injury an unanticipated but significant minocycline-mediated increase in neuronal loss was detected. Further, while failing to inhibit microglial accumulation, minocycline treatment increased the proportion of amoeboid microglia in the ipsilateral dLGN. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurotoxic response, we identified minocycline-mediated changes in the expression of three potentially pro-apoptotic/ inflammatory genes: growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 45? (GADD45?); interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1) and cytokine induced growth factor (CTGF). We also observed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation with minocycline treatment. Although minocycline inhibited calpain activity at 12 hours post-injury, this effect was not sustained at 24 hours. Together, these results help to explain how minocycline has a deleterious effect on neuronal survival in this injury model. PMID:19115404

Potter, Emily G.; Cheng, Ying; Natale, JoAnne E.



Impact of metallothionein gene polymorphisms on the risk of lung cancer in a Japanese population.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins that act as antioxidants. A case-control study was conducted to assess the effects of gene polymorphisms in the MT region on the risk of lung cancer in Japanese subjects: 769 lung cancer cases and 939 non-cancer controls. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, and lifestyle factors including smoking, drinking, and green-yellow vegetable intake). We found five polymorphisms in the MT-1 gene region that showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer. Of these polymorphisms, rs7196890 showed the strongest association (odds ratio: 1.30, P?=?0.004, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.55). The impact of the polymorphism decreased with the increase of smoking, and virtually no association with lung cancer was observed among heavy smokers whose pack-year values were 30 or more (odds ratio: 1.02, P?=?0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.67-1.55). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the MT gene are moderately associated with the risk of lung cancer and that the associations are modified by lifestyle factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25174824

Nakane, Hideo; Hirano, Minoru; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro



Comparison of metallothionein gene expression and nonprotein thiols in ten Arabidopsis ecotypes. Correlation with copper tolerance.  

PubMed Central

Seedlings of 10 Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared with respect to copper tolerance, expression of two metallothionein genes (MT1 and MT2), and nonprotein thiol levels. MT1 was uniformly expressed in all treatments, and MT2 was copper inducible in all 10 ecotypes. MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels were compared with various growth parameters for the 10 ecotypes in the presence of 40 microM Cu2+. The best correlation (R = 0.99) was obtained between MT2 mRNA and the rate of root extension. MT2 mRNA levels also paralleled the recovery phase following inhibition by copper. Induction of MT2 mRNA was initiated at copper concentrations below the threshold for growth inhibition. In cross-induction experiments, Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and heat shock all induced significant levels of MT2 gene expression, whereas Al3+ and salicylic acid did not. The correlation between copper tolerance and nonprotein thiol levels in the 10 ecotypes was not statistically significant. However, 2 ecotypes, Ws and Enkheim, previously shown to exhibit an acclimation response, had the highest levels of nonprotein thiols. We conclude that MT2 gene expression may be the primary determinant of ecotypic differences in the copper tolerance of nonpretreated Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:8552721

Murphy, A; Taiz, L



The metallothionein gene from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Characterization and expression in response to hypoxia.  


Aquatic animals encounter variation in oxygen tension that leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can harm the organisms. Under these circumstances some organisms have evolved to tolerate hypoxia. In mammals, metallothioneins (MTs) protect against hypoxia-generated ROS. Here we report the MT gene from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvMT). LvMT is differentially expressed in hemocytes, intestine, gills, pleopods, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle, with the highest levels in hepatopancreas and heart. LvMT mRNA increases during hypoxia in hepatopancreas and gills after 3 h at 1.5 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO). This gene structure resembles the homologs from invertebrates and vertebrates possessing three exons, two introns and response elements for metal response transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and p53 in the promoter region. During hypoxia, HIF-1/MTF-1 might participate inducing MT to contribute towards the tolerance to ROS toxicity. MT importance in aquatic organisms may include also ROS-detoxifying processes. PMID:25299575

Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martinez-Quintana, José A; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria



Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.



Heavy metal-induced differential gene expression of metallothionein in Javanese medaka, Oryzias javanicus.  


A metallothionein (MT) gene was isolated for the first time from Javanese medaka, Oryzias javanicus, which shows high adaptability from freshwater to seawater. The full-length cDNA of MT from O. javanicus (OjaMT) comprises 349 bp, excluding the poly(A)+ stretch, and codes for a total of 60 amino acids. The positions of cysteine residues are highly conserved. The pattern of OjaMT expression induced by six heavy metals was analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The level of hepatic OjaMT mRNA was increased in a dose-dependent manner by Ag, Cd, Cu, and Zn after 24 h of exposure. However, after Cr and Ni exposure, a significant decrease in OjaMT levels was observed. Cadmium-induced OjaMT expression was detectable in fishes as young as 3 months. After Cd exposure, OjaMT induction was prominent in intestine and liver and moderate in muscle and gill. OjaMT mRNA levels could represent a good biomarker for monitoring heavy metals in seawater. PMID:16967182

Woo, Seonock; Yum, Seungshic; Jung, Jee Hyun; Shim, Won Joon; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Taek-Kyun



[Mechanism of metallothionein gene activation mediated by heavy-metal dependent transcription factor MTF-1].  


Transcriptional activation of metallothionein (MT) genes by heavy metals is a valuable system for understanding the functions of MT as well as the cellular response against heavy metals. Although it is now known that heavy metal signals culminating in MT induction converge upon a transcription factor MTF-1, the mechanism underlying the MTF-1 response to heavy metals has not been elucidated. To address this issue, we investigated various aspects of the in vivo response of MTF-1 against heavy metals. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that heavy metal-dependent DNA binding of MTF-1 is the critical step in vivo. MTF-1 is primarily localized in the nucleus so that heavy metal-dependent nuclear translocation demonstrated by other groups does not seem to be universal and hence may not be critical for activation of MTF-1. In the six Zn finger motifs, the hallmark of MTF-1, the third and the fourth fingers are essential for the nuclear localization of MTF-1. Furthermore, all fingers except the last are important for transcriptional activation function of MTF-1, suggesting their key role for MTF-1 function. Also, a cysteine cluster structure located in the C-terminal region of MTF-1 is critical for transactivating function of MTF-1. These results suggest a central role of the Zn-finger domain and intramolecular cooperation through a structural change of MTF-1 for its response to heavy metal challenge. PMID:17409697

Otsuka, Fuminori; Ohno, Shotaro; Suzuki, Kaoru; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ohsawa, Motoyasu; Koizumi, Shinji



Differential responses of three sweetpotato metallothionein genes to abiotic stress and heavy metals.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich, low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins that are widely distributed in living organisms. Plants produce metal-chelating proteins such as MTs to overcome the toxic effects of heavy metals. We cloned three MT genes from sweetpotato leaves [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. The three IbMT genes were classified according to their cysteine residue alignment into type 1 (IbMT1), type 2 (IbMT2), and type 3 (IbMT3). IbMT1 was the most abundantly transcribed MT. It was predominantly expressed in leaves, roots, and callus. IbMT2 transcript was detected only in stems and fibrous roots, whereas IbMT3 was strongly expressed in leaves and stems. The IbMT expression profiles were investigated in plants exposed to heavy metals and abiotic stresses. The levels of IbMT1 expression were strongly elevated in response to Cd and Fe, and moderately higher in response to Cu. The IbMT3 expression pattern in response to heavy metals was similar to that of IbMT1. Exposure to abiotic stresses such as methyl viologen (MV; paraquat), NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and H2O2 up-regulated IbMT expression; IbMT1 responded strongly to MV and NaCl, whereas IbMT3 was induced by low temperature and PEG. Transgenic Escherichia coli overexpressing IbMT1 protein exhibited results suggest that IbMT could be a useful tool for engineering plants with enhanced tolerance to environmental stresses and heavy metals. PMID:25030835

Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Ahn, Young Ock; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo



Cloning, characterization and gene expression of a metallothionein isoform in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure.  


Metallothionein (MT) genes encode crucial metal-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed in living organisms and which play important roles in homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification processes. Here, the molecular organization of the first metallothionein gene of the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule and its expression after cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures were determined. The resulting sequence (Cemt1) exhibits unusual features. The full length cDNA encodes a protein of 73 amino acids with nine classical Cys-X((1-3))-Cys motifs, but also one Cys-Cys not generally found in molluscan MT. Moreover, characterization of the molecular organization of the Cemt1 gene revealed two different alleles (A1 and A2) with length differences due to large deletion events in their intronic sequences involving direct Short Interspersed repeated Elements (SINE), while their exonic sequences were identical. To our knowledge, such large excision mechanisms have never before been reported in a bivalve gene sequence. After 10 days of Cd exposure at environmentally relevant doses, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a strong induction of Cemt1 in gills of C. edule. Surprisingly, neither induction of the Cemt1 gene nor of MT protein was shown after Hg exposure, despite the fact that this organism is able to bioaccumulate a high amount of this trace metal which is theoretically one of the most powerful inducers of MT biosynthesis. PMID:21963253

Paul-Pont, Ika; Gonzalez, Patrice; Montero, Natalia; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Baudrimont, Magalie



Zinc rescue of Akt2 gene deletion-linked murine cardiac dysfunction and pathological changes is metallothionein-dependent.  


We have demonstrated that zinc supplementation provides cardiac protection from diabetes in mice, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Since zinc mimics the function of insulin, it may provide benefit to the heart via stimulating Akt-mediated glucose metabolism. Akt2 plays an important role in cardiac glucose metabolism and mice with Akt2 gene deletion (Akt2-KO) exhibit a type 2 diabetes phenotype; therefore, we assumed that no cardiac protection by zinc supplementation from diabetes would be observed in Akt2-KO mice. Surprisingly, despite Akt2 gene deletion, zinc supplementation provided protection against cardiac dysfunction and other pathological changes in Akt2-KO mice, which were accompanied by significant decreases in Akt and GSK-3? phosphorylation. Correspondingly, glycogen synthase phosphorylation and hexokinase II and PGC-1? expression, all involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, were significantly altered in diabetic hearts, along with a significantly increased expression of Akt negative regulators: PTEN, PTP1B, and TRB3. All these molecular, pathological, and functional changes were significantly prevented by 3-month zinc supplementation. Furthermore, the stimulation of Akt-mediated glucose metabolic kinases or enzymes by zinc treatment was metallothionein-dependent since it could not be observed in metallothionein-knockout mice. These results suggest that zinc preserves cardiac function and structure in Akt2-KO mice presumably due to its insulin mimetic effect on cardiac glucose-metabolism. The cardioprotective effects of zinc are metallothionein-dependent. This is very important since zinc supplementation may be required for patients with Akt2 gene deficiency or insulin resistance. PMID:24819347

Sun, Weixia; Miao, Xiao; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Li; Epstein, Paul N; Mellen, Nicholas; Zheng, Yang; Fu, Yaowen; Wang, Yuehui; Cai, Lu



Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo



Two major branches of anti-cadmium defense in the mouse: MTF1\\/metallothioneins and glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) regulates expression of its target genes in response to various stress conditions, notably heavy metal load, via binding to metal response elements (MREs) in the respective enhancer\\/promoter regions. Furthermore, it serves a vital function in embryonic liver development. However, targeted deletion of Mtf1 in the liver after birth is no longer lethal. For this study,

Ursula Wimmer; Ying Wang; Oleg Georgiev; Walter Schaffner



Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by oxidative stress and metal ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallothioneins (MT) are small, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in an array of protective stress responses. Although a single essential function of MT has not been demonstrated, MT of higher eukaryotes evolved as a mechanism to regulate zinc levels and distribution within cells and organisms. These proteins can also protect against some toxic metals and oxidative stress-inducing agents.

Glen K Andrews



Expression pattern of a type-2 metallothionein gene in a wild population of the psammophyte Silene nicaeensis.  


Silene nicaeensis is a wild Mediterranean grass often restricted to sandy sea shore and exhibiting an excellent tolerance to drought and salinity. Within Silene genus, several heavy metal-tolerant ecotypes have been identified, but information on molecular basis of such metal tolerance is still limited. Conceivably, salt-tolerant plants may represent a powerful tool for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in saline environment. Here, a gene encoding a metallothionein protein was isolated from S. nicaeensis. Sequence analysis identified the motifs characteristic of type II metallothionein and designated as SnMT2. SnMT2 expression was investigated in plants collected from two sites differing in Metal Pollution Index (MPI). SnMT2 expression by polymerase chain reaction-based semi-quantitative transcript analysis showed a high accumulation in the leaves; in situ hybridization showed a steady localization of SnMT2 mRNA in the vascular bundle and in proliferating tissues. Moreover, an increase of SnMT2 was observed in the root of plants collected from area with higher MPI. The putative role of SnMT2 in metal tolerance is discussed. PMID:22688806

Cozza, Radiana; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice



The mouse gene expression database GXD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene expression database (GXD) is being developed to store and integrate expression information for mouse development. GXD addresses many issues that apply to gene expression databases in general, and its data structures and supporting software tools are generalized in design and thus readily adaptable to other life stages and species. Integration of GXD with the mouse genome database (MGD)

Martin Ringwald; Geoffrey L. Davis; Alex G. Smith; Laura E. Trepanier; Dale A. Begley; Joel E. Richardson; Janan T. Eppig



Cancer gene discovery in mouse and man  

PubMed Central

The elucidation of the human and mouse genome sequence and developments in high-throughput genome analysis, and in computational tools, have made it possible to profile entire cancer genomes. In parallel with these advances mouse models of cancer have evolved into a powerful tool for cancer gene discovery. Here we discuss the approaches that may be used for cancer gene identification in both human and mouse and discuss how a cross-species ‘oncogenomics’ approach to cancer gene discovery represents a powerful strategy for finding genes that drive tumourigenesis. PMID:19285540

Mattison, Jenny; van der Weyden, Louise; Hubbard, Tim; Adams, David J.



A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 ?mol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 ?mol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai



Enhanced Copper Tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Populations from Copper Mines Is Associated with Increased Transcript Levels of a 2b-Type Metallothionein Gene1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke has evolved populations with extremely high levels of copper tolerance. To evaluate the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in copper tolerance in S. vulgaris, we screened a cDNA library derived from a highly copper- tolerant population using Arabidopsis-based MT probes and identified an MT2b-like gene. When expressed in yeast, this gene, SvMT2b, restored cadmium and copper tolerance

Nathalie A. L. M. van Hoof; Viivi H. Hassinen; Henk W. J. Hakvoort; Koos F. Ballintijn; Henk Schat; Jos A. C. Verkleij; Wilfried H. O. Ernst; Sirpa O. Karenlampi; Arja I. Tervahauta


Symbiotic and non-symbiotic expression of cgMT1, a metallothionein-like gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clone for a type 1 metallothionein (cgMT1) was isolated from a Casuarina glauca nodule cDNA library. The corresponding gene belongs to a small family and is highly expressed in roots and nitrogen-fixing nodules, whereas low expression was observed in aerial parts of the plant. The promoter region of cgMT1 was isolated and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (gus) gene. Transgenic

Laurent Laplaze; Hassen Gherbi; Emile Duhoux; Katharina Pawlowski; F lorence Auguy; Fathia Guermache; Claudine Franche; Didier Bogusz



Symbiotic and non-symbiotic expression of cgMT1 , a metallothionein-like gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clone for a type 1 metallothionein (cgMT1) was isolated from a Casuarina glauca nodule cDNA library. The corresponding gene belongs to a small family and is highly expressed in roots and nitrogen-fixing nodules, whereas low expression was observed in aerial parts of the plant. The promoter region of cgMT1 was isolated and fused to the ß-glucuronidase (gus) gene. Transgenic Casuarinaceae

Laurent Laplaze; Hassen Gherbi; Emile Duhoux; Katharina Pawlowski; Florence Auguy; Fathia Guermache; Claudine Franche; Didier Bogusz



Biochemical characterization and quantitative gene expression analysis of the multi-stress inducible metallothionein from Tetrahymena thermophila.  


A cadmium-binding protein with biochemical features of a metallothionein (MT) has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. N-terminal sequencing revealed the posttranslational cleavage of the first two amino acids and, in general, a high degree of identity with known MTs from other ciliates. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the apothionein revealed a molecular mass (16,763 Da) higher to those of mammals and of other protozoa. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR has been used to investigate the susceptibility of this ciliate MT to gene activation in response to heavy metals and to other stressors. Our data indicate that while zinc is not effective at all and cadmium is the best inducer, other stress factors, such as mercury, copper, heat and hydrogen peroxide, also activated gene transcription. As in vertebrate cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) that stimulates ciliate growth, was able to enhance MT gene synthesis. This complex of data seems to indicate a general role of this protein in stress response. PMID:15305793

Dondero, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria; Ghezzi, Anna Rita; La Terza, Antonietta; Banni, Mohamed; Viarengo, Aldo



Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues  

PubMed Central

The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GST as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8-48 hr) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to cadmium, whereas, more pronounced effects in olfactory and gill GST expression were observed at 48 hr relative to earlier time points. Although evaluation of GSTs reflected a cadmium-associated oxidative stress response, there was no clear GST isoform in any tissue that could serve as a reliable biomarker of acute cadmium exposure. By contrast, metallothionein (MT) mRNA was consistently and markedly induced in all three tissues by cadmium, and among the tissues examined, olfactory MT was the most sensitive marker of cadmium exposures. In summary, coho salmon exhibit a complex GST tissue profile consisting of at least 9 isoforms, all of which are present in the peripheral olfactory system. Short-term exposure to environmental levels of Cd causes transient changes in salmon GST consistent with oxidative stress, and in some cases, includes a loss of GST. In a biomarker context, however, monitoring of tissue MT mRNA expression, especially in the peripheral olfactory system, may be of greater utility for assessing short-term environmental exposures to cadmium. PMID:22257444

Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.



A PU.1 Suppressive Target Gene, Metallothionein 1G, Inhibits Retinoic Acid-Induced NB4 Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT) 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE) cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M) induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells. PMID:25072246

Hirako, Naomi; Nakano, Hiroko; Takahashi, Shinichiro



The relationship between metallothionein-1F (MT1F) gene and hepatocellular carcinoma.  


To investigate the expression of MT1F gene in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and the growth suppression effect of exogenous introduction of MT1F gene on liver cell line HepG2 and to explore the potential application of MT1F gene in gene therapy of tumor. Eukaryotic expression vector of pCMV-MT1F plasmid was introduced into HepG2 line which expressed no MT1F protein originally with lipofectamine transfection method. The cell growth curve, soft agar colony formation rate and tumorigenicity in SCID mice were examined to demonstrate the growth suppression effect of exogenous MT1F gene on HepG2 cell line. The MT1F mRNA and MT1F protein were also detected in 60 pairs of surgical specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The transfected HepG2 cell line grew more slowly than control HepG2 as shown by cell growth curves, the soft agar colony formation rate (3.8 percent vs. 7.4 percent, p <.01) and the average growth rate of tumor in SCID mice (30.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 70.3 +/- 5.6, p <.01). The expression level of MT1F mRNA and protein significantly increased in paracancerous tissue, normal tissue than in cancer tissues (75 percent, 70 percent vs. 16.7 percent by ISH and 66.7 percent, 60 percent vs. 10 percent by IHC, p <.01). Exogenous MT1F gene shows the strong effect of growth inhibition on HepG2 cell line. In the liver cancer tissue, MT1F shows down-regulated expression that supports the inhibited function of MT1F in cancer growth and suggests MT1F may have an important role in gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:15369632

Lu, Dong-Dong; Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhang, Xi-Ran; Cao, Xiang-Rong; Jiang, Hua-Yun; Yao, Lin



Genes for epilepsy mapped in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurological mutant mouse strain E1 is a model for complex partial seizures in humans. The inheritance of epileptic seizures with seven conventional chromosomal markers and over 60 endogenous proviral markers was studied by means of back-crosses of E1 with two seizure-resistant strains, DBA\\/2J and ABP\\/LeJ. The major gene responsible for this epileptic phenotype (El-1) was localized to a region

M L Rise; W N Frankel; J M Coffin; T N Seyfried



Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.  


Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem ? domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms. PMID:22614035

Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin



Gene expression profiles in mouse liver cells after exposure to different types of radiation.  


The liver is one of the target organs of radiation-induced cancers by internal exposures. In order to elucidate radiation-induced liver cancers including Thorotrast, we present a new approach to investigate in vivo effects of internal exposure to alpha-particles. Adopting boron neutron capture, we separately irradiated Kupffer cells and endothelial cells in mouse liver in vivo and analyzed the changes in gene transcriptions by an oligonucleotide microarray. Differential expression was defined as more than 3-fold for up-regulation and less than 1/3 for under-regulation, compared with non-irradiated controls. Of 6,050 genes examined, 68 showed differential expression compared with non-irradiated mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction validated the results of the microarray analysis. Exposure to alpha-particles and gamma-rays produced different patterns of altered gene expression. Gene expression profiles revealed that the liver was in an inflammatory state characterized by up-regulation of positive acute phase protein genes, irrespective of the target cells exposed to radiation. In comparison with chemical and biological hepatotoxicants, inductions of Metallothionein 1 and Hemopexin, and suppressions of cytochrome P450s are characteristic of radiation exposure. Anti-inflammatory treatment could be helpful for the prevention and protection of radiation-induced hepatic injury. PMID:18049034

Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Li, Li; Baba, Taisuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Hironobu; Wang, Lu; Kasaoka, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Ono, Koji; Fukumoto, Manabu



Bis(L-cysteinato)zincate(lI) as a coordination compound that induces metallothionein gene transcription without inducing cell-stress-related gene transcription.  


Zinc is an essential micronutrient, deficiency of which results in growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and neurological diseases such as dysgeusia. Several zinc coordination compounds are used for zinc supplementation; however, supplemented zinc ions have no specificity and interact with various groups of molecules. Here, we found that, from a library of 30 zinc coordination compounds, bis(L-cysteinato)zincate(II), designated Z01, functioned as a metallothionein (MT) inducer. Z01 induced MT expression mediated by the transcription factor MTF-1, without inducing cell-stress-related heme oxygenase-1 gene expression at specific concentration. The zinc ion was necessary for the MT induction. (65)Zn incorporation following treatment with (65)Zn-labeled Z01 suggested that Z01 did not act as zinc ionophore despite its hydrophilicity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Z01 facilitates MTF-1-MRE complex formation, and, by inference, transfer of zinc from Z01 to MTF-1. Phosphorylated ERK levels were increased by ZnSO(4) treatment but not by Z01. Although our data do not definitely prove that Z01 is an MTF-1-specific activator, our observations suggest that zinc coordination compounds can regulate zinc distribution and act as zinc donors for specific molecules. PMID:23085594

Kimura, Tomoki; Yoshida, Kengo; Yamamoto, Chika; Suzuki, Minako; Uno, Tomoko; Isobe, Masakazu; Naka, Hiroshi; Yasuike, Shuji; Satoh, Masahiko; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Uchiyama, Masanobu



EMAGE: Electronic Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression.  


The EMAGE (Electronic Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression) database ( allows users to perform on-line queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE data are represented spatially using a framework of 3D mouse embryo models, thus allowing uniquely spatial queries to be carried out alongside more traditional text-based queries. This spatial representation of the data also allows a comparison of spatial similarity between the expression patterns. The data are mapped to the models by a team of curators using bespoke mapping software, and the associated meta-data are curated for accuracy and completeness. The data contained in EMAGE are gathered from three main sources: from the published literature, through large-scale screens and collaborations, and via direct submissions from researchers. There are a variety of ways to query the EMAGE database via the on-line search interfaces, as well as via direct computational script-based queries. EMAGE is a free, on-line, community resource funded by the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:24318814

Richardson, Lorna; Stevenson, Peter; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nick; Rao, Jianguo; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Baldock, Richard A; Davidson, Duncan R



The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)



Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 ?M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 ?M CuCl2, 220?M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors. PMID:25572229

Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui



Effects of cadmium exposure on sea urchin development assessed by SSH and RT-qPCR: metallothionein genes and their differential induction.  


In order to study the defense strategies activated by Paracentrotus lividus embryos in response to sub-lethal doses of CdCl2, we compared the induced transcripts to that of control embryos by suppression subtractive hybridization technique. We isolated five metallothionein (MT) cDNAs and other genes related to detoxification, to signaling pathway components, to oxidative, reductive and conjugative biotransformation, to RNA maturation and protein synthesis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that two of the five P. lividus MT (PlMT7 and PlMT8) genes appeared to be constitutively expressed and upregulated following cadmium treatment, whereas the other three genes (PlMT4, PlMT5, PlMT6) are specifically switched-on in response to cadmium treatment. Moreover, we found that this transcriptional induction is concentration dependent and that the cadmium concentration threshold for the gene activation is distinct for every gene. RT-qPCR experiments showed in fact that, among induced genes, PlMT5 gene is activated at a very low cadmium concentration (0.1 ?M) whereas PlMT4 and PlMT6 are activated at intermediate doses (1-10 ?M). Differently, PlMT7 and PlMT8 genes increase significantly their expression only in embryos treated with the highest dose (100 ?M CdCl2). We found also that, in response to a lethal dose of cadmium (1 ?M), only PlMT5 and PlMT6 mRNA levels increased further. These data suggest a hierarchical and orchestrated response of the P. lividus embryo to overcome differential environmental stressors that could interfere with a normal development. PMID:23212613

Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Marco; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio



Metallothionein and the Biology of Aging  

PubMed Central

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein with anti-apoptotic properties that has been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro. MT has not been extensively investigated within the context of aging biology. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss findings on MT that are relevant to basic aging mechanisms and to draw attention to the possible role of MT in pro-longevity interventions. MT is one of just a handful of proteins that, when overexpressed, has been demonstrated to increase mouse lifespan. MT also protects against development of obesity in mice provided a high fat diet as well as diet-induced oxidative stress damage. Abundance of MT is responsive to caloric restriction (CR) and inhibition of the insulin / insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway, and elevated MT gene expression has been observed in tissues from fasted and CR-fed mice, long-lived dwarf mice, worms maintained under CR conditions, and long-lived daf-2 mutant worms. The dysregulation of MT in these systems is likely to have tissue-specific effects on aging outcomes. Further investigation will therefore be needed to understand how MT contributes to the response of invertebrates and mice to CR and the endocrine mutations studied by aging researchers. PMID:20933613

Swindell, William R.



The Heterologous Expression of the Iris lactea var. chinensis Type 2 Metallothionein IlMT2b Gene Enhances Copper Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is a widely adapted perennial species with a high level of copper tolerance. To evaluate the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in copper tolerance in I. lactea var. chinensis, a full-length cDNA homologue of MT2, designated IlMT2b (GenBank accession No. AB907788), was cloned using the RACE-PCR method. The expression level of IlMT2b in the leaves and roots of I. lactea var. chinensis was induced in response to copper (Cu) treatment. Ectopic expression of IlMT2b in Arabidopsis thaliana increased the Cu concentration and reduced H2O2 production in the transgenic plants. After treatment with 50 and 100 ?M Cu, the root length of two transgenic seedlings was respectively about 1.5- and 3-fold longer than that of the wild-type. Together, these results suggested that IlMT2b may represent a useful target gene for the phytoremediation of Cu-polluted soil. PMID:25533567

Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhu, Xu-Dong; Huang, Su-Zhen; Lu, Xiao-Qing



Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene  

SciTech Connect

We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others] [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); and others



Enhanced copper tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke populations from copper mines is associated with increased transcript levels of a 2b-type metallothionein gene.  


Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke has evolved populations with extremely high levels of copper tolerance. To evaluate the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in copper tolerance in S. vulgaris, we screened a cDNA library derived from a highly copper-tolerant population using Arabidopsis-based MT probes and identified an MT2b-like gene. When expressed in yeast, this gene, SvMT2b, restored cadmium and copper tolerance in different hypersensitive strains. Northern-blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that plants from the copper-tolerant S. vulgaris populations had significantly higher transcript levels of SvMT2b than plants from the copper-sensitive populations, both in roots and shoots and with and without copper exposure. Southern-blot analysis suggested that the higher expression of the latter allele was caused by gene amplification. Segregating families of crosses between copper-sensitive and copper-tolerant plants exhibited a 1 to 3 segregation for SvMT2b expression. Allele-specific PCR showed that low-expression F(3) plants were homozygous for the allele inherited from the copper-sensitive parent, whereas high-expression plants possessed at least one allele from the tolerant parent. SvMT2b expression did not cosegregate with copper tolerance in crosses between sensitive and tolerant plants. However, a significant cosegregation with copper tolerance did occur in families derived from crosses between moderately tolerant F(3) plants with different SvMT2b genotypes. Thus, overexpression of SvMT2b conferred copper tolerance although only within the genetic background of a copper tolerant plant. PMID:11500550

van Hoof, N A; Hassinen, V H; Hakvoort, H W; Ballintijn, K F; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A; Ernst, W H; Karenlampi, S O; Tervahauta, A I



Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 {mu}g mL{sup {minus}1} aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression.

D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))



Database for exchangeable gene trap clones: pathway and gene ontology analysis of exchangeable gene trap clone mouse lines.  


Gene trapping in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a proven method for large-scale random insertional mutagenesis in the mouse genome. We have established an exchangeable gene trap system, in which a reporter gene can be exchanged for any other DNA of interest through Cre/mutant lox-mediated recombination. We isolated trap clones, analyzed trapped genes, and constructed the database for Exchangeable Gene Trap Clones (EGTC) []. The number of registered ES cell lines was 1162 on 31 August 2013. We also established 454 mouse lines from trap ES clones and deposited them in the mouse embryo bank at the Center for Animal Resources and Development, Kumamoto University, Japan. The EGTC database is the most extensive academic resource for gene-trap mouse lines. Because we used a promoter-trap strategy, all trapped genes were expressed in ES cells. To understand the general characteristics of the trapped genes in the EGTC library, we used Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for pathway analysis and found that the EGTC ES clones covered a broad range of pathways. We also used Gene Ontology (GO) classification data provided by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) to compare the functional distribution of genes in each GO term between trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and total genes annotated in MGI. We found the functional distributions for the trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and for the RefSeq genes for the whole mouse genome were similar, indicating that the EGTC mouse lines had trapped a wide range of mouse genes. PMID:24444128

Araki, Masatake; Nakahara, Mai; Muta, Mayumi; Itou, Miharu; Yanai, Chika; Yamazoe, Fumika; Miyake, Mikiko; Morita, Ayaka; Araki, Miyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakagata, Naomi; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kimi



HumanMouse Gene Identification by Comparative Evidence Integration and  

E-print Network

The identification of genes in the human genome remains a challenge, as the actual predictions appear to disagree of genes in the human genome by using a reference, such as mouse genome. However, this comparative the human to provide sufficiently distinctive conservation levels in different genomic regions, (2

Pavlovic, Vladimir


Research article The functional landscape of mouse gene expression  

E-print Network

organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology `Biological Processes

Frey, Brendan J.



EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project was to develop a radioimmunoassay for metallothionein. Since this protein is involved with the transport of cadmium in biological systems and may in fact protect against cadmium poisoning, the ability to monitor the levels in the human population is of th...


The mammalian gene function resource: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.  


In 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed high-throughput gene trapping and, in particular, gene-targeting pipelines and generated more than 17,400 mutant murine embryonic stem (ES) cell clones and more than 1,700 mutant mouse strains, most of them conditional. A common IKMC web portal ( has been established, allowing easy access to this unparalleled biological resource. The IKMC materials considerably enhance functional gene annotation of the mammalian genome and will have a major impact on future biomedical research. PMID:22968824

Bradley, Allan; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Ayadi, Abdelkader; Battey, James F; Bell, Cindy; Birling, Marie-Christine; Bottomley, Joanna; Brown, Steve D; Bürger, Antje; Bult, Carol J; Bushell, Wendy; Collins, Francis S; Desaintes, Christian; Doe, Brendan; Economides, Aris; Eppig, Janan T; Finnell, Richard H; Fletcher, Colin; Fray, Martin; Frendewey, David; Friedel, Roland H; Grosveld, Frank G; Hansen, Jens; Hérault, Yann; Hicks, Geoffrey; Hörlein, Andreas; Houghton, Richard; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Huylebroeck, Danny; Iyer, Vivek; de Jong, Pieter J; Kadin, James A; Kaloff, Cornelia; Kennedy, Karen; Koutsourakis, Manousos; Lloyd, K C Kent; Marschall, Susan; Mason, Jeremy; McKerlie, Colin; McLeod, Michael P; von Melchner, Harald; Moore, Mark; Mujica, Alejandro O; Nagy, Andras; Nefedov, Mikhail; Nutter, Lauryl M; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Peterson, Jane L; Pollock, Jonathan; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Rancourt, Derrick E; Raspa, Marcello; Remacle, Jacques E; Ringwald, Martin; Rosen, Barry; Rosenthal, Nadia; Rossant, Janet; Ruiz Noppinger, Patricia; Ryder, Ed; Schick, Joel Zupicich; Schnütgen, Frank; Schofield, Paul; Seisenberger, Claudia; Selloum, Mohammed; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Skarnes, William C; Smedley, Damian; Stanford, William L; Stewart, A Francis; Stone, Kevin; Swan, Kate; Tadepally, Hamsa; Teboul, Lydia; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Valenzuela, David; West, Anthony P; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Wurst, Wolfgang



Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR  

SciTech Connect

Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

Zorita, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Bilbao, E. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Schad, A. [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Cancio, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, M. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail:



Project normal: Defining normal variance in mouse gene expression  

PubMed Central

The mouse has become an indispensable and versatile model organism for the study of development, genetics, behavior, and disease. The application of comprehensive gene expression profiling technologies to compare normal and diseased tissues or to assess molecular alterations resulting from various experimental interventions has the potential to provide highly detailed qualitative and quantitative descriptions of these processes. Ideally, to interpret experimental data, the magnitude and diversity of gene expression for the system under study should be well characterized, yet little is known about the normal variation of mouse gene expression in vivo. To assess natural differences in murine gene expression, we used a 5406-clone spotted cDNA microarray to quantitate transcript levels in the kidney, liver, and testis from each of 6 normal male C57BL6 mice. We used ANOVA to compare the variance across the six mice to the variance among four replicate experiments performed for each mouse tissue. For the 6 kidney samples, 102 of 3,088 genes (3.3%) exhibited a statistically significant mouse variance at a level of 0.05. In the testis, 62 of 3,252 genes (1.9%) showed statistically significant variance, and in the liver, there were 21 of 2,514 (0.8%) genes with significantly variable expression. Immune-modulated, stress-induced, and hormonally regulated genes were highly represented among the transcripts that were most variable. The expression levels of several genes varied significantly in more than one tissue. These studies help to define the baseline level of variability in mouse gene expression and emphasize the importance of replicate microarray experiments. PMID:11698685

Pritchard, Colin C.; Hsu, Li; Delrow, Jeffrey; Nelson, Peter S.



Tetrahymena Metallothioneins Fall into Two Discrete Subfamilies  

PubMed Central

Background Metallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5). Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to rationalize the structure of these proteins. We now formally subdivide the known metallothioneins from the ciliate genus Tetrahymena into two well defined subfamilies, 7a and 7b, based on phylogenetic analysis, on the pattern of clustering of Cys residues, and on the pattern of inducibility by the heavy metals Cd and Cu. Sequence alignment also reveals a remarkably regular, conserved and hierarchical modular structure of all five subfamily 7a MTs, which include MTT3 and MTT5. The former has three modules, while the latter has only two. Induction levels of the three T. thermophila genes were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Various stressors (including heavy metals) brought about dramatically different fold-inductions for each gene; MTT5 showed the highest fold-induction. Conserved DNA motifs with potential regulatory significance were identified, in an unbiased way, upstream of the start codons of subfamily 7a MTs. EST evidence for alternative splicing in the 3? UTR of the MTT5 mRNA with potential regulatory activity is reported. Conclusion/Significance The small number and remarkably regular structure of Tetrahymena MTs, coupled with the experimental tractability of this model organism for studies of in vivo function, make it an attractive system for the experimental dissection of the roles, structure/function relationships, regulation of gene expression, and adaptive evolution of these proteins, as well as for the development of biotechnological applications for the environmental monitoring of toxic substances. PMID:17356700

Campos, Virginia; Benítez, Laura; Martín-González, Ana; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Orias, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Juan C.



[Protective stress responsive protein: metallothionein].  


Metallothionein (MT) is a small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein. MT synthesis is induced by various stimuli such as heavy metals, oxidative stress, anticancer drugs and fasting stress. MT is capable of not only reducing metal toxicity but also scavenging free radicals. In fact, MT is involved in the protection of tissues against various forms of oxidative injury, including radiation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress caused by anticancer drugs, and conditions of hyperoxia. However, MT still lacks a manifest established biological function. Recently, transgenic mice with loss-of-function mutations in the MT-I/-II genes were established. Unexpectedly, the mice were in apparent good health, and the critical biological roles for MT have been questioned. Here the basic characteristics of MT are reviewed, the current MT study highlights summarized, and the putative biological functions of MT discussed. PMID:11868393

Kondoh, Masuo; Sato, Masao



Estrogen-Dependent Gene Expression in the Mouse Ovary  

PubMed Central

Estrogen (E) plays a pivotal role in regulating the female reproductive system, particularly the ovary. However, the number and type of ovarian genes influenced by estrogen remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO; estrogen free) mouse ovaries as an in vivo model to profile estrogen dependent genes. RNA from each individual ovary (n?=?3) was analyzed by a microarray-based screen using Illumina Sentrix Mouse WG-6 BeadChip (45,281 transcripts). Comparative analysis (GeneSpring) showed differential expression profiles of 450 genes influenced by E, with 291 genes up-regulated and 159 down-regulated by 2-fold or greater in the ArKO ovary compared to WT. Genes previously reported to be E regulated in ArKO ovaries were confirmed, in addition to novel genes not previously reported to be expressed or regulated by E in the ovary. Of genes involved in 5 diverse functional processes (hormonal processes, reproduction, sex differentiation and determination, apoptosis and cellular processes) 78 had estrogen-responsive elements (ERE). These analyses define the transcriptome regulated by E in the mouse ovary. Further analysis and investigation will increase our knowledge pertaining to how E influences follicular development and other ovarian functions. PMID:21347412

Liew, Seng H.; Sarraj, Mai A.; Drummond, Ann E.; Findlay, Jock K.



Differential extra-renal expression of the mouse renin genes.  

PubMed Central

We have used RNase-protection analyses to study renin gene expression in one- and two-gene mouse strains. The RNase-protection assay is capable of discriminating between the transcripts from the different renin genes. In a two-gene strain containing Ren-1D and Ren-2, we demonstrate transcriptional activity from Ren-1D in kidney, submandibular gland (SMG), testes, liver, brain and heart. Ren-2 is clearly expressed in kidney, SMG and testes. Similar analyses of one gene strains (containing Ren-1C only) show expression in kidney, SMG, testes, brain and heart. We cannot detect renin mRNA in the liver of these mice. Ren-1C and Ren-1D thus display quite different tissue-specificities. In order to determine whether the different tissue-specificities of the highly homologous Ren-1C and Ren-1D genes are due to different trans-acting factors in the different mouse strains or to different cis-acting DNA elements inherent to the genes, we introduced a Ren-1D transgene (Ren-1*) into a background strain containing only the Ren-1C gene. The transgene exhibits the same tissue-specificity as the Ren-1D gene of two-gene strains suggesting the presence of different cis-acting DNA elements in Ren-1C and Ren-1D. Images PMID:2657654

Miller, C C; Carter, A T; Brooks, J I; Lovell-Badge, R H; Brammar, W J



Inducible and reversible regulation of endogenous gene in mouse  

PubMed Central

Methods for generating loss-of-function mutations, such as conventional or conditional gene knockout, are widely used in deciphering gene function in vivo. By contrast, inducible and reversible regulation of endogenous gene expression has not been well established. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that a chimeric transcriptional repressor molecule (tTS) can reversibly inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene, Nmyc. In this system, a tetracycline response element (TRE) artificially inserted near the target gene’s promoter region turns the gene on and off in a tetracycline-inducible manner. NmycTRE mice were generated by inserting a TRE into the first intron of Nmyc by the knockin technique. NmycTRE mice were crossed to tTS transgenic mice to produce NmycTRE/TRE: tTS embryos. In these embryos, tTS blocked Nmyc expression, and embryonic lethality was observed at E11.5d. When the dam was exposed to drinking water containing doxycycline (dox), normal endogenous Nmyc expression was rescued, and the embryo survived to birth. This novel genetic modification strategy based on the tTS–dox system for inducible and reversible regulation of endogenous mouse genes will be a powerful tool to investigate target genes that cause embryonic lethality or other defects where reversible regulation or temporary shutdown of the target gene is needed. PMID:22879379

Sun, Ruilin; Zhao, Kai; Shen, Ruling; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xingyu; Kuang, Ying; Mao, Jifang; Huang, Fang; Wang, Zhugang; Fei, Jian



Structure and chromosome location of Smtn, the mouse smoothelin gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoothelins are cytoskeleton-associated proteins that are found in contractile smooth muscle. Two isoforms have been identified: smoothelin-A, expressed in visceral tissues and smoothelin-B, found in vascular tissues. The mouse smoothelin gene (Smtn) was isolated and characterized. It was assigned to chromosome 11 band A2–A3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene consists of 20 exons and spans 23 kb. Its

S. Rensen; G. Merkx; P. Doevendans; A. Geurts van Kessel; G. van Eys



Activation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism is a shared signature of mouse models with extended lifespan  

PubMed Central

Xenobiotic metabolism has been proposed to play a role in modulating the rate of aging. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) are expressed at higher levels in calorically restricted mice (CR) and in GH/IGF-I-deficient, long-lived mutant mice. In this study, we show that many phase I XME genes are similarly upregulated in additional long-lived mouse models, including “crowded litter” (CL) mice, whose lifespan has been increased by food restriction limited to the first 3 wk of life, and in mice treated with rapamycin. Induction in the CL mice lasts at least through 22 mo of age, but induction by rapamycin is transient for many of the mRNAs. Cytochrome P-450s, flavin monooxygenases, hydroxyacid oxidase, and metallothioneins were found to be significantly elevated in similar proportions in each of the models of delayed aging tested, whether these were based on mutation, diet, drug treatment, or transient early intervention. The same pattern of mRNA elevation could be induced by 2 wk of treatment with tert-butylhydroquinone, an oxidative toxin known to activate Nrf2-dependent target genes. These results suggest that elevation of phase I XMEs is a hallmark of long-lived mice and may facilitate screens for agents worth testing in intervention-based lifespan studies. PMID:22693205

Steinbaugh, Michael J.; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej




EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...


Gene function in mouse embryogenesis: get set for gastrulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early mouse embryogenesis, temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression and cell signalling influences lineage specification, embryonic polarity, the patterning of tissue progenitors and the morphogenetic movement of cells and tissues. Uniquely in mammals, the extraembryonic tissues are the source of signals for lineage specification and tissue patterning. Here we discuss recent discoveries about the lead up to gastrulation,

David A. F. Loebel; Patrick P. L. Tam



Direct Gene Transfer into Mouse Muscle in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA and DNA expression vectors containing genes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, luciferase, and beta-galactosidase were separately injected into mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Protein expression was readily detected in all cases, and no special delivery system was required for these effects. The extent of expression from both the RNA and DNA constructs was comparable to that obtained from fibroblasts transfected in

Jon A. Wolff; Robert W. Malone; Phillip Williams; Wang Chong; Gyula Acsadi; Agnes Jani; Philip L. Felgner



The mouse atlas and graphical gene-expression database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amounts of gene-expression data on mouse development are now too extensive to be stored in any format other than that of a database. Furthermore, as this data is intrinsically graphical and as, in the early developmental stages at least, its boundaries do not map directly to those of anatomical tissues, the natural way to store it is in

D. Davidson; J. Bard; R. Brune; A. Burger; C. Dubreuil; W. Hill; M. Kaufman; J. Quinn; M. Stark; R. Baldock



Metallothionein III (MT3) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by promoter hypermethylation  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear. Methods Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis. Results The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG’s methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P?genes that may be implicated in MT3 overexpression and apoptosis in AML, including FOXO1. Conclusion MT3 may be a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. Epigenetic inactivation of MT3 via promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples. Overexpression of MT3 may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in AML cells. FOXO1 was dysregulated in MT3-overexpressing cells, offering an insight into the mechanism of MT3-induced apoptosis. However, further research is required to determine the underlying molecular details. PMID:24962166



Identification and characterisation of imprinted genes in the mouse.  


Imprinted genes are expressed specifically from one or other parental allele. Over 70 are now known, and about one-half of these are expressed from the paternal allele and one-half from the maternal allele. Most imprinted genes are clustered within imprinting regions of the mouse genome, regions which are associated with abnormal phenotypes when inherited uniparentally. Imprinted genes have been identified from surveys based on differential expression or differential methylation according to parental origin, as well as analyses of candidate genes, mutants and imprinted gene clusters. Many imprinted genes affect growth and development, and more than 25 per cent determine non-coding RNAs that may have a function in controlling imprinted gene expression. PMID:15163367

Peters, Jo; Beechey, Colin



The chromosomal location of the mouse mammary tumor gene Int6 and related pseudogenes in the mouse genome  

SciTech Connect

The Int6 gene is a common insertion site for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in mouse mammary tumors. We have determined that this gene is located centromeric of the Myc protooncogene on mouse chromosome 15. In the mouse genome there are several other Int6-reactive restriction fragments that are located on mouse chromosomes 6, 11, 14, 17, and 18. Nucleotide sequence analysis of four of six of these additional Int6 fragments showed that they contain processed Int6 pseudogenes. Comparisons between the Int6 genes of the inbred mouse laboratory strains and the wild mouse species Mus spretus and Mus mus musculus indicate that some pseudogenes were present before divergence of these species and others were acquired since their separation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Miyazaki, S.; Buttitta, F.; Gallahan, D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others



Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression  

E-print Network

Therapy. Identifying gene function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than eukaryotes due to the relatively simple structure of prokaryotes. That is why tissue-specific expression ways, especially in Gene Therapy [5]. Identifying gene function in prokaryotes is much easier than

Bonner, Anthony


Jackson Laboratory - Mouse Genome Informatics: The Gene Expression Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very unique biomedical research institution, "The Jackson Laboratory, a non-profit institution, is the world's largest mammalian genetic research facility." As such, Jackson provides universities and hospitals worldwide with millions of mice -- representing more than 2,500 varieties -- each year. This website offering from Jackson Laboratory, located in Bar Harbor, Maine, allows visitors to solicit valuable information on the mouse genome. "The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is a community resource for gene expression information from the laboratory mouse. GXD stores and integrates different types of expression data and makes these data freely available in formats appropriate for comprehensive analysis." At the site, visitors can learn about how to acquire data and search for via the Gene Expression Query Forms. Also of interest are the sections devoted to Who's Who in GXD and links to Selected Publications.


Developmental and tissue expression patterns of mouse Mpp4 gene.  


The temporal and spatial expression patterns of mouse membrane palmitoylated protein 4 (Mpp4) gene was investigated. Mpp4 was expressed in postnatal but not embryonic retina by microarray analysis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that, in addition to retina, Mpp4 was expressed at much lower levels in brain, heart, liver, and spleen tissues. In situ hybridization revealed that Mpp4 was exclusively localized in the photoreceptor cells. It was also detected in pineal gland but not other regions of the brain. Immunofluorescence labeling on eye sections of wild-type mice and transgenic mice with cone-specific GFP expression demonstrated that Mpp4 protein was localized at rod but not at cone photoreceptor synaptic terminals. The high level and cell-type specific expression of mouse Mpp4 gene makes it a good candidate for the targeting and assembly of specific molecules, such as calcium channels, at rod synaptic terminals. PMID:12859944

Li, Man; Zhang, Samuel Shao-Min; Barnstable, Colin J



A new spontaneous mouse mutation in the Kcne1 gene.  


A new mouse mutant, punk rocker (allele symbol Kcne1(pkr)), arose spontaneously on a C57BL/10J inbred strain background and is characterized by a distinctive head-tossing, circling, and ataxic phenotype. It is also profoundly and bilaterally deaf. The mutation resides in the Kcne1 gene on Chromosome (Chr) 16 and has been identified as a single base change within the coding region of the third exon. The C to T nucleotide substitution causes an arginine to be altered to a termination codon at amino acid position 67, and predictably this will result in a significantly truncated protein product. The Kcne1(pkr) mutant represents the first spontaneous mouse model for the human disorder, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, associated with mutations in the homologous KCNE1 gene on human Chr 21. PMID:11003695

Letts, V A; Valenzuela, A; Dunbar, C; Zheng, Q Y; Johnson, K R; Frankel, W N



Sex-specific gene expression in the BXD mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Differences in clinical phenotypes between the sexes are well documented and have their roots in differential gene expression. While sex has a major effect on gene expression, transcription is also influenced by complex interactions between individual genetic variation and environmental stimuli. In this study, we sought to understand how genetic variation affects sex-related differences in liver gene expression by performing genetic mapping of genomewide liver mRNA expression data in a genetically defined population of naive male and female mice from C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, B6D2F1, and 37 C57BL/6J × DBA/2J (BXD) recombinant inbred strains. As expected, we found that many genes important to xenobiotic metabolism and other important pathways exhibit sexually dimorphic expression. We also performed gene expression quantitative trait locus mapping in this panel and report that the most significant loci that appear to regulate a larger number of genes than expected by chance are largely sex independent. Importantly, we found that the degree of correlation within gene expression networks differs substantially between the sexes. Finally, we compare our results to a recently released human liver gene expression data set and report on important similarities in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression between mouse and human. This study enhances our understanding of sex differences at the genome level and between species, as well as increasing our knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of sex differences in responses to xenobiotics. PMID:20551147

Gatti, Daniel M.; Zhao, Ni; Chesler, Elissa J.; Bradford, Blair U.; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Yordanova, Roumyana; Lu, Lu



Mouse lysozyme M gene: isolation, characterization, and expression studies.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated and characterized both cDNA and genomic DNA of the mouse lysozyme M gene. Derivation of the amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequences revealed six positions in the carboxyl terminus that differ from partial sequences previously published. The differential detection of specific mRNAs from the closely related lysozyme M and P genes has revealed different but overlapping tissue specificities of expression. The M gene is expressed weakly in myeloblasts, moderately in immature macrophages, and strongly in both mature macrophages and macrophage-rich tissues, while high levels of P transcripts are present only in small intestine. Sites of protein accumulation, rather than gene expression, have been identified by comparative quantitation of mRNA and enzyme levels. Images PMID:3413093

Cross, M; Mangelsdorf, I; Wedel, A; Renkawitz, R



Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily  

PubMed Central

The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014



Use of the Metallothionein Promoter-Human Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Mouse to Identify Regulatory Pathways that Suppress Pituitary Somatotrope Hyperplasia and Adenoma Formation due to GHRH-Receptor Hyperactivation  

PubMed Central

Hyperactivation of the GHRH receptor or downstream signaling components is associated with hyperplasia of the pituitary somatotrope population, in which adenomas form relatively late in life, with less than 100% penetrance. Hyperplastic and adenomatous pituitaries of metallothionein promoter-human GHRH transgenic (Tg) mice (4 and > 10 months, respectively) were used to identify mechanisms that may prevent or delay adenoma formation in the presence of excess GHRH. In hyperplastic pituitaries, expression of the late G1/G2 marker Ki67 increased, whereas the proportion of 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine-labeled cells (S phase marker) did not differ from age-matched controls. These results indicate cell cycle progression is blocked, with further evidence suggesting that enhanced p27 activity may contribute to this process. For adenomas, formation was associated with loss of p27 activity (nuclear localization and mRNA). Increased endogenous somatostatin (SST) tone may also slow the conversion from hyperplastic to adenomatous state because mRNA levels for SST receptors, sst2 and sst5, were elevated in hyperplastic pituitaries, whereas adenomas were associated with a decline in sst1 and sst5 mRNA. Also, SST-knockout Tg pituitaries were larger and adenomas formed earlier compared with those of SST-intact Tg mice. Unexpectedly, these changes were independent of changes in proliferation rate within the hyperplastic tissue, suggesting that endogenous SST controls GHRH-induced adenoma formation primarily via modulation of apoptotic and/or cellular senescence pathways, consistent with the predicted function of some of the most differentially expressed genes (Casp1, MAP2K1, TNFR2) identified by membrane arrays and confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. PMID:19342460

Luque, Raul M.; Soares, Beatriz S.; Peng, Xiao-ding; Krishnan, Sonia; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Frohman, Lawrence A.; Kineman, Rhonda D.



Overlapping gene expression profiles of cell migration and tumor invasion in human bladder cancer identify metallothionein 1E and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase as novel regulators of cell migration.  


Cell migration is essential to cancer invasion and metastasis and is spatially and temporally integrated through transcriptionally dependent and independent mechanisms. As cell migration is studied in vitro, it is important to identify genes that both drive cell migration and are biologically relevant in promoting invasion and metastasis in patients with cancer. Here, gene expression profiling and a high-throughput cell migration system answers this question in human bladder cancer. In vitro migration rates of 40 microarray-profiled human bladder cancer cell lines were measured by radial migration assay. Genes whose expression was either directly or inversely associated with cell migration rate were identified and subsequently evaluated for their association with cancer stage in 61 patients. This analysis identified genes known to be associated with cell invasion such as versican, and novel ones, including metallothionein 1E (MT1E) and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), whose expression correlated positively with cancer cell migration and tumor stage. Using loss of function analysis, we show that MT1E and NNMT are necessary for cancer cell migration. These studies provide a general approach to identify the clinically relevant genes in cancer cell migration and mechanistically implicate two novel genes in this process in human bladder cancer. PMID:18724390

Wu, Y; Siadaty, M S; Berens, M E; Hampton, G M; Theodorescu, D



Epigenetic interplay between mouse endogenous retroviruses and host genes  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable elements are often the targets of repressive epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation that, in theory, have the potential to spread toward nearby genes and induce epigenetic silencing. To better understand the role of DNA methylation in the relationship between transposable elements and genes, we assessed the methylation state of mouse endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) located near genes. Results We found that ERVs of the ETn/MusD family show decreased DNA methylation when near transcription start sites in tissues where the nearby gene is expressed. ERVs belonging to the IAP family, however, are generally heavily methylated, regardless of the genomic environment and the tissue studied. Furthermore, we found full-length ETn and IAP copies that display differential DNA methylation between their two long terminal repeats (LTRs), suggesting that the environment surrounding gene promoters can prevent methylation of the nearby LTR. Spreading from methylated ERV copies to nearby genes was rarely observed, with the regions between the ERVs and genes apparently acting as a boundary, enriched in H3K4me3 and CTCF, which possibly protects the unmethylated gene promoter. Furthermore, the flanking regions of unmethylated ERV copies harbor H3K4me3, consistent with spreading of euchromatin from the host gene toward ERV insertions. Conclusions We have shown that spreading of DNA methylation from ERV copies toward active gene promoters is rare. We provide evidence that genes can be protected from ERV-induced heterochromatin spreading by either blocking the invasion of repressive marks or by spreading euchromatin toward the ERV copy. PMID:23034137



MouseHuman Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster  

E-print Network

to construct a putative physical map of the OR gene cluster at the mouse Olfr1 locus. Several pointsMouse­Human Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster Michal Lapidot,* Yitzhak gene family in mammals, disposed in clusters on numerous chromosomes. One of the best characterized

Church, George M.


The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update.  


The Gene Expression Database (GXD; is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD's gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250,000 images that are accessible to our search tools. PMID:24163257

Smith, Constance M; Finger, Jacqueline H; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E; Forthofer, Kim L; Frost, Pete J; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R; Stone, Kevin R; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin



EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2010 update  

PubMed Central

EMAGE ( is a freely available online database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. Gene expression domains from raw images are extracted and integrated spatially into a set of standard 3D virtual mouse embryos at different stages of development, which allows data interrogation by spatial methods. An anatomy ontology is also used to describe sites of expression, which allows data to be queried using text-based methods. Here, we describe recent enhancements to EMAGE including: the release of a completely re-designed website, which offers integration of many different search functions in HTML web pages, improved user feedback and the ability to find similar expression patterns at the click of a button; back-end refactoring from an object oriented to relational architecture, allowing associated SQL access; and the provision of further access by standard formatted URLs and a Java API. We have also increased data coverage by sourcing from a greater selection of journals and developed automated methods for spatial data annotation that are being applied to spatially incorporate the genome-wide (?19 000 gene) ‘EURExpress’ dataset into EMAGE. PMID:19767607

Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nicholas; Rao, Jianguo; Fisher, Malcolm; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Christiansen, Jeffrey H.



The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update  

PubMed Central

The Gene Expression Database (GXD; is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD’s gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250 000 images that are accessible to our search tools. PMID:24163257

Smith, Constance M.; Finger, Jacqueline H.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E.; Forthofer, Kim L.; Frost, Pete J.; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R.; Stone, Kevin R.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin



ORIGINAL ARTICLE Gene expression profiling in a mouse model for African  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Gene expression profiling in a mouse model for African trypanosomiasis S Kierstein trypanosomiasis; parasite infection; host response; susceptibility Introduction Tsetse fly-transmitted infection

Steve Kemp


Mouse models of gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Gene-environment interactions (GEI) likely play significant roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and underlie differences in pathological, behavioral, and clinical presentations of the disease. Findings from epidemiology and psychiatric genetics have assisted in the generation of animal models of GEI relevant to schizophrenia. These models may provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular, cellular, and circuitry mechanisms that mediate GEI in schizophrenia. Here we critically review current mouse models of GEI related to schizophrenia, describe directions for their improvement, and propose endophenotypes provide a more tangible basis for molecular studies of pathways of GEI and facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23748077

Kannan, Geetha; Sawa, Akira; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.



The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2011 update.  


The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is a community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD integrates different types of expression data at the transcript and protein level and captures expression information from many different mouse strains and mutants. GXD places these data in the larger biological context through integration with other Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resources and interconnections with many other databases. Web-based query forms support simple or complex searches that take advantage of all these integrated data. The data in GXD are obtained from the literature, from individual laboratories, and from large-scale data providers. All data are annotated and reviewed by GXD curators. Since the last report, the GXD data content has increased significantly, the interface and data displays have been improved, new querying capabilities were implemented, and links to other expression resources were added. GXD is available through the MGI web site (, or directly at PMID:21062809

Finger, Jacqueline H; Smith, Constance M; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin



The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2011 update  

PubMed Central

The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is a community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD integrates different types of expression data at the transcript and protein level and captures expression information from many different mouse strains and mutants. GXD places these data in the larger biological context through integration with other Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resources and interconnections with many other databases. Web-based query forms support simple or complex searches that take advantage of all these integrated data. The data in GXD are obtained from the literature, from individual laboratories, and from large-scale data providers. All data are annotated and reviewed by GXD curators. Since the last report, the GXD data content has increased significantly, the interface and data displays have been improved, new querying capabilities were implemented, and links to other expression resources were added. GXD is available through the MGI web site (, or directly at PMID:21062809

Finger, Jacqueline H.; Smith, Constance M.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin



Identification of a Mouse Thiamine Transporter Gene as a Direct Transcriptional Target for p53*  

E-print Network

Identification of a Mouse Thiamine Transporter Gene as a Direct Transcriptional Target for p53 as the mouse homo- logue of the human thiamine transporter 1 (THTR-1). In- duction of the mouse THTR-1 (mTHTR-1 damage or p53 activation. Our findings indicate that p53 may be involved in maintaining thiamine

Lin, Chi-Hung


Fish and molluscan metallothioneins.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) are noncatalytic peptides involved in storage of essential ions, detoxification of nonessential metals, and scavenging of oxyradicals. They exhibit an unusual primary sequence and unique 3D arrangement. Whereas vertebrate MTs are characterized by the well-known dumbbell shape, with a beta domain that binds three bivalent metal ions and an alpha domain that binds four ions, molluscan MT structure is still poorly understood. For this reason we compared two MTs from aquatic organisms that differ markedly in primary structure: MT 10 from the invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis and MT A from Oncorhyncus mykiss. Both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, and the MT moiety was recovered after protease cleavage. The MTs were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and tested for their differential reactivity with alkylating and reducing agents. Although they show an identical cadmium content and a similar metal-binding ability, spectropolarimetric analysis disclosed significant differences in the Cd7-MT secondary conformation. These structural differences reflect the thermal stability and metal transport of the two proteins. When metal transfer from Cd7-MT to 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was measured, the mussel MT was more reactive than the fish protein. This confirms that the differences in the primary sequence of MT 10 give rise to peculiar secondary conformation, which in turn reflects its reactivity and stability. The functional differences between the two MTs are due to specific structural properties and may be related to the different lifestyles of the two organisms. PMID:16302966

Vergani, Laura; Grattarola, Myriam; Borghi, Cristina; Dondero, Francesco; Viarengo, Aldo



Resveratrol induces insulin gene expression in mouse pancreatic ?-cells  

PubMed Central

Background Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by loss of ?-cells; therefore, ?-cell regeneration has become one of the primary approaches to diabetes therapy. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has been shown to improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients, but its action on pancreatic ?-cells is not well understood. Findings Using mouse ?-cells (?TC9), we showed that resveratrol induces expression of pancreatic ?-cell genes such as Pdx1 and Ins2 in a SirT1-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of insulin were further increased by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Conclusion In summary, we provide new mechanistic insight into the anti-diabetic action of resveratrol through its ability to express ?-cell genes in ?-cells. PMID:24330680



PHYTOCHELATINS AND METALLOTHIONEINS: Roles in Heavy Metal Detoxification and Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Among,the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins,(MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding,the enzyme,PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion,of the Arabidopsis genome,sequence,has allowed

Christopher Cobbett; Peter Goldsbrough



Expression patterns of metallothionein, cytochrome P450 1A and vitellogenin genes in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in response to heavy metals.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three metals (Zn, Cd and Pb) on hepatic metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA expression in the liver of adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) after 1, 3 or 8d. Both concentration-response and time-course effects of hepatic MT, CYP1A and Vtg at the transcription level were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The results from this study showed that Zn, Cd and Pb could significantly induced MT, CYP1A and Vtg mRNA expression levels in mosquitofish. In general, this study demonstrated that heavy metals modulate MT, CYP1A and Vtg mRNA expression levels in a metal-, concentration- or time-dependent manner. PMID:24793519

Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, You-Sheng



Gene expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways underlying mouse tissue macrophage identity and diversity  

E-print Network

We assessed gene expression in tissue macrophages from various mouse organs. The diversity in gene expression among different populations of macrophages was considerable. Only a few hundred mRNA transcripts were selectively ...

Regev, Aviv


Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster.  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila the equalization of X-linked gene products between males and females, i.e. dosage compensation, is the result of a 2-fold hypertranscription of most of these genes in males. At least four regulatory genes are required for this process. Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind to numerous sites on the X chromosome of males, but not of females. Although binding to the X chromosome is negatively correlated with the function of the master regulatory gene Sex lethal (Sxl), the mechanisms that restrict this binding to males and to the X chromosome are not yet understood. We have cloned the last of the known autosomal genes involved in dosage compensation, male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2), and characterized its product. The encoded protein (MSL-2) consists of 769 amino acid residues and has a RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) and a metallothionein-like domain with eight conserved and two non-conserved cysteines. In addition, it contains a positively and a negatively charged amino acid residue cluster and a coiled coil domain that may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Males produce a msl-2 transcript that is shorter than in females, due to differential splicing of an intron of 132 bases in the untranslated leader. Using an antiserum against MSL-2 we have shown that the protein is expressed at a detectable level only in males, where it is physically associated with the X chromosome. Our observations suggest that MSL-2 may be the target of the master regulatory gene Sxl and provide the basic elements of a working hypothesis on the function of MSL-2 in mediating the 2-fold increase in transcription that is characteristic of dosage compensation. Images PMID:7796814

Zhou, S; Yang, Y; Scott, M J; Pannuti, A; Fehr, K C; Eisen, A; Koonin, E V; Fouts, D L; Wrightsman, R; Manning, J E



Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.



Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters (< 4 kb) that drive gene expression in specific brain regions or cell-types of therapeutic interest. Our goal was to first identify genes displaying regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain so that promoters designed from orthologous human genes can then be tested to drive reporter expression in a similar pattern in the mouse brain. Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression. PMID:18625066

D'Souza, Cletus A; Chopra, Vikramjit; Varhol, Richard; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Bohacec, Slavita; Zhao, Yongjun; Lee, Lisa LC; Bilenky, Mikhail; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; He, An; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Goldowitz, Daniel; Marra, Marco A; Holt, Robert A; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Jones, Steven JM



Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine mouse pseudogenes  

SciTech Connect

The single functional mouse gene for MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) has been cloned from a P1 library, and its exon/intron structure determined and shown to resemble that of the human gene. The gene was mapped to chromosome 10 using two multilocus crosses between laboratory strains and either Mus musculus or Mus spretus. Nine additional loci containing related sequences, apparently all processed pseudogenes, were also mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 17, and 19. While most of these pseudogenes were also found in inbred mice and M. spretus, some are species specific. This suggests that there have been active phases of pseudogene formation in Mus both before and after the separation of musculus and spretus. The human gene contains no pseudogene; we assigned the human gene to chromosome 19, consistent with the location of mouse and human functional genes for MIF in a region of conserved linkage. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kozak, C.A.; Adamson, M.C.; Buckler, C.E. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others



Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene  

SciTech Connect

LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp{sup -/-} females. Fertility of Lpp{sup -/-} males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp{sup -/-} x Lpp{sup -/-} crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp{sup -/-} mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L. [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Janssens, Veerle [Protein Phosphorylation and Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Ven, Wim J.M. van de [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:; Petit, Marleen M.R. [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)



Conditional Gene Targeting in Mouse High Endothelial Venules  

PubMed Central

High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized blood vessels of secondary lymphoid organs composed of endothelial cells with a characteristic cuboidal morphology. Lymphocytes selectively adhere to and migrate across HEVs to initiate immune responses. In this study, we established a novel transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the gene encoding HEV-expressed sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GlcNAc6ST-2), using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering. Crossing these transgenic mice with the ROSA26 reporter strain, which expresses lacZ following Cre-mediated recombination, and staining the resulting progeny with 5-bromo-4-chloro-5-indolyl-?-D-galactoside indicated that Cre recombinase was specifically expressed in mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in secondary lymphoid organs but not in any other blood vessels of the transgenic mice. The expression of Cre recombinase correlated with a developmental switch, from immature, mAb MECA367-reactive HEVs to mature, mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in neonatal lymph nodes. In addition to the HEVs, Cre recombinase was also strongly expressed in the colonic villi, which recapitulated the intrinsic expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 as confirmed in GlcNAc6ST-2GFP/GFP knock-in mice and by RT-PCR. Furthermore, treatment with an antimicrobial agent revealed that the colonic expression of Cre recombinase in the transgenic mice was regulated by commensal bacteria in the colon. In addition, Cre recombinase was expressed in a small subset of cells in the brain, testis, stomach, small intestine, and lung. In view of the restricted expression of Cre recombinase, this transgenic mouse line should be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene functions using the Cre/loxP system. PMID:19380794

Kawashima, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Jotaro; Tobisawa, Yuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Saga, Yumiko



The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene  

SciTech Connect

The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrid, BXD recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the {alpha} globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Olsson, P.G.; Loehning, C.; Frischauf, A.M. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom); and others



Genetic Mapping of 21 Genes on Mouse Chromosome 11 Reveals Disruptions in Linkage Conservation with Human Chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a high-resolution genetic map of 21 genes on the central region of mouse Chr 11. These genes were mapped by segregation analysis of more than 1650 meioses from three interspecific backcrosses. The order of these genes in mouse was compared to the previously established gene order in human. Eighteen of the 21 genes map to human Chr 5,

Dawn E. Watkins-Chow; Marion S. Buckwalter; Matthew M. Newhouse; Amy C. Lossie; Michelle L. Brinkmeier; Sally A. Camper



Cloning and Characterization of the 5?-Flanking Region for the Mouse Phospholipase C-?1 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the regulation of phospholipase C-?1 (PLC-?1) gene expression. To understand the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of PLC-?1 gene expression, the 5?-flanking region of the mouse PLC-?1 gene was isolated from a mouse genomic DNA library. Primer extension analysis revealed that there is a single transcriptional start site located at

Jong Kee Kim; Woon Kyu Lee; Ho-Woo Nam; Kweon-Haeng Lee; Hoon Han; Hyoung Kyun Rha; Tae-Youn Jun; Kwang-Soo Kim; Chang Rak Choi



Identification of the class I genes of the mouse major histocompatibility complex by DNA-mediated gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-mediated gene transfer was used to identify cloned class I genes from the major histocompatibility complex of the BALB\\/c mouse. Three genes encoding the transplantation antigens H-2 Kd, Dd and Ld were identified as well as genes encoding the Qa-2,3 and two TL differentiation antigens. As many as 10 putative novel class I genes were detected by the association of

Robert S. Goodenow; Minnie McMillan; Margery Nicolson; Beverly Taylor Sher; Kurt Eakle; Norman Davidson; Leroy Hood



Isolation and characterization of the mouse homolog of the preprodynorphin (Pdyn) gene.  


We have isolated and sequenced the mouse preprodynorphin gene (Pdyn). The Pdyn gene can encode for six biologically active dynorphin peptides. The predicted mouse preprodynorphin has 90%, 67%, and 66% identity with the predicted rat, porcine, and human preprodynorphins, respectively. Using an RT-PCR technique, we show that the Pdyn gene starts being expressed at embryonic day 12.5, with a steep increase of expression by embryonic day 14.5; in the adult mouse it is expressed in the brain, but not in liver, heart, spleen, or kidney. PMID:10657497

Sharifi, N; Ament, M; Brennan, M B; Hochgeschwender, U



GATA suppresses erythropoietin gene expression through GATA site in mouse erythropoietin gene promoter.  


The promoter and enhancer elements of the mouse erythropoietin (mEpo) gene, which have high homology with those of the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene, were fused with luciferase. The construct was transfected into erythropoietin-producing hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) cells by lipofectin with lacZ as an internal standard. The wild type (TGATA) showed a 39.5-fold increase in induction by hypoxia. Mouse GATA-2 inhibited the hypoxic induction of the wild-type (m3), promoterluciferase construct but not the hypoxic induction of the mutant (m4, 5) promoter-luciferase constructs. N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA) inhibited the hypoxic induction of the m3 promoter-luciferase construct, but this inhibition was recovered by L-arginine. H2O2 also inhibited the hypoxic induction of the m3 promoter-luciferase construct, but this inhibition was recovered by catalase. Gel shift assays performed on nuclear extracts of 293 cells overexpressing mGATA-1, -2, and -3 revealed that mGATA-1, -2, and -3 bind to the TGATA element of the mEpo promoter. These results indicate that mGATA binds to the TGATA site of the mEpo promoter and negatively regulates mEpo gene expression. Negative regulation of mEpo gene by GATA transcriptional factors is discussed. PMID:12041667

Imagawa, Shigehiko; Suzuki, Norio; Ohmine, Ken; Obara, Naoshi; Mukai, Harumi Y; Ozawa, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasawa, Toshiro



A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes  

E-print Network

expression and imprinting. The completion of the human and mouse genome sequences opened an historic eraA gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes Andrew I. Su* , Tim Wiltshire*, Gabriel Kreiman* , Michael P. Cooke*, John R. Walker*, and John B. Hogenesch*§¶ *The Genomics Institute

Kreiman, Gabriel


Comparative Analysis of Noncoding Regions of 77 Orthologous Mouse and Human Gene Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data set of 77 genomic mouse\\/human gene pairs has been compiled from the EMBL nucleotide database, and their corresponding features determined. This set was used to analyze the degree of conservation of noncoding sequences between mouse and human. A new alignment algorithm was developed to cope with the fact that large parts of noncoding sequences are not alignable in

Niclas Jareborg; Ewan Birney; Richard Durbin



Gene to mouse atlas registration using a landmark-based nonlinear elasticity smoother  

E-print Network

Gene to mouse atlas registration using a landmark-based nonlinear elasticity smoother Tungyou Lina to neuroanatomical mouse atlas in two dimensions. The proposed energy (minimized in the unknown displacement u by introducing an auxiliary variable v that approximates u, the Jacobian of the unknown displacement u. We

Vese, Luminita A.


Recombination within the Myelin Basic Protein Gene Created the Dysmyelinating Shiverer Mouse Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiverer (shi) is an autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous system myelin. While small amounts of other myelin components are present in the brain of the shi mouse, the four forms of myelin basic protein (MBP) are not detectable. Previous investigations by us and others indicate that the MBP gene has

Susan M. Molineaux; Helen Engh; Francesca de Ferra; Lynn Hudson; Robert A. Lazzarini



Cloning, tissue expression and metal inducibility of an ubiquitous metallothionein 1 1 EMBL accession no. MTPA AJ414050. from Panulirus argus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrate metallothioneins (MT) have mainly been reported in digestive tissues, but data about the existence of a ubiquitous isoform expressed also in nervous tissue, are not available. Here we report the identification of a new metallothionein gene (MTPA) from the lobster Panulirus argus, putatively encoding a 59 residue polypeptide including 19 Cys. Tissue specific analysis indicated that MTPA is ubiquitously

Eduardo Moltó; Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko; Araceli del Arco; Dulce M. López-Alańón; Olimpia Carrillo; Nilda Gallardo; Antonio Andrés



Number of CpG Islands and Genes in Human and Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of gene number in mammals is difficult due to the high proportion of noncoding DNA within the nucleus. In this study, we provide a direct measurement of the number of genes in human and mouse. We have taken advantage of the fact that many mammalian genes are associated with CpG islands whose distinctive properties allow their physical separation from

Francisco Antequera; Adrian Bird



Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co-expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse.  


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1-4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500?Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse-knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain-specific spatio-temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty-two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning ("l/m/c") phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD-cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span ("Hyperactivity/SAS", the ontologically-derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues' disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse ("candidate-genes"), were co-expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues' mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co-expressed with ADHD candidate-genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656289

Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb



Molecular cloning of the mouse gene coding for carbonic anhydrase IV  

SciTech Connect

Carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is expressed on apical surfaces of renal tubular epithelium and endothelium of specialized capillary beds. It plays a key role in bicarbonate reabsorption in kidney and in CO{sub 2} transport in other tissues. The human cDNA and genomic sequences have been cloned and characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the entire mouse CA IV gene (contained in two overlapping X clones), which should enable generation of targeting constructs for disrupting the mouse CA IV gene to produce mouse models for in vivo analysis of CA IV gene function. The gene is approximately 8.2 kb long and contains eight exons ranging from 54 to 434 bp in length. The first exon (exon 1a) encodes the signal sequence. Exons 1b through 7 encode the remaining coding sequences. Exon 7 encodes the C terminus of the membrane-associated protein, as well as the 242-bp 3{prime} untranslated sequence. The nucleotide sequence alignment between mouse and rat CA IV cDNAs reveals 84% identity. The nucleotide sequence alignment between mouse and human CA IV shows 69% identity in the coding region and all of the exon-intron boundaries are conserved, as are the sizes of the introns. The corresponding mouse and human exons are similar, except for the length of the untranslated regions in exons 1a and 7 and two small insertion/deletion events in exons 1a and 4. The 5{prime} flanking region of the mouse gene (-300 to -1) is GC rich and contains 16 CpG dinucleotides. A TATA box sequence and several transcription factor binding sequences are identified upstream of exon 1a. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences surrounding the TATA box (-300 to -1) between mouse and human CA IV genes revealed 70% identity, indicating the regulatory sequences are as highly conserved as coding sequences between mouse and human CA IV genes. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Tamai, S.; Cody, L.B.; Sly, W.S. [St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)



Massachusetts General mouse study reveals gene expression patterns in pancreatic CTCs

Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer identified distinct patterns of gene expression in several groups of CTCs, including significant differences from the primary tumor that may contribute to the ability to generate metastases.


Localization of the murine activating transcription factor 4 gene to mouse chromosome 15  

SciTech Connect

Restriction fragment length variant analysis employing a mouse cDNA probe was used to localize the gene encoding murine activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) to mouse chromosome 15 in close proximity to Sis (the cellular homolog of the simian sarcoma virus oncoprotein). Previous studies suggest that conserved linkage relationships exist between this region of mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 22q. The chromosomal locations of genes encoding most members of the ATF and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) subfamilv of b-zip proteins have not been determined. This study demonstrates that the location of the gene for murine ATF-4 is not linked to the genes for JUN family members, CREB1 and CREB2. Further mapping of individual ATF/ CREB subfamily members in the mouse will provide insight into the evolution of this multigene family. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Mielnicki, L.M.; Elliott, R.W.; Pruitt, S.C. (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States))



Identification and Applications of Repetitive Probes for Gene Mapping in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Interspecific mouse hybrids that are viable and fertile provide a wealth of genetic variation that is useful for gene mapping. We are using this genetic variation to develop multilocus linkage maps of the mouse genome. As an outgrowth of this work, we have identified three repetitive probes that collectively identify 28 loci dispersed on 16 of the 19 mouse autosomes and the X chromosome. These loci establish a skeleton linkage map that can be used to detect linkage over much of the mouse genome. The molecular probes are derived from the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope gene, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. The ability to scan the mouse genome quickly and efficiently in an interspecific cross using these three repetitive probes makes this system a powerful tool for identifying the chromosomal location of mutations that have yet to be cloned, mapping multigenic traits, and identifying recessive protooncogene loci associated with murine neoplastic disease. Ultimately, interspecific hybrids in conjunction with repetitive and single-copy probes will provide a rapid means to access virtually any gene of interest in the mouse genome at the molecular level. PMID:1673105

Siracusa, L. D.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.



The relaxin gene knockout mouse: a model of progressive scleroderma.  


Relaxin is a peptide hormone with anti-fibrotic properties. To investigate the long-term effects of relaxin deficiency on the ageing skin, we compared structural changes in the skin of ageing relaxin-deficient (RLX-/-) and normal (RLX+/+) mice, by biochemical, histological, and magnetic resonance imaging analyses. Skin biopsies from RLX+/+ and RLX-/- mice were obtained at different ages and analyzed for changes in collagen expression and distribution. We demonstrated an age-related progression of dermal fibrosis and thickening in male and female RLX-/- mice, associated with marked increases in types I and III collagen. The increased collagen was observed primarily in the dermis of RLX-/- mice by 1 mo of age, and eventually superseded the hypodermal layer. Additionally, fibroblasts from the dermis of RLX-/- mice were shown to produce increased collagen in vitro. Recombinant human gene-2 (H2) relaxin treatment of RLX-/- mice resulted in the complete reversal of dermal fibrosis, when applied to the early onset of disease, but was ineffective when applied to more established stages of dermal scarring. These combined findings demonstrate that relaxin provides a means to regulate excessive collagen deposition in disease states characterized by dermal fibrosis and with our previously published work demonstrate the relaxin-null mouse as a model of progressive scleroderma. PMID:16185267

Samuel, Chrishan S; Zhao, Chongxin; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hong; Tian, Hongsheng; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Amento, Edward P



A third synaptotagmin gene, Syt3, in the mouse.  

PubMed Central

The synaptotagmins are integral membrane proteins of synaptic vesicles thought to serve as Ca2+ sensors in the process of vesicular trafficking and exocytosis. Results from antibody microinjection and gene-disruption experiments have led to a controversy over whether synaptotagmins are essential for neurotransmission. However, the studies casting doubt on the role of synaptotagmins have assumed that no further isoforms of these molecules exist. Here we report the isolation of a third member of the synaptotagmin family (Syt3) from mouse brain. Although retaining the characteristic five-domain structure of the other synaptotagmins, SYT3 is considerably more divergent at the level of amino acid sequence. In the most highly conserved C2 domain, the mammalian synaptotagmins, SYT1 and SYT2, share 88% sequence identity, whereas SYT3 has only approximately 45% identity to either. Overall, SYT3 has the greatest sequence identity with rat SYT2 and marine ray p65A (both 37%), although homology to all of the known synaptotagmins is > 30%. However, SYT3 is most like p65C when comparing domain structure. Syt3 is expressed in many regions of the nervous system but is undetectable in extraneural tissues. The three murine synaptotagmins have differential expression patterns in the brain. Furthermore, in PC12 cells, Syt3 is coexpressed with Syt1 and is more abundant than the latter. This result suggests that individual neurons may have specific combinations of synaptotagmins that could provide for diversity in vesicular release. Images PMID:8058779

Hilbush, B S; Morgan, J I



Assignment of the mouse tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase gene (Acp5) to chromosome 9  

SciTech Connect

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a marker enzyme for osteoclasts, the multinucleated cell responsible for bone resorption. Interspecific somatic whole cell hybrids and karyotypically simple microcell hybrids were used to map the gene encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatse (acp5) to mouse Chromosome 9. Acp5 is therefore a member of a syntenic family of genes that map to human chromosome 19p13.1-p13.3 and mouse Chromosome 9. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Grimes, R.; Reddy, S.V.; Leach, R.J.; Scarcez, T.; Sakaguchi, A.Y. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States)); Roodman, G.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States) Audie Murphy Veterans Administration Hospital, San Antonio, TX (United States)); Lalley, P.A. (Wayne State Univ. of School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)); Windle, J.J. (Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States))



Metallothionein labeling for CLEM method for identification of protein subunits.  


CLEM (correlative light and electron microscopy) is one of the powerful techniques to elucidate the localization and structure of the target proteins or their complexes in cell. First, target proteins labeled fluorescently can be searched using a fluorescence microscope, i.e., due to its low resolution (200nm), it is used as rough searching of target proteins. After rough detection of the localization of target proteins, they can be easily observed by electron microscopy with a high resolution and processed into fine structure, especially 3D structure. On the other hand, in the case of only electron microscopy, it is difficult for researchers to detect their localization due to a narrow range of views and no labeling of them.Thus, CLEM normally needs fluorescent labels for fluorescence microscopy but a label for electron microscopy is also expectedly for easier detection. Thus we focused on metallothionein. Metallothionein binds to cadmium ions, i.e., heavy atoms with strong density in electron microscopy [1]; in addition, cadmium ions and selenium ions are known to form Qdot-like nanoparticles induced by metallothionein [2]. These are 2 ? 5nm in size, fluorescent wavelength changes depending on the size of nanoparticles. Thus, target proteins fused with metallothionein could be observed by both of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy.We here used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, single cell green algae with two flagella. Flagella are used for bending motion and motility. Flagella contain FAP20 (Flagellar Asociate Protein 20) and PACRG (PArkin Co-Regulated gene), which are related to composing axoneme architecture. If Chlamydomonas reinhardtii doesn't have FAP20 or PACRG, they can't generate bending motion. It is considered that FAP20 and PACRG locate on the root of the radial spoke. Recently the location of FAP20 was reported by Yanagisawa et al.[3]. First, we also focus on detecting localization of FAP20 and then will do so on that of PACKRG.We could observe fluorescence of metallothionein fused with FAP20 to form nanoparticle. We are now trying to observe larger electron density from metallothionein with cadmium for CLEM. PMID:25359836

Yamanaka, Ryutaro; Hirasaka, Yuka; Jin, Mingyue; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Yasunaga, Takuo



Chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human DNA helicase RECQL and its mouse homologue  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the chromosomal location of the human and mouse genes encoding the RECQL protein, a putative DNA helicase homologous to the bacterial DNA helicase, RecQ. RECQL was localized to human chromosome 12 by analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA, fine mapping of RECQL by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed its chromosomal location to be 12p11-p12. The corresponding mouse gene, Recql, was mapped to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 6 by analysis of DNA from an interspecific cross. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Puranam, K.L.; Kennington, E.; Blackshear, P.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); and others



Structure, function, and evolution of mouse TL genes, nonclassical class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex.  

PubMed Central

In contrast to well-studied "classical" class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the biology of nonclassical class I genes remains largely unexamined. The mouse TL genes constitute one of the best defined systems among nonclassical class I genes in the T region of the MHC. To elucidate the function and the evolution of TL genes and their relationship to classical class I genes, seven TL DNA sequences, including one from a Japanese wild mouse, were examined and compared with those of several mouse and human classical class I genes. The TL genes differ from either classical class I genes or pseudogenes in the extent and pattern of nucleotide substitutions. Natural selection appears to have operated so as to preserve the function of TL, which might have been acquired in an early stage of its evolution. In a putative peptide-binding region encoded by TL genes, the rate of nonsynonymous (amino acid replacing) substitution is considerably lower than that of synonymous substitution. This conservation is completely opposite that in classical class I genes, in which the peptide-binding region has evolved to diversify amino acid sequences so as to recognize a variety of antigens. Thus, it is suggested that the function of TL antigens is distinct from that of classical class I antigens and is related to the recognition of a relatively restricted repertoire of antigens and their presentation to T-cell receptors. Images PMID:8022824

Obata, Y; Satta, Y; Moriwaki, K; Shiroishi, T; Hasegawa, H; Takahashi, T; Takahata, N



Gene Suppression of Mouse Testis In Vivo Using Small Interfering RNA Derived from Plasmid Vectors  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether inhibiting gene expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for an in vivo model using a germ cell-specific gene (Tex101) as a model target in mouse testis. We generated plasmid-based expression vectors of siRNA targeting the Tex101 gene and transfected them into postnatal day 10 mouse testes by in vivo electroporation. After optimizing the electroporation conditions using a vector transfected into the mouse testis, a combination of high- and low-voltage pulses showed excellent transfection efficiency for the vectors with minimal tissue damage, but gene suppression was transient. Gene suppression by in vivo electroporation may be helpful as an alternative approach when designing experiments to unravel the basic role of testicular molecules. PMID:22489107

Takizawa, Takami; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Kosuge, Takuji; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yoko; Koji, Takehiko; Araki, Yoshihiko; Takizawa, Toshihiro



A biphasic pattern of gene expression during mouse retina development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Between embryonic day 12 and postnatal day 21, six major neuronal and one glia cell type are generated from multipotential progenitors in a characteristic sequence during mouse retina development. We investigated expression patterns of retina transcripts during the major embryonic and postnatal developmental stages to provide a systematic view of normal mouse retina development, RESULTS: A tissue-specific cDNA microarray

Samuel Shao-Min Zhang; Xuming Xu; Mu-Gen Liu; Hongyu Zhao; Marcelo Bento Soares; Colin J Barnstable; Xin-Yuan Fu



Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes  

PubMed Central

Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome–based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and ? light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice. PMID:24706858

Macdonald, Lynn E.; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T.; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M.; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Alt, Frederick W.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Murphy, Andrew J.



Expression of the Prader-Willi gene Necdin during mouse nervous system development correlates with neuronal differentiation  

E-print Network

Expression of the Prader-Willi gene Necdin during mouse nervous system development correlates The expression pattern of Necdin, a gene involved in the etiology of Prader-Willi syndrome and a member immunostaining; Necdin; p75NTR; Prader-Willi; Mouse; Gene; Protein expression pattern 1. Results and discussion

Cossart, Rosa


Differential Expansion of Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor Loci in Homologous Human and Mouse Gene Clusters  

PubMed Central

Mammalian genomes carry hundreds of Krüppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) genes, most of which reside in familial clusters. ZNF genes encoding Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) motifs are especially prone to this type of tandem organization. Despite their prevalence, little is known about the functions or evolutionary histories of these clustered gene families. Here we describe a homologous pair of human and mouse KRAB-ZNF gene clusters containing 21 human and 10 mouse genes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis uncovered only three pairs of putative orthologs and two cases where a single gene in one species is related to multiple genes in the other; several human genes have no obvious homolog in mouse. We deduce that duplication and loss of ancestral cluster members occurred independently in the primate and rodent lineages after divergence, yielding substantially different ZNF gene repertoires in humans and mice. Differences in expression patterns and sequence divergence within the DNA binding regions of predicted proteins suggest that the duplicated genes have acquired novel functions over evolutionary time. Since KRAB-ZNF proteins are predicted to function as transcriptional regulators, the elaboration of new lineage-specific genes in this and other clustered ZNF families is likely to have had a significant impact on species-specific aspects of biology. PMID:12743021

Shannon, Mark; Hamilton, Aaron T.; Gordon, Laurie; Branscomb, Elbert; Stubbs, Lisa



A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is a member of a novel family of embryonically expressed genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by

John Gubbay; Jérôme Collignon; Peter Koopman; Blanche Capel; Androulla Economou; Andrea Münsterberg; Nigel Vivian; Peter Goodfellow; Robin Lovell-Badge



Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation ofobresults in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may

Yiying Zhang; Ricardo Proenca; Margherita Maffei; Marisa Barone; Lori Leopold; Jeffrey M. Friedman




EPA Science Inventory

We report the regional mapping of the thymidine kinase (tk-1) gene in the mouse using two complementary analyses: 1) investigation of chromosome aberrations associated with tx-1 gene inactivation in the L5178Y TX+/-3.7.2c cell line and (2) in situ molecular hybridization of a clo...


The Mouse PinkEyed Dilution Gene: Association with Human Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA clones from the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of mouse chromosome 7 were isolated from murine melanoma and melanocyte libraries. The transcript from this gene is missing or altered in six independent mutant alleles of the p locus, suggesting that disruption of this gene results in the hypopigmentation phenotype that defines mutant p alleles. Characterization of the human homolog

John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Yoichi Gondo; Susan Lee; Mary F. Lyon; Richard A. King; Murray H. Brilliant



Meta-Profiles of Gene Expression during Aging: Limited Similarities between Mouse and Human and an  

E-print Network

are accompanied by a large-scale shift in gene expression, but underlying mechanisms are not understood profiling to investigate the aging skin transcriptome. In humans, age-related shifts in gene expression were patterns and weak human-mouse correspondence may be due to decreased abundance of antigen presenting cells

Bulyk, Martha L.


Expression of abbreviated mouse dihydrofolate reductase genes in cultured hamster cells.  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a number of abbreviated dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes by using cloned mouse genomic and cDNA sequences. These genes contain 1.0 kilobase of 5' flanking genomic sequence and varying portions of the 3' non-coding region. Two of the genes contain the first two introns of the DHFR gene; the other three lack introns. Transfection of DHFR-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells with any of these constructed genes results in cells with the DHFR+ phenotype. Treatment of the transfectants with methotrexate, a folate antagonist, leads to the emergence of methotrexate-resistant colonies which have amplified the transfected genes. Images PMID:6959133

Gasser, C S; Simonsen, C C; Schilling, J W; Schimke, R T



Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2?/? mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2?/? mice. In the liver of aimara-fed mice, histological alterations were observed for an accumulated mercury concentration as low as 32 ng/g, dw, and metal deposits were observed within the cytoplasm of hepatic cells. PMID:22837723

Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostčne, William; Brčthes, Daniel



Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs  

SciTech Connect

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U. [USCS, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others



Chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin  

SciTech Connect

The gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. Uvomorulin cDNA clone F5H3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in Southern blots of genomic DNA from mouse species Mus musculus domesticus and Mus spretus. By analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, Um, was defined on chromosome 8. Recombination frequency between Um and the co-segregating loci serum esterase 1 (Es-1) and tyrosine aminotransferase (Tat) places Um about 14 centimorgan (cM) distal to Es-1, and 5 cM proximal to Tat. In situ hybridization of uvomorulin ({sup 3}H)cDNA to mouse metaphase chromosomes located the Um locus close to the distal end of chromosome 8 (bands C3-E1). Since uvomorulin is evolutionarily highly conserved, its chromosomal assignment adds an important marker to the mouse genetic map.

Eistetter, H.R.; Adolph, S.; Ringwald, M.; Simon-Chazottes, D.; Schuh, R.; Guenet, J.L.; Kemler, R. (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Tuebingen (West Germany))



Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling Analysis of the Gene Expression Patterns Regulating the Early Stage of Mouse Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Detailed characterization of the gene expression patterns in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes is critical to understand the processes which occur prior to meiosis during normal spermatogenesis. The genome-wide expression profiles of mouse type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were investigated using the Solexa/Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) system, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and the developmental processes which occur during early spermatogenesis were systematically analyzed. Gene expression patterns vary significantly between mouse type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. The functional analysis revealed that genes related to junction assembly, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and pluripotency were most significantly differently expressed. Pathway analysis indicated that the Wnt non-canonical signaling pathway played a central role and interacted with the actin filament organization pathway during the development of spermatogonia. This study provides a foundation for further analysis of the gene expression patterns and signaling pathways which regulate the molecular mechanisms of early spermatogenesis. PMID:23554914

Meng, Lijun; Liu, Meiling; Zhao, Lina; Hu, Fen; Ding, Cunbao; Wang, Yang; He, Baoling; Pan, Yuxin; Fang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Hu, Songnian; Jia, Mengchun



Gene Expression Analyses of Mouse Aortic Endothelium in Response to Atherogenic Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Objective Endothelial cells are central to the initiation of atherosclerosis, yet there has been limited success in studying their gene expression in the mouse aorta. To address this, we developed a method for determining the global transcriptional changes that occur in the mouse endothelium in response to atherogenic conditions and applied it to investigate inflammatory stimuli. Approach and Results We characterized a method for the isolation of endothelial cell RNA with high purity directly from mouse aortas and adapted this method to allow for the treatment of aortas ex vivo before RNA collection. Expression array analysis was performed on endothelial cell RNA isolated from control and hyperlipidemic prelesion mouse aortas, and 797 differentially expressed genes were identified. We also examined the effect of additional atherogenic conditions on endothelial gene expression, including ex vivo treatment with inflammatory stimuli, acute hyperlipidemia, and age. Of the 14 most highly differentially expressed genes in endothelium from prelesion aortas, 8 were also perturbed significantly by ?1 atherogenic conditions: 2610019E17Rik, Abca1, H2-Ab1, H2-D1, Pf4, Ppbp, Pvrl2, and Tnnt2. Conclusions We demonstrated that RNA can be isolated from mouse aortic endothelial cells after in vivo and ex vivo treatments of the murine vessel wall. We applied these methods to identify a group of genes, many of which have not been described previously as having a direct role in atherosclerosis, that were highly regulated by atherogenic stimuli and may play a role in early atherogenesis. PMID:23990205

Erbilgin, Ayca; Siemers, Nathan; Kayne, Paul; Yang, Wen-pin; Berliner, Judith; Lusis, Aldons J.



Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.  


We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C



The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse  

SciTech Connect

The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others



Expression profile of active genes in mouse lymph node high endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

High endothelial venules (HEV) allow rapid and selective lymphocyte trafficking from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we report the expression profile of active genes in mouse high endothelial cells (HEC). HEC were first purified from mouse lymph nodes (LN) by magnetic cell sorting with MECA-79 mAb and a 3-directed cDNA library that faithfully represents the composition of mRNA

Dai Izawa; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Koichi Saito; Hideki Ogihara; Takeo Usui; Shoko Kawamoto; Kenichi Matsubara; Kosaku Okubo; Masayuki Miyasaka



Expression of the mouse fragilis gene products in immune cells and association with receptor signaling complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse genome possesses five genes encoding proteins homologous to human Leu-13. The Leu-13 protein associates with immune cell receptor activation complexes: a monoclonal antibody against Leu-13 induces T and B cells to form homotypic aggregates, inhibits activation-induced proliferation and induces the shedding of L-selectin. The mouse fragilis proteins have not been previously analyzed as components of the immune response.

R A Smith; J Young; J J Weis; J H Weis



The breast cancer-associated stromelysin-3 gene is expressed during mouse mammary gland apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned from a mouse placenta cDNA library a mouse homologue of the human stromelysin-3 (ST3) eDNA, which codes for a putative matrix metalloproteinase expressed in breast carci- nomas. The ST3 protein is well conserved between humans and mice, and the pattern of ST3 gene expres- sion is similar in both species, and shows expression in the placenta, in

Olivier Lefebvre; Catherine Wolf; Jean-Marc Limacher; Pascal Hutin; Corinne Wendling; Mariane LeMeur; Paul Basset; Marie-Christine Rio



Structure and polymorphism of the mouse myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated and characterized genomic clones containing the mouse myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene. It spans a region of 12.5 kb and consists of eight exons. Its exon-intron structure differs from that of classical MHC-class I genes, with which it is linked in the mouse genome. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5{prime} flanking region revelas that it contains several putative protein-binding sites, some of them in common with other myelin gene promoters. One intragenic polymorphism has been identified: it consists of a GA repeat, defining at least three alleles in mouse inbred strains, and is easily detectable using the polymerase chain reaction method.

Daubas, P.; Pham-Dinh, D.; Dautigny, A. [Universite Paris VI (France)] [Universite Paris VI (France)



The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A  

SciTech Connect

Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

Sato, Shoko, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Hitoshi, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Tomita, Shuhei, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Tohkin, Masahiro, E-mail: [Department of Medical Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 267-8603 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Komai, Michio, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)



BGEM: An In Situ Hybridization Database of Gene Expression in the Embryonic and Adult Mouse Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an open-access gene expression database analyzed for more than 2,000 genes on mouse nervous system tissue in the coronal, sagittal, and transverse orientation representing multiple developmental ages.

Susan Magdaleno; Patricia Jensen; Craig L Brumwell; Anna Seal; Karen Lehman; Andrew Asbury; Tony Cheung; Tommie Cornelius; Diana M Batten; Christopher Eden; Shannon M Norland; Dennis S Rice; Nilesh Dosooye; Sundeep Shakya; Perdeep Mehta; Tom Curran



Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are zinc finger-containing nuclear transcription factors. They belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that contains retinoid receptors, vitamin D receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, and steroid hormone receptors as well as the so-called orphan receptors. We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: namely, the RXRA-gene (Rxra) on Chr 2 near the centromere, the RXRB gene (Rxrb) on Chr 17 in the H2 region, and the RXRG gene (Rxrg) on distal Chr 1. Using cosmid clones that cover the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we determined the precise physical map positions of the gene encoding mouse and human RXRB, respectively. The mouse gene (Rxrb) maps between H2-Ke4 and H2-Ke5: namely, immediately telomeric to H2-Ke4 which encodes a histidine-rich transmembrane protein, and 12 kilobases centromeric to H2-Ke5 which is expressed in lymphoid tissues, Rxrb and H2-Ke4 are transcribed into opposite directions from a CpG-rich promoter of about 250 base pairs. This gene organization is well conserved also in the human genome at the HLA-DP subregion of Chr 6p, underscoring the strong conservation of the gene organization in the MHC region between the two mammals. 54 refs., 4 figs.

Nagata, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Taketo, M. [Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Weiss, E.H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Abe, K. [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Ando, A.; Yara-Kikuti, Y.; Inoko, H. [Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara (Japan); Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ozato, K. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)



Prediction of Human Disease Genes by Human-Mouse Conserved Coexpression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Even in the post-genomic era, the identification of candidate genes within loci associated with human genetic diseases is a very demanding task, because the critical region may typically contain hundreds of positional candidates. Since genes implicated in similar phenotypes tend to share very similar expression profiles, high throughput gene expression data may represent a very important resource to identify the best candidates for sequencing. However, so far, gene coexpression has not been used very successfully to prioritize positional candidates. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that it is possible to reliably identify disease-relevant relationships among genes from massive microarray datasets by concentrating only on genes sharing similar expression profiles in both human and mouse. Moreover, we show systematically that the integration of human-mouse conserved coexpression with a phenotype similarity map allows the efficient identification of disease genes in large genomic regions. Finally, using this approach on 850 OMIM loci characterized by an unknown molecular basis, we propose high-probability candidates for 81 genetic diseases. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that conserved coexpression, even at the human-mouse phylogenetic distance, represents a very strong criterion to predict disease-relevant relationships among human genes. PMID:18369433

Grassi, Elena; Damasco, Christian; Silengo, Lorenzo; Oti, Martin; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando



Significance of metallothioneins in aging brain.  


Aging is an inevitable biological process, associated with gradual and spontaneous biochemical and physiological changes, and increased susceptibility to diseases. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of aging. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, zinc-binding, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant proteins that provide neuroprotection in the aging brain through zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition to Zn(2+) homeostasis, antioxidant role of MTs is routed through -SH moieties on cysteine residues. MTs are induced in aging brain as a defensive mechanism to attenuate oxidative and nitrative stress implicated in broadly classified neurodegenerative ?-synucleinopathies. In addition, MTs as free radical scavengers inhibit Charnoly body (CB) formation to provide mitochondrial neuroprotection in the aging brain. In general, MT-1 and MT-2 induce cell growth and differentiation, whereas MT-3 is a growth inhibitory factor, which is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. MTs are down-regulated in homozygous weaver (wv/wv) mice exhibiting progressive neurodegeneration, early aging, morbidity, and mortality. These neurodegenerative changes are attenuated in MTs over-expressing wv/wv mice, suggesting the neuroprotective role of MTs in aging. This report provides recent knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of MTs in neurodegenerative disorders of aging such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24389356

Sharma, Sushil; Ebadi, Manuchair



Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator  

PubMed Central

The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of MT, a highly conserved, low molecular weight, cystein-rich metalloprotein, on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, this molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT) is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in various organs/tissues can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, implicating in inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions. PMID:19436762

Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Shimada, Akinori; Satoh, Masahiko



Isolation and characterization of the mouse (Mus musculus) somatostatin receptor type-4-encoding gene (mSSTR4).  


We have isolated and sequenced the mouse somatostatin receptor subtype-4-encoding gene (mSSTR4). The mSSTR4 gene encodes 384 amino acids (aa). The deduced mouse SSTR4 has 95 and 89% aa identity with the deduced rat and human SSTR4, respectively, while it has lower aa identity with the other mouse subtypes (mSSTR1, 60%; mSSTR2, 47%; mSSTR3, 42%). Using an RT-PCR technique, we show that the mSSTR4 gene is expressed in brain, but not in liver, heart, spleen or kidney of the adult mouse. PMID:8654950

Schwabe, W; Brennan, M B; Hochgeschwender, U



Promoter analysis of mouse estrogen-responsive finger protein ( efp) gene: mouse efp promoter contains an E-box that is also conserved in human  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogen-responsive finger protein (efp) containing a RING finger motif has been identified as an estrogen-responsive gene in human and mouse. Here, we have characterized the basal promoter region of the mouse efp gene. The promoter lacks the TATA motif, and transcription initiation sites are found at positions ?38T, ?64A and ?73C from the translation initiation site. Deletion analysis of

Kazuhiro Ikeda; Satoshi Inoue; Akira Orimo; Ken-ichi Tsutsumi; Masami Muramatsu




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.


A mouse atlas of gene expression: Large-scale digital gene-expression profiles from precisely defined developing C57BL/6J mouse tissues and cells  

PubMed Central

We analyzed 8.55 million LongSAGE tags generated from 72 libraries. Each LongSAGE library was prepared from a different mouse tissue. Analysis of the data revealed extensive overlap with existing gene data sets and evidence for the existence of ?24,000 previously undescribed genomic loci. The visual cortex, pancreas, mammary gland, preimplantation embryo, and placenta contain the largest number of differentially expressed transcripts, 25% of which are previously undescribed loci. PMID:16352711

Siddiqui, Asim S.; Khattra, Jaswinder; Delaney, Allen D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Astell, Caroline; Asano, Jennifer; Babakaiff, Ryan; Barber, Sarah; Beland, Jaclyn; Bohacec, Slavita; Brown-John, Mabel; Chand, Steve; Charest, David; Charters, Anita M.; Cullum, Rebecca; Dhalla, Noreen; Featherstone, Ruth; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Hoffman, Brad; Holt, Robert A.; Hou, Juan; Kuo, Byron Y.-L.; Lee, Lisa L. C.; Lee, Stephanie; Leung, Derek; Ma, Kevin; Matsuo, Corey; Mayo, Michael; McDonald, Helen; Prabhu, Anna-liisa; Pandoh, Pawan; Riggins, Gregory J.; de Algara, Teresa Ruiz; Rupert, James L.; Smailus, Duane; Stott, Jeff; Tsai, Miranda; Varhol, Richard; Vrljicak, Pavle; Wong, David; Wu, Mona K.; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Yang, George; Zhang, Ida; Hirst, Martin; Jones, Steven J. M.; Helgason, Cheryl D.; Simpson, Elizabeth M.; Hoodless, Pamela A.; Marra, Marco A.



Identification of the transcription termination site of the mouse nkx-1.2 gene: involvement of sequence-specific factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a transcription termination site in the 3? flanking region of the mouse nkx-1.2 gene. A downstream transcription regulatory element in the mouse nkx-1.2 gene was characterized by transferring its 3?-fragment into a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression vector. Analysis of recombinant plasmids transfected into mouse NIH3T3 cells by CAT assay showed the possible region of regulation. There

Seung-Beom Hong; Sun Jung Kim; Moon Jong Noh; Young Mi Lee; Yongsok Kim; Ook Joon Yoo



The Rab protein family: Genetic mapping of six Rab genes in the mouse  

SciTech Connect

Rab proteins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins that are located in distinct intracellular compartments and play a role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Yeast mutations in Rab gene homologs cause defects in vesicular transport similar to those observed in beige (bg) mice. To investigate Rab genes as candidates for mouse mutations characterized by defects in vesicular trafficking, we utilized an intersubspecific backcross [C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X (C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X CAST/Ei)F{sub 1}] segregating for the bg locus. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were obtained through Southern hybridization of F{sub 1} and C57BL/6J chromosomal DNA with the coding sequences of Rab genes. These RFLPs and 12 polymorphic microsatellites were used to determine the segregation of the Rab genes in 93 backcross mice. Rab4a, Rab4b, Rab7, Rab10, Rab22, and Rab24 were localized on mouse chromosomes 8, 7, 9, 12, 2, and 13, respectively. Although the results exclude these loci as candidates for bg, they demonstrate a wide dispersion of Rab genes throughout the mouse genome and reveal that Rab4b and Rab24 are possible candidates for the mouse mutations reduced pigmentation (rp) and purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), respectively. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Barbosa, M.D.F.S.; Gutierrez, M.J.; Kingsmore, S.F. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States); and others



Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases  

PubMed Central

Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming. PMID:23123364

Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O’Leary, Timothy P.; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E.; Kalueff, Allan V.



Co-expression Profiling of Autism Genes in the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. There is significant evidence that the onset and severity of ASD is governed in part by complex genetic mechanisms affecting the normal development of the brain. To date, a number of genes have been associated with ASD. However, the temporal and spatial co-expression of these genes in the brain remain unclear. To address this issue, we examined the co-expression network of 26 autism genes from AutDB (, in the framework of 3,041 genes whose expression energies have the highest correlation between the coronal and sagittal images from the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas database ( These data were derived from in situ hybridization experiments conducted on male, 56-day old C57BL/6J mice co-registered to the Allen Reference Atlas, and were used to generate a normalized co-expression matrix indicating the cosine similarity between expression vectors of genes in this database. The network formed by the autism-associated genes showed a higher degree of co-expression connectivity than seen for the other genes in this dataset (Kolmogorov–Smirnov P?=?5×10?28). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we identified two cliques of co-expressed genes that were significantly enriched with autism genes (A Bonferroni corrected P<0.05). Genes in both these cliques were significantly over-expressed in the cerebellar cortex (P?=?1×10?5) suggesting possible implication of this brain region in autism. In conclusion, our study provides a detailed profiling of co-expression patterns of autism genes in the mouse brain, and suggests specific brain regions and new candidate genes that could be involved in autism etiology. PMID:23935468

Larsen, Eric C.; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila; Mitra, Partha P.



Expression Profiling of the Solute Carrier Gene Family in the Mouse BrainS?  

PubMed Central

The solute carrier (Slc) superfamily is a major group of membrane transport proteins present in mammalian cells. Although Slc transporters play essential and diverse roles in the central nervous system, the localization and function of the vast majority of Slc genes in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization data generated by the Allen Brain Atlas, we systematically and quantitatively analyzed the spatial and cellular distribution of 307 Slc genes, which represent nearly 90% of presently known mouse Slc genes, in the adult C57BL/6J mouse brain. Our analysis showed that 252 (82%) of the 307 Slc genes are present in the brain, and a large proportion of these genes were detected at low to moderate expression levels. Evaluation of 20 anatomical brain subdivisions demonstrated a comparable level of Slc gene complexity but significant difference in transcript enrichment. The distribution of the expressed Slc genes was diverse, ranging from near-ubiquitous to highly localized. Functional annotation in 20 brain regions, including the blood-brain and blood-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) barriers, suggests major roles of Slc transporters in supporting brain energy utilization, neurotransmission, nutrient supply, and CSF production. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed intricate Slc expression patterns associated with neuroanatomical organization. Our studies also revealed Slc genes present within defined brain microstructures and described the putative cell types expressing individual Slc genes. These results provide a useful resource for investigators to explore the roles of Slc genes in neurophysiological and pathological processes. PMID:19179540

Dahlin, Amber; Royall, Josh; Hohmann, John G.; Wang, Joanne



Mouse mutants and phenotypes: accessing information for the study of mammalian gene function  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-throughput gene targeting and conditional mutagenesis are creating new and powerful resources to study the in-vivo function of mammalian genes using the mouse as an experimental model. Mutant ES cells and mice are being generated at a rapid rate to study the molecular and phenotypic consequences of genetic mutations, and to correlate these study results with human disease conditions. Likewise, classical genetics approaches to identify mutations in the mouse genome that cause specific phenotypes have become more effective. Here, we describe methods to quickly obtain information on what mutant ES cells and mice are available, including recombinase driver lines for the generation of conditional mutants. Further, we describe means to access genetic and phenotypic data that identify mouse models for specific human diseases. PMID:21185380

Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T.



Mouse mutants and phenotypes: accessing information for the study of mammalian gene function.  


Recent advances in high-throughput gene targeting and conditional mutagenesis are creating new and powerful resources to study the in vivo function of mammalian genes using the mouse as an experimental model. Mutant ES cells and mice are being generated at a rapid rate to study the molecular and phenotypic consequences of genetic mutations, and to correlate these study results with human disease conditions. Likewise, classical genetics approaches to identify mutations in the mouse genome that cause specific phenotypes have become more effective. Here, we describe methods to quickly obtain information on what mutant ES cells and mice are available, including recombinase driver lines for the generation of conditional mutants. Further, we describe means to access genetic and phenotypic data that identify mouse models for specific human diseases. PMID:21185380

Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T



Purification and immunological characterization of catfish ( Heteropneustes fossilis ) metallothionein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catfish hepatic metallothionein was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, DEAF-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Induction by cadmium and zinc, characteristic UV spectrum, cadmium binding property and its low MW established that it was a metallothionein. Antibody was raised in rabbit against catfish metallothionein. Catfish antimetallothionein cross-reacted with other fish metallothioneins but not with

Aruna hatterjee; Indu Bhusan Maiti



Phenotypes of major immediate-early gene mutants of mouse cytomegalovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate-early (IE) genes are the first genes to be transcribed during the lytic replication cycle of cytomegaloviruses (CMV),\\u000a and encode nonstructural proteins, which are assumed to have mainly regulatory functions. The IE proteins may play important\\u000a roles in the pathogenesis of CMV in vivo, for instance during the establishment of latency and during reactivation. We constructed\\u000a mouse CMV mutants with

Andreas Busche; Ana Angulo; Penelope Kay-Jackson; Peter Ghazal; Martin Messerle



A serial analysis of gene expression profile of the Alzheimer's disease Tg2576 mouse model.  


Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a technique that allows for the simultaneous detection of expression levels of the entire genome without a priori knowledge of gene sequences, was used to examine the transcriptional expression pattern of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pairwise comparison between the Tg2576 and nontransgenic SAGE libraries identified a number of differentially expressed genes in the Tg2576 SAGE library, some of which were not previously revealed by the microarray studies. Real-time PCR was used to validate a panel of genes selected from the SAGE analysis in the Tg2576 mouse brain, as well as the hippocampus and temporal cortex of sporadic AD and normal age-matched controls. NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 5 (NDUFA5) and FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) were found to be significantly decreased in the Tg2576 mouse brain and AD hippocampus. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP), crystalline mu (CRYM), and neurogranin (NRGN) were significantly decreased in AD tissues. The gene ontologies represented in the Tg2576 data were statistically analyzed and demonstrated a significant under-representation of genes involved with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and odorant binding, while genes significantly over-represented were focused on cellular communication and cellular physiological processes. The novel approach of profiling the Tg2576 mouse brain using SAGE has identified different genes that could subsequently be examined for their potential as peripheral diagnostic and prognostic markers for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19760337

George, Amee J; Gordon, Lavinia; Beissbarth, Tim; Koukoulas, Irene; Holsinger, R M Damian; Perreau, Victoria; Cappai, Roberto; Tan, Seong-Seng; Masters, Colin L; Scott, Hamish S; Li, Qiao-Xin



Mouse Studies Identify Gene that May Influence Metastasis Risk in Breast Cancer

Researchers have identified a pattern of gene activity in mice that may help to predict individual risk for breast cancer metastasis and survival in humans. A single gene called bromodomain 4 (Brd4) regulates the expression of this pattern, also called a signature. The researchers found that one result of this Brd4 regulation is the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis in a mouse model of cancer.


Specific interference with gene function by double-stranded RNA in early mouse development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of double-stranded (ds) RNA is a powerful way of interfering with gene expression in a range of organisms, but doubts have been raised about whether it could be successful in mammals. Here, we show that dsRNA is effective as a specific inhibitor of the function of three genes in the mouse, namely maternally expressed c-mos in the oocyte

Florence Wianny; Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz



Characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse APLP1 gene  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the organization of the mouse APLP1 gene, an evolutionarily conserved amyloid precursor-like protein. The amyloid beta protein, important in Alzheimer diseases, is derived from these precursor proteins. By investigating the expression and structure of this murine gene, it is hoped that more will be learned about the function and regulation of the human homologue. 27 refs., 2 figs.

Zhong, Sue; Wu, Kuo; Black, I.B.; Schaar, D.G. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)] [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)



A Novel ATPase on Mouse Chromosome 7 is a Candidate Gene for Increased Body Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A region of mouse chromosome 7, just distal to the pink-eyed (p) dilution locus, contains a gene or genes, which we have named p-locus-associated obesity (plo1), affecting body fat. Mice heterozygous for the most distally extending chromosomal deletions of this region have nearly double the body fat of mice when the deletion is inherited maternally as when it is inherited

Madhu S Dhar; Lisa S. Webb; Laurel Smith; Loren Hauser; Dabney Johnson; David B. West



Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K. [Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)



Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage in vitro  

PubMed Central

The role of metallothionein (MT) in mitigation of oxidative DNA damage (ODD) induced either by cadmium (Cd) or the direct oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was systematically examined by using MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) or MT-competent wild-type (WT) cells. Both toxicants were much more lethal to MT-null cells (Cd LC50 = 6.6 ?M; H2O2 LC50 = 550 ?M) than WT cells (Cd LC50 = 16.5 ?M; H2O2 LC50 = 930 ?M). Cd induced concentration-related MT increases in WT cells, while the basal levels were undetectable and not increased by Cd in MT-null cells. ODD, measured by the immuno-spin trapping method, was minimally induced by sub-toxic Cd levels (1 or 5 ?M; 24 h) in WT cells, but markedly increased in MT-null cells (> 430%). Similarly, ODD was induced to higher levels by lower concentrations of H2O2 in MT-null cells than WT cells. Transfection of MT-I into MT-null cells reduced both Cd- and H2O2-induced cytolethality and ODD. Cd increased expression of the oxidant defense genes, HO-1 and GSTa2 to a much greater extent in MT-null cells than WT. Cd or H2O2 exposure increased expression of key transport genes, Mrp1 and Mrp2, in WT cells but not in MT-null cells. MT protects against Cd- and H2O2-induced ODD in MT competent cells possibly by multiple mechanisms, potentially including direct metal ion sequestration and sequestration of oxidant radicals by MT. MT-deficient cells appear to adapt to Cd primarily by turning on oxidant response systems, while MT-competent cells activate MT and transport systems. PMID:22914987

Qu, Wei; Pi, Jingbo; Waalkes, Michael P.



Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain Ed S. Lein1 *, Michael J. Royall1 , Marcos J. Ruiz2 , Nadia R. Sarno1 , Katherine Schaffnit1 , Nadiya V. Shapovalova1 , Taz Sivisay of the nervous system. We describe here an anatomically comprehensive digital atlas containing the expression

Cai, Long


Gene expression in mouse intestine is modulated by dietary fat intake  

E-print Network

Gene expression in mouse intestine is modulated by dietary fat intake Tenzin Nyima1 *, Michael on tissues like liver, muscle and white adipose. Considering the indispensable role of small intestine of the small intestine in C57Bl/6J mice. Objectives 1. To assess dose-dependent e ects of dietary fat

Chaudhuri, Surajit


Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes  

SciTech Connect

Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are orphan members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. COUP-TF homologues have been cloned in many species, from Drosophila to human. The protein sequences of COUP-TFs are highly homologous across species, suggesting functional conservation. Two COUP-TF genes have been cloned from human, and their genomic organizations have been characterized. To determine whether the genomic organization is conserved between human and mouse, we isolated two mouse COUP-TF genes (I and II) and characterized their genomic structures. Both genes have relatively simple structures that are similar to those of their human counterparts. In addition, we mapped mouse COUP-TF I to the distal region of chromosome 13 and COUP-TF II to the central region of chromosome 7. Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Qiu, Y.; Krishnan, V.; Zeng, Z. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); and others



Interferon-? gene therapy improves survival in an immunocompetent mouse model of carcinomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInterferon-? (IFN?) has multiple antitumor effects; however, its use has been limited by its short half-life in vivo. This limitation may be overcome by IFN? gene therapy. We evaluated adenovirus-IFN? therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model of carcinomatosis.

Samantha K Hendren; Indira Prabakaran; Donald G Buerk; Giorgos Karakousis; Michael Feldman; Francis Spitz; Chandrakala Menon; Douglas L Fraker



BioGPS and GXD: mouse gene expression data - the benefits and challenges of data integration  

PubMed Central

Mouse gene expression data are complex and voluminous. To maximize the utility of these data, they must be made readily accessible through databases, and those resources need to place the expression data in the larger biological context. Here we describe two community resources that approach these problems in different but complementary ways: BioGPS and the Mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD). BioGPS connects its large and homogenous microarray gene expression reference data sets via plugins with a heterogeneous collection of external gene centric resources, thus casting a wide but loose net. GXD acquires different types of expression data from many sources and integrates these data tightly with other types of data in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource, with a strong emphasis on consistency checks and manual curation. We describe and contrast the “loose” and “tight” data integration strategies employed by BioGPS and GXD, respectively, and discuss the challenges and benefits of data integration. BioGPS is freely available at GXD is freely available through the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) web site (, or directly at PMID:22847375

Wu, Chunlei



Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that mediate a number of cellular responses to external signals. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases play a role in signal transduction by regulating the cellular concentrations of these messengers. Here, the authors have applied Southern analyses of somatic cell hybrid lines and of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains as well as fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomally localize five cAMP-specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase genes in human and mouse. Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosomes 19 (DPDE1 and DPDE2), ga12 (DPDE3), and 1p31 (DPDE4) and to mouse chromosomes 8, 9, 13, and 4, respectively. The high-affinity cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene (HCP1) was mapped to human chromosome 8q13-q22. Since these genes are potential candidates for involvement in psychiatric or behavioral disorders, knowledge of their chromosomal localizations will facilitate the discovery of their association with disease genes as they are being mapped by linkage studies.

Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)); Bolger, G.; Michaeli, T. (Cold Spring Harbor Lab., NY (United States))



Automatic summarization of mouse gene information by clustering and sentence extraction from MEDLINE abstracts.  


Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm. PMID:18693953

Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M; Hersh, William



NMR Structure of the Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Metallothionein MTA  

E-print Network

NMR Structure of the Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Metallothionein MTA Roland Riek1]-metallothionein-A (MTA) of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus was determined by homonuc- lear 1 H NMR Academic Press Keywords: metallothionein; NMR structure; sea urchin; metal-thiolate cluster topology

Riek, Roland


Genetics of gene expression surveyed in maize, mouse and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating messenger RNA transcript abundances as quantitative traits and mapping gene expression quantitative trait loci for these traits has been pursued in gene-specific ways. Transcript abundances often serve as a surrogate for classical quantitative traits in that the levels of expression are significantly correlated with the classical traits across members of a segregating population. The correlation structure between transcript abundances

Eric E. Schadt; Stephanie A. Monks; Thomas A. Drake; Aldons J. Lusis; Nam Che; Veronica Colinayo; Thomas G. Ruff; Stephen B. Milligan; John R. Lamb; Guy Cavet; Peter S. Linsley; Mao Mao; Roland B. Stoughton; Stephen H. Friend



Human chromosome 21 gene expression atlas in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide expression analyses have a crucial role in functional genomics. High resolution methods, such as RNA in situ hybridization provide an accurate description of the spatiotemporal distribution of transcripts as well as a three-dimensional `in vivo' gene expression overview. We set out to analyse systematically the expression patterns of genes from an entire chromosome. We chose human chromosome 21 because

Alexandre Reymond; Valeria Marigo; Murat B. Yaylaoglu; Antonio Leoni; Catherine Ucla; Nathalie Scamuffa; Cristina Caccioppoli; Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis; Robert Lyle; Sandro Banfi; Gregor Eichele; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Andrea Ballabio



A novel non-mouse mammary tumor virus activation of the Int-3 gene in a spontaneous mouse mammary tumor.  

PubMed Central

In a mouse mammary tumor model system in which carcinogenic progression can be investigated, we have found a unique mutation of Int-3 associated with progression from premalignant lobular hyperplasia to tumor. Sequence analysis of the rearranged fragment revealed an insertion of an intracisternal type A particle (IAP) within the Int-3 gene. Int-3 is mutated frequently in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors by insertion of MMTV proviral DNA into this intragenic region. In these mutations, the insertion produces a chimeric Int-3 transcript encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the Int-3 protein driven by the MMTV long terminal repeat promoter. In this case, the IAP DNA was inserted in the opposite transcriptional orientation relative to Int-3; nevertheless, a similar chimeric RNA transcript driven by a cryptic promoter in the oppositely oriented 5' IAP long terminal repeat was generated. This is the first demonstration that an insertional mutation unrelated to MMTV activates an Int gene commonly associated with mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:7494323

Kordon, E C; Smith, G H; Callahan, R; Gallahan, D



Metallothionein as a negative regulator of pulmonary inflammation.  


The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of metallothionein (MT) with research on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators through several response elements in the MT gene promoter. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates: 1) the binding and exchange/ transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and 2) the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, the molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT) is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in the lung can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, suggesting that its expression correlates with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions in the airway. PMID:23590139

Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa



Gene expression profiling in a mouse model for African trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to provide the foundation for an integrative approach to the identification of the mechanisms underlying the response to infection with Trypanosoma congolense, and to identify pathways that have previously been overlooked. We undertook a large-scale gene expression analysis study comparing susceptible A/J and more tolerant C57BL/6 mice. In an initial time course experiment, we monitored the development of parasitaemia and anaemia in every individual. Based on the kinetics of disease progression, we extracted total RNA from liver at days 0, 4, 7, 10 and 17 post infection and performed a microarray analysis. We identified 64 genes that were differentially expressed in the two strains in non-infected animals, of which nine genes remained largely unaffected by the disease. Gene expression profiling at stages of low, peak, clearance and recurrence of parasitaemia suggest that susceptibility is associated with high expression of genes coding for chemokines (e.g. Ccl24, Ccl27 and Cxcl13), complement components (C1q and C3) and interferon receptor alpha (Ifnar1). Additionally, susceptible A/J mice expressed higher levels of some potassium channel genes. In contrast, messenger RNA levels of a few immune response, metabolism and protease genes (e.g. Prss7 and Mmp13) were higher in the tolerant C57BL/6 strain as compared to A/J. PMID:17066074

Kierstein, S; Noyes, H; Naessens, J; Nakamura, Y; Pritchard, C; Gibson, J; Kemp, S; Brass, A



A novel ncRNA gene from mouse chromosome 5 trans-splices with Dmrt1 on chromosome 19  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dmrt1 (Dsx- and Mab3-related transcription factor-1), a conserved transcription factor in different phyla, is a key regulator in sex determination. Here, we report the novel ncRNA gene Dmr (Dmrt1-related gene), from mouse chromosome 5 that trans-splices with Dmrt1 from chromosome 19 to generate a Dmrt1 protein that lacks the C-terminus. Dmr is mouse and rat specific, and the surrounding genes

Lei Zhang; Heng Lu; Dazhuan Xin; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou



The Mouse RecA-like Gene Dmc1 Is Required for Homologous Chromosome Synapsis during Meiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse Dmc1 gene is an E. coli RecA homolog that is specifically expressed in meiosis. The DMC1 protein was detected in leptotene-to-zygotene spermatocytes, when homolog pairing likely initiates. Targeted gene disruption in the male mouse showed an arrest of meiosis of germ cells at the early zygotene stage, followed by apoptosis. In female mice lacking the Dmc1 gene, normal

Kayo Yoshida; Gen Kondoh; Yoichi Matsuda; Toshiyuki Habu; Yoshitake Nishimune; Takashi Morita



Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas  

PubMed Central

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) is the major source of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the forebrain and dysfunction of this midbrain structure is implicated in affective disorders. The DR is composed of several types of 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons and their excitable-membrane properties are heterogeneous and overlapping. In order to understand how these properties may be generated, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in the DR using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Since DR cytoarchitecture is organized with respect to the midline, we sought to identify genes that were expressed in a pattern with respect to the midline, either enriched or depleted, rather than those that were homogenously expressed throughout the DR. Less than 10% of the screened genes for voltage-gated ion channels showed patterned expression within the DR. Identified genes included voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunits, potassium channels, P/Q-, N-type calcium channels, as well as the alpha2/delta-1 calcium channel. Several voltage-gated chloride channels were also identified, although these may function within intracellular compartments. Of the ligand-gated ion channels examined, 20% showed patterned expression. These consisted primarily of glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits. The identified genes likely contribute to unique excitable properties of different groups of neurons in the DR and may include novel pharmacologic targets for affective disorders. PMID:22534482

Templin, J. Scott; Bang, Sun Jung; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.



Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs: A Gene-Expression Comparison Study  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bossé, Yohan



Comparative DNA sequence analysis of mouse and human protocadherin gene clusters  

SciTech Connect

The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (designated Pcdh{alpha} [gene symbol PCDHA], Pcdh{beta} [PCDHB], and Pcdh{gamma} [PCDHG]) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large ''variable'' region exon, while the intracellular domains are encoded by three small ''constant'' region exons located downstream from a tandem array of variable region exons. Here we report the results of a comparative DNA sequence analysis of the orthologous human (750 kb) and mouse (900 kb) protocadherin gene clusters. The organization of Pcdhi{alpha} and Pcdh{beta} gene clusters in the two species is virtually identical, whereas the mouse Pcdhi{beta} gene cluster is larger and contains more genes than the human Pcdh{beta} gene cluster. We identified conserved DNA sequences upstream of the variable region exons, and found that these sequences are more conserved between orthologs than between paralogs. Within this region, there is a highly conserved DNA sequence motif located at about the same position upstream of the translation start codon of each variable region exon. In addition, the variable region of each gene cluster contains a rich array of CpG islands, whose location corresponds to the position of each variable region exon. These observations are consistent with the proposal that the expression of each variable region exon is regulated by a distinct promoter, which is highly conserved between orthologous variable region exons in mouse and human.

Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Theresa; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Kim, Youngwook; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Dickson, Mark; Noonan, James P.; Zhang, Michael Q.; Myers, Richard M.; Maniatis, Tom



Modeling Chromosomes in Mouse to Explore the Function of Genes, Genomic Disorders, and Chromosomal Organization  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges of genomic research after the completion of the human genome project is to assign a function to all the genes and to understand their interactions and organizations. Among the various techniques, the emergence of chromosome engineering tools with the aim to manipulate large genomic regions in the mouse model offers a powerful way to accelerate the discovery of gene functions and provides more mouse models to study normal and pathological developmental processes associated with aneuploidy. The combination of gene targeting in ES cells, recombinase technology, and other techniques makes it possible to generate new chromosomes carrying specific and defined deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations that are accelerating functional analysis. This review presents the current status of chromosome engineering techniques and discusses the different applications as well as the implication of these new techniques in future research to better understand the function of chromosomal organization and structures. PMID:16839184

Brault, Véronique; Pereira, Patricia; Duchon, Arnaud; Hérault, Yann



A high-resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain.  


To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, we generated in situ hybridization data for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at seven developmental stages for ?2,100 genes, which were processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, seven reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore coexpression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas ( PMID:24952961

Thompson, Carol L; Ng, Lydia; Menon, Vilas; Martinez, Salvador; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Glattfelder, Katie; Sunkin, Susan M; Henry, Alex; Lau, Christopher; Dang, Chinh; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Pombero, Ana; Rubenstein, John L R; Wakeman, Wayne B; Hohmann, John; Dee, Nick; Sodt, Andrew J; Young, Rob; Smith, Kimberly; Nguyen, Thuc-Nghi; Kidney, Jolene; Kuan, Leonard; Jeromin, Andreas; Kaykas, Ajamete; Miller, Jeremy; Page, Damon; Orta, Geri; Bernard, Amy; Riley, Zackery; Smith, Simon; Wohnoutka, Paul; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Puelles, Luis; Jones, Allan R



Changes in gene expression associated with retinal degeneration in the rd3 mouse  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify and characterize changes in gene expression associated with photoreceptor degeneration in the rd3 mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) type 12. Methods Global genome expression profiling using microarray technology was performed on total RNA extracts from rd3 and wild-type control mouse retinas at postnatal day 21. Quantitative PCR analysis of selected transcripts was performed to validate the microarray results. Results Functional annotation of differentially regulated genes in the rd3 mouse defined key canonical pathways, including phototransduction, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling, and endothelin signaling. Overall, 1,140 of approximately 55,800 transcripts were differentially represented. In particular, a large percentage of the upregulated transcripts encode proteins involved in the immune response; whereas the downregulated transcripts encode proteins involved in phototransduction and lipid metabolism. Conclusions This analysis has elucidated several candidate genes and pathways, thus providing insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the photoreceptor degeneration in the rd3 mouse retina and indicating directions for future studies. PMID:23687432

Cheng, Christiana L.



Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine  

PubMed Central

DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.



In vivo identification of a negative regulatory element in the mouse renin gene using direct gene transfer.  

PubMed Central

DBA/2J mouse contains two renin gene loci (Ren1d and Ren2d). Ren2d but not Ren1d is expressed in submandibular gland (SMG) while both are expressed in the kidney. Based on vitro studies, we have postulated that a negative regulatory element (NRE) in the renin gene promoter is involved in its tissue-specific expression. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism at the in vivo level using direct gene transfer. Fragments of the Ren1d or Ren2d promoter were fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression vector. These constructs complexed in fusogenic liposomes were injected directly into the mouse SMG or intraarterially into the mouse kidney via the renal artery. The vector containing the CAT exhibited readily detectable in vivo expressions in both SMG and kidney. In the SMG, Ren1d fragment containing the NRE abolished CAT expression while deletion of the NRE restored CAT expression. The homologous fragment from the Ren2d promoter did not inhibit CAT expression while deletion of the 150-bp insertion resulted in the inhibition. Cotransfection of Ren1d construct with Ren1d-NRE oligonucleotides as transcriptional factor decoy restored CAT expression. Contrary to the SMG, transfection with Ren1d fragment-CAT construct or Ren2d fragment-CAT construct into the kidney resulted in similar levels of CAT expression. Interestingly, human c-myc NRE oligonucleotides which share homology with Ren1d-NRE competed effectively with these oligonucleotides for the regulation of Ren1d gene expression in vivo. This NRE sequence is also homologous to silencer elements found in multiple mammalian genes, suggesting the presence of a family of NRE/NRE binding proteins regulating expression of diverse genes. Images PMID:7657796

Yamada, T; Horiuchi, M; Morishita, R; Zhang, L; Pratt, R E; Dzau, V J



Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ?2-fold increase or ?50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.



Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth.  


The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (?2-fold increase or ?50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (?90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading. PMID:25554798

Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R; England, Jonathan H; Kirby, Tyler J; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J



Increased expression of inflammatory genes in the neonatal mouse brain after hyperoxic reoxygenation.  


BackgroundHyperoxic reoxygenation following hypoxia increases the expression of inflammatory genes in the neonatal mouse brain. We have therefore compared the temporal profile of 44 a priori selected genes after hypoxia and hyperoxic or normoxic reoxygenation.MethodsPostnatal day 7 mice were subjected to 2 hours of hypoxia (8% O2) and 30 min reoxygenation with 60% or 21% O2. After 0 h to 72 h observation, mRNA and protein were examined in hippocampus and striatum.ResultsThere were significantly higher gene expression changes in six genes after hyperoxic compared to normoxic reoxygenation. Three genes had a generally higher expression throughout the observation period: The inflammatory genes Hmox1 (mean difference 0.52, 95% CI 0.151.01) and Tgfb1 (mean diff 0.099, CI 0.0030.194), and the transcription factor Nfkb1 (mean difference 0.049, CI 0.0110.087). The inflammatory genes Cxcl10 and Il1b, and the DNA repair gene Neil3, had a higher gene expression change after hyperoxic reoxygenation at one time point only. Nineteen genes involved in inflammation, transcription regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and glucose transport had significantly different gene expression changes with time in all intervention animals.ConclusionWe confirm that hyperoxic reoxygenation induces a stronger inflammatory gene response than reoxygenation in air.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.193. PMID:25423075

Rognlien, Anne Gro W; Wollen, Embjřrg J; Atneosen-Ĺsegg, Monica; Saugstad, Ola Didrik



Male-biased expression of X-chromosomal DM domain-less Dmrt8 genes in the mouse.  


The vertebrate DMRT gene family encodes putative transcription factors related to the sexual regulators Doublesex (Drosophila melanogaster) and MAB-3 (Caenorhabditis elegans). They share a highly conserved DNA binding motif, the DM domain. In human and mouse seven DMRT genes (DMRT1-DMRT7) have been analyzed. DMRT8, a gene related to DMRT7, is located on the X chromosome in placental mammals. While DMRT8 is single copy in most mammals, three copies are present in mouse, rat, and rabbit. Despite the loss of the DM domain, DMRT8 genes have been maintained in the mammalian lineage, suggesting a DM domain-independent function. In adult mouse, two Dmrt8 genes are expressed exclusively in testis. Dmrt8.1 mRNA was detected in Sertoli cells by in situ hybridization. In embryos, Dmrt8.2 shows a dynamic expression restricted to male and female gonads and might therefore be involved in sexual development in the mouse. PMID:16488114

Veith, Anne-Marie; Klattig, Jürgen; Dettai, Agnes; Schmidt, Cornelia; Englert, Christoph; Volff, Jean-Nicolas



PiggyBac Mediated Multiplex Gene Transfer in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell  

PubMed Central

PiggyBac system has been shown to have a high efficiency to mediate gene transfer. However, there are no reports on its efficiency to mediate multiplex transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we first established an immortalized feeder cell line by introducing four antibiotic resistance genes simultaneously into the original SNL 76/7 feeder cell line utilizing the PiggyBac system. This is the feeder cell line with the most diverse types of antibiotic resistance genes reported so far, which will enable researchers to perform simultaneous multiplex gene transfer or gene targeting experiments in ES cells. With such feeder cell line, we were able to quantitatively characterize the transposition efficiency of PiggyBac system in mouse ES cells using five transposons carrying different inducible fluorescence proteins and antibiotic resistance genes, and the efficiency ranged from about 2% for one transposon to 0.5% for five transposons. The highly efficient multiplex gene transfer mediated by PiggyBac will no doubt provide researchers with more choices in biomedical research and development. PMID:25517991

Lu, Xibin; Huang, Wei



Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse homologue of rat OX40 protein.  


The OX40 protein is expressed only on activated rat CD4+ T blasts and is a member of a superfamily of cell surface molecules which includes CD40, CD30, CD95 (Fas), CD27, 4-1BB antigens and the receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The proteins of this group are related to each other by having three to six repeats of a cysteine-rich sequence in their extracellular domains. Members of this family of receptors have also been shown to bind to ligands which are structurally related to TNF. The mouse homologue of the rat OX40 protein was cloned at the cDNA and genomic levels. The gene structure shows that there are several intron/exon borders shared between OX40 and CD27, CD40, TNF receptor type I, CD95 and 4-1BB genes. This group of genes is less closely related structurally to the gene structure of the NGF receptor. The gene encoding murine OX40 has been placed on mouse chromosome 4, in an area which contains the genes for TNF receptor type II and 4-1BB, and is syntenic with a region of human chromosome 1 which contains human TNF receptor type II, OX40, and CD30 genes. PMID:7737295

Birkeland, M L; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Barclay, A N



Effect of light on global gene expression in the neuroglobin-deficient mouse retina  

PubMed Central

Several previous studies have raised controversy over the functional role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in the retina. Certain studies indicate a significant impact of Ngb on retinal physiology, whereas others are conflicting. The present is an observational study that tested the effect of Ngb deficiency on gene expression in dark- and light-adapted mouse retinas. Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip® Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays and the results were compared to publicly available data sets. The lack of Ngb was found to have a minor effect on the light-induced retinal gene expression response. In addition, there was no increase in the expression of marker genes associated with hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum-stress and oxidative stress in the Ngb-deficient retina. By contrast, several genes were identified that appeared to be differentially expressed between the genotypes when the effect of light was ignored. The present study indicates that Ngb deficiency does not lead to major alternations in light-dependent gene expression response, but leads to subtle systemic differences of a currently unknown functional significance. PMID:25279145




Gene expression profiles in liver of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.  


cDNA micorarray approach was applied to hepatic transcriptional profile analysis in male mouse (Mus musculus, ICR) to assess the potential health effects of drinking water in Nanjing, China. Mice were treated with continuous exposure to drinking water for 90 days. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays, and pathway analysis was carried out by Molecule Annotation System 2.0 and KEGG pathway database. A total of 836 genes were found to be significantly altered (1.5-fold, P < or = 0.05), including 294 up-regulated genes and 542 down-regulated genes. According to biological pathway analysis, drinking water exposure resulted in aberration of gene expression and biological pathways linked to xenobiotic metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle and oxidative stress response. Further, deregulation of several genes associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including Ccnd1, Egfr, Map2k3, Mcm2, Orc2l and Smad2 was observed. Although transcription changes in identified genes are unlikely to be used as a sole indicator of adverse health effects, the results of this study could enhance our understanding of early toxic effects of drinking water exposure and support future studies on drinking water safety. PMID:19444861

Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Xuxiang; Kong, Zhiming; Cheng, Shupei



Mapping of the Sca1 and pcd genes on mouse chromosome 13 provides evidence that they are different genes  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that large chromosomal segments have remained intact during the evolution of different mammalian species. Thus, mapping information for a gene in mammalian species facilitates mapping the same gene in another mammalian species. In addition, phenotypically similar diseases that map to linkage conserved regions in two species may be caused by mutations in the same gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited human disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria, and dysmetria. SCA1 maps to the short arm of human chromosome (Chr) 6 in the 6p23-p22 region. SCA1 is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat located within the coding region of a novel protein, ataxin-1, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) is a recessively inherited mouse disorder characterized by a moderate ataxia, usually noted by 3-4 weeks of age. Progressive degeneration of Purkinje cells is the underlying pathogenesis in this disorder. The pcd gene was assigned to mouse Chr 13 because it showed linkage to extra toes (Xt) and pearl (pe). Some doubt about this assignment existed, however, because the calculated genetic distance between pcd and Xt was 32 cM and that between pcd and pe was 18 cM. If pcd is located in Chr 13, its placement relative to Xt and pe suggests that it would be located in the region that shares linkage homology with the region that shares linkage homology with the region of human Chr 6 that contains SCA1. Here, we present data that confirm the assignment of pcd to Chr 13, map the mouse Sca1 gene to Chr 13, and eliminate Sca1 as a candidate gene for pcd. 11 refs., 1 tab.

Servadio, A.; McCall, A.; Zoghbi, H. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Eicher, E.M. [Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME (United States)



Impact of methoxyacetic acid on mouse Leydig cell gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of the widely used industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is associated with various developmental and reproductive toxicities, including neural toxicity, blood and immune disorders, limb degeneration and testicular toxicity. Testicular toxicity is caused by degeneration of germ cells in association with changes in gene expression in both germ cells and

Gargi Bagchi; Yijing Zhang; David J Waxman



Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160-7417 (United States)], E-mail:; Liu, Jie [Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Diwan, Bhalchandra A. [Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI Frederick, MD (United States)



Mapping of the insulin promoter factor 1 gene (Ipf1) to distal mouse chromosome 5  

SciTech Connect

We have identified sequence variants in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the insulin promoter factor 1 (Ipf1) cDNA sequence in mice and used a PCR-based oligonucleotide hybridization assay to map the Ipf1 gene to distal mouse chromosome (Chr) 5. An identical 12-bp insertion in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the mouse Ipf1 gene sequence is present in Mus spretus and Mus m. musculus Czech II mice, two feral strains used for meiotic mapping by backcross analysis. The human IPF1 gene homolog would be expected to map to either chromosome 13q12-q14 or 7pter-q21 based on homology of synteny of other loci in this region of mouse Chr 5. Given its genetic map position, the Ipf1 gene may be part of a cassette of homeodomain-containing transcription factors involved in the development of the pancreas and other foregut-derived organs. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Fiedorek, F.T. Jr.; Kay, E.S. [Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)



Defining Functional Gene-Circuit Interfaces in the Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Complexity in the nervous system is established by developmental genetic programs, maintained by differential genetic profiles, and sculpted by experiential and environmental influence over gene expression. Determining how specific genes define neuronal phenotypes, shape circuit connectivity, and regulate circuit function is essential for understanding how the brain processes information, directs behavior, and adapts to changing environments. Mouse genetics has contributed greatly to current percepts of gene-circuit interfaces in behavior, but considerable work remains. Large-scale initiatives to map gene expression and connectivity in the brain, together with advanced techniques in molecular genetics, now allow detailed exploration of the genetic basis of nervous system function at the level of specific circuit connections. In this review, we highlight several key advances for defining the function of specific genes within a neural network. PMID:24007626

Soden, Marta E.; Gore, Bryan B.; Zweifel, Larry S.



A synthetic small molecule for rapid induction of multiple pluripotency genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular reprogramming involves profound alterations in genome-wide gene expression that is precisely controlled by a hypothetical epigenetic code. Small molecules have been shown to artificially induce epigenetic modifications in a sequence independent manner. Recently, we showed that specific DNA binding hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) could be conjugated with chromatin modifying histone deacetylase inhibitors like SAHA to epigenetically activate certain pluripotent genes in mouse fibroblasts. In our steadfast progress to improve the efficiency of SAHA-PIPs, we identified a novel compound termed, ? that could dramatically induce the endogenous expression of Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Genome-wide gene analysis suggests that in just 24 h and at nM concentration, ? induced multiple pluripotency-associated genes including Rex1 and Cdh1 by more than ten-fold. ? treated MEFs also rapidly overcame the rate-limiting step of epithelial transition in cellular reprogramming by switching ``'' the complex transcriptional gene network.

Pandian, Ganesh N.; Nakano, Yusuke; Sato, Shinsuke; Morinaga, Hironobu; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi



Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.  


Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F



Characterization of mercury bioremediation by transgenic bacteria expressing metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase  

PubMed Central

Background The use of transgenic bacteria has been proposed as a suitable alternative for mercury remediation. Ideally, mercury would be sequestered by metal-scavenging agents inside transgenic bacteria for subsequent retrieval. So far, this approach has produced limited protection and accumulation. We report here the development of a transgenic system that effectively expresses metallothionein (mt-1) and polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in bacteria in order to provide high mercury resistance and accumulation. Results In this study, bacterial transformation with transcriptional and translational enhanced vectors designed for the expression of metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase provided high transgene transcript levels independent of the gene being expressed. Expression of polyphosphate kinase and metallothionein in transgenic bacteria provided high resistance to mercury, up to 80 ?M and 120 ?M, respectively. Here we show for the first time that metallothionein can be efficiently expressed in bacteria without being fused to a carrier protein to enhance mercury bioremediation. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry analyzes revealed that the mt-1 transgenic bacteria accumulated up to 100.2 ± 17.6 ?M of mercury from media containing 120 ?M Hg. The extent of mercury remediation was such that the contaminated media remediated by the mt-1 transgenic bacteria supported the growth of untransformed bacteria. Cell aggregation, precipitation and color changes were visually observed in mt-1 and ppk transgenic bacteria when these cells were grown in high mercury concentrations. Conclusion The transgenic bacterial system described in this study presents a viable technology for mercury bioremediation from liquid matrices because it provides high mercury resistance and accumulation while inhibiting elemental mercury volatilization. This is the first report that shows that metallothionein expression provides mercury resistance and accumulation in recombinant bacteria. The high accumulation of mercury in the transgenic cells could present the possibility of retrieving the accumulated mercury for further industrial applications. PMID:21838857



Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.  

PubMed Central

The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B



Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others



Effective Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Prion Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical drug therapies against prion diseases have encountered serious difficulties. It has become urgent to develop radically different therapeutic strategies. Previously, we showed that VSV-G pseudotyped FIV derived vectors carrying dominant negative mutants of the PrP gene are efficient to inhibit prion replication in chronically prion-infected cells. Besides, they can transduce neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system, highlighting their

Karine Toupet; Valérie Compan; Carole Crozet; Chantal Mourton-Gilles; Nadine Mestre-Francés; Françoise Ibos; Pierre Corbeau; Jean-Michel Verdier; Véronique Perrier



Positional Cloning of the Mouse Circadian Clock Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used positional cloning to identify the circadian Clock gene in mice. Clock is a large transcription unit with 24 exons spanning ?100,000 bp of DNA from which transcript classes of 7.5 and ?10 kb arise. Clock encodes a novel member of the bHLH–PAS family of transcription factors. In the Clock mutant allele, an A?T nucleotide transversion in a splice

David P King; Yaliang Zhao; Ashvin M Sangoram; Lisa D Wilsbacher; Minoru Tanaka; Marina P Antoch; Thomas D. L Steeves; Martha Hotz Vitaterna; Jon M Kornhauser; Phillip L Lowrey; Fred W Turek; Joseph S Takahashi



Toxicological effect of emodin in mouse testicular gene expression profile.  


Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a herbal medicine extracted from the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum, and is known as an inhibitor of casein kinase II (CK2). The CK2?' knockout mice are known to be male-infertile; however, there have been no reports on the toxicity of emodin in male reproductive organs/tissues. To evaluate the toxicological effects of emodin on differential gene expression profiles of the testis as compared with acrylamide, mice were orally administered emodin and acrylamide for 5?days at a dose of 1000 and 50?mg?kg(-1) per day, respectively, and euthanized 24?h after the final administration. Both chemicals induced hypospermatogenesis, eosinophilic change and apoptosis of germ cell. A DNA microarray analysis showed that the IGF-1 receptor signaling was most closely related to the above testicular toxicity induced by emodin, and the RhoA regulation, TGF/WNT and cytoskeletal remodeling, TNFR1 signaling and adenosine A2A receptor signaling were commonly associated with the two chemicals. We selected 36 genes associated with CK2, apoptosis and spermatogenesis and determined their expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both chemicals perturbed the expression of genes associated with CK2. Genes related to spermatogenesis were also affected, as evidenced by hypospermatogenesis, and eosinophilic change and apoptosis of germ cell. The results suggest that emodin causes testicular toxicity, including apoptosis with related the IGF-1 receptor signaling pathway, and the two chemicals commonly affect CK2, spermatogenesis and sperm motility via four pathways, such as TNFR1 signaling. PMID:21319176

Oshida, Keiyu; Hirakata, Mikito; Maeda, Akihisa; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Miyamoto, Yohei



Gene order is conserved within the human chromosome 21 linkage group on mouse chromosome 10  

SciTech Connect

One hundred progeny from each of two intersubspecific mouse backcrosses were used to construct a comparative genetic map of a region of mouse chromosome 10 (MMU10) that is homologous to the distal tip of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The analysis included five genes and three simple sequence repeat markers, two of which flanked the HSA21-homologous cluster on either side. Analysis of 200 backcross progeny detected at least one crossover between each pair of adjacent genes and demonstrated that the proximal to distal orientation of the cluster was reversed between human and mouse. The order was determined to be Fyn-1-D10Mit20-S100b-Col6a1-Itgb2-Pfk1/D10Mit7-D10Mit11. Comparative mapping supports the order of corresponding markers on HSA21 determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid line data. However, sequence tagged site content mapping of human yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) yielded conflicting data on the relative positions of human COL6A1 and S100B on HSA21. This discrepancy was resolved here by demonstrating that several key YACs used in the human contig analysis were mistyped for S100B. The murine map reported here provides a scaffold for construction of physical maps and yeast artificial chromosome contigs that will be useful in the development of mouse models for the study of Down syndrome. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Irving, N.G.; Cabin, D.E.; Swanson, D.A.; Reeves, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))



Identification of sexually dimorphic genes in the neonatal mouse cortex and hippocampus.  


The cerebral cortex and hippocampus are important for the control of cognitive functions and social behaviors, many of which are sexually dimorphic and tightly regulated by gonadal steroid hormones via activation of their respective nuclear receptors. As different levels of sex steroid hormones are present between the sexes during early development and their receptors act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression, we hypothesize that sexually dimorphic gene expression in the developing mouse cortex and hippocampus might result in sex differences in brain structures and neural circuits governing distinct behaviors between the sexes as adults. To test our hypothesis, we used gene expression microarrays to identify 90 candidate genes differentially expressed in the neonatal cortex/hippocampus between male and female mice, including 55 male-biased and 35 female-biased genes. Among these genes, sexually dimorphic expression of eight sex chromosome genes was confirmed by reverse transcription with quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), including three located on the X chromosome (Xist, Eif2s3x, and Kdm6a), three on the Y chromosome (Ddx3y, Eif2s3y, and Kdm5d), and two in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes (Erdr1 and Mid1). In addition, five autosomal genes (Cd151, Dab2, Klk8, Meg3, and Prkdc) were also validated for their sexually dimorphic expression in the neonatal mouse cortex/hippocampus. Gene Ontology annotation analysis suggests that many of these sexually dimorphic genes are involved in histone modifications, cell proliferation/death, androgen/estrogen signaling pathways, and synaptic organization, and these biological processes have been implicated in differential neural development, cognitive function, and neurological diseases between the sexes. PMID:24661915

Armoskus, Chris; Moreira, Debbie; Bollinger, Kayla; Jimenez, Oliva; Taniguchi, Saori; Tsai, Houng-Wei



Expression Profile of DNA Damage Signaling Genes in Proton Exposed Mouse Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of living systems to radiation results in a wide assortment of lesions, the most signif-icant of is damage to genomic DNA which induce several cellular functions such as cell cycle arrest, repair, apoptosis etc. The radiation induced DNA damage investigation is one of the im-portant area in biology, but still the information available regarding the effects of proton is very limited. In this report, we investigated the differential gene expression pattern of DNA damage signaling genes particularly, damaged DNA binding, repair, cell cycle arrest, checkpoints and apoptosis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR array in proton exposed mouse brain tissues. The expression profiles showed significant changes in DNA damage related genes in 2Gy proton exposed mouse brain tissues as compared with control brain tissues. Furthermore, we also show that significantly increased levels of apoptotic related genes, caspase-3 and 8 activities in these cells, suggesting that in addition to differential expression of DNA damage genes, the alteration of apoptosis related genes may also contribute to the radiation induced DNA damage followed by programmed cell death. In summary, our findings suggest that proton exposed brain tissue undergo severe DNA damage which in turn destabilize the chromatin stability.

Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu


A conditional knockout resource for the genome–wide study of mouse gene function  

PubMed Central

Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells has become the principal technology for manipulation of the mouse genome, offering unrivalled accuracy in allele design and access to conditional mutagenesis. To bring these advantages to the wider research community, large-scale mouse knockout programmes are producing a permanent resource of targeted mutations in all protein-coding genes. Here we report the establishment of a high-throughput gene-targeting pipeline for the generation of reporter-tagged, conditional alleles. Computational allele design, 96-well modular vector construction and high-efficiency gene-targeting strategies have been combined to mutate genes on an unprecedented scale. So far, more than 12,000 vectors and 9,000 conditional targeted alleles have been produced in highly germline-competent C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. High-throughput genome engineering highlighted by this study is broadly applicable to rat and human stem cells and provides a foundation for future genome-wide efforts aimed at deciphering the function of all genes encoded by the mammalian genome. PMID:21677750

Skarnes, William C.; Rosen, Barry; West, Anthony P.; Koutsourakis, Manousos; Bushell, Wendy; Iyer, Vivek; Mujica, Alejandro O.; Thomas, Mark; Harrow, Jennifer; Cox, Tony; Jackson, David; Severin, Jessica; Biggs, Patrick; Fu, Jun; Nefedov, Michael; de Jong, Pieter J.; Stewart, A. Francis; Bradley, Allan



AAV-mediated gene therapy in mouse models of recessive retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

In recent years, more and more mutant genes that cause retinal diseases have been detected. At the same time, many naturally occurring mouse models of retinal degeneration have also been found, which show similar changes to human retinal diseases. These, together with improved viral vector quality allow more and more traditionally incurable inherited retinal disorders to become potential candidates for gene therapy. Currently, the most common vehicle to deliver the therapeutic gene into target retinal cells is the adeno-associated viral vector (AAV). Following delivery to the immuno-priviledged subretinal space, AAV-vectors can efficiently target both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells, the origin of most retinal degenerations. This review focuses on the AAV-based gene therapy in mouse models of recessive retinal degenerations, especially those in which delivery of the correct copy of the wild-type gene has led to significant beneficial effects on visual function, as determined by morphological, biochemical, electroretinographic and behavioral analysis. The past studies in animal models and ongoing successful LCA2 clinical trials, predict a bright future for AAV gene replacement treatment for inherited recessive retinal diseases. PMID:22300136

Pang, Ji-jing; Lei, Lei; Dai, Xufeng; Shi, Wei; Liu, Xuan; Dinculescu, Astra; McDowell, J. Hugh



Gene expression changes after exposure to six-mix in a mouse model.  


The exposure of Libby MT residents to amphibole-contaminated vermiculite is well known. To explore the gene-environment interactions in the development of asbestos-related diseases (ARD), a mouse model of asbestos exposure using Six-mix (a combination of amphibole fibers gathered from six sites at the Libby vermiculite mine), crocidolite asbestos, or saline as a negative control was used to determine both gene expression responses by using mouse 10,000 oligonucleotide array and to visualize these changes histologically. Mice were sacrificed and whole lungs harvested for histology and microarray analysis six months following exposure via intratracheal instillation. Using an arbitrary cutoff of 1.25-fold change, genes whose RNA expression levels were specifically altered in response to the different amphibole exposures were grouped into categories by a gene ontology analysis program, GoMiner. Our hypothesis was that assessment of asbestos-responsive genes would provide a better understanding of response mechanisms. These experiments have provided new candidates for genes involved in the asbestos response pathways. PMID:18569383

Putnam, Elizabeth A; Smartt, Aubrey; Groves, Angie; Schwanke, Corbin; Brezinski, Mary; Pershouse, Mark A



A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development  

SciTech Connect

The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)



Quantitative trait loci, genes, and polymorphisms that regulate bone mineral density in mouse  

PubMed Central

This is an in silico analysis of data available from genome-wide scans. Through analysis of QTL, genes and polymorphisms that regulate BMD, we identified 82 BMD QTL, 191 BMD-associated (BMDA) genes, and 83 genes containing known BMD-associated polymorphisms (BMDAP). The catalogue of all BMDA/BMDAP genes and relevant literatures are provided. In total, there are substantially more BMDA/BMDAP genes in regions of the genome where QTL have been identified than in non-QTL regions. Among 191 BMDA genes and 83 BMDAP genes, 133 and 58 are localized in QTL region, respectively. The difference was still noticeable for the chromosome distribution of these genes between QTL and non-QTL regions. These results have allowed us to generate an integrative profile of QTL, genes, polymorphisms that determine BMD. These data could facilitate more rapid and comprehensive identification of causal genes underlying the determination of BMD in mouse and provide new insights into how BMD is regulated in humans. PMID:19150398

Xiong, Qing; Jiao, Yan; Hasty, Karen A.; Canale, S. Terry; Stuart, John M.; Beamer, Wesley G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Baylink, David; Gu, Weikuan



Endocrine Parameters and Phenotypes of the Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Disrupted (GHR?/?) Mouse  

PubMed Central

Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR?/?) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR?/? mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

List, Edward O.; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E.; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S.; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana



Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia



From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.  

PubMed Central

For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer’s vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer’s vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of ‘heart jogging’ and the direction of ‘heart looping’.  ‘Heart jogging’ is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward ‘jog’. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish ‘heart jogging orthologs’ are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

Lovering, Ruth C



Metallothioneins in Human Kidneys and Associated Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human kidneys and their associated tumors (nonneoplastic kidney tissues from patients with a transitional cell carcinoma or an adenocarcinoma and the adenocarcinomas themselves) were evaluated for their Zn, Cd, and Cu contents as well as for their metallothionein (MT) level. The total Cd content was correlated with the MT content, and both values were significantly decreased in the adenocarcinomas in

Godelieve Hellemans; Ann Soumillion; Paul Proost; Jo Van Damme; Hein Van Poppel; Luc Baert; Marc De Ley



Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes  

SciTech Connect

The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3{prime} of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Lamerdin, J.E.; Stilwagen, S.A.; Ramirez, M.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); and others



Fgf10 gene expression is delayed in the embryonic lung mesenchyme in the adriamycin mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The adriamycin mouse model is a well-established teratogenic model of esophageal atresia\\/tracheoesophageal fistula. Fibroblast\\u000a growth factor 10 (Fgf10) plays a key role in branching of the lung buds during lung morphogenesis. Fgf10 knockout mice exhibit\\u000a the absence of the lungs. Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a technique that allows three-dimensional (3D) imaging of\\u000a gene expression in small tissue specimens in

Piotr Hajduk; Paula Murphy; Prem Puri



Inactivation of mammalian X-chromosome during spermatogenesis: Temporal expression of genes in the laboratory mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

At zygotene\\/pachytene stage of me iosis in mammalian testis, the X—Y heterobivalent is sequesterd into a heterochromatinized body whose genetic inactivity is shown by lack of uridine incorporation. For the genic level evaluation of the X-inactivation, activities of three X-linked genes were assayed in testicular cell types in the laboratory mouse. While hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase is functional at least up




Inactivation of mammalian X-chromosome during spermatogenesis: Temporal expression of genes in the laboratory mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

At zygotene\\/pachytene stage of meiosis in mammalian testis, the X—Y heterobivalent is sequesterd into a heterochromatinized\\u000a body whose genetic inactivity is shown by lack of uridine incorporation. For the genic level evaluation of the X-inactivation,\\u000a activities of three X-linked genes were assayed in testicular cell types in the laboratory mouse. While hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl\\u000a transferase is functional at least up to

Parimal Das; Rajiva Raman



Mouse Small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox-containing gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMALL eye (Sey) in mouse is a semidominant mutation which in the homozygous condition results in the complete lack of eyes and nasal primordia. On the basis of comparative mapping studies and on phenotypic similarities, Sey has been suggested to be homologous to congenital aniridia (lack of iris) in human1,2. A candidate gene for the aniridia (AN) locus at 11p13

Robert E. Hill; Jack Favor; Brigid L. M. Hogan; Carl C. T. Ton; Grady F. Saunders; Isabel M. Hanson; Jane Prosser; Tim Jordan; Nicholas D. Hastie; Veronica Van Heyningen



Differential display and cloning of the hippocampal gene mRNAs in senescence accelerated mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of genes that are specifically expressed in the hippocampus of senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) is important for understanding the molecular basis of the pathological changes in the brain and of the deterioration of learning and memory in SAM-prone\\/8 (SAMP8), a substrain of SAM. The differential display technique was applied to compare mRNAs expression between SAMP8 and SAM-resistance 1 (SAMR1),

Xiaolong Wei; Yongxiang Zhang; Jinhuang Zhou



DISC1 mouse models as a tool to decipher gene-environment interactions in psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

DISC1 was discovered in a Scottish pedigree in which a chromosomal translocation that breaks this gene segregates with psychiatric disorders, mainly depression and schizophrenia. Linkage and association studies in diverse populations support DISC1 as a susceptibility gene to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Many Disc1 mouse models have been generated to study its neuronal functions. These mouse models display variable phenotypes, some of them relevant to schizophrenia, others to depression. The Disc1 mouse models are popular genetic models for studying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. Five different Disc1 models have been combined with environmental factors. The environmental stressors employed can be classified as either early immune activation or later social paradigms. These studies cover major time points along the neurodevelopmental trajectory: prenatal, early postnatal, adolescence, and adulthood. Various combinations of molecular, anatomical and behavioral methods have been used to assess the outcomes. Additionally, three of the studies sought to rescue the resulting abnormalities. Here we provide background on the environmental paradigms used, summarize the results of these studies combining Disc1 mouse models with environmental stressors and discuss what we can learn and how to proceed. A major question is how the genetic and environmental factors determine which psychiatric disorder will be clinically manifested. To address this we can take advantage of the many Disc1 models available and expose them to the same environmental stressor. The complementary experiment would be to expose the same model to different environmental stressors. DISC1 is an ideal gene for this approach, since in the Scottish pedigree the same chromosomal translocation results in different psychiatric conditions. PMID:24027503

Cash-Padgett, Tyler; Jaaro-Peled, Hanna



Identification and targeted disruption of the mouse gene encoding ESG1 (PH34\\/ECAT2\\/DPPA5)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cell-specific gene (ESG) 1, which encodes a KH-domain containing protein, is specifically expressed in early embryos, germ cells, and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Previous studies identified genomic clones containing the mouse ESG1 gene and five pseudogenes. However, their chromosomal localizations or physiological functions have not been determined. RESULTS: A Blast search of mouse genomic databases failed to

Hisayuki Amano; Ken Itakura; Masayoshi Maruyama; Tomoko Ichisaka; Masato Nakagawa; Shinya Yamanaka



Cell Type-specific Signaling Function of RhoA GTPase: Lessons from Mouse Gene Targeting*  

PubMed Central

RhoA GTPase is a key intracellular regulator of actomyosin dynamics and other cell functions, including adhesion, proliferation, survival, and gene expression. Most of our knowledge of RhoA signaling function is from studies in immortalized cell lines utilizing inhibitors or dominant mutant overexpression, both of which are limited in terms of specificity, dosage, and clonal variation. Recent mouse gene targeting studies of rhoA and its regulators/effectors have revealed cell type-specific signaling mechanisms in the context of mammalian physiology. The new knowledge may present therapeutic opportunities for the rational targeting of RhoA signaling-mediated pathophysiologies. PMID:24202176

Zhou, Xuan; Zheng, Yi



Opposite-strand RNAs from the 5' flanking region of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase gene.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a transcription unit in the 5' flanking region of the mouse gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase (EC that is oriented in the opposite direction to that of dihydrofolate reductase transcription. These opposite-strand RNAs are 180-240 nucleotides long, differing in length at their 5' ends. They are abundant in nuclear RNA and are not polyadenylylated. We suggest that the promoter region of the dihydrofolate reductase gene functions in a bidirectional manner to produce both these RNAs and dihydrofolate reductase mRNAs. Images PMID:2408272

Farnham, P J; Abrams, J M; Schimke, R T



Multi-tissue gene-expression analysis in a mouse model of thyroid hormone resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is caused by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) gene. To understand the\\u000a transcriptional program underlying TR? mutant-induced phenotypic expression of RTH, cDNA microarrays were used to profile\\u000a the expression of 11,500 genes in a mouse model of human RTH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We analyzed transcript levels in cerebellum, heart and white adipose tissue from a

Lance D Miller; Peter McPhie; Hideyo Suzuki; Yasuhito Kato; Edison T Liu; Sheue-yann Cheng



Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model  

PubMed Central

The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.



Integration of gene chip and topological network techniques to screen a candidate biomarker gene (CBG) for predication of the source water carcinogenesis risks on mouse Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of a candidate biomarker gene (CBG) to predicate the carcinogenesis risks in the Yangtze River source of drinking\\u000a water in Nanjing area (YZR-SDW-NJ) on mouse (Mus musculus) was conducted in this research. The effects of YZR-SDW-NJ on the genomic transcriptional expression levels were measured\\u000a by the GeneChip® Mouse Genome and data treated by the GO database analysis. The 298

Jie Sun; Shupei Cheng; Aimin Li; Rui Zhang; Bing Wu; Yan Zhang; Xuxiang Zhang



Electroconvulsive seizure-induced changes in gene expression in the mouse hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.  


Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective and rapid treatment for depression. In patients with depression, the function of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is frequently altered. Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS), which is a model of electroconvulsive therapy, upregulates the expression of c-fos in the PVN of animal models. Therefore, we hypothesized that ECS alters gene expression and function in the PVN. The PVN was microdissected from mouse brain sections following ECS treatment, and total RNA was analyzed by microarray. Two hours after ECS, the levels of expression of 2.6% (589 genes) of the genes showed a greater than 2-fold decrease and 0.9% (205 genes) showed a greater than 2-fold increase. Among these genes, 72 of the downregulated genes and 12 of the upregulated genes have been proposed to be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression, by knowledge database analyses. The groups of downregulated genes included neuropeptides (Cck), kinases (Prkcb, Camk2a), transcription factors (Tcf4), and transporters (Aqp4), and these have been suggested to be associated with psychiatric disorders and/or PVN function. The results of the present study indicated that ECS treatment could modulate PVN functions through altered gene expression, which may contribute to its antidepressant effects. PMID:23863925

Sakaida, Mari; Sukeno, Mamiko; Imoto, Yuhki; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Okuno, Yasushi; Segi-Nishida, Eri



Genetic and Molecular Basis of QTL of Diabetes in Mouse: Genes and Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

A systematic study has been conducted of all available reports in PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) to examine the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative genetic loci (QTL) of diabetes with the main focus on genes and polymorphisms. The major question is, What can the QTL tell us? Specifically, we want to know whether those genome regions differ from other regions in terms of genes relevant to diabetes. Which genes are within those QTL regions, and, among them, which genes have already been linked to diabetes? whether more polymorphisms have been associated with diabetes in the QTL regions than in the non-QTL regions. Our search revealed a total of 9038 genes from 26 type 1 diabetes QTL, which cover 667,096,006 bp of the mouse genomic sequence. On one hand, a large number of candidate genes are in each of these QTL; on the other hand, we found that some obvious candidate genes of QTL have not yet been investigated. Thus, the comprehensive search of candidate genes for known QTL may provide unexpected benefit for identifying QTL genes for diabetes. PMID:19471607

Gao, Peng; Jiao, Yan; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Cong-Yi; Gerling, Ivan; Gu, Weikuan



Localization of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene (PCNT) to chromosome 21qter  

SciTech Connect

Exon trapping was used to identify portions of genes from cosmid DNA of a human chromosome 21-specific library LL21NC02-Q. More than 650 potential exons have been cloned and characterized to date. Among these, 3 trapped {open_quotes}exons{close_quotes} showed strong homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse pericentrin (Pcnt) gene, indicating that these 3 exons are portions of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene. With PCR amplification, Southern blot analysis, and FISH, we have mapped this presumed human pericentrin gene (PCNT) to the long arm of chromosome 21 between marker PFKL and 21qter. Pericentrin is a conserved protein component of the filamentous matrix of the centrosome involved in the initial establishment of the organized microtubule array. No candidate hereditary disorder for pericentrin deficiency/abnormality has yet been mapped in the most distal region of 21q; in addition the role of triplication of the pericentrin gene in the pathophysiology or etiology of trisomy 21 is currently unknown. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Chen, Haiming [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland); Gos, A.; Morris, M.A. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others] [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); and others



Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))



Organization and Evolution of a Gene-Rich Region of the Mouse Genome: A 12.7-Mb Region Deleted in the Del(13)Svea36H Mouse  

PubMed Central

Del(13)Svea36H (Del36H) is a deletion of ?20% of mouse chromosome 13 showing conserved synteny with human chromosome 6p22.1-6p22.3/6p25. The human region is lost in some deletion syndromes and is the site of several disease loci. Heterozygous Del36H mice show numerous phenotypes and may model aspects of human genetic disease. We describe 12.7 Mb of finished, annotated sequence from Del36H. Del36H has a higher gene density than the draft mouse genome, reflecting high local densities of three gene families (vomeronasal receptors, serpins, and prolactins) which are greatly expanded relative to human. Transposable elements are concentrated near these gene families. We therefore suggest that their neighborhoods are gene factories, regions of frequent recombination in which gene duplication is more frequent. The gene families show different proportions of pseudogenes, likely reflecting different strengths of purifying selection and/or gene conversion. They are also associated with relatively low simple sequence concentrations, which vary across the region with a periodicity of ?5 Mb. Del36H contains numerous evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs). Many lie in noncoding regions, are detectable in species as distant as Ciona intestinalis, and therefore are candidate regulatory sequences. This analysis will facilitate functional genomic analysis of Del36H and provides insights into mouse genome evolution. PMID:15364904

Mallon, Ann-Marie; Wilming, Laurens; Weekes, Joseph; Gilbert, James G.R.; Ashurst, Jennifer; Peyrefitte, Sandrine; Matthews, Lucy; Cadman, Matthew; McKeone, Richard; Sellick, Chris A.; Arkell, Ruth; Botcherby, Marc R.M.; Strivens, Mark A.; Campbell, R. Duncan; Gregory, Simon; Denny, Paul; Hancock, John M.; Rogers, Jane; Brown, Steve D.M.



Identification of novel striatal genes by expression profiling in adult mouse brain.  


Large-scale transcriptome analysis in the brain is a powerful approach to identify novel genes of potential interest toward understanding cerebral organization and function. We utilized the microarray technology to measure expression levels of about 24,000 genes and expressed sequence tags in mouse hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum. Using expression profile obtained from whole brain as a reference, we categorized the genes into groups of genes either enriched in, or restricted to, one of the three areas of interest. We found enriched genes for each target area. Further, we identified 14 genes in the category of genes restricted to the striatum, among which were the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR88 and retinoic acid receptor-beta. These two genes were already reported to be selectively expressed in the striatum, thus validating our experimental approach. We selected 6 striatal-restricted genes, as well as 10 striatal-enriched candidates, that were previously undescribed. We analyzed their expression by in situ hybridization analysis in the brain, and quantitative RT-PCR in both brain and peripheral organs. Two of these unknown genes displayed a notable expression pattern. The striatal-restricted gene H3076B11 shows uniform expression throughout and uniquely in the striatum, representing a genuine striatal marker. The striatal-enriched gene 4833421E05Rik is preferentially expressed in the rostral striatum, and is also abundant in kidney, liver and lung. These two genes may contribute to some of the many striatal-controlled behaviors, including initiation of movement, habit formation, or reward and motivation. PMID:17395390

Ghate, A; Befort, K; Becker, J A J; Filliol, D; Bole-Feysot, C; Demebele, D; Jost, B; Koch, M; Kieffer, B L



Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the type 5 mouse (Mus musculus) somatostatin receptor (msst5).  


We have isolated and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene for the fifth mouse somatostatin receptor (msst5). The gene can encode a protein of 363 amino acid residues (aa). The deduced aa sequence of msst5 has 97 and 81% identity to the rat and human sst5 respectively, while it has lower identities with the four other mouse sst(n)s (msst1 -- 48%, msst2 -- 55%, msst3 -- 56%, and msst4 -- 52%). We show that msst5 is expressed in brain but not in liver, heart, spleen, or kidney of the adult mouse. PMID:9300821

Lublin, A L; Diehl, N L; Hochgeschwender, U



Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC. Results Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh?/? eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh?/? mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh?/? eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results. Conclusions Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC.

Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Oltjen, Sharon L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Estep, Jason; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Gong, Qizhi



Structure and mapping of the gene encoding mouse high affinity Fc[gamma]RI and chromosomal location of the human Fc[gamma]RI gene  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the mouse high affinity Fc receptor Fc[gamma]RI. Using a mouse cDNA Fc[gamma]RI probe four unique overlapping genomic clones were isolated and were found to encode the entire 9 kb of the mouse Fc[gamma]RI gene. Sequence analysis of the gene showed that six exons account for the entire Fc[gamma]RI cDNA sequences including the 5[prime] - and 3[prime]-untranslated sequences. The first and second exons encode the signal peptide; exons 3, 4, and 5 encode the extracellular Ig binding domains; and exon 6 encodes the transmembrane domain, the cytoplasmic region, and the entire 3[prime]-untranslated sequence. This exon pattern is similar to Fc[gamma]RII gene which contains 10 exons and encodes the b1 and b2 Fc[gamma]RII. Southern blot analysis has shown that the mouse Fc[gamma]RI gene is a single copy gene with no RFLP in inbred strains of mice, but analysis of an intersubspecies backcross of mice showed that unlike other mouse FcR genes which are on mouse chromosome 1 the locus encoding Fc[gamma]RI, termed Fcg1, is located on chromosome 3. Interestingly, the Fcg1 locus is located near the end of a region with known linkage homology to human chromosome 1. Analysis of human x rodent somatic cell hybrid cell lines indicates that the human FCG1 locus encoding the human Fc[gamma]RI maps to chromosome 1 and is therefore possibly linked to other FcR genes on this chromosome. These results suggest that the linkage relationships among these genes in the human genome are not preserved in the mouse. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Osman, N.; McKenzie, I.F.C.; Hogarth, P.M. (Austin Research Institute, Heidelberg (Australia)); Kozak, C.A. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States))



Computational promoter analysis of mouse, rat and human antimicrobial peptide-coding genes  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of the innate immune response. A multitude of signals coming from pathways of mammalian pathogen/pattern recognition receptors and other proteins affect the expression of AMP-coding genes (AMPcgs). For many AMPcgs the promoter elements and transcription factors that control their tissue cell-specific expression have yet to be fully identified and characterized. Results Based upon the RIKEN full-length cDNA and public sequence data derived from human, mouse and rat, we identified 178 candidate AMP transcripts derived from 61 genes belonging to 29 AMP families. However, only for 31 mouse genes belonging to 22 AMP families we were able to determine true orthologous relationships with 30 human and 15 rat sequences. We screened the promoter regions of AMPcgs in the three species for motifs by an ab initio motif finding method and analyzed the derived promoter characteristics. Promoter models were developed for alpha-defensins, penk and zap AMP families. The results suggest a core set of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the transcription of AMPcg families in mouse, rat and human. The three most frequent core TFs groups include liver-, nervous system-specific and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). Out of 440 motifs analyzed, we found that three represent potentially novel TF-binding motifs enriched in promoters of AMPcgs, while the other four motifs appear to be species-specific. Conclusion Our large-scale computational analysis of promoters of 22 families of AMPcgs across three mammalian species suggests that their key transcriptional regulators are likely to be TFs of the liver-, nervous system-specific and NHR groups. The computationally inferred promoter elements and potential TF binding motifs provide a rich resource for targeted experimental validation of TF binding and signaling studies that aim at the regulation of mouse, rat or human AMPcgs. PMID:17254313

Brahmachary, Manisha; Schönbach, Christian; Yang, Liang; Huang, Enli; Tan, Sin Lam; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Krishnan, SPT; Lin, Chin-Yo; Hume, David A; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B



Mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit: cDNA sequence and gene expression.  

PubMed Central

Clones coding for the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gamma subunit precursor have been selected from a cDNA library derived from a mouse myogenic cell line and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence consists of a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues and a mature gamma subunit of 497 amino acid residues. There is a high degree of sequence conservation between this mouse sequence and published human and calf AChR gamma subunits and, after allowing for functional amino acid substitutions, also to the more distantly related chicken and Torpedo AChR gamma subunits. The degree of sequence conservation is especially high in the four putative hydrophobic membrane spanning regions, supporting the assignment of these domains. RNA blot hybridization showed that the mRNA level of the gamma subunit increases by 30 fold or more upon differentiation of the two mouse myogenic cell lines, BC3H-1 and C2C12, suggesting that the primary controls for changes in gene expression during differentiation are at the level of transcription. One cDNA clone was found to correspond to a partially processed nuclear transcript containing two as yet unspliced intervening sequences. Images PMID:3010242

Yu, L; LaPolla, R J; Davidson, N



Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.  


Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent. PMID:9424082

Baba, T; Nakano, H; Tamai, K; Sawamura, D; Hanada, K; Hashimoto, I; Arima, Y



cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): Evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene  

SciTech Connect

Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils, critical attachment structures at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. Genetic linkage analyses with recently cloned human type VII collagen cDNAs have indicated that the corresponding gene, COL7A1, is the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa. To gain insight into the evolutionary conservation of COL7A1, in this study the authors have isolated mouse type VII collagen cDNAs by screening a mouse epidermal keratinocyte cDNA library with a human COL7A1 cDNA. Two overlapping mouse cDNAs were isolated, and Northern hybridization of mouse epidermal keratinocyte RNA with one of them revealed the presence of a mRNA transcript of [approximately]9.5 kb, the approximate size of the human COL7A1 mRNA. Nucleotide sequencing of the mouse cDNAs revealed a 2760-bp open reading frame that encodes the 5[prime] half of the collagenous domain and a segment of the NC-1, the noncollagenous amino-terminal domain of type VII collagen. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the corresponding human sequences deduced from cDNAs revealed 82.5% identity. The evolutionary divergence of the gene was relatively rapid in comparison to other collagen genes. Despite the high degree of sequence variation, several sequences, including the size and the position of noncollagenous imperfections and interruptions within the Gly-X-Y repeat sequence, were precisely conserved. Finally, the mouse Col7a1 gene was located by interspecific backcross mapping to mouse Chromosome 9, a region that corresponds to human chromosome 3p21, the position of human COL7Al. This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Li, Kehua; Christiano, A.M.; Chu, Mon Li; Uitto, J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States) Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J. (NCI-Federick Cancer Research and Development Center, Federick, MD (United States))



Recombinase-Mediated Reprogramming and Dystrophin Gene Addition in mdx Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies. PMID:24781921

Zhao, Chunli; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Bjornson, Christopher R. R.; Chavez, Christopher L.; Geisinger, Jonathan M.; Neal, Tawny L.; Karow, Marisa; Calos, Michele P.



BMP-4 increases activin A gene expression during osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.  


Abstract Activin A is a growth factor released by mature osteoblasts that has a critical effect on bone formation. We investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 on activin A gene expression during in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Embryoid bodies were cultured in retinoic acid (RA) for three days and then without RA for two days. Seeded cells received osteogenic medium with ?-glycerophosphate, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and dexamethasone during 19 days, with or without BMP-4. Six independent experiments were carried out. Real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression of activin A, Oct-4, Nanog, osteocalcin, RUNX2 and bone alkaline phosphatase. Immunofluorescence was used to co-localize activin A with the undifferentiation marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Cells treated with BMP-4 had an increased gene expression of activin A, osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase (p?gene expression during mouse ES cell differentiation into bone precursors. PMID:25413949

Camargos, Bruno M; Tavares, Rubens L C; Del Puerto, Helen L; Andrade, Luciana O; Camargos, Aroldo F; Reis, Fernando M



Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression  

PubMed Central

Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A.; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A.; Notredame, Cedric; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.



A structural gene (Hdc-s) for mouse kidney histidine decarboxylase.  


The concentration of mouse kidney histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is modulated by estrogen, testosterone, and thyroxine in a tissue-specific manner. Variation in HDC levels between strains of mice can be used to investigate the genetic regulation of enzyme structure, tissue specific expression, and induction and repression by hormones. Variation in the structure of HDC between different inbred strains of mice affecting its Km for the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and its heat stability has been discovered. The alternative phenotypes are additively inherited in crosses and the heat stability difference is due to alleles of a single structural gene, Hdc-s, which segregate among the BXD and BXH recombinant inbred strains. The allele Hdc-sb determines the heat-stable phenotype (C57BL substrains), and the allele Hdc-sd the heat-labile phenotype (DBA/2 and C3H/He strains). The alleles of the structural gene cosegregate with alleles of a regulatory gene previously named Hdc (determining kidney enzyme concentration); there were no recombinants among 38 RI strains. Therefore the two loci are less than 0.685 cM apart and comprise part of the HDC gene complex, [Hdc], on chromosome 2 of the mouse. PMID:6497830

Martin, S A; Bulfield, G



Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression.  


Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A; Notredame, Cedric; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R



A genomic reservoir for Tnfrsf genes is developmentally regulated and imprinted in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily is composed of at least 26 members in the mouse, three of which exist as a cluster within the imprinted Kcnq1 domain on chromosome 7. Tnfrsf22, 23 and 26 contain typical cystein-rich domains and Tnfrsf22 and 23 can bind ligands but have no signaling capacity. Thus, they are assumed to be decoy receptors. The developmental expression profile of these genes is unknown and knowledge of their imprinting patterns is incomplete and controversial. We found that all three genes are expressed during mouse embryonic development, and that they have a strong maternal bias, indicating that they may be affected by the KvDMR, the Kcnq1 imprinting control region. We found expression of an antisense non-coding RNA, AK155734, in embryos and some neonatal tissues. This RNA overlaps the Tnfrsf22 and possibly the Tnfrsf23 coding regions and is also expressed with a maternal bias. We were interested in exploring the evolutionary origins of the three Tnfrsf genes, because they are absent in the orthologous human Kcnq1 domain. To determine whether the genes were deleted from humans or acquired in the rodent lineage, we performed phylogenetic analyses. Our data suggest that TNFRSF sequences were duplicated and/or degenerated or eliminated from the KCNQ1 region several times during the evolution of mammals. In humans, multiple mutations (point mutations and/or deletions) have accumulated on the ancestral TNFRSF, leaving a single short non-functional sequence. PMID:22595876

Esperón, Elena de la Casa; Cordier, Gaëlle; Engel, Nora



Identification and characterization of functional genes encoding the mouse major urinary proteins.  

PubMed Central

Mouse Ltk- cells were stably transfected with cloned genes encoding the mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs). C57BL/6J MUP genomic clones encoding MUP 2 (BL6-25 and BL6-51), MUP 3 (BL6-11 and BL6-3), and MUP 4 (BL6-42) have been identified. In C57BL/6J mice, MUP 2 and MUP 4 are known to be synthesized in male, but not female, liver, and MUP 3 is known to be synthesized in both male and female liver and mammary gland. A BALB/c genomic clone (BJ-31) was shown to encode a MUP that is slightly more basic than MUP 2 and was previously shown to be synthesized in both male and female liver of BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice. Comigration on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of the MUPs encoded by the transfecting gene provides a basis for tentative identification of the tissue specificity and mode of regulation of each gene. DNA sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region indicates that the different MUP genes are highly homologous (0.20 to 2.40% divergence) within the 879 base pairs analyzed. The most prominent differences in sequence occur within an A-rich region just 5' of the TATA box. This region (from -47 to -93) contains primarily A or C(A)N nucleotides and varies from 15 to 46 nucleotides in length in the different clones. Images PMID:2824995

Held, W A; Gallagher, J F; Hohman, C M; Kuhn, N J; Sampsell, B M; Hughes, R G



Evolutionary conservation and selection of human disease gene orthologs in the rat and mouse genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Model organisms have contributed substantially to our understanding of the etiology of human disease as well as having assisted with the development of new treatment modalities. The availability of the human, mouse and, most recently, the rat genome sequences now permit the comprehensive investigation of the rodent orthologs of genes associated with human disease. Here, we investigate whether human disease genes differ significantly from their rodent orthologs with respect to their overall levels of conservation and their rates of evolutionary change. Results Human disease genes are unevenly distributed among human chromosomes and are highly represented (99.5%) among human-rodent ortholog sets. Differences are revealed in evolutionary conservation and selection between different categories of human disease genes. Although selection appears not to have greatly discriminated between disease and non-disease genes, synonymous substitution rates are significantly higher for disease genes. In neurological and malformation syndrome disease systems, associated genes have evolved slowly whereas genes of the immune, hematological and pulmonary disease systems have changed more rapidly. Amino-acid substitutions associated with human inherited disease occur at sites that are more highly conserved than the average; nevertheless, 15 substituting amino acids associated with human disease were identified as wild-type amino acids in the rat. Rodent orthologs of human trinucleotide repeat-expansion disease genes were found to contain substantially fewer of such repeats. Six human genes that share the same characteristics as triplet repeat-expansion disease-associated genes were identified; although four of these genes are expressed in the brain, none is currently known to be associated with disease. Conclusions Most human disease genes have been retained in rodent genomes. Synonymous nucleotide substitutions occur at a higher rate in disease genes, a finding that may reflect increased mutation rates in the chromosomal regions in which disease genes are found. Rodent orthologs associated with neurological function exhibit the greatest evolutionary conservation; this suggests that rodent models of human neurological disease are likely to most faithfully represent human disease processes. However, with regard to neurological triplet repeat expansion-associated human disease genes, the contraction, relative to human, of rodent trinucleotide repeats suggests that rodent loci may not achieve a 'critical repeat threshold' necessary to undergo spontaneous pathological repeat expansions. The identification of six genes in this study that have multiple characteristics associated with repeat expansion-disease genes raises the possibility that not all human loci capable of facilitating neurological disease by repeat expansion have as yet been identified. PMID:15239832

Huang, Hui; Winter, Eitan E; Wang, Huajun; Weinstock, Keith G; Xing, Heming; Goodstadt, Leo; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Smith, Douglas; Albŕ, M Mar; Ponting, Chris P; Fechtel, Kim



Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions  

PubMed Central

To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F



Expression of Cdv-iR gene in mouse epididymis as revealed by in situ hybridization.  


We have previously studied mouse Cdv (carnitine deficiency-associated gene expressed in ventricle)-1 related gene Cdv-1IR and its human counterpart CDV-1R, and revealed that mouse Cdv-1R was predominantly expressed in testis by multiple tissue northern analysis. To further localize the Cdv-1R mRNA in mouse testis and epididymis tissue, in situ hybridization study was reported in this article. In the adult mice, the Cdv-1R expression was intensively found in the epithelial cells of the caput and corpus epididymis, whereas it was moderately detected in the initial segment, and weakly in the cauda epididymis. In the seminiferous tubles of the testis, no obvious hybridization signals were observed above the background level. This Cdv-1R region-specific expression pattern in the epididimis suggests Cdv-1R may play an important role in sperm maturation. Moreover, considering the Cdv-1R has a similar expression distribution in epididymis to the OCTN2, it would appear that Cdv-1R might be involved in the carnitine pathway in the epididimis. PMID:15764413

Zhang, K X; Yu, L; Sun, Q W; Zhu, T F; Saiyin, H; Zhou, G J; Wu, C Q; Zhao, S Y



Transcriptional Regulation of Mouse PXR Gene: An Interplay of Transregulatory Factors  

PubMed Central

Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) is an important ligand-activated nuclear receptor functioning as a ‘master regulator’ of expression of phase I, phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, and members of the drug transporters. PXR is primarily expressed in hepatic tissues and to lesser extent in other non-hepatic tissues both in human and in mice. Although its expression profile is well studied but little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that govern PXR gene expression in these cells. In the present study, we have cloned and characterized over 5 kb (?4963 to +54) region lying upstream of mouse PXR transcription start site. Promoter-reporter assays revealed that the proximal promoter region of up to 1 kb is sufficient to support the expression of PXR in the mouse liver cell lines. It was evident that the 500 bp proximal promoter region contains active binding sites for Ets, Tcf, Ikarose and nuclear factor families of transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the minimal region of 134 bp PXR promoter was able to bind Ets-1 and ?-catenin proteins. This result was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In summary, the present study identified a promoter region of mouse PXR gene and the transregulatory factors responsible for PXR promoter activity. The results presented herein are expected to provide important cues to gain further insight into the regulatory mechanisms of PXR function. PMID:22952895

Kumari, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Tyagi, Rakesh K.



Interferon regulatory factor 1 is required for mouse Gbp gene activation by gamma interferon.  

PubMed Central

Full-scale transcriptional activation of the mouse Gbp genes by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) requires protein synthesis in embryonic fibroblasts. Although the Gbp-1 and Gbp-2 promoters contain binding sites for transcription factors Stat1 and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), deletion analysis revealed that the Stat1 binding site is dispensable for IFN-gamma inducibility of Gbp promoter constructs in transfected fibroblasts. However, activation of the mouse Gbp promoter by IFN-gamma requires transcription factor IRF-1. Transient overexpression of IRF-1 cDNA in mouse fibroblasts resulted in high-level expression of Gbp promoter constructs. Unlike wild-type cells, IRF-1% embryonic stem cells lacking functional transcription factor IRF-1 contained very low levels of Gbp transcripts that were not increased in response to differentiation or treatment with IFN-gamma. Treatment of IRF-1% mice with IFN-gamma resulted in barely detectable levels of Gbp RNA in spleens, lungs, and livers, whereas such treatment induced high levels of Gbp RNA in the organs of wild-type mice. These observations suggest two alternative pathways for transcriptional induction of genes in response to IFN-gamma: immediate response that results from activation of preformed Stat1 and delayed response that results from induced de novo synthesis of transcription factor IRF-1. PMID:7823961

Briken, V; Ruffner, H; Schultz, U; Schwarz, A; Reis, L F; Strehlow, I; Decker, T; Staeheli, P



PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas  

SciTech Connect

From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF[sub 1] mice irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mRb gene.

Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.



Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.  

PubMed Central

Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. Images PMID:7972033

Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S



A novel view of the transcriptome revealed from gene trapping in mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cell lines with the capacity of self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. We performed the first genome-wide analysis of the mouse ES cell transcriptome using ?250,000 gene trap sequence tags deposited in public databases. We unveiled >8000 novel transcripts, mostly non-coding, and >1000 novel alternative and often tissue-specific exons of known genes. Experimental verification of the expression of these genes and exons by RT-PCR yielded a 70% validation rate. A novel non-coding transcript within the set studied showed a highly specific pattern of expression by in situ hybridization. Our analysis also shows that the genome presents gene trapping hotspots, which correspond to 383 known and 87 novel genes. These “hypertrapped” genes show minimal overlap with previously published expression profiles of ES cells; however, we prove by real-time PCR that they are highly expressed in this cell type, thus potentially contributing to the phenotype of ES cells. Although gene trapping was initially devised as an insertional mutagenesis technique, our study demonstrates its impact on the discovery of a substantial and unprecedented portion of the transcriptome. PMID:17540781

Roma, Guglielmo; Cobellis, Gilda; Claudiani, Pamela; Maione, Francesco; Cruz, Pedro; Tripoli, Gaetano; Sardiello, Marco; Peluso, Ivana; Stupka, Elia



High-resolution prediction of mouse brain connectivity using gene expression patterns.  


The brain is a multi-level system in which the high-level functions are generated by low-level genetic mechanisms. Thus, elucidating the relationship among multiple brain levels via correlative and predictive analytics is an important area in brain research. Currently, studies in multiple species have indicated that the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns are predictive of brain wiring. Specifically, results on the worm Caenorhabditis elegans have shown that the prediction of neuronal connectivity using gene expression signatures yielded statistically significant results. Recent studies on the mammalian brain produced similar results at the coarse regional level. In this study, we provide the first high-resolution, large-scale integrative analysis of the transcriptome and connectome in a single mammalian brain at a fine voxel level. By using the Allen Brain Atlas data, we predict voxel-level brain connectivity based on the gene expressions in the adult mouse brain. We employ regularized models to show that gene expression is predictive of connectivity at the voxel-level with an accuracy of 93%. We also identify a set of genes playing the most important role in connectivity prediction. We use only this small number of genes to predict the brain wiring with an accuracy over 80%. We discover that these important genes are enriched in neurons as compared to glia, and they perform connectivity-related functions. We perform several interesting correlative studies to further elucidate the transcriptome-connectome relationship. PMID:25109429

Fakhry, Ahmed; Ji, Shuiwang



CpG island-mediated global gene regulatory modes in mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Both transcriptional and epigenetic regulations are fundamental for the control of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we perform a compendium analysis of >200 large sequencing data sets to elucidate the regulatory logic of global gene expression programs in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We define four major classes of DNA-binding proteins (Core, PRC, MYC and CTCF) based on their target co-occupancy, and discover reciprocal regulation between the MYC and PRC classes for the activity of nearly all genes under the control of the CpG island (CGI)-containing promoters. This CGI-dependent regulatory mode explains the functional segregation between CGI-containing and CGI-less genes during early development. By defining active enhancers based on the co-occupancy of the Core class, we further demonstrate their additive roles in CGI-containing gene expression and cell type-specific roles in CGI-less gene expression. Altogether, our analyses provide novel insights into previously unknown CGI-dependent global gene regulatory modes. PMID:25405324

Beck, Samuel; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Rhee, Catherine; Song, Jawon; Woo, Andrew J.; Kim, Jonghwan



CpG island-mediated global gene regulatory modes in mouse embryonic stem cells.  


Both transcriptional and epigenetic regulations are fundamental for the control of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we perform a compendium analysis of >200 large sequencing data sets to elucidate the regulatory logic of global gene expression programs in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We define four major classes of DNA-binding proteins (Core, PRC, MYC and CTCF) based on their target co-occupancy, and discover reciprocal regulation between the MYC and PRC classes for the activity of nearly all genes under the control of the CpG island (CGI)-containing promoters. This CGI-dependent regulatory mode explains the functional segregation between CGI-containing and CGI-less genes during early development. By defining active enhancers based on the co-occupancy of the Core class, we further demonstrate their additive roles in CGI-containing gene expression and cell type-specific roles in CGI-less gene expression. Altogether, our analyses provide novel insights into previously unknown CGI-dependent global gene regulatory modes. PMID:25405324

Beck, Samuel; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Rhee, Catherine; Song, Jawon; Woo, Andrew J; Kim, Jonghwan



Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment on Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Wfs1 Knockout Mouse  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300?mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0?ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype. PMID:24799886

Sütt, Silva; Kőks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero



Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene expression in mouse  

E-print Network

function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than eukaryotes due to the relatively simple structure of prokaryotes. Recent studies have shown that there is a strong learnable correlation, especially in gene therapy [18]. Identifying gene function in prokaryotes is much easier than eukaryotes due

Morris, Quaid


A change of expression in the conserved signaling gene MKK7 is associated with a selective sweep in the western house mouse Mus  

E-print Network

in the western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus B. HARR,* C. VOOLSTRA,* T. J. A. J. HEINEN,* J. F. BAINES,* R an analysis of gene expression differences between subspe- cies of the house mouse Mus musculus: adaptation; gene expression; microarray; mus musculus; selective sweep. Abstract Changes in gene expression

Nachman, Michael


In vitro culture of mouse embryos reduces differential gene expression between inner cell mass and trophectoderm.  


Differences in gene expression and imprinting have been reported, comparing in vivo versus in vitro generated preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, mouse studies have shown that placenta development is altered following in vitro culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are unknown. We therefore isolated trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells from in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and evaluated their transcriptome using microarrays. We found that the transcriptomes of in vitro produced ICM and TE cells showed remarkably few differences compared to ICM and TE cells of in vivo generated embryos. In vitro fertilization embryos showed a reduced number of TE cells compared to in vivo embryos. In addition, TE of IVF embryos showed significant downregulation of solute transporter genes and of genes involved in placenta formation (Eomesodermin, Socs3) or implantation (Hbegf). In summary, IVF and embryo culture significantly affects the transcriptome of ICM and TE cells. PMID:22383776

Giritharan, G; Delle Piane, L; Donjacour, A; Esteban, F J; Horcajadas, J A; Maltepe, E; Rinaudo, P



In Vitro Culture of Mouse Embryos Reduces Differential Gene Expression Between Inner Cell Mass and Trophectoderm  

PubMed Central

Differences in gene expression and imprinting have been reported, comparing in vivo versus in vitro generated preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, mouse studies have shown that placenta development is altered following in vitro culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are unknown. We therefore isolated trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells from in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and evaluated their transcriptome using microarrays. We found that the transcriptomes of in vitro produced ICM and TE cells showed remarkably few differences compared to ICM and TE cells of in vivo generated embryos. In vitro fertilization embryos showed a reduced number of TE cells compared to in vivo embryos. In addition, TE of IVF embryos showed significant downregulation of solute transporter genes and of genes involved in placenta formation (Eomesodermin, Socs3) or implantation (Hbegf). In summary, IVF and embryo culture significantly affects the transcriptome of ICM and TE cells. PMID:22383776

Giritharan, G.; Piane, L. Delle; Donjacour, A.; Esteban, F. J.; Horcajadas, J. A.; Maltepe, E.; Rinaudo, P.



Gene expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways underlying mouse tissue macrophage identity and diversity  

PubMed Central

We assessed tissue macrophage gene expression in different mouse organs. Diversity in gene expression among different populations of macrophages was remarkable. Only a few hundred mRNA transcripts stood out as selectively expressed by macrophages over DCs and many of these were not present in all macrophages. Nonetheless, well-characterized surface markers, including MerTK and Fc?R1 (CD64), along with a cluster of novel transcripts were distinctly and universally associated with mature tissue macrophages. TCEF3, C/EBP?, BACH1, and CREG-1 were among the top transcriptional regulators predicted to regulate these core macrophage-associated genes. Other transcription factor mRNAs were strongly associated with single macrophage populations. We further illustrate how these transcripts and the proteins they encode facilitate distinguishing macrophage versus DC identity of less characterized populations of mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:23023392

Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Shay, Tal; Miller, Jennifer; Greter, Melanie; Jakubzick, Claudia; Ivanov, Stoyan; Helft, Julie; Chow, Andrew; Elpek, Kutlu G.; Gordonov, Simon; Mazloom, Amin R.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Chua, Wei-Jen; Hansen, Ted H.; Turley, Shannon J.; Merad, Miriam; Randolph, Gwendalyn J



At least three promoters direct expression of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor gene.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the gene for the mouse glucocorticoid receptor. The gene spans approximately 110 kilobases, and glucocorticoid receptor transcripts are assembled from nine exons. Expression of the gene is controlled by at least three promoters, resulting in glucocorticoid receptor transcripts with different 5' nontranslated exons. One promoter is cell-specific, found to be active only in T lymphocytes. The other two promoters are active to various degrees in all cell lines and tissues so far analyzed and are located in a CpG island. The promoter activities are accompanied by DNase I hypersensitivity sites in chromatin. In contrast to a conservation of exon-intron structure, differences in promoter organization suggest a divergence between the evolution of regulatory and coding regions among members of the steroid receptor super-family. Images PMID:1495961

Strähle, U; Schmidt, A; Kelsey, G; Stewart, A F; Cole, T J; Schmid, W; Schütz, G



Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M. [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); and others



The Role of Metallothionein in Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Free radicals are chemical particles containing one or more unpaired electrons, which may be part of the molecule. They cause the molecule to become highly reactive. The free radicals are also known to play a dual role in biological systems, as they can be either beneficial or harmful for living systems. It is clear that there are numerous mechanisms participating on the protection of a cell against free radicals. In this review, our attention is paid to metallothioneins (MTs) as small, cysteine-rich and heavy metal-binding proteins, which participate in an array of protective stress responses. The mechanism of the reaction of metallothioneins with oxidants and electrophilic compounds is discussed. Numerous reports indicate that MT protects cells from exposure to oxidants and electrophiles, which react readily with sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, MT plays a key role in regulation of zinc levels and distribution in the intracellular space. The connections between zinc, MT and cancer are highlighted. PMID:23502468

Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Nejdl, Lukas; Gumulec, Jaromir; Zitka, Ondrej; Masarik, Michal; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene



Identification of Novel SHOX Target Genes in the Developing Limb Using a Transgenic Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Deficiency of the human short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) has been identified in several disorders characterized by reduced height and skeletal anomalies such as Turner syndrome, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia as well as isolated short stature. SHOX acts as a transcription factor during limb development and is expressed in chondrocytes of the growth plates. Although highly conserved in vertebrates, rodents lack a SHOX orthologue. This offers the unique opportunity to analyze the effects of human SHOX expression in transgenic mice. We have generated a mouse expressing the human SHOXa cDNA under the control of a murine Col2a1 promoter and enhancer (Tg(Col2a1-SHOX)). SHOX and marker gene expression as well as skeletal phenotypes were characterized in two transgenic lines. No significant skeletal anomalies were found in transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Quantitative and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that Tg(Col2a1-SHOX), however, affected extracellular matrix gene expression during early limb development, suggesting a role for SHOX in growth plate assembly and extracellular matrix composition during long bone development. For instance, we could show that the connective tissue growth factor gene Ctgf, a gene involved in chondrogenic and angiogenic differentiation, is transcriptionally regulated by SHOX in transgenic mice. This finding was confirmed in human NHDF and U2OS cells and chicken micromass culture, demonstrating the value of the SHOX-transgenic mouse for the characterization of SHOX-dependent genes and pathways in early limb development. PMID:24887312

Beiser, Katja U.; Glaser, Anne; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Scholl, Isabell; Röth, Ralph; Li, Li; Gretz, Norbert; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Karperien, Marcel; Marchini, Antonio; Richter, Wiltrud; Rappold, Gudrun A.



Multi-stage analysis of gene expression and transcription regulation in C57/B6 mouse liver development  

E-print Network

Multi-stage analysis of gene expression and transcription regulation in C57/B6 mouse liver history: Received 7 August 2008 Accepted 12 October 2008 Available online 10 December 2008 Keywords: Liver development Microarray Gene expression Function Transcriptional regulation The liver performs a number


The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by TTF-1 and GATA-6 transcription factors  

E-print Network

Subdiscipline: Gene expression, transcription and translation Date Submitted by the Author: 20-Oct-2010 CompleteForReview Only The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by TTF-1 and GATA-6 transcription factors Journal: FEBS Journal Manuscript ID: FJ-10-0798.R1 Manuscript Type: Regular Paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Long-term Skeletal Muscle Protection After Gene Transfer in a Mouse Model of LGMD-2D  

E-print Network

Long-term Skeletal Muscle Protection After Gene Transfer in a Mouse Model of LGMD-2D Christina) describes a group of inherited diseases resulting from mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in maintaining skeletal muscle membrane stability. LGMD type-2D is caused by mutations in alpha-sarcoglycan (sgca

Campbell, Kevin P.


Identification and validation of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in mouse testis development.  


RT-qPCR is a commonly used method for evaluating gene expression; however, its accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of appropriate reference gene(s), and there is limited information available on suitable reference gene(s) that can be used in mouse testis at different stages. In this study, using the RT-qPCR method, we investigated the expression variations of six reference genes representing different functional classes (Actb, Gapdh, Ppia, Tbp, Rps29, Hprt1) in mice testis during embryonic and postnatal development. The expression stabilities of putative reference genes were evaluated using five algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper, the comparative delta C(t) method and integrated tool RefFinder. Analysis of the results showed that Ppia, Gapdh and Actb were identified as the most stable genes and the geometric mean of Ppia, Gapdh and Actb constitutes an appropriate normalization factor for gene expression studies. The mRNA expression of AT1 as a test gene of interest varied depending upon which of the reference gene(s) was used as an internal control(s). This study suggested that Ppia, Gapdh and Actb are suitable reference genes among the six genes used for RT-qPCR normalization and provide crucial information for transcriptional analyses in future studies of gene expression in the developing mouse testis. PMID:24952483

Gong, Zu-Kang; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Huang, Yong-Qi; Zhao, Rui-Qiang; Zhu, Qi-Fang; Lin, Wen-Zhen



Tmem79/Matt is the matted mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a major inflammatory condition of the skin caused by inherited skin barrier deficiency, with mutations in the filaggrin gene predisposing to development of AD. Support for barrier deficiency initiating AD came from flaky tail mice, which have a frameshift mutation in Flg and also carry an unknown gene, matted, causing a matted hair phenotype. Objective We sought to identify the matted mutant gene in mice and further define whether mutations in the human gene were associated with AD. Methods A mouse genetics approach was used to separate the matted and Flg mutations to produce congenic single-mutant strains for genetic and immunologic analysis. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the matted gene. Five independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human gene and AD. Results The matted phenotype in flaky tail mice is due to a mutation in the Tmem79/Matt gene, with no expression of the encoded protein mattrin in the skin of mutant mice. Mattft mice spontaneously have dermatitis and atopy caused by a defective skin barrier, with mutant mice having systemic sensitization after cutaneous challenge with house dust mite allergens. Meta-analysis of 4,245 AD cases and 10,558 population-matched control subjects showed that a missense SNP, rs6694514, in the human MATT gene has a small but significant association with AD. Conclusion In mice mutations in Matt cause a defective skin barrier and spontaneous dermatitis and atopy. A common SNP in MATT has an association with AD in human subjects. PMID:24084074

Saunders, Sean P.; Goh, Christabelle S.M.; Brown, Sara J.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Porter, Rebecca M.; Cole, Christian; Campbell, Linda E.; Gierlinski, Marek; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Schneider, Georg; Balmain, Allan; Prescott, Alan R.; Weidinger, Stephan; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kabesch, Michael; Gieger, Christian; Lee, Young-Ae; Tavendale, Roger; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Turner, Stephen W.; Madhok, Vishnu B.; Sullivan, Frank M.; Relton, Caroline; Burn, John; Meggitt, Simon; Smith, Catherine H.; Allen, Michael A.; Barker, Jonathan N.W. N.; Reynolds, Nick J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Irvine, Alan D.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Sandilands, Aileen; Fallon, Padraic G.



Anti-metallothionein IgG and levels of metallothionein in autistic families.  


Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of small proteins containing 61-68 amino acids with an unusually high concentration of cysteine. MT-1, the most functional and active MT in humans, has the ability to react with and enhance the detoxification of a number of metals including zinc, mercury, copper and cadmium. MT dysfunction may result, then, in many of the aetiological syndromes observed in autistic children, such as the leaky gut. It has been proposed that allergic autoimmune reactions occurring after exposure to heavy metals, may contribute to some symptoms associated with autism. Therefore abnormalities in MT concentration and/or structure, as well as the presence of anti-MT antibodies, may be associated with autism. We used direct ELISAs to quantitate the concentration of serum anti-metallothionein IgG in 66 individuals (parents and children) from 14 families with autistic children, as well as 11 controls from families with no history of autism. We measured the concentration of serum metallothionein in 39 of the above family members from 8 families. Our results indicate that a significantly high number (23 of 66) of autistic family members had high levels of anti-metallothionein IgG, when compared to controls (1 ) and the production of these antibodies correlated with levels of metallothionein, suggesting that the production of these antibodies is inherited. However, the presence of these antibodies does not correlate with autism, types of autism, including regression, or demographics such as allergies, respiratory problems or GI disease. This suggests that the presence of anti-metallothionein antibodies is not causative to autism and may be the result of other immunological pathology seen in many autistics. PMID:18365350

Russo, Anthony F



Premutation CGG-repeat expansion of the Fmr1 gene impairs mouse neocortical development  

PubMed Central

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG-trinucleotide repeat expansion (55–200 CGG repeats) within the 5?-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Although FXTAS generally affects premutation carriers over 50 years of age, cognitive and psychological symptoms can appear in carriers during childhood, suggesting that the FMR1 premutation affects brain function early in life. Recent work with cultured hippocampal neurons from a premutation (Fmr1 CGG knock-in) mouse model revealed impaired development of early postnatal neurons, consistent with the developmental clinical involvement of premutation carriers. In the current work, we show that the presence of premutation CGG-repeat expansions in the mouse Fmr1 gene alters embryonic neocortical development. Specifically, embryonic premutation mice display migration defects in the neocortex and altered expression of neuronal lineage markers. The current data demonstrate that premutation alleles of the Fmr1 gene are associated with defects in developmental programs operating during prenatal stages of brain formation and provide further evidence that the FMR1 premutation has a neurodevelopmental component. PMID:20935171

Cunningham, Christopher L.; Martínez Cerdeńo, Verónica; Navarro Porras, Eliecer; Prakash, Anish N.; Angelastro, James M.; Willemsen, Rob; Hagerman, Paul J.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.; Noctor, Stephen C.



Lentiviruses allow widespread and conditional manipulation of gene expression in the developing mouse brain.  


Generation of transgenic mice, in utero electroporation and viral injection are common approaches to manipulate gene expression during embryonic development of the mammalian brain. While very powerful in many contexts, these approaches are each characterized by their own limitations: namely, that generation of transgenic mice is time-consuming and electroporation only allows the targeting of a small area of the brain. Similarly, viral injection has been predominantly characterized by using retroviruses or adenoviruses that are limited by a relatively low infectivity or lack of integration, respectively. Here we report the use of integrating lentiviral vectors as a system to achieve widespread and efficient infection of the whole brain after in utero injection in the telencephalic ventricle of mouse embryos. In addition, we explored the use of Cre-mediated recombination of loxP-containing lentiviral vectors to achieve spatial and temporal control of gene expression of virtually any transgene without the need for generation of additional mouse lines. Our work provides a system to overcome the limitations of retroviruses and adenoviruses by achieving widespread and high efficiency of transduction. The combination of lentiviral injection and site-specific recombination offers a fast and efficient alternative to complement and diversify the current methodologies to acutely manipulate gene expression in developing mammalian embryos. PMID:23757413

Artegiani, Benedetta; Calegari, Federico



A developmentally regulated DNA-binding protein from mouse brain stimulates myelin basic protein gene expression.  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene is regulated in a cell-type-specific and developmental stage-specific manner during myelin formation in the murine central nervous system. The 5'-flanking region of the MBP gene contains several regulatory elements that differentially contribute to the cell-type-specific transcription of MBP in cells derived from the central nervous system. The proximal element, termed MB1, which is located between nucleotides -14 and -50 with respect to the RNA start site, has previously been shown to have characteristics of a cell-type-specific enhancer element. In this study, we used band shift and UV cross-linking assays to identify DNA-binding proteins in mouse brain nuclear extract which interact with the MB1 element. Fractionation of these extracts has allowed the identification of a 38- to 41-kDa nuclear protein, derived from mouse brain tissue at the peak of myelination, which specifically binds the MB1 DNA sequence. Fractions enriched in the MB1-binding protein have been shown to stimulate transcription of the MBP promoter in extract derived from HeLa cells. MB1 binding protein activity is expressed in a tissue-specific and development stage-specific pattern which coincides with the pattern of MBP transcription, suggesting that this protein may be a biologically relevant transcription factor for the MBP gene in vivo. Images PMID:7682655

Haas, S; Gordon, J; Khalili, K



Identification of candidate lung cancer susceptibility genes in mouse using oligonucleotide arrays  

PubMed Central

We applied microarray gene expression profiling to lungs from mouse strains having variable susceptibility to lung tumour development as a means to identify, within known quantitative trait loci (QTLs), candidate genes responsible for susceptibility or resistance to lung cancer. At least eight chromosomal regions of mice have been mapped and verified to be linked with lung tumour susceptibility or resistance. In this study, high density oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure the relative expression levels of >36 000 genes and ESTs in lung tissues of A/J, BALB/cJ, SM/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J mice. A number of differentially expressed genes were found in each of the lung cancer susceptibility QTLs. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed genes located within QTLs produced 28 susceptibility candidates and 22 resistance candidates. These candidates may be extremely helpful in the ultimate identification of the precise genes responsible for lung tumour susceptibility or resistance in mice and, through follow up, humans. Complete data sets are available at PMID:12205107

Lemon, W; Bernert, H; Sun, H; Wang, Y; You, M



Identification of coexpressed gene clusters in a comparative analysis of transcriptome and proteome in mouse tissues  

PubMed Central

A major advantage of the mouse model lies in the increasing information on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome, as well as in the availability of a fast growing number of targeted and induced mutant alleles. However, data from comparative transcriptome and proteome analyses in this model organism are very limited. We use DNA chip-based RNA expression profiling and 2D gel electrophoresis, combined with peptide mass fingerprinting of liver and kidney, to explore the feasibility of such comprehensive gene expression analyses. Although protein analyses mostly identify known metabolic enzymes and structural proteins, transcriptome analyses reveal the differential expression of functionally diverse and not yet described genes. The comparative analysis suggests correlation between transcriptional and translational expression for the majority of genes. Significant exceptions from this correlation confirm the complementarities of both approaches. Based on RNA expression data from the 200 most differentially expressed genes, we identify chromosomal colocalization of known, as well as not yet described, gene clusters. The determination of 29 such clusters may suggest that coexpression of colocalizing genes is probably rather common. PMID:15939889

Mijalski, T.; Harder, A.; Halder, T.; Kersten, M.; Horsch, M.; Strom, T. M.; Liebscher, H. V.; Lottspeich, F.; de Angelis, M. Hrab?; Beckers, J.



Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.  


To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2) cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans. PMID:21179467

Derry, Jonathan M J; Zhong, Hua; Molony, Cliona; MacNeil, Doug; Guhathakurta, Debraj; Zhang, Bin; Mudgett, John; Small, Kersten; El Fertak, Lahcen; Guimond, Alain; Selloum, Mohammed; Zhao, Wenqing; Champy, Marie France; Monassier, Laurent; Vogt, Tom; Cully, Doris; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E



Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression during Growth and Fusion of the Mouse Facial Prominences  

PubMed Central

Orofacial malformations resulting from genetic and/or environmental causes are frequent human birth defects yet their etiology is often unclear because of insufficient information concerning the molecular, cellular and morphogenetic processes responsible for normal facial development. We have, therefore, derived a comprehensive expression dataset for mouse orofacial development, interrogating three distinct regions – the mandibular, maxillary and frontonasal prominences. To capture the dynamic changes in the transcriptome during face formation, we sampled five time points between E10.5–E12.5, spanning the developmental period from establishment of the prominences to their fusion to form the mature facial platform. Seven independent biological replicates were used for each sample ensuring robustness and quality of the dataset. Here, we provide a general overview of the dataset, characterizing aspects of gene expression changes at both the spatial and temporal level. Considerable coordinate regulation occurs across the three prominences during this period of facial growth and morphogenesis, with a switch from expression of genes involved in cell proliferation to those associated with differentiation. An accompanying shift in the expression of polycomb and trithorax genes presumably maintains appropriate patterns of gene expression in precursor or differentiated cells, respectively. Superimposed on the many coordinated changes are prominence-specific differences in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules. Thus, the elaboration of each prominence will be driven by particular combinations of transcription factors coupled with specific cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The dataset also reveals several prominence-specific genes not previously associated with orofacial development, a subset of which we externally validate. Several of these latter genes are components of bidirectional transcription units that likely share cis-acting sequences with well-characterized genes. Overall, our studies provide a valuable resource for probing orofacial development and a robust dataset for bioinformatic analysis of spatial and temporal gene expression changes during embryogenesis. PMID:20016822

Feng, Weiguo; Leach, Sonia M.; Tipney, Hannah; Phang, Tzulip; Geraci, Mark; Spritz, Richard A.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Williams, Trevor



Genetic mapping of the adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (Ant2) to the mouse proximal X chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Adenine nucleotide translocases are mitochondrial membrane proteins encoded by a small dispersed multigene family. We have previously cloned cDNAs derived from the mouse adenine nucleotide translocase-1 and -2 genes (Ant1 and Ant2) and assigned to the loci to mouse chromosomes 8 and X, respectively. Here we describe the genomic organization of the Ant2 gene and its regional map position on the X chromosome, which was determined through linkage analysis using an interspecific backcross between Mus musculus and Mus spretus inbred strains. Ant2 cosegregates with DXMit49 and DXMit50 and lies distal to Agtr2 in the proximal region of the mouse X chromosome. This map assignment further defines a region of conserved synteny between human Xq22-q25 and the mouse proximal X chromosome. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Ellison, J.W.; Salido, E.C.; Shapiro, L.J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)



Gene Therapy in a Humanized Mouse Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Leads to Marked Regression of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant disorder caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Homozygous FH patients (hoFH) have severe hypercholesterolemia leading to life threatening atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence. Mice with germ line interruptions in the Ldlr and Apobec1 genes (Ldlr?/?Apobec1?/?) simulate metabolic and clinical aspects of hoFH, including atherogenesis on a chow diet. Methods/Principal Findings In this study, vectors based on adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) were used to deliver the gene for mouse Ldlr (mLDLR) to the livers of Ldlr?/?Apobec1?/? mice. A single intravenous injection of AAV8.mLDLR was found to significantly reduce plasma cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in chow-fed animals at doses as low as 3×109 genome copies/mouse. Whereas Ldlr?/?Apobec1?/? mice fed a western-type diet and injected with a control AAV8.null vector experienced a further 65% progression in atherosclerosis over 2 months compared with baseline mice, Ldlr?/?Apobec1?/? mice treated with AAV8.mLDLR realized an 87% regression of atherosclerotic lesions after 3 months compared to baseline mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed a substantial remodeling of atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the results presented herein suggest that AAV8-based gene therapy for FH may be feasible and support further development of this approach. The pre-clinical data from these studies will enable for the effective translation of gene therapy into the clinic for treatment of FH. PMID:20976059

Kassim, Sadik H.; Li, Hui; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Marchadier, Dawn; Wilson, Aisha; Cromley, Debra; Redon, Valeska; Yu, Hongwei; Wilson, James M.; Rader, Daniel J.



Expression of metallothionein and ?-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Anopheles mosquitoes have been shown to adapt to heavy metals in their natural habitats. In this study we explored the possibility of using Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as bio-reporters for environmental heavy metal pollution through expressions of their metal responsive metallothionein and ?-tubulin genes. The study was undertaken with third instar larvae after selection by cadmium, copper, or lead at LC30 through five successive generations. Expression levels were determined in the fifth generation by semi quantitative RT-PCR on the experimental and control populations. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The highest metallothionein (F3, 11= 4.574, P = 0.038) and ?-tubulin (F3,11= 12.961, P = 0.002) responses were observed in cadmium-tolerant treatments. There was significantly higher expression of metallothionein in cadmium or copper treatments relative to the control (P = 0.012), and in cadmium than in lead treatments (P = 0.044). Expressions of ?-tubulin were significantly higher in cadmium than in control treatments (P = 0.008). These results demonstrate capacity of An. gambiae s.s. to develop tolerance to increased levels of heavy metal challenge. The results also confirm the potential of heavy metal responsive genes in mosquitoes as possible bio-indicators of heavy metal environmental pollution. How the tolerance and expressions relate to An. gambiae s.s. fitness and vectorial capacity in the environment remains to be elucidated. PMID:19735939

Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Njeri, Martha; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kenya, Eucharia; Githure, John I; Beier, John C.



Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland  

PubMed Central

Background Breast tissue is among the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic actions of ionizing radiation and epidemiological studies have linked radiation exposure to breast cancer. Currently, molecular understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in mammary gland is hindered due to the scarcity of in vivo long-term follow up data. We undertook this study to delineate radiation-induced persistent alterations in gene expression in mouse mammary glands 2-month after radiation exposure. Methods Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body ? radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation. RNA was isolated and microarray hybridization performed for gene expression analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used for biological interpretation of microarray data. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on selected genes to confirm the microarray data. Results Compared to untreated controls, the mRNA levels of a total of 737 genes were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed above 2-fold of control. More genes (493 genes; 67%) were upregulated than the number of downregulated genes (244 genes; 33%). Functional analysis of the upregulated genes mapped to cell proliferation and cancer related canonical pathways such as ‘ERK/MAPK signaling’, ‘CDK5 signaling’, and ‘14-3-3-mediated signaling’. We also observed upregulation of breast cancer related canonical pathways such as ‘breast cancer regulation by Stathmin1’, and ‘HER-2 signaling in breast cancer’ in IPA. Interestingly, the downregulated genes mapped to fewer canonical pathways involved in cell proliferation. We also observed that a number of genes with tumor suppressor function (GPRC5A, ELF1, NAB2, Sema4D, ACPP, MAP2, RUNX1) persistently remained downregulated in response to radiation exposure. Results from qRT-PCR on five selected differentially expressed genes confirmed microarray data. The PCR data on PPP4c, ELF1, MAPK12, PLCG1, and E2F6 showed similar trend in up and downregulation as has been observed with the microarray. Conclusions Exposure to a clinically relevant radiation dose led to long-term activation of mammary gland genes involved in proliferative and metabolic pathways, which are known to have roles in carcinogenesis. When considered along with downregulation of a number of tumor suppressor genes, our study has implications for breast cancer initiation and progression after therapeutic radiation exposure. PMID:23216862



Glomerular-Specific Imprinting of the Mouse Gs? Gene: How Does This Relate to Hormone Resistance in Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene for alpha-stimulating guanine-nucleotide binding polypeptide,Gnas,has been considered as a candidate for the imprinting effects ascribed to distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 2. Its human homologue (GNAS1) appears, from clinical and biochemical studies of patients with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, to be paternally imprinted. GNAS1 maps to 20q13, a region that shows linkage conservation with distal mouse Chr 2. We have

Christine M. Williamson; Julian Schofield; Elizabeth R. Dutton; Adele Seymour; Colin V. Beechey; Yvonne H. Edwards; Josephine Peters



Creation of a transgenic mouse for hair-cell gene targeting by using a modified bacterial artificial chromosome containing Prestin.  


We made a transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase activity in inner ear hair cells by using a modified bacterial artificial chromosome containing Prestin. Cre recombinase activity was restricted to inner and outer hair cells, a subset of vestibular hair cells, spiral and vestibular ganglia in the inner ear, and a subset of cells in the testis, epididymis, and ear bone. This mouse will be useful for hair-cell-specific gene targeting. PMID:15305300

Tian, Yong; Li, Mingyuan; Fritzsch, Bernd; Zuo, Jian



Bisulfite Sequencing in Preimplantation Embryos: DNA Methylation Profile of the Upstream Region of the Mouse Imprinted H19Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe a modification of the bisulfite genomic sequencing protocol that enables detection of methylation from as few as five diploid cells from preimplantation mouse embryos. We have used bisulfite genomic sequencing to study the methylation profile of the putative imprinting element upstream of the mouseH19gene at several stages of embryonic development, including fertilized oocytes and two-cell

Peter M. Warnecke; Jeffrey R. Mann; Marianne Frommer; Susan J. Clark



The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5  

SciTech Connect

The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others] [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); and others



Male-biased expression of X-chromosomal DM domain-less Dmrt8 genes in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate DMRT gene family encodes putative transcription factors related to the sexual regulators Doublesex (Drosophila melanogaster) and MAB-3 (Caenorhabditis elegans). They share a highly conserved DNA binding motif, the DM domain. In human and mouse seven DMRT genes (DMRT1–DMRT7) have been analyzed. DMRT8, a gene related to DMRT7, is located on the X chromosome in placental mammals. While DMRT8

Anne-Marie Veith; Jürgen Klattig; Agnes Dettai; Cornelia Schmidt; Christoph Englert; Jean-Nicolas Volff



Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 gene is involved in mouse spermatogenesis.  


Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the first committed step of de novo triacylglycerol synthesis by converting glycerol-3-phosphate to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA is a mitogen that mediates multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation. Four GPAT isoforms have been cloned to date. GPAT4 is strongly expressed in the mouse testis. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze the GPAT4 expression and to localize the expressing cell types in the mouse testis during postnatal development. GPAT4 cDNA was inserted into pcDNA4/His to construct a recombinant vector, which was transfected into a mouse spermatogonial cell line (GC-1spg). GPAT4 was first expressed in mice at 2 weeks postnatally. Expression was abundant from the third week, plateaued at week 5-6 and then maintained at a high level in the adult. ISH revealed that GPAT4 gene was expressed abundantly in spermatocytes and around spermatids during meiosis but not in elongated spermatids during later spermiogenesis. GC-1spg cells showed a marked increase in proliferation after transfection with GPAT4; cell cycle analysis showed a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an increase in the S phase. Thus, GPAT4 might play an important role in spermatogenesis, especially in mid-meiosis. PMID:19657568

Qiu, Qingming; Liu, Gang; Li, Weina; Shi, Qiuwen; Zhu, Fuxi; Lu, Guangxiu



Spatiotemporal patterns of the Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related gene in the mouse head.  


Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (Hip1r) was originally identified due to its homology to Huntingtin-interacting protein 1, which contributes to the development of Huntington's disease (HD). We studied the expression of the mouse Hip1r (mHip1r) gene in the mouse head by in situ hybridization. In early embryogenesis at embryonic day (E) 13, mHip1r expression was especially prominent in the olfactory epithelium, cerebral cortex layer 1, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. During later development from E15 to E17, strong expression of mHip1r transcripts continued to be observed in the olfactory epithelium, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. Furthermore, not only the subplate and subventricular zone of the cortex, but also secretory glands, such as the nasal gland and the submandibular gland, were mHip1r-positive. Other positive tissues included the retinal ganglion cells, vomeronasal organ, trigeminal ganglion, and the developing molar tooth. In the adult mouse brain, similar expression patterns were observed in the cerebral cortex layers and other brain regions except the cerebellum. Additionally, by using an antibody against mHip1r, we confirmed these expression patterns at the protein level. Specific expression of mHip1r in the embryonic brain and secretory glands suggests a possible role for Hip1r in normal development and in the pathology of HD. PMID:24712472

Masuda, Tomoyuki; Sakuma, Chie; Ueno, Takayuki; Yamada, Yuriko; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ueda, Shuichi; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki



Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans.  

PubMed Central

Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet (0.7 mg of zinc per kg of diet) for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced approximately 7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc (50 mg) did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc (50 mg/day) increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat [35S]metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in 35S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans. PMID:2304897

Grider, A; Bailey, L B; Cousins, R J



Disease Progression and Phasic Changes in Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and has multiple risk factors including joint injury. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histologic development of OA in a mouse model where OA is induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM model) and to identify genes regulated during different stages of the disease, using RNA isolated from the joint “organ” and analyzed using microarrays. Histologic changes seen in OA, including articular cartilage lesions and osteophytes, were present in the medial tibial plateaus of the DMM knees beginning at the earliest (2 week) time point and became progressively more severe by 16 weeks. 427 probe sets (371 genes) from the microarrays passed consistency and significance filters. There was an initial up-regulation at 2 and 4 weeks of genes involved in morphogenesis, differentiation, and development, including growth factor and matrix genes, as well as transcription factors including Atf2, Creb3l1, and Erg. Most genes were off or down-regulated at 8 weeks with the most highly down-regulated genes involved in cell division and the cytoskeleton. Gene expression increased at 16 weeks, in particular extracellular matrix genes including Prelp, Col3a1 and fibromodulin. Immunostaining revealed the presence of these three proteins in cartilage and soft tissues including ligaments as well as in the fibrocartilage covering osteophytes. The results support a phasic development of OA with early matrix remodeling and transcriptional activity followed by a more quiescent period that is not maintained. This implies that the response to an OA intervention will depend on the timing of the intervention. The quiescent period at 8 weeks may be due to the maturation of the osteophytes which are thought to temporarily stabilize the joint. PMID:23382930

Loeser, Richard F.; Olex, Amy L.; McNulty, Margaret A.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Callahan, Michael; Ferguson, Cristin; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.



Transcriptome analysis identifies genes with enriched expression in the mouse central extended amygdala.  


The central extended amygdala (EAc) is an ensemble of highly interconnected limbic structures of the anterior brain, and forms a cellular continuum including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). This neural network is a key site for interactions between brain reward and stress systems, and has been implicated in several aspects of drug abuse. In order to increase our understanding of EAc function at the molecular level, we undertook a genome-wide screen (Affymetrix) to identify genes whose expression is enriched in the mouse EAc. We focused on the less-well known BNST-CeA areas of the EAc, and identified 121 genes that exhibit more than twofold higher expression level in the EAc compared with whole brain. Among these, 43 genes have never been described to be expressed in the EAc. We mapped these genes throughout the brain, using non-radioactive in situ hybridization, and identified eight genes with a unique and distinct rostro-caudal expression pattern along AcbSh, BNST and CeA. Q-PCR analysis performed in brain and peripheral organ tissues indicated that, with the exception of one (Spata13), all these genes are predominantly expressed in brain. These genes encode signaling proteins (Adora2, GPR88, Arpp21 and Rem2), a transcription factor (Limh6) or proteins of unknown function (Rik130, Spata13 and Wfs1). The identification of genes with enriched expression expands our knowledge of EAc at a molecular level, and provides useful information to toward genetic manipulations within the EAc. PMID:18786617

Becker, J A J; Befort, K; Blad, C; Filliol, D; Ghate, A; Dembele, D; Thibault, C; Koch, M; Muller, J; Lardenois, A; Poch, O; Kieffer, B L



Cadmium bioaccumulation and metallothionein induction in the liver of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii during an on-site short-term exposure to the metal via seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term experiment (7 days) was carried out to study cadmium accumulation and metallothionein (MT) gene expression in the liver of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii when exposed to 2.0 mg Cd L seawater. Metal determinations were carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry while MT gene expression was determined by the Real Time PCR Detection System. In controls,

S. Illuminati; C. Truzzi; A. Annibaldi; B. Migliarini; O. Carnevali; G. Scarponi



A Large Imprinted microRNA Gene Cluster at the Mouse Dlk1-Gtl2 Domain  

PubMed Central

microRNAs (or miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (21 to 25 nucleotides) that are processed from longer hairpin RNA precursors and are believed to be involved in a wide range of developmental and cellular processes, by either repressing translation or triggering mRNA degradation (RNA interference). By using a computer-assisted approach, we have identified 46 potential miRNA genes located in the human imprinted 14q32 domain, 40 of which are organized as a large cluster. Although some of these clustered miRNA genes appear to be encoded by a single-copy DNA sequence, most of them are arranged in tandem arrays of closely related sequences. In the mouse, this miRNA gene cluster is conserved at the homologous distal 12 region. In vivo all the miRNAs that we have detected are expressed in the developing embryo (both in the head and in the trunk) and in the placenta, whereas in the adult their expression is mainly restricted to the brain. We also show that the miRNA genes are only expressed from the maternally inherited chromosome and that their imprinted expression is regulated by an intergenic germline-derived differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) located ?200 kb upstream from the miRNA cluster. The functions of these miRNAs, which seem only conserved in mammals, are discussed both in terms of epigenetic control and gene regulation during development. PMID:15310658

Seitz, Hervé; Royo, Hélčne; Bortolin, Marie-Line; Lin, Shau-Ping; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Cavaillé, Jérôme



Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos  

PubMed Central

Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter



A Mutation in the Mouse Ttc26 Gene Leads to Impaired Hedgehog Signaling  

PubMed Central

The phenotype of the spontaneous mutant mouse hop-sterile (hop) is characterized by a hopping gait, polydactyly, hydrocephalus, and male sterility. Previous analyses of the hop mouse revealed a deficiency of inner dynein arms in motile cilia and a lack of sperm flagella, potentially accounting for the hydrocephalus and male sterility. The etiology of the other phenotypes and the location of the hop mutation remained unexplored. Here we show that the hop mutation is located in the Ttc26 gene and impairs Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Expression analysis showed that this mutation led to dramatically reduced levels of the Ttc26 protein, and protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that wild-type Ttc26 binds directly to the Ift46 subunit of Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) complex B. Although IFT is required for ciliogenesis, the Ttc26 defect did not result in a decrease in the number or length of primary cilia. Nevertheless, Hh signaling was reduced in the hop mouse, as revealed by impaired activation of Gli transcription factors in embryonic fibroblasts and abnormal patterning of the neural tube. Unlike the previously characterized mutations that affect IFT complex B, hop did not interfere with Hh-induced accumulation of Gli at the tip of the primary cilium, but rather with the subsequent dissociation of Gli from its negative regulator, Sufu. Our analysis of the hop mouse line provides novel insights into Hh signaling, demonstrating that Ttc26 is necessary for efficient coupling between the accumulation of Gli at the ciliary tip and its dissociation from Sufu. PMID:25340710

Swiderski, Ruth E.; Nakano, Yoko; Mullins, Robert F.; Seo, Seongjin; Bánfi, Botond



Dissecting the heterogeneity of gene expressions in mouse embryonic stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A population of genetically identical cells, of the same nominal cell type, and cultured in the same petri dish, will nevertheless often exhibit varying patterns of gene expression. Taking mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system, we use immunofluorescence and flow cytometry to examine in detail the distribution of expression levels for various transcription factors key to the maintenance of the ES cell identity. We find the population-level distribution of many proteins, once rescaled by the average expression level, have very similar shapes. This suggest the largest component of observed heterogeneity comes from a single source. More subtly, we find the expression many of genes appears to modulate with the cell cycle. This may suggest that the program for maintaining ES cell identity is tightly coupled to the cell cycle machinery.

Zou, Ling-Nan; Thomson, Matt; Liu, S. John; Ramanathan, Sharad



Efficient gene targeting of the Rosa26 locus in mouse zygotes using TALE nucleases.  


Gene targeting in mice mainly employs homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although it is a standard way for production of genetically modified mice, the procedure is laborious and time-consuming. This study describes targeting of the mouse Rosa26 locus by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We employed TALEN-assisted HR in zygotes to introduce constructs encoding TurboRFP and TagBFP fluorescent proteins into the first intron of the Rosa26 gene, and in this way generated two transgenic mice. We also demonstrated that these Rosa26-specific TALENs exhibit high targeting efficiency superior to that of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) specific for the same targeting sequence. Moreover, we devised a reporter assay to assess TALENs activity and specificity to improve the quality of TALEN-assisted targeting. PMID:25241166

Kasparek, Petr; Krausova, Michaela; Haneckova, Radka; Kriz, Vitezslav; Zbodakova, Olga; Korinek, Vladimir; Sedlacek, Radislav



VPA Alleviates Neurological Deficits and Restores Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs once in every 10,000–15,000 live female births. Despite intensive research, no effective cure is yet available. Valproic acid (VPA) has been used widely to treat mood disorder, epilepsy, and a growing number of other disorders. In limited clinical studies, VPA has also been used to control seizure in RTT patients with promising albeit somewhat unclear efficacy. In this study we tested the effect of VPA on the neurological symptoms of RTT and discovered that short-term VPA treatment during the symptomatic period could reduce neurological symptoms in RTT mice. We found that VPA restores the expression of a subset of genes in RTT mouse brains, and these genes clustered in neurological disease and developmental disorder networks. Our data suggest that VPA could be used as a drug to alleviate RTT symptoms. PMID:24968028

Otsuka I., Maky; Irie, Koichiro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Nakashima, Kinichi; Zhao, Xinyu



Characterization of the Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Knockout Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

Recent gene expression studies on mouse models for retinal degeneration identified deregulation of Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (Pttg1) as a potential susceptibility factor involved in photoreceptor cell death. Pttg1 is a transcription regulatory protein involved in sister chromatid segregation, and Pttg1?/? mice exhibit testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, aberrant cell cycle progression, chromosome instability, and impaired glucose homeostasis leading to diabetes, particularly in older males. Due to Pttg1 deregulation in dystrophic retinas, we characterized Pttg1?/? retinas using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and electroretinography (ERG). Seven month old Pttg1?/? mice were also examined for a diabetic retinopathy phenotype using Fluorescein Angiography (FA) to test for neovascularization. Our data reveal that up to 9 months of age, Pttg1?/? retinas have a healthy morphology and normal photoreceptor function. This study lays the groundwork for further investigation into the relevance of Pttg1 in retinal dystrophy. PMID:21203837

Yetemian, Rosanne M.



Global gene expression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 during human and mouse infection.  


Little is known about the expression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genes during infection conditions. Here, we described the transcriptome of the clinical MRSA strain USA300 derived from human cutaneous abscesses, and compared it with USA300 bacteria derived from infected kidneys in a mouse model. Remarkable similarity between the transcriptomes allowed us to identify genes encoding multiple proteases and toxins, and iron- and peptide-transporter molecules, which are upregulated in both infections and are likely important for establishment of infection. We also showed that disruption of the global transcriptional regulators agr and sae prevents in vivo upregulation of many toxins and proteases, protecting mice from lethal infection dose, and hinting at the role of these transcriptional regulators in the pathology of MRSA infection. PMID:24286981

Date, Shailesh V; Modrusan, Zora; Lawrence, Michael; Morisaki, J Hiroshi; Toy, Karen; Shah, Ishita M; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Xu, Min; Basuino, Li; Chan, Liana; Zeitschel, Deborah; Chambers, Henry F; Tan, Man-Wah; Brown, Eric J; Diep, Binh An; Hazenbos, Wouter L W



Gene therapy restores vision and delays degeneration in the CNGB1(-/-) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa.  


Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a severe retinal disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of rod photoreceptors and a secondary loss of cone function. Here, we used CNGB1-deficient (CNGB1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model for autosomal recessive RP, to evaluate the efficacy of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy for the treatment of RP. The treatment restored normal expression of rod CNG channels and rod-driven light responses in the CNGB1(-/-) retina. This led to a substantial delay of retinal degeneration and long-term preservation of retinal morphology. Finally, treated CNGB1(-/-) mice performed significantly better than untreated mice in a rod-dependent vision-guided behavior test. In summary, this study holds promise for the treatment of rod channelopathy-associated retinitis pigmentosa by AAV-mediated gene replacement. PMID:24664765

Michalakis, Stylianos; Koch, Susanne; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Schulze, Elisabeth; Becirovic, Elvir; Koch, Fred; Seide, Christina; Beck, Susanne C; Seeliger, Mathias W; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Biel, Martin



Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes.  


We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions. PMID:21730028

Sarahan, Kari A; Fisler, Janis S; Warden, Craig H



The mouse homolog of FRG1, a candidate gene for FSHD, maps proximal to the myodystrophy mutation on chromosome 8.  


The human autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with deletions within a complex tandem DNA repeat (D4Z4) on Chromosome (Chr) 4q35. The molecular mechanism underlying this association of FSHD with DNA rearrangements is unknown, and, thus far, no gene has been identified within the repeat. We isolated a gene mapping 100 kb proximal to D4Z4 (FSHD Region Gene 1:FRG1), but were unable to detect any alterations in total or allele-specific mRNA levels of FRG1 in FSHD patients. Human Chr 4q35 exhibits synteny homology with the region of mouse Chr 8 containing the gene for the myodystrophy mutation (myd), a possible mouse homolog of FSHD. We report the cloning of the mouse gene (Frg1) and show that it maps to mouse Chr 8. Using a cross segregating the myd mutation and the European Collaborative Interspecific Backcross, we showed that Frg1 maps proximal to the myd locus and to the Clc3 and Ant1 genes. PMID:9166581

Grewal, P K; van Deutekom, J C; Mills, K A; Lemmers, R J; Mathews, K D; Frants, R R; Hewitt, J E



Characterization of the mouse cyclin D3 gene: Exon/intron organization and promoter activity  

SciTech Connect

The three D-type cyclins have been shown to be differentially expressed in a number of cell types, suggesting that they play distinct roles in cell cycle regulation in particular cell lineages. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence (-1681 to +6582) of the mouse cyclin D3 gene, which encodes a G1 phase cyclin. The gene consists of five exons and four introns, varying in length from 422 to 2472 bp. Primer extension analysis revealed one major transcription initiation site at the position 107 bp 5{prime} upstream of the translation start. The promoter region lacks both canonical {open_quotes}TATA{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}CAAT{close_quotes} boxes. It contains, however, multiple transcription factor recognition by GATA, NF-{kappa}B, ATF, E2F, and TRE/AP1 transcription factors, E box binding myogenic factors, and the IL-6 induced-transcription factor, APRF. Promoter activity of the 1681-bp fragment upstream of the transcription initiation site was confirmed by linking it to a reporter gene and subjecting it to transient expression experiments in various cell types. Promoter activity was high in cell lines that expressed high levels of endogenous D3 mRNA, as indicated by Northern blot analysis, and was significantly reduced when the promoter was truncated to -122 bp. The characterization of the mouse cyclin D3 gene and insight into its promoter region will allow further studies defining the molecular events regulating the expression of this cyclin in proliferating and quiescent cells. 60 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Wang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Ying; Ravid, K. [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); and others



Gene Expression Data to Mouse Atlas Registration Using a Nonlinear Elasticity Smoother and Landmark Points Constraints.  


This paper proposes a numerical algorithm for image registration using energy minimization and nonlinear elasticity regularization. Application to the registration of gene expression data to a neuroanatomical mouse atlas in two dimensions is shown. We apply a nonlinear elasticity regularization to allow larger and smoother deformations, and further enforce optimality constraints on the landmark points distance for better feature matching. To overcome the difficulty of minimizing the nonlinear elasticity functional due to the nonlinearity in the derivatives of the displacement vector field, we introduce a matrix variable to approximate the Jacobian matrix and solve for the simplified Euler-Lagrange equations. By comparison with image registration using linear regularization, experimental results show that the proposed nonlinear elasticity model also needs fewer numerical corrections such as regridding steps for binary image registration, it renders better ground truth, and produces larger mutual information; most importantly, the landmark points distance and L (2) dissimilarity measure between the gene expression data and corresponding mouse atlas are smaller compared with the registration model with biharmonic regularization. PMID:24273381

Lin, Tungyou; Guyader, Carole Le; Dinov, Ivo; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur; Vese, Luminita



Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) gene-trap mouse model  

PubMed Central

A codon-optimized mouse LINE-1 element, ORFeus, exhibits dramatically higher retrotransposition frequencies compared with its native long interspersed element 1 counterpart. To establish a retrotransposon-mediated mouse model with regulatable and potent mutagenic capabilities, we generated a tetracycline (tet)-regulated ORFeus element harboring a gene-trap cassette. Here, we show that mice expressing tet-ORFeus broadly exhibit robust retrotransposition in somatic tissues when treated with doxycycline. Consistent with a significant mutagenic burden, we observed a reduced number of double transgenic animals when treated with high-level doxycycline during embryogenesis. Transgene induction in skin resulted in a white spotting phenotype due to somatic ORFeus-mediated mutations that likely disrupt melanocyte development. The data suggest a high level of transposition in melanocyte precursors and consequent mutation of genes important for melanoblast proliferation, differentiation, or migration. These findings reveal the utility of a retrotransposon-based mutagenesis system as an alternative to existing DNA transposon systems. Moreover, breeding these mice to different tet-transactivator/reversible tet-transactivator lines supports broad functionality of tet-ORFeus because of the potential for dose-dependent, tissue-specific, and temporal-specific mutagenesis. PMID:23818630

O’Donnell, Kathryn A.; An, Wenfeng; Schrum, Christina T.; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Boeke, Jef D.



Gene Expression Data to Mouse Atlas Registration Using a Nonlinear Elasticity Smoother and Landmark Points Constraints  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a numerical algorithm for image registration using energy minimization and nonlinear elasticity regularization. Application to the registration of gene expression data to a neuroanatomical mouse atlas in two dimensions is shown. We apply a nonlinear elasticity regularization to allow larger and smoother deformations, and further enforce optimality constraints on the landmark points distance for better feature matching. To overcome the difficulty of minimizing the nonlinear elasticity functional due to the nonlinearity in the derivatives of the displacement vector field, we introduce a matrix variable to approximate the Jacobian matrix and solve for the simplified Euler-Lagrange equations. By comparison with image registration using linear regularization, experimental results show that the proposed nonlinear elasticity model also needs fewer numerical corrections such as regridding steps for binary image registration, it renders better ground truth, and produces larger mutual information; most importantly, the landmark points distance and L2 dissimilarity measure between the gene expression data and corresponding mouse atlas are smaller compared with the registration model with biharmonic regularization. PMID:24273381

Lin, Tungyou; Guyader, Carole Le; Dinov, Ivo; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur; Vese, Luminita



Hypertrophic Gene Expression Induced by Chronic Stretch of Excised Mouse Heart Muscle  

PubMed Central

Altered mechanical stress and strain in cardiac myocytes induce modifications in gene expression that affects cardiac remodeling and myocyte contractile function. To study the mechanisms of mechanotransduction in cardiomyocytes, probing alterations in mechanics and gene expression has been an effective strategy. However, previous studies are self-limited due to the general use of isolated neonatal rodent myocytes or intact animals. The main goal of this study was to develop a novel tissue culture chamber system for mouse myocardium that facilitates loading of cardiac tissue, while measuring tissue stress and deformation within a physiological environment. Intact mouse right ventricular papillary muscles were cultured in controlled conditions with superfusate at 95% O2/ 5% CO2, and 34°C, such that cell to extracellular matrix adhesions as well as cell to cell adhesions were undisturbed and both passive and active mechanical properties were maintained without significant changes. The system was able to measure the induction of hypertrophic markers (BNP, ANP) in tissue after 2 hrs and 5 hrs of stretch. ANP induction was highly correlated with the diastolic load of the muscle but not with developed systolic load. Load induced ANP expression was blunted in muscles from muscle-LIM protein knockout mice, in which defective mechanotransduction pathways have been predicted. PMID:19670825

Raskin, Anna M.; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Swanson, Eric; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.



Genetic mapping of a mouse modifier gene that can prevent ALS onset.  


Mutations in the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on human chromosome 21q22.1 cause 10-20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of the ALS phenotype in mice carrying the murine G86R SOD1 mutation is highly dependent upon the mouse genetic background. This is similar to the phenotypic variation observed in ALS patients containing identical SOD1 mutations. In the FVB/N background, mice expressing mG86R SOD1 develop an ALS phenotype at approximately 100 days. However, when these mice were bred into a mixed background of C57Bl6/129Sv, the onset of the ALS phenotype was delayed (143 days to >2 years). Using 129 polymorphic autosomal markers in a whole genome scan, we have identified a major genetic modifier locus with a maximum lod score of 5.07 on mouse chromosome 13 between D13mit36 and D13mit76. This 5- to 8-cM interval contains the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-associated gene Smn (survival motor neuron) and seven copies of Naip (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), suggesting a potential link between SMA and ALS. PMID:11112346

Kunst, C B; Messer, L; Gordon, J; Haines, J; Patterson, D



The Sry-related HMG box-containing gene Sox6 is expressed in the adult testis and developing nervous system of the mouse.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA for the HMG box-containing, SRY-related gene Sox6 from mouse. The deduced protein sequence of Sox6 has considerable homology with that of the previously determined Sox5 sequence. It seems likely that these genes have diverged more recently than other members of the SOX gene family, although the two genes map to different chromosomes in the mouse. In common with Sox5, Sox6 is highly expressed in the adult mouse testis and the HMG domains of both proteins bind to the sequence 5'-AACAAT-3'. This suggests that the two genes may have overlapping functions in the regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis in the adult mouse. However, Sox6 may have an additional role in the mouse embryo, where it is specifically expressed in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:7567444

Connor, F; Wright, E; Denny, P; Koopman, P; Ashworth, A



Evidence for the evolutionary origin of human chromosome 21 from comparative gene mapping in the cow and mouse  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent of conservation between bovine syntenic group U10, human chromosome 21 (HSA 21), and mouse chromosome 16(MMU 16), 11 genes were physically mapped by segregation analysis in a bovine-hamster hybrid somatic cell panel. The genes chosen for study span MMU 16 and represent virtually the entire q arm of HSA 21. Because the somatostatin gene (SST), an HSA 3/MMU 16 locus, was previously shown to be in U10, the transferrin gene (TF), an HSA 3/MMU 9 marker, was also mapped to determine whether U10 contains any HSA 3 genes not represented on MMU 16. With the exception of the protamine gene PRM1 (HSA 16/MMU 16), all of the genes studies were syntenic on bovine U10. Thus, all homologous loci from HSA 21 that have been studied in the cow are on a single chromosome. The bovine homolog of HSA 21 also carries several HSA 3 genes, two of which have homologous loci on MMU 16. The syntenic association of genes from the q arm of HSA 3 with HSAS 21 genes in two mammalian species, the mouse and the cow, indicates that HSA 21 may have evolved from a larger ancestral mammalian chromosome that contained genes now residing on HSA 3. Additionally, the syntenic association of TF with SST in the cow permits the prediction that the rhodopsin gene (RHO) is proximal to TF on HSA 3q.

Threadgill, D.S.; Womack, J.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Kraus, J.P. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver (United States)); Krawetz, S.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))



Genes affected by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviral insertions in mouse mammary tumors are deregulated or mutated in primary human mammary tumors  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of mutations is a contributing factor in the initiation of premalignant mammary lesions and their progression to malignancy and metastasis. We have used a mouse model in which the carcinogen is the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) which induces clonal premalignant mammary lesions and malignant mammary tumors by insertional mutagenesis. Identification of the genes and signaling pathways affected in MMTV-induced mouse mammary lesions provides a rationale for determining whether genetic alteration of the human orthologues of these genes/pathways may contribute to human breast carcinogenesis. A high-throughput platform for inverse PCR to identify MMTV-host junction fragments and their nucleotide sequences in a large panel of MMTV-induced lesions was developed. Validation of the genes affected by MMTV-insertion was carried out by microarray analysis. Common integration site (CIS) means that the gene was altered by an MMTV proviral insertion in at least two independent lesions arising in different hosts. Three of the new genes identified as CIS for MMTV were assayed for their capability to confer on HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells the ability for invasion, anchorage independent growth and tumor development in nude mice. Analysis of MMTV induced mammary premalignant hyperplastic outgrowth (HOG) lines and mammary tumors led to the identification of CIS restricted to 35 loci. Within these loci members of the Wnt, Fgf and Rspo gene families plus two linked genes (Npm3 and Ddn) were frequently activated in tumors induced by MMTV. A second group of 15 CIS occur at a low frequency (2-5 observations) in mammary HOGs or tumors. In this latter group the expression of either Phf19 or Sdc2 was shown to increase HC11 cells invasion capability. Foxl1 expression conferred on HC11 cells the capability for anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar and tumor development in nude mice. The published transcriptome and nucleotide sequence analysis of gene expression in primary human breast tumors was interrogated. Twenty of the human orthologues of MMTV CIS associated genes are deregulated and/or mutated in human breast tumors. PMID:23131872

Callahan, Robert; Mudunuri, Uma; Bargo, Sharon; Raafat, Ahmed; McCurdy, David; Boulanger, Corinne; Lowther, William; Stephens, Robert; Luke, Brian T.; Stewart, Claudia; Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David; Smith, Gilbert H.



Targeted disruption of the murine Facc gene: Towards the establishment of a mouse model for Fanconi anemia  

SciTech Connect

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital malformations and predisposition to malignancies. The gene responsible for the defect in FA group C has been cloned and designated the Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C gene (FACC). A murine cDNA for this gene (Facc) was also cloned. Here we report our progress in the establishment of a mouse model for FA. The mouse Facc cDNA was used as probe to screen a genomic library of mouse strain 129. More than twenty positive clones were isolated. Three of them were mapped and found to be overlapping clones, encompassing the genomic region from exon 8 to the end of the 3{prime} UTR of the mouse cDNA. A targeting vector was constructed using the most 5{prime} mouse genomic sequence available. The end result of the homologous recombination is that exon 8 is deleted and the neo gene is inserted. The last exon, exon 14, is essential for the complementing function of the FACC gene product; the disruption in the middle of the murine Facc gene should render this locus biologically inactive. This targeting vector was linearized and electroporated into R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells which were derived from the 129 mouse. Of 102 clones screened, 19 positive cell lines were identified. Four targeted cell lines have been used to produce chimeric mice. 129-derived ES cells were aggregated ex vivo into the morulas derived from CD1 mice and then implanted into foster mothers. 22 chimeras have been obtained. Moderately and strongly chimeric mice have been bred to test for germline transmission. Progeny with the expected coat color derived from 2 chimeras are currently being examined to confirm transmission of the targeted allele.

Chen, M.; Auerbach, W.; Buchwald, M. [Hospital for Sick Childern, Toronto (Canada)] [and others



Expression analysis of the mouse S100A7/psoriasin gene in skin inflammation and mammary tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The human psoriasin (S100A7) gene has been implicated in inflammation and tumor progression. Implementation of a mouse model would facilitate further investigation of its function, however little is known of the murine psoriasin gene. In this study we have cloned the cDNA and characterized the expression of the potential murine ortholog of human S100A7/psoriasin in skin inflammation and mammary tumorigenesis. Methods On the basis of chromosomal location, phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence similarity, conservation of a putative Jab1-binding motif, and similarities of the patterns of mouse S100A7/psoriasin gene expression (measured by RT-PCR and in-situ hybridization) with those of human S100A7/psoriasin, we propose that mouse S100A7/psoriasin is the murine ortholog of human psoriasin/S100A7. Results Although mouse S100A7/psoriasin is poorly conserved relative to other S100 family members, its pattern of expression parallels that of the human psoriasin gene. In murine skin S100A7/psoriasin was significantly upregulated in relation to inflammation. In murine mammary gland expression is also upregulated in mammary tumors, where it is localized to areas of squamous differentiation. This mirrors the context of expression in human tumor types where both squamous and glandular differentiation occur, including cervical and lung carcinomas. Additionally, mouse S100A7/psoriasin possesses a putative Jab1 binding motif that mediates many downstream functions of the human S100A7 gene. Conclusion These observations and results support the hypothesis that the mouse S100A7 gene is structurally and functionally similar to human S100A7 and may offer a relevant model system for studying its normal biological function and putative role in tumor progression. PMID:15717926

Webb, Meghan; Emberley, Ethan D; Lizardo, Michael; Alowami, Salem; Qing, Gefei; Alfia'ar, Abdullah; Snell-Curtis, Linda J; Niu, Yulian; Civetta, Alberto; Myal, Yvonne; Shiu, Robert; Murphy, Leigh C; Watson, Peter H



Chromosomal mapping of mouse 5S rRNA genes by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization.  


The mouse 5S rRNA gene was mapped by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotinylated probes. Two genomic fragments amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of BALB/c mice and Mus spretus, a 0.16-kb fragment that included the 121-bp 5S rRNA gene and a 1.6-kb fragment that included the whole spacer region, were used for chromosomal mapping of the 5S rRNA gene. Both fragments hybridized to a single locus on a pair of autosomal chromosomes of BALB/c mice. The major cluster of mouse 5S rRNA genes was assigned to the most terminal R-negative to R-positive bands of the E region of mouse Chromosome 8, which is homologous to the linkage of the 5S rRNA gene on the long arm of human chromosome 1. The location of the 5S rRNA gene was mapped in five laboratory strains, in wild mice of six Mus musculus subspecies (domesticus, brevirostris, musculus, bactrianus, castaneus, and molossinus) derived from 10 separate localities, and in four different Mus species (spretus, hortulanus, spicilegus, and caroli), using FISH. The 5S rRNA cluster mapped to the same position on the chromosomes of all mouse species and subspecies studied. These results suggest that the location of the mouse 5S rRNA gene on the distal telomeric region of Chromosome 8 is evolutionarily conserved. In comparison, the chromosomal assignments of centromeric 18S-28S rRNA genes are highly variable among the different M. musculus subspecies and Mus species. PMID:8162702

Matsuda, Y; Moriwaki, K; Chapman, V M; Hoi-Sen, Y; Akbarzadeh, J; Suzuki, H



Metal Dealing at the Origin of the Chordata Phylum: The Metallothionein System and Metal Overload Response in Amphioxus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-vertebrate chordates, specifically amphioxus, are considered of the utmost interest for gaining insight into the evolutionary trends, i.e. differentiation and specialization, of gene\\/protein systems. In this work, MTs (metallothioneins), the most important metal binding proteins, are characterized for the first time in the cephalochordate subphylum at both gene and protein level, together with the main features defining the amphioxus response

Maria Guirola; Sílvia Pérez-Rafael; Mercč Capdevila; Ňscar Palacios; Sílvia Atrian



Automated pipeline for atlas-based annotation of gene expression patterns: Application to postnatal day 7 mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Massive amounts of image data have been collected and continue to be generated for representing cellular gene expression throughout the mouse brain. Critical to exploiting this key effort of the post-genomic era is the ability to place these data into a common spatial reference that enables rapid interactive queries, analysis, data sharing, and visualization. In this paper, we present a set of automated protocols for generating and annotating gene expression patterns suitable for the establishment of a database. The steps include imaging tissue slices, detecting cellular gene expression levels, spatial registration with an atlas, and textual annotation. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization to generate serial sets of tissues displaying gene expression, this process was applied towards the establishment of a database representing over 200 genes in the postnatal day 7 mouse brain. These data using this protocol are now well-suited for interactive comparisons, analysis, queries, and visualization. PMID:19698790

Carson, James; Ju, Tao; Bello, Musodiq; Thaller, Christina; Warren, Joe; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.; Chiu, Wah; Eichele, Gregor



CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver.  


The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system in vivo in wild-type mice. We used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to the liver that directly target the tumour suppressor genes Pten (ref. 5) and p53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53) (ref. 6), alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre-LoxP technology. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumours that mimicked those caused by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumour tissue revealed insertion or deletion mutations of the tumour suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumours. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harbouring sgRNAs targeting the ?-catenin gene and a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of ?-catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics. PMID:25119044

Xue, Wen; Chen, Sidi; Yin, Hao; Tammela, Tuomas; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Joshi, Nikhil S; Cai, Wenxin; Yang, Gillian; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G; Zhang, Feng; Anderson, Daniel G; Sharp, Phillip A; Jacks, Tyler



Developmental Gene Expression Profiling along the Tonotopic Axis of the Mouse Cochlea  

PubMed Central

The mammalian cochlear duct is tonotopically organized such that the basal cochlea is tuned to high frequency sounds and the apical cochlea to low frequency sounds. In an effort to understand how this tonotopic organization is established, we searched for genes that are differentially expressed along the tonotopic axis during neonatal development. Cochlear tissues dissected from P0 and P8 mice were divided into three equal pieces, representing the base, middle and apex, and gene expression profiles were determined using the microarray technique. The gene expression profiles were grouped according to changes in expression levels along the tonotopic axis as well as changes during neonatal development. The classified groups were further analyzed by functional annotation clustering analysis to determine whether genes associated with specific biological function or processes are particularly enriched in each group. These analyses identified several candidate genes that may be involved in cochlear development and acquisition of tonotopy. We examined the expression domains for a few candidate genes in the developing mouse cochlea. Tnc (tenacin C) and Nov (nephroblastoma overexpressed gene) are expressed in the basilar membrane, with increased expression toward the apex, which may contribute to graded changes in the structure of the basilar membrane along the tonotopic axis. In addition, Fst (Follistatin), an antagonist of TGF-?/BMP signaling, is expressed in the lesser epithelial ridge and at gradually higher levels towards the apex. The graded expression pattern of Fst is established at the time of cochlear specification and maintained throughout embryonic and postnatal development, suggesting its possible role in the organization of tonotopy. Our data will provide a good resource for investigating the developmental mechanisms of the mammalian cochlea including the acquisition of tonotopy. PMID:22808246

Son, Eun Jin; Wu, Ling; Yoon, Heejei; Kim, Sunhee; Choi, Jae Young; Bok, Jinwoong



Gene expression profiling in mouse lung following polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure  

SciTech Connect

Isocyanates are a common cause of occupational lung disease. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a component of polyurethane spray paints, can induce respiratory symptoms, inflammation, lung function impairment, and isocyanate asthma. The predominant form of HDI in polyurethane paints is a nonvolatile polyisocyanate known as HDI biuret trimer (HDI-BT). Exposure of mice to aerosolized HDI-BT results in pathological effects, including pulmonary edema, lung inflammation, cellular proliferation, and fibrotic lesions, which occur with distinct time courses following exposure. To identify genes that mediate lung pathology in the distinct temporal phases after exposure, gene expression profiles in HDI-BT-exposed C57BL/6J mouse lungs were analyzed. RNase protection assay (RPA) of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and inflammation revealed increased expression of I{kappa}B{alpha}, Fas, Bcl-X{sub L}, TNF{alpha}, KC, MIP-2, IL-6, and GM-CSF following HDI-BT exposure. Microarray analysis of approximately 10 000 genes was performed on lung RNA collected from mice 6, 18, and 90 h after HDI-BT exposure and from unexposed mice. Classes of genes whose expression was increased 6 h after exposure included those involved in stress responses (particularly oxidative stress and thiol redox balance), growth arrest, apoptosis, signal transduction, and inflammation. Types of genes whose expression was increased at 18 h included proteinases, anti-proteinases, cytoskeletal molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Transcripts increased at 90 h included extracellular matrix components, transcription factors, inflammatory mediators, and cell cycle regulators. This characterization of the gene expression profile in lungs exposed to HDI-BT will provide a basis for investigating injury and repair pathways that are operative during isocyanate-induced lung disease.

Lee, C.-T. [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Ylostalo, Joni [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Friedman, Mitchell [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Hoyle, Gary W. [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)]. E-mail:



Identification and characterization of human LL5A gene and mouse Ll5a gene in silico.  


ARCN1, KIAA0638, TREH, DDX6, BLR1, BCL9L, UPK2, DLNB13, DLNB14, RPS25, SBDN, G6PT1, HYOU1, VPS11, HMBS, H2AFX, DPAGT1, KIAA0285, MIZF, ABCG4, NOD9, PDZK2, CBL, MCAM, RNF26, C1QTNF5, MFRP, USP2, THY1, and PVRL1 genes are located within the commonly deleted region of neuroblastoma at human chromosome 11q23.3. Here, we characterized the KIAA0638 gene within the 11q23.3 region by using bioinformatics. Because human KIAA0638 gene was homologous to human LL5B gene encoding LL5beta protein, KIAA0638 was designated LL5A gene encoding LL5alpha protein. LL5A isoform 1 (FLJ00141 type) consists of exons 1-12, 14-21 and 23, while LL5A isoform 2 (KIAA0638 type) consists of exon 1-23. LL5A isoform 1 was the major transcript among LL5A isoforms generated due to alternative splicing. Nucleotide sequence of mouse Ll5a cDNA was determined by assembling CB522359 EST and 5'-truncated mKIAA0638 cDNA. Human LL5alpha isoform 2 showed 94.4 and 35.9% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Ll5alpha and human LL5beta, respectively. LL5alpha proteins consist of Forkhead associated (FHA) domain, bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS), Chromosome segregation ATPases (SMC) domain, and Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. LL5alpha proteins were homologous to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 sensor protein LL5beta in the SMC and PH domains, and were also homologous to KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF13A, KIF13B, KIF14, and SNX23 proteins in the FHA domain. LL5alpha protein might be a transducer of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels to the intracellular trafficking system. PMID:14532993

Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru



Rapid target gene validation in complex cancer mouse models using re-derived embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Human cancers modeled in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) can provide important mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of tumor development and enable testing of new intervention strategies. The inherent complexity of these models, with often multiple modified tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, has hampered their use as preclinical models for validating cancer genes and drug targets. In our newly developed approach for the fast generation of tumor cohorts we have overcome this obstacle, as exemplified for three GEMMs; two lung cancer models and one mesothelioma model. Three elements are central for this system; (i) The efficient derivation of authentic Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from established GEMMs, (ii) the routine introduction of transgenes of choice in these GEMM-ESCs by Flp recombinase-mediated integration and (iii) the direct use of the chimeric animals in tumor cohorts. By applying stringent quality controls, the GEMM-ESC approach proofs to be a reliable and effective method to speed up cancer gene assessment and target validation. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that MycL1 is a key driver gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer. PMID:24401838

Huijbers, Ivo J; Bin Ali, Rahmen; Pritchard, Colin; Cozijnsen, Miranda; Kwon, Min-Chul; Proost, Natalie; Song, Ji-Ying; Vries, Hilda; Badhai, Jitendra; Sutherland, Kate; Krimpenfort, Paul; Michalak, Ewa M; Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton



Follicle microenvironment-associated alterations in gene expression in the mouse oocyte and its polar body  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the follicle environment modulates oocyte-specific gene transcript levels in cultured oocytes and polar bodies (PBs). Design Animal study. Setting Large academic research center. Animal(s) CD1 mice. Intervention(s) In vitro growth of secondary mouse follicles in 0.25% or 1.5% alginate (ALG) in a three-dimensional culture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) Relative transcript levels of Gdf9, Bmp15, Nlrp5, Tcl1, and Zp3 were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction in oocytes during in vitro follicle development and oocyte maturation and in their first PBs after removal from metaphase II (MII) eggs. Result(s) All transcripts decreased earlier in oocytes cultured in 1.5% ALG compared with 0.25% ALG. Transcript levels were lower in MII eggs cultured in 1.5% ALG compared with in 0.25% ALG. All genes were expressed in PBs, and transcript levels were lower in PBs cultured in 1.5% ALG compared with in 0.25% ALG. Abundance of all transcripts was lower in PBs than in their sibling oocytes. Conclusion(s) Local follicle environment modulates oocyte-specific gene expression in the oocyte and first PB. There is a significant difference in the transcript levels of oocyte-specific genes in PBs of 1.5% versus 0.25% ALG that correlates with ovarian environment-related decreases in oocyte competence. PMID:23312223

Jiao, Ze-Xu; Woodruff, Teresa K.



Rapid target gene validation in complex cancer mouse models using re-derived embryonic stem cells.  


Human cancers modeled in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) can provide important mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of tumor development and enable testing of new intervention strategies. The inherent complexity of these models, with often multiple modified tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, has hampered their use as preclinical models for validating cancer genes and drug targets. In our newly developed approach for the fast generation of tumor cohorts we have overcome this obstacle, as exemplified for three GEMMs; two lung cancer models and one mesothelioma model. Three elements are central for this system; (i) The efficient derivation of authentic Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from established GEMMs, (ii) the routine introduction of transgenes of choice in these GEMM-ESCs by Flp recombinase-mediated integration and (iii) the direct use of the chimeric animals in tumor cohorts. By applying stringent quality controls, the GEMM-ESC approach proofs to be a reliable and effective method to speed up cancer gene assessment and target validation. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that MycL1 is a key driver gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer. PMID:24401838

Huijbers, Ivo J; Bin Ali, Rahmen; Pritchard, Colin; Cozijnsen, Miranda; Kwon, Min-Chul; Proost, Natalie; Song, Ji-Ying; de Vries, Hilda; Badhai, Jitendra; Sutherland, Kate; Krimpenfort, Paul; Michalak, Ewa M; Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton



Functional analysis of chimeric genes obtained by exchanging homologous domains of the mouse mdr1 and mdr2 genes.  

PubMed Central

A full-length cDNA clone for the mouse mdr1 gene can confer multidrug resistance when introduced by transfection into otherwise drug-sensitive cells. In the same assay, a full-length cDNA clone for a closely related member of the mouse mdr gene family, mdr2, fails to confer multidrug resistance. To identify the domains of mdr1 which are essential for multidrug resistance and which may be functionally distinct in mdr2, we have constructed chimeric cDNA molecules in which discrete domains of mdr2 have been introduced into the homologous region of mdr1 and analyzed these chimeras for their capacity to transfer drug resistance. The two predicted ATP-binding domains of mdr2 were found to be functional, as either could complement the biological activity of mdr1. Likewise, a chimeric molecule in which the highly sequence divergent linker domain of mdr2 had been introduced in mdr1 could also confer drug resistance. However, the replacement of either the amino- or carboxy-terminus transmembrane (TM) domain regions of mdr1 by the homologous segments of mdr2 resulted in inactive chimeras. The replacement of as few as two TM domains from either the amino (TM5-6) or the carboxy (TM7-8) half of mdr1 by the homologous mdr2 regions was sufficient to destroy the activity of mdr1. These results suggest that the functional differences detected between mdr1 and mdr2 in our transfection assay reside within the predicted TM domains. Images PMID:1990275

Buschman, E; Gros, P



Cloning of the mouse somatostatin receptor subtype 5 gene: promoter structure and function.  


Somatostatin is a peptide hormone whose actions are mediated by five somatostatin receptor subtypes (sstl-5). In the pituitary, somatostatin inhibits TSH release from thyrotropes and GH release from somatotropes. We have shown that sst5 transcripts and protein are induced by thyroid hormone in TtT-97 thyrotropic tumors. To map sequences responsible for promoter activity in pituitary cells, we cloned the mouse sst5 coding region of 362 amino acids and 12 kb of upstream DNA. Initial transfection studies in TtT-97 or GH3 cells mapped high levels of basal promoter activity to a 5.6-kb fragment upstream of the translational start, whereas shorter genomic fragments had low activity. To identify the transcriptional start site we used 5' RACE with TtT-97 poly A+ RNA and a sst5 antisense coding region primer. Sequence comparison between the complementary DNA and the gene revealed that the mouse sst5 gene contains 3 exons and 2 introns. The entire coding region was contained in exon 3. Two differently sized RACE products demonstrated alternate exon splicing of two untranslated exons in TtT-97 cells. A promoter fragment from -290/+48 linked to a luciferase reporter demonstrated 600- and 900-fold higher activity over a promoterless control in GH3 mammosomatotropes and TtT-97 thyrotropes, respectively, whereas a larger fragment extending to -6400 exhibited no additional promoter activity. Cloning of the sst5 gene will facilitate the mapping of basal and regulated responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:10579323

Gordon, D F; Woodmansee, W W; Lewis, S R; James, R A; Wood, W M; Ridgway, E C



Gene expression profiles during early differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation is the key to future advances in tissue and organ regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation can be triggered by embryoid body (EB) formation, which involves ES cell aggregation in suspension. EB growth in the absence of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) leads EBs to mimic early embryonic development, giving rise to markers representative of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. Here, we have used microarrays to investigate differences in gene expression between 3 undifferentiated ES cell lines, and also between undifferentiated ES cells and Day 1–4 EBs Results An initial array study identified 4 gene expression changes between 3 undifferentiated ES cell lines. Tissue culture conditions for ES differentiation were then optimized to give the maximum range of gene expression and growth. -Undifferentiated ES cells and EBs cultured with and without LIF at each day for 4 days were subjected to microarray analysis. -Differential expression of 23 genes was identified. 13 of these were also differentially regulated in a separate array comparison between undifferentiated ES cells and compartments of very early embryos. A high degree of inter-replicate variability was noted when confirming array results. Using a panel of marker genes, RNA amplification and RT-PCR, we examined expression pattern variation between individual -D4-Lif EBs. We found that individual EBs selected from the same dish were highly variable in gene expression profile. Conclusion ES cell lines derived from different mouse strains and carrying different genetic modifications are almost invariant in gene expression profile under conditions used to maintain pluripotency. Tissue culture conditions that give the widest range of gene expression and maximise EB growth involve the use of 20% serum and starting cell numbers of 1000 per EB. 23 genes of importance to early development have been identified; more than half of these are also identified using similar studies, thus validating our results. EBs cultured in the same dish vary widely in terms of their gene expression (and hence, undoubtedly, in their future differentiation potential). This may explain some of the inherent variability in differentiation protocols that use EBs. PMID:19134196

Mansergh, Fiona C; Daly, Carl S; Hurley, Anna L; Wride, Michael A; Hunter, Susan M; Evans, Martin J



Influence of Aromatase Absence on the Gene Expression and Histology of the Mouse Meibomian Gland  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We hypothesize that aromatase, an enzyme that controls estrogen biosynthesis, plays a major role in the sex-related differences of the meibomian gland. To begin to test this hypothesis, we examined the influence of aromatase absence, which completely eliminates estrogen production, on glandular gene expression and histology in male and female mice. Methods. Meibomian glands were obtained from adult, age-matched wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice. Tissues were processed for histology or the isolation of total RNA, which was analyzed for differentially expressed mRNAs by using microarrays. Results. Our results show that aromatase significantly influences the expression of more than a thousand genes in the meibomian gland. The nature of this effect is primarily sex-dependent. In addition, the influence of aromatase on sex-related differences in gene expression is predominantly genotype-specific. However, many of the sex-related variations in biological process, molecular function, and cellular component ontologies, as well as in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, are remarkably similar between WT and ArKO mice. The loss of aromatase activity has no obvious effect on the histology of meibomian glands in male or female mice. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that aromatase has a significant impact on gene expression in the meibomian gland. The nature of this influence is sex-dependent and genotype-specific; however, many of the sex-related variations in gene ontologies and KEGG pathways are similar between WT and ArKO mice. Consequently, it appears that aromatase, and by extension estrogen, do not play a major role in the sex-related differences of the mouse meibomian gland. PMID:23233261

Rahimi Darabad, Raheleh; Suzuki, Tomo; Richards, Stephen M.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Zakka, Fouad R.; Liu, Shaohui; Sullivan, David A.



Paternal Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure Affects Gene Expression in the Early Developing Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

The health of the offspring depends on the genetic constitution of the parental germ cells. The paternal genome appears to be important; e.g., de novo mutations in some genes seem to arise mostly from the father, whereas epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones are frequent in the paternal gonads. Environmental contaminants which may affect the integrity of the germ cells comprise the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). B[a]P has received much attention due to its ubiquitous distribution, its carcinogenic and mutagenic potential, and also effects on reproduction. We conducted an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment using sperm cells from B[a]P-exposed male mice to study effects of paternal B[a]P exposure on early gene expression in the developing mouse embryo. Male mice were exposed to a single acute dose of B[a]P (150mg/kg, ip) 4 days prior to isolation of cauda sperm, followed by IVF of oocytes from unexposed superovulated mice. Gene expression in fertilized zygotes/embryos was determined using reverse transcription-qPCR at the 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and blastocyst cell stages of embryo development. We found that paternal B[a]P exposure altered the expression of numerous genes in the developing embryo especially at the blastocyst stage. Some genes were also affected at earlier developmental stages. Embryonic gene expression studies seem useful to identify perturbations of signaling pathways resulting from exposure to contaminants, and can be used to address mechanisms of paternal effects on embryo development. PMID:22641617

Duale, Nur



Transgenic mice overexpressing the mouse homoeobox-containing gene Hox-1.4 exhibit abnormal gut development.  


The mouse homoeobox-containing genes exhibit temporally and spatially specific patterns of expression in embryonic and adult tissues and are thought to be important in regulation of development and cellular differentiation, perhaps by mechanisms analogous to homoeotic genes in Drosophila melanogaster. There has been no direct demonstration that expression of these mammalian genes can affect developmental processes, however. Hox-1.4, like other mouse homoeobox-containing genes, has been shown to be expressed in specific regions of the mid-gestation embryo, but is unique in that its highest level of expression in the adult animal is restricted to developing male germ cells. We have introduced a construct carrying the mouse Hox-1.4 gene into the germ line of mice to begin to identify the cis-acting elements required for proper expression and to assess the consequences of increasing Hox-1.4 gene expression. The construct was designed to produce normal Hox-1.4 protein from transcripts that are distinguishable from the products of the endogenous gene. The integrated transgene seemed to exhibit the appropriate tissue specificity of expression, but transcript levels were elevated in certain tissues, particularly the embryonic gut. This overexpression correlated with changes in the normal developmental program of the gut, resulting in an inherited abnormal phenotype known as megacolon. PMID:2563568

Wolgemuth, D J; Behringer, R R; Mostoller, M P; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D



Gene Expression and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis for H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 in Mouse Liver and Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Recent study has identified the cis-regulatory elements in the mouse genome as well as their genomic localizations. Recent discoveries have shown the enrichment of H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) binding as an active promoter and the presence of H3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) outside promoter regions as a mark for an enhancer. In this work, we further identified highly expressed genes by H3K4me3 mark or by both H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 marks in mouse liver using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq. We found that in mice, the liver carries embryonic stem cell-related functions while the embryonic stem cell also carries liver-related functions. We also identified novel genes in RNA-Seq experiments for mouse liver and for mouse embryonic stem cells. These genes are not currently in the Ensemble gene database at NCBI. PMID:24526835

Tran, Ngoc Tam L.; Huang, Chun-Hsi



Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome  

PubMed Central

Background Empirical evaluations of sexually dimorphic expression of genes on the mammalian X-chromosome are needed to understand the evolutionary forces and the gene-regulatory mechanisms controlling this chromosome. We performed a large-scale sex-bias expression analysis of genes on the X-chromosome in six different somatic tissues from mouse. Results Our results show that the mouse X-chromosome is enriched with female-biased genes and depleted of male-biased genes. This suggests that feminisation as well as de-masculinisation of the X-chromosome has occurred in terms of gene expression in non-reproductive tissues. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the control of female-biased expression on chromosome X, and escape from X-inactivation is a main candidate. We confirmed escape in case of Tmem29 using RNA-FISH analysis. In addition, we identified novel female-biased non-coding transcripts located in the same female-biased cluster as the well-known coding X-inactivation escapee Kdm5c, likely transcribed from the transition-region between active and silenced domains. We also found that previously known escapees only partially explained the overrepresentation of female-biased X-genes, particularly for tissue-specific female-biased genes. Therefore, the gene set we have identified contains tissue-specific escapees and/or genes controlled by other sexually skewed regulatory mechanisms. Analysis of gene age showed that evolutionarily old X-genes (>100 myr, preceding the radiation of placental mammals) are more frequently female-biased than younger genes. Conclusion Altogether, our results have implications for understanding both gene regulation and gene evolution of mammalian X-chromosomes, and suggest that the final result in terms of the X-gene composition (masculinisation versus feminisation) is a compromise between different evolutionary forces acting on reproductive and somatic tissues. PMID:23140559



Structure of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein gene: implications for the evolution of the intermediate filament multigene family.  

PubMed Central

We report the complete sequence of the gene encoding mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the intermediate filament (IF) protein specific to astrocytes. The 9.8 kb gene includes nine exons separated by introns ranging in size from 0.2 to 2.5 kb. A comparison of the organization of the GFAP gene with that of genes encoding other IF proteins reveals that the structure of IF genes is highly conserved in spite of considerable divergence at the amino acid level. Thus, most of the evolutionary events leading to the placement of introns in IF genes must have occurred prior to the duplication and subsequent divergence of IF genes from a presumptive common ancestral sequence. The conserved gene organization is unrelated to structural features of IF proteins. A curious feature of the GFAP gene is the large number of repeated sequences found in the introns. Six tracts of reiterated di- or trinucleotides are present, plus tandem repeats of two different novel sequences. One repeat is unique to the GFAP gene; the other occurs elsewhere in the mouse genome, although at relatively low frequency. Images PMID:2994002

Balcarek, J M; Cowan, N J



Gene delivery in mouse auditory brainstem and hindbrain using in utero electroporation  

PubMed Central

Background Manipulation of gene expression via recombinant viral vectors and creation of transgenic knock-out/in animals has revolutionized our understanding of genes that play critical roles during neuronal development and pathophysiology of neurological disorders. Recently, target-specific genetic manipulations are made possible to perform in combination with specific Cre-lines, albeit costly, labor-intensive and time consuming. Thus, alternative methods of gene manipulations to address important biological questions are highly desirable. In this study, we utilized in utero electroporation technique which involves efficient delivery of hindbrain-specific enhancer/promoter construct, Krox20 into the third ventricle of live mouse embryo to investigate green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression pattern in mouse auditory brainstem and other hindbrain neurons. Results We created a GFP/DNA construct containing a Krox20 B enhancer and ?-globin promoter to drive GFP expression in the hindbrain via injection into the third ventricle of E12 to E13.5 mice. Electrical currents were applied directly to the embryonic hindbrain to allow DNA uptake into the cell. Confocal images were then acquired from fixed brain slices to analyze GFP expression in mouse whole brain at different postnatal stages (P6-P21). By using a cell-type specific enhancer as well as region specific injection and electroporation, robust GFP expression in the cerebellum and auditory brainstem but not in the forebrain was observed. GFP expression in calyx of Held terminals was more robust in P15 mice. In contrast, GFP expression in MNTB neurons was more prevalent in >P15 compared to



Trehalose Maintains Vitality of Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells and Mediates Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

In the present study, trehalose was utilized to improve primary culture of mouse epididymal epithelial cells in vitro, and to enhance naked DNA delivery in epididymis in vivo. During the six-day culture, the proliferation activity of the cells in the medium with addition of trehalose was higher than that of those cells cultured in absence of trehalose (p<0.01). To determine the optimal concentration for cell proliferation, a series of trehalose concentrations (0, 60, 120, 180 mM) were tested, and the result indicated that the cell in the medium with 120 mM trehalose showed the highest proliferation potential. The epididymis epithelial cells were cultured in the medium containing 120 mM trehalose upon 16th passage, and they continued expressing markers of epididymal epithelial cell, such as rE-RABP, AR and ER-beta. Our study also indicated that trehalose concentrations of 120–240 mM, especially 180 mM, could effectively enhance DNA delivery into the mouse epididymis epithelial cell in vitro. Moreover, trehalose could induce in vivo expression of exogenous DNA in epididymal epithelial cells and help to internalize plasmid into sperm,which did not influence motility of sperm when the mixture of trehalose (180 mM) and DNA was injected into epididymal lumen through efferent tubule. This study suggested that trehalose, as an effective and safer reagent, could be employed potentially to maintain vitality of mouse epididymal epthetial cells during long-term culture in vitro and to mediate in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. PMID:24651491

Shen, Jian; Qin, Jinzhou; Bao, Jianqiang; Hu, Yuan; Zeng, Wenxian; Dong, Wuzi



Apoptosis and gene expression in the developing mouse brain of fusarenon-X-treated pregnant mice.  


Fusarenon-X (FX), a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium crookwellense, which occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. FX has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vitro. However, the embryonic toxicity of FX in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated FX-induced apoptosis and the relationship between the genetic regulatory mechanisms and FX-induced apoptosis in the developing mouse brain of FX-treated pregnant mice. Pregnant mice were orally administered FX (3.5 mg/kg b.w.) and were assessed at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment (HAT). Apoptosis in the fetal brain was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TUNEL method, immunohistochemistry for PCNA and electron microscopy. Gene expressions were evaluated using microarray and real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Histopathological changes showed that the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of the mouse fetus peaked at 12 HAT and decreased at 24 and 48 HAT. FX induced the up-regulation of Bax, Trp53 and Casp9 and down-regulated Bcl2 but the expression levels of Fas and Casp8 mRNA remained unchanged. These data suggested that FX induces apoptosis in the developing mouse brain in FX-treated dams. Moreover, the genetic regulatory mechanisms of FX-induced apoptosis are regulated by Bax, Bcl2, Trp53 and Casp9 or can be defined via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:24983900

Sutjarit, Samak; Nakayama, Shota M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Banlunara, Wijit; Rerkamnuaychoke, Worawut; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart



Homologs of genes expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurons are also found in the developing mouse forebrain  

PubMed Central

Background In an effort to identify genes that specify the mammalian forebrain, we used a comparative approach to identify mouse homologs of transcription factors expressed in developing Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurons. A cell-specific microarray profiling study revealed a set of transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic C. elegans GABAergic neurons. Results Bioinformatic analyses identified mouse protein homologs of these selected transcripts and their expression pattern was mapped in the mouse embryonic forebrain by in situ hybridization. A review of human homologs indicates several of these genes are potential candidates in neurodevelopmental disorders. Conclusions Our comparative approach has revealed several novel candidates that may serve as future targets for studies of mammalian forebrain development. PMID:21122108



Epigenetic changes in renal genes dysregulated in mouse and rat models of type 1 diabetes.  


Epigenetic processes are increasingly being recognized as factors in the pathophysiology of diabetes complications, but few chromatin studies have been done in diabetic nephropathy (DN). We hypothesized that changes in mRNA expression of DN-related genes are associated with epigenetic alterations and aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes. RT-PCR and a matrix-chromatin immunoprecipitation platform were used to examine renal mRNA expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment, and epigenetic marks at DN-related genes in the mouse (OVE26) and streptozotocin-induced rat models of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes induced renal expression of Cox2, S100A4/FSP-1, and vimentin genes in both the mouse and the rat models of DN. Mcp-1 and laminin ?1 (Lamc1) expression were increased in diabetic mice but not in rats. Comparison of mRNA and Pol II levels suggested that the diabetes-induced expression of these transcripts is mediated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. Decreases in histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27m3, silencing mark) and increases in H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4m2, activating mark) levels were the most consistent epigenetic alterations in the tested genes. In agreement with these results, immunoblot analysis showed increased protein abundance of renal H3K27m2/3 demethylase KDM6A, but no changes in cognate methyltransferase Ezh2 in kidneys of the OVE26 mice compared with controls. In diabetic rats, Ezh2 expression was higher without changes in KDM6A, demonstrating that mechanisms of DN-induced H3K27m3 loss could be species specific. In summary, we show that altered mRNA expression of some DN-related genes is associated with changes in Pol II recruitment and a corresponding decrease in repressive H3K27m3 at the selected loci, and at least in mice with equivalent changes in renal expression of cognate histone-modifying enzymes. This pattern could contribute to diabetes-mediated transitions in chromatin that facilitate transcriptional changes in the diabetic kidney. PMID:23508046

Komers, Radko; Mar, Daniel; Denisenko, Oleg; Xu, Bei; Oyama, Terry T; Bomsztyk, Karol



Regulation of Mouse Lens Maturation and Gene Expression by Krüppel-Like Factor 4  

PubMed Central

Conditional disruption of Klf4 in the surface ectoderm-derived tissues of the eye results in defective cornea, conjunctiva and the lens. This report describes the effects of disruption of Klf4 in the lens in greater detail. Expression of Klf4, first detected in the embryonic day-12 (E12) mouse lens, peaked at E16 and was decreased in later stages. Early embryonic disruption of Klf4 resulted in a smaller lens with cortical vacuolation and nuclear opacity. Microarray comparison of Klf4CN and WT lens transcriptomes revealed fewer changes in the E16.5 (59 increases, 20 decreases of >1.5-fold) than the PN56 Klf4CN lens (239 increases, 182 decreases of >2-fold). Klf4-target genes in the lens were distinct from those previously identified in the cornea, suggesting disparate functions for Klf4 in these functionally related tissues. Transcripts encoding different crystallins were down-regulated in the Klf4CN lens. Shsp/?B-crystallin promoter activity was stimulated upon co-transfection with pCI-Klf4. Mitochondrial density was significantly higher in the Klf4CN lens epithelial cells, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction being the most significantly affected pathway within the PN56 Klf4CN lens. The Klf4CN lens contained elevated levels of Alox12 and Alox15 transcripts, less reduced glutathione (GSH) and more oxidized glutathione (GSSG) than the WT, suggesting that it is oxidatively stressed. Although the expression of 2087 genes was modulated during WT lens maturation, transcripts encoding crystallins were abundant at E16.5 and remained stable at PN56. Among the 1065 genes whose expression increased during WT lens maturation, there were 104 Klf4-target genes (9.8%) with decreased expression in the PN56 Klf4CN lens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Klf4 expression is developmentally regulated in the mouse lens, where it controls the expression of genes associated with lens maturation and redox homeostasis. PMID:24076321

Gupta, Divya; Harvey, Stephen A.K.; Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.



Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.



Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen  

SciTech Connect

The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.



A systematic, genome-wide, phenotype-driven mutagenesis programme for gene function studies in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the human genome project approaches completion, the chal- lenge for mammalian geneticists is to develop approaches for the systematic determination of mammalian gene function. Mouse mutagenesis will be a key element of studies of gene function1-3. Phenotype-driven approaches using the chemical mutagen ethylnitrosourea4-6 (ENU) represent a potentially effi- cient route for the generation of large numbers of mutant mice

Patrick M. Nolan; Jo Peters; Mark Strivens; Derek Rogers; Jim Hagan; Nigel Spurr; Ian C. Gray; Lucie Vizor; Debra Brooker; Elaine Whitehill; Rebecca Washbourne; Tertius Hough; Simon Greenaway; Mazda Hewitt; Xinhong Liu; Stefan McCormack; Karen Pickford; Rachael Selley; Christine Wells; Zuzanna Tymowska-Lalanne; Phil Roby; Peter Glenister; Claire Thornton; Caroline Thaung; Julie-Anne Stevenson; Ruth Arkell; Philomena Mburu; Rachel Hardisty; Amy Kiernan; Alexandra Erven; Karen P. Steel; Stephanie Voegeling; Jean-Louis Guenet; Carole Nickols; Ramin Sadri; Mahmood Naase; Adrian Isaacs; Kay Davies; Mick Browne; Elizabeth M. C. Fisher; Jo Martin; Sohaila Rastan; Jackie Hunter; Steve D. M. Brown



Whole body analysis of the knockout gene mouse model for cystic fibrosis using thermal and fast neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetically engineered “knockout genemouse model for human cystic fibrosis (CF) has been utilized to study bone mineralization.\\u000a In CF, the so-called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, a chloride ion channel, is either\\u000a absent or defective. To produce the animal model the murine CFTR gene has been inactivated producing CF symptoms in the homozygotic\\u000a progeny. CF results

M. M. Mason; J. S. Morris; B. A. Derenzy; V. L. Spate; L. L. Clarke; L. S. Hillman; L. R. Gawenis; T. L. Horsman; C. K. Baskett; T. A. Nichols; J. W. Colbert



Chromosomal mapping of mouse 5S rRNA genes by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse 5S rRNA gene was mapped by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotinylated probes. Two genomic fragments amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of BALB\\/c mice and Mus spretus, a 0.16-kb fragment that included the 121 -bp 5S rRNA gene and a 1.6-kb fragment that included the whole spacer region, were used for chromosomal mapping

Y. Matsuda; K. Moriwaki; V. M. Chapman; Y. Hoi-Sen; J. Akbarzadeh; H. Suzuki



Microevolution During Serial Mouse Passage Demonstrates FRE3 as a Virulence Adaptation Gene in Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Passage in mice of opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans is known to increase virulence, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in virulence adaptation. Serial mouse passage of nine environmental strains of serotype A C. neoformans identified two highly adapted virulent strains that showed a 4-fold reduction in time to death after four passages. Transcriptome sequencing expression studies demonstrated increased expression of a FRE3-encoded iron reductase in the two strains but not in a control strain that did not demonstrate increased virulence during mouse passage. FRE3 was shown to express an iron reductase activity and to play a role in iron-dependent growth of C. neoformans. Overexpression of FRE3 in the two original environmental strains increased growth in the macrophage cell line J774.16 and increased virulence. These data demonstrate a role for FRE3 in the virulence of C. neoformans and demonstrate how the increased expression of such a “virulence acquisition gene” during the environment-to-mammal transition, can optimize the virulence of environmental strains in mammalian hosts. PMID:24692633

Hu, Guowu; Chen, Shu Hui; Qiu, Jin; Bennett, John E.; Myers, Timothy G.; Williamson, Peter R.



Mouse connexin37: cloning and functional expression of a gap junction gene highly expressed in lung  

PubMed Central

The coding sequence (333 amino acids) of a new connexin protein, designated mouse connexin37 (Cx37 or Cx37.6) due to the deduced theoretical molecular mass of 37.600 kD, has been determined from cDNA and genomic clones. As seen in other connexins, its gene has no introns within the coding region and the deduced amino acid sequence is predicted to have similar topology to other connexins that form intercellular channels. The amino acid sequence of mouse Cx37 is most similar to rat connexin43 (59% identity) and Xenopus connexin38 (66% identity) when compared from the NH2 terminus to the end of the fourth putative transmembrane region. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes Cx37 forms functional intercellular channels that exhibit more sensitive and rapid gating in response to voltage than any previously characterized vertebrate gap junction. Under stringent conditions the Cx37 cDNA hybridizes to an mRNA of 1.7 kb that is found highly abundant in lung and to progressively lesser extents in brain, kidney, skin, spleen, liver, intestine, and heart. Embryonic brain, kidney, and skin express two to fivefold higher levels of the Cx37 transcript than the corresponding adult tissues. Cx37 transcripts were also found to increase two to threefold in response to retinoic acid treatment of cultured embryonic carcinoma F9 cells. PMID:1651942



Mechanotransduction in mouse inner ear hair cells requires transmembrane channel-like genes.  


Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1(?) mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2(?) mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1(?)Tmc2(?) mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, and structurally normal hair cells that lacked all mechanotransduction activity. Expression of either exogenous TMC1 or TMC2 rescued mechanotransduction in Tmc1(?)Tmc2(?) mutant hair cells. Our results indicate that TMC1 and TMC2 are necessary for hair cell mechanotransduction and may be integral components of the mechanotransduction complex. Our data also suggest that persistent TMC2 expression in vestibular hair cells may preserve vestibular function in humans with hearing loss caused by TMC1 mutations. PMID:22105175

Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Kurima, Kiyoto; Labay, Valentina; Lelli, Andrea; Asai, Yukako; Makishima, Tomoko; Wu, Doris K; Della Santina, Charles C; Holt, Jeffrey R; Griffith, Andrew J



A Meta-Analysis of Microarray Gene Expression in Mouse Stem Cells: Redefining Stemness  

PubMed Central

Background While much progress has been made in understanding stem cell (SC) function, a complete description of the molecular mechanisms regulating SCs is not yet established. This lack of knowledge is a major barrier holding back the discovery of therapeutic uses of SCs. We investigated the value of a novel meta-analysis of microarray gene expression in mouse SCs to aid the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms common to SCs and particular SC types. Methodology/Principal Findings We added value to previously published microarray gene expression data by characterizing the promoter type likely to regulate transcription. Promoters of up-regulated genes in SCs were characterized in terms of alternative promoter (AP) usage and CpG-richness, with the aim of correlating features known to affect transcriptional control with SC function. We found that SCs have a higher proportion of up-regulated genes using CpG-rich promoters compared with the negative controls. Comparing subsets of SC type with the controls a slightly different story unfolds. The differences between the proliferating adult SCs and the embryonic SCs versus the negative controls are statistically significant. Whilst the difference between the quiescent adult SCs compared with the negative controls is not. On examination of AP usage, no difference was observed between SCs and the controls. However, comparing the subsets of SC type with the controls, the quiescent adult SCs are found to up-regulate a larger proportion of genes that have APs compared to the controls and the converse is true for the proliferating adult SCs and the embryonic SCs. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that looking at features associated with control of transcription is a promising future approach for characterizing “stemness” and that further investigations of stemness could benefit from separate considerations of different SC states. For example, “proliferating-stemness” is shown here, in terms of promoter usage, to be distinct from “quiescent-stemness”. PMID:18628962

Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Bryson, Kevin; Jones, David T.



Feminized behavior and brain gene expression in a novel mouse model of Klinefelter Syndrome.  


Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy in men and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome (XXY). In some Klinefelter males, certain traits may be feminized or shifted from the male-typical pattern towards a more female-typical one. Among them might be partner choice, one of the most sexually dimorphic traits in the animal kingdom. We investigated the extent of feminization in XXY male mice (XXYM) in partner preference and gene expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum in mice from the Sex Chromosome Trisomy model. We tested for partner preference using a three-chambered apparatus in which the test mouse was free to choose between stimulus animals of either sex. We found that partner preference in XXYM was feminized. These differences were likely due to interactions of the additional X chromosome with the Y. We also discovered genes that differed in expression in XXYM versus XYM. Some of these genes are feminized in their expression pattern. Lastly, we also identified genes that differed only between XXYM versus XYM and not XXM versus XYM. Genes that are both feminized and unique to XXYM versus XYM represent strong candidates for dissecting the molecular pathways responsible for phenotypes present in KS/XXYM but not XXM. In sum, our results demonstrated that investigating behavioral and molecular feminization in XXY males can provide crucial information about the pathophysiology of KS and may aid our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior. PMID:24923877

Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar M; Creek, Michelle M; Williams-Burris, Shayna M; Barseghyan, Hayk; Itoh, Yuichiro; Sánchez, Francisco J; McClusky, Rebecca; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Arnold, Arthur P; Vilain, Eric



Gene Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Arthritis in a Mouse Model Reveals Significant Overlap With Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a chronic debilitating polyarthralgia/polyarthritis, for which current treatments are often inadequate. To assess whether new drugs being developed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) might find utility in the treatment of alphaviral arthritides, we sought to determine whether the inflammatory gene expression signature of CHIKV arthritis shows any similarities with RA or collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA. Methods Using a recently developed animal model of CHIKV arthritis in adult wild-type mice, we generated a consensus CHIKV arthritis gene expression signature, which was used to interrogate publicly available microarray studies of RA and CIA. Pathway analyses were then performed using the overlapping gene signatures. Results Gene set enrichment analysis showed that there was a highly significant overlap in the differentially expressed genes in the CHIKV arthritis model and in RA. This concordance also increased with the severity of RA, as measured by the inflammation score. A highly significant overlap was also seen between CHIKV arthritis and CIA. Pathway analysis revealed that the overlap between these arthritides was spread over a range of different inflammatory processes. Involvement of T cells and interferon-? (IFN?) in CHIKV arthritis was confirmed in studies of MHCII-deficient mice and IFN?-deficient mice, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that RA, a chronic autoimmune arthritis, and CHIKV disease, usually a self-limiting viral arthropathy, share multiple inflammatory processes. New drugs and biologic therapies being developed for RA may thus find application in the treatment of alphaviral arthritides. PMID:22833339

Nakaya, Helder I.; Gardner, Joy; Poo, Yee-Suan; Major, Lee; Pulendran, Bali; Suhrbier, Andreas



Gene Expression Programs of Mouse Endothelial Cells in Kidney Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cells are remarkably heterogeneous in both morphology and function, and they play critical roles in the formation of multiple organ systems. In addition endothelial cell dysfunction can contribute to disease processes, including diabetic nephropathy, which is a leading cause of end stage renal disease. In this report we define the comprehensive gene expression programs of multiple types of kidney endothelial cells, and analyze the differences that distinguish them. Endothelial cells were purified from Tie2-GFP mice by cell dissociation and fluorescent activated cell sorting. Microarrays were then used to provide a global, quantitative and sensitive measure of gene expression levels. We examined renal endothelial cells from the embryo and from the adult glomerulus, cortex and medulla compartments, as well as the glomerular endothelial cells of the db/db mutant mouse, which represents a model for human diabetic nephropathy. The results identified the growth factors, receptors and transcription factors expressed by these multiple endothelial cell types. Biological processes and molecular pathways were characterized in exquisite detail. Cell type specific gene expression patterns were defined, finding novel molecular markers and providing a better understanding of compartmental distinctions. Further, analysis of enriched, evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of co-activated genes begins to define the genetic regulatory network of renal endothelial cell formation. Finally, the gene expression differences associated with diabetic nephropathy were defined, providing a global view of both the pathogenic and protective pathways activated. These studies provide a rich resource to facilitate further investigations of endothelial cell functions in kidney development, adult compartments, and disease. PMID:20706631

Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven



Bivalent chromatin marks developmental regulatory genes in the mouse embryonic germline in vivo.  


Developmental regulatory genes have both activating (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This bivalent configuration is thought to maintain lineage commitment programs in a poised state. However, establishing physiological relevance has been complicated by the high number of cells required for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We developed a low-cell-number chromatin immunoprecipitation (low-cell ChIP) protocol to investigate the chromatin of mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs). Genome-wide analysis of embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) PGCs revealed H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent domains highly enriched at developmental regulatory genes in a manner remarkably similar to ESCs. Developmental regulators remain bivalent and transcriptionally silent through the initiation of sexual differentiation at E13.5. We also identified >2,500 "orphan" bivalent domains that are distal to known genes and expressed in a tissue-specific manner but silent in PGCs. Our results demonstrate the existence of bivalent domains in the germline and raise the possibility that the somatic program is continuously maintained as bivalent, potentially imparting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. PMID:23727241

Sachs, Michael; Onodera, Courtney; Blaschke, Kathryn; Ebata, Kevin T; Song, Jun S; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel



Rapid mapping of genomic P1 clones: The mouse L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl methyltransferase gene  

SciTech Connect

We report the mapping of the gene for the murine protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (EC 2.11.77) from a 129 mouse strain. This gene encodes an enzyme present in all tissues that can catalyze the first step of a repair reaction in which age-damaged proteins containing abnormal L-isoaspartyl (or D-aspartyl) residues can be converted to forms containing normal L-aspartyl residues. We first mapped the restriction sites from a genomic P1 clone using a rapid method generally applicable to all bacteriophage P1 clones containing large DNA inserts. We show that a single pulsed-field electrophoresis blot can be used to map an entire 89-kb P1 clone insert for eight restriction endonucleases with an error of no more than 2% of the length of the fragment, or 1 kb at the middle of the insert. After size separation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and blotting, the fragments are detected by Southern hybridization with probes to the vector. This method is potentially useful for restriction mapping other large DNA clones such as artificial chromosomes. When then determined the positions of the exons of the methyltransferase gene be restriction mapping of long PCR fragments. The previously unidentified exon 8, which encodes the -DEL C-terminus of the more acidic isozyme II, was sequenced and mapped 5.3 kb from the exon of exon 7. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

MacLaren, D.C.; Clarke, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



Genomic organization of the mouse fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) gene  

SciTech Connect

The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) protein is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the signal transduction of various fibroblast growth factors. Recent studies suggest its important role in normal development. In humans, mutation in Fgfr3 is responsible for growth disorders such as achondroplasia, hypoachondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia. Here, we report the complete genomic organization of the mouse Fgfr3 gene. The murine gene spans approximately 15 kb and consists of 19 exons and 18 introns. One major and one minor transcription initiation site were identified. Position +1 is located 614 nucleotides upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The translation initiation and termination sites are located in exons 2 and 19, respectively. Five Sp1 sites, two AP2 sites, one Zeste site, and one Krox 24 site were observed in the 5{prime}-flanking region. The Fgfr3 promoter appears to be contained within a CpG island and, as is common in genes having multiple Sp1-binding sites, lacks a TATA box. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Perez-Castro, A.V.; Wilson, J.; Altherr, M.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Comparison of two mouse ameloblast-like cell lines for enamel-specific gene expression  

PubMed Central

Ameloblasts are ectoderm-derived cells that produce an extracellular enamel matrix that mineralizes to form enamel. The development and use of immortalized cell lines, with a stable phenotype, is an important contribution to biological studies as it allows for the investigation of molecular activities without the continuous need for animals. In this study we compare the expression profiles of enamel-specific genes in two mouse derived ameloblast-like cell lines: LS8 and ALC cells. Quantitative PCR analysis indicates that, relative to each other, LS8 cells express greater mRNA levels for genes that define secretory-stage activities (Amelx, Ambn, Enam, and Mmp20), while ALC express greater mRNA levels for genes that define maturation-stage activities (Odam and Klk4). Western blot analyses show that Amelx, Ambn, and Odam proteins are detectable in ALC, but not LS8 cells. Unstimulated ALC cells form calcified nodules, while LS8 cells do not. These data provide greater insight as to the suitability of both cell lines to contribute to biological studies on enamel formation and biomineralization, and highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses when relying on enamel epithelial organ-derived cell lines to study molecular activities of amelogenesis. PMID:25120490

Sarkar, Juni; Simanian, Emil J.; Tuggy, Sarah Y.; Bartlett, John D.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Paine, Michael L.



Genetic diversity and striatal gene networks: focus on the heterogeneous stock-collaborative cross (HS-CC) mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The current study focused on the extent genetic diversity within a species (Mus musculus) affects gene co-expression network structure. To examine this issue, we have created a new mouse resource, a heterogeneous stock (HS) formed from the same eight inbred strains that have been used to create the collaborative cross (CC). The eight inbred strains capture > 90% of

Ovidiu D Iancu; Priscila Darakjian; Nicole AR Walter; Barry Malmanger; Denesa Oberbeck; John Belknap; Shannon McWeeney; Robert Hitzemann



Nogo Receptor 1 (RTN4R) as a Candidate Gene for Schizophrenia: Analysis Using Human and Mouse  

E-print Network

Nogo Receptor 1 (RTN4R) as a Candidate Gene for Schizophrenia: Analysis Using Human and Mouse, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America Background. NOGO Receptor 1 (RTN4R/Principal Findings. We evaluate evidence for genetic association between common RTN4R polymorphisms and schizophrenia


Structural and functional characterization of the human and mouse fibulin-1 gene promoters: role of Sp1 and Sp3.  

PubMed Central

Fibulin-1 is a multifunctional extracellular protein involved in diverse biological processes including cardiovascular development, haemostasis and cancer. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding fibulin-1 we cloned and analysed about 4.0 kb of the 5'-flanking regions of both the human and mouse fibulin-1 genes. The human and mouse fibulin-1 promoters share little sequence similarity except for a short region of approx. 150-170 bp immediately upstream of the translation start site. The conserved region contains a TATA-like sequence (ATAATT) and multiple consensus binding sites for Sp1 and activator protein 2 (AP-2). That the short conserved region in each gene confers basal promoter activity is demonstrated by transient transfections of promoter deletion constructs for both the human and mouse genes into cells that express fibulin-1 constitutively. Co-transfections of promoter constructs with expression plasmids for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 into Drosophila SL2 cells indicate that Sp1 and Sp3 are essential for transcriptional activation and that these two factors act synergistically. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays show that Sp1 and Sp3, but not AP-2, bind to the basal promoter of the human fibulin-1 gene. The results demonstrate the functional importance of Sp1 and Sp3 in regulating the expression of the fibulin-1 gene. PMID:11829738

Castoldi, Mirco; Chu, Mon-Li



Mouse genomic variation and its effect on phenotypes and gene regulation  

PubMed Central

We report genome sequences of 17 inbred strains of laboratory mice and identify almost ten times more variants than previously known. We use these genomes to explore the phylogenetic history of the laboratory mouse and to examine the functional consequences of allele-specific variation on transcript abundance, revealing that at least 12% of transcripts show a significant tissue-specific expression bias. By identifying candidate functional variants at 718 quantitative trait loci we show that the molecular nature of functional variants and their position relative to genes vary according to the effect size of the locus. These sequences provide a starting point for a new era in the functional analysis of a key model organism. PMID:21921910

Keane, Thomas M.; Goodstadt, Leo; Danecek, Petr; White, Michael A.; Wong, Kim; Yalcin, Binnaz; Heger, Andreas; Agam, Avigail; Slater, Guy; Goodson, Martin; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Nellĺker, Christoffer; Whitley, Helen; Cleak, James; Janowitz, Deborah; Hernandez-Pliego, Polinka; Edwards, Andrew; Belgard, T. Grant; Oliver, Peter L.; McIntyre, Rebecca E.; Bhomra, Amarjit; Nicod, Jérôme; Gan, Xiangchao; Yuan, Wei; van der Weyden, Louise; Steward, Charles A.; Balasubramaniam, Sendu; Stalker, Jim; Mott, Richard; Durbin, Richard; Jackson, Ian J.; Czechanski, Anne; Assunçăo, José Afonso Guerra; Donahue, Leah Rae; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Payseur, Bret A.; Ponting, Chris P.; Birney, Ewan; Flint, Jonathan; Adams, David J.



Novel genes in Human Asthma Based on a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Human Investigations  

PubMed Central

Purpose Based on a previous gene expression study in a mouse model of asthma, we selected 60 candidate genes and investigated their possible roles in human asthma. Methods In these candidate genes, 90 SNPs were genotyped using MassARRAY technology from 311 asthmatic children and 360 healthy controls of the Hungarian (Caucasian) population. Moreover, gene expression levels were measured by RT PCR in the induced sputum of 13 asthmatics and 10 control individuals. t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were carried out in order to assess associations of SNP frequency and expression level with asthma. Permutation tests were performed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Results The frequency of 4 SNPs in 2 genes differed significantly between asthmatic and control subjects: SNPs rs2240572, rs2240571, rs3735222 in gene SCIN, and rs32588 in gene PPARGC1B. Carriers of the minor alleles had reduced risk of asthma with an odds ratio of 0.64 (0.51-0.80; P=7×10-5) in SCIN and 0.56 (0.42-0.76; P=1.2×10-4) in PPARGC1B. The expression levels of SCIN, PPARGC1B and ITLN1 genes were significantly lower in the sputum of asthmatics. Conclusions Three potentially novel asthma-associated genes were identified based on mouse experiments and human studies. PMID:25374748

Temesi, Gergely; Virág, Viktor; Hadadi, Éva; Ungvári, Ildikó; Fodor, Lili E; Bikov, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Horváth, Ildikó; Kiss, András; Hullám, Gábor; Gézsi, András; Sárközy, Péter; Antal, Péter; Buzás, Edit



Species-Specific Class I Gene Expansions Formed the Telomeric 1 Mb of the Mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex  

PubMed Central

We have determined the complete sequence of 951,695 bp from the class I region of H2, the mouse major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) from strain 129/Sv (haplotype bc). The sequence contains 26 genes. The sequence spans from the last 50 kb of the H2-T region, including 2 class I genes and 3 class I pesudogenes, and includes the H2-M region up to Gabbr1. A 500-kb stretch of the H2-M region contains 9 class I genes and 4 pseudogenes, which fall into two subfamilies, M1 and M10, distinct from other mouse class I genes. This M1/M10 class I gene-cluster is separated from the centromeric H2-T and the telomeric H2-M4, -5 and -6 class I genes by “nonclass I genes”. Comparison with the corresponding 853-kb region of the human Mhc, which includes the HLA-A region, shows a mosaic of conserved regions of orthologous nonclass I genes separated by regions of species-specific expansion of paralogous Mhc class I genes. The analysis of this mosaic structure illuminates the dynamic evolution of the Mhc class I region among mammals and provides evidence for the framework hypothesis. [Supplemental material is available online at The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. , , –. A preliminary draft sequence was earlier submitted as and replaced this year by NT002615.] PMID:12671000

Takada, Toyoyuki; Kumánovics, Attila; Amadou, Claire; Yoshino, Masayasu; Jones, Elsy P.; Athanasiou, Maria; Evans, Glen A.; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer



A Novel Mouse HSF3 Has the Potential to Activate Nonclassical Heat-Shock Genes during Heat Shock  

PubMed Central

The heat-shock response is characterized by the expression of a set of classical heat-shock genes, and is regulated by heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in mammals. However, comprehensive analyses of gene expression have revealed very large numbers of inducible genes in cells exposed to heat shock. It is believed that HSF1 is required for the heat-inducible expression of these genes although HSF2 and HSF4 modulate some of the gene expression. Here, we identified a novel mouse HSF3 (mHSF3) translocated into the nucleus during heat shock. However, mHSF3 did not activate classical heat-shock genes such as Hsp70. Remarkably, overexpression of mHSF3 restored the expression of nonclassical heat-shock genes such as PDZK3 and PROM2 in HSF1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Although down-regulation of mHSF3 expression had no effect on gene expression or cell survival in wild-type MEF cells, it abolished the moderate expression of PDZK3 mRNA and reduced cell survival in HSF1-null MEF cells during heat shock. We propose that mHSF3 represents a unique HSF that has the potential to activate only nonclassical heat-shock genes to protect cells from detrimental stresses. PMID:19864465

Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Naoki; Katoh, Takuma; Oshima, Kouji; Shinkawa, Toyohide; Prakasam, Ramachandran; Tan, Ke; Inouye, Sachiye; Takii, Ryosuke



A novel mouse HSF3 has the potential to activate nonclassical heat-shock genes during heat shock.  


The heat-shock response is characterized by the expression of a set of classical heat-shock genes, and is regulated by heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in mammals. However, comprehensive analyses of gene expression have revealed very large numbers of inducible genes in cells exposed to heat shock. It is believed that HSF1 is required for the heat-inducible expression of these genes although HSF2 and HSF4 modulate some of the gene expression. Here, we identified a novel mouse HSF3 (mHSF3) translocated into the nucleus during heat shock. However, mHSF3 did not activate classical heat-shock genes such as Hsp70. Remarkably, overexpression of mHSF3 restored the expression of nonclassical heat-shock genes such as PDZK3 and PROM2 in HSF1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Although down-regulation of mHSF3 expression had no effect on gene expression or cell survival in wild-type MEF cells, it abolished the moderate expression of PDZK3 mRNA and red