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Sample records for mouse metallothionein gene

  1. Expression of mouse metallothionein genes in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Yeargan, R.; Wagner, G.J.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We have expressed a mouse metallothionein (NT) gene in tobacco under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and a pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) gene promoter. Seedlings in which MT gene expression is driven by the 35S promoter are resistant to toxic levels of cadmium. Mature plants carrying the 35S-MT gene accumulate less Cd in their leaves when exposed to low levels of Cd in laboratory growth conditions. Plants with the rbcS-MT construction express this gene in a light-regulated and tissue-specific manner, as expected. Moreover, the MT levels in leaves in these plants are about 20% of those seen in 35S-MT plants. These plants are currently being tested for Cd resistance. In addition, a small field evaluation of 35S-MT lines for Cd levels is being evaluated. These experiments will address the possibility of using MTs to alter Cd levels in crop species.

  2. Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content.

  3. Transcriptional induction of the mouse metallothionein-I gene in hydrogen peroxide-treated Hepa cells involves a composite major late transcription factor/antioxidant response element and metal response promoter elements.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, T; Palmiter, R D; Andrews, G K

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and heme oxygenase mRNAs is rapidly and transiently induced by H2O2 in mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa) and this effect is blocked by catalase. Menadione, which generates free radicals, also induces these mRNAs. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that a region between -42 and -153 in the mouse MT-I promoter was essential for induction of a CAT reporter gene. A multimer of a 16 bp sequence (-101 to -86) that includes an antioxidant response element and overlapping adenovirus major late transcription factor binding site elevated basal expression and allowed induction by H2O2 when inserted upstream of a minimal promoter. However, deletion of this region (-100 to -89) from the intact MT-I promoter (-153) did not completely eliminate response. Multiple copies of a metal response element also permitted response to H2O2. These results suggest that induction of MT-I gene transcription by H2O2 is mediated by at least two different elements within the proximal MT-I gene promoter and suggest a previously undescribed function of the MRE. Induction of MT gene transcription by ROS and the subsequent scavenging of ROS by the MT peptide is reminiscent of the metal regulatory loop and is consistent with the hypothesized protective functions of MT. Images PMID:7800494

  4. Up-regulation of metallothionein gene expression in parkinsonian astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Michael, Gregory J; Esmailzadeh, Sharmin; Moran, Linda B; Christian, Lynne; Pearce, Ronald K B; Graeber, Manuel B

    2011-11-01

    The role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We have previously reported a striking up-regulation of DnaJB6 heat shock protein in PD substantia nigra astrocytes. Whole genome transcriptome analysis also indicated increased expression of metallothionein genes in substantia nigra and cortex of sporadic PD cases. Metallothioneins are metal-binding proteins in the CNS that are released by astrocytes and associated with neuroprotection. Metallothionein expression was investigated in 18 PD cases and 15 non-PD controls using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC). We observed a strong increase in the expression of metallothioneins MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1M, MT1X and MT2A in both PD nigra and frontal cortex. Expression of LRP2 (megalin), the neuronal metallothionein receptor was also significantly increased. qRT-PCR confirmed metallothionein up-regulation. Astrocytes were found to be the main source of metallothioneins 1 and 2 based on ISH results, and this finding was confirmed by ICC. Our findings demonstrate metallothionein expression by reactive astrocytes in PD nigra and support a neuroprotective role for these cells. The traditional view that nigral astrocytes are non-reactive in PD is clearly incorrect. However, it is possible that astrocytes are themselves affected by the disease process which may explain their comparatively modest and previously overlooked response. PMID:21800131

  5. Metallothionein gene expression in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Deeksha; Sharma, Ujjawal; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mandal, Arup Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1) the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2) apoptosis and (3) the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using ?-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01) in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05), while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV) in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis. PMID:25097305

  6. Tilapia metallothionein genes: PCR-cloning and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Cheung; Pok Lap, Andrew; Kwok Lim Lam, Vincent; Chan, King Ming

    2005-12-20

    Genomic PCR reactions were performed to isolate gene sequences of tilapia metallothionein (tiMT) from Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis aureus. Two AP1 binding sites, four metal responsive elements, and a TATA box are the major cis-acting elements identified in the 800-bp 5' flanking region of the tiMTs obtained in this study. The tiMT gene promoter cloned from O. aureus was characterized in vitro using PLHC-1 cell-line, a hepatocellular carcinoma of a desert topminnow (Poecciliopsis lucida), following the administrations of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+. Only Cd2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ were able to induce the transcription of tiMT gene promoter in PLHC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Zn2+ had the highest fold induction of tiMT gene promoter activity. Deletion mutants were tested for their abilities to drive the transcription of reporter gene following Cd2+ and Zn2+ administrations. However, Cu2+ and Ni2+ also induced the production of hepatic MT mRNA in vivo. Northern blot analysis showed that liver gave the highest fold induction of MT gene expression following the administration of heavy metal ions. These data indicated that hepatic MT mRNA level in tilapia is a potential sensitive biomarker of exposure to various metal ions including Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ ions. PMID:16309756

  7. Metal-dependent SV40 viruses containing inducible enhancers from the upstream region of metallothionein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Serfling, E; Lübbe, A; Dorsch-Häsler, K; Schaffner, W

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated SV40 recombinant viruses which are dependent on heavy metal ions for efficient propagation. They were obtained after-co-transfection of enhancerless SV40 DNA (the so-called enhancer trap) with sonicated DNA from the mouse metallothionein-I (mMT-I) or human metallothionein-IIA (hMT-IIA) upstream regions. To substitute for the SV40 enhancer, these viruses have incorporated a segment of the immediate upstream region of the metallothionein genes. Two recombinant viruses of the SVMT-I type carry segments of the mMT-I gene from positions -73 to -187 and -39 to -194 inverted with respect to their natural configuration. The overlapping segment contains two of the four metal-responsive elements involved in the induction of the mMT-I gene by heavy metal ions. The SVMT-II recombinant virus contains a segment of the hMT-IIA gene from position -39 to -366 which harbors the metal- and hormone-responsive elements of the hMT-IIA gene. Insertion of the mMT-I segment downstream of a rabbit beta-globin test gene enhances beta-globin transcription upon metal ion stimulation. This shows that the immediate upstream region of the mouse metalliothionein-I gene, when detached from its TATA box, can act as an inducible enhancer. It may be generally true that the enhancer/promoters of inducible genes are composed of several regulatory sequence elements which are interspersed with constitutive elements. The number and spatial arrangement of these elements probably determines the basal versus induced level of expression. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2419129

  8. Targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, B A; Kelly, E J; Quaife, C J; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1994-01-01

    We inactivated the mouse metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II genes in embryonic stem cells and generated mice homozygous for these mutant alleles. These mice were viable and reproduced normally when reared under normal laboratory conditions. They were, however, more susceptible to hepatic poisoning by cadmium. This proves that these widely expressed MTs are not essential for development but that they do protect against cadmium toxicity. These mice provide a means for testing other proposed functions of MT in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8290567

  9. Targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Masters, B A; Kelly, E J; Quaife, C J; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1994-01-18

    We inactivated the mouse metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II genes in embryonic stem cells and generated mice homozygous for these mutant alleles. These mice were viable and reproduced normally when reared under normal laboratory conditions. They were, however, more susceptible to hepatic poisoning by cadmium. This proves that these widely expressed MTs are not essential for development but that they do protect against cadmium toxicity. These mice provide a means for testing other proposed functions of MT in vivo. PMID:8290567

  10. Cadmium hypersusceptibility in the C3H mouse liver: cell specificity and possible role of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Quaife, C; Durnam, D; Mottet, N K

    1984-10-01

    The possible involvement of metallothionein (MT) gene expression dysfunction was examined in a strain of mouse which is unusually sensitive to cadmium toxicity, the C3H. C3H mice, and the relatively cadmium-insensitive Swiss mice, were injected sc with 20 microM CdCl2/kg body wt. This dose caused liver damage, visible at the light microscopic level, in the C3H but not the Swiss mice. These studies showed that MT-I mRNA and MT protein accumulation, as well as binding of cadmium by MT, were very similar in the two strains. These data suggested that altered expression of MT in the hepatic parenchyma was not a factor in the C3H hypersusceptibility. An electron microscopic examination of the early effects of cadmium injection indicated that the primary targets for toxicity in the C3H liver may be the endothelial cells. It is hypothesized that the widespread damage seen at later times resulted, secondarily, from ischemia produced in response to endothelial cell damage. PMID:6484995

  11. Metallothionein gene activation in the earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus)

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, M.; Dallinger, R.; Stürzenbaum, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to cope with changing environmental conditions, organisms require highly responsive stress mechanisms. Heavy metal stress is handled by metallothioneins (MTs), the regulation of which is evolutionary conserved in insects and vertebrates and involves the binding of metal transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) to metal responsive elements (MREs) positioned in the promoter of MT genes. However, in most invertebrate phyla, the transcriptional activation of MTs is different and the exact mechanism is still unknown. Interestingly, although MREs are typically present also in invertebrate MT gene promoters, MTF-1 is notably absent. Here we use Lumbricus rubellus, the red earthworm, to study the elusive mechanism of wMT-2 activation in control and Cd-exposed conditions. EMSA and DNase I footprinting approaches were used to pinpoint functional binding sites within the wMT-2 promoter region, which revealed that the cAMP responsive element (CRE) is a promising candidate which may act as a transcriptional activator of invertebrate MTs. PMID:25797623

  12. Interleukin 6 regulates metallothionein gene expression and zinc metabolism in hepatocyte monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J J; Cousins, R J

    1990-04-01

    Attention has focused on the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a major mediator of acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes in response to infection and tissue injury. We have evaluated the effects of IL-6 and IL-1 alpha as well as extracellular zinc and glucocorticoid hormone on metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation in rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures. Further, we have evaluated the teleological basis for cytokine mediation by examining cytoprotection from CCl4-induced damage. Incubation of hepatocytes with IL-6 led to concentration-dependent and time-dependent increases in metallothionein-1 and -2 mRNA and metallothionein protein. The level of each was increased within 3 hr after the addition of IL-6 at 10 ng/ml (10 hepatocyte-stimulating factor units/ml). Maximal increases in metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein were achieved after 12 hr and 36 hr, respectively. In contrast, IL-1 alpha concentrations as high as 20 ng/ml (1000 lymphocyte-activating factor units/ml) had no effect. Concomitant with the up-regulation of metallothionein gene expression, IL-6 also increased cellular zinc. Responses to IL-6 required the synthetic glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone and were optimized by increased extracellular zinc. In addition, IL-6 with dexamethasone, dexamethasone alone, and increased extracellular zinc each reversed, in decreasing potency, the deleterious effects of CCl4 on hepatocyte viability as measured by cell protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity of the medium. Thus, IL-6 is a major cytokine mediator of metallothionein gene expression and zinc metabolism in hepatocytes and provides cytoprotection from CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity via a mode consistent with dependence upon increased cellular metallothionein synthesis and zinc accumulation. PMID:2326272

  13. Radioimmunoassay of metallothionein in rabbit, rat, mouse, Chinese hamster, and human cells.

    PubMed

    Leibrandt, M E; Koropatnick, J; Harris, J F; Cherian, M G

    1991-09-01

    We describe a competitive, solid-phase radioimmunoassay for metallothionein, which employs a rabbit antiserum directed against rat MT-2 to detect metallothionein (MT) from several different species (rabbit, mouse, rat, Chinese hamster, and human). The lower limit of detection of the assay for rat MT-2 was 0.7 ng; for rabbit MT-2 it was 2 ng. The method is capable of measuring both isoforms of MT (MT-1 and MT-2). When MT levels in rat and mouse tissues were estimated with this RIA and the silver-saturation method, both assays gave the same pattern of MT induction in control and cadmium-treated animals. Both methods measured high levels of MT in human liver samples. Chinese hamster ovary cells induced with cadmium also showed elevated MT expression. The detectability of MTs from a broad range of species is facilitated by the use of solid-phase MT, which has an avidity for the antiserum similar to that of the MT in the tested sample. PMID:1720645

  14. The transcription factors MTF-1 and USF1 cooperate to regulate mouse metallothionein-I expression in response to the essential metal zinc in visceral endoderm cells during early development

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Glen K.; Lee, Dae Kee; Ravindra, Rudravajhala; Lichtlen, Peter; Sirito, Mario; Sawadogo, Michele; Schaffner, Walter

    2001-01-01

    During early development of the mouse embryo, expression of the metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene is heightened specifically in the endoderm cells of the visceral yolk sac. The mechanisms of regulation of this cell-specific pattern of expression of metallothionein-I are unknown. However, it has recently been shown that MTF-1, functioning as a metalloregulatory transcription factor, activates metallothionein genes in response to the essential metal zinc. In contrast with the metallothionein genes, MTF-1 is essential for development; null mutant embryos die due to liver degeneration. We report here that MTF-1 is absolutely essential for upregulation of MT-I gene expression in visceral endoderm cells and that optimal expression also involves interactions of the basic helix–loop–helix upstream stimulatory factor-1 (USF1) with an E-box1-containing sequence at –223 bp in the MT-I promoter. Expression of MT-I in visceral endoderm cells was dependent on maternal dietary zinc. Thus, the essential metal, zinc, apparently provides the signaling ligand that activates cell- specific MT-I expression in visceral endoderm cells. PMID:11230134

  15. Copper accumulation and compartmentalization in mouse fibroblast lacking metallothionein and copper chaperone, Atox1

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2009-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is the active center of some enzymes because of its redox-active property, although that property could have harmful effects. Because of this, cells have strict regulation/detoxification systems for this metal. In this study, multi-disciplinary approaches, such as speciation and elemental imaging of Cu, were applied to reveal the detoxification mechanisms for Cu in cells bearing a defect in Cu-regulating genes. Although Cu concentration in metallothionein (MT)-knockout cells was increased by the knockdown of the Cu chaperone, Atox1, the concentrations of the Cu influx pump, Ctr1, and another Cu chaperone, Ccs, were paradoxically increased; namely, the cells responded to the Cu deficiency despite the fact that cellular Cu concentration was actually increased. Cu imaging showed that the elevated Cu was compartmentalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Together, the results point to the novel roles of MT and cytoplasmic vesicles in the detoxification of Cu in mammalian cells.

  16. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Freezing of body fluids induces metallothionein gene expression in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra).

    PubMed

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms activated by environmental contaminants and natural stressors such as freezing need to be investigated in order to better understand the mechanisms of interaction and potential effects that combined stressors may have on organisms. Using the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra as model species, we exposed worms to freezing and exposure to sublethal copper in a factorial design and investigated the transcription of candidate genes for metal and cold stress. We hypothesised that both freezing and copper would induce transcription of genes coding for heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp70), metallothioneins (mt1 and mt2), and glutathione-S-transferase (gst), and that the combined effects of these two stressors would be additive. The gene transcripts hsp10, hsp70, and gst were significantly upregulated by freezing, but only hsp10 was upregulated by copper. We found that copper at the time of sampling had no effect on transcription of two metallothionein genes whereas transcription was strongly upregulated by freezing. Moreover, there was a significant interaction causing more than additive transcription rates of mt1 in the copper/freezing treatment suggesting that freeze-induced cellular dehydration increases the concentration of free copper ions in the cytosol. This metallothionein response to freezing is likely adaptive and possibly provides protection against freeze-induced elevated metal concentrations in the cytosol and excess ROS levels due to hypoxia during freezing. PMID:26325206

  18. Structure, organization and expression of the metallothionein gene family in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Goldsbrough, P B

    1995-08-21

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins required for heavy metal tolerance in animals and fungi. Recent results indicate that plants also possess functional metallothionein genes. Here we report the cloning and characterization of five metallothionein genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. The position of the single intron in each gene is conserved. The proteins encoded by these genes can be divided into two groups (MT1 and MT2) based on the presence or absence of a central domain separating two cysteine-rich domains. Four of the MT genes (MT1a, MT1c, MT2a and MT2b) are transcribed in Arabidopsis. Several lines of evidence suggest that the fifth gene, MT1b, is inactive. There is differential regulation of the MT gene family. MT1 mRNA is expressed highly in roots, moderately in leaves and is barely detected in inflorescences and siliques. MT2a and MT2b mRNAs are more abundant in leaves, inflorescences and in roots from mature plants, but are also detected in roots of young plants, and in siliques. MT2a mRNA is strongly induced in seedlings by CuSO4, whereas MT2b mRNA is relatively abundant in this tissue and levels increase only slightly upon exposure to copper. MT1a and MT1c are located within 2 kb of each other and have been mapped to chromosome I. MT1b and MT2b map to separate loci on chromosome V, and MT2a is located on chromosome III. The locations of these MT genes are different from that of CAD1, a gene involved in cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:7565594

  19. Overexpression of Metallothionein-1 Modulates the Phenotype of the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Manso, Yasmina; Comes, Gemma; Lpez-Ramos, Juan C; Belfiore, Mnica; Molinero, Amalia; Giralt, Mercedes; Carrasco, Javier; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Delgado-Garca, Jos Mara; Hidalgo, Juan

    2016-01-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most commonly diagnosed dementia, where signs of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are prominent. In this study we intend to further characterize the roles of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and heavy metal binding protein, metallothionein-1 (MT-1), by crossing Mt1 overexpressing mice with a well-known mouse model of AD, Tg2576 mice, which express the human amyloid-? protein precursor (hA?PP) with the Swedish K670N/M671L mutations. Mt1 overexpression increased overall perinatal survival, but did not affect significantly hA?PP-induced mortality and weight loss in adult mice. Amyloid plaque burden in ?14-month-old mice was increased by Mt1 overexpression in the hippocampus but not the cortex. Despite full length hA?PP levels and amyloid plaques being increased by Mt1 overexpression in the hippocampus of both sexes, oligomeric and monomeric forms of A?, which may contribute more to toxicity, were decreased in the hippocampus of females and increased in males. Several behavioral traits such as exploration, anxiety, and learning were altered in Tg2576 mice to various degrees depending on the age and the sex. Mt1 overexpression ameliorated the effects of hA?PP on exploration in young females, and potentiated those on anxiety in old males, and seemed to improve the rate of spatial learning (Morris water maze) and the learning elicited by a classical conditioning procedure (eye-blink test). These results clearly suggest that MT-1 may be involved in AD pathogenesis. PMID:26836194

  20. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

  1. CYTOKININ AND METALS REGULATE A TOBACCO METALLOTHIONEIN-LIKE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To isolate cytokinin responsive genes, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia shoots/rosettes containing the heat shock inducible isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene (HS-ipt) were heat shocked and used to prepare a cDNA library that was screened with a HS-induced subtractive probe. The cDNA clone pCkn16A1 (Access...

  2. Variation in metallothionein gene expression is associated with adaptation to copper in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    PubMed

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2013-03-01

    Evolution of resistance to heavy metals has been reported for several populations of soil living organisms occurring at metal contaminated sites. Such genetically based and heritable resistance contribute to the persistence of populations in contaminated areas. Here we report on molecular responses to experimental copper in populations of the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, originating from copper contaminated soil near Gusum (Sweden) where heavy metal pollution has been present for several decades. We studied gene expression of six genes potentially involved in resistance to copper toxicity using F2-generations of D. octaedra populations, originating from reference sites and contaminated (High, Medium and Low) sites around Gusum. The main result was different expression patterns of genes encoding for two different isoforms (mt1 and mt2) of metallothionein proteins during experimental exposure to copper contaminated soil. Expression of mt1 showed a fast and significant upregulation in the High population and a slower, albeit significant, upregulation in Medium and Low populations. However, in the three reference populations no upregulation were seen. In comparison, a fast upregulation was also seen for the High population in the isoform mt2, whereas, gene expression of all other populations, including reference populations, showed slower upregulation in response to experimental copper. The results indicate that copper resistance in D. octaedra from contaminated areas is related to an increased expression of metallothioneins. PMID:23237849

  3. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells: implications for mechanisms regulating metallothionein gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.; Griffith, B.B.; Griffith, J.K.; Hanners, J.L.; Longmire, J.L.; Munk, A.C.; Stallings, R.L.; Tesmer, J.G.; Walters, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe here the derivation, characterization, and use of clonal cadmium-resistance (Cd/sup r) strains of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO which differ in their metallothionein (MT) induction capacity. By nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel electrophoresis, the authors showed that the stable Cd/sup r/ phenotype is correlated with the augmented expression of both isometallothioneins (MTI and MTII). In cells resistant to concentrations of CdCl2 exceeding 20 M, coordinate amplifications of genes encoding both isometallothioneins was demonstrated by using cDNA MT-coding sequence probes and probes specific for 3'-noncoding regions of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes. Molecular and in situ hybridization analyses supported close linkage of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes, which the authors have mapped previously to Chinese hamster chromosome 3. This suggests the existence of a functionally related MT gene cluster in this species. Amplified Cd/sup r/ variants expressing abundant MT and their corresponding Cd/sup s/ parental CHO cells should be useful for future studies directed toward elucidating the mechanisms that regulate expressions of the isometallothioneins. 59 references, 8 figures.

  4. Regulation of the rat metallothionein-I gene by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Birren, B W; Herschman, H R

    1986-01-01

    Sodium butyrate selectively induces accumulation of metallothionein-I (MT-I) RNA in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. The induction is rapid; significant elevation in cytoplasmic MT-I RNA can be observed within three hours after exposure to 5 mM butyrate. Maximal levels of MT-I RNA are obtained after eight hours. Butyrate stimulates MT RNA accumulation in the absence of de novo protein synthesis, indicating that MT induction by butyrate is not a distal step in a cascade of gene activation events. Butyrate blocks the induction of tyrosine amino transferase by dexamethasone. In contrast, butyrate and dexamethasone induced MT RNA elevations are additive. Butyrate induced MT-I RNA transcripts initiate at the correct start site. Measurements of the transcriptional activity of the MT-I gene indicate that butyrate stimulates MT-I transcription. The rapid, direct nature of the induction of MT-I by butyrate, combined with the extensive characterization of the metallothionein gene, provide an excellent system in which to study the effects of butyrate on a small, well-defined, responsive region of chromatin. Images PMID:2868444

  5. Metallothionein genes: no association with Crohn's disease in a New Zealand population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are excellent candidate genes for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and have previously been shown to have altered expression in both animal and human studies of IBD. This is the first study to examine genetic variants within the MT genes and aims to determine whether such genetic variants have an important role in this disease. 28 tag SNPs in genes MT1 (subtypes A, B, E, F, G, H, M, X), MT2, MT3 and MT4 were selected for genotyping in a well-characterized New Zealand dataset consisting of 406 patients with Crohn's Disease and 638 controls. We did not find any evidence of association for MT genetic variation with CD. The lack of association indicates that genetic variants in the MT genes do not play a significant role in predisposing to CD in the New Zealand population. PMID:22284420

  6. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress. PMID:24918294

  7. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress. PMID:24918294

  8. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail’s stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu+) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors. PMID:26935042

  9. Induction of mouse metallothionein-I mRNA by bacterial endotoxin is independent of metals and glucocorticoid hormones.

    PubMed

    Durnam, D M; Hoffman, J S; Quaife, C J; Benditt, E P; Chen, H Y; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1984-02-01

    ++Induction of metallothionein-I (MT-I) mRNA by bacterial endotoxin (LPS) was examined. A single injection of LPS induced MT-I mRNA accumulation in both liver and kidney comparable to that induced by heavy metals. Maximal message levels were achieved 6 hr after LPS administration, prior to any increase in either hepatic or renal Zn or Cu. Experiments in which LPS was administered to transgenic mice harboring recombinant genes made by fusing the MT-I gene promoter to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase structural gene revealed that the response to LPS is independent of glucocorticoid hormones. These experiments begin to define the region of the MT-I gene promoter required for the LPS response. PMID:6322185

  10. Induction of mouse metallothionein-I mRNA by bacterial endotoxin is independent of metals and glucocorticoid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Durnam, D M; Hoffman, J S; Quaife, C J; Benditt, E P; Chen, H Y; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1984-01-01

    ++Induction of metallothionein-I (MT-I) mRNA by bacterial endotoxin (LPS) was examined. A single injection of LPS induced MT-I mRNA accumulation in both liver and kidney comparable to that induced by heavy metals. Maximal message levels were achieved 6 hr after LPS administration, prior to any increase in either hepatic or renal Zn or Cu. Experiments in which LPS was administered to transgenic mice harboring recombinant genes made by fusing the MT-I gene promoter to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase structural gene revealed that the response to LPS is independent of glucocorticoid hormones. These experiments begin to define the region of the MT-I gene promoter required for the LPS response. PMID:6322185

  11. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  12. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. )

    1990-04-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

  13. A copper-induced metallothionein gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its response to heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Gui, Tianshu; Sun, Zheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    A full-length copper-induced metallothionein (EcMT-Cu) cDNA was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis) and it contained a 198 bp open reading frame that encoded a peptide with 65 amino acid residues. Twenty-one cysteines were found in deduced amino acid sequence and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was also reported in different types of metallothioneins from other species. EcMT-Cu mRNA expression profile showed that it is the hepatopancreas specific gene. The expression of EcMT-Cu was extremely different when shrimp were exposed to seawater containing 50 μM CuSO4 or 2.5 μM CdCl2. The expression of EcMT-Cu in shrimp was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h after exposure to CuSO4, however, its expression was not induced compared to that of pretreatment (p>0.05) when shrimp were exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cu was found to be extremely low at gastrula and nauplius stage and expression of EcMT-Cu could be detected from egg protozoa stage. PMID:24971556

  14. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Kaina, B; Lohrer, H; Karin, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions. Images PMID:2320583

  15. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences. PMID:18154678

  16. Three-dimensional solution structure of mouse [Cd7]-metallothionein-1 by homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Zangger, K.; Oz, G.; Otvos, J. D.; Armitage, I. M.

    1999-01-01

    Sequential 1H-NMR assignments of mouse [Cd7]-metallothionein-1 (MT1) have been carried out by standard homonuclear NMR methods and the use of an accordion-heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (HMQC) experiment for establishing the metal, 113Cd2+, to cysteine connectivities. The three-dimensional structure was then calculated using the distance constraints from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) spectroscopy spectra and the Cys-Cd connectivities as input for a distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing protocol in X-PLOR 3.851. Similar to the mammalian MT2 isoforms, the homologous primary structure of MT1 suggested two separate domains, each containing one metal cluster. Because there were no interdomain constraints, the structure calculation for the N-terminal beta- and the C-terminal alpha-domain were carried out separately. The structures are based on 409 NMR constraints, consisting of 381 NOEs and 28 cysteine-metal connectivities. The only elements of regular secondary structure found were two short stretches of 3(10) helices along with some half-turns in the alpha-domain. Structural comparison with rat liver MT2 showed high similarity, with the beta-domain structure in mouse MT1 showing evidence of increased flexibility compared to the same domain in MT2. The latter was reflected by the presence of fewer interresidue NOEs, no slowly exchanging backbone amide protons, and enhanced cadmium-cadmium exchange rates found in the beta-domain of MT1. PMID:10631978

  17. METALLOTHIONEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF METAL EXPOSURE IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metallothionein is a cysteine rich, low molecular weight, metal binding protein. Basal levels of endogenous metallothioneins (MT) have been reported in all eucaryotes. MT has been shown to play an essential role in regulating physiological requirements of essential metals such a...

  18. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem. PMID:26092240

  19. Comparison of metallothionein gene expression and nonprotein thiols in ten Arabidopsis ecotypes. Correlation with copper tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, A; Taiz, L

    1995-01-01

    Seedlings of 10 Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared with respect to copper tolerance, expression of two metallothionein genes (MT1 and MT2), and nonprotein thiol levels. MT1 was uniformly expressed in all treatments, and MT2 was copper inducible in all 10 ecotypes. MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels were compared with various growth parameters for the 10 ecotypes in the presence of 40 microM Cu2+. The best correlation (R = 0.99) was obtained between MT2 mRNA and the rate of root extension. MT2 mRNA levels also paralleled the recovery phase following inhibition by copper. Induction of MT2 mRNA was initiated at copper concentrations below the threshold for growth inhibition. In cross-induction experiments, Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and heat shock all induced significant levels of MT2 gene expression, whereas Al3+ and salicylic acid did not. The correlation between copper tolerance and nonprotein thiol levels in the 10 ecotypes was not statistically significant. However, 2 ecotypes, Ws and Enkheim, previously shown to exhibit an acclimation response, had the highest levels of nonprotein thiols. We conclude that MT2 gene expression may be the primary determinant of ecotypic differences in the copper tolerance of nonpretreated Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:8552721

  20. Gains, Losses and Changes of Function after Gene Duplication: Study of the Metallothionein Family

    PubMed Central

    Moleirinho, Ana; Carneiro, João; Matthiesen, Rune; Silva, Raquel M.; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins involved in heavy metal detoxification and protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The mammalian MT family originated through a series of duplication events which generated four major genes (MT1 to MT4). MT1 and MT2 encode for ubiquitous proteins, while MT3 and MT4 evolved to accomplish specific roles in brain and epithelium, respectively. Herein, phylogenetic, transcriptional and polymorphic analyses are carried out to expose gains, losses and diversification of functions that characterize the evolutionary history of the MT family. The phylogenetic analyses show that all four major genes originated through a single duplication event prior to the radiation of mammals. Further expansion of the MT1 gene has occurred in the primate lineage reaching in humans a total of 13 paralogs, five of which are pseudogenes. In humans, the reading frame of all five MT1 pseudogenes is reconstructed by sequence homology with a functional duplicate revealing that loss of invariant cysteines is the most frequent event accounting for pseudogeneisation. Expression analyses based on EST counts and RT-PCR experiments show that, as for MT1 and MT2, human MT3 is also ubiquitously expressed while MT4 transcripts are present in brain, testes, esophagus and mainly in thymus. Polymorphic variation reveals two deleterious mutations (Cys30Tyr and Arg31Trp) in MT4 with frequencies reaching about 30% in African and Asian populations suggesting the gene is inactive in some individuals and physiological compensation for its loss must arise from a functional equivalent. Altogether our findings provide novel data on the evolution and diversification of MT gene duplicates, a valuable resource for understanding the vast set of biological processes in which these proteins are involved. PMID:21541013

  1. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  2. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  3. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of technetium-99-metallothionein-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody B72. 3 in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, S.W.; Hadjian, R.A.; Hladik, W.B.; Drozynski, C.A.; Tolman, G.L.; Haber, S.B.; Gallagher, B.M. )

    1989-08-01

    These studies were conducted to determine the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of ({sup 99m}Tc)metallothionein-conjugated B72.3 ((Tc)MT-B72.3) in Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that were performed as part of the preclinical evaluation of (Tc)MT-B72.3. The B72.3-MT conjugate was studied at three doses of B72.3 ranging from 0.03 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg to determine whether a relationship existed between the dose of total antibody administered intravenously and the biodistribution and clearance of the radiolabeled protein. Results indicated that (Tc)MT-B72.3 distributes rapidly to central body cavity organs and that there was no difference in the rate of blood elimination for the three doses of B72.3 studied. The terminal phase of blood elimination was found to be 26.2 +/- 6.1 hr for the combined groups of monkeys. Approximately one-half of injected {sup 99m}Tc activity was recovered in the urine within 24 hr. A second purpose of these studies was to evaluate the overall immunogenicity of the mouse monoclonal B72.3 IgG1 antibody in Rhesus monkeys. These results demonstrated that a single i.v. exposure to mouse monoclonal B72.3 at doses of 0.3 mg/kg or greater elicited antibody production to B72.3 in Rhesus monkeys within 3 wk. Analysis of (Tc)MT-B72.3 biodistribution and clearance in monkeys with circulating levels of antibodies to B72.3 (immunized monkeys) revealed that the liver was the primary site of clearance of the presumed immune complex and that blood elimination was greatly accelerated.

  4. Cloning, characterization, and expression of cadmium-induced metallothionein-2 gene from earthworm Pheretima aspergillum (E. Perrier).

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Li, W; Li, J; Li, W E; Wu, W R; Yu, L W

    2015-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous metal-binding, cysteine-rich proteins, associated with metal accumulation and thus providing protection against toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). To investigate the mechanisms of enrichment of Cd in the earthworm Pheretima aspergillum, we isolated and cloned metallothionein-2 (MT-2) cDNA (538 bp) from P. aspergillum, analyzed its sequence, and examined MT-2 transcription levels by relative quantitative real-time PCR under different concentrations of Cd. The sequence of P. aspergillum MT-2 cDNA and its putative amino acid sequence were highly similar to sequences from other earthworms. The induction with Cd increased the MT-2 gene transcription level in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, earthworm recombinant MT-2 exhibited high Cd bioaccumulation ability in vitro. These results suggested that MT-2 plays an important role in tolerance and accumulation of Cd in P. aspergillum. PMID:26681024

  5. Butyrate selectively activates the metallothionein gene in teratocarcinoma cells and induces hypersensitivity to metal induction.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, G K; Adamson, E D

    1987-01-01

    The expression of metallothionein genes (MT-I and MT-II) was shown to be enhanced within 2 h of addition of 2.5-5 mM sodium butyrate to cultures of teratocarcinoma cells. Both undifferentiated stem cells (F9 and OC15) and differentiated cells (PSA5E and OC15 END) reacted similarly to butyrate by increased accumulation of MT mRNAs. As expected, all of the teratocarcinoma cells that were tested also responded to Zn2+ and Cd2+ by 5- to 10-fold increases in MT mRNA accumulation within 2-24 h of metal addition to the culture media. Surprisingly, MT genes in cells pretreated with butyrate were hypersensitive to metal induction, and this was demonstrated by accumulated transcript levels and by synthesis of MT protein. The maximal metal response was obtained by exposure of cells to butyrate for around 5-8 h together with 10 microM heavy metals. Metal additions to culture media over a range of concentrations and times only induced half the levels of MT mRNA that were achieved by butyrate plus metals. Butyrate enhanced the rate of accumulation of MT mRNA in response to metals, increased the sensitivity of the MT gene to metals, and protected cells from toxic effects of high concentrations of metals. The butyrate and metal ion responses were selective in that no accumulation of c-myc, c-fms, HSP-70, or AFP mRNA was detected. However, c-fos mRNA accumulated in cells exposed to toxic concentrations of metals (50 microM and higher) and this was also potentiated by butyrate treatment. These results suggest that butyrate alters the chromatin conformation of both the MT-I and MT-II genes leading to an accentuated transcriptional response to metals. Images PMID:3601676

  6. Zinc supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc transporter, and cytokine gene expression in leukocyte populations

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Blanchard, Raymond K.; Cousins, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An effective measure to assess zinc status of humans has remained elusive, in contrast to iron, where a number of indicators of metabolism/function are available. Using monocytes, T lymphocytes, and granulocytes isolated by magnetic sorting and dried blood spots (DBS) derived from 50 μl of peripheral blood, we evaluated the response of metallothionein (MT), zinc transporter, and cytokine genes to a modest (15 mg of Zn per day) dietary zinc supplement in human subjects. Transcript abundance was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR). Zinc supplementation increased MT mRNA abundance by up to 2-fold in RNA from leukocyte subsets, and 4-fold in RNA from DBS. Transcript levels for the zinc transporter genes ZnT1 and Zip3 were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc supplementation. Expression of the ZnT and Zip genes among leukocyte subsets differ by up to 270-fold. Monocytes and granulocytes from supplemented subjects were activated by LPS, whereas T lymphocytes were activated by mimicking antigen presentation. With zinc consumption, TNF-α and IL-1β expression was greater in activated monocytes and granulocytes, and IFN-γ mRNA levels were higher in activated T lymphocytes. These studies show that QRT-PCR is a tool to reliably measure transcript abundance for nutritionally responsive genes in human subjects, and that a small sample of whole dried blood, when appropriately collected, can be used as the source of total RNA for QRT-PCR analysis. The results obtained also show that zinc supplementation of human subjects programs specific leukocytic subsets to show enhanced cytokine expression upon activation by stimulators of immunity. PMID:16434472

  7. A new metallothionein gene from the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small soluble proteins ubiquitously expressed in animals and plants. Different isoforms are present in deuterostomes and protostomes. They do not differ greatly in primary structure, but are clearly distinguishable. Here, I present the gene and the complete cDNA of a novel MT from the mollusk Megathura crenulata. This protein is closely related to the Cu-inducible MTs of the vineyard snail Helix pomatia, but has also some minor sequence features typical of Cd-inducible isoforms of H. pomatia and other molluscs. Overall, the deduced primary structure is similar to the known molluscan MTs, but in addition possesses an insertion of 5 amino acids not found in any other molluscan MTs, protostomic or deuterostomic MTs. In addition, a pentapeptide insertion, characteristic of mammalian MT-3 is present but it lacks the functional tetrapeptide CPCP within the beta-region of those MT-3 proteins that are known to suppress neuronal growth processes. The M. crenulata MT is a novel form of MT in comparison to all other known MTs. Possible functional aspects for this new MT are discussed. PMID:12524025

  8. The mouse cornichon gene family.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S Y; Oh, B; Zhang, Z; Miller, W; Solter, D; Knowles, B B

    1999-02-01

    As part of a large scale mouse Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project to identify molecules involved in the initiation of mammalian development, a homolog of the Drosophila cornichon gene was detected as a mouse maternal transcript present in the two-cell embryo. Cornichon is a multigene family in the mouse: the new gene, Cnih, maps to mouse chromosome 10, another cornichon homolog, Cnil, maps to chromosome 14 and two additional cornichon-related loci, possibly pseudogenes, localize to chromosomes 3 and 10, respectively. Cnih encodes an open reading frame (ORF) of 144 amino acids that is 93% homologous (68% identical) to the Drosophila protein, whereas the ORF of Cnil contains two extra polypeptide regions not found in these other proteins. Transcripts of Cnih are highly abundant in the full grown oocyte and the ovulated unfertilized egg, while Cnil message is only detectable after activation of the embryonic genome at the eight-cell stage. In situ hybridization shows specific localization of Cnih transcripts to ovarian oocytes. The lack of cytoplasmic polyadenylation of the maternally inherited Cnih transcript suggests that Cnih mRNA is translated in the full grown oocyte before, but not after, ovulation. In Drosophila, cornichon is involved in the establishment of both anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral polarity via the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor signaling pathway. Finding Cnih in the mammalian oocyte opens a new perspective on the investigation of EGF-signaling in the oocyte. PMID:10022955

  9. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis.

    PubMed

    Hlokov, Kate?ina; Mat?nov, Michaela; ?kov, Petra; Strnad, Hynek; Hrelov, Hana; Hroudov, Milue; Kotrba, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms evolved in eukaryotes to handle heavy metals involve cytosolic, metal-binding metallothioneins (MTs). We have previously documented that the sequestration of silver (Ag) in the Ag-hyperaccumulating Amanita strobiliformis is dominated by 34-amino-acid (AA) AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isoforms. Here we show that in addition to AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isogenes, the fungus has two other MT genes: AsMT2 encoding a 34-AA AsMT2 similar to MTs known from other species, but unrelated to AsMT1s; AsMT3 coding for a 62-AA AsMT3 that shares substantial identity with as-yet-uncharacterized conserved peptides predicted in agaricomycetes. Transcription of AsMT1s and AsMT3 in the A. strobiliformis mycelium was specifically inducible by treatments with Ag or copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) or cadmium (Cd), respectively; AsMT2 showed a moderate upregulation in the presence of Cd. Expression of AsMTs in the metal-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that all AsMTs confer increased Cd tolerance (AsMT3 proved the most effective) and that, unlike AsMT1 and AsMT2, AsMT3 can protect the yeasts against Zn toxicity. The highest level of Cu tolerance was observed with yeasts expressing AsMT1a. Our data indicate that A. strobiliformis can specifically employ different MT genes for functions in the cellular handling of Ag and Cu (AsMT1s) and Zn (AsMT3). PMID:26895864

  10. Characterization of calcineurin-dependent response element binding protein and its involvement in copper-metallothionein gene expression in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Kalari Satish; Ravi Kumar, B.; Siddavattam, Dayananda; Subramanyam, Chivukula . E-mail: csubramanyam@hotmail.com

    2006-07-07

    In continuation of our recent observations indicating the presence of a lone calcineurin-dependent response element (CDRE) in the -3730 bp upstream region of copper-induced metallothionein (CuMT) gene of Neurospora [K.S. Kumar, S. Dayananda, C. Subramanyam, Copper alone, but not oxidative stress, induces copper-metallothionein gene in Neurospora crassa, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242 (2005) 45-50], we isolated and characterized the CDRE-binding protein. The cloned upstream region of CuMT gene was used as the template to specifically amplify CDRE element, which was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B for use as the affinity matrix to purify the CDRE binding protein from nuclear extracts obtained from Neurospora cultures grown in presence of copper. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the affinity purified protein revealed the presence of a single 17 kDa protein, which was identified and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Peptide mass finger printing of tryptic digests and analysis of the 17 kDa protein matched with the regulatory {beta}-subunit of calcineurin (Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase). Parallel identification of nuclear localization signals in this protein by in silico analysis suggests a putative role for calcineurin in the regulation of CuMT gene expression.

  11. Differential expression and characterization of three metallothionein-like genes in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Goh, Chong-Jin; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Pua, Eng-Chong

    2002-02-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich polypeptides that are involved in metal detoxification and homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of three members (MT2A, MT2B and MT3) of the MT-like gene family from ripening banana fruit and their differential expression in various banana organs and during fruit development and ripening. All members of the MT-like gene encode small cysteine-rich polypeptides of 65-79 amino acid residues. MT2A shared a high sequence similarity (54-77%) with several type-2 MTs in plants, while MT3 was highly homologous (51-61%) with type-3 MTs. The three members expressed differentially in various organs but transcripts were generally more abundant in reproductive than vegetative organs. During fruit development, the MT2A transcript was barely detectable in ovary but increased to a high level in young fruit at 20 days after shooting (DAS) and declined gradually thereafter as fruit developed. In contrast, both MT2B and MT3 expressed poorly in young fruits (20-60 DAS) and transcripts were detected only in fruits at later stages of development. As ripening progressed, expression of MT2A decreased but that of MT3 increased. Expression of MT members during ripening appeared to be differentially regulated by ethylene, whose levels were low in FG and TY fruit but surged climacteristically in MG and declined sharply as ripening advanced further. Exogenous application of ethylene at 5 ppm or higher concentrations down-regulated MT2A expression and the inhibitory effect of ethylene could be partially suppressed by the presence of norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action. Ethylene had no effect on transcript accumulation of MT2B and MT3. However, MT3 expression was greatly enhanced in response to metals such as CdSO4, CuSO4 and ZnSO4. These results suggest that increased MT3 expression may be associated with excess metal ions present in ripening fruit tissues. This study also provided evidence, for the first time, that ethylene and metals play a regulatory role in expression of MT-like genes in banana. PMID:11903971

  12. Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  13. The strong induction of metallothionein gene following cadmium exposure transiently affects the expression of many genes in Eisenia fetida: a trade-off mechanism?

    PubMed

    Brulle, F; Mitta, G; Leroux, R; Lemière, S; Leprêtre, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2007-01-01

    Metal pollution causes disturbances at various levels of biological organization in most species. Important physiological functions could be affected in the exposed individuals and among the main physiological functions, immunity may provide one (or more) effector(s) whose expression can be directly affected by a metal exposure in various macroinvertebrates. Protein expressions were studied in order to test them as molecular biomarkers of metal exposure in Eisenia fetida. Selected effectors were calmodulin, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase, metallothionein, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, transcriptionally controlled tumor protein, protein kinase C, ubiquitin and cyclophilin-A. The level of expression of each gene was analysed in whole organism following exposures to cadmium in soil using real-time PCR. Metallothionein, transcriptionally controlled tumor protein and cyclophilin-A expression were also measured following copper exposures in soil because these genes seemed to be sensitive to copper. This work enabled to distinguish metallothionein and cyclophilin-A among the 15 selected effectors. A strong decrease of the number of transcripts was also detected for most effectors soon after the exposure to cadmium suggesting that a trade-off mechanism occurs. PMID:17150412

  14. Changes in copper and zinc status and response to dietary copper deficiency in metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic mouse heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that metallothionein (MT) inhibits myocardial apoptosis induced by dietary copper restriction and that this inhibition is related to the antioxidant action of MT. However, the mechanism of action of MT in vivo is not known. Recent studies have suggested that zinc release ...

  15. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Espinoza, Paul; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs -the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins- among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks-CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways. PMID:26882011

  16. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs -the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins- among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks-CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways. PMID:26882011

  17. Dual Opposing Roles of Metallothionein Overexpression in C57BL/6J Mouse Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suqin; Han, Junying; Liu, Yeqi

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress (OS), a persistent state of excess amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS), plays an important role in insulin resistance, diabetic complications, and dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells. Pancreatic β-cells contain exceptionally low levels of antioxidant enzymes, rendering them susceptible to ROS-induced damage. Induction of antioxidants has been proposed to be a way for protecting β-cells against oxidative stress. Compared to other antioxidants that act against particular β-cell damages, metallothionein (MT) is the most effective in protecting β-cells from several oxidative stressors including nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and streptozotocin (STZ). We hypothesized that MT overexpression in pancreatic β-cells would preserve β-cell function in C57BL/6J mice, an animal model susceptible to high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods The pancreatic β-cell specific MT overexpression was transferred to C57BL/6J background by backcrossing. We studied transgenic MT (MT-tg) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates at 8 weeks and 18 weeks of age. Several tests were performed to evaluate the function of islets, including STZ in vivo treatment, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) and plasma insulin levels during IPGTT, pancreatic and islet insulin content measurement, insulin secretion, and islet morphology assessment. Gene expression in islets was performed by quantitative real-time PCR and PCR array analysis. Protein levels in pancreatic sections were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Results The transgenic MT protein was highly expressed in pancreatic islets. MT-tg overexpression significantly protected mice from acute STZ-induced ROS at 8 weeks of age; unexpectedly, however, MT-tg impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and promoted the development of diabetes. Pancreatic β-cell function was significantly impaired, and islet morphology was also abnormal in MT-tg mice, and more severe damage was detected in males. The unique gene expression pattern and abnormal protein levels were observed in MT-tg islets. Conclusions MT overexpression protected β-cells from acute STZ-induced ROS damages at young age, whereas it impaired GSIS and promoted the development of diabetes in adult C57BL/6J mice, and more severe damage was found in males. PMID:26335571

  18. MouseFinder: candidate disease genes from mouse phenotype data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Kung; Mungall, Christopher J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Doelken, Sandra C; Köhler, Sebastian; Ruef, Barbara J; Smith, Cynthia; Westerfield, Monte; Robinson, Peter N; Lewis, Suzanna E; Schofield, Paul N; Smedley, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Mouse phenotype data represents a valuable resource for the identification of disease-associated genes, especially where the molecular basis is unknown and there is no clue to the candidate gene’s function, pathway involvement or expression pattern. However, until recently these data have not been systematically used due to difficulties in mapping between clinical features observed in humans and mouse phenotype annotations. Here, we describe a semantic approach to solve this problem and demonstrate highly significant recall of known disease-gene associations and orthology relationships. A web application (MouseFinder; www.mousemodels.org) has been developed to allow users to search the results of our whole-phenome comparison of human and mouse. We demonstrate its use in identifying ARTN as a strong candidate gene within the 1p34.1-p32 mapped locus for a hereditary form of ptosis. PMID:22331800

  19. Transgenic Brassica napus and tobacco plants harboring human metallothionein gene are resistant to toxic levels of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, S. )

    1989-04-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned human metallothionein-II (MT-II) processed gene was introduced into Brassica napus and tobacco cells on a disarmed Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transformants expressed MT protein as a nuclear trait, and in a constitutive manner. Seeds from self-fertilized transgenic plants were germinated on media containing toxic levels of cadmium and scored for tolerance/susceptibility to this heavy metal. The growth of root and shoot of transformed seedlings was unaffected by up to 100{mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, whereas, control seedlings showed severe inhibition of root and shoot growth and chlorosis of leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that agriculturally important plants such a B. napus can be genetically engineered for heavy metals tolerance/sequestration and eventually for partitioning of heavy metals in non-consumed plant tissues.

  20. Enhanced metallothionein gene expression is associated with protection from cadmium-induced genotoxity in cultured rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, T.P.; Bare, R.M.; Bjornson, E.J.; Waalkes, M.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins that appear to play an important role in the cellular defense system against cadmium toxicity. Although substantial evidence exists demonstrating a reduction in cadmium toxicity concomitant with MT induction, little is known about the possible effects of stimulation of MT synthesis on cadmium-induced genotoxicity. Thus, the alkaline elution technique was used to assess single-strand DNA damage (SSD) in TRL-1215 cells, a liver-derived cell line shown to have inducible MT Gene expression. The SSD accumulated over a 2-h time period in a time-dependent manner following exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2]. Low concentration cadmium pretreatment (10 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 24 h) provided protection against the genotoxicity of high-concentration cadmium (500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 2 h). A 2-h exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], had no effect on viability, as assessed using a tetrazolium-dye based assay, in cells from either the pretreated or nonpretreated group. Metallothionein was induced in a time-dependent manner by low-concentration cadmium pretreatment: Exposure for 24 and 48 h resulted in 3.3- and 6.4-fold increases, respectively. In addition, a 24-h exposure to low-concentration cadmium resulted in an increase in MT-I gene expression. Cadmium accumulation was 2.6-fold greater in low-concentration cadmium-pretreated cells as compared to non-pretreated cells. These data demonstrate that low-concentration cadmium pretreatment provides protection against cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage and support the hypothesis that this protection is due to stimulation of MT gene expression. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Metallothionein gene expression in embryos of the terrestrial snail (Cantareus aspersus) exposed to cadmium and copper in the Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Dallinger, Reinhard; Capelli, Nicolas; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2016-02-01

    The response specificity of three metallothionein (MT) genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT) was assessed after long-term exposure (20 days) of Cantareus aspersus eggs to cadmium (Cd) (2 to 6 mg/L) or to the fungicide Bordeaux mixture (BM) (2.5 and 7.5 g/L). MT gene expression measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that in the unexposed embryos, the transcript levels of the three MT genes decreased significantly through embryonic development. However, the CdMT gene was strongly upregulated with increasing Cd exposure concentration, whereas the transcript levels of the other two genes increased less pronouncedly, but significantly above an exposure concentration of 4 mg Cd/L. Upon exposure to BM, all three MT genes were significantly upregulated above a BM concentration of 2.5 g/L. It is concluded that long-term Cd exposure in hatched snails induced patterns of MT gene expression that differed from those obtained after short-term exposure (24 h). PMID:26514570

  2. Polymorphism of metallothionein genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as a biomarker of response to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Arnaud; Boutet, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Francois; Boudry, Pierre; Moraga, Dario

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of metallothioneins (MTs) is classically associated with a cellular response to heavy metal contamination and is used in the monitoring of disturbed ecosystems. Despite the characterization of several MT genes in marine bivalves, only a few genetic studies have used MT genes as potential biomarkers of pollution. The aim of this study was to assess whether MT gene polymorphism could be used to monitor exposure of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to heavy metals and to develop specific genetic markers for population genetic studies in relation to environmental stress. The polymorphism of two exons of the C. gigas MT gene CgMT1 were studied using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in both field populations exposed to various metals concentrations and in experimentally exposed populations. High frequencies of two SSCP types in exons 2 and 3 of the CgMT1 gene have found to be significantly associated with tolerance to metals in experimental and field oyster populations. The use of MT1 gene polymorphism in C. gigas as in the present study should therefore be of high ecological relevance. In conclusion, the analysis of the types in these two CgMT1 gene exons, which can confer a greater tolerance to heavy metals, can constitute a good biomarker of effect of the presence of heavy metals in ecosystems. PMID:12581480

  3. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  4. Cloning and characterization of metallothionein gene (HcMT) from Halostachys caspica and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Meng, Hongen; Abdulla, Hasiyatihan; Zhang, Fuchun; Mao, Xinfang

    2016-07-10

    Halostachys caspica is a short shrub distributed in the semi-arid and saline-alkali area, which evolved various mechanisms for modulating salt and metal level. In the present study, a Type 2 metallothionein (HcMT) gene was cloned from the salt induced suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of H.caspica. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that HcMT gene was up-regulated under the stress of Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+), and the tolerance of E. coli strain harboring with the recombinant HcMT (pET-32a-HcMT) to Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was enhanced compared to strain with control vector (pET-32a). Moreover, the purified TrxA-HcMT fusion protein from E. coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3mM CuSO4, 0.3mM ZnSO4, or 0.1mM CdCl2 could bind more metal ions than TrxA alone. The predicted 3D structure showed that HcMT could form a single metal-thiolate cluster, which confers the ability to bind five divalent metal ions through fourteen cysteine residues. These data indicate that HcMT may be involved in processes of metal tolerance in H. caspica and could be employed as a potential candidate for heavy metal phytoremediation. PMID:27032460

  5. Glucocorticoid regulation of metallothionein during murine development.

    PubMed

    Quaife, C; Hammer, R E; Mottet, N K; Palmiter, R D

    1986-12-01

    During the second half of gestation in the mouse there is a rise in both fetal (4-fold) and maternal (10-fold) metallothionein-I (MT-I) mRNA in the liver (but not in the kidney). There is a large increase in plasma corticosterone (the predominant murine glucocorticoid hormone), as well as an increase in hepatic zinc, which is coincident with the induction of MT-I mRNA. Considering that both of these compounds are known to be effective inducers of MT-I mRNA, we set out to determine whether either one or both were involved in the developmental regulation of MT-I genes. Several lines of evidence suggest that corticosterone is the principal inducer of fetal MT-I mRNA: The induction of MT-I mRNA in the liver, but not in the kidney, mimics glucocorticoid regulation but not metal regulation. Reduction of maternal corticosterone levels by treating mice with metyrapone lowered MT-I mRNA levels but had no effect on zinc levels. A line of transgenic mice carrying a metallothionein-growth hormone fusion gene that is responsive to metals but unresponsive to glucocorticoids was not developmentally regulated. Based on these observations, we propose that corticosterone is responsible for the induction of MT-I mRNA and that the resulting MT sequesters zinc and copper which may be used later in development. PMID:3792622

  6. Characterization of a Type 1 Metallothionein Gene from the Stresses-Tolerant Plant Ziziphus jujuba

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingxia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Fan; Dong, Zhigang; Cao, Qiufen; Chen, Mingchang

    2015-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal-binding proteins, which play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metal ions, osmotic stresses, and hormone treatment. Sequence analysis revealed that the open-reading frame (ORF) of ZjMT was 225 bp, which encodes a protein composed of 75 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 7.376 kDa and a predicated isoelectric point (pI) of 4.83. ZjMT belongs to the type I MT, which consists of two highly conserved cysteine-rich terminal domains linked by a cysteine free region. Our studies showed that ZjMT was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells and ZjMT expression was up-regulated by NaCl, CdCl2 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. Constitutive expression of ZjMT in wild type Arabidopsis plants enhanced their tolerance to NaCl stress during the germination stage. Compared with the wild type, transgenic plants accumulate more Cd2+ in root, but less in leaf, suggesting that ZjMT may have a function in Cd2+ retension in roots and, therefore, decrease the toxicity of Cd2+. PMID:26213917

  7. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2012-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GST as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8-48 hr) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to cadmium, whereas, more pronounced effects in olfactory and gill GST expression were observed at 48 hr relative to earlier time points. Although evaluation of GSTs reflected a cadmium-associated oxidative stress response, there was no clear GST isoform in any tissue that could serve as a reliable biomarker of acute cadmium exposure. By contrast, metallothionein (MT) mRNA was consistently and markedly induced in all three tissues by cadmium, and among the tissues examined, olfactory MT was the most sensitive marker of cadmium exposures. In summary, coho salmon exhibit a complex GST tissue profile consisting of at least 9 isoforms, all of which are present in the peripheral olfactory system. Short-term exposure to environmental levels of Cd causes transient changes in salmon GST consistent with oxidative stress, and in some cases, includes a loss of GST. In a biomarker context, however, monitoring of tissue MT mRNA expression, especially in the peripheral olfactory system, may be of greater utility for assessing short-term environmental exposures to cadmium. PMID:22257444

  8. Differential Expression of a Metallothionein Gene during the Presymbiotic versus the Symbiotic Phase of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus1

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Luisa; Bolchi, Angelo; Ros, Emanuele Cesale; Ottonello, Simone; Bonfante, Paola

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a metallothionein (MT)-like polypeptide, designated GmarMT1, was identified in an expressed sequence tag collection from germinated spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita (BEG34). The GmarMT1 gene is composed of two exons separated by an 81-bp intron. It codes for a 65-amino acid polypeptide comprising a plant type 1 MT-like N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain that is most closely related to an as-yet-uncharacterized fungal MT. As revealed by heterologous complementation assays in yeast, GmarMT1 encodes a functional polypeptide capable of conferring increased tolerance against Cd and Cu. The GmarMT1 RNA is expressed in both presymbiotic spores and symbiotic mycelia, even in the absence of metal exposure, but is significantly less abundant in the latter stage. An opposite pattern was observed upon Cu exposure, which up-regulated GmarMT1 expression in symbiotic mycelia but not in germinated spores. Together, these data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the occurrence in an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus of a structurally novel MT that is modulated in a metal and life cycle stage-dependent manner and may afford protection against heavy metals (and other types of stress) to both partners of the endomycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:12226486

  9. The association of metallothionein-4 gene polymorphism and renal function in long-term lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-I; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Hsu, Yu Kuei; Li, Wan-Fen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate if metallothionein (MT) gene polymorphism affects the susceptibility to lead as well as renal function parameters and blood pressures (BP) in workers exposed to lead for extended period of time. By means of real-time polymerase chain reaction, the MT4-216 A/G genotypes classified as rs396230 in the single nucleotide polymorphism database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (database) were analyzed on 113 workers of a lead battery-recycling factory. Workers with G (mutant) allele were more susceptible to the toxic effects of lead on their systolic BP and serum renal function parameters. Their BP was 10 mmHg higher than those with wild-type (AA type) allele. Among subjects with the 3-genome, the GG mutant type subjects appear to be more susceptible to lead. Regression models of serum creatinine and BUN showed significant differences between the GG and GA types compared to AA type subjects. This cross-sectional study shows that workers with different MT-4 genotypes have different lead-induced adverse health effects. Those with the G allele have the greater susceptibility to lead so their exposure should be reduced. PMID:19921116

  10. Identification of two metallothionein genes and their roles in stress responses of Musca domestica toward hyperthermy and cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Huang, Da-wei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Yin-jian; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Feng-song

    2011-10-01

    Stress proteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) play a key role in cellular protection against environmental stressors. In nature, insects such as houseflies (Musca domestica) are commonly exposed to multiple stressors including heavy metals (e.g. Cadmium, Cd) and high temperatures. In this paper, we identify two novel MT genes from the cDNAs of M. domestica, MdMT1 and MdMT2, which putatively encode 40 and 42 amino acid residues respectively. Expression of the two MTs' mRNAs, which are examined in the fat body, gut, hemocyte, and the epidermis. From our study, we saw that the expression of MdMT1 and MdMT2 are enhanced by Cd and thermal stress. Levels of expression are highest at 10 mM Cd(2+) within a 24-h period, and expressions increase significantly with exposure to 10 mM Cd for 12h. Levels of the mRNAs are up-regulated after heat shock and that of MdMT2 reaches its maximum peak faster than MdMT1. Both of the MT genes might be involved in a transient systemic tolerance response to stressors and they may play important roles in heavy metal and high temperature tolerance in the housefly. To detect whether or not the MTs bind heavy metals, the target genes are cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-DsbA to obtain fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Recombinant DsbA-MdMT1 significantly increases tolerance of the host bacteria to Cd(2+), but DsbA-MdMT2 is absent. These differential characteristics will facilitate future investigations into the physiological functions of MTs. PMID:21762786

  11. Molecular cloning of a metallothionein-like gene from Nicotiana glutinosa L. and its induction by wounding and tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, D; Kim, H M; Yun, H K; Park, J A; Kim, W T; Bok, S H

    1996-01-01

    The cloning and characterization of genes expressed in plant disease resistance could be an initial step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of disease resistance. A metallothionein-like gene that is inducible by tobacco mosaic virus and by wounding was cloned in the process of subtractive cloning of disease resistance-response genes in Nicotiana glutinosa. One 530-bp cDNA clone (KC9-10) containing an open reading frame of 81 amino acids was characterized. Genomic Southern blot hybridization with the cDNA probe revealed that tobacco metallothionein-like genes are present in few or in one copy per diploid genome. Northern blot hybridization detected strong induction of a 0.5-kb mRNA by wounding and tobacco mosaic virus infection, but only mild induction was detected when copper was tested as an inducer. Methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and ethylene were also tested as possible inducers of this gene, but they had no effect on its expression. The possible role of this gene in wounded and pathogen-stressed plants is discussed. PMID:8819331

  12. Promoter region of mouse Tcrg genes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimi, Y.; Huang, Y.Y.; Ohta, S.

    1996-06-01

    The mouse T-cell receptor (Tcr){gamma} chain is characterized by a specific expression of V gene segments in the thymus corresponding to consecutive developmental stages; i.e., the Vg5 in fetal, Vg6 in neonatal, and Vg4 and Vg7 in adult. The order of the Vg gene usage correlates with the localization of the Vg gene segment on the chromosome; i.e., the Vg5 gene, being most proximal to the Jg1, is used first, followed by the Vg segments away from the Jg1 in a sequential manner. Since they all rearrange to the same Jg1 gene segment, the sequences in the coding region and/or in the 5{prime} upstream region are responsible for the stage-specific transcription. Also, Goldman and co-workers reported the germline transcription of Vg genes preceding their rearrangement. Therefore, the stage-specific transcription may be involved in the regulation of the stage-specific rearrangement; we sequenced and analyzed the 5{prime} flanking regions of the Vg5, Vg6, Vg4, and Vg7 genes to study the transcriptional relation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Breaking-off tissue specific activity of the oil palm metallothionein-like gene promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato exposed to metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kamaladini, Hossein; Nor Akmar Abdullah, Siti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ismail, Ismanizan Bin; Haddadi, Fatemeh

    2013-02-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are involved in cell growth regulation, transportation of metal ions and detoxification of heavy metals. A mesocarp-specific metallothionein-like gene (MT3-A) promoter was isolated from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). A vector construct containing the MT3-A promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in the pCAMBIA 1304 vector was produced and used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato. Histochemical GUS assay of different tissues of transgenic tomato showed that the MT3-A promoter only drove GUS expression in the reproductive tissues and organs, including the anther, fruit and seed coat. Competitive RT-PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity in the transgenic tomato (T(0)). No GUS mRNA was found in roots and leaves of transgenic tomato. In contrast, the leaves of transgenic tomato seedlings (T(1)) produced the highest GUS activity when treated with 150 μM Cu(2+) compared to the control (without Cu(2+)). However, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) treatments did not show GUS expression in the leaves of the transgenic tomato seedlings. Interestingly, the results showed a breaking-off tissue-specific activity of the oil palm MT3-A promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato when subjected to Cu(2+) ions. PMID:23290536

  14. Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin

    2012-10-01

    Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem β domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms. PMID:22614035

  15. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and fluid obtained from metal implant sites. PMID:25594566

  16. Metallothionein gene expression under different time in testicular Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of rats treated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xu Yi; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Jian Peng; Feng, Wei Hua; Jiao, Bing Hua

    2003-01-01

    The rodent testes are generally more susceptible to cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity than the liver. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying tissue and cell differences in Cd sensitivity, we compared metallothionein (MT) gene expression, MT protein accumulation, and Cd retention under different times in freshly isolated testicular Sertoli and spermatogenic cells and liver of rats treated with Cd. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a s.c. injection of 4.0 micromol Cd/kg and 1, 3, 6, or 24h later and untreated animals (0h) tissue were sampled and testicular Sertoli and spermatogenic cells isolated. MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis followed by densitometry scanning, and MT was estimated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Cadmium content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Testicular lesions were not grossly or histologically observed in rats treated with 4.0 micromol Cd/kg. In the present study, we demonstrated that the rat testis indeed expressed MT1 and MT2, the major isoforms. We also found that untreated animals contained relatively high basal levels of both isoform mRNA, which were increased after Cd treatment in liver and peaked at 3h, followed by a decline, in contrast, the mRNA levels in Sertoli cells peaked at 6h. Interestingly, the induction of MT1 mRNA was lower than MT2 mRNA in Sertoli cells and liver of rats treated with Cd. However, the MT1 mRNA levels of spermatogenic cells decreased 0-3h after Cd treatment, followed by an increase; in contrast, MT2 mRNA levels increased 0-3h after Cd treatment, followed by a reduction, but induced extents of them are lower than those of Sertoli cells and liver. Cd exposure substantially increased hepatic MT, but did not increase MT translation in Sertoli and spermatogenic cells. These results indicate: (1) that Cd-induced MT mRNA expression is cell- and time-dependent; (2) that the inability to induce the metal-detoxicating MT protein in response to Cd, might account for higher susceptibility of testes to Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis relative to liver. PMID:12642155

  17. Mouse μ Opioid Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Chung-youl; Im, Hee-Jeong; Ko, Jane L.; Loh, Horace H.

    2010-01-01

    The 5′-flanking region of the mouse μ opioid receptor (MOR) gene has two promoters, referred to as distal and proximal, and the activities of each in the brain are quite different from each other. The 5′-distal promoter regulatory sequences (5′-DPRS), positioned between these two promoters, have strong inhibitory effects on the reporter gene expression driven by the MOR distal promoter. In our studies, detailed 3′ deletion mapping of the 5′-DPRS narrowed down the negative cis-acting element to a 34-base pair (bp) segment (position −721 to −687). This 34-bp cis-acting element functions in both neuronal (NMB) and non-neuronal (CHO and RAW264.7) cultured cells. S1 nuclease protection assays indicated that this 34-bp cis-acting element suppresses distal promoter activity at the transcriptional level. Linker scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that nucleotides around position −721 and −689 in the 34-bp cis-acting element are essential for the regulation of distal promoter activity. Operational characterization of the 34-bp cis-acting element in the homologous MOR distal promoter and the heterologous SV40 promoter showed that its effects are position- and promoter-dependent while being orientation-independent in both promoters. Collectively, these data suggested that this 34-bp segment is a conditional transcriptional cis-acting element that blocks mouse MOR gene expression from the distal promoter. PMID:9857022

  18. The structure of the mouse parvalbumin gene.

    PubMed

    Schleef, M; Zhlke, C; Jockusch, H; Schffl, F

    1992-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand family, expressed mainly in fast contracting/relaxing muscles of vertebrates. We have isolated five overlapping genomic PV clones which overall span 28 kilobase pairs (kb) around the Pva locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 15. The positions of four introns were determined by DNA sequencing. They interrupt the coding sequences at positions corresponding to those in rat and human PV genes. The transcription start site, 25 bp downstream from the TATA-box, was mapped by oligonucleotide primer extension on poly(A)(+)-RNA. The analysis of 0.4 kb promoter sequence of the mouse PV gene revealed CCAAT- and TATA-box sequences and a 59 bp GC-rich stretch between positions -59 and -118. Similar motifs have been found in the parvalbumin genes of rat and human. A perfect 11-bp repeat upstream to positions -149 and -163 respectively is homologous only to the rat promoter. These results will be related to tissue and species differences in PV expression. PMID:1611216

  19. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  20. Upregulations of metallothionein gene expressions and tolerance to heavy metal toxicity by three dimensional cultivation of HepG2 cells on VECELL 3-D inserts.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takashi; Kuroda, Yukie; Horiuchi, Shinichiro; Kim, Su-Ryang; Sekino, Yuko; Ishida, Seiichi

    2016-02-01

    The VECELL 3-D insert is a new culture scaffold consisting of collagen-coated ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) mesh. We analyzed the effects of VECELL 3-D inserts on the functionality of HepG2, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HepG2 cells cultured on VECELL 3-D inserts maintained a round shape, while those cultured on a standard culture plate or collagen-coated cell culture plate showed a flattened and cubic epithelial-like shape. HepG2 cells cultured on VECELL 3-D inserts had showed upregulated expression of metallothionein genes and in turn a higher tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals. These results suggest that HepG2 cell functions were changed by the cell morphology that is induced by culturing on a VECELL 3-D insert. PMID:26763402

  1. In silico and experimental analyses predict the therapeutic value of an EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 against hepatocellular carcinoma through the induction of metallothionein genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tsang-Pai; Hong, Yi-Han; Tung, Kwang-Yi; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no effective molecular targeted therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27)-specific methyltransferase, has been emerged as novel anticancer target. Our previous study has demonstrated that GSK343, an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-competitive inhibitor of EZH2, induces autophagy and enhances drug sensitivity in cancer cells including HCC. In this study, an in silico study was performed and found that EZH2 was overexpressed in cancerous tissues of HCC patients at both gene and protein levels. Microarray analysis and in vitro experiments indicated that the anti-HCC activity of GSK343 was associated with the induction of metallothionein (MT) genes. In addition, the negative association of EZH2 and MT1/MT2A genes in cancer cell lines and tissues was found in public gene expression database. Taken together, our findings suggest that EZH2 inhibitors could be a good therapeutic option for HCC, and induction of MT genes was associated with the anti-HCC activity of EZH2 inhibitors. PMID:26973856

  2. In silico and experimental analyses predict the therapeutic value of an EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 against hepatocellular carcinoma through the induction of metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsang-Pai; Hong, Yi-Han; Tung, Kwang-Yi; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no effective molecular targeted therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27)-specific methyltransferase, has been emerged as novel anticancer target. Our previous study has demonstrated that GSK343, an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-competitive inhibitor of EZH2, induces autophagy and enhances drug sensitivity in cancer cells including HCC. In this study, an in silico study was performed and found that EZH2 was overexpressed in cancerous tissues of HCC patients at both gene and protein levels. Microarray analysis and in vitro experiments indicated that the anti-HCC activity of GSK343 was associated with the induction of metallothionein (MT) genes. In addition, the negative association of EZH2 and MT1/MT2A genes in cancer cell lines and tissues was found in public gene expression database. Taken together, our findings suggest that EZH2 inhibitors could be a good therapeutic option for HCC, and induction of MT genes was associated with the anti-HCC activity of EZH2 inhibitors. PMID:26973856

  3. Nematode and snail metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Martina; Dallinger, Reinhard; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R

    2011-10-01

    Metallobiologists have, at large, neglected soil dwelling invertebrates; exceptions are the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and snails (Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus). This review aims to compare and contrast the molecular, protein and cellular mechanisms of the multifunctional nematode and snail metallothioneins (MTs). The C. elegans genome contains two MT genes, mtl-1, which is constitutively expressed in the pharynx and likely to act as an essential and/or toxic metal sensor, and mtl-2, which plays a negligible role under normal physiological conditions but is strongly induced (as mtl-1) in intestinal cells upon metal exposure. It has been possible to follow the intricate phenotypic responses upon the knockdown/knockout of single and multiple MT isoforms and we have started to decipher the multifunctional role of C. elegans MTs. The snails have contributed to our understanding regarding MT evolution and diversity, structure and metal-specific functionality. The H. pomatia and C. aspersus genomes contain at least three MT isoform genes. CdMT is responsible for cadmium detoxification, CuMT is involved in copper homeostasis and Cd/CuMT is a putative ancestral MT possibly only of minor importance in metal metabolism. Further investigations of nematode, snail and other invertebrate MTs will allow the development of alternative biomarker approaches and lead to an improved understanding of metallobiology, protein evolution and toxicogenomics. PMID:21822727

  4. Nematode and snail metallothioneins.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Höckner M; Dallinger R; Stürzenbaum SR

    2011-10-01

    Metallobiologists have, at large, neglected soil dwelling invertebrates; exceptions are the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and snails (Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus). This review aims to compare and contrast the molecular, protein and cellular mechanisms of the multifunctional nematode and snail metallothioneins (MTs). The C. elegans genome contains two MT genes, mtl-1, which is constitutively expressed in the pharynx and likely to act as an essential and/or toxic metal sensor, and mtl-2, which plays a negligible role under normal physiological conditions but is strongly induced (as mtl-1) in intestinal cells upon metal exposure. It has been possible to follow the intricate phenotypic responses upon the knockdown/knockout of single and multiple MT isoforms and we have started to decipher the multifunctional role of C. elegans MTs. The snails have contributed to our understanding regarding MT evolution and diversity, structure and metal-specific functionality. The H. pomatia and C. aspersus genomes contain at least three MT isoform genes. CdMT is responsible for cadmium detoxification, CuMT is involved in copper homeostasis and Cd/CuMT is a putative ancestral MT possibly only of minor importance in metal metabolism. Further investigations of nematode, snail and other invertebrate MTs will allow the development of alternative biomarker approaches and lead to an improved understanding of metallobiology, protein evolution and toxicogenomics.

  5. ScMT2-1-3, a Metallothionein Gene of Sugarcane, Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700 bp long, including a 240 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd2+, Cu2+, PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu2+ stress but downregulated under Cd2+ stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd2+. ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties. PMID:23781509

  6. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  7. Structural and bioinformatic analysis of the Roman snail Cd-Metallothionein gene uncovers molecular adaptation towards plasticity in coping with multifarious environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Egg, Margit; Höckner, Martina; Brandstätter, Anita; Schuler, Dietmar; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2009-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of multifunctional proteins involved, among others, in stress response. The Cadmium (Cd)-MT gene of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), for example, encodes for a protein induced upon cadmium exposure. While our previous studies have demonstrated that the expressed Cd-MT isoform of Roman snails assists detoxification of cadmium, the present work focuses on the potential plasticity of this gene in response to a variety of environmental stressors playing a crucial role in the specific ecological niche of H. pomatia. Our hypothesis is based on a bioinformatic approach involving gene sequencing, structural and in silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites (TFBs), and a comparison of these features with other MT genes. Our results show that the Roman snail's Cd-MT gene not only is the largest known MT gene, but also contains--apart from the regulatory promoter region--several intronic repeat cassettes of putative TFBs suggested to be involved in environmental stress response, immune competence, and regulation of gene expression. Moreover, intronic scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) and stress-induced duplex destabilization sites confer a high potential for epigenetic gene regulation. This suggested regulatory plasticity is also supported by physiological data showing that Cd-MT in Roman snails can be induced differentially not only after cadmium exposure, but also in response to nonmetallic environmental stressors. It is concluded that structural analysis combined with bioinformatic screening may constitute valuable tools for predicting the potential for plasticity and niche-specific adaptation of stress-responsive genes in populations living under rapidly changing environmental conditions. PMID:19457198

  8. A metallothionein-like protein of rice (rgMT) functions in E. coli and its gene expression is induced by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Cheng, Yuxiang; Guan, Qingjie; Liu, Dali; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2006-11-01

    A metallothionein-like (rgMT) gene was isolated from a rice (Oryza sativa L.) root cDNA library that was prepared from plants grown under NaHCO3 stress. The rgMT gene expression was induced in rice leaves and roots under several abiotic stresses from salts (NaCl and NaHCO3), drought (PEG) and metals (CuCl2, ZnCl2, CdCl2). The results suggested that the rgMT gene was expressed in response to environmental stresses. The rgMT gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the final yield of the purified rgMT protein was 4.8 mg g(-1) dry cells. Tolerance of E. coli expressing GST-rgMT fusion protein to Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ was enhanced, and cells dry weight increased 0.04 mg, 0.17 mg and 0.07 mg in 1 ml culture treated with either CuCl2, ZnCl2 or CdCl2, respectively, compared with control after 6 h culture. PMID:16912923

  9. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Induction of Metallothionein-2A and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression by the Antineoplastic Agent Gallium Nitrate in Human Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meiying; Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of gallium nitrate, an antineoplastic drug, are only partly understood. Using a DNA microarray to examine genes induced by gallium nitrate in CCRF-CEM cells, we found that gallium increased metallothionein-2A (MT2A) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression and altered the levels of other stress-related genes. MT2A and HO-1 were increased after 6 and 16 h of incubation with gallium nitrate. An increase in oxidative stress, evidenced by a decrease in cellular GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and an increase in dichlorodihydrofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence, was seen after 1 – 4 h incubation of cells with gallium nitrate. DCF fluorescence was blocked by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone. N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked gallium-induced MT2A and HO-1 expression and increased gallium’s cytotoxicity. Studies with a zinc-specific fluoroprobe suggested that gallium produced an expansion of an intracellular labile zinc pool, suggesting an action of gallium on zinc homeostasis. Gallium nitrate increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and activated Nrf-2, a regulator of HO-1 gene transcription. Gallium-induced Nrf-2 activation and HO-1 expression were diminished by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. We conclude that gallium nitrate induces cellular oxidative stress as an early event which then triggers the expression of HO-1 and MT2A through different pathways. PMID:18586083

  10. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 ?M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 ?M CuCl2, 220 ?M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors. PMID:25572229

  11. Effect of Duplicate Genes on Mouse Genetic Robustness: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Junqiang

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO) mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE) between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD). Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity. PMID:25110693

  12. Effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness: an update.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Junqiang; Gu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO) mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE) between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD). Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity. PMID:25110693

  13. Comprehensive comparative homeobox gene annotation in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Boychenko, Veronika; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a group of genes coding for transcription factors with a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix structure called a homeodomain and which play a crucial role in pattern formation during embryogenesis. Many homeobox genes are located in clusters and some of these, most notably the HOX genes, are known to have antisense or opposite strand long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes that play a regulatory role. Because automated annotation of both gene clusters and non-coding genes is fraught with difficulty (over-prediction, under-prediction, inaccurate transcript structures), we set out to manually annotate all homeobox genes in the mouse and human genomes. This includes all supported splice variants, pseudogenes and both antisense and flanking lncRNAs. One of the areas where manual annotation has a significant advantage is the annotation of duplicated gene clusters. After comprehensive annotation of all homeobox genes and their antisense genes in human and in mouse, we found some discrepancies with the current gene set in RefSeq regarding exact gene structures and coding versus pseudogene locus biotype. We also identified previously un-annotated pseudogenes in the DUX, Rhox and Obox gene clusters, which helped us re-evaluate and update the gene nomenclature in these regions. We found that human homeobox genes are enriched in antisense lncRNA loci, some of which are known to play a role in gene or gene cluster regulation, compared to their mouse orthologues. Of the annotated set of 241 human protein-coding homeobox genes, 98 have an antisense locus (41%) while of the 277 orthologous mouse genes, only 62 protein coding gene have an antisense locus (22%), based on publicly available transcriptional evidence. PMID:26412852

  14. Cytosolic expression of synthetic phytochelatin and bacterial metallothionein genes in Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for enhanced tolerance and bioaccumulation of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ruchi; Archana, G

    2014-06-01

    Due to its exemplary resistance to ionising radiation, oxidative stress, desiccation and several DNA damaging agents, Deinococcus radiodurans R1 (DR1) is considered as one of the most appropriate candidates for the bioremediation of the nuclear waste sites. However, the high sensitivity of this bacterium to heavy metals, which are usually preponderant at nuclear waste dump sites, precludes its application for bioremediation. This study deals with the expression two metal binding peptides in DR1 as an attractive strategy for developing metal tolerance in this bacterium. A synthetic gene (EC20) encoding a phytochelatin analogue with twenty repeating units of glutamate and cysteine was constructed by overlap extension and expressed in DR1. The cyanobacterial metallothionein (MT) gene, smtA was cloned for intracellular expression in DR1. Both the genes were expressed under the native groESL promoter. DR1 strain carrying the recombinant EC20 demonstrated 2.5-fold higher tolerance to Cd(2+) and accumulated 1.21-fold greater Cd(2+) as opposed to the control while the heterologous expression of MT SmtA in DR1 imparted the transformant superior tolerance to Cd(2+) amassing 2.5-fold greater Cd(2+) than DR1 expressing EC20. PMID:24578153

  15. Functional analysis of a Douglas-fir metallothionein-like gene promoter: transient assays in zygotic and somatic embryos and stable transformation in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Chatthai, Malinee; Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Yevtushenko, Dmytro; Misra, Santosh

    2004-11-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco) metallothionein (PmMT) cDNA encodes a novel cysteine- and serine-rich MT, indicating a new subtype or prototype MT from which other plant MTs may have evolved. A genomic library of Douglas-fir was screened using MT cDNA probes, and genomic sequences that mediate tissue-specific, temporal as well as inducible expression of the embryo-specific MT-gene were analyzed. The promoter region of the PmMT genomic clone (gPmMT) contained a hexameric G-box, two putative ethylene-responsive elements and an inverted repeat of a motif similar to the core metal regulatory element. Interestingly, comparison of the upstream region of Douglas-fir gPm2S1 and gPmMTa genes revealed a conserved motif, CATTATTGA, not found in any known angiosperm gene promoter. Chimeric gene constructs containing a series of deletions in the gPmMTa promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene were assayed in Douglas-fir and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transient-expression assays in Douglas-fir megagametophyte and zygotic embryos indicated that the sequence -190 to +88 of gPmMTa was sufficient to drive the expression of the reporter gene and that the 225-bp fragment (-677 to -453) contained sequences necessary for high-level expression. In transgenic tobacco seedlings the beta-glucuronidase activity was localized in the vacuolar tissue and proliferating tissue of the auxiliary buds and stem elongation zone. The gPmMTa promoter was not active in the seeds of transgenic tobacco or in the roots of seedlings up to 3 weeks old. Detailed studies of transient expression and stable transformation provided important information on evolutionary conservation as well as novel features found in the conifer promoter. This is the first report of an MT-like gene promoter from conifers. PMID:15349778

  16. Expression analysis of Type 1 and 2 Metallothionein genes in Rape (Brassica napus L.) during short-term stress using sqRT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmigid, Hala M

    2016-03-01

    With the extent of contamination in water and soil today, possibility of presence of toxic heavy metals in plants in everyday life can not be ruled out. In this context, understanding the influence of exogenenous factors on such plants gains importance. Here, we investigated expression of metallothioneins genes MT1 and MT2 in Rape Brassica napus L. as representatives of MT gene type 1, type 2 (BnMT1 and BnMT2), respectively to explore such influence, if there any. Seedlings of 7-day-old were exposed to various exogenous factors including plant hormones, heavy metals, abiotic and biotic stresses. The basal expression levels of two BnMT genes were determined using water-treated samples (control). Each treatment was replicated 3 times for statistical validity. SPSS computer software was used for statistical analyses. Expression profiles of BnMT1 and BnMT2 were generated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) to monitor stress-response gene expression of both genes. The BnMT1 and BnMT2 genes were expressed at the same level in control samples. In general, BnMT1 gene was better expressed in most treatments compared to BnMT2 throughout the 48 h experimental period. Moreover, BnMT2 expression was not affected by heavy metal stress. The results provide considerable insights into the molecular mechanism of MTs responses to environmental stress in B. napus which can be utilized for future plant manipulations to improve its ability to accumulate higher metal concentration from the soil. PMID:27145635

  17. Myocardial Overexpression of Mecr, a Gene of Mitochondrial FAS II Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijun; Leskinen, Hanna; Liimatta, Erkki; Sormunen, Raija T.; Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Hassinen, Ilmo E.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently recognized that mammalian mitochondria contain most, if not all, of the components of fatty acid synthesis type II (FAS II). Among the components identified is 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (Etr1/Mecr), which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trans-2-enoyl thioesters, generating saturated acyl-groups. Although the FAS type II pathway is highly conserved, its physiological role in fatty acid synthesis, which apparently occurs simultaneously with breakdown of fatty acids in the same subcellular compartment in mammals, has remained an enigma. To study the in vivo function of the mitochondrial FAS in mammals, with special reference to Mecr, we generated mice overexpressing Mecr under control of the mouse metallothionein-1 promoter. These Mecr transgenic mice developed cardiac abnormalities as demonstrated by echocardiography in vivo, heart perfusion ex vivo, and electron microscopy in situ. Moreover, the Mecr transgenic mice showed decreased performance in endurance exercise testing. Our results showed a ventricular dilatation behind impaired heart function upon Mecr overexpression, concurrent with appearance of dysmorphic mitochondria. Furthermore, the data suggested that inappropriate expression of genes of FAS II can result in the development of hereditary cardiomyopathy. PMID:19440339

  18. A reanalysis of mouse ENCODE comparative gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Gilad, Yoav; Mizrahi-Man, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium reported that comparative gene expression data from human and mouse tend to cluster more by species rather than by tissue. This observation was surprising, as it contradicted much of the comparative gene regulatory data collected previously, as well as the common notion that major developmental pathways are highly conserved across a wide range of species, in particular across mammals. Here we show that the Mouse ENCODE gene expression data were collected using a flawed study design, which confounded sequencing batch (namely, the assignment of samples to sequencing flowcells and lanes) with species. When we account for the batch effect, the corrected comparative gene expression data from human and mouse tend to cluster by tissue, not by species. PMID:26236466

  19. Cloning and characterization of a tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) metallothionein gene promoter in Hepa-T1 cells following the administration of various heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Chan, William Wai Lun; Chan, King Ming

    2008-01-20

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved intracellular metal-binding proteins that contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and the detoxification of non-essential heavy metals. MT gene expression is induced by various heavy metal ions, and Zn(2+) is able to bind and activate a transcription factor associated with the MT gene that is known as the metal responsive element (MRE) binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). Heavy metals other than Zn(2+), such as Cd(2+) and Cu(2+), fail to activate the binding of MTF-1 to MREs despite their ability to induce the transcription of the MT gene. To study how different metal ions regulate MT gene expression, a tilapia (ti)-MT gene promoter was cloned and its responses to activation by various metal ions measured using a Hepa T1 cell culture model. The tiMT gene promoter contains six functional MREs within 2118bp 5' of the translational start site. A transient gene expression study showed the tiMT gene promoter fragment to be responsive to Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+). Deletions from the 5' end and the site-directed mutagenesis of individual MREs in the tiMT gene promoter confirmed that both proximal and distal clusters of MREs were required for the maximal metal induction of the tiMT gene. The distal cluster of MREs greatly enhanced the induction of tiMT gene expression by several of the heavy metal ions, and especially the non-Zn(2+) ions. Individual MREs showed a different responsiveness to metal ions, with MREe being the most potent, MREb being responsive to Zn(2+) but not to other metal ions, and MREa being mainly for the basal expression of the tiMT gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified a transcription factor that was able to bind most of the MREs, with the exception of MREd, but the binding was only activated by the in vivo administration of Zn(2+), not the administration of Cd(2+) or Cu(2+). In conclusion, the results of this study on a Hepa T1 cell model suggest that the mechanism of MT gene activation by non-Zn(2+) metal ions is different from that of activation by Zn(2+), and that different MREs may be involved in the activation of the tiMT gene by different metal ions without enhancing the binding of MTF-1 to MREs. PMID:18023887

  20. Metallothionein and the Biology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein with anti-apoptotic properties that has been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro. MT has not been extensively investigated within the context of aging biology. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss findings on MT that are relevant to basic aging mechanisms and to draw attention to the possible role of MT in pro-longevity interventions. MT is one of just a handful of proteins that, when overexpressed, has been demonstrated to increase mouse lifespan. MT also protects against development of obesity in mice provided a high fat diet as well as diet-induced oxidative stress damage. Abundance of MT is responsive to caloric restriction (CR) and inhibition of the insulin / insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway, and elevated MT gene expression has been observed in tissues from fasted and CR-fed mice, long-lived dwarf mice, worms maintained under CR conditions, and long-lived daf-2 mutant worms. The dysregulation of MT in these systems is likely to have tissue-specific effects on aging outcomes. Further investigation will therefore be needed to understand how MT contributes to the response of invertebrates and mice to CR and the endocrine mutations studied by aging researchers. PMID:20933613

  1. Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S.; Wright, Matthew W.; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Cox, Laura A.; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko; Ishibashi, Shun; Lehner, Richard; Miyazaki, Masao; Perkins, Everett J.; Potter, Phillip M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Robert, Jacques; Satoh, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Yan, Bingfan; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Zechner, Rudolf; Maltais, Lois J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and “CES” (human) and “Ces” (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding “P” and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species. PMID:20931200

  2. Oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and metallothionein (MT) gene expression in juvenile rock fish Sebastes schlegelii under the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile Sebastes schlegelii were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentration (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) level of liver and gill were evaluated after 4 weeks exposure. The SOD and GST activity of liver and gill was significantly increased in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks, whereas a considerable decrease in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks was observed in the GSH levels of liver and gill. In neurotoxicity, AChE activity was significatly inhibited in brain in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 60mg/kg after 4 weeks and muscle in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks. Metallothionein (MT) gene in liver was considerably increased over 120mg/kg after 2 weeks and at 30, 120, and 240mg/kg after 4 weeks by dietary chromium exposure. The results indicate that dietary Cr exposure over 120mg/kg can induce substantial alterations in antioxidant responses, AChE activity and MT gene expression. PMID:26680530

  3. Protection against zinc toxicity by metallothionein and zinc transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Palmiter, Richard D

    2004-04-01

    Cells protect themselves from zinc toxicity by inducing proteins such as metallothionein (MT) that bind it tightly, by sequestering it in organelles, or by exporting it. In this study, the interplay between zinc binding by MT and its efflux by zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) was examined genetically. Inactivation of the Znt1 gene in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that do not express their Mt genes results in a zinc-sensitive phenotype and a high level of "free" zinc. Restoration of Mt gene expression increases resistance to zinc toxicity approximately 4-fold, but only slightly reduces free zinc levels. Expression of ZnT1 provides greater protection (approximately 7-fold) and lowers free zinc substantially. Selection for zinc resistance in BHK cells that cannot synthesize either MT or ZnT1 is ineffective. However, parental BHK cells that grow in high concentrations (>500 microM) of zinc can be selected; these cells have amplified their endogenous Znt1 genes. The Znt1 gene is also amplified in zinc-resistant mouse cells that cannot induce their Mt genes. However, if Mt genes can be expressed, then they are preferentially amplified. Thus, both ZnT1 and MT genes contribute to zinc resistance in BHK cells, whereas ZnT1 plays a larger role in regulating free zinc levels. PMID:15041749

  4. Cloning and transcript analysis of type 2 metallothionein gene (SbMT-2) from extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and its heterologous expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-05-15

    Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte growing luxuriantly in the coastal marshes and frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. A full length type 2 metallothionein (SbMT-2) gene was isolated using RACE and its copy number was confirmed by southern blot analysis. Transcript expression of SbMT-2 gene was analyzed by semi-quantitative Rt-PCR and real time quantitative (qRT) PCR. Expression of SbMT-2 gene was up-regulated concurrently with zinc, copper, salt, heat and drought stress, down regulated by cold stress while unaffected under cadmium stress. Heterologous expression of SbMT-2 gene enhances metal accumulation and tolerance in E. coli. Metal-binding characteristics of SbMT-2 protein show its possible role in homeostasis and/or detoxification of heavy metals. Significant tolerance was observed by E. coli cells expressing recombinant SbMT-2 for Zn(++), Cu(++) and Cd(++) compared to cells expressing GST only. Sequestration of zinc was 4-fold higher compared to copper and in contrast SbMT-2 inhibits the relative accumulation of cadmium by 1.23-fold compared to GST protein. Fusion protein SbMT-2 showed utmost affinity to zinc (approx. 2.5 fold to Cu(++) and Cd(++)) followed by copper and cadmium ions with same affinity. Halophyte S. brachiata has inherent resilience of varying abiotic tolerance therefore SbMT-2 gene could be a potential candidate to be used for enhanced metal tolerance and heavy metal phytoremediation. PMID:22441126

  5. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Web-based digital gene expression atlases for the mouse.

    PubMed

    Geffers, Lars; Herrmann, Bernhard; Eichele, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    Over the past 15 years the publicly available mouse gene expression data determined by in situ hybridization have dramatically increased in scope and spatiotemporal resolution. As a consequence of resources and tools available in the post-genomic era, full transcriptomes in the mouse brain and in the mouse embryo can be studied. Here we introduce and discuss seven current databases (MAMEP, EMBRYS, GenePaint, EURExpress, EuReGene, BGEM, and GENSAT) that grant access to large collections of expression data in mouse. We review the experimental focus, coverage, data assessment, and annotation for each of these databases and the implementation of analytic tools and links to other relevant databases. We provide a user-oriented summary of how to interrogate each database. PMID:22936000

  7. Cloning and characterization of TsMT3, a type 3 metallothionein gene from salt cress (Thellungiella salsuginea).

    PubMed

    Quan, Xian Q; Wang, Zeng L; Zhang, Hui; Bi, Yu P

    2008-06-01

    A full-length type 3 plant metallothionein cDNA was isolated from 200 mM NaCl stressed shoots of the salt cress (Thellungiella salsuginea). The 447 bp TsMT3 cDNA sequence has a 207 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes a deduced 69 residue peptide of molecular weight 7.52 kDa. Southern blot analysis indicates that, there is only one copy of TsMT3 in the T. salsuginea genome. The accumulation of TsMT3 mRNA is enhanced by the stress imposed by PEG6000, 200 mM NaCl, 50 microM ABA, 4 degrees C, 40 microM CuSO(4) or 25 microM CdCl2. The expression vector pET28-TsMT3 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli to define the contribution of TsMT3 to heavy metal tolerance. In the presence of 2 mM CuSO4, 0.3 mM Pb(NO3)2 or 0.4 mM CdCl2, TsMT3 expressing cells exhibited enhanced metal tolerance and accumulated more metal than the controls. We believe that TsMT3 is probably involved in the processes of metal homeostasis, tolerance, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. PMID:17852348

  8. Differential gene expression in mouse retina related to regional differences in vulnerability to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Krisztina; Stone, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In the C57BL/6J mouse retina, hyperoxia-induced degeneration of photoreceptors shows strong regional variation, beginning at a locus ~0.5 mm inferior to the optic disc. To identify gene expression differences that might underlie this variability in vulnerability, we have used microarray techniques to describe regional (superior-inferior) variations in gene expression in the retina. Methods Young adult C57BL/6J mice raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h at 5 lx and 12 h in darkness) were exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen for two weeks). Retinas were collected from hyperoxia-exposed and control animals without fixation and divided into superior and inferior halves. RNA was extracted from each sample, purified, and hybridized to Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix). The consistency of the microarray results was assessed using quantitative PCR for selected genes. Expression data were analyzed to identify genes and ncRNAs whose differential expression between the superior and inferior retina could be associated with relative vulnerability to hyperoxia. Results In control retinas, only two genes showed a fold difference in expression >2 between the superior and inferior retina; another 25 showed a fold difference of 1.5–2.0. Of these 27, the functions of six genes, including ventral anterior homeobox containing gene 2 (Vax2) and T-box 5 (Tbox5), are related to parameters of anatomic development and the functions of five are related to sensory perception. Among the latter, short-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1sw) was more strongly expressed in the inferior retina and medium-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1mw) in the superior retina. This is consistent with known differences in S- and M-cone distribution, confirming our separation of retinal regions. The highest fold difference was reported for membrane metalloendopeptidase (Mme), a member from the metallothionein group of cytoprotective proteins. To identify genes whose regulation by hyperoxia was significantly different between the inferior and superior retina, we calculated the “fold margin” (FM, the difference between hyperoxia-induced regulation in the inferior and superior retina) for each gene, and identified genes for which abs(FM) > 0.5. Genes thus identified numbered 112, and included many immune-, cell defense-, and inflammation- related genes. Conclusions Gene expression analysis revealed relatively subtle differences between inferior and superior regions of control C57BL/6J retinas, with only 27 genes showing an expression difference >1.5 fold. Among these, genes related to cytoprotection and apoptosis were included, along with genes related to central projections and cone-type differences. After hyperoxia-induced photoreceptor degeneration had begun, the number of genes that showed significant expression differences between the inferior and superior retina more than quadrupled, with genes related to immune processes, defense processes, and inflammation being numerically dominant. PMID:20454693

  9. Determination of metallothionein in biological fluids using enzyme-linked immunoassay with commercial antibody.

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bizoń, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight cysteine-rich protein with a number of roles in the pro/antioxidant balance and homeostasis of essential metals, such as zinc and copper, and in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and mercury. Until now, detection of metallothionein in biological fluids remained difficult because of a lack of a broadly reactive commercial test. Meaningful comparison of the values of metallothionein concentrations reported by different authors using their specific isolation procedures and different conditions of enzyme-linked immunoassay is difficult due to the absence of a reference material for metallothionein. Therefore in the present study, we describe a quantitative assay for metallothionein in biological fluids such as plasma and urine performed by a direct enzyme-linked immunoassay using a commercially available monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody and commercial standards of metallothionein from rabbit liver and a custom preparation of metallothionein from human liver. The sensitivity of the assay for the standard containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II from human liver was 140 pg/well. The reactivity of the commercial standards and standards containing two isoforms MT-I and MT-II isolated from human liver in our laboratory with a commercial monoclonal mouse anti-metallothionein clone E9 antibody were similar. This suggests that the described ELISA test can be useful for determination of metallothionein concentration in biological fluids. The concentrations of metallothionein in human plasma, erythrocyte lysate and in urine of smoking and non-smoking healthy volunteers are reported. Tobacco smoking increases the extracellular metallothionein concentration (plasma and urine) but does not affect the intracellular concentration (erythrocyte lysate). PMID:20349027

  10. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  11. Basal and copper-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1,2 and 3 genes in epithelial cancer cells: The role of tumor suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, E A; Song, Y P; Cherian, M G

    2016-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a ubiquitous low-molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins with a high affinity for metal ions. The expression and induction of MTs have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Our past research had shown that p53 is an important factor in metal regulation of MTs. The present study was undertaken to explore further the interrelationship between p53 and MTs. We investigated whether silencing of p53 could affect expression pattern of basal and copper induced metallothioneins. The silencing of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) in epithelial breast cancer MCF7 cells affected the basal level of MT-2A RNA, whereas the levels of MT-1A and MT-1X RNA remained largely unchanged. The expression of MT-3 was undetectable in MCF7 with either functional or silenced p53. MCF7 cells with silenced wt-p53 failed to upregulate MT-2A in response to copper and showed a reduced sensitivity toward copper induced cell apoptotic death. Similarly in MCF7-E6 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the presence of inactive/mutated p53 halted MT-1A and MT-2A gene expression in response to copper. Constitutive expression of MT-3 RNA was detectable in the presence of mutated p53 (mtp53). Transient transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with wt-p53 enabled copper induced upregulation of both MT-1A and MT-2A but not basal level of MT-2A, MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-3. Inactivation of p53 in HepG2 cells amplified the basal expression of studied MT isoforms, including MT-3, as well as copper-induced mRNA expression of MTs except MT-1H and MT-3. Presented data demonstrate a direct relation between p53 and MT-1A and MT-2A and they also indicate that wt-p53 might be a negative regulator of MT-3 in epithelial cancer cells. PMID:27049123

  12. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. PMID:26159299

  13. The heterologous expression of the Iris lactea var. chinensis type 2 metallothionein IlMT2b gene enhances copper tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhu, Xu-Dong; Huang, Su-Zhen; Lu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-02-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is a widely adapted perennial species with a high level of copper tolerance. To evaluate the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in copper tolerance in I. lactea var. chinensis, a full-length cDNA homologue of MT2, designated IlMT2b (GenBank accession No. AB907788), was cloned using the RACE-PCR method. The expression level of IlMT2b in the leaves and roots of I. lactea var. chinensis was induced in response to copper (Cu) treatment. Ectopic expression of IlMT2b in Arabidopsis thaliana increased the Cu concentration and reduced H2O2 production in the transgenic plants. After treatment with 50 and 100 μM Cu, the root length of two transgenic seedlings was respectively about 1.5- and 3-fold longer than that of the wild-type. Together, these results suggested that IlMT2b may represent a useful target gene for the phytoremediation of Cu-polluted soil. PMID:25533567

  14. Copper-induced hydrogen peroxide upregulation of a metallothionein gene, OsMT2c, from Oryza sativa L. confers copper tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Shi, Xiaoting; Qian, Meng; Zheng, Luqing; Lian, Chunlan; Xia, Yan; Shen, Zhenguo

    2015-08-30

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins found in numerous genera and species, but their functions in abiotic stress tolerance remain unclear. Here, a MT gene from Oryza sativa, OsMT2c, was isolated and characterized, encoding a type 2 MT, and observed expression in the roots, leaf sheathes, and leaves, but only weak expression in seeds. OsMT2c was upregulated by copper (Cu) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatments. Excessive Cu elicited a rapid and sustained production and release of H2O2 in rice, and exogenous H2O2 scavengers N,N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and ascorbic acid (Asc) decreased H2O2 production and OsMT2c expression. Furthermore, the expression of OsMT2c increased in the osapx2 mutant in which the H2O2 levels were higher than in wild-type (WT) plants. These results showed that Cu increased MT2c expression through the production and accumulation of Cu-induced H2O2 in O. sativa. In addition, the transgenic OsMT2c-overexpressing Arabidopsis displayed improved tolerance to Cu stress and exhibited increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability compared to WT and empty-vector (Ev) seedlings. PMID:25867584

  15. Database for exchangeable gene trap clones: pathway and gene ontology analysis of exchangeable gene trap clone mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Araki, Masatake; Nakahara, Mai; Muta, Mayumi; Itou, Miharu; Yanai, Chika; Yamazoe, Fumika; Miyake, Mikiko; Morita, Ayaka; Araki, Miyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakagata, Naomi; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kimi

    2014-02-01

    Gene trapping in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a proven method for large-scale random insertional mutagenesis in the mouse genome. We have established an exchangeable gene trap system, in which a reporter gene can be exchanged for any other DNA of interest through Cre/mutant lox-mediated recombination. We isolated trap clones, analyzed trapped genes, and constructed the database for Exchangeable Gene Trap Clones (EGTC) [http://egtc.jp]. The number of registered ES cell lines was 1162 on 31 August 2013. We also established 454 mouse lines from trap ES clones and deposited them in the mouse embryo bank at the Center for Animal Resources and Development, Kumamoto University, Japan. The EGTC database is the most extensive academic resource for gene-trap mouse lines. Because we used a promoter-trap strategy, all trapped genes were expressed in ES cells. To understand the general characteristics of the trapped genes in the EGTC library, we used Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for pathway analysis and found that the EGTC ES clones covered a broad range of pathways. We also used Gene Ontology (GO) classification data provided by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) to compare the functional distribution of genes in each GO term between trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and total genes annotated in MGI. We found the functional distributions for the trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and for the RefSeq genes for the whole mouse genome were similar, indicating that the EGTC mouse lines had trapped a wide range of mouse genes. PMID:24444128

  16. Cloning of the mating type loci from Pyrenopeziza brassicae reveals the presence of a novel mating type gene within a discomycete MAT 1-2 locus encoding a putative metallothionein-like protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Ashby, A M

    1998-11-01

    The mating type loci were cloned from Pyrenopeziza brassicae by chromosome walking from a mating type-linked polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment and shown to be idiomorphic by sequence analysis. The MAT 1-1 locus is approximately 3.2 kb and contains a single gene encoding a putative high-mobility group (HMG) domain protein. The MAT 1-2 locus is approximately 3.9 kb with three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative HMG domain, an alpha-1 domain and metallothionein-like proteins. The putative alpha-1 domain ORF on MAT 1-2 is transcribed in the opposite orientation to the other two transcripts and extends into non-idiomorphic sequence. This is the first report of sequence analysis of the mating type loci from a discomycete fungus, which has revealed an interesting mating type infrastructure within the MAT 1-2 locus. Although metallothionein-like proteins have been implicated in a number of processes in animals and plants, they have not to date been implicated in the mating process of filamentous fungi. Possible roles for metallothionein-like proteins in the mating process are discussed. PMID:10094628

  17. Inducible and combinatorial gene manipulation in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Dogbevia, Godwin K.; Marticorena-Alvarez, Ricardo; Bausen, Melanie; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T.

    2015-01-01

    We have deployed recombinant adeno-associated viruses equipped with tetracycline-controlled genetic switches to manipulate gene expression in mouse brain. Here, we show a combinatorial genetic approach for inducible, cell type-specific gene expression and Cre/loxP mediated gene recombination in different brain regions. Our chemical-genetic approach will help to investigate ‘when’, ‘where’, and ‘how’ gene(s) control neuronal circuit dynamics, and organize, for example, sensory signal processing, learning and memory, and behavior. PMID:25954155

  18. RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF METALLOTHIONEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to develop a radioimmunoassay for metallothionein. Since this protein is involved with the transport of cadmium in biological systems and may in fact protect against cadmium poisoning, the ability to monitor the levels in the human population is of th...

  19. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Zorita, I.; Bilbao, E.; Schad, A.; Cancio, I.; Soto, M.; Cajaraville, M.P. . E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-04-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

  20. Clustering of cytokine genes on mouse chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S D; Billings, P R; D'Eustachio, P; Fournier, R E; Geissler, E; Lalley, P A; Burd, P R; Housman, D E; Taylor, B A; Dorf, M E

    1990-04-01

    The presence of positionally conserved amino acid residues suggests that the mouse proteins TCA3, P500, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE are members of a single gene family. These proteins are activation specific and can be expressed by both myeloid and lymphoid cells. MIP1-alpha/MIP1-beta and MCAF (the putative human homologue of JE) act as chemotactic and activating agents for neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. The functions of TCA3 and P500 are unknown. We have used interspecies somatic cell hybrids and recombinant inbred mouse strains to show that the genes encoding TCA3, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE (provisionally termed Tca3, Mip-1a, Mip-1b, and Sigje, respectively) map as a cluster on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 11 near the Hox-2 gene complex. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the P500 and TCA3 proteins are encoded by alternative splicing products of one genomic gene. Additionally, the genes encoding TCA3 and JE are found to be strikingly similar with respect to the positions of intron-exon boundaries. Together, these data support the model that the cytokines TCA3, P500, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE are encoded by a single cluster of related genes. The gene encoding IL-5 (Il-5), which acts as a T cell-replacing factor, a B cell growth factor, and an eosinophil differentiation factor, is also mapped to mouse chromosome 11.Il-5 maps approximately 25 cM proximal to the Tca-3 gene and appears tightly linked to a previously described gene cluster that includes Il-3, Il-4, and Csfgm. We discuss the potential relevance of the two cytokine gene clusters described here with particular attention to specific human hematologic malignancies associated with chromosomal aberrations at corresponding locations on human chromosomes 5 and 17. PMID:1969921

  1. Genomic Sequence Analysis of the Mouse Naip Gene Array

    PubMed Central

    Endrizzi, Matthew G.; Hadinoto, Vey; Growney, Joseph D.; Miller, Webb; Dietrich, William F.

    2000-01-01

    A mouse locus called Lgn1 determines differences in macrophage permissiveness for the intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila. The only regional candidate genes for this phenotype difference lie within a cluster of closely linked paralogs of the Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein (Naip) gene. Previous genetic and physical mapping of the Lgn1 phenotype narrowed it to an interval containing only Naip2 and Naip5, suggesting that there is not complete functional overlap among the mouse Naip loci. In order to gather more information about polymorphisms among the Naip genes of the 129 mouse haplotype, we have determined the genomic sequence of a substantial portion of the 129 Naip gene array. We have constructed an evolutionary model for the expansion of the Naip gene array from a single progenitor Naip gene. This model predicts the presence of two distinct families of Naip paralogs: Naip1/2/3 and Naip4/5/6/7. Unlike the divergences among all the other Naip paralogs, the splits among Naip4, Naip5, Naip6, and Naip7 occurred relatively recently. The high degree of sequence conservation within the Naip4/5/6/7 family increases the likelihood of functional overlap among these genes. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AF242431-AF242435.] PMID:10958627

  2. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser. PMID:26084703

  3. Structure and expression of mouse VL30 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, C.P.; Elder, P.K.; Ono, T.; Foster, D.N.; Getz, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    DNA sequencing and blot hybridization analyses have been used to study the structure of a mouse VL30 gene and the molecular nature of VL30-related RNA which is induced upon the stimulation of cultured AKR mouse embryo cells with defined peptide growth factors. An integrated mouse VL30 gene was found to contain identical 601-base-pair long terminal repeats (LTRs) which were themselves terminated in short inverted repeats. The entire VL30 gene was flanked by a 4-base-pair direct repeat of cellular DNA. Thus, VL30 genes are structurally analogous to integrated forms of retrovirus proviruses and certain other classes of mobile genetic elements. The LTR sequence was found to contain putative promoter and polyadenylation signals and generally exhibited little sequence homology to murine leukemia virus proviral LTRs. Certain short regions of sequence conservation, however, were evident, including the inverted terminal repeat, LTR-adjacent regions corresponding to origins of murine leukemia virus proviral DNA synthesis, and a 36-base-pair direct repeat bearing homology to the 72-base-pair direct repeat (enhancer sequence) of the murine leukemia virus-related Moloney sarcoma virus. Upon mitogenic stimulation of quiescent cells with epidermal growth factor and insulin, a major 5.5-kilobase VL30-specific RNA complementary to both LTR and non-LTR sequences was rapidly induced. They conclude that a complete VL30 gene(s) is highly regulated by peptide growth factor binding to specific membrane receptors in these cells.

  4. Identification and characterisation of imprinted genes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jo; Beechey, Colin

    2004-02-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed specifically from one or other parental allele. Over 70 are now known, and about one-half of these are expressed from the paternal allele and one-half from the maternal allele. Most imprinted genes are clustered within imprinting regions of the mouse genome, regions which are associated with abnormal phenotypes when inherited uniparentally. Imprinted genes have been identified from surveys based on differential expression or differential methylation according to parental origin, as well as analyses of candidate genes, mutants and imprinted gene clusters. Many imprinted genes affect growth and development, and more than 25 per cent determine non-coding RNAs that may have a function in controlling imprinted gene expression. PMID:15163367

  5. Effects of perinatal exposure to low doses of cadmium or methylmercury on thyroid hormone metabolism in metallothionein-deficient mouse neonates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kouki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Hoshikawa, Saeko; Ito, Sadayoshi; Yoshida, Minoru; Satoh, Masahiko; Watanabe, Chiho

    2006-11-10

    Perinatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) or methylmercury (MeHg) results in impaired neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. However, the issue whether Cd or MeHg, especially at low doses, interrupts thyroid hormone action remains to be investigated. In the present study, effects of perinatal exposure to low levels of Cd or MeHg on thyroid hormone metabolism were examined using metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II) null or wild-type neonatal mice. Dams were exposed to 10 mg/L water of Cd or 5 mg/kg chow of MeHg from gestational day 0 to post-natal day 10 (PND 10). Sera, livers and brains were collected from neonates on PND 10. Iodothyronine deiodinase activities and serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured. MeHg exposure failed to induce changes in serum T4 levels and liver type 1 deiodinase (D1) and brain type 2 deiodinase (D2) activities regardless of the MT genotype. However, exposure to MeHg resulted in a decrease in brain type 3 deiodinase (D3) activity in MT-I/II null and wild-type neonates. In contrast, exposure to Cd resulted in a decrease in serum T4 levels in MT-I/II null neonates. Consistently, brain D2 activity was increased in Cd-exposed MT-I/II null neonates. No significant changes in liver D1 and brain D3 activities were induced by Cd administration. Our study demonstrates that perinatal exposure to low doses of Cd or MeHg can induce changes in brain deiodinase activities in the neonates, suggesting that thyroid hormone metabolism in fetuses and neonates might be a potential target of Cd and MeHg. PMID:16982123

  6. Differences in gene expression between mouse and human for dynamically regulated genes in early embryo.

    PubMed

    Madissoon, Elo; Töhönen, Virpi; Vesterlund, Liselotte; Katayama, Shintaro; Unneberg, Per; Inzunza, Jose; Hovatta, Outi; Kere, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a worldwide concern that can be treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to identify gene expression patterns for the first five days of human development, and many functional studies utilize mouse as a model system. We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases. We selected 70 candidate genes for human preimplantation development and investigated their expression in the early mouse development from oocyte to the 8-cell stage. Maternally loaded genes expectedly decreased in expression during development both in human and mouse. We discovered that 25 significantly upregulated genes after fertilization in human included 13 genes whose orthologs in mouse behaved differently and mimicked the expression profile of maternally expressed genes. Our findings highlight many significant differences in gene expression patterns during mouse and human preimplantation development. We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA. PMID:25089626

  7. MouseNet v2: a database of gene networks for studying the laboratory mouse and eight other model vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyojin; Shim, Hongseok; Kang, Byunghee; Yang, Sunmo; Shim, Jae Ho; Shin, Seung Yeon; Marcotte, Edward M.; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, is one of the most important animal tools in biomedical research. Functional characterization of the mouse genes, hence, has been a long-standing goal in mammalian and human genetics. Although large-scale knockout phenotyping is under progress by international collaborative efforts, a large portion of mouse genome is still poorly characterized for cellular functions and associations with disease phenotypes. A genome-scale functional network of mouse genes, MouseNet, was previously developed in context of MouseFunc competition, which allowed only limited input data for network inferences. Here, we present an improved mouse co-functional network, MouseNet v2 (available at http://www.inetbio.org/mousenet), which covers 17 714 genes (>88% of coding genome) with 788 080 links, along with a companion web server for network-assisted functional hypothesis generation. The network database has been substantially improved by large expansion of genomics data. For example, MouseNet v2 database contains 183 co-expression networks inferred from 8154 public microarray samples. We demonstrated that MouseNet v2 is predictive for mammalian phenotypes as well as human diseases, which suggests its usefulness in discovery of novel disease genes and dissection of disease pathways. Furthermore, MouseNet v2 database provides functional networks for eight other vertebrate models used in various research fields. PMID:26527726

  8. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  9. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by promoter hypermethylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear. Methods Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis. Results The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG’s methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P < 0.001); patients with methylated MT3 exhibited lower levels of MT3 expression compared to those with unmethylated MT3 (P = 0.049). After transfection with MT3 lentivirus, proliferation was significantly inhibited in AML cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Annexin V assay showed that apoptosis was significantly upregulated MT3-overexpressing AML cells compared to controls. Real-time PCR array analysis revealed 34 dysregulated genes that may be implicated in MT3 overexpression and apoptosis in AML, including FOXO1. Conclusion MT3 may be a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. Epigenetic inactivation of MT3 via promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples. Overexpression of MT3 may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in AML cells. FOXO1 was dysregulated in MT3-overexpressing cells, offering an insight into the mechanism of MT3-induced apoptosis. However, further research is required to determine the underlying molecular details. PMID:24962166

  10. Genomic organization of mouse Fc gamma receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, A; Webber, J; Soares, H A; Onken, M D; Thompson, J A; Chaplin, D D; Loh, D Y; Tillinghast, J P

    1990-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized the gene coding for the mouse Fc receptor that is termed Fc gamma RIIa. The gene contains five exons and spans approximately 9 kilobases. Unlike most members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, this gene utilizes multiple exons to encode its leader peptide. The first exon encodes the hydrophobic region of the signal sequence; the second exon, which contains only 21 base pairs, encodes a segment of the signal peptidase recognition site; and the beginning of the third exon encodes the predicted site of peptidase cleavage. The third and fourth exons each code for immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains. The fifth exon encodes the hydrophobic transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Partial characterization of the Fc gamma RIIb gene indicates that it also contains multiple leader exons, including a 21-base-pair exon and two exons coding for homologous immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains. However, the Fc gamma RIIb gene uses four exons to encode its intracytoplasmic region. Analysis using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gels indicates that the Fc gamma RIIa and Fc gamma RIIb genes are linked within 160 kilobases on mouse chromosome 1. PMID:2138787

  11. Increased metallothionein gene expression, zinc, and zinc-dependent resistance to apoptosis in circulating monocytes during HIV viremia.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Andrea D; Gekonge, Bethsebah; Giri, Malavika S; Hancock, Aidan; Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Chehimi, Jihed; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Kossevkov, Andrew V; Nicols, Calen; Yousef, Malik; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Kostman, Jay; Showe, Louise; Montaner, Luis J

    2010-09-01

    Circulating monocytes exhibit an apoptotic resistance phenotype during HIV viremia in association with increased MT expression. MTs are known to play an important role in zinc metabolism and immune function. We now show, in a cross-sectional study using peripheral monocytes, that expression of MT1 isoforms E, G, H, and X is increased significantly in circulating monocyte cells from HIV+ subjects during chronic viremic episodes as compared with uninfected subjects. This increase in expression is also observed during acute viremia following interruption of suppressive ART. Circulating monocytes from HIV+ donors were also found to have elevated zinc importer gene Zip8 expression in conjunction with elevated intracellular zinc levels in contrast to CD4(+)T-lymphocytes. In vitro HIV-1 infection studies with elutriated MDM confirm a direct relation between HIV-1 infection and increased MDM MT1 (isoform G) gene expression and increased intracellular zinc levels. A direct link between elevated zinc levels and apoptosis resistance was established using a cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, which reversed apoptosis resistance effectively in monocytes from HIV-infected to levels comparable with uninfected controls. Taken together, increases in MT gene expression and intracellular zinc levels may contribute directly to maintenance of an immune-activated monocyte by mediating an increased resistance to apoptosis during active HIV-1 viremia. PMID:20551211

  12. Metallothionein prolongs survival and antagonizes senescence-associated cardiomyocyte diastolic dysfunction: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Doser, Thomas A; Fang, Cindy X; Nunn, Jennifer M; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Zhu, Meijun; Sreejayan, Nair; Quinn, Mark T; Ren, Jun

    2006-05-01

    Senescence is accompanied by oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction, although the link between the two remains unclear. This study examined the role of antioxidant metallothionein on cardiomyocyte function, superoxide generation, the oxidative stress biomarker aconitase activity, cytochrome c release, and expression of oxidative stress-related proteins, such as the GTPase RhoA and NADPH oxidase protein p47phox in young (5-6 mo) and aged (26-28 mo) FVB wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific metallothionein transgenic mice. Metallothionein mice showed a longer life span (by approximately 4 mo) than FVB mice evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Compared with young cardiomyocytes, aged myocytes displayed prolonged TR(90), reduced tolerance to high stimulus frequency, and slowed intracellular Ca2+ decay, all of which were nullified by metallothionein. Aging increased superoxide generation, active RhoA abundance, cytochrome c release, and p47phox expression and suppressed aconitase activity without affecting protein nitrotyrosine formation in the hearts. These aging-induced changes in oxidative stress and related protein biomarkers were attenuated by metallothionein. Aged metallothionein mouse myocytes were more resistant to the superoxide donor pyrogallol-induced superoxide generation and apoptosis. In addition, aging-associated prolongation in TR90 was blunted by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Collectively, our data demonstrated that metallothionein may alleviate aging-induced cardiac contractile defects and oxidative stress, which may contribute to prolonged life span in metallothionein transgenic mice. PMID:16585059

  13. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Moss, Julie; Graham, Liz; Burton, Nicholas; Hill, Bill; Rao, Jianguo; Baldock, Richard A; Armit, Chris

    2014-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage/) is a freely available database of in situ gene expression patterns that allows users to perform online queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE is unique in providing both text-based descriptions of gene expression plus spatial maps of gene expression patterns. This mapping allows spatial queries to be accomplished alongside more traditional text-based queries. Here, we describe our recent progress in spatial mapping and data integration. EMAGE has developed a method of spatially mapping 3D embryo images captured using optical projection tomography, and through the use of an IIP3D viewer allows users to view arbitrary sections of raw and mapped 3D image data in the context of a web browser. EMAGE now includes enhancer data, and we have spatially mapped images from a comprehensive screen of transgenic reporter mice that detail the expression of mouse non-coding genomic DNA fragments with enhancer activity. We have integrated the eMouseAtlas anatomical atlas and the EMAGE database so that a user of the atlas can query the EMAGE database easily. In addition, we have extended the atlas framework to enable EMAGE to spatially cross-index EMBRYS whole mount in situ hybridization data. We additionally report on recent developments to the EMAGE web interface, including new query and analysis capabilities. PMID:24265223

  14. Structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse oncomodulin gene.

    PubMed

    Staubli, F; Klein, A; Rentsch, J M; Hameister, H; Berchtold, M W

    1995-11-01

    The rat gene encoding oncomodulin (OM), a small calcium-binding protein, is under the control of a solo LTR derived from an endogenous intracisternal A-particle. The latter sequence is the only OM promoter analyzed so far. In order to study cell type-specific OM expression in a species lacking LTR sequences in the OM locus, we initially synthesized an OM cDNA from mouse placenta. By sequencing, we found a 137-bp-long 5'leader region that differed markedly from its rat counterpart but had high similarity to several mouse genomic sequences. Primers specific to this sequence in addition with primers specific for an exon 2/intron 2 sequence were used to screen a mouse ES cell line genomic P1 library. One positive clone contained the whole OM gene, including intron 1 of 25kb and a 5' flanking region of 27 kb lacking an LTR. The region upstream of exon 1 contains no TATA or CCAAT boxes but has a homopurine/homopyrimidine stretch of 102 bp as well as a (CA)22 repeat. The latter sequence is polymorphic and was therefore, used to map the OM gene to the distal end of the long arm of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 5 by interspecific backcross analysis. Additionally we localized the OM gene by in situ hybridization to the region G1-3 on Chr 5, confirming the genetic linkage results. Finally, the OM gene was found to be structurally conserved and to exist in a single copy in mammals. PMID:8597631

  15. A new spontaneous mouse mutation in the Kcne1 gene.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Valenzuela, A; Dunbar, C; Zheng, Q Y; Johnson, K R; Frankel, W N

    2000-10-01

    A new mouse mutant, punk rocker (allele symbol Kcne1(pkr)), arose spontaneously on a C57BL/10J inbred strain background and is characterized by a distinctive head-tossing, circling, and ataxic phenotype. It is also profoundly and bilaterally deaf. The mutation resides in the Kcne1 gene on Chromosome (Chr) 16 and has been identified as a single base change within the coding region of the third exon. The C to T nucleotide substitution causes an arginine to be altered to a termination codon at amino acid position 67, and predictably this will result in a significantly truncated protein product. The Kcne1(pkr) mutant represents the first spontaneous mouse model for the human disorder, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, associated with mutations in the homologous KCNE1 gene on human Chr 21. PMID:11003695

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A 950-GENE DNA ARRAY FOR EXAMINING GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN MOUSE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a 950-gene DNA array for examining gene expression patterns in mouse testis.

    Rockett JC, Christopher Luft J, Brian Garges J, Krawetz SA, Hughes MR, Hee Kirn K, Oudes AJ, Dix DJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  17. An oligonucleotide microarray for mouse imprinted genes profiling.

    PubMed

    Vig, A; Gallou-Kabani, C; Gross, M S; Fabre, A; Junien, C; Jais, J P

    2006-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon unique to mammals that causes some genes to be expressed according to their parental origin. It results in developmental asymmetry in the function of the parental genomes. We describe here a method for the profiling of imprinted genes based on the development of a mouse imprinting microchip containing oligonucleotides corresponding to 493 genes, including most of the known imprinted genes (IG = 63), genes involved in epigenetic processes (EPI = 15), in metabolism (= 147), in obesity (= 10) and in neurotransmission (= 256) and housekeeping reference genes (= 2). This custom oligonucleotide microarray has been constructed to make data analysis and handling more manageable than pangenomic microarrays. As a proof of concept we present the differential expression of these 493 genes in different tissues (liver, placenta, embryo) of C57BL6/J mice fed different diets. Appropriate experimental strategies and statistical tools were defined at each step of the data analysis process with regard to the different sources of constraints. Data were confirmed by expression analyses based on quantitative real-time PCR. These oligochips should make it possible to increase our understanding of the involvement of imprinted genes in the timing of expression programs, tissue by tissue, stage by stage, in response to nutrients, lifestyles and other as yet unknown critical environmental factors in a variety of physiopathological situations, and in animals of different strains, ages and sexes. The use of oligonucleotides makes it possible to expand this microchip to include the increasing number of imprinted genes discovered. PMID:16575188

  18. Gene expression profiling of mouse embryos with microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Global expression profiling by DNA microarrays provides a snapshot of cell and tissue status and becomes an essential tool in biological and medical sciences. Typical questions that can be addressed by microarray analysis in developmental biology include: (1) to find a set of genes expressed in a specific cell type; (2) to identify genes expressed commonly in multiple cell types; (3) to follow the time-course changes of gene expression patterns; (4) to demonstrate cell’s identity by showing similarities or differences among two or multiple cell types; (5) to find regulatory pathways and/or networks affected by gene manipulations, such as overexpression or repression of gene expression; (6) to find downstream target genes of transcription factors; (7) to find downstream target genes of cell signaling; (8) to examine the effects of environmental manipulation of cells on gene expression patterns; and (9) to find the effects of genetic manipulation in embryos and adults. Here we describe strategies for executing these experiments and monitoring changes of cell state with gene expression microarrays in application to mouse embryology. Both statistical assessment and interpretation of data are discussed. We also present a protocol for performing microarray analysis on a small amount of embryonic materials. PMID:20699157

  19. Identification of novel mouse genes conferring posthypoxic pauses.

    PubMed

    Gillombardo, C Barton; Yamauchi, Motoo; Adams, Mark D; Dostal, Jesse; Chai, Sam; Moore, Michael W; Donovan, Lucas M; Han, Fang; Strohl, Kingman P

    2012-07-01

    Although central to the susceptibility of adult diseases characterized by abnormal rhythmogenesis, characterizing the genes involved is a challenge. We took advantage of the C57BL/6J (B6) trait of hypoxia-induced periodic breathing and its absence in the C57BL/6J-Chr 1(A/J)/NaJ chromosome substitution strain to test the feasibility of gene discovery for this abnormality. Beginning with a genetic and phenotypic analysis of an intercross study between these strains, we discovered three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mouse chromosome 1, with phenotypic effects. Fine-mapping reduced the genomic intervals and gene content, and the introgression of one QTL region back onto the C57BL/6J-Chr 1(A/J)/NaJ restored the trait. mRNA expression of non-synonymous genes in the introgressed region in the medulla and pons found evidence for differential expression of three genes, the highest of which was apolipoprotein A2, a lipase regulator; the apo a2 peptide fragment (THEQLTPLVR), highly expressed in the liver, was expressed in low amounts in the medulla but did not correlate with trait expression. This work directly demonstrates the impact of elements on mouse chromosome 1 in respiratory rhythmogenesis. PMID:22539170

  20. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY MUTAGENS IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BROMATE AND N- ETHYL-N-NITROSOUREA IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE L YMPHOMA CELLS

    The mouse lymphoma assay is widely used to identify chemical mutagens The Tk +1- gene located on an autosome in mouse lymphoma cells may recover a wide ra...

  1. Developmental expression profiles of Celsr (Flamingo) genes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Tissir, F; De-Backer, O; Goffinet, A M; Lambert de Rouvroit, C

    2002-03-01

    Celsr, also called Flamingo (Fmi) genes encode proteins of the cadherin superfamily. Celsr cadherins are seven-pass transmembrane proteins with nine cadherin repeats in the extracellular domain, and an anonymous intracellular C-terminus. The Drosophila Fmi gene regulates epithelial planar cell polarity and dendritic field deployment. The three Flamingo gene orthologs in man and rodents are named, respectively, CELSR1-3 and Celsr1-3. Celsr1 and 2 are expressed during early development, in the brain and epithelia. In this report, we characterized further Celsr genes in the mouse, and examined their developmental pattern of expression. Each Celsr is expressed prominently in the developing brain following a specific pattern, suggesting that they serve distinct functions. PMID:11850187

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse Acdp gene family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong-Yi; Yang, Ping; Shi, Jing-Da; Purohit, Sharad; Guo, Dehuang; An, Haiqian; Gu, Jian-Guo; Ling, Jennifer; Dong, Zheng; She, Jin-Xiong

    2004-01-01

    Background We have recently cloned and characterized a novel gene family named ancient conserved domain protein (ACDP) in humans. To facilitate the functional study of this novel gene family, we have cloned and characterized Acdp, the mouse homologue of the human ACDP gene family. Results The four Acdp genes (Acdp1, Acdp2, Acdp3 and Acdp4) contain 3,631 bp, 3,244 bp, 2,684 bp and 2,743 bp of cDNA sequences, and encode deduced proteins of 951, 874, 713 and 771 amino acids, respectively. The mouse Acdp genes showed very strong homologies (>90%) in both nucleotide and amino acid sequences to their human counterparts. In addition, both nucleotide and amino acid sequences within the Ancient Conserved Domain (ACD) are highly conserved in many different taxonomic species. Particularly, Acdp proteins showed very strong AA homologies to the bacteria CorC protein (35% AA identity with 55% homology), which is involved in magnesium and cobalt efflux. The Acdp genes are widely expressed in all tissues tested except for Acdp1, which is only highly expressed in the brain with low levels of expression in kidney and testis. Immunostaining of Acdp1 in hippocampus neurons revealed a predominant localization on the plasma membrane. Conclusion The Acdp genes are evolutionarily conserved in diverse species and ubiquitously expressed throughout development and adult tissues suggesting that Acdp may be an essential gene. Acdp showed strong homology to bacteria CorC protein and predominantly localized on the plasma membrane. These results suggest that Acdp is probably a family of proteins involved in ion transport in mammalian cells PMID:14723793

  3. GXD: a community resource of mouse Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Constance M; Finger, Jacqueline H; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Xu, Jingxia; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is an extensive, easily searchable, and freely available database of mouse gene expression information (www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml). GXD was developed to foster progress toward understanding the molecular basis of human development and disease. GXD contains information about when and where genes are expressed in different tissues in the mouse, especially during the embryonic period. GXD collects different types of expression data from wild-type and mutant mice, including RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and northern and western blot results. The GXD curators read the scientific literature and enter the expression data from those papers into the database. GXD also acquires expression data directly from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. GXD currently contains nearly 1.5 million expression results for over 13,900 genes. In addition, it has over 265,000 images of expression data, allowing users to retrieve the primary data and interpret it themselves. By being an integral part of the larger Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource, GXD's expression data are combined with other genetic, functional, phenotypic, and disease-oriented data. This allows GXD to provide tools for researchers to evaluate expression data in the larger context, search by a wide variety of biologically and biomedically relevant parameters, and discover new data connections to help in the design of new experiments. Thus, GXD can provide researchers with critical insights into the functions of genes and the molecular mechanisms of development, differentiation, and disease. PMID:25939429

  4. A Mouse Model for Imprinting of the Human Retinoblastoma Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tasiou, Vasiliki; Hiber, Michaela; Steenpass, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The human RB1 gene is imprinted due to integration of the PPP1R26P1 pseudogene into intron 2. PPP1R26P1 harbors the gametic differentially methylated region of the RB1 gene, CpG85, which is methylated in the female germ line. The paternally unmethylated CpG85 acts as promoter for the alternative transcript 2B of RB1, which interferes with expression of full-length RB1 in cis. In mice, PPP1R26P1 is not present in the Rb1 gene and Rb1 is not imprinted. Assuming that the mechanisms responsible for genomic imprinting are conserved, we investigated if imprinting of mouse Rb1 can be induced by transferring human PPP1R26P1 into mouse Rb1. We generated humanized Rb1_PPP1R26P1 knock-in mice that pass human PPP1R26P1 through the mouse germ line. We found that the function of unmethylated CpG85 as promoter for an alternative Rb1 transcript and as cis-repressor of the main Rb1 transcript is maintained in mouse tissues. However, CpG85 is not recognized as a gametic differentially methylated region in the mouse germ line. DNA methylation at CpG85 is acquired only in tissues of neuroectodermal origin, independent of parental transmission of PPP1R26P1. Absence of CpG85 methylation in oocytes and sperm implies a failure of imprint methylation establishment in the germ line. Our results indicate that site-specific integration of a proven human gametic differentially methylated region is not sufficient for acquisition of DNA methylation in the mouse germ line, even if promoter function of the element is maintained. This suggests a considerable dependency of DNA methylation induction on the surrounding sequence. However, our model is suited to determine the cellular function of the alternative Rb1 transcript. PMID:26275142

  5. Expression profiling of BEN regulated genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chimge, Nyam-Osor; Mungunsukh, Ognoon; Ruddle, Frank; Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2007-05-15

    BEN is a member of the TFII-I family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Both TFII-I and BEN are involved in gene regulation through interactions with tissue-specific transcription factors and chromatin remodeling complexes. Identification of the downstream target genes of TFII-I proteins is critical in delineating the regulatory effects of these proteins. In this study, we conducted a microarray analysis to determine gene expression alterations following the overexpression of BEN in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We found the BEN-dependent modulation in the expression of large groups of genes representing a wide variety of functional categories including genes important in the immune response, cell cycle, transcriptional regulation and cell signaling. A set of genes identified by the microarray analysis was validated by independent real-time PCR analysis. Among upregulated genes were Shrm, Tgfb2, Ube2l6, G1p2, Ccl7 while downregulated genes were Folr1, Tgfbr2, Csrp2, and Dlk1. These results support a versatile function of TFII-I proteins in vertebrate physiology and lead to an increased understanding of the BEN-dependent molecular events. PMID:17041962

  6. The nucleotide sequence of the mouse immunoglobulin epsilon gene: comparison with the human epsilon gene sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, N; Ueda, S; Hayashida, H; Miyata, T; Honjo, T

    1982-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the immunoglobulin epsilon gene cloned from newborn mouse DNA. The epsilon gene sequence allows prediction of the amino acid sequence of the constant region of the epsilon chain and comparison of it with sequences of the human epsilon and other mouse immunoglobulin genes. The epsilon gene was shown to be under the weakest selection pressure at the protein level among the immunoglobulin genes although the divergence at the synonymous position is similar. Our results suggest that the epsilon gene may be dispensable, which is in accord with the fact that IgE has only obscure roles in the immune defense system but has an undesirable role as a mediator of hypersensitivity. The sequence data suggest that the human and murine epsilon genes were derived from different ancestors duplicated a long time ago. The amino acid sequence of the epsilon chain is more homologous to those of the gamma chains than the other mouse heavy chains. Two membrane exons, separated by an 80-base intron, were identified 1.7 kb 3' to the CH4 domain of the epsilon gene and shown to conserve a hydrophobic portion similar to those of other heavy chain genes. RNA blot hybridization showed that the epsilon membrane exons are transcribed into two species of mRNA in an IgE hybridoma. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6329728

  7. Genetic mapping of tumor susceptibility genes involved in mouse plasmacytomagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.A.; Krall, M.M.; Dosik, J.K. )

    1993-10-15

    Plasmacytomas (PCTs) were induced in 47% of BALB/cAnPt mice by the intraperitoneal injection of pristane, in 2% of (BALB/c [times] DBA/2N)F[sub 1], and in 11% of 773 BALB/cAnPt [times] (BALB/cAnPt [times] DBA/2N)F[sub 1]N[sub 2] backcross mice. This result indicates a multigenic mode of inheritance for PCT susceptibility. To locate genes controlling this complex genetic trait, tumor susceptibility in backcross progeny generated from BALB/c and DBA/2N (resistant) mice was correlated with alleles of 83 marker loci. The genotypes of the PCT-susceptible progeny displayed an excess homozygosity for BALB/c alleles with a 32-centimorgan stretch of mouse chromosome 4 (>95% probability of linkage) with minimal recombination (12%) near Gt10. Another susceptibility gene on mouse chromosome 1 may be linked to Fcgr2 (90% probability of linkage); there were excess heterozygotes for Fcgr2 among the susceptible progeny and excess homozygotes among the resistant progeny. Regions of mouse chromosomes 4 and 1 that are correlated with PCT susceptibility share extensive linkage homology with regions of human chromosome 1 that have been associated with cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma and lymphoid, breast, and endocrine tumors. 68 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Genetic mapping of tumor susceptibility genes involved in mouse plasmacytomagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, B A; Krall, M M; Dosik, J K

    1993-01-01

    Plasmacytomas (PCTs) were induced in 47% of BALB/cAnPt mice by the intraperitoneal injection of pristane, in 2% of (BALB/c x DBA/2N)F1, and in 11% of 773 BALB/cAnPt x (BALB/cAnPt x DBA/2N)F1 N2 backcross mice. This result indicates a multigenic mode of inheritance for PCT susceptibility. To locate genes controlling this complex genetic trait, tumor susceptibility in backcross progeny generated from BALB/c and DBA/2N (resistant) mice was correlated with alleles of 83 marker loci. The genotypes of the PCT-susceptible progeny displayed an excess homozygosity for BALB/c alleles within a 32-centimorgan stretch of mouse chromosome 4 (> 95% probability of linkage) with minimal recombination (12%) near Gt10. Another susceptibility gene on mouse chromosome 1 may be linked to Fcgr2 (90% probability of linkage); there were excess heterozygotes for Fcgr2 among the susceptible progeny and excess homozygotes among the resistant progeny. Regions of mouse chromosomes 4 and 1 that are correlated with PCT susceptibility share extensive linkage homology with regions of human chromosome 1 that have been associated with cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma and lymphoid, breast, and endocrine tumors. PMID:8105477

  9. The three mouse multidrug resistance (mdr) genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner in normal mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Croop, J.M.; Arceci, R.J. ); Raymond, M.; Gros, P.; Devault, A. . Dept. of Chemistry); Haber, D. ); Housman, D.E. )

    1989-03-01

    The gene responsible for multidrug resistance (mdr), which encodes the P-glycoprotein, is a member of a multigene family. The authors have identified distinct mdr gene transcripts encoded by three separate mdr genes in the mouse. Expression levels of each mdr gene are dramatically different in various mouse tissues. Specific mdr RNA transcripts of approximately 4.5, 5 and 6 kilobases have been detected. Each of the mdr genes has a specific RNA transcript pattern. These results should be considered in relation to understanding the normal physiological function of the mdr multigene family.

  10. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  11. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Dborah I; Shen, Jun; Corey, David P; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2015-04-22

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  12. Identification of gene signatures regulated by carvedilol in mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jian-Peng; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Broskova, Zuzana; Jimenez, Felix R; Bayoumi, Ahmed S; Archer, Krystal; Su, Huabo; Johnson, John; Weintraub, Neal L; Tang, Yaoliang; Kim, Il-Man

    2015-09-01

    Chronic treatment with the β-blocker carvedilol has been shown to reduce established maladaptive left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy and to improve LV function in experimental heart failure. However, the detailed mechanisms by which carvedilol improves LV failure are incompletely understood. We previously showed that carvedilol is a β-arrestin-biased β1-adrenergic receptor ligand, which activates cellular pathways in the heart independent of G protein-mediated second messenger signaling. More recently, we have demonstrated by microRNA (miR) microarray analysis that carvedilol upregulates a subset of mature and pre-mature miRs, but not their primary miR transcripts in mouse hearts. Here, we next sought to identify the effects of carvedilol on LV gene expression on a genome-wide basis. Adult mice were treated with carvedilol or vehicle for 1 wk. RNA was isolated from LV tissue and hybridized for microarray analysis. Gene expression profiling analysis revealed a small group of genes differentially expressed after carvedilol treatment. Further analysis categorized these genes into pathways involved in tight junction, malaria, viral myocarditis, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Genes encoding proteins in the tight junction, malaria, and viral myocarditis pathways were upregulated in the LV by carvedilol, while genes encoding proteins in the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy pathways were downregulated by carvedilol. These gene expression changes may reflect the molecular mechanisms that underlie the functional benefits of carvedilol therapy. PMID:26152686

  13. AAV-mediated gene transfer to the mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Lorelei; Ahmed, Seemin S.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno associated virus (rAAV) vectors are great tools for gene transfer due to their ability to mediate long-term gene expression. Recombinant AAVs have been used at various ages of development with no apparent toxicity. There are multiple ways of delivering AAV vectors to the CNS, depending on the stage of development of the mouse. In neonates, intravascular injections into the facial vein are often used. In adults, direct injections into target regions of the brain are achieved with great spatiotemporal control through stereotaxic surgeries. Recently, discoveries of new AAV vectors with the ability to cross the blood brain barrier have made it possible to also target the adult CNS by intravascular injections. rAAVs have been successfully used as gene transfer vehicles in multiple animal models of CNS disorders, and several clinical trials are currently underway. PMID:23686825

  14. The mouse angiogenin gene family: Structures of an angiogenin-related protein gene and two pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.E.; Nobile, V.; Shapiro, R.

    1995-09-01

    Angiogenin, a homologue of pancreatic ribonuclease, is a potent inducer of blood vessel formation. As an initial step toward investigating the in vivo functional role of this protein via gene disruption, we undertook the isolation of the angiogenin gene (Ang) from the 129 strain mouse, which will be used for generating targeting constructs. Unexpectedly, screening of a genomic library with an Ang gene probe obtained previously from the BALB/c strain yielded two new genes closely similar to Ang rather than Ang itself. One of these encodes a protein with 78% sequence identity to angiogenin and is designated {open_quotes}Angrp{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}angiogenin-related protein.{close_quotes} The ribonucleolytic active site of angiogenin, which is critical for angiogenic activity, is completely conserved in Angrp, whereas a second essential site, thought to bind cellular receptors, is considerably different. Thus, the Angrp product may have a function distinct from that of angiogenin. The second gene obtained by library screening is a pseudogene, designated {open_quotes}Ang-ps1,{close_quotes} that contains a frame shift mutation in the early part of the coding region. Although the Ang gene was not isolated from this library, it was possible to amplify this gene from 129 mouse genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that the 129 strain Ang gene is identical to the BALB/c gene throughout the coding region. PCR cloning also yielded a second Ang-like pseudogene, designated {open_quotes}Ang-ps2.{close_quotes} Southern blotting of genomic DNA confirmed the presence of Ang, Angrp, and at least one of the pseudogenes in an individual mouse and suggested that the mouse Ang gene family may contain more than the four members identified here. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2010 update

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nicholas; Rao, Jianguo; Fisher, Malcolm; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Christiansen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage) is a freely available online database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. Gene expression domains from raw images are extracted and integrated spatially into a set of standard 3D virtual mouse embryos at different stages of development, which allows data interrogation by spatial methods. An anatomy ontology is also used to describe sites of expression, which allows data to be queried using text-based methods. Here, we describe recent enhancements to EMAGE including: the release of a completely re-designed website, which offers integration of many different search functions in HTML web pages, improved user feedback and the ability to find similar expression patterns at the click of a button; back-end refactoring from an object oriented to relational architecture, allowing associated SQL access; and the provision of further access by standard formatted URLs and a Java API. We have also increased data coverage by sourcing from a greater selection of journals and developed automated methods for spatial data annotation that are being applied to spatially incorporate the genome-wide (∼19 000 gene) ‘EURExpress’ dataset into EMAGE. PMID:19767607

  16. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2007 update

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Constance M.; Finger, Jacqueline H.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD) provides the scientific community with an extensive and easily searchable database of gene expression information about the mouse. Its primary emphasis is on developmental studies. By integrating different types of expression data, GXD aims to provide comprehensive information about expression patterns of transcripts and proteins in wild-type and mutant mice. Integration with the other Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) databases places the gene expression information in the context of genetic, sequence, functional and phenotypic information, enabling valuable insights into the molecular biology that underlies developmental and disease processes. In recent years the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by a large increase in data content, obtained from the literature and provided by researchers doing large-scale in situ and cDNA screens. In addition, we have continued to refine our query and display features to make it easier for users to interrogate the data. GXD is available through the MGI web site at or directly at . PMID:17130151

  17. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Constance M.; Finger, Jacqueline H.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E.; Forthofer, Kim L.; Frost, Pete J.; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R.; Stone, Kevin R.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD; http://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD’s gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250 000 images that are accessible to our search tools. PMID:24163257

  18. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Smith, Constance M; Finger, Jacqueline H; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E; Forthofer, Kim L; Frost, Pete J; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R; Stone, Kevin R; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD; http://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD's gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250,000 images that are accessible to our search tools. PMID:24163257

  19. Mouse Genetic Nomenclature: Standardization of Strain, Gene, and Protein Symbols

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Schofield, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    The use of standard nomenclatures for describing the strains, genes, and proteins of species is vital for the interpretation, archiving, analysis, and recovery of experimental data on the laboratory mouse. At a time when sharing of data and meta- analysis of experimental results is becoming a dominant mode of scientific investigation, failure to respect formal nomenclatures can cause confusion, errors, and in some cases contribute to poor science. Here we present the basic nomenclature rules for laboratory mice and explain how these rules should be applied to complex genetic manipulations and crosses. PMID:20685919

  20. Metallothionein in human disease.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, C O

    2000-03-01

    Evidence concerning a role for metallothionein (MT) in human disease is reviewed. Current knowledge of MT is juxtaposed with our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: 1) the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide; 2) apoptosis, and 3) the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. The capability to specifically manipulate MT levels in cells and in mice is beginning to provide answers regarding how MT could impact complex disease scenarios. Associations among MT and several diseases, including cancer, circulatory and septic shock, coronary artery disease, and Alzheimer's disease have been made. Strong evidence exists that MT modulates the immune system. The primary function of MT remains unknown. PMID:10774934

  1. Genetic mapping of the mouse stromal cell-derived factor gene (Sdf1) to mouse and rat chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Nomura, M; Matsuda, Y; Itoh, H; Hori, T; Suzuki, G

    1996-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) is a new member of the Cys-X-Cys chemokine family. The chromosomal location of Sdf1, the gene coding mouse SDF1, was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular linkage analysis. The mouse Sdf1 gene was localized to the R-band-positive F1 band of chromosome 6 by direct R-banding FISH. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Sdf1 gene locus at 0.8 cM terminal to D6Nit55 and 3.0 cM proximal to D6Mit12. With in situ hybridization using a mouse cDNA clone as a probe, the rat Sdf1 gene was localized to the R-band-positive band 4q42.1, where conserved linkage homology to mouse chromosome 6 has been identified. Although other Cys-X-Cys chemokine genes have been mapped on human chromosome 4, the chromosomal segment where the mouse and rat Sdf1 gene reside have no conserved linkage homology to human chromosome 4. This result suggests that SDF1 is a new chemokine class. PMID:8751377

  2. A Crystallin Gene Network in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Justin P.; Wang, XiangDi; Freeman, Natalie E.; Ma, Zhiwei; Lu, Anna; Hejtmancik, Fielding; Geisert, Eldon E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the regulation of crystallin genes and protein in the mouse retina using the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Illumina Sentrix BeadChip Arrays (MouseWG-6v2) were used to analyze mRNA levels in 75 BXD RI strains along with the parental strains (C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J), and the reciprocal crosses in the Hamilton Eye Institute (HEI) Retina Dataset (www.genenetwork.org). Protein levels were investigated using immunoblots to quantify levels of proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry to define the distribution of protein. Algorithms in the Genomatix program were used to identify transcription factor binding sites common to the regulatory sequences in the 5′ regions of co-regulated set of crystallin and other genes as compared to a set of control genes. As subset of genes, including many encoding lens crystallins is part of a tightly co-regulated network that is active in the retina. Expression of this crystallin network appears to be binary in nature, being expressed either at relatively low levels or being highly upregulated. Relative to a control set of genes, the 5′ regulatory sequences of the crystallin network genes show an increased frequency of a set of common transcription factor-binding sites, the most common being those of the Maf family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC) confirmed the functionality of these sites, showing that MafA binds the predicted sites of CRYGA and CRYGD in HLE and CRYAB, CRYGA, CRYBA1, and CRYBB3 in RGC cells. In the retina there is a highly correlated group of genes containing many members of the α- β- and γ-crystallin families. These genes can be dramatically upregulated in the retina. One transcription factor that appears to be involved in this coordinated expression is the MAF family transcription of factors associated with both lens and extralenticular expression of crystallin genes. PMID:23978599

  3. In vitro transcription of a cloned mouse ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Yamamoto, O; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1981-01-01

    An in vitro transcription system which utilizes cloned mouse ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and a mouse cell extract has been developed. RNA polymerases I is apparently responsible for this transcription as evidenced by the complete resistance to a high concentration (200 micrograms/ml) of alpha-amanitin. Run-off products obtained with three different truncated rDNA fragments indicated that RNA was transcribed from a unique site of rDNA. The S1 nuclease protection mapping of the in vitro product and of in vivo 45S RNA confirmed this site, indicating that, in this in vitro system, transcription of rDNA started from the same site as in vivo. This site is located at several hundred nucleotides upstream from the putative initiation site reported by us (1) and by others (2). Some sequence homology surrounding this region was noted among mouse, Xenopus laevis and Drosophila melanogaster. The data also suggest that some processing of the primary transcript occurs in this in vitro system. Images PMID:6278446

  4. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2011 update

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Jacqueline H.; Smith, Constance M.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is a community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD integrates different types of expression data at the transcript and protein level and captures expression information from many different mouse strains and mutants. GXD places these data in the larger biological context through integration with other Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resources and interconnections with many other databases. Web-based query forms support simple or complex searches that take advantage of all these integrated data. The data in GXD are obtained from the literature, from individual laboratories, and from large-scale data providers. All data are annotated and reviewed by GXD curators. Since the last report, the GXD data content has increased significantly, the interface and data displays have been improved, new querying capabilities were implemented, and links to other expression resources were added. GXD is available through the MGI web site (www.informatics.jax.org), or directly at www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml. PMID:21062809

  5. Characterization of the p16 gene in the mouse: Evidence for a large gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, J.W.; Giendening, J.M.; Flores, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The p16 gene product is an inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)/cyclin D complex. When uninhibited, the CDK4/cyclin D complex participates in the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein and renders it inactive. Upon inactivation of the RB protein, transition from the G{sub 1} to the S phase of mitosis occurs and results in cellular proliferation. Thus, p16 is presumed to act as a negative regulator of cell growth by preventing the phosphorylation, and thereby subsequent inactivation, of RB by CDK4/cyclin D. Recently, the p16 gene (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene) has been mapped to chromosome 9p21 and found to be deleted or mutated in a number of tumor cell lines. These findings support the role of p16 as a growth inhibitor or tumor suppressor gene and suggest that the mutation of this gene may have global implications in carcinogenesis. We have chosen to test the functional significance of p16 mutations in vivo through the generation of a mouse mutant for p16. In preparation for this undertaking, eight apparently independent (as judged by restriction enzyme digestion and differential hybridization) mouse genomic embryonic stem cell clones have been identified using exon 2 from the human p16 gene as a probe. The identification of these multiple nonoverlapping clones was not entirely surprising since the reduced stringency hybridization of a zoo blot with the same probe also revealed 10-15 positive EcoRI fragments in all species tested, including human, monkey, cow, dog, cat, rabbit, hamster, mouse, chicken and D. melanogaster. Taken together, these findings suggest that the p16 gene is a member of a large gene family. The location of these genomic clones, as well as their potential expression in the mouse, is currently under investigation.

  6. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparna; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Yan, Ming; Joo, Jungsoo; Gu, Lei; Sang, Hong; Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Wood, William G; Ni, Yisheng; Smith, Kimberly; Jackson, Sharon H; Coleman, William G

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host. METHODS: In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes. We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector, pIVET8, which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors, pIVET11 and pIVET12. Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H. pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase. Additionally, each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene. We used a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 and mice, as selective media to identify specific genes that H. pylori expresses in vivo. Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H. pylori. This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes. RESULTS: In this study, we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens. These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families, including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs. Virulence factors, vacA and cagA, were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H. pylori infection, colonization and pathogenesis. Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems. Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H. pylori RNA isolated from H. pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. We compared the expression profile of H. pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H. pylori only. Some genes such as cagA, vacA, lpxC, murI, tlpC, trxB, sodB, tnpB, pgi, rbfA and infB showed a 2-20 fold upregulation. Statistically significant upregulation was obtained for all the above mentioned genes (P < 0.05). tlpC, cagA, vacA, sodB, rbfA, infB, tnpB, lpxC and murI were also significantly upregulated (P < 0.01). These data suggest a strong correlation between results obtained in vitro in the macrophage cell line and in the intact animal. CONCLUSION: The positive identification of these genes demonstrates that our IVET systems are powerful tools for studying H. pylori gene expression in the host environment. PMID:22969195

  7. Role of metallothionein in murine experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshifumi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Kugai, Munehiro; Yoriki, Hiroyuki; Horie, Ryusuke; Fukui, Akifumi; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Rie; Suzuki, Junko S; Takano, Hirohisa; Satoh, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich low molecular-weight proteins that can act as reactive oxygen species scavengers. Although it is known that the induction of MT expression suppresses various inflammatory disorders, the role of MTs in intestinal inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice with targeted deletions of the MT-I/II genes. Acute colitis was induced by 2% DSS in male MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) and C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice. The disease activity index (DAI) was determined on a daily basis for each animal, and consisted of a calculated score based on changes in body weight, stool consistency and intestinal bleeding. Histology, colon length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and colonic mRNA expression and the concentration of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by real-time-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The localization of MTs and macrophages was determined by immunohistological and immunofluorescence staining. To investigate the role of MTs in macrophages, peritoneal macrophages were isolated and their responses to lipopolysaccharide were measured. Following DSS administration, the DAI score increased in a time-dependent manner and was significantly enhanced in the MT-I/II knockout mice. Colonic MPO activity levels and inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17] production increased following DSS administration, and these increases were significantly enhanced in the MT-I/II knockout mice compared with the wild-type mice. MT-positive cells were detected in the lamina propria and submucosal layer by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining, and were mainly co-localized in F4/80-positive macrophages. The production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17) from isolated peritoneal macrophages increased following lipopolysaccharide stimulation, and these increases were significantly enhanced in the macrophages obtained from the MT-I/II knockout mice. These data indicate that MTs play an important role in the prevention of colonic mucosal inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, thus suggesting that endogenous MTs play a protective role against intestinal inflammation. PMID:23467591

  8. Genetics of gene expression surveyed in maize, mouse and man.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Eric E; Monks, Stephanie A; Drake, Thomas A; Lusis, Aldons J; Che, Nam; Colinayo, Veronica; Ruff, Thomas G; Milligan, Stephen B; Lamb, John R; Cavet, Guy; Linsley, Peter S; Mao, Mao; Stoughton, Roland B; Friend, Stephen H

    2003-03-20

    Treating messenger RNA transcript abundances as quantitative traits and mapping gene expression quantitative trait loci for these traits has been pursued in gene-specific ways. Transcript abundances often serve as a surrogate for classical quantitative traits in that the levels of expression are significantly correlated with the classical traits across members of a segregating population. The correlation structure between transcript abundances and classical traits has been used to identify susceptibility loci for complex diseases such as diabetes and allergic asthma. One study recently completed the first comprehensive dissection of transcriptional regulation in budding yeast, giving a detailed glimpse of a genome-wide survey of the genetics of gene expression. Unlike classical quantitative traits, which often represent gross clinical measurements that may be far removed from the biological processes giving rise to them, the genetic linkages associated with transcript abundance affords a closer look at cellular biochemical processes. Here we describe comprehensive genetic screens of mouse, plant and human transcriptomes by considering gene expression values as quantitative traits. We identify a gene expression pattern strongly associated with obesity in a murine cross, and observe two distinct obesity subtypes. Furthermore, we find that these obesity subtypes are under the control of different loci. PMID:12646919

  9. Mouse models for the discovery of colorectal cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher R; Starr, Timothy K

    2016-01-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes a major public health problem as the third most commonly diagnosed and third most lethal malignancy worldwide. The prevalence and the physical accessibility to colorectal tumors have made CRC an ideal model for the study of tumor genetics. Early research efforts using patient derived CRC samples led to the discovery of several highly penetrant mutations (e.g., APC, KRAS, MMR genes) in both hereditary and sporadic CRC tumors. This knowledge has enabled researchers to develop genetically engineered and chemically induced tumor models of CRC, both of which have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the molecular basis of CRC. Despite these advances, the morbidity and mortality of CRC remains a cause for concern and highlight the need to uncover novel genetic drivers of CRC. This review focuses on mouse models of CRC with particular emphasis on a newly developed cancer gene discovery tool, the Sleeping Beauty transposon-based mutagenesis model of CRC. PMID:26811627

  10. Mouse models for the discovery of colorectal cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher R; Starr, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes a major public health problem as the third most commonly diagnosed and third most lethal malignancy worldwide. The prevalence and the physical accessibility to colorectal tumors have made CRC an ideal model for the study of tumor genetics. Early research efforts using patient derived CRC samples led to the discovery of several highly penetrant mutations (e.g., APC, KRAS, MMR genes) in both hereditary and sporadic CRC tumors. This knowledge has enabled researchers to develop genetically engineered and chemically induced tumor models of CRC, both of which have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the molecular basis of CRC. Despite these advances, the morbidity and mortality of CRC remains a cause for concern and highlight the need to uncover novel genetic drivers of CRC. This review focuses on mouse models of CRC with particular emphasis on a newly developed cancer gene discovery tool, the Sleeping Beauty transposon-based mutagenesis model of CRC. PMID:26811627

  11. Cloning and expression of metallothionein mutant alpha-KKS-alpha in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qiang; Shi, Ding-Ji; Hao, Fu-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Chen, Zhen-Jia; Yu, Mei-Min; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2002-01-01

    The mouse metallothionein (mMT) mutant alpha-KKS-alpha has a higher capacity for binding heavy metals than wild type mMT. The mMT mutant alpha-KKS-alpha gene was placed under the control of the strong promoter PpbsA to generate the intermediate vector pRL-alpha-KKS-alpha. pRLalpha-KKS-alpha was then linked with the plasmid pDC-08 to construct shuttle expression vector pDC-alphaKKS-alpha. This expression vector was transformed into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using triparental conjugative transfer. After antibiotic selection (ampicillin and kanamycin), transgenic Anabaena was identified by PCR and Western blotting. The expression level of the mMT mutation alpha-KKS-alpha reached 7.4 mg/g dry cells weight, as detected by ELISA, and heavy metal resistance of the transgenic Anabaena was significantly improved. PMID:12398381

  12. EMAGE—Edinburgh Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression: 2008 update

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Richardson, Lorna; Burton, Nicholas; Perry, Thomas P.; Smith, Paul; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Christiansen, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    EMAGE (http://genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Emage/database) is a database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. Domains of expression from raw data images are spatially integrated into a set of standard 3D virtual mouse embryos at different stages of development, allowing data interrogation by spatial methods. Sites of expression are also described using an anatomy ontology and data can be queried using text-based methods. Here we describe recent enhancements to EMAGE which include advances in spatial search methods including: a refined local spatial similarity search algorithm, a method to allow global spatial comparison of patterns in EMAGE and subsequent hierarchical-clustering, and spatial searches across multiple stages of development. In addition, we have extended data access by the introduction of web services and new HTML-based search interfaces, which allow access to data that has not yet been spatially annotated. We have also started incorporating full 3D images of gene expression that have been generated using optical projection tomography (OPT). PMID:18077470

  13. Distribution of ribosomal gene length variants among mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Arnheim, N; Treco, D; Taylor, B; Eicher, E M

    1982-01-01

    The ribosomal genes (rDNA) in mouse inbred strains have a multichromosomal distribution. Using a structural feature of rDNA [variable length rDNA segment (VrDNA)] that shows length polymorphism within and among inbred strains, we studied the chromosomal distribution of the variant ribosomal gene type through genetic analysis. Our results show that five of the length variant classes can be divided into three discrete linkage groups. The variants present on a particular chromosome pair appear to be unique to that pair and absent from nonhomologous chromosomes. The chromosomal location of particular variants appears to be the same in two unrelated inbred strains suggesting that the observed linkage patterns predate the origin of inbred mice. The nonrandom chromosomal distribution of these rDNA classes suggests that only a limited degree of genetic exchange occurs among nucleolus organizer regions on nonhomologous chromosomes. We have localized one particular VrDNA linkage group to chromosome 12. These and other restriction fragment polymorphisms can be used in the construction of detailed mouse linkage maps. Images PMID:6956886

  14. Genomic organization and characterization of the mouse ELYS gene.

    PubMed

    Okita, Keisuke; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Takizawa, Makiko; Ueno, Masaya; Kimura, Naoki; Taga, Tetsuya

    2003-05-30

    Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into blood cells is controlled by several transcription factors. Recently, we identified a putative transcription factor, ELYS (for embryonic large molecule derived from yolk sac), using a subtraction strategy. During mouse embryogenesis, ELYS transcripts were predominantly expressed in hematopoietic tissues, such as the yolk sac, aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), and liver. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse ELYS gene. The ELYS gene spanned approximately 60kb encoding 36 exons, and was assigned between D1Mit315 and D1Mit458 markers in chromosome 1. The transcription initiation site was identified as the G residue located 670bp upstream of the translation start codon. A region downstream of the transcriptional start site contributed to high promoter activity. This region contained potential DNA elements for transcription factors such as GATA-1, -2, -3, heat shock factor (HSF) 2, and NF-kappaB, which are known to play important roles in hematopoietic events. PMID:12745078

  15. Metallothioneins: Structure and Functions.

    PubMed

    Dziegiel, Piotr; Pula, Bartosz; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Stasiolek, Mariusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna

    2016-01-01

    All metallothioneins (MTs) possess a highly conserved amino acid sequence and present only a few structural changes even when isolated from different animal species. In mammals, a single MT molecule is made up of 61-68 amino acids, depending on the isoform (the MT-1, MT-2, and MT-4 isoforms consist of 61-62 amino acids, whereas the MT-3 isoform comprises 68 amino acids), and the protein sequence is composed of up to 20 cysteine (Cys) residues (Vasak 2005; Vasak and Meloni 2011). Furthermore, in mammals, no aromatic amino acids are found in the MT molecules. Protein sequencing has revealed that the MT molecule is a single polypeptide chain, in which the Cys residues are organized in the sequences Cys-X-Cys, Cys-X-X-Cys, and Cys-Cys, where "X" denotes an amino acid other than Cys (Kojima et al. 1976; Huang and Yoshida 1977). The Cys residues are the metal-binding domains of the MT molecule, in which they are juxtaposed with lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) amino acid residues and arranged in two thiol-rich sites designated domains α and β (Fig. 2.1). The two metal-binding domains are separated by a non-cysteine-containing sequence often designated as the spacer or linker (Zangger et al. 2001; Babula et al. 2012). The α-domain consists of amino acids 31-68 and is located on the C-terminal edge, whereas the N-terminal β-domain contains amino acids 1-30 (Zangger et al. 2001; Dziegiel 2004). It has been demonstrated that the α-domain is capable of binding up to four, and the β-domain up to three, bivalent metal ions such as zinc, cadmium, mercury, or lead (Coyle et al. 2002b; Duncan et al. 2006). The part of the protein with no bound metal ions is termed apo-metallothionein (apo-MT) or thionein (Coyle et al. 2002b). Metallothioneins are also capable of reacting with up to 12 univalent metal ions (Palmiter 1998; Coyle et al. 2002b). Zinc ions, which naturally occur in the organism, are regarded as the main binding partner of apo-MT. However, other nonessential metal ions occurring pathologically in the organism-such as lead, copper, cadmium, mercury, platinum, chromate, bismuth, and silver-often possess higher affinity to the apo-MT-binding sites (Nordberg and Nordberg 2000; Ngu and Stillman 2009; Ngu et al. 2010b; Gumulec et al. 2011; Babula et al. 2012). So far, only iron ions (Fe(2+)) have been identified to possess lower affinity to the metal-binding sites of the apo-MT domains (Foster and Robinson 2011). Interestingly, only a small proportion of MT molecules was found bound to zinc ions in various organisms. In rat tissues, apo-MT has been shown to constitute up to 54 % of the total amount of MT, whereas higher apo-MT levels were detected in rat cancer cells (Yang et al. 2001). Recent studies have also identified small amounts of sulfide ligands bound to recombinant MT-1 and MT-4 proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli (Capdevila et al. 2005; Tio et al. 2006). Nevertheless, studies analyzing MT proteins in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells have failed to detect sulfide ligands bound to their molecules (Mounicou et al. 2010). PMID:26847564

  16. Strain-Dependent Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Palate Development

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiu-Zhen; Ding, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of strain background on gene function in growth and development has been well documented. However, it has not been extensively reported whether the strain background affects the gene expression pattern. Here, we found that the expression of homeobox gene Meox-2 and FGF receptor 1 gene Fgfr1 during mouse palate development is strain-dependent. On the C57B6 inbred background, Meox-2 is expressed in the palatal outgrowth on Embryonic Day 11.5 (E11.5); the expression shifts posteriorly and is restricted to the back of palate on E14.5. On the Swiss Webster outbred background, Meox-2 expression covers both anterior and posterior regions with the same intensity from E12.5 to E14.5. On the Black Swiss background, Meox-2 expression also covers the entire palate A-P axis, but is much weaker in the anterior region on E14.5. Fgfr1 also displays distinct expression patterns in the palatal outgrowth on E11.5 in these three strains. On the Black Swiss outbred background, the expression is restricted to the anterior palatal outgrowth. In marked contrast, the expression in the Swiss Webster outbred strain is located exclusively in the posterior palate outgrowth on E11.5, whereas in the C57B6 inbred strain, the expression is undetectable in the palatal outgrowth on E11.5.

  17. Sleeping Beauty Mouse Models Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vyazunova, Irina; Maklakova, Vilena I.; Berman, Samuel; De, Ishani; Steffen, Megan D.; Hong, Won; Lincoln, Hayley; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Taylor, Michael D.; Akagi, Keiko; Brennan, Cameron W.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Collier, Lara S.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of human high-grade gliomas have discovered known and candidate tumor drivers. Studies in both cell culture and mouse models have complemented these approaches and have identified additional genes and processes important for gliomagenesis. Previously, we found that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in mice ubiquitously throughout the body from the Rosa26 locus led to gliomagenesis with low penetrance. Here we report the characterization of mice in which transposons are mobilized in the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) compartment. Glioma formation in these mice did not occur on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, but rare gliomas were observed when mobilization occurred in a p19Arf heterozygous background. Through cloning insertions from additional gliomas generated by transposon mobilization in the Rosa26 compartment, several candidate glioma genes were identified. Comparisons to genetic, epigenetic and mRNA expression data from human gliomas implicates several of these genes as tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in human glioblastoma. PMID:25423036

  18. Sleeping Beauty mouse models identify candidate genes involved in gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Vyazunova, Irina; Maklakova, Vilena I; Berman, Samuel; De, Ishani; Steffen, Megan D; Hong, Won; Lincoln, Hayley; Morrissy, A Sorana; Taylor, Michael D; Akagi, Keiko; Brennan, Cameron W; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Collier, Lara S

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of human high-grade gliomas have discovered known and candidate tumor drivers. Studies in both cell culture and mouse models have complemented these approaches and have identified additional genes and processes important for gliomagenesis. Previously, we found that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in mice ubiquitously throughout the body from the Rosa26 locus led to gliomagenesis with low penetrance. Here we report the characterization of mice in which transposons are mobilized in the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) compartment. Glioma formation in these mice did not occur on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, but rare gliomas were observed when mobilization occurred in a p19Arf heterozygous background. Through cloning insertions from additional gliomas generated by transposon mobilization in the Rosa26 compartment, several candidate glioma genes were identified. Comparisons to genetic, epigenetic and mRNA expression data from human gliomas implicates several of these genes as tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in human glioblastoma. PMID:25423036

  19. Diabetes and metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu; Feng, Wenke

    2007-07-01

    Diabetes is a widespread disease, and its development and toxic effects on various organs have been attributed to increased oxidative stress. Metallothionein (MT) is a group of intracellular metal-binding and cysteine-rich proteins, being highly inducible in many tissues. Although it mainly acts as a regulator of metal homeostasis such as zinc and copper in tissues, MT was found to be a potent antioxidant and adaptive (or stress) protein to protect cells and tissues from oxidative stress. Studies showed that zinc-induced or genetically enhanced MT synthesis in the pancreas prevented the development of spontaneous or chemically-induced diabetes. Genetically or pharmacologically enhanced MT expression in various organs including heart and kidney provided significant protection from diabetes-induced organ dysfunction such as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. These studies suggest that MT as an adaptive protein can prevent both diabetes development and diabetic complications. This mini-review will thus briefly describe MT's biochemical features and then summarize the data on the protective effect of MT against diabetes and diabetic complications. In addition, the coordinative role of MT with zinc in the prevention of diabetes and its complications will also be discussed. PMID:17627587

  20. Genomic organization of the mouse dystrobrevin gene: Comparative analysis with the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, H.J.; Blake, D.J.; Nawrotzki, R.A.; Davies, K.E.

    1997-02-01

    Dystrobrevin, the mammalian orthologue of the Torpedo 87-kDa postsynaptic protein, is a member of the dystrophin gene family with homology to the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of dystrophin. Torpedo dystrobrevin copurifies with the acetylcholine receptors and is thought to form a complex with dystrophin and syntrophin. This complex is also found at the sarcolemma in vertebrates and defines the cytoplasmic component of the dystrophin-associated protein complex. Previously we have cloned several dystrobrevin isoforms from mouse brain and muscle. Here we show that these transcripts are the products of a single gene located on proximal mouse chromosome 18. To investigate the diversity of dystrobrevin transcripts we have determined that the mouse dystrobrevin gene is organized into 24 coding exons that span between 130 and 170 kb at the genomic level. The gene encodes at least three distinct protein isoforms that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Interestingly, although there is only 27% amino acid identity between the homologous regions of dystrobrevin and dystrophin, the positions of 8 of the 15 exon-intron junctions are identical. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372bp in length and had a 237bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H2O2, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H2O2. PMID:25858315

  2. Identification of a mouse synaptic glycoprotein gene in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Sun, Chun Xiao; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hua Dong; Wang, Chen Ran; Zhao, Guo Ping; Jin, Meilei; Lau, Lok Ting; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Liu, Shuang

    2005-10-01

    Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will require more investigation. PMID:16341590

  3. Conditional Gene Targeting in Mouse Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wicksteed, Barton; Brissova, Marcela; Yan, Wenbo; Opland, Darren M.; Plank, Jennifer L.; Reinert, Rachel B.; Dickson, Lorna M.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Philipson, Louis H.; Shostak, Alena; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Elghazi, Lynda; Roe, Michael W.; Labosky, Patricia A.; Myers, Martin G.; Gannon, Maureen; Powers, Alvin C.; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Conditional gene targeting has been extensively used for in vivo analysis of gene function in β-cell biology. The objective of this study was to examine whether mouse transgenic Cre lines, used to mediate β-cell– or pancreas-specific recombination, also drive Cre expression in the brain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Transgenic Cre lines driven by Ins1, Ins2, and Pdx1 promoters were bred to R26R reporter strains. Cre activity was assessed by β-galactosidase or yellow fluorescent protein expression in the pancreas and the brain. Endogenous Pdx1 gene expression was monitored using Pdx1tm1Cvw lacZ knock-in mice. Cre expression in β-cells and co-localization of Cre activity with orexin-expressing and leptin-responsive neurons within the brain was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS All transgenic Cre lines examined that used the Ins2 promoter to drive Cre expression showed widespread Cre activity in the brain, whereas Cre lines that used Pdx1 promoter fragments showed more restricted Cre activity primarily within the hypothalamus. Immunohistochemical analysis of the hypothalamus from Tg(Pdx1-cre)89.1Dam mice revealed Cre activity in neurons expressing orexin and in neurons activated by leptin. Tg(Ins1-Cre/ERT)1Lphi mice were the only line that lacked Cre activity in the brain. CONCLUSIONS Cre-mediated gene manipulation using transgenic lines that express Cre under the control of the Ins2 and Pdx1 promoters are likely to alter gene expression in nutrient-sensing neurons. Therefore, data arising from the use of these transgenic Cre lines must be interpreted carefully to assess whether the resultant phenotype is solely attributable to alterations in the islet β-cells. PMID:20802254

  4. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-02-06

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp{sup -/-} females. Fertility of Lpp{sup -/-} males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp{sup -/-} x Lpp{sup -/-} crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp{sup -/-} mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  5. Zeptomole Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Petrlova, Jitka; Wang, Joseph; Eckschlager, Tomas; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiol-rich peptides and proteins possess a large number of biological activities and may serve as markers for numerous health problems including cancer. Metallothionein (MT), a small molecular mass protein rich in cysteine, may be considered as one of the promising tumour markers. The aim of this paper was to employ chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CPSA) for highly sensitive detection of MT. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with CPSA for detection of cysteine, glutathione oxidized and reduced, phytochelatin, bovine serum albumin, and metallothionein. Under the optimal conditions, we were able to estimate detection limits down to tens of fg per ml. Further, this method was applied to detect metallothioneins in blood serum obtained from patients with breast cancer and in neuroblastoma cells resistant and sensitive to cisplatin in order to show the possible role of metallothioneins in carcinogenesis. It was found that MT level in blood serum was almost twice higher as compared to the level determined in healthy individuals. Conclusions/Significance This paper brings unique results on the application of ultra-sensitive electroanalytical method for metallothionein detection. The detection limit and other analytical parameters are the best among the parameters of other techniques. In spite of the fact that the paper is mainly focused on metallothionein, it is worth mentioning that successful detection of other biologically important molecules is possible by this method. Coupling of this method with simple isolation methods such as antibody-modified paramagnetic particles may be implemented to lab–on-chip instrument. PMID:20625429

  6. Mammalian metallothioneins: properties and functions.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Masarik, Michal; Adam, Vojtech; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Trnkova, Libuse; Skutkova, Helena; Provaznik, Ivo; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene

    2012-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are a family of ubiquitous proteins, whose role is still discussed in numerous papers, but their affinity to some metal ions is undisputable. These cysteine-rich proteins are connected with antioxidant activity and protective effects on biomolecules against free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species. In this review, the connection between zinc(II) ions, reactive oxygen species, heavy metal ions and metallothioneins is demonstrated with respect to effect of these proteins on cell proliferation and a possible negative role in resistance to heavy metal-based and non-heavy metal-based drugs. PMID:22791193

  7. Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S; Yang, Y; Scott, M J; Pannuti, A; Fehr, K C; Eisen, A; Koonin, E V; Fouts, D L; Wrightsman, R; Manning, J E

    1995-01-01

    In Drosophila the equalization of X-linked gene products between males and females, i.e. dosage compensation, is the result of a 2-fold hypertranscription of most of these genes in males. At least four regulatory genes are required for this process. Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind to numerous sites on the X chromosome of males, but not of females. Although binding to the X chromosome is negatively correlated with the function of the master regulatory gene Sex lethal (Sxl), the mechanisms that restrict this binding to males and to the X chromosome are not yet understood. We have cloned the last of the known autosomal genes involved in dosage compensation, male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2), and characterized its product. The encoded protein (MSL-2) consists of 769 amino acid residues and has a RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) and a metallothionein-like domain with eight conserved and two non-conserved cysteines. In addition, it contains a positively and a negatively charged amino acid residue cluster and a coiled coil domain that may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Males produce a msl-2 transcript that is shorter than in females, due to differential splicing of an intron of 132 bases in the untranslated leader. Using an antiserum against MSL-2 we have shown that the protein is expressed at a detectable level only in males, where it is physically associated with the X chromosome. Our observations suggest that MSL-2 may be the target of the master regulatory gene Sxl and provide the basic elements of a working hypothesis on the function of MSL-2 in mediating the 2-fold increase in transcription that is characteristic of dosage compensation. Images PMID:7796814

  8. The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.G.; Loehning, C.; Frischauf, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrid, BXD recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the {alpha} globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, R; Steingrimsson, E; Copeland, N G; Dyer-Montgomery, K; Lee, J E; Hernandez, R; Jenkins, N A; Tapscott, S J

    1996-06-15

    The Neurod gene is a basic-helix-loop-helix gene that regulates neurogenesis and is identical to the hamster beta2 gene that was cloned as a regulator of insulin transcription. Here we report the cloning of human NEUROD and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 2q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. PMID:8786144

  10. Alternative splicing of human and mouse NPFF2 receptor genes: Implications to receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ankö, Minna-Liisa; Ostergård, Maria; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Panula, Pertti

    2006-12-22

    Alternative splicing has an important role in the tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Here we report that similar to the human NPFF2 receptor, the mouse NPFF2 receptor is alternatively spliced. In human the presence of three alternatively spliced receptor variants were verified, whereas two NPFF2 receptor variants were identified in mouse. The alternative splicing affected the 5' untranslated region of the mouse receptor and the variants in mouse were differently distributed. The mouse NPFF system may also have species-specific features since the NPFF2 receptor mRNA expression differs from that reported for rat. PMID:17157836

  11. Single and Multiple Gene Manipulations in Mouse Models of Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Heather L; Stairs, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer play a critical role in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Advances continue to be made in modeling human disease in a mouse, though the relevance of a mouse model often relies on how closely it is able to mimic the histologic, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the respective human cancer. A classic use of a genetically engineered mouse in studying cancer is through the overexpression or deletion of a gene. However, the manipulation of a single gene often falls short of mimicking all the characteristics of the carcinoma in humans; thus a multiple gene approach is needed. Here we review genetic mouse models of cancers and their abilities to recapitulate human carcinoma with single versus combinatorial approaches with genes commonly involved in cancer. PMID:26380553

  12. TRP channel gene expression in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Jared C; Wensel, Theodore G

    2011-12-01

    In order to identify candidate cation channels important for retinal physiology, 28 TRP channel genes were surveyed for expression in the mouse retina. Transcripts for all TRP channels were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Northern blotting revealed that mRNAs for 12 TRP channel genes are enriched in the retina. The strongest signals were observed for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPM1, TRPM3, and TRPML1, and clear signals were obtained for TRPC4, TRPM7, TRPP2, TRPV2, and TRPV4. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed widespread expression throughout multiple retinal layers for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPML1, PKD1, and TRPP2. Striking localization of enhanced mRNA expression was observed for TRPC1 in the photoreceptor inner segment layer, for TRPM1 in the inner nuclear layer (INL), for TRPM3 in the INL, and for TRPML1 in the outer plexiform and nuclear layers. Strong immunofluorescence signal in cone outer segments was observed for TRPM7 and TRPP2. TRPC5 immunostaining was largely confined to INL cells immediately adjacent to the inner plexiform layer. TRPV2 antibodies stained photoreceptor axons in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of TRPM1 splice variants was strong in the ciliary body, whereas TRPM3 was strongly expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium. PMID:22037305

  13. Coping with cadmium exposure in various ways: the two helicid snails Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus share the metal transcription factor-2, but differ in promoter organization and transcription of their Cd-metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Höckner, M; Stefanon, K; Schuler, D; Fantur, R; de Vaufleury, A; Dallinger, R

    2009-12-01

    Gastropods are able to withstand fluctuating availabilities of nonessential trace elements such as cadmium by induction of Cd-specific metallothionein isoform (Cd-MT) expression. As in other species, the induction mechanism involves the binding of metal-regulatory transcription factors (MTF-1 or MTF-2) to metal responsive elements (MREs) in the MT promoter regions. Cd-dependent transcription of Cd-MT genes was assessed by quantitative real time PCR in two helicid gastropods, Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus, over a period of eight days. The promoter regions of the Cd-MT genes of the two species were sequenced and compared regarding the position of MREs and other relevant potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBs). Cd-MT gene transcription is induced after Cd exposure in Helix pomatia and Cantareus aspersus, showing a transient peak in Helix pomatia, contrasting with a persistent induction rate in Cantareus aspersus. Since the existence of MTF-2 was verified in both species, differing transcription patterns of Cd-MT genes must be due to functional differences in their metal-responsive promoter regions. Both promoters contain a proximal cluster of three MREs overlapping with TFBs for the transcriptional regulator Sp1. In contrast to Cantareus aspersus, however, the Cd-MT gene of Helix pomatia hosts an additional distal MRE overlapping with a Sp1 binding site and a CACCC box. Inhibitory effects of MRE overlapping Sp1 binding sites were observed in other MT genes. We therefore suggest that transient Cd-MT transcription upon Cd(2+) exposure in Helix pomatia may be the result of an inhibitory action of the distal MRE cluster. PMID:19691054

  14. Clustered metallothionein genes are co-regulated in rice and ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco via ROS scavenging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metallothioneins (MT) are low molecular weight, cysteine rich metal binding proteins, found across genera and species, but their function(s) in abiotic stress tolerance are not well documented. Results We have characterized a rice MT gene, OsMT1e-P, isolated from a subtractive library generated from a stressed salinity tolerant rice genotype, Pokkali. Bioinformatics analysis of the rice genome sequence revealed that this gene belongs to a multigenic family, which consists of 13 genes with 15 protein products. OsMT1e-P is located on chromosome XI, away from the majority of other type I genes that are clustered on chromosome XII. Various members of this MT gene cluster showed a tight co-regulation pattern under several abiotic stresses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of conserved cysteine residues in OsMT1e-P protein. Salinity stress was found to regulate the transcript abundance of OsMT1e-P in a developmental and organ specific manner. Using transgenic approach, we found a positive correlation between ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P and stress tolerance. Our experiments further suggest ROS scavenging to be the possible mechanism for multiple stress tolerance conferred by OsMT1e-P. Conclusion We present an overview of MTs, describing their gene structure, genome localization and expression patterns under salinity and development in rice. We have found that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P enhances tolerance towards multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco and the resultant plants could survive and set viable seeds under saline conditions. Taken together, the experiments presented here have indicated that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P protects against oxidative stress primarily through efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22780875

  15. Transformation of liver by SV-40 T-antigen in transgenic mice is unaffected by metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Quaife, C J; Veith, G C; Palmiter, R D

    1996-08-23

    Transgenic mice expressing excess metallothionein-I and SV-40 T-antigen were generated to test the hypothesis that metallothionein may influence the rate of neoplastic transformation induced by T-antigen within the liver. The livers of the double transgenic mice grew at the same rate (to 32% body weight), had similar morphological and histological appearance, had similar chromosomal instability, and released identical amounts of serine and alanine aminotransferases into the blood as mice bearing SV-40 T-antigen alone, despite the fact that metallothionein levels were elevated five- to ten-fold. We conclude that elevated levels of metallothionein-I do not influence either the initial hyperplasia or the subsequent neoplastic transformation that is induced by T-antigen, which is thought to act by sequestering the P53 and retinoblastoma gene products. PMID:8827056

  16. Different evolutionary processes shaped the mouse and human olfactory receptor gene families.

    PubMed

    Young, Janet M; Friedman, Cynthia; Williams, Eleanor M; Ross, Joseph A; Tonnes-Priddy, Lori; Trask, Barbara J

    2002-03-01

    We report a comprehensive comparative analysis of human and mouse olfactory receptor (OR) genes. The OR family is the largest mammalian gene family known. We identify approximately 93% of an estimated 1500 mouse ORs, exceeding previous estimates and the number of human ORs by 50%. Only 20% are pseudogenes, giving a functional OR repertoire in mice that is three times larger than that of human. The proteins encoded by intact human ORs are less highly conserved than those of mouse, in patterns that suggest that even some apparently intact human OR genes may encode non-functional proteins. Mouse ORs are clustered in 46 genomic locations, compared to a much more dispersed pattern in human. We find orthologous clusters at syntenic human locations for most mouse genes, indicating that most OR gene clusters predate primate-rodent divergence. However, many recent local OR duplications in both genomes obscure one-to-one orthologous relationships, thereby complicating cross-species inferences about OR-ligand interactions. Local duplications are the major force shaping the gene family. Recent interchromosomal duplications of ORs have also occurred, but much more frequently in human than in mouse. In addition to clarifying the evolutionary forces shaping this gene family, our study provides the basis for functional studies of the transcriptional regulation and ligand-binding capabilities of the OR gene family. PMID:11875048

  17. Differential Divergence of Three Human Pseudoautosomal Genes and Their Mouse Homologs: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Sanges, Remo; Esposito, Teresa; Tempesta, Sergio; Rao, Ercole; Rappold, Gudrun; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Graves, Jennifer A.M.; Forabosco, Antonino; D'Urso, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ293620, AJ296079, and AJ293619.] PMID:11731500

  18. Structure of the chromosomal gene for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: comparison of the mouse and human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, S; Otsuka, T; Yokota, T; Lee, F; Arai, K

    1985-01-01

    A cDNA clone that expresses granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity in COS-7 cells has been isolated from a pcD library prepared from mRNA derived from concanavalin A-activated mouse helper T cell clones. Based on homology with the mouse GM-CSF cDNA sequence, the mouse GM-CSF gene was isolated. The human GM-CSF gene was also isolated based on homology with the human GM-CSF cDNA sequence. The nucleotide sequences determined for the genes and their flanking regions revealed that both the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are composed of three introns and four exons. The organization of the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are highly homologous and strong sequence homology between the two genes is found both in the coding and non-coding regions. A 'TATA'-like sequence was found 20-25 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. In the 5'-flanking region, there is a highly homologous region extending 330 bp upstream of the putative TATA box. This sequence may play a role in regulation of expression of the GM-CSF gene. These structures are compared with those of different lymphokine genes and their regulatory regions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3876930

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi restore normal growth in a white poplar clone grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil, and this is associated with upregulation of foliar metallothionein and polyamine biosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cicatelli, Angela; Lingua, Guido; Todeschini, Valeria; Biondi, Stefania; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly evident that plant tolerance to stress is improved by mycorrhiza. Thus, suitable plant–fungus combinations may also contribute to the success of phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM)-polluted soil. Metallothioneins (MTs) and polyamines (PAs) are implicated in the response to HM stress in several plant species, but whether the response is modulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to check whether colonization by AMF could modify growth, metal uptake/translocation, and MT and PA gene expression levels in white poplar cuttings grown on HM-contaminated soil, and to compare this with plants grown on non-contaminated soil. Methods In this greenhouse study, plants of a Populus alba clone were pre-inoculated, or not, with either Glomus mosseae or G. intraradices and then grown in pots containing either soil collected from a multimetal- (Cu and Zn) polluted site or non-polluted soil. The expression of MT and PA biosynthetic genes was analysed in leaves using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Free and conjugated foliar PA concentrations were determined in parallel. Results On polluted soil, AMF restored plant biomass despite higher Cu and Zn accumulation in plant organs, especially roots. Inoculation with the AMF caused an overall induction of PaMT1, PaMT2, PaMT3, PaSPDS1, PaSPDS2 and PaADC gene expression, together with increased free and conjugated PA levels, in plants grown on polluted soil, but not in those grown on non-polluted soil. Conclusions Mycorrhizal plants of P. alba clone AL35 exhibit increased capacity for stabilization of soil HMs, together with improved growth. Their enhanced stress tolerance may derive from the transcriptional upregulation of several stress-related genes, and the protective role of PAs. PMID:20810743

  20. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  1. Mouse models of Down syndrome: how useful can they be? Comparison of the gene content of human chromosome 21 with orthologous mouse genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Katheleen; Fortna, Andrew; Bechtel, Lawrence; Davisson, Muriel T

    2003-10-30

    With an incidence of approximately 1 in 700 live births, Down syndrome (DS) remains the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. The phenotype is assumed to be due to overexpression of some number of the >300 genes encoded by human chromosome 21. Mouse models, in particular the chromosome 16 segmental trisomies, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje, are indispensable for DS-related studies of gene-phenotype correlations. Here we compare the updated gene content of the finished sequence of human chromosome 21 (364 genes and putative genes) with the gene content of the homologous mouse genomic regions (291 genes and putative genes) obtained from annotation of the public sector C57Bl/6 draft sequence. Annotated genes fall into one of three classes. First, there are 170 highly conserved, human/mouse orthologues. Second, there are 83 minimally conserved, possible orthologues. Included among the conserved and minimally conserved genes are 31 antisense transcripts. Third, there are species-specific genes: 111 spliced human transcripts show no orthologues in the syntenic mouse regions although 13 have homologous sequences elsewhere in the mouse genomic sequence, and 38 spliced mouse transcripts show no identifiable human orthologues. While these species-specific genes are largely based solely on spliced EST data, a majority can be verified in RNA expression experiments. In addition, preliminary data suggest that many human-specific transcripts may represent a novel class of primate-specific genes. Lastly, updated functional annotation of orthologous genes indicates genes encoding components of several cellular pathways are dispersed throughout the orthologous mouse chromosomal regions and are not completely represented in the Down syndrome segmental mouse models. Together, these data point out the potential for existing mouse models to produce extraneous phenotypes and to fail to produce DS-relevant phenotypes. PMID:14585506

  2. Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co-expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1-4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500 Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse-knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain-specific spatio-temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty-two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning ("l/m/c") phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD-cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span ("Hyperactivity/SAS", the ontologically-derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues' disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse ("candidate-genes"), were co-expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues' mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co-expressed with ADHD candidate-genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. PMID:25656289

  3. Identification and Applications of Repetitive Probes for Gene Mapping in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    Interspecific mouse hybrids that are viable and fertile provide a wealth of genetic variation that is useful for gene mapping. We are using this genetic variation to develop multilocus linkage maps of the mouse genome. As an outgrowth of this work, we have identified three repetitive probes that collectively identify 28 loci dispersed on 16 of the 19 mouse autosomes and the X chromosome. These loci establish a skeleton linkage map that can be used to detect linkage over much of the mouse genome. The molecular probes are derived from the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope gene, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. The ability to scan the mouse genome quickly and efficiently in an interspecific cross using these three repetitive probes makes this system a powerful tool for identifying the chromosomal location of mutations that have yet to be cloned, mapping multigenic traits, and identifying recessive protooncogene loci associated with murine neoplastic disease. Ultimately, interspecific hybrids in conjunction with repetitive and single-copy probes will provide a rapid means to access virtually any gene of interest in the mouse genome at the molecular level. PMID:1673105

  4. Localization of the murine activating transcription factor 4 gene to mouse chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Mielnicki, L.M.; Elliott, R.W.; Pruitt, S.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length variant analysis employing a mouse cDNA probe was used to localize the gene encoding murine activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) to mouse chromosome 15 in close proximity to Sis (the cellular homolog of the simian sarcoma virus oncoprotein). Previous studies suggest that conserved linkage relationships exist between this region of mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 22q. The chromosomal locations of genes encoding most members of the ATF and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) subfamilv of b-zip proteins have not been determined. This study demonstrates that the location of the gene for murine ATF-4 is not linked to the genes for JUN family members, CREB1 and CREB2. Further mapping of individual ATF/ CREB subfamily members in the mouse will provide insight into the evolution of this multigene family. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Otitis Media Impacts Hundreds of Mouse Middle and Inner Ear Genes

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Carol J.; Hausman, Fran; Kempton, J. Beth; Choi, Dongseok; Trune, Dennis R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Otitis media is known to alter expression of cytokine and other genes in the mouse middle ear and inner ear. However, whole mouse genome studies of gene expression in otitis media have not previously been undertaken. Ninety-nine percent of mouse genes are shared in the human, so these studies are relevant to the human condition. Methods To assess inflammation-driven processes in the mouse ear, gene chip analyses were conducted on mice treated with trans-tympanic heat-killed Hemophilus influenza using untreated mice as controls. Middle and inner ear tissues were separately harvested at 6 hours, RNA extracted, and samples for each treatment processed on the Affymetrix 430 2.0 Gene Chip for expression of its 34,000 genes. Results Statistical analysis of gene expression compared to control mice showed significant alteration of gene expression in 2,355 genes, 11% of the genes tested and 8% of the mouse genome. Significant middle and inner ear upregulation (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) was seen in 1,081 and 599 genes respectively. Significant middle and inner ear downregulation (fold change <0.67, p<0.05) was seen in 978 and 287 genes respectively. While otitis media is widely believed to be an exclusively middle ear process with little impact on the inner ear, the inner ear changes noted in this study were numerous and discrete from the middle ear responses. This suggests that the inner ear does indeed respond to otitis media and that its response is a distinctive process. Numerous new genes, previously not studied, are found to be affected by inflammation in the ear. Conclusion Whole genome analysis via gene chip allows simultaneous examination of expression of hundreds of gene families influenced by inflammation in the middle ear. Discovery of new gene families affected by inflammation may lead to new approaches to the study and treatment of otitis media. PMID:24124478

  6. Bioaccumulation, morphological changes, and induction of metallothionein gene expression in the digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense after exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Li, Yingjun; Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan

    2015-08-01

    To study the responses of digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense to the exposure with cadmium (Cd), crabs were acutely exposed to 7.25, 14.50, and 29.00 mg/l Cd for 96 h and subchronically exposed to 0.725, 1.450, and 2.900 mg/l for 21 days. Cd bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas and digestive tract (esophagus and intestine) was examined. Furthermore, histopathological alterations of the esophagus, midgut, hindgut, and hepatopancreas were assessed in animals from the 29.0 and 2.90 mg/l Cd treatment groups, and expression of metallothionein messenger RNA (MT mRNA) in the hepatopancreas and intestine was measured in all treatment groups. The results showed difference in the middle and high concentrations between acute and subchronic treatment groups. Cd content in digestive tract after acute 14.5 and 29.0 mg/l Cd exposure was significantly higher than that at subchronic 1.45 and 2.90 mg/l exposure, but Cd levels in hepatopancreas were not significantly different under the same condition. Acute exposure to Cd induced greater morphological damage than subchronic exposure: large areas of epithelial cells were necrotic in hepatopancreas and midgut, which detached from the basal lamina. Vacuolated muscle cells were observed in the hindgut of animals from the acute exposure group, but the changes of esophageal morphology were not obvious after acute or subchronic treatments. The expression of MT mRNA increased with increasing Cd concentration, and MT mRNA level in acute exposure groups was significantly lower when compared to the subchronic exposure groups. Higher Cd content and lower MT mRNA expression in the acutely exposed groups may be responsible for more severe damage of digestive system in these exposure groups. PMID:25843825

  7. Assignment of the mouse tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase gene (Acp5) to chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.; Reddy, S.V.; Leach, R.J.; Scarcez, T.; Sakaguchi, A.Y. ); Roodman, G.D. Audie Murphy Veterans Administration Hospital, San Antonio, TX ); Lalley, P.A. ); Windle, J.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a marker enzyme for osteoclasts, the multinucleated cell responsible for bone resorption. Interspecific somatic whole cell hybrids and karyotypically simple microcell hybrids were used to map the gene encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatse (acp5) to mouse Chromosome 9. Acp5 is therefore a member of a syntenic family of genes that map to human chromosome 19p13.1-p13.3 and mouse Chromosome 9. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. The MHC class I-like Zn-{alpha}{sub 2}-glycoprotein gene maps to mouse chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, Munechika; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori

    1995-05-01

    We showed that the mouse Azgp gene is not linked to the MHC and maps to chromosome 5. In mice, Cd1 genes are located on chromosome 3, and the gene encoding the neonatal intestinal Fc receptor maps to chromosome 7. Thus, all of the currently known mouse class I genes encoded outside the MHC are dispersed to separate chromosomes. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of myoxin (MYH12), the human homologue to the mouse dilute gene

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, L.J.; Kennett, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    The mouse dilute gene encodes a novel type of non-muscle myosin that structurally combines elements from both nonmuscle myosin type I and nonmuscle myosin type II. Phenotypically, mutations in the mouse dilute gene result not only in the lightening of coat color, but also in the onset of severe neurological defects shortly after birth. This may indicate that the mouse dilute gene is important in maintaining the normal neuronal function in the mouse. The authors report the isolation and sequencing of [open quotes]myoxin[close quotes] (MYH12), the human homologue of the mouse dilute gene, and its assignment to human chromosome 15. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Aup1, a novel gene on mouse Chromosome 6 and human Chromosome 2p13

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Wonhee; Weber, J.S.; Meisler, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse cDNA, Aup1, encoding a predicted protein of 410 amino acid residues. The 1.5-kb Aup1 transcript is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues. An evolutionary relationship to the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted protein F44b9.5 is indicated by the 35% identity and 53% conservation of the amino acid sequences. Nineteen related human ESTs spanning 80% of the protein have also been identified, with a predicted amino acid sequence identity of 86% between the human and the mouse proteins. The gene has been mapped to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 2p13 and mouse Chromosome 6. Aup1 was eliminated as a candidate gene for two closely linked disorders, human LGMD2B and mouse mnd2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human DNA helicase RECQL and its mouse homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Puranam, K.L.; Kennington, E.; Blackshear, P.J.

    1995-04-10

    We have determined the chromosomal location of the human and mouse genes encoding the RECQL protein, a putative DNA helicase homologous to the bacterial DNA helicase, RecQ. RECQL was localized to human chromosome 12 by analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA, fine mapping of RECQL by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed its chromosomal location to be 12p11-p12. The corresponding mouse gene, Recql, was mapped to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 6 by analysis of DNA from an interspecific cross. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Lgn1, a gene that determines susceptibility to Legionella pneumophila, maps to mouse chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, W.F.; Damron, D.M.; Lander, E.S.

    1995-04-10

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila is unable to replicate in macrophages derived from most inbred mouse strains. Here, we report the mapping of a gene, called Lgn1, that determines whether mouse macrophages are permissive for the intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. Although Lgn1 has been previously reported to map to mouse chromosome 15, we show here that it actually maps to chromosome 13, between D13Mit128 and D13Mit70. In the absence of any regional candidates for Lgn1, this map position will facilitate positional cloning attempts directed at this gene. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. c-Rel Regulates Inscuteable Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Riki; Kozuki, Satoshi; Kamakura, Sachiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-02-12

    Inscuteable (Insc) regulates cell fate decisions in several types of stem cells. Although it is recognized that the expression levels of mouse INSC govern the balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division, regulation of mouse Insc gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that mouse Insc expression transiently increases at an early stage of differentiation, when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells differentiate into bipotent mesendoderm capable of producing both endoderm and mesoderm in defined culture conditions. We identified the minimum transcriptional regulatory element (354 bases) that drives mouse Insc transcription in mES cells within a region >5 kb upstream of the mouse Insc transcription start site. We found that the transcription factor reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-Rel) bound to the minimum element and promoted mouse Insc expression in mES cells. In addition, short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either mouse INSC or c-Rel protein decreased mesodermal cell populations without affecting differentiation into the mesendoderm or endoderm. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse INSC rescued the mesoderm-reduced phenotype induced by knockdown of c-Rel. We propose that regulation of mouse Insc expression by c-Rel modulates cell fate decisions during mES cell differentiation. PMID:26694615

  14. Mouse forkhead L2 maintains repression of FSH-dependent genes in the granulosa cell.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fang-Ting; Fan, Kenneth; Bentsi-Barnes, Ikuko; Barlow, Gillian M; Pisarska, Margareta D

    2012-10-01

    The forkhead transcription factor forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is expressed in granulosa cells of small and medium follicles in the mouse ovary. Foxl2 female knockout mice exhibit primordial follicle depletion and primary ovarian failure, but evidence from adult female conditional Foxl2 knockout mice suggests that FOXL2 may also play a significant role in maintenance of ovarian differentiation at stages beyond the primordial follicle and initial wave of folliculogenesis. We previously showed that human FOXL2 functions as a transcriptional repressor of several key genes involved in granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), P450aromatase (CYP19A1 (CYP19)), P450scc (CYP11A1 (CYP11A)), and cyclin D2 (CCND2). To elucidate the role of mouse FOXL2, we determined its role in transcriptional regulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and then confirmed our findings in mouse granulosa cells. We found that mouse FOXL2 represses the activities of the mouse Star, Cyp19a1, Cyp11a1 promoters in CHO cells, but may not repress the Ccnd2 promoter, and identified the minimal mouse Star, Cyp19a1, and Cyp11a1 promoter regions responsive to FOXL2 regulation. We then knocked down Foxl2 in mouse granulosa cells using siRNA, which resulted in significantly increased expression levels of mouse Star, Cyp19a1, and Cyp11a1 but not Ccnd2. To increase Foxl2 expression levels, we generated a mouse Foxl2 lentiviral construct and used it to infect mouse granulosa cells. Following lentiviral infection, the expression levels of mouse Star, Cyp19a1, and Cyp11a1, but not Ccnd2, decreased significantly. These data confirm that mouse FOXL2 functions as a transcriptional repressor of key granulosa cell genes that influence ovarian development. PMID:22847492

  15. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  16. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  17. Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co‐expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1–4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500 Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse‐knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain‐specific spatio‐temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty‐two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning (“l/m/c”) phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD‐cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span (“Hyperactivity/SAS”, the ontologically‐derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues’ disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse (“candidate‐genes”), were co‐expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues’ mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co‐expressed with ADHD candidate‐genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656289

  18. LOCALIZATION OF THE MOUSE THYMIDINE KINASE GENE TO THE DISTAL PORTION OF CHROMOSOME 11

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the regional mapping of the thymidine kinase (tk-1) gene in the mouse using two complementary analyses: 1) investigation of chromosome aberrations associated with tx-1 gene inactivation in the L5178Y TX+/-3.7.2c cell line and (2) in situ molecular hybridization of a clo...

  19. Mouse lactoferrin gene: a marker for estrogen and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Teng, C

    1995-01-01

    Lactoferrin mRNA in the 21-day-old mouse uterus can be increased several hundredfold by estrogen. The physiological role of lactoferrin in mouse uterus is unclear; however, it can be a useful marker for the estrogen action in the uterus. The structural organization and the chromosome location of the lactoferrin gene are similar to members of the transferrin gene family. At the 5' flanking region of the lactoferrin gene, we have characterized two modules that respond to estrogen and growth factor stimulation. Each module is composed of either overlapping or multiple transcription factor-binding elements. The well-characterized estrogen and growth factor response modules in the mouse lactoferrin gene could serve as the foundation to understand the intricate molecular mechanisms of estrogen action and its relationship to growth factors. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. PMID:8593866

  20. Chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin.

    PubMed Central

    Eistetter, H R; Adolph, S; Ringwald, M; Simon-Chazottes, D; Schuh, R; Guénet, J L; Kemler, R

    1988-01-01

    The gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. Uvomorulin cDNA clone F5H3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in Southern blots of genomic DNA from mouse species Mus musculus domesticus and Mus spretus. By analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, Um, was defined on chromosome 8. Recombination frequency between Um and the co-segregating loci serum esterase 1 (Es-1) and tyrosine aminotransferase (Tat) places Um about 14 centimorgan (cM) distal to Es-1, and 5 cM proximal to Tat. In situ hybridization of uvomorulin [3H]cDNA to mouse metaphase chromosomes located the Um locus close to the distal end of chromosome 8 (bands C3-E1). Since uvomorulin is evolutionarily highly conserved, its chromosomal assignment adds an important marker to the mouse genetic map. Images PMID:2897121

  1. Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U.

    1994-09-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

  2. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Y.Q. Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G.; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L.; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E.; Murphy, William J.; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sequenced the MSY (Male-Specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only two percent of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 50 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs, but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

  3. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  4. A Survey of Imprinted Gene Expression in Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, J. Mauro; Starmer, Joshua; Schertzer, Megan D.; Yee, Della; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Several hundred mammalian genes are expressed preferentially from one parental allele as the result of a process called genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is prevalent in extra-embryonic tissue, where it plays an essential role during development. Here, we profiled imprinted gene expression via RNA-Seq in a panel of six mouse trophoblast stem lines, which are ex vivo derivatives of a progenitor population that gives rise to the placental tissue of the mouse. We found evidence of imprinted expression for 48 genes, 31 of which had been described previously as imprinted and 17 of which we suggest as candidate imprinted genes. An equal number of maternally and paternally biased genes were detected. On average, candidate imprinted genes were more lowly expressed and had weaker parent-of-origin biases than known imprinted genes. Several known and candidate imprinted genes showed variability in parent-of-origin expression bias between the six trophoblast stem cell lines. Sixteen of the 48 known and candidate imprinted genes were previously or newly annotated noncoding RNAs and six encoded for a total of 60 annotated microRNAs. Pyrosequencing across our panel of trophoblast stem cell lines returned levels of imprinted expression that were concordant with RNA-Seq measurements for all eight genes examined. Our results solidify trophoblast stem cells as a cell culture-based experimental model to study genomic imprinting, and provide a quantitative foundation upon which to delineate mechanisms by which the process is maintained in the mouse. PMID:25711832

  5. [The cloning and expression of a novel mouse gene mLPTS and its subcellular localization].

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng; Zhao, Mu-Jun; Li, Zai-Ping

    2002-10-01

    A novel mouse gene mLPTS was cloned by EST assembling, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. The gene fragment for mLPTS is 1244 bp in length, encoding a protein of 332 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of mLPTS has 78% homologue with that of LPTS gene, which is a novel liver cancer-related gene identified through positional candidate cloning stratage by our laboratory. The expression of LPTS gene was ubiquitous in normal human tissues, whereas levels appeared to be significantly reduced, or sometime undetectable in HCC cells and neoplastic tissues, and it might be involved in the negative regulation of cell proliferation. The expression of mLPTS gene was found in all mouse tissues analyzed, same with that of LPTS gene in human. There was only one transcript for mLPTS gene in mouse tissues. The phylogenetic tree was constructed through the amino acids sequence analysis and the study of the sequence homologue among different species. Next, mLPTS gene was cloned into green fluorescent protein eukarytic expression vector and then transfected into CHO cell line. The green fluorescent was mostly limited in the nucleolus, showing that the gene products of mLPTS in eukaryocytes were located in the nucleolus. PMID:12561469

  6. Mouse Oocytes Transcribe Injected Xenopus 5S RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Ralph L.; Chen, Howard Y.; Trumbauer, Myrna E.

    2016-01-01

    Transcripts produced after injection of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene into oocyte germinal vesicles of mice migrate electrophoretically with the 5S RNA marker, an indication that the gene is transcribed and processed with considerable accuracy, Approximately two 5S RNA molecules are transcribed per gene per hour. This system may be useful in studying DNA processing and gene regulation by the mammalian ovum and might be modified to allow permanent incorporation of specific genes into mice. PMID:7194505

  7. Gene for the catalytic subunit of mouse DNA-dependent protein kinase maps to the scid locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R D; Hogg, J; Ozaki, J H; Gell, D; Jackson, S P; Riblet, R

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) has been proposed recently as a candidate gene for the mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) locus. We have used a partial cDNA clone for human DNA-PKcs to map the mouse homologue using a large interspecific backcross panel. We found that the mouse gene for DNA-PKcs does not recombine with scid, consistent with the hypothesis that scid is a mutation in the mouse gene for DNA-PKcs. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479885

  8. Gene for the catalytic subunit of mouse DNA-dependent protein kinase maps to the scid locus.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Hogg, J; Ozaki, J H; Gell, D; Jackson, S P; Riblet, R

    1995-11-01

    The gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) has been proposed recently as a candidate gene for the mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) locus. We have used a partial cDNA clone for human DNA-PKcs to map the mouse homologue using a large interspecific backcross panel. We found that the mouse gene for DNA-PKcs does not recombine with scid, consistent with the hypothesis that scid is a mutation in the mouse gene for DNA-PKcs. PMID:7479885

  9. Number of CpG islands and genes in human and mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Antequera, F; Bird, A

    1993-01-01

    Estimation of gene number in mammals is difficult due to the high proportion of noncoding DNA within the nucleus. In this study, we provide a direct measurement of the number of genes in human and mouse. We have taken advantage of the fact that many mammalian genes are associated with CpG islands whose distinctive properties allow their physical separation from bulk DNA. Our results suggest that there are approximately 45,000 CpG islands per haploid genome in humans and 37,000 in the mouse. Sequence comparison confirms that about 20% of the human CpG islands are absent from the homologous mouse genes. Analysis of a selection of genes suggests that both human and mouse are losing CpG islands over evolutionary time due to de novo methylation in the germ line followed by CpG loss through mutation. This process appears to be more rapid in rodents. Combining the number of CpG islands with the proportion of island-associated genes, we estimate that the total number of genes per haploid genome is approximately 80,000 in both organisms. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7505451

  10. Six members of the mouse forkhead gene family are developmentally regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, K H; Lee, K H; Schlöndorff, J; Hiemisch, H; Monaghan, A P; Schütz, G

    1993-01-01

    The 110-aa forkhead domain defines a class of transcription factors that have been shown to be developmentally regulated in Drosophila melanogaster and Xenopus laevis. The forkhead domain is necessary and sufficient for target DNA binding as shown for the rat hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) gene family. We have cloned six forkhead gene family members from a mouse genomic library in addition to the mouse equivalents of the genes for HNF3 alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The six genes, termed fkh-1 to fkh-6, share a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila forkhead gene, having 57-67% amino acid identity within the forkhead domain. fkh-1 seems to be the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila FD1 gene, as the sequences are 86% identical. fkh-1 to fkh-6 show distinct spatial patterns of expression in adult tissues and are expressed during embryogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7689224

  11. Metallothionein cDNA, promoter, and genomic sequences of the tropical green mussel, Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H W; Patel, K H

    1999-09-01

    The primary structure of the cDNA and metallothionein (MT) genomic sequences of the tropical green mussel (Perna viridis) was determined. The complete cDNA sequences were obtained using degenerate primers designed from known metallothionein consensus amino acid sequences from the temperate species Mytilus edulis. The amino acid sequences of P. viridis metallothionein deduced from the coding region consisted of 72 amino acids with 21 cysteine residues and 9 Cys-X-Cys motifs corresponding to Type I MT class of other species. Two different genomic sequences coding for the same mRNA were obtained. Each putative gene contained a unique 5'UTR and two unique introns located at the same splice sites. The promoters for both genes were different in length and both contained metal responsive elements and active protein-binding sites. The structures of the genomic clones were compared with those of other species. J. Exp. Zool. 284:445-453, 1999. PMID:10451422

  12. Antiserum specific for the intact isoform-3 of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Tokheim, Abigail M; Armitage, Ian M; Martin, Bruce L

    2005-04-29

    The recombinant form of isoform-3 of mouse brain metallothionein (MT3) was used as an antigen to immunize rabbits and raise MT3-selective antiserum. The antiserum was essentially specific for MT3 with 100-fold greater sensitivity for MT3 compared to MT1 or MT2. Immunonblot analysis of whole mouse brain homogenates showed that MT3 was present only in the fraction retained by a 30,000-Da cut-off filter. The antiserum was used to immunoprecipitate MT3 from mouse brain extracts of Swiss Webster mice and provided evidence that MT3 was a member of a macromolecular complex of greater than 30,000 Da mass in brain. An ELISA was developed using purified, recombinant mouse brain Cd(7)-MT3 as the antigen and used to quantify MT3 in mouse brain extracts. The concentration of MT3 was found to be 3.0+/-0.8 microg/ml or approximately 3.5 microg/g mouse brain (wet weight). PMID:15892977

  13. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S H

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range - and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this "NIA Mouse ESC Bank," we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  14. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  15. Developing pineapple fruit has a small transcriptome dominated by metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard; Fairbairn, David J; Ripi, Jonni; Crowe, Mark; Botella, Jose R

    2005-01-01

    In a first step toward understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit development, a sequencing project was initiated to survey a range of expressed sequences from green unripe and yellow ripe fruit tissue. A highly abundant metallothionein transcript was identified during library construction, and was estimated to account for up to 50% of all EST library clones. Library clones with metallothionein subtracted were sequenced, and 408 unripe green and 1140 ripe yellow edited EST clone sequences were retrieved. Clone redundancy was high, with the combined 1548 clone sequences clustering into just 634 contigs comprising 191 consensus sequences and 443 singletons. Half of the EST clone sequences clustered within 13.5% and 9.3% of contigs from green unripe and yellow ripe libraries, respectively, indicating that a small subset of genes dominate the majority of the transcriptome. Furthermore, sequence cluster analysis, northern analysis, and functional classification revealed major differences between genes expressed in the unripe green and ripe yellow fruit tissues. Abundant genes identified from the green fruit include a fruit bromelain and a bromelain inhibitor. Abundant genes identified in the yellow fruit library include a MADS box gene, and several genes normally associated with protein synthesis, including homologues of ribosomal L10 and the translation factors SUI1 and eIF5A. Both the green unripe and yellow ripe libraries contained high proportions of clones associated with oxidative stress responses and the detoxification of free radicals. PMID:15520025

  16. Induction of a new metallothionein isoform (MT-IV) occurs during differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia.

    PubMed

    Quaife, C J; Findley, S D; Erickson, J C; Froelick, G J; Kelly, E J; Zambrowicz, B P; Palmiter, R D

    1994-06-14

    A new member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family was discovered that lies about 20 kb 5' of the MT-III gene in both mouse and human. The MT-IV proteins are highly conserved in both species and have a glutamate insertion at position 5 relative to the classical MT-I and MT-II proteins. Murine MT-IV mRNA appears to be expressed exclusively in stratified squamous epithelia associated with oral epithelia, esophagus, upper stomach, tail, footpads, and neonatal skin. The MT derived from tongue epithelium contains both zinc and copper. Many of these epithelia develop parakeratosis during zinc deficiency in the rat. In situ hybridization reveals intense labeling of MT-IV mRNA in the differentiating spinous layer of cornified epithelia, whereas MT-I is expressed predominantly in the basal, proliferative layer; thus, there is a switch in MT isoform synthesis during differentiation of these epithelia. We suggest that MT-IV plays a special role in regulating zinc metabolism during the differentiation of stratified epithelia. PMID:8003488

  17. Metallothionein III is expressed in neurons that sequester zinc in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Masters, B A; Quaife, C J; Erickson, J C; Kelly, E J; Froelick, G J; Zambrowicz, B P; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1994-10-01

    MT-III, a brain-specific member of the metallothionein gene family, binds zinc and may facilitate the storage of zinc in neurons. The distribution of MT-III mRNA within the adult brain was determined by solution and in situ hybridization and compared to that of MT-I mRNA. MT-III mRNA is particularly abundant within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nuclei at base of the cerebellum. Transgenic mice generated using 11.5 kb of the mouse MT-III 5' flanking region fused to the E. coli lacZ gene express beta-galactosidase in many of the same regions identified by in situ hybridization. MT-III mRNA was present in readily identifiable neurons within the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum, and beta-galactosidase activity was localized to neurons throughout the brain, but not to glia, as determined by costaining with X-Gal and neural- and glia-specific antibodies. There is marked correspondence between the neurons that are rich in MT-III mRNA and those neurons that store zinc in their terminal vesicles. MT-III is found complexed with zinc in vivo and its expression in cultured cells leads to the intracellular accumulation of zinc and enhanced histochemical detection of zinc. These results are discussed in light of the possibility that MT-III may participate in the utilization of zinc as a neuromodulator. PMID:7931547

  18. Mouse Ribosomal RNA Genes Contain Multiple Differentially Regulated Variants

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hung; Chou, Weichin; Wang, Junwen; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shengliang; Schultz, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants) and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA). The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active), two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active), and two are not expressed (silent). These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA. PMID:18365001

  19. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the liver of aimara-fed mice, histological alterations were observed for an accumulated mercury concentration as low as 32 ng/g, dw, and metal deposits were observed within the cytoplasm of hepatic cells. PMID:22837723

  20. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the liver of aimara-fed mice, histological alterations were observed for an accumulated mercury concentration as low as 32 ng/g, dw, and metal deposits were observed within the cytoplasm of hepatic cells. PMID:22837723

  1. Characterizing Embryonic Gene Expression Patterns in the Mouse Using Nonredundant Sequence-Based Selection

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Rana, Amer Ahmed; Kettleborough, Ross; Brickman, Joshua M.; Clements, Melanie; Forrest, Alistair; Grimmond, Sean; Avner, Philip; Smith, James C.; Dunwoodie, Sally L.; Beddington, Rosa S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the expression patterns of 160 genes that are expressed during early mouse development. The cDNAs were isolated from 7.5 d postcoitum (dpc) endoderm, a region that comprises visceral endoderm (VE), definitive endoderm, and the node–tissues that are required for the initial steps of axial specification and tissue patterning in the mouse. To avoid examining the same gene more than once, and to exclude potentially ubiquitously expressed housekeeping genes, cDNA sequence was derived from 1978 clones of the Endoderm library. These yielded 1440 distinct cDNAs, of which 123 proved to be novel in the mouse. In situ hybridization analysis was carried out on 160 of the cDNAs, and of these, 29 (18%) proved to have restricted expression patterns. PMID:14613977

  2. Effect of ICSI on gene expression and development of mouse preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Giritharan, G.; Li, M.W.; De Sebastiano, F.; Esteban, F.J.; Horcajadas, J.A.; Lloyd, K.C.K.; Donjacour, A.; Maltepe, E.; Rinaudo, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In vitro culture (IVC) and IVF of preimplantation mouse embryos are associated with changes in gene expression. It is however not known whether ICSI has additional effects on the transcriptome of mouse blastocysts. METHODS We compared gene expression and development of mouse blastocysts produced by ICSI and cultured in Whitten's medium (ICSIWM) or KSOM medium with amino acids (ICSIKSOMaa) with control blastocysts flushed out of the uterus on post coital Day 3.5 (in vivo). In addition, we compared gene expression in embryos generated by IVF or ICSI using WM. Global pattern of gene expression was assessed using the Affymetrix 430 2.0 chip. RESULTS Blastocysts from ICSI fertilization have a reduction in the number of trophoblastic and inner cell mass cells compared with embryos generated in vivo. Approximately 1000 genes are differentially expressed between ICSI blastocyst and in vivo blastocysts; proliferation, apoptosis and morphogenetic pathways are the most common pathways altered after IVC. Unexpectedly, expression of only 41 genes was significantly different between embryo cultured in suboptimal conditions (WM) or optimal conditions (KSOMaa). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that fertilization by ICSI may play a more important role in shaping the transcriptome of the developing mouse embryo than the culture media used. PMID:20889529

  3. eMouseAtlas informatics: embryo atlas and gene expression database.

    PubMed

    Armit, Chris; Richardson, Lorna; Hill, Bill; Yang, Yiya; Baldock, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of developmental biology data is presented in the form of images at morphologically diverse stages of development. The curation of these datasets presents different challenges to that of sequence/text-based data. Towards this end, the eMouseAtlas project created a digital atlas of mouse embryo development as a means of understanding developmental anatomy and exploring the relationship between genes and development in a spatial context. Using the morphological staging system pioneered by Karl Theiler, the project has generated 3D models of post-implantation mouse development and used them as a spatial framework for the delineation of anatomical components and for archiving in situ gene expression data in the EMAGE database. This has allowed us to develop a unique online resource for mouse developmental biology. We describe here the underlying structure of the resource, as well as some of the tools that have been developed to allow users to mine the curated image data. These tools include our IIP3D/X3DOM viewer that allows 3D visualisation of anatomy and/or gene expression in the context of a web browser, and the eHistology resource that extends this functionality to allow visualisation of high-resolution cellular level images of histology sections. Furthermore, we review some of the informatics aspects of eMouseAtlas to provide a deeper insight into the use of the atlas and gene expression database. PMID:26296321

  4. The role of human and mouse Y chromosome genes in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Affara, N A; Mitchell, M J

    2000-11-01

    It was suggested by Ronald Fisher in 1931 that genes involved in benefit to the male (including spermatogenesis genes) would accumulate on the Y chromosome. The analysis of mouse Y chromosome deletions and the discovery of microdeletions of the human Y chromosome associated with diverse defective spermatogenic phenotypes has revealed the presence of intervals containing one or more genes controlling male germ cell differentiation. These intervals have been mapped, cloned and examined in detail for functional genes. This review discusses the genes mapping to critical spermatogenesis intervals and the evidence indicating which are the most likely candidates underlying Y-linked male infertility. PMID:11097427

  5. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J.

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  6. Metallothionein function and genetic regulation in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, D.J.; Butt, T.R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is mediated by the CUP1 locus which codes for yeast metallothionein (MT). A genetic approach was taken to study yeast MT gene regulation and to test the function of MT in the detoxification of metal ions other than copper. A yeast strain was constructed (cup1/sup ..delta../) in which the MT structural and regulatory sequences were deleted. The deleted gene was then replaced with the following genetically modified forms of MT on high copy episomal plasmid (YE/sup p/ 13): 1) the intact yeast gene with normal structural and regulatory sequences; 2) a constitutively expressed yeast promoter (TDH) running the yeast MT structural gene. Metal resistance in the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain and the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain transformed with the MT plasmid constructions was compared on metal-supplemented agar plates. Both of the high copy MT plasmids conferred in excess of 500-fold greater copper resistance to the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain. Increased cadmium resistance was not observed in any of the strains that had MT under normal regulatory control. However, the strain with constitutively expressed MT was in excess of 1000-fold more resistant to cadmium. Neither of the MT constructions conferred resistance to Hg,Zn,Co,Ni,Ag,Au,Pt,La,U or Sn. MT gene induction measured by the analysis of MT mRNA on northern blots showed that the yeast MT promoter is not induced by Cd, Zn, Au, Hg, Ag, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, steroid hormones or heat shock.

  7. Prediction of Human Disease Genes by Human-Mouse Conserved Coexpression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Elena; Damasco, Christian; Silengo, Lorenzo; Oti, Martin; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    Background Even in the post-genomic era, the identification of candidate genes within loci associated with human genetic diseases is a very demanding task, because the critical region may typically contain hundreds of positional candidates. Since genes implicated in similar phenotypes tend to share very similar expression profiles, high throughput gene expression data may represent a very important resource to identify the best candidates for sequencing. However, so far, gene coexpression has not been used very successfully to prioritize positional candidates. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that it is possible to reliably identify disease-relevant relationships among genes from massive microarray datasets by concentrating only on genes sharing similar expression profiles in both human and mouse. Moreover, we show systematically that the integration of human-mouse conserved coexpression with a phenotype similarity map allows the efficient identification of disease genes in large genomic regions. Finally, using this approach on 850 OMIM loci characterized by an unknown molecular basis, we propose high-probability candidates for 81 genetic diseases. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that conserved coexpression, even at the human-mouse phylogenetic distance, represents a very strong criterion to predict disease-relevant relationships among human genes. PMID:18369433

  8. Lactoferrin gene promoter in human and mouse. Analogous and dissimilar characteristics.

    PubMed

    Teng, C T

    1994-01-01

    Lactoferrin promoter and the 5'-flanking region of both human and mouse were isolated from a genomic library constructed with lambda phage. A 2.0 kbp Sac I fragment of the human clone (HLF031a.30) and a 3.0 kbp Eco R I/Hinc II fragment of the mouse clone (mL14p9E) containing the lactoferrin promoter, 5'-flanking region, first exon and partial intron were sequenced completely. There were many sequence homologies between human and mouse at the promoter/enhancer (1 to -363) region, yet substantial divergence was observed beyond this region. To determine the promoter activity, 5'-deletion mutants of the mouse lactoferrin gene were linked to a CAT-reporter plasmid and transfected into the human endometrium carcinoma cell line, RL95-2. We identified a number of positive and negative regulatory sequences as well as the estrogen-response element in the 5'-flanking region of the lactoferrin gene. The imperfect estrogen response elements of both human and mouse are functional as demonstrated by transfection experiments, band-shift assay and DNase I footprint analysis. The molecular mechanism that governs the estrogen-stimulated response, however, differs between human and mouse. PMID:7762430

  9. Integrative analysis of the connectivity and gene expression atlases in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuiwang; Fakhry, Ahmed; Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Brain function is the result of interneuron signal transmission controlled by the fundamental biochemistry of each neuron. The biochemical content of a neuron is in turn determined by spatiotemporal gene expression and regulation encoded into the genomic regulatory networks. It is thus of particular interest to elucidate the relationship between gene expression patterns and connectivity in the brain. However, systematic studies of this relationship in a single mammalian brain are lacking to date. Here, we investigate this relationship in the mouse brain using the Allen Brain Atlas data. We employ computational models for predicting brain connectivity from gene expression data. In addition to giving competitive predictive performance, these models can rank the genes according to their predictive power. We show that gene expression is predictive of connectivity in the mouse brain when the connectivity signals are discretized. When the expression patterns of 4084 genes are used, we obtain a predictive accuracy of 93%. Our results also show that a small number of genes can almost give the full predictive power of using thousands of genes. We can achieve a prediction accuracy of 91% by using only 25 genes. Gene ontology analysis of the highly ranked genes shows that they are enriched for connectivity related processes. PMID:24004696

  10. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O’Leary, Timothy P.; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E.; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming. PMID:23123364

  11. The Rab protein family: Genetic mapping of six Rab genes in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, M.D.F.S.; Gutierrez, M.J.; Kingsmore, S.F.

    1995-12-10

    Rab proteins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins that are located in distinct intracellular compartments and play a role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Yeast mutations in Rab gene homologs cause defects in vesicular transport similar to those observed in beige (bg) mice. To investigate Rab genes as candidates for mouse mutations characterized by defects in vesicular trafficking, we utilized an intersubspecific backcross [C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X (C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X CAST/Ei)F{sub 1}] segregating for the bg locus. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were obtained through Southern hybridization of F{sub 1} and C57BL/6J chromosomal DNA with the coding sequences of Rab genes. These RFLPs and 12 polymorphic microsatellites were used to determine the segregation of the Rab genes in 93 backcross mice. Rab4a, Rab4b, Rab7, Rab10, Rab22, and Rab24 were localized on mouse chromosomes 8, 7, 9, 12, 2, and 13, respectively. Although the results exclude these loci as candidates for bg, they demonstrate a wide dispersion of Rab genes throughout the mouse genome and reveal that Rab4b and Rab24 are possible candidates for the mouse mutations reduced pigmentation (rp) and purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), respectively. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, David G.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. PMID:26190982

  13. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  14. Genomic structure and expression analysis of the mouse testis-specific ribbon protein (Trib) gene.

    PubMed

    Arango, Nelson A; Pearson, Elliot J; Donahoe, Patricia K; Teixeira, Jose

    2004-12-01

    During our analyses of genes required for the development and function of the mouse gonads, we identified a novel testis-specific mRNA, transcribed from a gene that we have named testis-specific ribbon protein (Trib). In the mouse, Trib is located on chromosome 15, overlapping with and transcribed in the opposite orientation of the meiosis specific gene Smc1beta. The deduced amino acid sequence of testis ribbon (TRIB) protein is highly conserved between human, mouse, and rat and contains the ribbon motifs found in the largely uncharacterized microtubule ribbon protein ribbon43a (RIB43A). We show by Northern blot analyses and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that Trib mRNA is specifically expressed in the adult testis. In situ hybridization indicates that Trib is expressed solely in germ cells during the leptotene-pachytene stages of spermatogenesis. The high level of evolutionary conservation and the cellular and temporal expression suggest that Trib may be required for mouse spermatogenesis and male fertility. Here, we describe the genomic structure and expression profile of mouse Trib and compare its homology with other ribbon proteins. PMID:15563848

  15. Shared changes in gene expression in frontal cortex of four genetically modified mouse models of depression.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, D; Juhasz, G; Aso, E; Chase, D; del Rio, J; Fabre, V; Hamon, M; Lanfumey, L; Lesch, K-P; Maldonado, R; Serra, M-A; Sharp, T; Tordera, R; Toro, C; Deakin, J F W

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify whether genetic manipulation of four systems implicated in the pathogenesis of depression converge on shared molecular processes underpinning depression-like behaviour in mice. Altered 5HT function was modelled using the 5-HT transporter knock out mouse, impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function using an antisense-induced knock down mouse, disrupted glutamate function using a heterozygous KO of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 gene, and impaired cannabinoid signalling using the cannabinoid 1 receptor KO mouse. All 4 four genetically modified mice were previously shown to show exaggerated helpless behaviour compared to wild-type controls and variable degrees of anxiety and anhedonic behaviour. mRNA was extracted from frontal cortex and hybridised to Illumina microarrays. Combined contrast analysis was used to identify genes showing different patterns of up- and down-regulation across the 4 models. 1823 genes were differentially regulated. They were over-represented in gene ontology categories of metabolism, protein handling and synapse. In each model compared to wild-type mice of the same genetic background, a number of genes showed increased expression changes of >10%, other genes showed decreases in each model. Most of the genes showed mixed effects. Several previous array findings were replicated. The results point to cellular stress and changes in post-synaptic remodelling as final common mechanisms of depression and resilience. PMID:21030216

  16. Tissue-specific expression of TRP channel genes in the mouse and its variation in three different mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Bisping, Frederike; Krüger, Jana; Brinkmeier, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work was to study the gene expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the mouse. The application of a standardized and quantitative technique, TaqMan RT-PCR, should give information about the pattern and relative importance of TRP channels for murine tissues and cell types. To verify data sets with an independent method, we studied the occurrence of some of the transcripts by in situ hybridization. Results We have characterized the mRNA expression of 22 TRP channels in the mouse with a focus on nerve and muscle tissues. This is the first study to describe the expression profiles of all channel isoforms of the four related Group 1 subfamilies (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM and TRPA) with a standardized and quantitative technique. Comparisons of transcript abundance showed a consistent dominance of TRPM7 and TRPC3 in most tissues. We further observed characteristic patterns and differences in gene expression of individual channels ranging over three orders of magnitude. The overall level of TRP channel mRNAs was highest in brain areas followed by kidney, lung, reproductive organs and muscle. In brain TRPM3 and TRPM7 dominated and 19 other isoforms were detected. In lung and kidney TRPV4, TRPV5 and TRPM7 were found in highest levels. TRPM7, TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPM3 mRNAs were characteristically present in all tested muscle tissues. Most data obtained with the C57Bl/10 mouse strain were confirmed with Balb/c and NOD mice. However, TRPC3, C6, TRPM7, M3, TRPV2 and V4 expression showed marked differences in the three tested mouse strains. In situ hybridization revealed co-expression of transcripts on the cellular level and widely confirmed the data obtained with RT-PCR. Conclusion Transcripts coding for members of the TRPC, TRPV, TRPM and TRPA subfamilies of TRP cation channels are present in a broad spectrum of murine tissues. Several channel isoforms often coexist in a specific tissue or cell type. TRP channel expression does not show typical tissue specific dominance of individual members as is known from other ion channel families. Mouse strain specific variations of TRP channel expression indicate that genetic background or physiological requirements considerably influence expression levels. PMID:16787531

  17. Structure and evolution of mouse interleukin 6 gene.

    PubMed

    Qin, Z; Richter, G; Diamantstein, T; Blankenstein, T

    1989-11-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism in the interleukin 6 gene of murine rodents extending phylogenetically from Mus musculus domesticus to the rat has been analyzed. Most species exhibit distinct restriction site patterns. In contrast, limited polymorphism was found in the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene indicating different selective pressure acting on both genes. The gene encoding interleukin 6 was isolated from a genomic library and the exon/intron organization was determined by restriction analysis and limited DNA sequence analysis. It consists of five exons which distribute over about seven kilobases, thus resembling in structure and organization the human counterpart. Furthermore, no restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 gene of autoimmune strains NZB, NZW, MRL-lpr/lpr and BxSB could be detected for either EcoRI, BamHI or HindIII. PMID:2575221

  18. Gene Delivery to the Retina: From Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jean; Chung, Daniel C.; Maguire, Albert

    2013-01-01

    With the recent progress in identifying disease-causing genes in humans and in animal models, there are more and more opportunities for using retinal gene transfer to learn more about retinal physiology and also to develop therapies for blinding disorders. Success in preclinical studies for one form of inherited blindness have led to testing in human clinical trials. This paves the way to consider a number of other retinal diseases as ultimate gene therapy targets in human studies. The information presented here is designed to assist scientists and clinicians to use gene transfer to probe the biology of the retina and/or to move appropriate gene-based treatment studies from the bench to the clinic. PMID:22365778

  19. Mapping oxytocin receptor gene expression in the mouse brain and mammary gland using an oxytocin receptor-LacZ reporter mouse.

    PubMed

    Gould, B R; Zingg, H H

    2003-01-01

    The hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) has an established role as a circulating hormone but can also act as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator by interacting with its central OT receptor (OTR). To understand the role of the OTR in the mouse brain we investigated the expression of the OTR gene at the cellular level. We targeted the lacZ reporter gene to the OTR gene locus downstream of the endogenous OTR regulatory elements. Using lactating mouse mammary gland as a control for OTR promoter directed specificity of lacZ gene expression, X-gal histochemistry on tissue sections confirmed that gene expression was restricted to the myoepithelial cells. We also identified for the first time in mice the expression of the OTR gene in neighbouring adipocytes. Further, investigation in the mouse brain identified numerous nuclei containing neurons expressing the OTR gene. Whilst some of these regions had been described for rat or sheep, the OTR-LacZ reporter mouse enabled the identification of novel sites of central OTR gene expression. These regions include the accessory olfactory bulb, the medial septal nucleus, the posterolateral cortical amygdala nucleus, the posterior aspect of the basomedial amygdala nucleus, the medial part of the supramammillary nucleus, the dorsotuberomammillary nucleus, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, as well as specific dorsal tegmental, vestibular, spinal trigeminal, and solitary tract subnuclei. By mapping the distribution of OTR gene expression, depicted through histochemical detection of beta-galactosidase, we were able to identify single OTR gene expressing neurons and small neuron clusters that would have remained undetected by conventional approaches. These novel sites of OTR gene expression suggest additional functions of the oxytocinergic system in the mouse. These results lay the foundation for future investigation into the neural role of the OTR and provide a useful model for further study of oxytocin functions in the mouse. PMID:14596857

  20. Expression Profiling of the Solute Carrier Gene Family in the Mouse BrainS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Amber; Royall, Josh; Hohmann, John G.; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The solute carrier (Slc) superfamily is a major group of membrane transport proteins present in mammalian cells. Although Slc transporters play essential and diverse roles in the central nervous system, the localization and function of the vast majority of Slc genes in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization data generated by the Allen Brain Atlas, we systematically and quantitatively analyzed the spatial and cellular distribution of 307 Slc genes, which represent nearly 90% of presently known mouse Slc genes, in the adult C57BL/6J mouse brain. Our analysis showed that 252 (82%) of the 307 Slc genes are present in the brain, and a large proportion of these genes were detected at low to moderate expression levels. Evaluation of 20 anatomical brain subdivisions demonstrated a comparable level of Slc gene complexity but significant difference in transcript enrichment. The distribution of the expressed Slc genes was diverse, ranging from near-ubiquitous to highly localized. Functional annotation in 20 brain regions, including the blood-brain and blood-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) barriers, suggests major roles of Slc transporters in supporting brain energy utilization, neurotransmission, nutrient supply, and CSF production. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed intricate Slc expression patterns associated with neuroanatomical organization. Our studies also revealed Slc genes present within defined brain microstructures and described the putative cell types expressing individual Slc genes. These results provide a useful resource for investigators to explore the roles of Slc genes in neurophysiological and pathological processes. PMID:19179540

  1. Gene expression profiles in normal and Otx2−/− early gastrulating mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Virlon, Bérangère; Rusniok, Christophe; Glaser, Philippe; Elalouf, Jean-Marc; Brûlet, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    The mouse Otx2 gene is a homeobox transcription factor required as early as gastrulation for the proper development of the head. We compared gene expression profiles in wild-type and Otx2−/− 6.5 days postcoitum embryos by using a serial analysis of gene expression assay adapted to microdissected structures. Among a broader list, the study of six genes found to be differentially expressed allows defining a role for Otx2 in the orchestration of cell movements leading to the adequate organization of the embryo before gastrulation. PMID:11114168

  2. Genomic organization and genetic mapping of the neuroimmune gene 12rf5 to mouse chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Autieri, M.V.; Kozak, C.A.; Cohen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems share many functional and molecular similarities, including shared surface antigens, secretions of soluble factors, and cross-modulatory effects. We have identified previously a novel mRNA termed F5, which is expressed only in activated T lymphocytes and mature, postmitotic neurons. Tissue specificity and sequence conservation suggest an important function for F5 in T-lymphocyte proliferation and neuronal maturation. The F5 gene product is an evolutionarily conserved, cytoskeletal-associated phosphoprotein. A full-length mouse genomic clone has been isolated. The protein coding region of the F5 gene is approximately 16 kb in length and is composed of 13 coding exons. The gene encoding F5, termed I2rf5, was mapped using interspecies mouse crosses in close proximity to a number of genes associated with neuronal defects on distal chromosome 4. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Mike; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; El Fertak, Lahcen; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl MJ; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Ed; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse ES cell knockout resource provides a basis for characterisation of relationships between gene and phenotype. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-orientated platforms. We developed novel statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no prior functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. Novel phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with unknown function providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems. PMID:26214591

  4. Mapping of a liver phosphorylase kinase [alpha]-subunit gene on the mouse x chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Yan; Derry, J.M.J.; Barnard, P.J. ); Hendrickx, J.; Coucke, P.; Willems, P.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylase kinase (PHK) is a regulatory enzyme of the glycogenolytic pathway composed of a complex of four subunits. We recently mapped the muscle [alpha]-subunit gene (Phka) to the mouse X chromosome in a region syntenic with the proximal long arm of the human X chromosome and containing the human homologue of this gene, PHKA. We now report the mapping of the liver [alpha]-subunit gene to the telomeric end of the mouse X chromosome. This mapping position would suggest a location for the human liver [alpha]-subunit gene on the proximal short arm of the X chromosome, a region recently implicated in X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG). 20 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A short interspersed repetitive element found near some mouse structural genes.

    PubMed

    Lueders, K K; Paterson, B M

    1982-12-11

    We have isolated and characterized a family of interspersed repetitive elements which make up about 1% of the mouse genome. The elements represent a group of homologous but non-identical units about 400 bp in length. Individual members of the family show considerable divergence from one another. The spacial relationships between members of the family and a number of other identified mouse sequences including structural genes have been determined; these elements are found on the 5' as well as 3' sides of various genes at distances ranging from less than 1 to 7.5 kilobases (Kb). The sequences are present in the DNA of all species of Mus. Related sequences are present in the rat genome at a repetition frequency similar to that in the mouse genome. A partial sequence of one member of the family is presented. PMID:6296788

  6. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  7. Characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse APLP1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Sue; Wu, Kuo; Black, I.B.; Schaar, D.G.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the organization of the mouse APLP1 gene, an evolutionarily conserved amyloid precursor-like protein. The amyloid beta protein, important in Alzheimer diseases, is derived from these precursor proteins. By investigating the expression and structure of this murine gene, it is hoped that more will be learned about the function and regulation of the human homologue. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Characterization of metallothionein-I-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Iszard, M B; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Dalton, T; Andrews, G K; Palmiter, R D; Klaassen, C D

    1995-08-01

    A metallothionein-I-transgenic mouse strain (MT-TG) was characterized to determine whether they would be suitable to study the functions of this protein. MT-TG mice were visually indistinguishable from nontransgenic littermate controls, but had 10- to 20-fold higher basal levels of MT protein in pancreas, liver, and stomach, as well as 2- to 6-fold higher MT protein levels in other organs (kidney, intestine, uterus, testes, spleen, heart, and lung) than control mice, as determined by the Cd/hemoglobin assay. The MT-TG mice had 50% more Zn in liver and 300% more Zn in pancreas than control mice. Interestingly, female MT-TG mice have 4- to 5-fold higher MT levels in liver than those of males. To determine whether MT can be further increased by well-known MT inducers, control and MT-TG mice were given Zn (200 mumol/kg), Cd (20 mumol/kg), or diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 mmol/kg), and tissue MT concentrations were measured 24 hr later. MT-TG mice responded to MT inducers in a manner similar to control mice. The hepatic antioxidant components (glutathione (GSH), GSH-peroxidase, GSH-reductase, GSH S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, DT-diaphorase, and catalase) of MT-TG mice were not different from those of controls. The cytochrome P450 enzymes (total P450, b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase) were normal in these MT-TG mice. The activities of CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP2E enzymes in MT-TG mice were also similar to those of controls, as determined by ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation. Thus, MT-TG mice appear to be a good model for studying functions of MT. PMID:7645027

  9. Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Shimada, Akinori; Satoh, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of MT, a highly conserved, low molecular weight, cystein-rich metalloprotein, on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, this molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT) is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in various organs/tissues can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, implicating in inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions. PMID:19436762

  10. The mouse gene expression database: New features and how to use them effectively.

    PubMed

    Finger, Jacqueline H; Smith, Constance M; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Xu, Jingxia; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is an extensive and freely available community resource of mouse developmental expression data. GXD curates and integrates expression data from the literature, via electronic data submissions, and by collaborations with large-scale projects. As an integral component of the Mouse Genome Informatics Resource, GXD combines expression data with genetic, functional, phenotypic, and disease-related data, and provides tools for the research community to search for and analyze expression data in this larger context. Recent enhancements include: an interactive browser to navigate the mouse developmental anatomy and find expression data for specific anatomical structures; the capability to search for expression data of genes located in specific genomic regions, supporting the identification of disease candidate genes; a summary displaying all the expression images that meet specified search criteria; interactive matrix views that provide overviews of spatio-temporal expression patterns (Tissue × Stage Matrix) and enable the comparison of expression patterns between genes (Tissue × Gene Matrix); data zoom and filter utilities to iteratively refine summary displays and data sets; and gene-based links to expression data from other model organisms, such as chicken, Xenopus, and zebrafish, fostering comparative expression analysis for species that are highly relevant for developmental research. PMID:26045019

  11. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. ); Bolger, G.; Michaeli, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that mediate a number of cellular responses to external signals. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases play a role in signal transduction by regulating the cellular concentrations of these messengers. Here, the authors have applied Southern analyses of somatic cell hybrid lines and of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains as well as fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomally localize five cAMP-specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase genes in human and mouse. Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosomes 19 (DPDE1 and DPDE2), ga12 (DPDE3), and 1p31 (DPDE4) and to mouse chromosomes 8, 9, 13, and 4, respectively. The high-affinity cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene (HCP1) was mapped to human chromosome 8q13-q22. Since these genes are potential candidates for involvement in psychiatric or behavioral disorders, knowledge of their chromosomal localizations will facilitate the discovery of their association with disease genes as they are being mapped by linkage studies.

  12. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (P<0.05) in HZn group compared with NZn and CZn groups. Trace element concentration in organs of CZn pigs was similar to those fed NZn diets. Zn concentration in muscle, lung and lymphatic organs as thymus, tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon did not differ between the groups. Zn and Cu were positively correlated (R=0.67; P<0.05) in the kidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the kidney of pigs with minor effect on genes relevant for Cu metabolism. In addition, the organ Zn and Cu accumulation is reversible after two weeks of withdrawal of high dietary Zn. PMID:27049121

  13. A mouse homeobox containing gene on chromosome 11: sequence and tissue-specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Meijlink, F; de Laaf, R; Verrijzer, P; Destre, O; Kroezen, V; Hilkens, J; Deschamps, J

    1987-01-01

    We have molecularly cloned a mouse homeobox containing gene by isolating cDNA and genomic clones. The gene is located in a previously described cluster on chromosome 11 (Hart et al. (1985) Cell 43, 9-18) and was identified as the Hox2.3 gene. We present the complete mRNA sequence of this gene and describe similarities to other homeobox containing genes, among which its human homologue, the cl gene. High expression of the Hox2.3 gene was found in kidney, testis, and spinal cord of adult mice, in the spinal cord of 12.5-17.5 day embryos and in differentiating EC cells depending on their treatment. Three different treatments of the pluripotent EC cell line P19, each leading to the induction of a specific differentiation pathway, resulted in all cases in induction of Hox2.3; however, major quantitative differences in this response were observed. Images PMID:2889183

  14. Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, Kohei; Ohashi, Kazuo Taminishi, Sanae; Okano, Teruo; Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori

    2008-09-12

    The liver has an intrinsic ability to undergo active proliferation and recover functional liver mass in response to an injury response. This regenerative process involves a complex yet well orchestrated change in the gene expression profile. To produce accurate and reliable gene expression of target genes during various stages of liver regeneration, the determination of internal control housekeeping genes (HKGs) those are uniformly expressed is required. In the present study, the gene expression of 8 commonly used HKGs, including GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, GUSB, PPIA, TBP, TFRC, and RPL4, were studied using mouse livers that were quiescent and actively regenerating induced by partial hepatectomy. The amplification of the HKGs was statistically analyzed by two different mathematical algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Using this method, PPIA and TBP gene expression found to be relatively stable regardless of the stages of liver regeneration and would be ideal for normalization to target gene expression.

  15. Voltage-gated potassium channel genes are clustered in paralogous regions of the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, L.F.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A.; Copeland, N.G. ); Street, V.A.; Migeon, M.B.; Tempel, B.L. Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA )

    1994-04-01

    Cloning of the Drosophila Shaker gene established that a neurological phenotype including locomotor dysfunction can be caused by a mutation in a voltage-gated potassium (K) channel gene. Shaker sequences have been used to isolate a large family of related K channel genes from both flies and mammals. Toward elucidating the evolutionary relationship between loci and the potential causal connection that K channels may have to mammalian genetic disorders, the authors report here the genetic mapping of 12-16 different murine, voltage-gated K channel genes. They find that multiple genes, in some cases from distantly related K channel subfamilies, occur in clusters in the mouse genome. These mapping results suggest that the K channel gene subfamilies arose through ancient localized gene duplication events, followed by chromosomal duplications and rearrangements as well as further gene duplication. They also note that several neurologic disorders of both mouse and human are associated with the chromosomal regions containing K channel genes. 78 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Metallothionein rescues hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional activity in cardiomyocytes under diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuehui; Cai, Lu; Kang, Y James

    2007-08-17

    Metallothionein (MT) is effective in the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is known to control vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression and regulate angiogenesis in diabetic hearts. We examined whether or not MT affects HIF-1 activity in the heart of diabetic mice and in the cardiac cells cultured in high glucose (HG) media. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in a cardiac-specific MT overexpressing transgenic mouse model. The primary cultures of neonatal cardiomyocytes and the embryonic rat cardiac H9c2 cell line were cultured in HG media. HIF-1 and VEGF were determined by immunofluorescent staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The H9c2 cells were transfected with a hypoxia-responsive element-dependent reporter plasmid and the HIF-1 transcriptional activity was measured by luciferase reporter assay. MT overexpression increased HIF-1alpha in diabetic hearts. HG suppressed CoCl(2)-induced VEGF expression in primary cultures of neonatal cardiomyocytes and MT overexpression suppressed the inhibition. The addition of MT into the cultures of H9c2 cells relieved the HG suppression of hypoxia-induced luciferase activity. This study indicates that MT can rescue HIF-1 transcriptional activity in cardiomyocytes under diabetic conditions. PMID:17586470

  17. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  18. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  19. Trio gene is required for mouse learning ability.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wen; Liu, Shuoyang; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ziyi; Wang, Dongdong; Zhang, Aizhen; Zhu, Minsheng; Gao, Jiangang

    2015-05-22

    Trio is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with multiple guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains. Trio regulates cytoskeleton dynamics and actin remodeling and is involved in cell migration and axonal guidance in neuronal development. The null allele of the Trio gene led to embryonic lethality, and Trio null embryos displayed aberrant organization in several regions of the brain at E18.5, including hippocampus. Nestin-Trio-/- mice, in which the Trio gene was deleted specifically in the neuronal system by the Nestin-Cre system, displayed severe phenotypes, including low survival rate, ataxia and multiple developmental defects of the cerebellum. All Nestin-Trio-/- mice died before reaching adulthood, which hinders research on Trio gene function in adult mice. Thus, we generated EMX1-Trio-/- mice by crossing Trio-floxed mice with EMX1-Cre mice in which Cre is expressed in the brain cortex and hippocampus. EMX1-Trio-/- mice can survive to adulthood. Trio gene deletion results in smaller brains, an abnormal hippocampus and disordered granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA). Behavior tests showed that Trio deletion interfered with the hippocampal-dependent spatial learning in the mice, suggesting that Trio plays critical roles in the learning ability of adult mice. We conclude that the Trio gene regulates the neuronal development of the hippocampus and that it affects the intelligence of adult mice. PMID:25727174

  20. Human and Mouse α-Synuclein Genes: Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis and Identification of a Novel Gene Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Touchman, Jeffrey W.; Dehejia, Anindya; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Cabin, Deborah E.; Schwartz, Jody R.; Orrison, Bonnie M.; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    The human α-synuclein gene (SNCA) encodes a presynaptic nerve terminal protein that was originally identified as a precursor of the non-β-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease plaques. More recently, mutations in SNCA have been identified in some cases of familial Parkinson's disease, presenting numerous new areas of investigation for this important disease. Molecular studies would benefit from detailed information about the long-range sequence context of SNCA. To that end, we have established the complete genomic sequence of the chromosomal regions containing the human and mouse α-synuclein genes, with the objective of using the resulting sequence information to identify conserved regions of biological importance through comparative sequence analysis. These efforts have yielded ∼146 and ∼119 kb of high-accuracy human and mouse genomic sequence, respectively, revealing the precise genetic architecture of the α-synuclein gene in both species. A simple repeat element upstream of SNCA/Snca has been identified and shown to be necessary for normal expression in transient transfection assays using a luciferase reporter construct. Together, these studies provide valuable data that should facilitate more detailed analysis of this medically important gene. [The genomic DNA sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. AF163864 (human) and AF163865 (mouse).] PMID:11156617

  1. Chronic toxicity of pesticides to the mRNA expression levels of metallothioneins and cytochrome P450 1A genes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ceyhun, Saltuk Bugrahan; Aksakal, Ercüment; Kirim, Birsen; Atabeyoglu, Kübra; Erdogan, Orhan

    2012-03-01

    The hazardous effects of pesticides on various metabolic pathways are a great problem for environmental health and should be well determined. In the present study, the authors treated rainbow trout with 0.6 μg/L deltamethrin for 28 days and 1.6 mg/L 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate for 21 days. After this time period, the authors observed alterations in mRNA expression levels of MT-A, MT-B and CYP-1A. Chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides may have a more significant effect on fish populations than acute poisoning. While both pesticides caused a significant increase on mRNA levels of MT-A and CYP-1A, MT-B mRNA levels were increased significantly only upon deltamethin administration. The significant increase in mRNA levels of the corresponding genes may be considered as a defence mechanism in addition to the antioxidants against oxidative stress, as well as a detoxification mechanism against adverse effects of pesticides. PMID:21665904

  2. Gene expression profiles in the fetal mouse brain after etoposide (VP-16) administration.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chunja; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; He, Xi Jun; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Doi, Kunio; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the response of gene expression caused by etoposide (VP-16) in the fetal mouse brain. Four miligrams/kilogram of VP-16 was intraperitoneally injected into pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation (GD 12). Gene expression profiling of the VP-16-treated fetal mouse brain by DNA microarray was performed. The expression changes of the target genes of p53 were also examined by real-time RT-PCR. VP-16 induced S-phase accumulation, G2/M arrest, and eventually apoptosis of neuroepithelial cells in the fetal brain. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 8 of cell cycle control- and apoptosis-related genes were upregulated and that 5 of DNA damage, repair, replication, and transcription genes were also upregulated in the fetal telencephalons at 4 h after VP-16 treatment (HAT). The results of real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of topoisomerase IIα was increased at 4 and 8 HAT. The expression of pro-apoptotic factors such as puma, noxa, bax, and cyclin G was also increased from 4 to 12 HAT. These results suggest that VP-16 induces DNA damage, DNA repair, cell cycle alternation, and apoptosis in the fetal mouse brain. In addition, VP-16-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial pathway in a p53-related manner. The present study will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of VP-16-induced fetal brain injury. PMID:23615303

  3. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Christopher; Ng, Lydia; Thompson, Carol; Pathak, Sayan; Kuan, Leonard; Jones, Allan; Hawrylycz, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH) expression patterns in the Allen Brain Atlas, a genome-wide survey of 21,000 expression patterns in the C57BL\\6J adult mouse brain. Results Brain Explorer enables users to visualize gene expression data from the C57Bl/6J mouse brain in 3D at a resolution of 100 μm3, allowing co-display of several experiments as well as 179 reference neuro-anatomical structures. Brain Explorer also allows viewing of the original ISH images referenced from any point in a 3D data set. Anatomic and spatial homology searches can be performed from the application to find data sets with expression in specific structures and with similar expression patterns. This latter feature allows for anatomy independent queries and genome wide expression correlation studies. Conclusion These tools offer convenient access to detailed expression information in the adult mouse brain and the ability to perform data mining and visualization of gene expression and neuroanatomy in an integrated manner. PMID:18366675

  4. Beyond knockouts: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium delivers modular and evolving tools for investigating mammalian genes.

    PubMed

    Rosen, B; Schick, J; Wurst, W

    2015-10-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC; http://www.mousephenotype.org ) has generated mutations in almost every protein-coding mouse gene and is completing the companion Cre driver resource to expand tissue-specific conditional mutagenesis. Accordingly, the IKMC has carried out high-throughput gene trapping and targeting producing conditional mutations in murine embryonic stem cells in more than 18,500 genes, from which at least 4900 mutant mouse lines have been established to date. This resource is currently being upgraded with more powerful tools, such as visualization and manipulation cassettes that can be easily introduced into IKMC alleles for multifaceted functional studies. In addition, we discuss how existing IKMC products can be used in combination with CRISPR technology to accelerate genome engineering projects. All information and materials from this extraordinary biological resource together with coordinated phenotyping efforts can be retrieved at www.mousephenotype.org . The comprehensive IKMC knockout resource in combination with an extensive set of modular gene cassettes will continue to enhance functional gene annotation in the future and solidify its impact on biomedical research. PMID:26340938

  5. Perinatal Gjb2 gene transfer rescues hearing in a mouse model of hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Takashi; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Gotoh, Satoru; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Noda, Tetsuo; Minowa, Osamu; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most widespread sensory disorder, with an incidence of congenital genetic deafness of 1 in 1600 children. For many ethnic populations, the most prevalent form of genetic deafness is caused by recessive mutations in the gene gap junction protein, beta 2, 26 kDa (GJB2), which is also known as connexin 26 (Cx26). Despite this knowledge, existing treatment strategies do not completely recover speech perception. Here we used a gene delivery system to rescue hearing in a mouse model of Gjb2 deletion. Mice lacking Cx26 are characterized by profound deafness from birth and improper development of cochlear cells. Cochlear delivery of Gjb2 using an adeno-associated virus significantly improved the auditory responses and development of the cochlear structure. Using gene replacement to restore hearing in a new mouse model of Gjb2-related deafness may lead to the development of therapies for human hereditary deafness. PMID:25801282

  6. A high resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Carol L.; Ng, Lydia; Menon, Vilas; Martinez, Salvador; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Glattfelder, Katie; Sunkin, Susan M.; Henry, Alex; Lau, Christopher; Dang, Chinh; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Pombero, Ana; Rubenstein, John L.R.; Wakeman, Wayne B.; Hohmann, John; Dee, Nick; Sodt, Andrew J.; Young, Rob; Smith, Kimberly; Nguyen, Thuc-Nghi; Kidney, Jolene; Kuan, Leonard; Jeromin, Andreas; Kaykas, Ajamete; Miller, Jeremy; Page, Damon; Orta, Geri; Bernard, Amy; Riley, Zackery; Smith, Simon; Wohnoutka, Paul; Hawrylycz, Mike; Puelles, Luis; Jones, Allan R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, in situ hybridization data were generated for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at 7 developmental stages for ~2100 genes, processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, 7 reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore co-expression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (developingmouse.brain-map.org). PMID:24952961

  7. Chromosomal localization of a new mouse lens opacity gene (lop18)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Bo; Hawes, N.L.; Smith, R.S.

    1996-08-15

    Examination of mouse strains with a slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed that strain CBA/CaGnLe has a white cataract obvious at weaning age. It soon progresses to a large white nuclear cataract with mild cortical changes. Crosses with C57BL/GJ showed that this is inherited as a single recessive fully penetrant gene, which we have designated lop18 (lens opacity 18). Linkage analysis using visible marker T (brachyury), histocompatibility marker H2, and microsatellite markers D17MU21, D17MU28, D17MU38, and D17MU46 shows that the 1op18 gene is located, {approximately}16 cM from the centromere on mouse Chromosome 17. It is a likely candidate mutation for the {alpha}-crystallin (Cryal) gene. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2013-01-01

    DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

  9. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab′ fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  10. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  11. Global gene expression profile progression in Gaucher disease mouse models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gaucher disease is caused by defective glucocerebrosidase activity and the consequent accumulation of glucosylceramide. The pathogenic pathways resulting from lipid laden macrophages (Gaucher cells) in visceral organs and their abnormal functions are obscure. Results To elucidate this pathogenic pathway, developmental global gene expression analyses were conducted in distinct Gba1 point-mutated mice (V394L/V394L and D409 V/null). About 0.9 to 3% of genes had altered expression patterns (≥ ± 1.8 fold change), representing several categories, but particularly macrophage activation and immune response genes. Time course analyses (12 to 28 wk) of INFγ-regulated pro-inflammatory (13) and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory (11) cytokine/mediator networks showed tissue differential profiles in the lung and liver of the Gba1 mutant mice, implying that the lipid-storage macrophages were not functionally inert. The time course alterations of the INFγ and IL-4 pathways were similar, but varied in degree in these tissues and with the Gba1 mutation. Conclusions Biochemical and pathological analyses demonstrated direct relationships between the degree of tissue glucosylceramides and the gene expression profile alterations. These analyses implicate IFNγ-regulated pro-inflammatory and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory networks in differential disease progression with implications for understanding the Gaucher disease course and pathophysiology. PMID:21223590

  12. Two genes substitute for the mouse Y chromosome for spermatogenesis and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Ruthig, Victor A; Ortega, Eglė A; Mitchell, Michael J; Ward, Monika A

    2016-01-29

    The mammalian Y chromosome is considered a symbol of maleness, as it encodes a gene driving male sex determination, Sry, as well as a battery of other genes important for male reproduction. We previously demonstrated in the mouse that successful assisted reproduction can be achieved when the Y gene contribution is limited to only two genes, Sry and spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Here, we replaced Sry by transgenic activation of its downstream target Sox9, and Eif2s3y, by transgenic overexpression of its X chromosome-encoded homolog Eif2s3x. The resulting males with no Y chromosome genes produced haploid male gametes and sired offspring after assisted reproduction. Our findings support the existence of functional redundancy between the Y chromosome genes and their homologs encoded on other chromosomes. PMID:26823431

  13. Dysregulation of gene expression in mouse trisomy 16, an animal model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, D M; Bayney, R M; Li, Y W; Khosrovi, H; Berger, C N; Epstein, C J; Mobley, W C

    1992-01-01

    In humans, trisomy 21 results in a specific phenotype known as Down syndrome (DS). The mechanism by which an extra copy of normal genes leads to the DS phenotype is unknown. Most studies in DS and other aneuploid organisms have shown that gene dose is proportional to gene expression. To date, most genes examined have encoded either metabolic enzymes or constitutively expressed products. In the trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model of DS, we found marked dysregulation of two developmentally regulated genes, App and Prn-p. Dysregulation varied from tissue to tissue and during development in the same tissue. We conclude that abnormal phenotypes seen in aneuploid conditions may result in part from disordered expression of developmentally regulated genes. Images PMID:1371464

  14. The intracisternal A particle derived solo LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is not present in the mouse gene.

    PubMed

    Banville, D; Rotaru, M; Boie, Y

    1992-01-01

    The rat gene encoding oncomodulin, a small calcium-binding protein related to parvalbumin, is under the control of a solo long terminal repeat (LTR) derived from an endogenous intracisternal A-particle (IAP). This gene was the first example of a mammalian gene regulated in normal cells by a promoter of retroviral origin (see also article by D. Robins and L. Samuelson in this volume). We show here that the oncomodulin LTR is a member of a small subset of sequence related solo LTR elements present in the rat genome and that a full length IAP genome containing LTRs of this type is no longer present in the rat genome. We have assayed the transcriptional activity of the oncomodulin LTR coupled to the human growth hormone gene as a reporter. Transfections in both Hela cells and 293 cells indicate the oncomodulin LTR promoter is sufficient to efficiently initiate transcription. In 293 cells (human embryo kidney cells transformed with human adenovirus type 5 DNA), the oncomodulin LTR is a strong promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. Finally, we have determined the structure and the sequence of the mouse oncomodulin gene. Our results suggest that the integration of the IAP particle genome within the rat oncomodulin gene occurred after the rat and the mouse became distinct species. PMID:1468649

  15. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Elizabeth; Estabel, Jeanne; Oellrich, Anika; Maguire, Anna Karin; Adissu, Hibret A.; Souter, Luke; Siragher, Emma; Lillistone, Charlotte; Green, Angela L.; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Carragher, Damian M.; Karp, Natasha A.; Smedley, Damian; Adams, Niels C.; Bussell, James N.; Adams, David J.; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; Steel, Karen P.; Galli, Antonella; White, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures). A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource. PMID:26398943

  16. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the mouse homologue of CpG binding protein.

    PubMed

    Carlone, Diana L; Hart, Suzanne R L; Ladd, Paula D; Skalnik, David G

    2002-07-24

    Human CpG binding protein (CGBP) is a ubiquitously-expressed transcriptional activator that binds specifically to unmethylated CpG motifs. Several protein domains have been identified within CGBP including two plant homeodomains (PHD), acidic and basic regions, a coiled-coil domain, as well as a CXXC DNA-binding domain. The global function of CGBP remains unclear, although failure to express CGBP results in embryonic lethality in mice. This study reports the identification and characterization of the murine CGBP gene locus. A 2509 bp murine CGBP cDNA was cloned and nucleotide sequence determined. Comparison of the mouse and human CGBP sequences revealed 86% identity at the nucleotide level and 96% identity at the amino acid level. Examination of the deduced translation product revealed that the PHD, CXXC, coiled-coil, and basic domains are identical between mouse and human, while the acidic region exhibits approximately 90% identity with its human counterpart. A single murine CGBP transcript of approximately 2.6 kb was detected in a wide variety of adult tissues as well as embryonic stem cells. Analysis of the mouse gene locus revealed a relatively small gene spanning approximately 5 kb and comprised of 15 exons. Examination of the human CGBP gene showed a similar size and structure with identical intronic splice sites. In contrast to the human CGBP gene, which is located 800 bp upstream of the MBD1 gene, analysis of the murine CGBP gene locus failed to detect the murine MBD1 gene within several kilobases of the CGBP coding region. PMID:12242013

  17. PiggyBac Mediated Multiplex Gene Transfer in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xibin; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac system has been shown to have a high efficiency to mediate gene transfer. However, there are no reports on its efficiency to mediate multiplex transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we first established an immortalized feeder cell line by introducing four antibiotic resistance genes simultaneously into the original SNL 76/7 feeder cell line utilizing the PiggyBac system. This is the feeder cell line with the most diverse types of antibiotic resistance genes reported so far, which will enable researchers to perform simultaneous multiplex gene transfer or gene targeting experiments in ES cells. With such feeder cell line, we were able to quantitatively characterize the transposition efficiency of PiggyBac system in mouse ES cells using five transposons carrying different inducible fluorescence proteins and antibiotic resistance genes, and the efficiency ranged from about 2% for one transposon to 0.5% for five transposons. The highly efficient multiplex gene transfer mediated by PiggyBac will no doubt provide researchers with more choices in biomedical research and development. PMID:25517991

  18. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development. PMID:26786896

  19. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse homologue of rat OX40 protein.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, M L; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Barclay, A N

    1995-04-01

    The OX40 protein is expressed only on activated rat CD4+ T blasts and is a member of a superfamily of cell surface molecules which includes CD40, CD30, CD95 (Fas), CD27, 4-1BB antigens and the receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The proteins of this group are related to each other by having three to six repeats of a cysteine-rich sequence in their extracellular domains. Members of this family of receptors have also been shown to bind to ligands which are structurally related to TNF. The mouse homologue of the rat OX40 protein was cloned at the cDNA and genomic levels. The gene structure shows that there are several intron/exon borders shared between OX40 and CD27, CD40, TNF receptor type I, CD95 and 4-1BB genes. This group of genes is less closely related structurally to the gene structure of the NGF receptor. The gene encoding murine OX40 has been placed on mouse chromosome 4, in an area which contains the genes for TNF receptor type II and 4-1BB, and is syntenic with a region of human chromosome 1 which contains human TNF receptor type II, OX40, and CD30 genes. PMID:7737295

  20. Effect of light on global gene expression in the neuroglobin-deficient mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    ILMJÄRV, STEN; REIMETS, RIIN; HUNDAHL, CHRISTIAN ANSGAR; LUUK, HENDRIK

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have raised controversy over the functional role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in the retina. Certain studies indicate a significant impact of Ngb on retinal physiology, whereas others are conflicting. The present is an observational study that tested the effect of Ngb deficiency on gene expression in dark- and light-adapted mouse retinas. Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip® Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays and the results were compared to publicly available data sets. The lack of Ngb was found to have a minor effect on the light-induced retinal gene expression response. In addition, there was no increase in the expression of marker genes associated with hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum-stress and oxidative stress in the Ngb-deficient retina. By contrast, several genes were identified that appeared to be differentially expressed between the genotypes when the effect of light was ignored. The present study indicates that Ngb deficiency does not lead to major alternations in light-dependent gene expression response, but leads to subtle systemic differences of a currently unknown functional significance. PMID:25279145

  1. Gastrulation in the mouse: the role of the homeobox gene goosecoid.

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Gaunt, S J; Cho, K W; Steinbeisser, H; Blumberg, B; Bittner, D; De Robertis, E M

    1992-06-26

    Mouse goosecoid is a homeobox gene expressed briefly during early gastrulation. Its mRNA accumulates as a patch on the side of the epiblast at the site where the primitive streak is first formed. goosecoid-expressing cells are then found at the anterior end of the developing primitive streak, and finally in the anteriormost mesoderm at the tip of the early mouse gastrula, a region that gives rise to the head process. Treatment of early mouse embryos with activin results in goosecoid mRNA accumulation in the entire epiblast, suggesting that a localized signal induces goosecoid expression during development. Transplantation experiments indicate that the tip of the murine early gastrula is the equivalent of the organizer of the amphibian gastrula. PMID:1352187

  2. Targeted disruption of the mouse Gz-alpha gene: a role for Gz in platelet function?

    PubMed

    Kelleher, K L; Matthaei, K I; Hendry, I A

    2001-03-01

    Gz is one of nine G proteins identified in platelets and its role in these cells is unknown. Our laboratory has generated a mouse deficient in the Gz-alpha gene in the hope of determining its in vivo function. Bleeding times from the tail tip of Gzalpha deficient mice was significantly longer than wild type mice. Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion did not differ between wild type and Gzalpha deficient mice. When mice were presented with a thromboembolism challenge no differences were observed in the survival or mortality of wild type or Gzalpha deficient mice, however a strain difference was observed. Ignoring the genetic background of a mutant mouse might lead to a misinterpretation of results and thus it is absolutely critical to take the genetic background into account when assessing any aspect of a mutant mouse. PMID:11307826

  3. Microarray analysis of metallothioneins in human diseases--A review.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Kepinska, Marta; Emri, Gabriella; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Tmejova, Katerina; Nerudova, Danuse; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular mass cysteine-rich proteins, which are able to bind up to 20 monovalent and up to 7 divalent heavy metal ions are widely studied due to their functions in detoxification of metals, scavenging free radicals and cells protection against the oxidative stress. It was found that the loss of the protective effects of MT leads to an escalation of pathogenic processes and carcinogenesis. The most extensive area is MTs expression for oncological applications, where the information about gene patterns is helpful for the identification biological function, resistance to drugs and creating the correct chemotherapy. In other medical applications the effect of oxidative stress to cell lines exposed to heavy metals and hydrogen peroxide is studied as well as influence of drugs and cytokines on MTs expression and MTs expression in the adipose tissue. The precise detection of low metallothionein concentrations and its isoforms is necessary to understand the connection between quantity and isoforms of MTs to size, localization and type of cancer. This information is necessary for well-timed therapy and increase the chance to survival. Microarray chips appear as good possibility for finding all information about expression of MTs genes and isoforms not only in cancer, but also in other diseases, especially diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, ageing, osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders and as the effects of toxic drugs and pollutants, which is discussed in this review. PMID:26454339

  4. Physical and genetic localization of the gene encoding the AP-2 transcription factor to mouse chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, G.; Gordon, M.; Siracusa, L.D.

    1996-01-15

    Transcription factors are a major determinant of developmental fate. The chromosomal localization of the genes encoding these proteins provides important information that can link them to known genetic abnormalities. Here, we report the mapping of the mouse gene for transcription factor AP-2, a protein that has been implicated in human oncogenesis. Using FISH, we have mapped the gene encoding the transcription factor AP-2, Tcfap2, to mouse Chromosome 13A5-B1. We have also extended this analysis by placing Tcfap2 on the mouse mutations that map in the vicinity of this transcription factor. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the mouse Gli2 gene: Localization to the Dominant hemimelia critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, D.C.; Allen, J.; Prosser, J.

    1997-01-15

    The GLI family of zinc finger genes has been implicated in both neoplastic and developmental disorders. We have cloned and sequenced the mouse homolog of the zinc finger gene Gli2 and demonstrated significant similarity to the human GLI3 gene. We have also localized Gli2 to mouse chromosome 1, in the vicinity of the morphogenetic mutation Dominant hemimelia (Dh), which is characterized by tibial hemimelia, poly/oligodactyly, and a number of visceral abnormalities, most strikingly absence of the spleen. Using a Gli2-associated microsatellite, we demonstrated no recombination between Dh and Gli2 in a Dh intraspecific backcross. Gli2 is expressed in Dh heterozygotes and homozygotes. However, using a combination of mismatch analysis and direct sequencing, we have failed to identify any mutations in the coding sequence of Gli2 from Dh. We have also demonstrated that it is unlikely that there are any Gli genes in the mouse genome in addition to the previously described Gli, Gli2, and Gli3. 52 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Bisphenol A exposure modifies DNA methylation of imprint genes in mouse fetal germ cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Lian-Jun; Feng, Yan-Ni; Chen, Bo; Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Li, Lan; Shen, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used for the production of plastics. Human frequent exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of BPA on DNA methylation of imprinting genes in fetal mouse germ cell. Pregnant mice were treated with BPA at doses of 0, 40, 80 and 160 μg BPA/kg body weight/day from 0.5 day post coitum. DNA methylation of imprinting genes, Igf2r, Peg3 and H19, was decreased with the increase of BPA concentration in fetal mouse germ cells (p < 0.01).The relative mRNA levels of Nobox were lower in BPA-treated group compared to control (BPA free) in female fetal germ cells, but in male fetal germ cells, a significant higher in Nobox expression was observed in BPA-treated group compared to control. Decreased mRNA expression of specific meiotic genes including Stimulated by Stra8 and Dazl were obtained in the female fetal germ cells. In conclusion, BPA exposure can affect the DNA methylation of imprinting genes in fetal mouse germ cells. PMID:22699882

  7. [Cloning of mouse adam10 gene promoter and construction and identification of dual luciferase reporter system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Huan-Xin; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Wu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Kai; Zang, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to clone mouse adam10 gene promoter and construct its dual luciferase report vector, and to investigate its transcriptional activity. Total DNA was extracted from mouse brain and used for amplifying the fragment containing adam10 gene promoter by PCR. The amplified product was inserted into pGL-4.10 vector to construct pGL4.10-adam10. The pGL4.10-adam10 and control plasmid pGL4.74 were co-transfected into HEK293 FT cells by lipofectamine 2000. The activity of adam10 gene promoter was assayed by luciferase system. The results showed that the recombinant plasmid pGL4.10-adam10 containing promoter of mouse adam10 was correctly constructed. The method was optimized by changing ratio of two plasmids. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of pGL4.10-adam10 stimulated by ionomycin increased. It is concluded that the dual luciferase reporter system is successfully established, which is useful in bioluminescence imaging technology in vitro. The effect of ionomycin can enhance the transcriptional activity of adam10 gene promoter. PMID:22739193

  8. Expression of tyrosine kinase gene in mouse thymic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Rinke de Wit, T F; Izon, D J; Revilla, C; Oosterwegel, M; Bakker, A Q; van Ewijk, W; Kruisbeek, A M

    1996-11-01

    Amongst the most important signal transduction molecules involved in regulating growth and differentiation are the protein tyrosine kinases (PTK). Since T cell development is a consequence of interactions between thymic stromal cells (TSC) and thymocytes, identification of the PTK in both compartments is required to dissect the mechanisms that control this process. Here we report a search for PTK in mouse TSC, using RT-PCR to survey the repertoire of PTK mRNAs expressed in a freshly isolated TSC preparation. We identified 10 different PTK cDNAs among the 216 cDNAs sequenced, and demonstrate that transcripts of three of those (ufo, fyn and fer) are widely expressed among a large panel of immortalized thymic epithelial cell lines (TEC) and in primary cultures of TSC. Of the other seven, none were expressed in established TEC lines but, instead, displayed distinct expression patterns in cell types likely to have contaminated the fresh TSC preparation, i.e., macrophages, B cells, T cells and fibroblasts. Among the three PTK expressed in TEC lines, only one, ufo, exhibited expression exclusively in cells of non-hemopoietic origin. Although expression of ufo (also known as tyro 7, axl or ark) is not thymic-specific, in that it is also expressed in cell types of mesodermal origin in other tissues, its presence in TEC suggests a role for ufo in differentiation of the TSC compartment. Consistent with this notion, high-level expression of this receptor PTK at the protein level could be documented in every TEC line investigated, as well as in fresh thymus tissue sections. These data provide the first example of a receptor PTK in TSC and open new approaches to study the regulation of TSC differentiation. PMID:8943574

  9. Influence of sex on gene expression in the mouse lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephen M; Jensen, Roderick V; Liu, Meng; Sullivan, Benjamin D; Lombardi, Michael J; Rowley, Patricia; Schirra, Frank; Treister, Nathaniel S; Suzuki, Tomo; Steagall, Rebecca J; Yamagami, Hiroko; Sullivan, David A

    2006-01-01

    Significant, sex-associated differences exist in the physiology and pathophysiology of the lacrimal gland. We hypothesize that many of these differences are due to fundamental variations in gene expression. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sex-related differences in gene expression are present in the lacrimal gland. Lacrimal glands were obtained from adult male and female BALB/c mice (n=5-10mice/sex/experiment), pooled according to sex and processed for the isolation of RNA. Samples were analyzed for differentially expressed mRNAs by using Atlas Mouse cDNA Expression Arrays, cDNA amplification techniques, GEM 1 and 2 gene chips, CodeLink bioarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) procedures. Quantitative evaluation of Atlas Array gene expression was performed with an image analysis system developed in our laboratory, whereas gene chip data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver and GeneSifter.Net software. Statistical significance was determined by using Student's t-test. Our results with CodeLink bioarrays show that sex has a significant influence on the expression of over 490 genes in the mouse lacrimal gland. These genes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components, including such activities as development, growth, transcription, metabolism, signal transduction, transport, receptor activity and protein and nucleic acid binding. The expression of selected genes was confirmed by the use of GEM gene chips and qPCR. Our findings also demonstrate that certain methodological approaches are less useful in attempting to assess the magnitude of sex-associated differences in the lacrimal gland. These results support our hypothesis that sex-related differences in gene expression play a role in the sexual dimorphism of the lacrimal gland. PMID:15979613

  10. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiugong Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  11. Linkage analysis of the whirler deafness gene on mouse chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.; Rogers, M.J.C.; Steel, K.P. ); Brown, S.D.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The whirler mouse harbors an autosomal recessive mutation on mouse chromosome 4 that causes deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the adult that is manifested as head-bobbing and circling behavior. Although there is no obvious human homologue for this mutation as yet, whirler is a potential mouse model for human autosomal recessive deafness. Many genetic markers for this region of mouse chromosome 4 are now available, and the authors have used these to construct genetic linkage maps in both inter- and intraspecific backcrosses as the first step toward the cloning of the whirler gene. A total of 19 loci were analyzed in these crosses, giving the following gene orders: Interspecific cross, centromere-(D4Mit5, D4Mit38)-D4Mit6-(Lv,Tzn,D4Mit44)-wi-Hxb-(D4Mit25, D4Nds9)-(D4Mit7, D4Ler2)-b-D4Mit45-(D4Wsm1, D4Mit27b)-(D4Rck65, D4Mit15), and intraspecific cross, centromere-(Mup-1, wi, Hxb)-b-D4Wsm1. This analysis has positioned the wi locus in the interval between the genes for [delta]-aminolevulinate dehydratase (Lv) and hexabrachion (Hxb). The human homologues of these genes, ALAD and HXB, both lie on human chromosome 9q32-q34. They therefore predict that a human homologue of the wi gene, involved in autosomal recessive deafness, lies in this region of conserved homology on 9q32-q34. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Metallothionein protein evolution: a miniassay.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2011-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) evolution is one of the most obscure yet fascinating aspects of the study of these atypical metal-binding peptides. The different members of the extremely heterogeneous MT protein superfamily probably evolved through a web of duplication, functional differentiation, and/or convergence events leading to the current scenario, which is particularly hard to interpret in terms of molecular evolution. Difficulties in drawing straight evolutionary relationships are reflected in the lack of definite MT classification criteria. Presently, MTs are categorized either according to a pure taxonomic clustering or depending on their metal binding preferences and specificities. Extremely well documented MT revisions were recently published. But beyond classic approaches, this review of MT protein evolution will bring together new aspects that have seldom been discussed before. Hence, the emergence of life on our planet, since metal ion utilization is accepted to be at the root of the emergence of living organisms, and global trends that underlie structural and functional MT diversification, will be presented. Major efforts are currently being devoted to identifying rules for function-constrained MT evolution that may be applied to different groups of organisms. PMID:21633816

  13. Positions of pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes in the nucleus before and after mouse ES cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, K; Ohyama, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial positioning of genes in the cell nucleus plays an important role in the regulation of genomic functions. Evidence for changes in gene positioning associated with transcriptional activity has been reported. However, our understanding of this phenomenon is still quite limited. We examined how pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes behave during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into hepatocytes, by targeting the loci of the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, Cyp7α1, Pck1, Tat, and Tdo2 genes, and using three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. We found that each gene has a distinctly inherent localization profile in the ES cell nucleus. During differentiation, the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Cyp7α1, Pck1, and Tat loci shifted toward the nuclear center, while the Sox2 and Tdo2 loci shifted toward the periphery. The Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, and Tdo2 seem to prefer the outer regions, rather than the inner regions, when they are active. We also found that the radial positioning of the focused genes in the hepatocyte cell nucleus was highly correlated with the local GC content and the gene density of the surrounding region, but not with gene activity. PMID:24737423

  14. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Korostynski, Michal; Kaminska-Chowaniec, Dorota; Piechota, Marcin; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q < 0.01) revealed inter-strain variation in the expression of ~3% of the analyzed transcripts. A combination of three methods of array pre-processing was used to compile a list of ranked transcripts covered by 1528 probe-sets significantly different between the mouse strains under comparison. Using Gene Ontology analysis, over-represented patterns of genes associated with cytoskeleton and involved in synaptic transmission were identified. Differential expression of several genes with relevant neurobiological function (e.g. GABA-A receptor alpha subunits) was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Analysis of correlations between gene expression and behavioural data revealed connection between the level of mRNA for K homology domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (Khdrbs1) and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2) with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids. PMID:16772024

  15. Hypoxia affects expression of circadian genes PER1 and CLOCK in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chilov, D; Hofer, T; Bauer, C; Wenger, R H; Gassmann, M

    2001-12-01

    The key elements of circadian clockwork and oxygen homeostasis are the PAS protein family members PER and CLOCK and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). The PAS domain serves as an interface for protein-protein interactions. We asked whether a cross-talk exists between the PAS components of hypoxic and circadian pathways. We found several isoforms of PER1 protein that exhibit tissue-specific size differences. In the mouse brain, a predominantly nuclear 48 kDa isoform that followed a daily rhythm was observed. The 48 kDa form was found in the nuclear fractions derived from mouse liver, Swiss3T3 fibroblasts, and N2A neuroblastoma cells. In mouse kidney and human 293 kidney cells, a 55 kDa PER1 form was detected. CLOCK was observed as a predicted 100 kDa protein in rat-1 cells and in all analyzed mouse tissues including brain, liver, kidney, and spleen. In contrast to PER1, CLOCK protein expression was not rhythmic. Exposure to hypoxia led to increased PER1 and CLOCK protein levels in mice. Based on coimmunoprecipitation experiments that showed protein-protein interaction between PER1 and the alpha subunit of HIF-1, we suggest that these hypoxic effects may be modulated by HIF-1alpha.-Chilov, D., Hofer, T., Bauer, C., Wenger, R. H., Gassmann, M. Hypoxia affects expression of circadian genes PER1 and CLOCK in mouse brain. PMID:11726537

  16. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B

    1988-01-01

    The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

  17. Dose-Related Estrogen Effects on Gene Expression in Fetal Mouse Prostate Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; Richter, Catherine A.; Suzuki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen; Coser, Kathryn R.; Shioda, Toshihiro; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental exposure of mouse fetuses to estrogens results in dose-dependent permanent effects on prostate morphology and function. Fetal prostatic mesenchyme cells express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptors and convert stimuli from circulating estrogens and androgens into paracrine signaling to regulate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. To obtain mechanistic insight into the role of different doses of estradiol (E2) in regulating mesenchymal cells, we examined E2-induced transcriptomal changes in primary cultures of fetal mouse prostate mesenchymal cells. Urogenital sinus mesenchyme cells were obtained from male mouse fetuses at gestation day 17 and exposed to 10 pM, 100 pM or 100 nM E2 in the presence of a physiological concentration of dihydrotestosterone (0.69 nM) for four days. Gene ontology studies suggested that low doses of E2 (10 pM and 100 pM) induce genes involved in morphological tissue development and sterol biosynthesis but suppress genes involved in growth factor signaling. Genes involved in cell adhesion were enriched among both up-regulated and down-regulated genes. Genes showing inverted-U-shape dose responses (enhanced by E2 at 10 pM E2 but suppressed at 100 pM) were enriched in the glycolytic pathway. At the highest dose (100 nM), E2 induced genes enriched for cell adhesion, steroid hormone signaling and metabolism, cytokines and their receptors, cell-to-cell communication, Wnt signaling, and TGF- β signaling. These results suggest that prostate mesenchymal cells may regulate epithelial cells through direct cell contacts when estrogen level is low whereas secreted growth factors and cytokines might play significant roles when estrogen level is high. PMID:23144751

  18. Gene expression in salivary glands: effects of diet and mouse chromosome 17 locus regulating macronutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Kruger, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Kappen, Claudia; Richards, Brenda K

    2015-01-01

    Dcpp2, Prrt1, and Has1 are plausible candidate genes for the Mnic1 (macronutrient intake-carbohydrate) locus on mouse chromosome 17, based on their map positions and sequence variants, documented expression in salivary glands, and the important role of saliva in oral food processing and taste. We investigated the effects of genotype and diet on gene expression in salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) of carbohydrate-preferring, C57BL6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to fat-preferring wild-type C57BL/6J. To achieve accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data, we evaluated multiple reference genes to identify the most stably expressed control genes in salivary gland tissues, and then used geometric averaging to produce a reliable normalization factor. Gene expression was measured in mice fed different diets: (1) rodent chow, (2) macronutrient selection diets, (3) high-fat diet, and (4) low-fat diet. In addition, we measured salivary hyaluronan concentrations. All three genes showed strain differences in expression, in at least one major salivary gland, and diet effects were observed in two glands. Dcpp2 expression was limited primarily to sublingual gland, and strongly decreased in B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to wild-type B6, regardless of diet. In contrast, both genotype and diet affected Prrt1 and Has1 expression, in a gland-specific manner, for example, Prrt1 expression in the parotid gland alone was strongly reduced in both mouse strains when fed macronutrient selection diet compared to chow. Notably, we discovered an association between diet composition and salivary hyaluronan content. These results demonstrate robust effects of genetic background and diet composition on candidate gene expression in mouse salivary glands. PMID:25713331

  19. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-10-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  20. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kimberly H.; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  1. The mouse formin (Fmn) gene: Genomic structure, novel exons, and genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.; Chan, D.C.; Leder, P.

    1997-02-01

    Mutations in the mouse formin (Fmn) gene, formerly known as the limb deformity (ld) gene, give rise to recessively inherited limb deformities and renal malformations or aplasia. The Fmn gene encodes many differentially processed transcripts that are expressed in both adult and embryonic tissues. To study the genomic organization of the Fmn locus, we have used Fmn probes to isolate and characterize genomic clones spanning 500 kb. Our analysis of these clones shows that the Fmn gene is composed of at least 24 exons and spans 400 kb. We have identified two novel exons that are expressed in the developing embryonic limb bud as well as adult tissues such as brain and kidney. We have also used a microsatellite polymorphism from within the Fmn gene to map it genetically to a 2.2-cM interval between D2Mit58 and D2Mit103. 36 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Gene order is conserved within the human chromosome 21 linkage group on mouse chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, N.G.; Cabin, D.E.; Swanson, D.A.; Reeves, R.H. )

    1994-05-01

    One hundred progeny from each of two intersubspecific mouse backcrosses were used to construct a comparative genetic map of a region of mouse chromosome 10 (MMU10) that is homologous to the distal tip of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The analysis included five genes and three simple sequence repeat markers, two of which flanked the HSA21-homologous cluster on either side. Analysis of 200 backcross progeny detected at least one crossover between each pair of adjacent genes and demonstrated that the proximal to distal orientation of the cluster was reversed between human and mouse. The order was determined to be Fyn-1-D10Mit20-S100b-Col6a1-Itgb2-Pfk1/D10Mit7-D10Mit11. Comparative mapping supports the order of corresponding markers on HSA21 determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid line data. However, sequence tagged site content mapping of human yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) yielded conflicting data on the relative positions of human COL6A1 and S100B on HSA21. This discrepancy was resolved here by demonstrating that several key YACs used in the human contig analysis were mistyped for S100B. The murine map reported here provides a scaffold for construction of physical maps and yeast artificial chromosome contigs that will be useful in the development of mouse models for the study of Down syndrome. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Mouse pseudouridine synthase 1: gene structure and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Patton, J R

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for the alternative splicing of the message for mouse pseudouridine synthase 1 (mPus1p) was found when several expressed sequence tag clones were completely sequenced. The genomic DNA for the MPUS1 gene (6.9 kb) was cloned from a mouse genomic library; the gene contains seven exons, of which three are alternatively spliced. In addition, one of the internal exons (exon VI) is unusually large. RNase protection analysis confirmed that several alternatively spliced messages were present in mouse tissues and cells in culture. A Western blot of total cellular protein from mouse tissues and cultured cells was reacted with an antibody specific for mPus1p; at least three proteins were detected. One protein corresponds to the predicted molecular mass of mPus1p (44 kDa) and is the most abundant. The two other isoforms, one 2 kDa larger and one 7 kDa smaller than mPus1p, were differentially expressed. The cDNA species for the three isoforms were cloned into expression plasmids; the proteins were synthesized in vitro and tested for pseudouridine synthase activity. The two isoforms, one containing an insert of 18 amino acids in a region of the enzyme assumed to be critical for activity, and the other, which has a deletion of the protein coding potential of two exons, were both inactive on tRNA substrates that mPus1p modifies. PMID:11085940

  4. Mutations in orthologous genes in human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and the brachymorphic mouse.

    PubMed

    Faiyaz ul Haque, M; King, L M; Krakow, D; Cantor, R M; Rusiniak, M E; Swank, R T; Superti-Furga, A; Haque, S; Abbas, H; Ahmad, W; Ahmad, M; Cohn, D H

    1998-10-01

    The osteochondrodysplasias are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting skeletal development, linear growth and the maintenance of cartilage and bone. We have studied a large inbred Pakistani family with a distinct form of recessively inherited spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) and mapped a gene associated with this dwarfing condition to chromosome 10q23-24, a region syntenic with the locus for the brachymorphic mutation on mouse chromosome 19. We identified two orthologous genes, ATPSK2 and Atpsk2, encoding novel ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase orthologues in the respective regions of the human and mouse genomes. We characterized a nonsense mutation in ATPSK2 in the SEMD family and a missense mutation in the region of Atpsk2 encoding the APS kinase activity in the brachymorphic mouse. ATP sulfurylase/APS kinase catalyses the metabolic activation of inorganic sulfate to PAPS, the universal donor for post-translational protein sulfation in all cell types. The cartilage-specificity of the human and mouse phenotypes provides further evidence of the critical role of sulfate activation in the maturation of cartilage extracellular matrix molecules and the effect of defects in this process on the architecture of cartilage and skeletogenesis. PMID:9771708

  5. The mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication protein P1MCM3 maps to bands A3-A5 on chromosome 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ikuya; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takagi, Nobuo

    1996-03-05

    This report describes the localization of the mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication to mouse chromosome 1, bands A3-A5 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This finding supports the recent mapping of the human MCM3 gene to human chromosome 6p12, which shows synteny with mouse chromosome 1. The mouse Mcmd gene encodes the protein P1MCM3 which is essential for DNA replication. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Expression Profile of DNA Damage Signaling Genes in Proton Exposed Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    Exposure of living systems to radiation results in a wide assortment of lesions, the most signif-icant of is damage to genomic DNA which induce several cellular functions such as cell cycle arrest, repair, apoptosis etc. The radiation induced DNA damage investigation is one of the im-portant area in biology, but still the information available regarding the effects of proton is very limited. In this report, we investigated the differential gene expression pattern of DNA damage signaling genes particularly, damaged DNA binding, repair, cell cycle arrest, checkpoints and apoptosis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR array in proton exposed mouse brain tissues. The expression profiles showed significant changes in DNA damage related genes in 2Gy proton exposed mouse brain tissues as compared with control brain tissues. Furthermore, we also show that significantly increased levels of apoptotic related genes, caspase-3 and 8 activities in these cells, suggesting that in addition to differential expression of DNA damage genes, the alteration of apoptosis related genes may also contribute to the radiation induced DNA damage followed by programmed cell death. In summary, our findings suggest that proton exposed brain tissue undergo severe DNA damage which in turn destabilize the chromatin stability.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in the mouse brain using in utero electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Shinmyo, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Shinichi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Tajima, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been adapted for generating knockout mice to investigate physiological functions and pathological mechanisms. Here, we report a highly efficient procedure for brain-specific disruption of genes of interest in vivo. We constructed pX330 plasmids expressing humanized Cas9 and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) against the Satb2 gene, which encodes an AT-rich DNA-binding transcription factor and is responsible for callosal axon projections in the developing mouse brain. We first confirmed that these constructs efficiently induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in target sites of exogenous plasmids both in vitro and in vivo. We then found that the introduction of pX330-Satb2 into the developing mouse brain using in utero electroporation led to a dramatic reduction of Satb2 expression in the transfected cerebral cortex, suggesting DSBs had occurred in the Satb2 gene with high efficiency. Furthermore, we found that Cas9-mediated targeting of the Satb2 gene induced abnormalities in axonal projection patterns, which is consistent with the phenotypes previously observed in Satb2 mutant mice. Introduction of pX330-NeuN using our procedure also resulted in the efficient disruption of the NeuN gene. Thus, our procedure combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and in utero electroporation is an effective and rapid approach to achieve brain-specific gene knockout in vivo. PMID:26857612

  8. Activation of Type III Interferon Genes by Pathogenic Bacteria in Infected Epithelial Cells and Mouse Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Bierne, Hélène; Tailleux, Ludovic; Subtil, Agathe; Lebreton, Alice; Paliwal, Anupam; Gicquel, Brigitte; Staeheli, Peter; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ) genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues. PMID:22720036

  9. Analysis of key genes and pathways involved in acute lung injury in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Han, Q H; Han, N; Liu, Y Z; Jin, Q H; Lu, Q Y; Li, Z C

    2014-01-01

    A mouse model of acute lung injury (ALI) was chosen in this study to explore the key genes and pathways involved in the process of ALI with microarray technology. Gene expression microarray data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Mice from the experimental group were further divided into 6 subgroups, which received octadecenoate treatments for 1, 1.5, 3, 4, 18, and 24 h. Differentially co-expressed genes were screened to uncover the pathogenesis of ALI. Almost all of the differentially co-expressed genes were identified at two times: 1.5 and 3 h. Functional analysis revealed that several inflammation-related pathways were significantly enriched. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, hematopoietic cell lineage, and leukocyte transendothelial migration were enriched at 1.5 h. The B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis were significantly enriched at 3 h. It could be inferred that ALI initiated at 1.5 h and lasted through 3 h. However, co-expression patterns were not found from 4 h onward. In conclusion, several key genes and pathways implicated in the development of ALI were found in this study using the mouse model, among which ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis appears to play an important role in the process. PMID:25036508

  10. Lactoferrin-iCre: A New Mouse Line to Study Uterine Epithelial Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Jumpei; Ogawa, Akiyo; DeFalco, Tony; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic animal models are valuable for studying gene function in various tissue compartments. Mice with conditional deletion of genes in the uterus using the Cre-loxP system serve as powerful tools to study uterine biology. The uterus is comprised of 3 major tissue types: myometrium, stroma, and epithelium. Proliferation and differentiation in each uterine cell type are differentially regulated by ovarian hormones, resulting in spatiotemporal control of gene expression. Therefore, examining gene function in each uterine tissue type will provide more meaningful information regarding uterine biology during pregnancy and disease states. Although currently available Cre mouse lines have been very useful in exploring functions of specific genes in uterine biology, overlapping expression of these Cre lines in more than 1 tissue type and in other reproductive organs sometimes makes interpretation of results difficult. In this article, we report the generation of a new iCre knock-in mouse line, in which iCre is expressed from endogenous lactoferrin (Ltf) promoter. Ltf-iCre mice primarily direct recombination in the uterine epithelium in adult females and in immature females after estrogen treatment. These mice will allow for specific interrogation of gene function in the mature uterine epithelium, providing a helpful tool to uncover important aspects of uterine biology. PMID:24823394

  11. Identification of Sexually Dimorphic Genes in the Neonatal Mouse Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Armoskus, Chris; Moreira, Debbie; Bollinger, Kayla; Jimenez, Oliva; Taniguchi, Saori; Tsai, Houng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and hippocampus are important for the control of cognitive functions and social behaviors, many of which are sexually dimorphic and tightly regulated by gonadal steroid hormones via activation of their respective nuclear receptors. As different levels of sex steroid hormones are present between the sexes during early development and their receptors act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression, we hypothesize that sexually dimorphic gene expression in the developing mouse cortex and hippocampus might result in sex differences in brain structures and neural circuits governing distinct behaviors between the sexes as adults. To test our hypothesis, we used gene expression microarrays to identify 90 candidate genes differentially expressed in the neonatal cortex/hippocampus between male and female mice, including 55 male-biased and 35 female-biased genes. Among these genes, sexually dimorphic expression of eight sex chromosome genes was confirmed by reverse transcription with quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), including three located on the X chromosome (Xist, Eif2s3x, and Kdm6a), three on the Y chromosome (Ddx3y, Eif2s3y, and Kdm5d), and two in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes (Erdr1 and Mid1). In addition, five autosomal genes (Cd151, Dab2, Klk8, Meg3, and Prkdc) were also validated for their sexually dimorphic expression in the neonatal mouse cortex/hippocampus. Gene Ontology annotation analysis suggests that many of these sexually dimorphic genes are involved in histone modifications, cell proliferation/death, androgen/estrogen signaling pathways, and synaptic organization, and these biological processes have been implicated in differential neural development, cognitive function, and neurological diseases between the sexes. PMID:24661915

  12. Gene expression signature of cerebellar hypoplasia in a mouse model of Down syndrome during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Laffaire, Julien; Rivals, Isabelle; Dauphinot, Luce; Pasteau, Fabien; Wehrle, Rosine; Larrat, Benoit; Vitalis, Tania; Moldrich, Randal X; Rossier, Jean; Sinkus, Ralph; Herault, Yann; Dusart, Isabelle; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The mechanisms by which this aneuploidy produces the complex and variable phenotype observed in people with Down syndrome are still under discussion. Recent studies have demonstrated an increased transcript level of the three-copy genes with some dosage compensation or amplification for a subset of them. The impact of this gene dosage effect on the whole transcriptome is still debated and longitudinal studies assessing the variability among samples, tissues and developmental stages are needed. Results We thus designed a large scale gene expression study in mice (the Ts1Cje Down syndrome mouse model) in which we could measure the effects of trisomy 21 on a large number of samples (74 in total) in a tissue that is affected in Down syndrome (the cerebellum) and where we could quantify the defect during postnatal development in order to correlate gene expression changes to the phenotype observed. Statistical analysis of microarray data revealed a major gene dosage effect: for the three-copy genes as well as for a 2 Mb segment from mouse chromosome 12 that we show for the first time as being deleted in the Ts1Cje mice. This gene dosage effect impacts moderately on the expression of euploid genes (2.4 to 7.5% differentially expressed). Only 13 genes were significantly dysregulated in Ts1Cje mice at all four postnatal development stages studied from birth to 10 days after birth, and among them are 6 three-copy genes. The decrease in granule cell proliferation demonstrated in newborn Ts1Cje cerebellum was correlated with a major gene dosage effect on the transcriptome in dissected cerebellar external granule cell layer. Conclusion High throughput gene expression analysis in the cerebellum of a large number of samples of Ts1Cje and euploid mice has revealed a prevailing gene dosage effect on triplicated genes. Moreover using an enriched cell population that is thought responsible for the cerebellar hypoplasia in Down syndrome, a global destabilization of gene expression was not detected. Altogether these results strongly suggest that the three-copy genes are directly responsible for the phenotype present in cerebellum. We provide here a short list of candidate genes. PMID:19331679

  13. From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.

    PubMed

    Khodiyar, Varsha K; Howe, Doug; Talmud, Philippa J; Breckenridge, Ross; Lovering, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer's vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer's vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of 'heart jogging' and the direction of 'heart looping'.  'Heart jogging' is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward 'jog'. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish 'heart jogging orthologs' are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

  14. From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer’s vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer’s vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of ‘heart jogging’ and the direction of ‘heart looping’.  ‘Heart jogging’ is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward ‘jog’. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish ‘heart jogging orthologs’ are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

  15. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  16. Endocrine Parameters and Phenotypes of the Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Disrupted (GHR−/−) Mouse

    PubMed Central

    List, Edward O.; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E.; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S.; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR−/−) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR−/− mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

  17. Analyses of Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Highly Divergent Mouse Crosses Identifies Pervasive Allelic Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sun, Wei; Huang, Shunping; Pakatci, Isa Kemal; Kim, Yunjung; Wang, Jeremy R; Morgan, Andrew P; Calaway, John D; Aylor, David L; Yun, Zaining; Bell, Timothy A; Buus, Ryan J; Calaway, Mark E; Didion, John P; Gooch, Terry J; Hansen, Stephanie D; Robinson, Nashiya N; Shaw, Ginger D; Spence, Jason S; Quackenbush, Corey R; Barrick, Cordelia J; Nonneman, Randal J.; Kim, Kyungsu; Xenakis, James; Xie, Yuying; Valdar, William; Lenarcic, Alan B; Wang, Wei; Welsh, Catherine E; Fu, Chen-Ping; Zhang, Zhaojun; Holt, James; Guo, Zhishan; Threadgill, David W; Tarantino, Lisa M; Miller, Darla R; Zou, Fei; McMillan, Leonard; Sullivan, Patrick F; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex human traits are influenced by variation in regulatory DNA through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Since regulatory elements are conserved between humans and mice, a thorough annotation of cis regulatory variants in mice could aid in this process. Here we provide a detailed portrait of mouse gene expression across multiple tissues in a three-way diallel. Greater than 80% of mouse genes have cis regulatory variation. These effects influence complex traits and usually extend to the human ortholog. Further, we estimate that at least one in every thousand SNPs creates a cis regulatory effect. We also observe two types of parent-of-origin effects, including classical imprinting and a novel, global allelic imbalance in favor of the paternal allele. We conclude that, as with humans, pervasive regulatory variation influences complex genetic traits in mice and provide a new resource toward understanding the genetic control of transcription in mammals. PMID:25730764

  18. In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Zhu, Kexian; Cheng, Jason K W; Chew, Wei Leong; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Yan, Winston X; Maesner, Claire; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Xiao, Ru; Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Church, George M; Wagers, Amy J

    2016-01-22

    Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored the Dmd reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells after local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle. PMID:26721686

  19. Isolation of mouse osteocytes using cell fractionation for gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Halleux, Christine; Kramer, Ina; Allard, Cyril; Kneissel, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Osteocytes are the terminally differentiated cells of the osteoblastic lineage embedded within the mineralized bone matrix. T: hey have been identified as key players in mechanotransduction and in mineral and phosphate homeostasis. In addition, they appear to have a role in mediating bone formation, since they secrete the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin. In contrast to osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which reside on the bone surface, it has been difficult to isolate and analyze cellular and molecular properties of osteocytes due to their specific location inside the "hard" mineralized bone compartment. This chapter describes a method to isolate osteocytes from newborn mouse calvaria and adult mouse long bone, followed by immediate total RNA extraction allowing to selectively study osteocytic versus osteoblastic gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The osteocyte-enriched cell fraction isolated by this method can further be purified by FACS and selectively expresses osteocytic marker genes, such as Dmp1 and Sost. PMID:22130922

  20. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  1. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  2. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes.

    PubMed

    Lamerdin, J E; Stilwagen, S A; Ramirez, M H; Stubbs, L; Carrano, A V

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3' of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell cycle proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. PMID:8786141

  3. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lamerdin, J.E.; Stilwagen, S.A.; Ramirez, M.H.

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3{prime} of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Metallothioneins and cell death by anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Lazo, J S; Pitt, B R

    1995-01-01

    Both pharmacologic and genetic methods are now available to manipulate intracellular levels of the protein thiol metallothionein. These approaches have begun to reveal the protective roles metallothioneins (MTs) have against oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon-centered free radicals, as well as the contributory role of MT to resistance to a broad range of electrophilic therapeutic agents, including antineoplastic drugs. We suggest MTs are enlisted to act as primative antioxidant defense mechanisms in mammalian cells and, thus, may have widespread importance in the biology of cell death. PMID:7598510

  5. Chromosomal localization of Cdx2, a murine homologue of the Drosophila gene caudal, to mouse chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Chawengsaksophak, K.; Beck, F.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the localization of the Cdx2 gene to mouse chromosome 5 using the method of interspecific backcross analysis. This homeobox gene acts as a transcription factor and is the murine homologue of the Drosophila caudal gene. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  6. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a whole, our findings favor Olfr266 as a model gene to investigate odorant receptor gene choice. PMID:26794459

  7. Organization of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene and functional expression of two splice variants.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Kawashima, E; Reid, J; Hussy, N; Lundström, K; Buell, G; Humbert, Y; Jones, K A

    1994-10-01

    The structure of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene, 5-HT3R-A, is most similar to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, in particular to the gene encoding the neuronal nAChR subunit alpha 7. These genes share among other things the location of three adjacent introns, suggesting that 5-HT3R-A and nAChR genes arose from a common precursor gene. The alternative use of two adjacent splice acceptor sites in intron 8 creates, in addition to the original 5-HT3R-A cDNA (5-HT3R-AL), a shorter isoform (5-HT3R-AS) which lacks six codons in the segment that translates into the major intracellular domain. This splice consensus sequence is not found in human genomic DNA. In mouse, we demonstrate by RNAse protection assay that 5-HT3R-AS mRNA is approximately 5 times more abundant than 5-HT3R-AL mRNA in both neuroblastoma cell lines and neuronal tissues. We used the Semliki Forest virus expression system for electrophysiological characterization of 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL in mammalian cells. No differences in electrophysiological characteristics, such as voltage dependence, desensitization kinetics, or unitary conductance were found between homomeric 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL receptors. Their properties are very similar to those of 5-HT3 receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cell lines. PMID:7854052

  8. A High-Resolution Anatomical Framework of the Neonatal Mouse Brain for Managing Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Erh-Fang; Boline, Jyl; Toga, Arthur W.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to provide a high-resolution atlas and use it as an anatomical framework to localize the gene expression data for mouse brain on postnatal day 0 (P0). A color Nissl-stained volume with a resolution of 13.3??50??13.3??3 was constructed and co-registered to a standard anatomical space defined by an averaged geometry of C57BL/6J P0 mouse brains. A 145 anatomical structures were delineated based on the histological images. Anatomical relationships of delineated structures were established based on the hierarchical relations defined in the atlas of adult mouse brain (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2004) so the P0 atlas can be related to the database associated with the adult atlas. The co-registered multimodal atlas as well as the original anatomical delineations is available for download at http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/. The region-specific anatomical framework based on the neonatal atlas allows for the analysis of gene activity within a high-resolution anatomical space at an early developmental stage. We demonstrated the potential application of this framework by incorporating gene expression data generated using in situ hybridization to the atlas space. By normalizing the gene expression patterns revealed by different images, experimental results from separate studies can be compared and summarized in an anatomical context. Co-displaying multiple registered datasets in the atlas space allows for 3D reconstruction of the co-expression patterns of the different genes in the atlas space, hence providing better insight into the relationship between the differentiated distribution pattern of gene products and specific anatomical systems. PMID:18974801

  9. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  10. Activity-dependent genes in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Fischl, Adrian M; Heron, Paula M; Stromberg, Arnold J; McClintock, Timothy S

    2014-06-01

    Activity-dependent survival of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) may allow animals to tune their olfactory systems to match their odor environment. Activity-dependent genes should play important roles in this process, motivating experiments to identify them. Both unilateral naris occlusion of mice for 6 days and genetic silencing of OSNs decreased S100A5, Lrrc3b, Kirrel2, Slc17a6, Rasgrp4, Pcp4l1, Plcxd3, and Kcnn2 while increasing Kirrel3. Naris occlusion also decreased Eml5, Ptprn, and Nphs1. OSN number was unchanged and stress-response mRNAs were unaffected after 6 days of naris occlusion. This leaves odor stimulation as the most likely cause of differential abundance of these mRNAs, but through a mechanism that is slow or indirect for most because 30-40 min of odor stimulation increased only 3 of 11 mRNAs decreased by naris occlusion: S100A5, Lrrc3b, and Kirrel2. Odorant receptor (OR) mRNAs were significantly more variable than the average mRNA, consistent with difficulty in reliably detecting changes in these mRNAs after 6 days of naris occlusion. One OR mRNA, Olfr855, was consistently decreased, however. These results suggest that the latency from the cessation of odor stimulation to effects on activity-dependent OSN survival must be a week or more in juvenile mice. PMID:24692514

  11. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3 762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  12. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3 762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  13. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  14. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of mouse hypothalamic neurogenesis with or without EPHX2 gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Wang, Dawei; Zou, Xiajuan; Lou, Yaxin; Liu, Dan; Yang, Bin; Zhu, Yi; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differently expressed proteins in the presence and absence of EPHX2 gene in mouse hypothalamus using proteomics profiling and bioinformatics analysis. This study was performed on 3 wild type (WT) and 3 EPHX2 gene global knockout (KO) mice (EPHX2 -/-). Using the nano- electrospray ionization (ESI)-LC-MS/MS detector, we identified 31 over-expressed proteins in WT mouse hypothalamus compared to the KO counterparts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation in terms of the protein-protein interaction network indicated that cellular metabolic process, protein metabolic process, signaling transduction and protein post-translation biological processes involved in EPHX2 -/- regulatory network. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis also highlighted chronic neurodegenerative diseases and some other signaling pathways, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, Neurotrophin signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, were strongly coupled with EPHX2 gene knockout. Further studies into the molecular functions of EPHX2 gene in hypothalamus will help to provide new perspective in neurogenesis. PMID:26722453

  15. Cloning and partial characterization of the mouse glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Sayeski, P P; Wang, D; Su, K; Han, I O; Kudlow, J E

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the enzyme that is rate limiting in the synthesis of glucosamine and hexosamines. Glucosamine has been proposed to contribute to the glucotoxicity of diabetes. Evidence that the gene encoding GFAT is transcriptionally regulated prompted us to clone and characterize its promoter. The position of the mouse GFAT promoter relative to the translational start site was located by primer extension and found to be 149 bp upstream of the translational start site. A 1.9 kb SacI fragment of the GFAT gene was found to contain the promoter and 88 bp of sequence downstream of the transcriptional start site. This promoter segment could drive expression of a luciferase reporter gene, could confer correct transcriptional initiation to the reporter and could confer the EGF-responsiveness previously observed in the native gene. The mouse GFAT promoter lacks a canonical TATA box and has several GC boxes within a highly GC-rich region. Deletional analysis of the promoter indicated that a proximal element extending to -120 relative to the transcriptional start site could confer reporter expression at a level of 57% of the 1.9 kb construct. Detailed analysis of this proximal region by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Sp1 binds to three elements in this proximal promoter segment and plays a vital role in regulation of transcription from this gene. PMID:9060444

  16. Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of mouse lung development and Nmyc target genes

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Brian; Kislinger, Thomas; Wigle, Dennis A; Kannan, Anitha; Brown, Kevin; Okubo, Tadashi; Hogan, Brigid; Jurisica, Igor; Frey, Brendan; Rossant, Janet; Emili, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although microarray analysis has provided information regarding the dynamics of gene expression during development of the mouse lung, no extensive correlations have been made to the levels of corresponding protein products. Here, we present a global survey of protein expression during mouse lung organogenesis from embryonic day E13.5 until adulthood using gel-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to shotgun tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT). Mathematical modeling of the proteomic profiles with parallel DNA microarray data identified large groups of gene products with statistically significant correlation or divergence in coregulation of protein and transcript levels during lung development. We also present an integrative analysis of mRNA and protein expression in Nmyc loss- and gain-of-function mutants. This revealed a set of 90 positively and negatively regulated putative target genes. These targets are evidence that Nmyc is a regulator of genes involved in mRNA processing and a repressor of the imprinted gene Igf2r in the developing lung. PMID:17486137

  17. Cloning and tissue-specific expression of the gene for mouse C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Ku, N O; Mortensen, R F

    1993-10-15

    C-reactive protein is a serum acute-phase reactant that increases several thousand-fold in concentration during inflammation in most mammals. However, mouse C-reactive protein is considered to be a minor acute-phase reactant, since its blood level increases only from approx. 0.1 to 1-2 micrograms/ml. A mouse genomic clone of approximately 5 kb was obtained to determine the molecular basis for the regulation of the expression of mouse C-reactive protein. Several cis-acting elements in the 5' flanking region that potentially regulate transcription were identified: two glucocorticoid-responsive elements, two CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C (C/EBP) consensus elements that are required for the interleukin-1 responsiveness of some acute-phase reactant genes, an interleukin-6-responsive element, two hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) elements and a single heat-shock element. Transfection of the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B.2 with a pCAT expression vector containing the 5' flanking sequence from -1083 to -3 bp from the transcriptional start site, and truncations of this sequence, localized elements that control the tissue-specific expression of mouse C-reactive protein to the two HNF-1 elements and a C/EBP, interleukin-1-responsive element located between -220 and -153, and -90 and -50 bp from the transcriptional start site. A constitutive nuclear protein from mouse-liver hepatocytes specifically binds to the HNF-1 elements. These findings explain the tissue-specific expression of the gene, as well as its limited expression during the acute-phase response. PMID:7916620

  18. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, Curtis D. Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  19. Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Oltjen, Sharon L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Estep, Jason; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Gong, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC. Results Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh−/− eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh−/− mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh−/− eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results. Conclusions Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC. PMID:25684976

  20. Modeling disease mutations by gene targeting in one-cell mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Melanie; Ortiz, Oskar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting by zinc-finger nucleases in one-cell embryos provides an expedite mutagenesis approach in mice, rats, and rabbits. This technology has been recently used to create knockout and knockin mutants through the deletion or insertion of nucleotides. Here we apply zinc-finger nucleases in one-cell mouse embryos to generate disease-related mutants harboring single nucleotide or codon replacements. Using a gene-targeting vector or a synthetic oligodesoxynucleotide as template for homologous recombination, we introduced missense and silent mutations into the Rab38 gene, encoding a small GTPase that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking. These results demonstrate the feasibility of seamless gene editing in one-cell embryos to create genetic disease models and establish synthetic oligodesoxynucleotides as a simplified mutagenesis tool. PMID:22660928

  1. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M.; Bergen, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new therapeutics. This requires further in-depth knowledge of the similarities and differences between mouse and human RPE. Methods We performed a microarray study to identify and functionally annotate RPE specific gene expression in mouse and human RPE. We used a meticulous method to determine C57BL/6J mouse RPE signature genes, correcting for possible RNA contamination from its adjacent layers: the choroid and the photoreceptors. We compared the signature genes, gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the mouse and human RPE. Results We defined sets of mouse (64), human (171) and mouse–human interspecies (22) RPE signature genes. Not unexpectedly, our gene expression analysis and comparative functional annotation suggested that, in general, the mouse and human RPE are very similar. For example, we found similarities for general features, like “organ development” and “disorders related to neurological tissue”. However, detailed analysis of the molecular pathways and networks associated with RPE functions, suggested also multiple species-specific differences, some of which may be relevant for the development of AMD. For example, CFHR1, most likely the main complement regulator in AMD pathogenesis was highly expressed in human RPE, but almost absent in mouse RPE. Furthermore, functions assigned to mouse and human RPE expression profiles indicate (patho-) biological differences related to AMD, such as oxidative stress, Bruch’s membrane, immune-regulation and outer blood retina barrier. Conclusion These differences may be important for the development of new therapeutic strategies and translational studies in age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26517551

  2. Early Maternal Alcohol Consumption Alters Hippocampal DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Volume in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Marjonen, Heidi; Sierra, Alejandra; Nyman, Anna; Rogojin, Vladimir; Gröhn, Olli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P) 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60): we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in different tissue types later in life. PMID:25970770

  3. Gene expression profile of mouse fibroblasts exposed to a biodegradable iron alloy for stents.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Agung; Hermawan, Hendra; Champetier, Serge; Mantovani, Diego; Couet, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Iron-based materials could constitute an interesting option for cardiovascular biodegradable stent applications due to their superior ductility compared to their counterparts - magnesium alloys. Since the predicted degradation rate of pure iron is considered slow, manganese (35% w/w), an alloying element for iron, was explored to counteract this problem through the powder metallurgy process (Fe-35 Mn). However, manganese presents a high cytotoxic potential; thus its effect on cells must first be established. Here, we established the gene expression profile of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to Fe-35 Mn degradation products in order to better understand cell response to potentially cytotoxic degradable metallic material (DMM). Mouse 3T3 cells were exposed to degradation products eluting through tissue culture insert filter (3 μm pore size) containing cytostatic amounts of 3.25 mg ml(-1) of Fe-35 Mn powder, 0.25 mg ml(-1) of pure Mn powder or 5 mg ml(-1) of pure iron powder for 24 h. We then conducted a gene expression profiling study from these cells. Exposure of 3T3 cells to Fe-35 Mn was associated with the up-regulation of 75 genes and down-regulation of 59 genes, while 126 were up-regulated and 76 down-regulated genes in the presence of manganese. No genes were found regulated for the iron powder. When comparing the GEP of 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of Fe-35 Mn and Mn, 68 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated genes were common. These results were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for a subset of these genes. This GEP study could provide clues about the mechanism behind degradation products effects on cells of the Fe-35 Mn alloy and may help in the appraisal of its potential for DMM applications. PMID:23499988

  4. Early maternal alcohol consumption alters hippocampal DNA methylation, gene expression and volume in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Marjonen, Heidi; Sierra, Alejandra; Nyman, Anna; Rogojin, Vladimir; Gröhn, Olli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P) 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60): we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in different tissue types later in life. PMID:25970770

  5. Endocrine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Y.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Gene Transfer and Expression of Mammalian Cell Receptors; Mapping Endocrine Genes with Sorted Human Chromosomes; Structure, Function, Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes; Molecular Analysis of Steroid Hormone Action Using the Human Metallothionein Genes as a Model.

  6. Epithelial sodium channel genes Scnn1b and Scnn1g are closely linked on distal mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, D.R.; Kleyman, T.R.; Kozak, C.A.

    1995-10-10

    The chromosomal localizations of Scnn1b and Scnn1g, genes corresponding to the {beta}- and {gamma}-subunits, respectively, of an epithelial non-voltage-gated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel, were determined by analyses of two sets of multilocus crosses using probes generated by polymerase chain reaction and a mouse kidney cortical collecting tubule cell line (M1). Scnn1b and Scnn1g were determined to be closely linked on distal mouse chromosome 7, showing no recombination with Zp2, whereas the gene for the {alpha}-subunit, Scnn1a, was confirmed to map to distal mouse chromosome 6. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  7. The fibulin-1 gene (FBLN1) is located on human chromosome 22 and on mouse chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, M.G.; Pan, T.C.; Zhang, R.Z.

    1994-07-15

    Fibulin-1 is a calcium-binding glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in the serum. The gene coding for fibulin-1 (FBLN1) was located by in situ hybridization of {sup 3}H-labeled cDNA probes to human and mouse metaphase chromosomes. The gene was assigned to the q13.2-q13.3 region of human chromosome 22 and to the E-F band of mouse chromosome 15. The finding extends the evolutionary conservation between human chromosome 22 and mouse chromosome 15. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in spontaneous and radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E. )

    1994-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma gene using histological sections from radiation-induced and spontaneous tumors as the DNA source. Six mouse Rb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments relative to control PCR products on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mouse Rb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (5.69 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 0.6 Gy JANUS neutrons, which have been found to have approximately equal radiobiological effectiveness) were analyzed for mouse Rb deletions. Tumors in 6 neutron-irradiated mice had no mouse Rb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice (17%) and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice (33%) showed a deletion in one or both mouse Rb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mouse Rb gene. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Sheep have an unusual variant of the brain-specific metallothionein, metallothionein-III.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Roger S; Holloway, Adele F; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Harris, Julie A; Vickers, James C; Chuah, Meng Inn; West, Adrian K

    2002-01-01

    Sheep metallothionein-III (MT-III) cDNA was isolated from a brain cDNA library and characterized. In contrast with MT-III from other species, sheep MT-III cDNA is predicted to encode a protein with significantly different metal-binding properties, owing to the loss of three of its cysteine residues. RT-PCR from other sheep confirmed that this aberrant structure is ubiquitous in this species. MT-III was successfully isolated from sheep brain, demonstrating that the cDNA does give rise to a protein product of the predicted structure. Sheep MT-III is similar to other mammalian MT-IIIs in that it retains the Cys-Pro-Cys-Pro motif which is thought to encode growth-inhibitory activity, and we show that it is likewise able to inhibit neuron survival in vitro. This is the first naturally occurring variant of MT-III (or any other major mammalian MT gene) which gives rise to a protein product. These findings are discussed in light of proposed roles of MT in the mammalian brain. PMID:11931634

  10. A catalogue of genes in mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells identified with expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, S; Sakuma, R; Nomura, M; Zou, Z; Jearanaisilavong, J; Joh, T; Yasunaga, T; Shimada, K

    1996-04-01

    We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify genes expressed in mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells and prepared 2132 ESTs from undifferentiated F9 cDNA libraries: 1026 were prepared after randomly selecting clones from one of the libraries and the remaining 1106 ESTs were prepared after classifying 2896 clones of the libraries into four classes, according to the levels and patterns of expression. Among the former 1026 ESTs, 797 (78%) matched known genes, 61 (6%) matched database sequences of uncharacterized cDNAs, and 168 (16%) represented novel genes. The ESTs matching known genes were catalogued according to putative structural and cellular functions. As many as 53% were related to transcription and translation, and 19% were related to energy metabolism, including transcripts of mitochondrial DNA. These percentages were significantly higher in F9 cells than in the human heart and brain, and a human liver cell line, HepG2. We found that approximately 7% of the ESTs corresponding to low-abundance mRNAs are either related to retinoic acid-regulated genes or mammalian development- and/or differentiation-related genes. Cataloguing of the genes expressed in the F9 cells paves the way for isolating genes involved in early mammalian development. PMID:8743579

  11. Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R; England, Jonathan H; Kirby, Tyler J; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading. PMID:25554798

  12. Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R.; England, Jonathan H.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading. PMID:25554798

  13. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Molecular cloning, structure, and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM/homeobox gene Lhx5

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuzzi, S.; Sheng, Hui Z.; Westphal, H.

    1996-09-01

    Lhx5, the mouse ortholog of the Xenopus Xlim-5, is a LIM/homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system during both embryonic development and adulthood. During development its domain of expression is mainly localized at the most anterior portion of the neural tube, and it precedes the morphological differentiation of the forebrain; for this reason we believe that Lhx5 could play an important role in forebrain patterning. Here we present the structural organization and the chromosomal localization of the Lhx5 gene. The gene is composed of five exons spanning more than 10 kb of genomic sequence. The first and second LIM domains are encoded by the first and second exon, while the codons of the homeobox are split between the third and the fourth exons. The structure of Lhx5 is similar to that of other LIM/homeodomain proteins, Lxh1/lim1 and Lhx3/lim3, but differs from that of other LIM genes, such as mec3 and LMO1/Rbtn1, in which the codons for the LIM domains are interrupted by introns. We have mapped Lhx5 to the central region of mouse chromosome 5. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  15. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    From 1971--1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. Absence of any of these fragments on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southern blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice showed a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  16. Cell-type-specific neuroanatomy of cliques of autism-related genes in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Pascal; Menashe, Idan; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two cliques of genes identified computationally for their high co-expression in the mouse brain according to the Allen Brain Atlas, and for their enrichment in genes related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have recently been shown to be highly co-expressed in the cerebellar cortex, compared to what could be expected by chance. Moreover, the expression of these cliques of genes is not homogeneous across the cerebellar cortex, and it has been noted that their expression pattern seems to highlight the granular layer. However, this observation was only made by eye, and recent advances in computational neuroanatomy allow to rank cell types in the mouse brain (characterized by their transcriptome profiles) according to the similarity between their spatial density profiles and the spatial expression profiles of the cliques. We establish by Monte Carlo simulation that with probability at least 99%, the expression profiles of the two cliques are more similar to the density profile of granule cells than 99% of the expression of cliques containing the same number of genes (Purkinje cells also score above 99% in one of the cliques). Thresholding the expression profiles shows that the signal is more intense in the granular layer. Finally, we work out pairs of cell types whose combined expression profiles are more similar to the expression profiles of the cliques than any single cell type. These pairs predominantly consist of one cortical pyramidal cell and one cerebellar cell (which can be either a granule cell or a Purkinje cell). PMID:26074809

  17. BMP-4 increases activin A gene expression during osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Bruno M; Tavares, Rubens L C; Del Puerto, Helen L; Andrade, Luciana O; Camargos, Aroldo F; Reis, Fernando M

    2015-04-01

    Activin A is a growth factor released by mature osteoblasts that has a critical effect on bone formation. We investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 on activin A gene expression during in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Embryoid bodies were cultured in retinoic acid (RA) for three days and then without RA for two days. Seeded cells received osteogenic medium with β-glycerophosphate, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and dexamethasone during 19 days, with or without BMP-4. Six independent experiments were carried out. Real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression of activin A, Oct-4, Nanog, osteocalcin, RUNX2 and bone alkaline phosphatase. Immunofluorescence was used to co-localize activin A with the undifferentiation marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Cells treated with BMP-4 had an increased gene expression of activin A, osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BMP-4 increases activin A gene expression during mouse ES cell differentiation into bone precursors. PMID:25413949

  18. Survival benefit and phenotypic improvement by hamartin gene therapy in a tuberous sclerosis mouse brain model.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Shilpa; Zhang, Xuan; Goto, June; Han, Sangyeul; Lai, Charles; Bronson, Roderick; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Ramesh, Vijaya; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Kwiatkowski, David J; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2015-10-01

    We examined the potential benefit of gene therapy in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in which there is embryonic loss of Tsc1 (hamartin) in brain neurons. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh8) expressing a tagged form of hamartin was injected into the cerebral ventricles of newborn pups with the genotype Tsc1(cc) (homozygous for a conditional floxed Tsc1 allele) SynI-cre(+), in which Tsc1 is lost selectively in neurons starting at embryonic day 12. Vector-treated Tsc1(cc)SynIcre(+) mice showed a marked improvement in survival from a mean of 22 days in non-injected mice to 52 days in AAV hamartin vector-injected mice, with improved weight gain and motor behavior in the latter. Pathologic studies showed normalization of neuron size and a decrease in markers of mTOR activation in treated as compared to untreated mutant littermates. Hence, we show that gene replacement in the brain is an effective therapeutic approach in this mouse model of TSC1. Our strategy for gene therapy has the advantages that therapy can be achieved from a single application, as compared to repeated treatment with drugs, and that AAV vectors have been found to have minimal to no toxicity in clinical trials for other neurologic conditions. Although there are many additional issues to be addressed, our studies support gene therapy as a useful approach in TSC patients. PMID:26019056

  19. Analysis of tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 9 in mouse x human somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Porterfield, B.W.; Olopade, O.I.; Rowley, J.D.; Diaz, M.O.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions of the short arm of human chromosome 9 (9p) are common in human leukemia and solid tumors. The minimum region of overlap of these deletions, located between the interferon genes and the methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene, is partially synthenic with a region of mouse chromosome 4 that has tumor suppressor activity. Somatic cell hybrids between tumorigenic, MTAP-deficient, mouse L cells, and MTAP-competent human cells containing either a normal copy of 9p or a 9p with a deletion involving band 9p21 were selected in culture conditions that require MTAP activity for continued growth. Somatic cell hybrids that contained a normal copy of 9p rarely formed tumors in nude mice. Cells from the rare tumors that grew had lost the normal 9p. Hybrid cells that contained a 9p with deletions formed tumors more frequently, and cells from these tumors retained the 9p deletion chromosome. These results provide evidence that a tumor suppressor gene (or genes) is located on human chromosome 9 within the region of deletion.

  20. EHMT2 directs DNA methylation for efficient gene silencing in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Ghislain; Borgel, Julie; Sanz, Lionel A; Vallet, Judith; Guibert, Sylvain; Dumas, Michael; Cavelier, Patricia; Girardot, Michael; Forné, Thierry; Feil, Robert; Weber, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The extent to which histone modifying enzymes contribute to DNA methylation in mammals remains unclear. Previous studies suggested a link between the lysine methyltransferase EHMT2 (also known as G9A and KMT1C) and DNA methylation in the mouse. Here, we used a model of knockout mice to explore the role of EHMT2 in DNA methylation during mouse embryogenesis. The Ehmt2 gene is expressed in epiblast cells but is dispensable for global DNA methylation in embryogenesis. In contrast, EHMT2 regulates DNA methylation at specific sequences that include CpG-rich promoters of germline-specific genes. These loci are bound by EHMT2 in embryonic cells, are marked by H3K9 dimethylation, and have strongly reduced DNA methylation in Ehmt2(-/-) embryos. EHMT2 also plays a role in the maintenance of germline-derived DNA methylation at one imprinted locus, the Slc38a4 gene. Finally, we show that DNA methylation is instrumental for EHMT2-mediated gene silencing in embryogenesis. Our findings identify EHMT2 as a critical factor that facilitates repressive DNA methylation at specific genomic loci during mammalian development. PMID:26576615

  1. Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A.; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A.; Notredame, Cedric; Guig, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

  2. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L; Yourick, Jeffrey J

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72h after exposure to 0.25mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. PMID:26006729

  3. Restricted development of mouse triploid fetuses with disorganized expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Takahashi, Masashi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic species commonly contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. The diploid state appears to be advantageous for mammals because it enables sexual reproduction and facilitates genetic recombination. Nonetheless, the effects of DNA ploidy on mammalian ontogeny have yet to be understood. The present study shows phenotypic features and expression patterns of imprinted genes in tripronucleate diandric and digynic triploid (DAT and DGT) mouse fetuses on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Measurement of crown-rump length revealed that the length of DGT fetuses (1.87 ± 0.13 mm; mean ± standard error of the mean) was much smaller than that of diploid fetuses (4.81 ± 0.05 mm). However, no significant difference was observed in the crown-rump length between diploid and DAT fetuses (3.86 ± 0.43 mm). In DGT fetuses, the expression level of paternally expressed genes, Igf2, Dlk1, Ndn, and Peg3, remained significantly reduced and that of maternally expressed genes, Igf2r and Grb10, increased. Additionally, in DAT fetuses, the Igf2 mRNA expression level was approximately twice that in diploid fetuses, as expected. These results provide the first demonstration that imprinted genes in mouse triploid fetuses show distinctive expression patterns independent of the number of parental-origin haploid sets. These data suggest that both DNA ploidy and asymmetrical functions of parental genomes separately influence mammalian ontogeny. PMID:25318586

  4. Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Graves, Donald J; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    Cinnamon extracts (CE) are reported to have beneficial effects on people with normal and impaired glucose tolerance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. However, clinical results are controversial. Molecular characterization of CE effects is limited. This study investigated the effects of CE on gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. Water-soluble CE was prepared from ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate CE effects on the expression of genes coding for adipokines, glucose transporter (GLUT) family, and insulin-signaling components in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CE (100 μg/ml) increased GLUT1 mRNA levels 1.91±0.15, 4.39±0.78, and 6.98±2.18-fold of the control after 2-, 4-, and 16-h treatments, respectively. CE decreased the expression of further genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins including GSK3B, IGF1R, IGF2R, and PIK3R1. This study indicates that CE regulates the expression of multiple genes in adipocytes and this regulation could contribute to the potential health benefits of CE. PMID:20554184

  5. NFAT5 regulates transcription of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiki, Tsukasa; Udono, Miyako; Kotake, Yojiro; Yamashita, Makiko; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2010-12-10

    We aimed to clarify the transcription-regulation mechanisms of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (mTERT). First, we searched for the promoter region required for transcriptional activation of mTERT and identified an enhancer cis-element (named mTERT-EE) located between - 200 and - 179 bp of the mouse TERT gene (mTERT). EMSA results suggested that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) member proteins bind to mTERT-EE. We then identified NFAT5 as the factor binding to mTERT-EE and found that it activates the transcription of the mTERT core promoter. The results that siRNA directed against NFAT5 significantly reduced mTERT expression and mTERT core promoter activity and that the expressions of NFAT5 and mTERT were well correlated in various mouse tissues except liver suggest that NFAT5 dominantly and directly regulates mTERT expression. To clarify their functionality further, we investigated the effect of hypertonic stress, a known stimulus affecting the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT5, on mTERT expression. The result indicated that hypertonic stress activates mTERT transcription via the activation and recruitment of NFAT5 to the mTERT promoter. These results provide useful information about the transcription-regulation mechanisms of mTERT.

  6. Mapping of ornithine aminotransferase gene sequences to mouse chromosomes 7, X, and 3.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Cheng, S V; Kozak, C A; Herron, B J; Shih, V E; Taylor, B A; Gusella, J F

    1992-01-01

    Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), a mitochondrial matrix enzyme, is deficient in patients with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. In human, the OAT structural gene maps to Chromosome (Chr) 10q26 and several OAT-related sequences, some of which are known to be processed pseudogenes, which map to Xp11.3-11.21. Here, we report chromosomal localization in the mouse of the OAT gene and related sequences. Genomic DNA blot analysis of a well-characterized panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids using a human OAT probe revealed two murine loci, one on mouse Chr 7 and the other on Chr X. In addition, segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) detected by the OAT probe in recombinant inbred (RI) strains detected a third locus on Chr 3 and positioned the X locus near Cf-8 and Rsvp. Progeny of an intersubspecific backcross were used to map the Chr 7 locus between Tyr and Int-2, near Cyp2e-1. PMID:1349842

  7. Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene yields a mouse model of malignant colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parisi, T; Bronson, R T; Lees, J A

    2015-11-26

    The retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is mutated at significant frequency in various human epithelial tumors, including colorectal cancer, and is strongly associated with metastatic disease. However, sole inactivation of Rb in the mouse has so far failed to yield epithelial cancers. Here, we specifically inactivate Rb and/or p53 in the urogenital epithelium and the intestine. We find that the loss of both tumor suppressors is unable to yield tumors in the transitional epithelium lining the bladder, kidneys and ureters. Instead, these mice develop highly metastatic tumors of neuroendocrine, not epithelial, origin within the urogenital tract to give prostate cancer in the males and vaginal tumors in the females. Additionally, we discovered that the sole inactivation of Rb in the intestine was sufficient to induce formation of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. These tumors closely mirror the human disease in regard to the age of onset, histological appearance, invasiveness and metastatic potential. Like most human colorectal carcinomas, our murine Rb-deficient tumors demonstrate genomic instability and they show activation of β-catenin. Deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is specific to the intestinal tumors, as genomic instability but not activation of β-catenin was observed in the neuroendocrine tumors. To date, attempts to generate genetically engineered mouse models of colorectal cancer tumors have yielded mostly cancer of the small intestine, which rarely occurs in humans. Our system provides the opportunity to accurately model and study colorectal cancer in the mouse via a single gene mutation. PMID:25745996

  8. Organization, evolution and functions of the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family genes.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Chelsea L; Bruford, Elspeth A; McAndrews, Monica S; Delp, Emili E; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2016-01-01

    Members of the lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) superfamily of proteins are cysteine-rich proteins characterized by a distinct disulfide bridge pattern that creates the three-finger Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain. Although the Ly6/uPAR family proteins share a common structure, their expression patterns and functions vary. To date, 35 human and 61 mouse Ly6/uPAR family members have been identified. Based on their subcellular localization, these proteins are further classified as GPI-anchored on the cell membrane, or secreted. The genes encoding Ly6/uPAR family proteins are conserved across different species and are clustered in syntenic regions on human chromosomes 8, 19, 6 and 11, and mouse Chromosomes 15, 7, 17, and 9, respectively. Here, we review the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family gene and protein structure and genomic organization, expression, functions, and evolution, and introduce new names for novel family members. PMID:27098205

  9. Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

  10. Mutations in ras genes in cells cultured from mouse skin tumors induced by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Nishigori, C; Wang, S; Miyakoshi, J; Sato, M; Tsukada, T; Yagi, T; Imamura, S; Takebe, H

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in ras oncogenes were detected in cultured cells of mouse skin tumors induced by near-UV irradiation. DNA extracted from the UV-induced tumor cells was transfected to golden hamster embryo cells, and focus-forming ability was confirmed in 22 of 26 cell strains, 15 of which had the repetitive mouse sequence. Mouse ras genes were detected in 10 of these 22 cell strains. Point mutations in the ras genes were at Ha-ras codon 13 (GGC-->GTC in two strains, GGC-->AGC in one strain), Ki-ras codon 61 (CAA-->GAA in two strains), and N-ras codon 61 (CAA-->CAT in two strains, CAA-->AAA in two strains). In one tumor cell strain no base change was directed. Most mutations occurred at dipyrimidine sites. Pyrimidine dimers or pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts are the likely cause of the skin cancers. The base change occurred preferentially at G.C base pairs, and transversions predominated. Images PMID:8041767

  11. The Mmachc gene is required for pre-implantation embryogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Pupavac, Mihaela; Rosenblatt, David S; Tremblay, Michel L; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2014-07-01

    Patients with mutations in MMACHC have the autosomal recessive disease of cobalamin metabolism known as cblC. These patients are unable to convert cobalamin into the two active forms, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin and consequently have elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in blood and urine. In addition, some cblC patients have structural abnormalities, including congenital heart defects. MMACHC is conserved in the mouse and shows tissue and stage-specific expression pattern in midgestation stage embryos. To create a mouse model of cblC we generated a line of mice with a gene-trap insertion in intron 1 of the Mmachc gene, (Mmachc(Gt(AZ0348)Wtsi)). Heterozygous mice show a 50% reduction of MMACHC protein, and have significantly higher levels of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in their blood. The Mmachc(Gt) allele was inherited with a transmission ratio distortion in matings with heterozygous animals. Furthermore, homozygous Mmachc(Gt) embryos were not found after embryonic day 3.5 and these embryos were unable to generate giant cells in outgrowth assays. Our findings confirm that cblC is modeled in mice with reduced levels of Mmachc and suggest an early requirement for Mmachc in mouse development. PMID:24889031

  12. A short upstream promoter region mediates transcriptional regulation of the mouse doublecortin gene in differentiating neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Doublecortin (Dcx), a MAP (Microtubule-Associated Protein), is transiently expressed in migrating and differentiating neurons and thereby characterizes neuronal precursors and neurogenesis in developing and adult neurogenesis. In addition, reduced Dcx expression during development has been related to appearance of brain pathologies. Here, we attempt to unveil the molecular mechanisms controlling Dcx gene expression by studying its transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation. Results To determine and analyze important regulatory sequences of the Dcx promoter, we studied a putative regulatory region upstream from the mouse Dcx coding region (pdcx2kb) and several deletions thereof. These different fragments were used in vitro and in vivo to drive reporter gene expression. We demonstrated, using transient expression experiments, that pdcx2kb is sufficient to control specific reporter gene expression in cerebellar cells and in the developing brain (E14.5). We determined the temporal profile of Dcx promoter activity during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and found that transcriptional activation of the Dcx gene varies along with neuronal differentiation of mESC. Deletion experiments and sequence comparison of Dcx promoters across rodents, human and chicken revealed the importance of a highly conserved sequence in the proximal region of the promoter required for specific and strong expression in neuronal precursors and young neuronal cells. Further analyses revealed the presence in this short sequence of several conserved, putative transcription factor binding sites: LEF/TCF (Lymphoid Enhancer Factor/T-Cell Factor) which are effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway; HNF6/OC2 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6/Oncecut-2) members of the ONECUT family and NF-Y/CAAT (Nuclear Factor-Y). Conclusions Studies of Dcx gene regulatory sequences using native, deleted and mutated constructs suggest that fragments located upstream of the Dcx coding sequence are sufficient to induce specific Dcx expression in vitro: in heterogeneous differentiated neurons from mESC, in primary mouse cerebellar neurons (PND3) and in organotypic slice cultures. Furthermore, a region in the 3'-end region of the Dcx promoter is highly conserved across several species and exerts positive control on Dcx transcriptional activation. Together, these results indicate that the proximal 3'-end region of the mouse Dcx regulatory sequence is essential for Dcx gene expression during differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:20509865

  13. Activation of an imprinted Igf 2 gene in mouse somatic cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Eversole-Cire, P; Ferguson-Smith, A C; Sasaki, H; Brown, K D; Cattanach, B M; Gonzales, F A; Surani, M A; Jones, P A

    1993-01-01

    The mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf 2), located on distal chromosome 7, is parentally imprinted such that the paternal allele is expressed while the maternal allele is transcriptionally silent. We derived a cell line from a mouse embryo maternally disomic and paternally deficient for distal chromosome 7 (MatDi7) to determine the stability of gene repression in culture. MatDi7 cells maintained Igf2 in a repressed state even after immortalization, except for one randomly picked clone which spontaneously expressed the gene. Igf 2 was expressed in a cell culture derived from a normal littermate; this expression was growth regulated, with Igf 2 mRNA levels increasing in the stationary phase of growth. Analysis of the methylation status of 28 sites distributed over 10 kb of the gene did not show consistent differences associated with expression level in the normal and MatDi7 cell lines, and the CpG island in the Igf 2 promoter remained unmethylated in all of the cell lines. Only with an oncogenically transformed cell line did the promoter become extensively methylated. We attempted to derepress the imprinted gene in MatDi7 cells by treatments known to alter gene expression. Expression of the Igf 2 allele in MatDi7 cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or bromodeoxyuridine, agents known to change DNA methylation patterns or chromatin conformation. Treatment of the cells with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, calcium ionophore, heat shock, cold shock, or sodium butyrate did not result in increases in the levels of Igf 2 expression. It seems likely that the mechanism of the Igf 2 imprint involves subtle changes in the methylation or chromatin conformation of the gene which are affected by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bromodeoxyuridine. Images PMID:8336727

  14. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Pasumarthi, Ravi K.; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M.; Engelhard, Eric K.; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ∼80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ∼20% showed no specific staining, ∼13% had staining in only one tissue, and ∼25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (∼50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  15. In vitro culture of embryonic mouse intestinal epithelium: cell differentiation and introduction of reporter genes

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jonathan M; Yu, Wei-Yuan; Hornsey, Mark A; Tosh, David; Slack, Jonathan MW

    2006-01-01

    Background Study of the normal development of the intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable model systems, in particular ones that enable the introduction of exogenous genes. Production of such a system would advance our understanding of normal epithelial development and help to shed light on the pathogenesis of intestinal neoplasia. The criteria for a reliable culture system include the ability to perform real time observations and manipulations in vitro, the preparation of wholemounts for immunostaining and the potential for introducing genes. Results The new culture system involves growing mouse embryo intestinal explants on fibronectin-coated coverslips in basal Eagle's medium+20% fetal bovine serum. Initially the cultures maintain expression of the intestinal transcription factor Cdx2 together with columnar epithelial (cytokeratin 8) and mesenchymal (smooth muscle actin) markers. Over a few days of culture, differentiation markers appear characteristic of absorptive epithelium (sucrase-isomaltase), goblet cells (Periodic Acid Schiff positive), enteroendocrine cells (chromogranin A) and Paneth cells (lysozyme). Three different approaches were tested to express genes in the developing cultures: transfection, electroporation and adenoviral infection. All could introduce genes into the mesenchyme, but only to a small extent into the epithelium. However the efficiency of adenovirus infection can be greatly improved by a limited enzyme digestion, which makes accessible the lateral faces of cells bearing the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. This enables reliable delivery of genes into epithelial cells. Conclusion We describe a new in vitro culture system for the small intestine of the mouse embryo that recapitulates its normal development. The system both provides a model for studying normal development of the intestinal epithelium and also allows for the manipulation of gene expression. The explants can be cultured for up to two weeks, they form the full repertoire of intestinal epithelial cell types (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells) and the method for gene introduction into the epithelium is efficient and reliable. PMID:16725020

  16. Global gene expression profiling of JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Jie; Imbalzano, Anthony N

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests Jumonji domain-containing proteins are epigenetic regulators in diverse biological processes including cellular differentiation and proliferation. RNA interference-based analyses combined with gene expression profiling can effectively characterize the cellular functions of these enzymes. We found that the depletion of Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and its paralog protein Jumonji domain-containing protein 4 (JMJD4) individually by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) slowed cell proliferation of mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We subsequently performed gene expression profiling on both JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array. Here we report the gene profiling datasets along with the experimental procedures. The information can be used to further investigate how JMJD6 and JMJD4 affect gene expression and cellular physiology. PMID:27071056

  17. Global gene expression profiling of JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Jie; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests Jumonji domain-containing proteins are epigenetic regulators in diverse biological processes including cellular differentiation and proliferation. RNA interference-based analyses combined with gene expression profiling can effectively characterize the cellular functions of these enzymes. We found that the depletion of Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and its paralog protein Jumonji domain-containing protein 4 (JMJD4) individually by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) slowed cell proliferation of mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We subsequently performed gene expression profiling on both JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array. Here we report the gene profiling datasets along with the experimental procedures. The information can be used to further investigate how JMJD6 and JMJD4 affect gene expression and cellular physiology. PMID:27071056

  18. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development. PMID:25986534

  19. Mapping of the gene for high-density lipoprotein binding protein (Hdlbp) to proximal mouse Chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, R.C.; Oram, J.F.; Xia, Y.R.; Lusis, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    HDL binding protein (HBP) is a 150-kDa glycoprotein that is processed to smaller forms (105-110 kDa) that bind HDL. In vitro studies have shown that HBP protein mass and mRNA levels increase in cells overloaded with cholesterol, suggesting that this protein plays a role in HDL-mediated removal of cholesterol from cells, a process that may underlie the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. The cDNA for human HBP has been identified and the gene (HDLBP) localized to chromosome 2q37. To test whether the HDL binding protein gene underlies any mutations in the mouse or whether it contributes to multigenic variations contributing to lipoprotein metabolism between inbred mouse strains, we report the chromosomal mapping in mouse for the mouse HBP gene (Hdlbp).

  20. The human and mouse receptors of hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Roller, M.L.; Camper, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAAM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific back-crosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  1. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): Evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kehua; Christiano, A.M.; Chu, Mon Li; Uitto, J. Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils, critical attachment structures at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. Genetic linkage analyses with recently cloned human type VII collagen cDNAs have indicated that the corresponding gene, COL7A1, is the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa. To gain insight into the evolutionary conservation of COL7A1, in this study the authors have isolated mouse type VII collagen cDNAs by screening a mouse epidermal keratinocyte cDNA library with a human COL7A1 cDNA. Two overlapping mouse cDNAs were isolated, and Northern hybridization of mouse epidermal keratinocyte RNA with one of them revealed the presence of a mRNA transcript of [approximately]9.5 kb, the approximate size of the human COL7A1 mRNA. Nucleotide sequencing of the mouse cDNAs revealed a 2760-bp open reading frame that encodes the 5[prime] half of the collagenous domain and a segment of the NC-1, the noncollagenous amino-terminal domain of type VII collagen. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the corresponding human sequences deduced from cDNAs revealed 82.5% identity. The evolutionary divergence of the gene was relatively rapid in comparison to other collagen genes. Despite the high degree of sequence variation, several sequences, including the size and the position of noncollagenous imperfections and interruptions within the Gly-X-Y repeat sequence, were precisely conserved. Finally, the mouse Col7a1 gene was located by interspecific backcross mapping to mouse Chromosome 9, a region that corresponds to human chromosome 3p21, the position of human COL7Al. This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Expression of human and mouse adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) isoform genes in adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Domingo, Pere; Viñas, Octavi; Mampel, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) are mitochondrial proteins encoded by nuclear DNA that catalyze the exchange of ATP generated in the mitochondria for ADP produced in cytosol. There are four ANT isoforms in humans (hANT1-4) and three in mice (mANT1, mANT2 and mANT4), all encoded by distinct genes. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of ANT isoform genes during the adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 and human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS)-derived preadipocytes. We also studied the effects of the adipogenesis regulators, insulin and rosiglitazone, on ANT isoform expression in differentiated adipocytes and examined the expression of ANT isoforms in subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice and humans. We found that adipogenesis was associated with an increase in the expression of ANT isoforms, specifically mANT2 in mouse 3T3-L1 cells and hANT3 in human SGBS cells. These changes could be involved in the increases in oxidative metabolism and decreases in lactate production observed during differentiation. Insulin and rosiglitazone induced mANT2 gene expression in mature 3T3-L1 cells and hANT2 and hANT3 gene expression in SGBS adipocytes. Furthermore, human WAT expressed greater amounts of hANT3 than hANT2, and the expression of both of these isoforms was greater in subcutaneous WAT than in visceral WAT. Finally, inhibition of ANT activity by atractyloside or bongkrekic acid impaired proper adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that changes in the expression of ANT isoforms may be involved in adipogenesis in both human and mouse WAT. PMID:25817039

  3. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF[sub 1] mice irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mRb gene.

  4. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  5. Construction and identification of an RNA interference lentiviral vector targeting the mouse TNF-α gene

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIBO; LIANG, HONGDA; ZHAO, YINGJIE; LIU, XIANGPING; YANG, KUN; SUI, AIHUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct RNA interference (RNAi) lentiviral vector particles targeting the mouse tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene. Three types of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the mouse TNF-α gene were designed, synthesized and transfected into RAW264.7 cells. Screening was performed to identify the siRNA sequence exhibiting the highest inhibition efficiency; based on this, recombinant lentiviral plasmids were constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with packaging plasmids for the production of lentiviral particles. The screening results showed that the TNF-α mRNA expression levels of the three siRNA groups were significantly lower than those of the negative control group, with the highest inhibition rate in the siRNA2 group (83.09%). Similarly, the expression levels of TNF-α protein in the three siRNA groups were significantly lower than those of the negative control group, and the highest inhibition rate was found in the siRNA2 group (51.16%). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 showed no significant difference among the siRNA groups and the negative control. The recombinant lentiviral shuttle plasmid was constructed, and electrophoresis revealed the polymerase chain reaction product to be 343 bp, while that of the empty vector was 306 bp; DNA sequencing showed partial insertion. The virus titer was calculated to be 2×106 TU/µl. In conclusion, RNAi lentiviral vector particles targeting the mouse TNF-α gene were successfully obtained in the present study. This method may be used to produce lentiviral vector for the in vivo study of RNAi gene therapy targeting TNF-α. PMID:26668629

  6. Mouse genetics in the 21st century: using gene targeting to create a cornucopia of mouse mutants possessing precise genetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Wilder, P J; Rizzino, A

    1993-01-01

    Over 1500 mouse mutants have been identified, but few of the genes responsible for the defects have been identified. Recent developments in the area of gene targeting are revolutionizing the field of mouse genetics and our understanding of numerous genes, including those thought to be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Gene targeting was developed as a method for producing a predetermined mutation in a specific endogenous gene. Advances in the design of targeting vectors and in the use of embryonic stem cells have permitted the production of numerous mutant mice with null mutations in specific genes. These mutant mice will be critical for investigating the in vivo functions of many genes that have been cloned in recent years. This review discusses a wide range of new developments in the field of gene targeting with a focus on issues to be considered by those planning to use this new technology. It also examines some of the lessons learned from recent gene targeting studies and discusses different applications of the technology that are likely to generate scores of new animal models for a wide range of human diseases. PMID:7763692

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    West, David B; Engelhard, Eric K; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A J; Kirov, Julia V; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J; Lloyd, Kent C

    2016-02-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3' UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  9. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Mouse Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaoping; Gao, Jinhang; Lv, Xiuhe; Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Shilei; Tong, Huan; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of differences in gene expression is dependent on normalization using reference genes. However, the expression of many of these reference genes, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, is upregulated in acute pancreatitis, so they cannot be used as the standard for gene expression in this condition. For this reason, we sought to identify a stable reference gene, or a suitable combination, for expression analysis in acute pancreatitis. The expression stability of 10 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18sRNA, TUBB, B2M, HPRT1, UBC, YWHAZ, EF-1α, and RPL-13A) was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software and evaluated according to variations in the raw Ct values. These reference genes were evaluated using a comprehensive method, which ranked the expression stability of these genes as follows (from most stable to least stable): RPL-13A, YWHAZ > HPRT1 > GAPDH > UBC > EF-1α > 18sRNA > B2M > TUBB > ACTB. RPL-13A was the most suitable reference gene, and the combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ was the most stable group of reference genes in our experiments. The expression levels of ACTB, TUBB, and B2M were found to be significantly upregulated during acute pancreatitis, whereas the expression level of 18sRNA was downregulated. Thus, we recommend the use of RPL-13A or a combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR analyses of gene expression in mouse models of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27069927

  10. Specific Tandem 3'UTR Patterns and Gene Expression Profiles in Mouse Thy1+ Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuoheng; Feng, Xuyang; Jiang, Xue; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed strategy of sequencing alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites (SAPAS) with second-generation sequencing technology can be used to explore complete genome-wide patterns of tandem APA sites and global gene expression profiles. spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) maintain long-term reproductive abilities in male mammals. The detailed mechanisms by which SSCs self-renew and generate mature spermatozoa are not clear. To understand the specific alternative polyadenylation pattern and global gene expression profile of male germline stem cells (GSCs, mainly referred to SSCs here), we isolated and purified mouse Thy1+ cells from testis by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and then used the SAPAS method for analysis, using pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) as controls. As a result, we obtained 99,944 poly(A) sites, approximately 40% of which were newly detected in our experiments. These poly(A) sites originated from three mouse cell types and covered 17,499 genes, including 831 long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes. We observed that GSCs tend to have shorter 3'UTR lengths while MEFs tend towards longer 3'UTR lengths. We also identified 1337 genes that were highly expressed in GSCs, and these genes were highly consistent with the functional characteristics of GSCs. Our detailed bioinformatics analysis identified APA site-switching events at 3'UTRs and many new specifically expressed genes in GSCs, which we experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was performed to validate several events of the 334 genes with distal-to-proximal poly(A) switch in GSCs. Consistently APA reporter assay confirmed the total 3'UTR shortening in GSCs compared to MEFs. We also analyzed the cis elements around the proximal poly(A) site preferentially used in GSCs and found C-rich elements may contribute to this regulation. Overall, our results identified the expression level and polyadenylation site profiles and these data provide new insights into the processes potentially involved in the GSC life cycle and spermatogenesis. PMID:26713853

  11. Correction of mouse ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene transfer into the germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Cavard, C; Grimber, G; Dubois, N; Chasse, J F; Bennoun, M; Minet-Thuriaux, M; Kamoun, P; Briand, P

    1988-01-01

    The sparse fur with abnormal skin and hair (Spf-ash) mouse is a model for the human X-linked hereditary disorder, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. In Spf-ash mice, both OTC mRNA and enzyme activity are 5% of control values resulting in hyperammonemia, pronounced orotic aciduria and an abnormal phenotype characterized by growth retardation and sparse fur. Using microinjection, we introduced a construction containing rat OTC cDNA linked to the SV40 early promoter into fertilized eggs of Spf-ash mice. The expression of the transgene resulted in the development of a transgenic mouse whose phenotype and orotic acid excretion are fully normalized. Thus, the possibility of correcting hereditary enzymatic defect by gene transfer of heterologous cDNA coding for the normal enzyme has been demonstrated. Images PMID:3162766

  12. Mapping TNNC1, the gene that encodes cardiac troponin I in the human and the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, N.; Hernandez, D.; Fisher, E.M.C.

    1995-12-10

    We have mapped the TNNC1 gene, whose protein product is the cardiac TnI protein. TnI is one of the proteins that makes up the troponin complex, which mediates the response of muscle to calcium ions. The human TNNC1 locus had been assigned to a large region of chromosome 19, and we have refined the mapping position to the distal end of the chromosome by amplification of DNAs from a chromosome 19 mapping panel. We have also mapped the mouse Tnnc1 locus, by following the segregation of an intron sequence through DNAs from the European Interspecific Backcross. Tnnc1 maps close to the centromere on mouse chromosome 7. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Abnormal social behaviors and altered gene expression rates in a mouse model for Potocki-Lupski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molina, Jessica; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Chrast, Jacqueline; Krall, Paola M; Canales, César P; Lupski, James R; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2008-08-15

    The Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is associated with a microduplication of 17p11.2. Clinical features include multiple congenital and neurobehavioral abnormalities and autistic features. We have generated a PTLS mouse model, Dp(11)17/+, that recapitulates some of the physical and neurobehavioral phenotypes present in patients. Here, we investigated the social behavior and gene expression pattern of this mouse model in a pure C57BL/6-Tyr(c-Brd) genetic background. Dp(11)17/+ male mice displayed normal home-cage behavior but increased anxiety and increased dominant behavior in specific tests. A subtle impairment in the preference for a social target versus an inanimate target and abnormal preference for social novelty (the preference to explore an unfamiliar mouse versus a familiar one) was also observed. Our results indicate that these animals could provide a valuable model to identify the specific gene(s) that confer abnormal social behaviors and that map within this delimited genomic deletion interval. In a first attempt to identify candidate genes and for elucidating the mechanisms of regulation of these important phenotypes, we directly assessed the relative transcription of genes within and around this genomic interval. In this mouse model, we found that candidates genes include not only most of the duplicated genes, but also normal-copy genes that flank the engineered interval; both categories of genes showed altered expression levels in the hippocampus of Dp(11)17/+ mice. PMID:18469339

  14. High-resolution prediction of mouse brain connectivity using gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Ji, Shuiwang

    2015-02-01

    The brain is a multi-level system in which the high-level functions are generated by low-level genetic mechanisms. Thus, elucidating the relationship among multiple brain levels via correlative and predictive analytics is an important area in brain research. Currently, studies in multiple species have indicated that the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns are predictive of brain wiring. Specifically, results on the worm Caenorhabditis elegans have shown that the prediction of neuronal connectivity using gene expression signatures yielded statistically significant results. Recent studies on the mammalian brain produced similar results at the coarse regional level. In this study, we provide the first high-resolution, large-scale integrative analysis of the transcriptome and connectome in a single mammalian brain at a fine voxel level. By using the Allen Brain Atlas data, we predict voxel-level brain connectivity based on the gene expressions in the adult mouse brain. We employ regularized models to show that gene expression is predictive of connectivity at the voxel-level with an accuracy of 93%. We also identify a set of genes playing the most important role in connectivity prediction. We use only this small number of genes to predict the brain wiring with an accuracy over 80%. We discover that these important genes are enriched in neurons as compared to glia, and they perform connectivity-related functions. We perform several interesting correlative studies to further elucidate the transcriptome-connectome relationship. PMID:25109429

  15. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac. PMID:27075878

  16. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac. PMID:27075878

  17. Differential gene expression in mouse liver associated with the hepatoprotective effect of clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Koza-Taylor, Petra H.; Holland, Ricky D.; Thibodeau, Michael S.; Beger, Richard D.; Lawton, Michael P.; Manautou, Jose E. . E-mail: jose.manautou@uconn.edu

    2007-07-15

    Pretreatment of mice with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that activation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is required for this effect. The present study utilizes gene expression profile analysis to identify potential pathways contributing to PPAR{alpha}-mediated hepatoprotection. Gene expression profiles were compared between wild type and PPAR{alpha}-null mice pretreated with vehicle or CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 10 days) and then challenged with APAP (400 mg/kg, p.o.). Total hepatic RNA was isolated 4 h after APAP treatment and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MGU74 v2.0 GeneChips. Gene expression analysis was performed utilizing GeneSpring (registered) software. Our analysis identified 53 genes of interest including vanin-1, cell cycle regulators, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, an acetaminophen binding protein. Vanin-1 could be important for CFB-mediated hepatoprotection because this protein is involved in the synthesis of cysteamine and cystamine. These are potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating APAP toxicity in rodents and humans. HPLC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of liver extracts indicates that enhanced vanin-1 gene expression results in elevated cystamine levels, which could be mechanistically associated with CFB-mediated hepatoprotection.

  18. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  19. Identification of genes escaping X inactivation by allelic expression analysis in a novel hybrid mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Berletch, Joel B.; Ma, Wenxiu; Yang, Fan; Shendure, Jay; Noble, William S.; Disteche, Christine M.; Deng, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a female-specific mechanism that serves to balance gene dosage between the sexes whereby one X chromosome in females is inactivated during early development. Despite this silencing, a small portion of genes escape inactivation and remain expressed from the inactive X (Xi). Little is known about the distribution of escape from XCI in different tissues in vivo and about the mechanisms that control tissue-specific differences. Using a new binomial model in conjunction with a mouse model with identifiable alleles and skewed X inactivation we are able to survey genes that escape XCI in vivo. We show that escape from X inactivation can be a common feature of some genes, whereas others escape in a tissue specific manner. Furthermore, we characterize the chromatin environment of escape genes and show that expression from the Xi correlates with factors associated with open chromatin and that CTCF co-localizes with escape genes. Here, we provide a detailed description of the experimental design and data analysis pipeline we used to assay allele-specific expression and epigenetic characteristics of genes escaping X inactivation. The data is publicly available through the GEO database under ascension numbers GSM1014171, GSE44255, and GSE59779. Interpretation and discussion of these data are included in a previously published study (Berletch et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26693509

  20. Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment on Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Wfs1 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sütt, Silva; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype. PMID:24799886

  1. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype. PMID:24799886

  2. Expression of non-coding RNA AB063319 derived from Rian gene during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tiantian; He, Hongjuan; Xing, Yanjiang; Liu, Qi; Gu, Ning; Kenkichi, Sugimoto; Jiang, Huijie; Wu, Qiong

    2011-04-01

    The regulatory functions of many non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) were widely recognized. However, there are very few publications on long intronic ncRNAs. The transcriptional hierarchy driving a large amount of long and short ncRNAs originated from the maternal chromosome is not clarified in the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted clusters of mouse distal chromosome 12. Here, we only focused on the previously identified long ncRNA AB063319 which derives from the large imprinted gene Rian and contains three retained introns of Rian, and tried to unsderstand this ncRNAs part of biological functions. We used in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) to characterize the spatiotemporal expression pattern of AB063319 during mouse development. The in situ hybridization results showed that AB063319 was prominently expressed in the brain at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E11.5, and abundantly expressed in brain, muscle, liver, lung and neuroendocrine tissues at E15.5. Furthermore, quantitative analyses results showed that AB063319 was gradually up-regulated from E9.5 to E18.5 and down-regulated at E19.5 during the mouse embryonic development, and AB063319 was highly expressed in tongue and brain at E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Alternatively, AB063319 expression was also predominantly detected in tongue and brain at mouse postnatal day 6 (P6) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. These results indicated that AB063319, as a stable transcriptional ncRNA, might play the important roles in the morphogenesis of diverse organs and tissues, especially associated with brain and muscle development at mouse embryonic and postnatal stages. PMID:21305344

  3. Stereotaxic Injection of a Viral Vector for Conditional Gene Manipulation in the Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Inquimbert, Perrine; Moll, Martin; Kohno, Tatsuro; Scholz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection. PMID:23542888

  4. Identification of peroxisome-proliferator responsive element in the mouse HSL gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, Hiroaki . E-mail: hyajima@kirin.co.jp; Kobayashi, Yumie; Kanaya, Tomoka; Horino, Yoko

    2007-01-12

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Several studies suggest that protein phosphorylation regulates the HSL enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the precise mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of the HSL gene remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified a functional peroxisome-proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in the mouse HSL promoter by reporter assay in CV-1 cells using serial deletion and point mutants of the 5'-flanking region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that both peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}) and retinoid X receptor (RXR{alpha}) interacted with the region. Binding of the PPAR{gamma}/RXR{alpha} heterodimer to the PPRE sequence was also confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These results indicate that the HSL gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPAR{gamma}/RXR{alpha} heterodimer, and suggest that a cis-acting element regulates the HSL gene expression.

  5. Maternal gene transcription in mouse oocytes: genes implicated in oocyte maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiang-Shun; Li, Xing-Yu; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kong, Il Keun; Kang, Jason-Jongho; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2007-04-01

    Maternal gene expression is an important biological process in oocyte maturation and early cleavage. To gain insights into oocyte maturation and early embryo development, we used microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles of germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes. The differences in spot intensities were normalized and grouped using the Avadis Prophetic software platform. Of the 12164 genes examined, we found 1682 genes with more highly expression in GV-stage oocytes than in MII-stage oocytes, while 1936 genes were more highly expressed in MII-stage oocytes (P<0.05). The genes were grouped on the basis of the Panther classification system according to their involvement in particular biological processes. The genes that were up-regulated in GV oocytes were more likely to be involved in protein metabolism and modification, the mitotic cell cycle, electron transport, or fertilization or belong to the microtubule/cytoskeletal protein family. The genes specifically upregulated in the MII oocytes were more likely to be involved in DNA replication, amino acid metabolism, or expression of G protein-coupled receptors and signaling molecules. Identification of genes that are preferentially expressed at particular oocyte maturation stages provides insights into the complex gene regulatory networks that drive oocyte maturation and fertilization. PMID:17179655

  6. Gene organization and transcription of duplicated MBP genes of myelin deficient (shi(mld)) mutant mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Okano, H; Tamura, T; Miura, M; Aoyama, A; Ikenaka, K; Oshimura, M; Mikoshiba, K

    1988-01-01

    A hereditary dysmyelinating mutation, named myelin deficient (shi(mld)), is characterized by reduced expression of myelin basic protein (MBP). In shi(mld), the MBP gene is duplicated and its reduced expression is mainly determined by the level of mRNA. We have characterized the structure and function of the promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld). Among the lambda clones containing promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld), one (gene 1) had the same restriction enzyme pattern as that in control mice, but another (gene 2) had a rearrangement on a distal part of the promoter. A 712-bp nucleotide sequence upstream of the first exons of both of the duplicated MBP genes of shi(mld) was completely consistent with that of the control. Promoter activities of 1.3-kb 5'-flanking regions from respective genes of shi(mld) measured by in vitro run-off assay using HeLa whole-cell extracts were indistinguishable from that of the control MPB gene. Chromosomal mapping by in situ hybridization suggested that the duplicated MBP genes were located closely to each other at the distal part of chromosome 18. A recombinational event including the inversion seemed to have occurred within gene 1 and its possible relationship to the reduced expression of MBP is discussed. Images PMID:2452084

  7. Identification of Novel SHOX Target Genes in the Developing Limb Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Beiser, Katja U.; Glaser, Anne; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Scholl, Isabell; Röth, Ralph; Li, Li; Gretz, Norbert; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Karperien, Marcel; Marchini, Antonio; Richter, Wiltrud; Rappold, Gudrun A.

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of the human short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) has been identified in several disorders characterized by reduced height and skeletal anomalies such as Turner syndrome, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia as well as isolated short stature. SHOX acts as a transcription factor during limb development and is expressed in chondrocytes of the growth plates. Although highly conserved in vertebrates, rodents lack a SHOX orthologue. This offers the unique opportunity to analyze the effects of human SHOX expression in transgenic mice. We have generated a mouse expressing the human SHOXa cDNA under the control of a murine Col2a1 promoter and enhancer (Tg(Col2a1-SHOX)). SHOX and marker gene expression as well as skeletal phenotypes were characterized in two transgenic lines. No significant skeletal anomalies were found in transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Quantitative and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that Tg(Col2a1-SHOX), however, affected extracellular matrix gene expression during early limb development, suggesting a role for SHOX in growth plate assembly and extracellular matrix composition during long bone development. For instance, we could show that the connective tissue growth factor gene Ctgf, a gene involved in chondrogenic and angiogenic differentiation, is transcriptionally regulated by SHOX in transgenic mice. This finding was confirmed in human NHDF and U2OS cells and chicken micromass culture, demonstrating the value of the SHOX-transgenic mouse for the characterization of SHOX-dependent genes and pathways in early limb development. PMID:24887312

  8. Molecular characterization of J558 genes encoding tight-skin mouse autoantibodies: identical heavy-chain variable genes code for antibodies with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Kasturi, K N; Yio, X Y; Bona, C A

    1994-01-01

    Tight-skin mouse, a mutant strain with a single gene defect, develops cutaneous hyperplasia and specific autoantibodies, like humans affected by scleroderma. The autoantibodies produced in the tight-skin mouse are encoded primarily by heavy-chain variable (VH) genes from the J558 family. To understand the genetic basis of production of autoantibodies, we have analyzed the structure of J558 genes encoding these autoantibodies. The results showed that J558 genes encoding these antibodies were not derived from a selected germ-line gene(s) or a single subfamily but were derived from genes belonging to diverse J558 subfamilies. However, two prototype VH genes representing two new subfamilies were found to be repeatedly expressed in their germ-line form in eight independent clones. Autoantibodies with distinct specificities appear to be generated by pairing of similar/identical VH genes with different V kappa genes derived from the same or different families. Fourteen of 18 autoantibodies shared a conserved heptapeptide sequence motif, YNEKFKG, in the second complementarity-determining region of heavy chains. Usage of germ-line genes from diverse J558 subfamilies bearing a common motif to encode autoantibodies suggests a regulatory role for this motif. Thus, selection and expansion of the autoreactive B-cell repertoire in the tight-skin mouse appear to be VH-gene mediated. The frequency of N nucleotide addition at diversity-joining (D-JH) junctions was lower, whereas the frequency of usage of the DFL16 segment was higher. Finally, in contrast to normal and other autoimmune mouse strains, the frequencies of D-D fusions and D inversions were higher in tight-skin mouse total immunoglobulin as well as autoantibody repertoires. Images PMID:8058758

  9. Tmem79/Matt is the matted mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Sean P.; Goh, Christabelle S.M.; Brown, Sara J.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Porter, Rebecca M.; Cole, Christian; Campbell, Linda E.; Gierlinski, Marek; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Schneider, Georg; Balmain, Allan; Prescott, Alan R.; Weidinger, Stephan; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kabesch, Michael; Gieger, Christian; Lee, Young-Ae; Tavendale, Roger; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Turner, Stephen W.; Madhok, Vishnu B.; Sullivan, Frank M.; Relton, Caroline; Burn, John; Meggitt, Simon; Smith, Catherine H.; Allen, Michael A.; Barker, Jonathan N.W. N.; Reynolds, Nick J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Irvine, Alan D.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Sandilands, Aileen; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a major inflammatory condition of the skin caused by inherited skin barrier deficiency, with mutations in the filaggrin gene predisposing to development of AD. Support for barrier deficiency initiating AD came from flaky tail mice, which have a frameshift mutation in Flg and also carry an unknown gene, matted, causing a matted hair phenotype. Objective We sought to identify the matted mutant gene in mice and further define whether mutations in the human gene were associated with AD. Methods A mouse genetics approach was used to separate the matted and Flg mutations to produce congenic single-mutant strains for genetic and immunologic analysis. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the matted gene. Five independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human gene and AD. Results The matted phenotype in flaky tail mice is due to a mutation in the Tmem79/Matt gene, with no expression of the encoded protein mattrin in the skin of mutant mice. Mattft mice spontaneously have dermatitis and atopy caused by a defective skin barrier, with mutant mice having systemic sensitization after cutaneous challenge with house dust mite allergens. Meta-analysis of 4,245 AD cases and 10,558 population-matched control subjects showed that a missense SNP, rs6694514, in the human MATT gene has a small but significant association with AD. Conclusion In mice mutations in Matt cause a defective skin barrier and spontaneous dermatitis and atopy. A common SNP in MATT has an association with AD in human subjects. PMID:24084074

  10. Transfer of nonselectable genes into mouse teratocarcinoma cells and transcription of the transferred human. beta. -globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.F.; Mintz, B.

    1982-02-01

    Teratocarcinoma (TCC) stem cells can function as vehicles for the introduction of specific recombinant genes into mice. Because most genes do not code for a selectable marker, the authors investigated the transformation efficiency of vectors with a linked selectable gene. In one series, TCC cells first selected for thymidine kinase deficiency were treated with DNA from the plasmid vector PtkH..beta..1 containing the human genomic ..beta..-globin gene and the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus. A high transformation frequency was obtained after selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Hybridization tests revealed that the majority of transformants had intact copies of the human gene among three to six total copies per cell. These were associated with cellular DNA sequences as judged from the presence of additional new restriction fragments and from stability of the sequences in tumors produced by injecting the cells subcutaneously. Total polyadenylate-containing RNA from cell cultures of two out of four transformants examined showed hybridization to the human gene probe: one RNA species resembled mature human ..beta..-globin mRNA transcripts; the others were of larger size. In differentiating tumors, various tissues, including hematopoietic cells of TCC provenance could be found. In a second model set of experiments, wild-type TCC cells were used to test a dominant-selection scheme with pSV-gpt vectors. Numerous transformants were isolated, and their transfected DNA was apparently stably integrated. Thus, any gene of choice can be transferred into TCC stem cells even without mutagenesis of the cells, and selected cell clones can be characterized. Cells of interest may then be introduced into early embryos to produce new mouse strains with predetermined genetic changes.

  11. Alcohol-Induced Myocardial Fibrosis in Metallothionein-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lipeng; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Saari, Jack T.; Kang, Y. James

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy including fibrosis has been recognized clinically for a long time, but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Studies using experimental animals have not fully duplicated the pathological changes in humans, and animal models of alcoholic cardiac fibrosis are not available. In the present study, we have developed a mouse model in which cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were produced in metallothionein-knockout (MT-KO) mice fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 2 months. The same alcohol feeding did not produce cardiac fibrosis in the wild-type (WT) control mice, although there was no difference in the alcohol-induced heart hypertrophy between the WT controls and the MT-KO mice. Zinc supplementation prevented cardiac fibrosis but did not affect heart hypertrophy in the alcohol-fed MT-KO mice, suggesting a specific link between zinc homeostasis and cardiac fibrosis. Serum creatine phosphokinase activity was significantly higher in the alcohol-administered MT-KO mice than in the WT mice, and zinc supplementation decreased serum creatine phosphokinase activities and eliminated the difference between the groups. Thus, disturbance in zinc homeostasis due to the lack of MT associates with alcohol-induced cardiac fibrosis and more severe cardiac injury, making the MT-KO mouse model of alcohol-induced cardiac fibrosis a useful tool to investigate specific factors involved in the alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:16049321

  12. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M.

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Safety profile of dextran-spermine gene delivery vector in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Wendy Wai Yeng; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Rahman, Sabariah A; Rosli, Rozita; Domb, Abraham J; Abdullah, Syahril

    2014-05-01

    A nano-sized polymer, dextran-spermine (D-SPM), was shown to have the capacity to deliver gene to the lung of mouse via intranasal route. In this study, assessments on the safety profile of D-SPM were performed to complement the gene expression results. African green monkey kidney fibroblast (COS-7) and human adenocarcinoma breast (MCF-7) cells transfected with D-SPM/pDNA showed massive reduction in the number of viable cells. As for in vivo study, elevated level of neutrophils was observed, despite the minimal level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12, IFN-gamma) detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice treated with the D-SPM/pDNA complexes. Histology profile examinations of the lungs showed mild inflammatory responses, with inflamed areas overlap with healthy areas. Although reduction of mice weight was seen at day 1 post administration, the mice did not show any sign of abnormal behavior or physical appearance. Biodistribution study was performed to determine the ability of the D-SPM/pDNA complexes to infiltrate to other non-intended organs. The result showed that the D-SPM/pDNA complexes were only localized at the lung and no gene expression was detected in other organs or blood. In short, these results indicate that the D-SPM/pDNA exhibited mild toxicity in the mouse lungs. PMID:24734548

  14. Premutation CGG-repeat expansion of the Fmr1 gene impairs mouse neocortical development

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Christopher L.; Martínez Cerdeño, Verónica; Navarro Porras, Eliecer; Prakash, Anish N.; Angelastro, James M.; Willemsen, Rob; Hagerman, Paul J.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.; Noctor, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG-trinucleotide repeat expansion (55–200 CGG repeats) within the 5′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Although FXTAS generally affects premutation carriers over 50 years of age, cognitive and psychological symptoms can appear in carriers during childhood, suggesting that the FMR1 premutation affects brain function early in life. Recent work with cultured hippocampal neurons from a premutation (Fmr1 CGG knock-in) mouse model revealed impaired development of early postnatal neurons, consistent with the developmental clinical involvement of premutation carriers. In the current work, we show that the presence of premutation CGG-repeat expansions in the mouse Fmr1 gene alters embryonic neocortical development. Specifically, embryonic premutation mice display migration defects in the neocortex and altered expression of neuronal lineage markers. The current data demonstrate that premutation alleles of the Fmr1 gene are associated with defects in developmental programs operating during prenatal stages of brain formation and provide further evidence that the FMR1 premutation has a neurodevelopmental component. PMID:20935171

  15. Efficient amplification and direct sequencing of mouse variable regions from any immunoglobulin gene family.

    PubMed

    Chardès, T; Villard, S; Ferrières, G; Piechaczyk, M; Cerutti, M; Devauchelle, G; Pau, B

    1999-06-11

    We have designed two original sets of oligonucleotide primers hybridizing the relatively conserved motifs within the immunoglobulin signal sequences of each of the 15 heavy chain and 18 kappa light chain gene families. Comparison of these 5' primers with the immunoglobulin signal sequences referenced in the Kabat database suggests that these oligonucleotide primers should hybridize with 89.4% of the 428 mouse heavy chain signal sequences and with 91.8% of the 320 kappa light chain signal sequences with no mismatch. Following PCR amplification using the designed primers and direct sequencing of the amplified products, we obtained full-length variable sequences belonging to major (V(H)1, V(H)2, V(H)3, Vkappa1 and Vkappa21) but also small-sized (V(H)9, V(H)14, Vkappa2, Vkappa9A/9B, Vkappa12/13, Vkappa23 and Vkappa33/34) gene families, from nine murine monoclonal antibodies. This strategy could be a powerful tool for antibody sequence assessment whatever the V gene family before humanization of mouse monoclonal antibody or identification of paratope-derived peptides. PMID:10386627

  16. Remarkable intron and exon sequence conservation in human and mouse homeobox Hox 1. 3 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier-Lasserve, E.; Odenwald, W.F.; Garbern, J.; Trojanowski, J.; Lazzarini, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    A high degree of conservation exists between the Hox 1.3 homeobox genes of mice and humans. The two genes occupy the same relative positions in their respective Hox 1 gene clusters, they show extensive sequence similarities in their coding and noncoding portions, and both are transcribed into multiple transcripts of similar sizes. The predicted human Hox 1.3 protein differs from its murine counterpart in only 7 of 270 amino acids. The sequence similarity in the 250 base pairs upstream of the initiation codon is 98%, the similarity between the two introns, both 960 base pairs long, is 72%, and the similarity in the 3' noncoding region from termination codon to polyadenylation signal is 90%. Both mouse and human Hox 1.3 introns contain a sequence with homology to a mating-type-controlled cis element of the yeast Ty1 transposon. DNA-binding studies with a recombinant mouse Hox 1.3 protein identified two binding sites in the intron, both of which were within the region of shared homology with this Ty1 cis element.

  17. Expression of the Lingo/LERN gene family during mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haines, Bryan P; Rigby, Peter W J

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the expression during mouse development of the four member Lingo/LERN gene family which encodes type 1 transmembrane proteins containing 12 extracellular leucine rich repeats, an immunoglobulin C2 domain and a short intracellular tail. Each family member has a distinct pattern of expression in the mouse embryo as is the case for the related NLRR, FLRT and LRRTM gene families. Lingo1/LERN1 is expressed in the developing trigeminal, facio-acoustic and dorsal root ganglia. An interesting expression pattern is also observed in the somites with expression localising to the inner surface of the dermomyotome in the ventro-caudal lip. Further expression is seen in lateral cells of the hindbrain and midbrain, lateral cells in the motor horn of the neural tube, the otic vesicle epithelium and epithelium associated with the developing gut. Lingo3/LERN2 is expressed in a broad but specific pattern in many tissues across the embryo. Lingo2/LERN3 is seen in a population of cells lying adjacent to the epithelial lining of the olfactory pit while Lingo4/LERN4 is expressed in the neural tube in a subset of progenitors adjacent to the motor neurons. Expression of all Lingo/LERN genes increases as the embryo develops but is low in the adult with only Lingo1/LERN1 and Lingo2/LERN3 being detectable in adult brain. PMID:18297755

  18. What can transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models teach us about salivary gland physiology?

    PubMed

    Melvin, J E; Nguyen, H V; Evans, R L; Shull, G E

    2000-12-01

    Thousands of genetically modified mice have been developed since the first reports of stable expression of recombinant DNA in this species nearly 20 years ago. This mammalian model system has revolutionized the study of whole-animal, organ, and cell physiology. Transgenic and gene-targeted mice have been widely used to characterize salivary-gland-specific expression and to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis. Moreover, several of these mouse lines have proved to be useful models of salivary gland disease related to impaired immunology, i.e., Sjögren's syndrome, and disease states associated with pathogens. Despite the availability of genetically modified mice, few investigators have taken advantage of this resource to better their understanding of salivary gland function as it relates to the production of saliva. In this article, we describe the methods used to generate transgenic and gene-targeted mice and provide an overview of the advantages of and potential difficulties with these models. Finally, using these mouse models, we discuss the advances made in our understanding of the salivary gland secretion process. PMID:11842924

  19. Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the mouse embryonic TEA domain-containing factor (ETF) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazuo; Yasunami, Michio; Matsuda, Yoichi

    1996-09-01

    Embryonic TEA domain-containing factor (ETF) belongs to the family of proteins structurally related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and is implicated in neural development. Isolation and characterization of the cosmid clones encoding the mouse ETF gene (Etdf) revealed that Etdf spans approximately 17.9 kb and consists of 12 exons. The exon-intron structure of Etdf closely resembles that of the Drosophila scalloped gene, indicating that these genes may have evolved from a common ancestor. Then multiple transcription initiation sites revealed by S1 protection and primer extension analyses are consistent with the absence of the canonical TATA and CAAT boxes in the 5{prime}-flanking region, which contains many potential regulatory sequences, such as the E-box, N-box, Sp1 element, GATA-1 element, TAATGARAT element, and B2 short interspersed element (SINE) as well as several direct and inverted repeat sequences. The Etdf locus was assigned to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and linkage mapping analyses. These results provide the molecular basis for studying the regulation, in vivo function, and evolution of Etdf. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Mapping the mouse dactylaplasia mutation, Dac, and a gene that controls its expression, mdac

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.R.; Lane, P.W.; Ward-Bailey, P.; Davisson, M.T.

    1995-09-20

    Dactylaplasia is an inherited mouse limb malformation whose manifestation is clearly dependent on the interaction of two genes and thus represents an excellent model system for studying such gene interactions in vivo. The Dac mutation is inherited as a semidominant trait and may be a model for some forms of human ectrodactyly. Heterozygotes show absence of digits on each foot; the long bones are normal. On the SM/Ckc background on which the mutation occurred, Dac homozygotes die around birth. We mapped Dac to the distal end of Chr 19 by backcross segregation analysis. A closely linked marker was then used to distinguish -/+, Dac/+, and Dac/Dac genotypes of embryos and adults. When intercrossed with the NZB/BINJ strain, DAC homozygotes were shown to be viable and fertile, but had a more severe limb malformation (only a single remaining digit) than heterozygotes. Expression of the abnormal limb phenotypes of Dac/+ and Dac/Dac mice also depends on homozygosity for a recessive allele of another unlinked gene, mdac, that is polymorphic among inbred mouse strains. We mapped mdac to the middle Chr 13 by segregation analysis of both recombinant inbred strains and backcross progeny. 52 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Expression of ets genes in mouse thymocyte subsets and T cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, N K; Komschlies, K L; Fujiwara, S; Fisher, R J; Mathieson, B J; Gregorio, T A; Young, H A; Kasik, J W; Ozato, K; Papas, T S

    1989-01-15

    The cellular ets genes (ets-1, ets-2, and erg) have been identified by their sequence similarity with the v-ets oncogene of the avian erythroblastosis virus, E26. Products of the ets-2 gene have been detected in a wide range of normal mouse tissues and their expression appears to be associated with cell proliferation in regenerating liver. In contrast, the ets-1 gene was previously shown to be more highly expressed in the mouse thymus than in other tissues. Because the thymic tissue contains various subsets of cells in different stages of proliferation and maturation, we have examined ets gene expression in fetal thymocytes from different stages of development, in isolated subsets of adult thymocytes, and in peripheral T lymphocytes. Expression of the ets-1 gene was first detected at day 18 in fetal thymocytes, corresponding to the first appearance of CD4+ (CD4+, CD8-) thymocytes, and reaches maximal/plateau levels of expression in the thymus at 1 to 2 days after birth. The ets-2 gene expression is detected at least 1 day earlier, coinciding with the presence of both double-positive (CD4+, CD8+) and double-negative (CD4-, CD8-) blast thymocytes and reaches maximal/plateau levels 1 day before birth. In the adult thymus, ets-1 and ets-2 mRNA expression is 10- to 8-fold higher respectively in the CD4+ subset than in the other subsets examined. Higher levels of p55 ets-1 protein were also shown to exist in the CD4+ subset. Because the CD4+ thymic subset is the pool from which the CD4+ peripheral, helper/inducer T cells are derived, the ets gene expression was examined in lymph node T cells. Both the CD4+ and the CD8+ T cells subsets had lower ets RNA levels than the CD4+ thymocytes. These results suggest that ets-2 and more particularly ets-1 gene products play an important role in T cell development and differentiation and are not simply associated with proliferating cells, which are observed at a higher frequency in fetal thymocytes, or dull Ly-1 (low CD5+), and double-negative (CD4-, CD8-) adult thymocytes. Selectively enhanced expression of ets-1 gene may be observed in thymic CD4+ thymocytes because these cells have uniquely encountered MHC class II or other Ag in the thymic environment. These cells may have been subsequently stimulated to activate the ets genes in conjunction with their differentiation of helper/inducer function(s) and expression of mature TCR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2536061

  2. Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 μM ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 μM CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 μM CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

  3. Reactivation of silent rRNA genes by simian virus 40 in human-mouse hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Soprano, K J; Dev, V G; Croce, C M; Baserga, R

    1979-01-01

    Mouse-human hybrid cells were used to study the ability of simian virus 40 to regulate the expression of rRNA genes in vivo. In these hybrid cells, only the rRNA genes of the dominant species are expressed; the genes for the rRNA of the recessive species are silent. Simian virus 40 infection of these hybrids led to the production of two distinct 28S rRNA species as analyzed by agarose/2.4% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These species were identified as human and mouse rRNAs. This result was confirmed by histochemical studies which indicated that the nucleolus organizer regions of both mouse and human chromosomes were actively synthesizing rRNA in the virus-infected hybrid cells. These results indicate that simian virus 40 infection can induce the expression of otherwise silent rRNA genes. Images PMID:226986

  4. Tissue-Specific Evolution of Protein Coding Genes in Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kryuchkova-Mostacci, Nadezda; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding genes evolve at different rates, and the influence of different parameters, from gene size to expression level, has been extensively studied. While in yeast gene expression level is the major causal factor of gene evolutionary rate, the situation is more complex in animals. Here we investigate these relations further, especially taking in account gene expression in different organs as well as indirect correlations between parameters. We used RNA-seq data from two large datasets, covering 22 mouse tissues and 27 human tissues. Over all tissues, evolutionary rate only correlates weakly with levels and breadth of expression. The strongest explanatory factors of purifying selection are GC content, expression in many developmental stages, and expression in brain tissues. While the main component of evolutionary rate is purifying selection, we also find tissue-specific patterns for sites under neutral evolution and for positive selection. We observe fast evolution of genes expressed in testis, but also in other tissues, notably liver, which are explained by weak purifying selection rather than by positive selection. PMID:26121354

  5. Radiation Dose-Rate Effects on Gene Expression in a Mouse Biodosimetry Model.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B; Elliston, Carl D; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorist attack, there will be a pressing need for biodosimetry to triage a large, potentially exposed population and to assign individuals to appropriate treatment. Exposures from fallout are likely, resulting in protracted dose delivery that would, in turn, impact the extent of injury. Biodosimetry approaches that can distinguish such low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures from acute exposures have not yet been developed. In this study, we used the C57BL/6 mouse model in an initial investigation of the impact of low-dose-rate delivery on the transcriptomic response in blood. While a large number of the same genes responded to LDR and acute radiation exposures, for many genes the magnitude of response was lower after LDR exposures. Some genes, however, were differentially expressed (P < 0.001, false discovery rate <5%) in mice exposed to LDR compared with mice exposed to acute radiation. We identified a set of 164 genes that correctly classified 97% of the samples in this experiment as exposed to acute or LDR radiation using a support vector machine algorithm. Gene expression is a promising approach to radiation biodosimetry, enhanced greatly by this first demonstration of its potential for distinguishing between acute and LDR exposures. Further development of this aspect of radiation biodosimetry, either as part of a complete gene expression biodosimetry test or as an adjunct to other methods, could provide vital triage information in a mass radiological casualty event. PMID:26114327

  6. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anuj; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Puri, Raj K; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated. Changes in gene expression were correlated with histological changes in the brain. In addition, a molecular framework of changes in gene expression associated with progression of the disease was studied. Results Our results demonstrate that genes related to important immune pathways such as antigen presentation, inflammation, apoptosis and response to virus (Cxcl10, CxCl11, Ccl5, Ifr7, Ifi27 Oas1b, Fcerg1,Mif, Clusterin and MHC class II) were upregulated as a result of virus infection. The number of over-expressed genes (>1.5-fold level) increased as the disease progressed (from 197, 296, 400, to 1086 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post infection, respectively). Conclusion Identification of differentially expressed genes in brain will help in the understanding of VEEV-induced pathogenesis and selection of biomarkers for diagnosis and targeted therapy of VEEV-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:18558011

  7. Glycosylation-related gene expression profiling in the brain and spleen of scrapie-affected mouse.

    PubMed

    Guillerme-Bosselut, Florence; Forestier, Lionel; Jayat-Vignoles, Chantal; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Popa, Iuliana; Portoukalian, Jacques; Le Dur, Annick; Laude, Hubert; Julien, Raymond; Gallet, Paul-François

    2009-08-01

    A central event in the formation of infectious prions is the conformational change of a host-encoded glycoprotein, PrP(C), into a pathogenic isoform, PrP(Sc). The molecular requirements for efficient PrP conversion remain unknown. Altered glycosylation has been linked to various pathologies and the N-glycans harbored by two prion protein isoforms are different. In order to search for glycosylation-related genes that could mark prion infection, we used a glycosylation-dedicated microarray that allowed the simultaneous analysis of the expression of 165 glycosylation-related genes encoding proteins of the glycosyltransferase, glycosidase, lectin, and sulfotransferase families to compare the gene expression profiles of normal and scrapie-infected mouse brain and spleen. Eight genes were found upregulated in "scrapie brain" at the final state of the disease. In the spleen, five genes presented a modified expression. Three genes were also upregulated in the spleen of infected mice, and two (Pigq and St3gal5) downregulated. All changes were confirmed by qPCR and biochemical analyses applied to Pigq and St3gal5 proteins. PMID:19386898

  8. Turnover of metallothioneins in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, R D; Winter, W P; Maher, J J; Bernstein, I A

    1978-01-01

    Two electrophoretically distinguishable metallothioneins were isolated from the livers of Cd2+-treated rats and had thiol group/metal ratios of 3:1, a total metal content, in each of these proteins, of 3.6 atoms of Cd2+ + 2.4 atoms of Zn2+/molecule and 4.2 atoms of Cd2+ + 2.8 atoms of Zn2+/molecule and respective apoprotein mol.wts. of 5844 and 6251. Studies with 1 h pulse labels of [3H]cysteine, given after a single injection of ZnCl2 or CdCl2, showed that these metals stimulated radioactive isotope incorporation into the metallothioneins over the control value by 10- and 15-fold respectively. This stimulation was maximal at 4 h after a single CdCl2 injection and decreased to control values by 16 h, suggesting that either a translational event is responding to free intracellular Cd2+ or a short-lived mRNA is being produced or stabilized in response to the metal treatment. In rats chronically exposed to CdCl2, the metallothioneins increased to 0.2% of the liver wet weight from a control value of 2--4 mumol/kg of liver, with a maximum rate of accumulation of 2--3 mumol/h per kg of liver. The turnover of these proteins in control animals was 0.3--0.6 mumoles/h per kg of liver, measured by the rate of disappearance of 203Hg2+, which binds irreversibly to the metallothioneins. Pretreatment with CdCl2 completely stopped the rapid 203Hg turnover observed in untreated animals. Unlike CdCl2, treatment with ZnCl2 increased the concentration of metallothioneins to a new steady-state pool, 11 mumole/kg of liver, after 10 h. The increase in the zinc-thionein pool by exposure to ZnCl2 in vivo was determined to be primarily due to a stimulation of metallothionein biosynthesis. PMID:697759

  9. Mapping of Heavy Chain Genes for Mouse Immunoglobulins M and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Ping; Tucker, Philip W.; Mushinski, J. Frederic; Blattner, Frederick R.

    1980-09-01

    A single DNA fragment containing both μ and δ immunoglobulin heavy chain genes has been cloned from normal BALB/c mouse liver DNA with a new λ phage vector Charon 28. The physical distance between the membrane terminal exon of μ and the first domain of δ is 2466 base pairs, with δ on the 3' side of μ . A single transcript could contain a variable region and both μ and δ constant regions. The dual expression of immunoglobulins M and D on spleen B cells may be due to alternate splicing of this transcript.

  10. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mouse Lactate Dehydrogenase-a Functional Gene: Comparison of the Exon-Intron Organization of Dehydrogenase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Kayoko M.; Li, Steven S.-L.

    1987-01-01

    The complete sequence of 12,851 nucleotides of the mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) gene has been determined. It includes eight exons, seven introns, promoter and regulatory regions. The B1 repetitive elements present in intron III and VI are oriented in opposite orientation, and they share 72% sequence homology. The exon-intron organization of mouse LDH-A gene is compared with the organizations of other dehydrogenase genes, and the molecular evolution of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding domains is discussed. PMID:3036647

  11. Identification of a Copper-Binding Metallothionein in Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Deng, Haiteng; Bryk, Ruslana; Vargas, Diana; Eliezer, David; Roberts, Julia; Jiang, Xiuju; Nathan, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A screen of a genomic library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) identified a small, unannotated open reading frame (MT0196) that encodes a 4.9-kDa, cysteine-rich protein. Despite extensive nucleotide divergence, the amino acid sequence is highly conserved among mycobacteria that are pathogenic in vertebrate hosts. We synthesized the protein and found that it preferentially bound up to 6 Cu(I) ions in a solvent-shielded core. Copper, cadmium and compounds that generate nitric oxide or superoxide induced the gene’s expression in Mtb up to a thousand-fold. The native protein bound copper within Mtb and partially protected Mtb from copper toxicity. We propose that the product of the MT0196 gene be named mycobacterial metallothionien (MymT). To our knowledge, MymT is the first metallothionein of a Gram-positive bacterium with a demonstrated function. PMID:18724363

  12. [Cloning, genomic organization and promoter activity of the mouse zinc finger protein gene ZF-12].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Shui-Liang; Sun, Xia; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Yu, Long; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2003-04-01

    The human zinc finger protein ZNF191 is a krüppel-like transcription factor, which may be relevant to many diseases such as neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and liver caner diseases. To elucidate the function of ZNF191 by gene targeting, it is necessary to clone and characterize of the homologous gene in model organisms (mice). The mouse homologous gene (ZF-12) was cloned and sequenced for the first time, the GenBank accession number is AY052495. It contains four exons and three introns; all intronic splice sites exhibited consensus GT/AG sequences. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 2 and the alternative length of 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) have been found. The linkage of the ZF-12 gene and the zinc finger protein gene Zfp-35 has been found, so the ZF-12 gene can be localized to B3 to C or beside of chromosome 18. We assessed approximately 1.2 kb of 5'-flanking region of the ZF-12 gene for basal promoter activity. A series of deletion mutants of 5'-flanking region linked to the luciferase gene was constructed. Basal level expression of these constructs was tested in COS-7 cells, NIH3T3 cells and HeLa cells. By measuring luciferase activity, which was transiently expressed in the transfected cells, we found that regulatory elements sufficient for basal expression lie between -762 and +70 bp relative to the transcription start site and that a negative regulatory region lie between -824 and -762 bp. This research provides a basis for further study on ZF-12 by gene targeting. PMID:12812053

  13. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression during Growth and Fusion of the Mouse Facial Prominences

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiguo; Leach, Sonia M.; Tipney, Hannah; Phang, Tzulip; Geraci, Mark; Spritz, Richard A.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Williams, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Orofacial malformations resulting from genetic and/or environmental causes are frequent human birth defects yet their etiology is often unclear because of insufficient information concerning the molecular, cellular and morphogenetic processes responsible for normal facial development. We have, therefore, derived a comprehensive expression dataset for mouse orofacial development, interrogating three distinct regions – the mandibular, maxillary and frontonasal prominences. To capture the dynamic changes in the transcriptome during face formation, we sampled five time points between E10.5–E12.5, spanning the developmental period from establishment of the prominences to their fusion to form the mature facial platform. Seven independent biological replicates were used for each sample ensuring robustness and quality of the dataset. Here, we provide a general overview of the dataset, characterizing aspects of gene expression changes at both the spatial and temporal level. Considerable coordinate regulation occurs across the three prominences during this period of facial growth and morphogenesis, with a switch from expression of genes involved in cell proliferation to those associated with differentiation. An accompanying shift in the expression of polycomb and trithorax genes presumably maintains appropriate patterns of gene expression in precursor or differentiated cells, respectively. Superimposed on the many coordinated changes are prominence-specific differences in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules. Thus, the elaboration of each prominence will be driven by particular combinations of transcription factors coupled with specific cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The dataset also reveals several prominence-specific genes not previously associated with orofacial development, a subset of which we externally validate. Several of these latter genes are components of bidirectional transcription units that likely share cis-acting sequences with well-characterized genes. Overall, our studies provide a valuable resource for probing orofacial development and a robust dataset for bioinformatic analysis of spatial and temporal gene expression changes during embryogenesis. PMID:20016822

  14. Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

    PubMed

    Derry, Jonathan M J; Zhong, Hua; Molony, Cliona; MacNeil, Doug; Guhathakurta, Debraj; Zhang, Bin; Mudgett, John; Small, Kersten; El Fertak, Lahcen; Guimond, Alain; Selloum, Mohammed; Zhao, Wenqing; Champy, Marie France; Monassier, Laurent; Vogt, Tom; Cully, Doris; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2010-01-01

    To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2) cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans. PMID:21179467

  15. Multiple mechanisms regulate imprinting of the mouse distal chromosome 7 gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Caspary, T; Cleary, M A; Baker, C C; Guan, X J; Tilghman, S M

    1998-06-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that results in the preferential silencing of one of the two parental copies of a gene. Although the precise mechanisms by which genomic imprinting occurs are unknown, the tendency of imprinted genes to exist in chromosomal clusters suggests long-range regulation through shared regulatory elements. We characterize a 800-kb region on the distal end of mouse chromosome 7 that contains a cluster of four maternally expressed genes, H19, Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57(Kip2), as well as two paternally expressed genes, Igf2 and Ins2, and assess the expression and imprinting of Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57(Kip2) during development in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Unlike Igf2 and Ins2, which depend on H19 for their imprinting, Mash2, p57(Kip2), and Kvlqt1 are unaffected by a deletion of the H19 gene region, suggesting that these more telomeric genes are not regulated by the mechanism that controls H19, Igf2, and Ins2. Mutations in human p57(Kip2) have been implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a disease that has also been associated with loss of imprinting of IGF2. We find, however, that a deletion of the gene has no effect on imprinting within the cluster. Surprisingly, the three maternally expressed genes are regulated very differently by DNA methylation; p57(Kip2) is activated, Kvlqt1 is silenced, and Mash2 is unaffected in mice lacking DNA methyltransferase. We conclude that H19 is not a global regulator of imprinting on distal chromosome 7 and that the telomeric genes are imprinted by a separate mechanism(s). PMID:9584186

  16. Chronic ultraviolet exposure-induced p53 gene alterations in sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Ying; Smith, M.A.; Tucker, S.B.

    1997-06-27

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene p53 have been found in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related human skin cancers and in UVR-induced murine skin tumors. However, links between p53 gene alterations and the stages of carcinogenesis induced by UVR have not been clearly defined. We established a chronic UVR exposure-induced Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model to determine the frequency of p53 gene alterations in different stages of carcinogenesis, including UV-exposed skin, papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), and malignant spindle-cell tumors (SCTs). A high incidence of SCCs and SCTs were found in this model. Positive p53 nuclear staining was found in 10137 (27%) of SCCs and 12124 (50%) of SCTs, but was not detected in normal skin or papillomas. DNA was isolated from 40 paraffin-embedded normal skin, UV-exposed skin, and tumor sections. The p53 gene (exons 5 and 6) was amplified from the sections by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis revealed one point mutation in exon 6 (coden 193, C {r_arrow} A transition) from a UV-exposed skin sample, and seven point mutations in exon 5 (codens 146, 158, 150, 165, and 161, three C {r_arrow} T, two C {r_arrow} A, one C {r_arrow} G, and one A {r_arrow} T transition, respectively) from four SCTs, two SCCs and one UV-exposed skin sample. These experimental results demonstrate that alterations in the p53 gene are frequent events in chronic UV exposure-induced SCCs and later stage SCTs in Sencar mouse skin. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Mapping of the NEP receptor tyrosine kinase gene to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Sweetser, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mouse receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) NEP, also called Ptk-3, is widely expressed, with high levels in proliferating neuroepithelia of mouse embryos. The recently described human discoidin domain receptor (DDR) has a predicted amino acid sequence 93% identical to that of murine NEP and may be its human homologue. We have mapped the gene encoding NEP in human and mouse by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a mouse cDNA probe. The NEP/Nep gene maps to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C, respectively. This places the NEP/Nep gene at, or near, the major histocompatibility (MHC) locus-HLA in human and H2 in mouse, respectively. Based on its pattern of expression during development, NEP and Nep represent candidate genes for several MHC-linked developmental abnormalities in human and mouse. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Altered brain gene expression but not steroid biochemistry in a genetic mouse model of neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 39,XY*O mouse, which lacks the orthologues of the ADHD and autism candidate genes STS (steroid sulphatase) and ASMT (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase), exhibits behavioural phenotypes relevant to developmental disorders. The neurobiology underlying these phenotypes is unclear, although there is evidence for serotonergic abnormalities in the striatum and hippocampus. Methods Using microarray and quantitative gene expression analyses, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we compared brain gene expression and steroid biochemistry in wildtype (40,XY) and 39,XY*O adult mice to identify non-obvious genetic and endocrine candidates for between-group differences in behaviour and neurochemistry. We also tested whether acute STS inhibition by COUMATE in wildtype (40,XY) adult male mice recapitulated any significant gene expression or biochemical findings from the genetic comparison. Data were analysed by unpaired t-test or Mann Whitney U-test depending on normality, with a single factor of KARYOTYPE. Results Microarray analysis indicated seven robust gene expression differences between the two groups (Vmn2r86, Sfi1, Pisd-ps1, Tagap1, C1qc, Metap1d, Erdr1); Erdr1 and C1qc expression was significantly reduced in the 39,XY*O striatum and hippocampus, whilst the expression of Dhcr7 (encoding 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, a modulator of serotonin system development), was only reduced in the 39,XY*O hippocampus. None of the confirmed gene expression changes could be recapitulated by COUMATE administration. We detected ten free, and two sulphated steroids in 40,XY and 39,XY*O brain; surprisingly, the concentrations of all of these were equivalent between groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the mutation in 39,XY*O mice: i) directly disrupts expression of the adjacent Erdr1 gene, ii) induces a remarkably limited suite of downstream gene expression changes developmentally, with several of relevance to associated neurobehavioural phenotypes and iii) does not elicit large changes in brain steroid biochemistry. It is possible that individuals with STS/ASMT deficiency exhibit a similarly specific pattern of gene expression changes to the 39,XY*O mouse, and that these contribute towards their abnormal neurobiology. Future work may focus on whether complement pathway function, mitochondrial metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways are perturbed in such subjects. PMID:24602487

  19. Chromosomal location of the genes encoding complement components C5 and factor H in the mouse.

    PubMed

    D'Eustachio, P; Kristensen, T; Wetsel, R A; Riblet, R; Taylor, B A; Tack, B F

    1986-12-15

    Complementary DNA probes corresponding to the factor H and C5 polypeptides have been used to determine the chromosomal localizations of these two complement components. Both probes revealed complex and polymorphic arrays of DNA fragments in Southern blot analysis of mouse genomic DNA. Following the distribution of these bands in panels of somatic cell hybrids carrying various combinations of mouse chromosomes on a constant rat or Chinese hamster background allowed the localization of the C5-associated fragments to proximal chromosome 2 and the localization of the factor H-associated fragments to chromosome 1 or chromosome 3. Following the inheritance of DNA restriction fragment-length polymorphisms revealed by the probes in recombinant inbred mouse strains allowed the factor H-associated fragments to be mapped to Sas-1 on chromosome 1, and the C5-associated fragments to be mapped to Hc. Analysis of three-point crosses, in turn, placed the latter locus 19 cM distal to Sd on chromosome 2. We have designated the two loci Cfh and C5, respectively. This genetic analysis raises the possibility that C5 and factor H are both encoded by complex loci composed of distinct structural and regulatory genes. PMID:2878046

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma mouse models: Hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis and haploinsufficient tumor suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yuan-Chi; Shen, Zhao-Qing; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Tsai, Ting-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial and multistage pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has fascinated a wide spectrum of scientists for decades. While a number of major risk factors have been identified, their mechanistic roles in hepatocarcinogenesis still need to be elucidated. Many tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) have been identified as being involved in HCC. These TSGs can be classified into two groups depending on the situation with respect to allelic mutation/loss in the tumors: the recessive TSGs with two required mutated alleles and the haploinsufficient TSGs with one required mutated allele. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most important risk factors associated with HCC. Although mice cannot be infected with HBV due to the narrow host range of HBV and the lack of a proper receptor, one advantage of mouse models for HBV/HCC research is the numerous and powerful genetic tools that help investigate the phenotypic effects of viral proteins and allow the dissection of the dose-dependent action of TSGs. Here, we mainly focus on the application of mouse models in relation to HBV-associated HCC and on TSGs that act either in a recessive or in a haploinsufficient manner. Discoveries obtained using mouse models will have a great impact on HCC translational medicine. PMID:26755878