Sample records for mouse metallothionein gene

  1. Inheritance of a functional mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Morphologically normal plants were obtained from progeny (Ro, R1 and R2) originating from tobacco leaf tissue transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance an the mouse metallothionein cDNA gene directed by the constitutive promote 35S from CaMV. Integration and expression in R1 progeny was demonstrated by Southern, Northern blot analysis and metallothionein assay. Kanamycin resistance analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. Seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco are more tolerant to cadmium stress than nontransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration was about 20% lower than that in nontransformed controls.

  2. Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content.

  3. Microinjection and expression of a mouse metallothionein human growth hormone fusion gene in fertilized salmonid eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rokkones; P. Alestrøm; H. Skjervold; K. M. Gautvik

    1989-01-01

    Using a microinjection method (Rokkones et al. 1985) deoxyribonucleic acid was introduced into fertilized salmonid eggs. The survival rate after a 28 day period was 91% for injected eggs in comparison to non-injected controls. A gene construct containing the mouse metallothionein promoter fused to the human growth hormone structural gene was microinjected either as a supercoiled plasmid or as a

  4. Expression of a mouse metallothionein-Escherichia coli. beta. -galactosidase fusion gene (MT-. beta. gal) in early mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.E.; Meneses, J.J.; Pedersen, R.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1989-08-01

    The authors have microinjected DNA containing the inducible mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) promoter, coupled to the structural gene for Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase (lacZ), into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. A qualitative histochemical assay, with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) as a substrate, was used to detect expression of lacZ at several preimplantation stages. They observed staining indicative of exogenous {beta}-galactosidase activity in 5-17% of DNA-injected embryos assayed at preimplantation stages after 16-24 h treatment with ZnSO{sub 4}. Thus, lacZ can be used as an indicator gene for promoter function during early mouse embryogenesis, and the incorporation of the MT-I promoter into fusion genes can be a useful means of controlling the expression of exogenous genes in preimplantation mouse embryos.

  5. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression Identifies Metallothionein-II as Major Neuroprotective Gene in Mouse Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Trendelenburg; Konstantin Prass; Josef Priller; Krisztian Kapinya; Andreas Polley; Claudia Muselmann; Karsten Ruscher; Ute Kannbley; Armin O. Schmitt; Stefanie Castell; Frank Wiegand; Andreas Meisel; Ulrich Dirnagl

    2002-01-01

    We applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to study differentially expressed genes in mouse brain 14 hr after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Analysis of 60,000 tran- scripts revealed 83 upregulated and 94 downregulated tran- scripts (more than or equal to eightfold). Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing SAGE in duplicate on the same starting material. Metallothionein-II (MT-II) was

  6. Distal regulatory elements from the mouse metallothionein locus stimulate gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Palmiter, R D; Sandgren, E P; Koeller, D M; Brinster, R L

    1993-01-01

    DNA regions of 10 and 7 kb that flank the mouse metallothionein II (MT-II) and MT-I genes, respectively, were combined with a minimally marked MT-I (MT-I*) gene and tested in transgenic mice. This construct resulted in (i) position-independent expression of MT-I* mRNA and copy number-dependent expression, (ii) levels of hepatic MT-I mRNA per cell per transgene that were about half that derived from endogenous MT-I genes, (iii) appropriate regulation by metals and hormones, and (iv) tissue distribution of transgene mRNA that resembled that of endogenous MT-I mRNA. These features were not observed when MT-I* was tested without the flanking regions. These MT-I flanking sequences also improved the expression of rat growth hormone reporter genes, with or without introns, that were under the control of the MT-I promoter. Moreover, they enhanced expression from two of four heterologous promoters/enhancers that were tested. Deletion analysis indicated that regions known to have DNase I-hypersensitive sites were necessary but not sufficient for high-level expression. These data suggest that the DNA regions flanking the mouse MT-I and MT-II genes have functions like the locus control regions described for other genes. Images PMID:8355681

  7. Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco: impact on cd tolerance and tissue cd distribution in seedlings.

    PubMed

    Maiti, I B; Wagner, G J; Yeargan, R; Hunt, A G

    1989-11-01

    Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content. PMID:16667104

  8. A nuclear factor binds to the metal regulatory elements of the mouse gene encoding metallothionein-I.

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, S; Prévost, J; Remondelli, P; Leone, A; Séguin, C

    1991-01-01

    The ability of vertebrate metallothionein (MT) genes to be induced by heavy metals is controlled by metal regulatory elements (MREs) present in the promoter in multiple, non-identical copies. The binding specificity of the mouse L-cell nuclear factor(s) that interact with the element MREd of the mouse MT-I gene was analyzed by in vitro footprinting, protein blotting, and UV cross-linking assays. In vitro footprinting analyses revealed that synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (oligomers) corresponding to the metal regulatory elements MREa, MREb, MREc, MREd and MREe of the mouse MT-I gene, as well as the MRE4 of the human MT-IIA gene and the MREa of the trout MT-B gene, all competed for the nuclear protein species binding to the MREd region of the mouse MT-I gene, the MREe oligomer being the weakest competitor. In addition, protein blotting experiments revealed that a nuclear protein of 108 kDa, termed metal element protein-1 (MEP-1), which specifically binds with high affinity to mouse MREd, binds with different affinities to the other mouse MRE elements, mimicking their relative transcriptional strength in vivo: MREd greater than or equal to MREa = MREc greater than MREb greater than MREe greater than MREf. Similarly, human MRE4 and trout MREa bind to MEP-1. A protein similar in size to MEP-1 was also detected in HeLa-cell nuclear extracts. In UV cross-linking experiments the major protein species, complexed with mouse MREd oligomers, migrated on a denaturating gel with an apparent Mr of 115,000 and was detected using each of the mouse MRE oligomers tested. These results show that a mouse nuclear factor can bind to multiple MREs in mouse, trout, and human MT genes. Images PMID:1870976

  9. Tissue partitioning of cadmium in transgenic tobacco seedlings and field grown plants expressing the mouse metallothionein I gene.

    PubMed

    Yeargan, R; Maiti, I B; Nielsen, M T; Hunt, A G; Wagner, G J

    1992-11-01

    Since agricultural crops contribute > 70% of human cadmium (Cd) intake, modification of crops to reduce accumulation of this pollutant metal during plant growth is desirable. Here we describe Cd accumulation characteristics of seedlings and field grown tobacco plants expressing the Cd-chelating protein, mouse metallothionein I. The objective of the transformation is to entrap Cd in roots as Cd-metallothionein and thereby reduce its accumulation in the shoot. Transformed and control seedlings were exposed for 15 days in liquid culture at a field soil-solution-like Cd concentration of 0.02 microM. Transformed seedlings of Nicotiana tabacum cultivar KY 14 contained about 24% lower Cd concentration in shoots and about 5% higher Cd concentration in roots than control seedlings. Dry weights of transformed and control tissues did not differ significantly. In the field in 1990, mature transformed N. tabacum cv. KY 14 plants exposed only to endogenous soil Cd contained about 14% lower leaf lamina Cd concentration than did controls. Differences were significant at the p < or = 0.1 level in 13 of 16 leaf positions. Leaf dry weight did not differ significantly but transformed field plants had 12% fewer leaves and were 9% shorter than the controls. Copper (Cu) concentration was significantly higher (ca10%) in the bottom nine leaf positions of transformed plants suggesting that reduced leaf number and plant height may be due to Cu deficiency or toxicity. Alternatively, somaclonal variation or gene position effects may be involved. No differences were found in zinc levels. With N. tabacum cv. Petit Havana, transformed seedlings contained no less Cd in shoots but 48% higher Cd concentration in roots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1301216

  10. Purification of mouse MEP-1, a nuclear protein which binds to the metal regulatory elements of genes encoding metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, S; Larouche, L; Mailhot, D; Séguin, C

    1993-01-01

    Metal regulatory elements (MREs) shared by metallothionein (MT) gene promoters are essential for metal induction of MT genes. MEP-1, a nuclear protein which binds to these elements has been purified from heavy metal-resistant mouse L cells using footprinting, Southwestern and UV cross-linking techniques to assay its binding activity. The purification scheme, starting from crude nuclear extracts, involved a combination of heparin-Sepharose and MRE-DNA affinity chromatography. The purified protein preparation showed a single polypeptide band of 108 kDa on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 2D-gel analyses revealed the presence of a protein species migrating as a single population of approximately 110 kDa. MEP-1 does not appear to be glycosylated since it eluted with the flow-through on a Wheat Germ Sepharose column. It was retained by a zinc-Chelating Sepharose column suggesting that amino acid residues (i.e., cysteine, histidine) which have an affinity for zinc ions are exposed on the protein surface. Binding studies with the purified protein indicated that it binds specifically to MRE sequences and that the binding can be abolished by a point mutation in the MRE core consensus sequence or by the addition of the chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline. Binding activity can be restored by the addition of zinc ions to the chelated protein. These results suggest that MEP-1 is one of the major proteins interacting with MRE sequences. Images PMID:8479904

  11. Characterisation of six additional human metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Stennard, F A; Holloway, A F; Hamilton, J; West, A K

    1994-08-01

    Human metallothionein (MT) genes are clustered in a locus on chromosome 16, and this report presents the characterisation of the remaining six univestigated members of the family. Nucleotide sequencing in whole or part suggested that four of these genes, MT1I, MT1J, MT1K and MT1L do not encode expressed MT proteins, based on the presence of structural faults or atypical amino acid assignments. On the other hand, the structures of MT1H and MT1X are consistent with these genes being functional and encoding unique type 1 isoforms. The promoters of both genes conferred activity to CAT expression constructs when transfected into HeLa cells, and showed differential responses to inducers MT synthesis. Endogenous MT1H and MT1X genes were expressed at the mRNA level in HeLa cells following cadmium treatment. This work brings the number of functional class 1 and 2 MT genes in the human to eight, and confirms that each encodes structurally unique proteins. PMID:8049263

  12. Transcriptional induction of the mouse metallothionein-I gene in hydrogen peroxide-treated Hepa cells involves a composite major late transcription factor/antioxidant response element and metal response promoter elements.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, T; Palmiter, R D; Andrews, G K

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and heme oxygenase mRNAs is rapidly and transiently induced by H2O2 in mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa) and this effect is blocked by catalase. Menadione, which generates free radicals, also induces these mRNAs. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that a region between -42 and -153 in the mouse MT-I promoter was essential for induction of a CAT reporter gene. A multimer of a 16 bp sequence (-101 to -86) that includes an antioxidant response element and overlapping adenovirus major late transcription factor binding site elevated basal expression and allowed induction by H2O2 when inserted upstream of a minimal promoter. However, deletion of this region (-100 to -89) from the intact MT-I promoter (-153) did not completely eliminate response. Multiple copies of a metal response element also permitted response to H2O2. These results suggest that induction of MT-I gene transcription by H2O2 is mediated by at least two different elements within the proximal MT-I gene promoter and suggest a previously undescribed function of the MRE. Induction of MT gene transcription by ROS and the subsequent scavenging of ROS by the MT peptide is reminiscent of the metal regulatory loop and is consistent with the hypothesized protective functions of MT. Images PMID:7800494

  13. Up-regulation of metallothionein gene expression in parkinsonian astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Michael, Gregory J; Esmailzadeh, Sharmin; Moran, Linda B; Christian, Lynne; Pearce, Ronald K B; Graeber, Manuel B

    2011-11-01

    The role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We have previously reported a striking up-regulation of DnaJB6 heat shock protein in PD substantia nigra astrocytes. Whole genome transcriptome analysis also indicated increased expression of metallothionein genes in substantia nigra and cortex of sporadic PD cases. Metallothioneins are metal-binding proteins in the CNS that are released by astrocytes and associated with neuroprotection. Metallothionein expression was investigated in 18 PD cases and 15 non-PD controls using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC). We observed a strong increase in the expression of metallothioneins MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1M, MT1X and MT2A in both PD nigra and frontal cortex. Expression of LRP2 (megalin), the neuronal metallothionein receptor was also significantly increased. qRT-PCR confirmed metallothionein up-regulation. Astrocytes were found to be the main source of metallothioneins 1 and 2 based on ISH results, and this finding was confirmed by ICC. Our findings demonstrate metallothionein expression by reactive astrocytes in PD nigra and support a neuroprotective role for these cells. The traditional view that nigral astrocytes are non-reactive in PD is clearly incorrect. However, it is possible that astrocytes are themselves affected by the disease process which may explain their comparatively modest and previously overlooked response. PMID:21800131

  14. Positive and negative regulators of the metallothionein gene (Review).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro

    2015-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal?binding proteins involved in diverse processes, including metal homeostasis and detoxification, the oxidative stress response and cell proliferation. Aberrant expression and silencing of these genes are important in a number of diseases. Several positive regulators of MT genes, including metal?responsive element?binding transcription factor (MTF)?1 and upstream stimulatory factor (USF)?1, have been identified and mechanisms of induction have been well described. However, the negative regulators of MT genes remain to be elucidated. Previous studies from the group of the present review have revealed that the hematopoietic master transcription factor, PU.1, directly represses the expression levels of MT genes through its epigenetic activities, and upregulation of MT results in the potent inhibition of myeloid differentiation. The present review focuses on PU.1 and several other negative regulators of this gene, including PZ120, DNA methyltransferase 3a with Mbd3 and Brg1 complex, CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? and Ku protein, and describes the suppression of the MT genes through these transcription factors. PMID:25760317

  15. Structure, expression and chromosomal localisation of the metallothionein-like gene family of tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoli Giritch; Martin Ganal; Udo W. Stephan; Helmut Bäumlein

    1998-01-01

    Metallothioneins are small cysteine-rich proteins with strong binding capacity for heavy metals. In animals and fungi they are involved in cellular detoxification processes. Although genes for similar proteins exist in plants, less is known about the putative functions of their protein products. Here, we describe the characterisation of cDNAs specific for four genes (LEMT1, LEMT2, LEMT3 and LEMT4) encoding metallothionein-like

  16. Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Väisänen, A; Knott, K E

    2014-11-01

    Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50 years, and Jyväskylä, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28 days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

  17. Glucose regulates free cytosolic Zn²? concentration, Slc39 (ZiP), and metallothionein gene expression in primary pancreatic islet ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Elisa A; Meur, Gargi; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-07-22

    Zn²? is an important cofactor for insulin biosynthesis and storage in pancreatic ?-cells. Correspondingly, polymorphisms in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule Zn²? transporter ZnT8, are associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Using a genetically engineered (FRET)-based sensor (eCALWY-4), we show here that elevated glucose time-dependently increases free cytosolic Zn²? ([Zn²?](cyt)) in mouse pancreatic ?-cells. These changes become highly significant (853 ± 96 pm versus 452 ± 42 pm, p < 0.001) after 24 h and are associated with increased expression of the Zn²? importer family members Slc39a6, Slc39a7, and Slc39a8, and decreased expression of metallothionein 1 and 2. Arguing that altered expression of the above genes is not due to altered [Zn²?](cyt), elevation of extracellular (and intracellular) [Zn²?] failed to mimic the effects of high glucose. By contrast, increases in intracellular cAMP prompted by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and forskolin partially mimicked the effects of glucose on metallothionein, although not ZiP, gene expression. Modulation of intracellular Ca²? and insulin secretion with pharmacological agents (tolbutamide and diazoxide) suggested a possible role for changes in these parameters in the regulation of Slc39a6 and Slc39a7 but not Slc39a8, nor metallothionein expression. In summary, 1) glucose induces increases in [Zn²?](cyt), which are then likely to facilitate the processing and/or the storage of insulin and its cocrystallization with Zn²?, and 2) these increases are associated with elevated expression of zinc importers. Conversely, a chronic increase in [Zn²?](cyt) following sustained hyperglycemia may contribute to ?-cell dysfunction and death in some forms of diabetes. PMID:21613223

  18. Gene Expression of Metallothioneins in Barley during Senescence and Heavy Metal Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Heise; Sebastian Krejci; Jürgen Miersch; Gerd-Joachim Krauss; Klaus Humbeck

    2007-01-01

    Despite their ubiquitous distribution, the exact functions of metallothioneins (MTs) are still not known. We analyzed the expression of four novel barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genes cod- ing for MTs, comparing two different situations: (i) leaf senescence, and (ii) heavy metal stress. Physiological analysis of chlorophyll content and photosystem II effi ciency revealed simi- lar stress response during natural leaf

  19. Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;Determining gene function · Mutagenesis approaches · Gene-driven, phenotype for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics

  20. Copper accumulation and compartmentalization in mouse fibroblast lacking metallothionein and copper chaperone, Atox1

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Takamitsu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Laboratory of Chemical Toxicology and Environmental Health, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuo T. [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Ogra, Yasumitsu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chuo, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Laboratory of Chemical Toxicology and Environmental Health, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan)], E-mail: ogra@ac.shoyaku.ac.jp

    2009-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is the active center of some enzymes because of its redox-active property, although that property could have harmful effects. Because of this, cells have strict regulation/detoxification systems for this metal. In this study, multi-disciplinary approaches, such as speciation and elemental imaging of Cu, were applied to reveal the detoxification mechanisms for Cu in cells bearing a defect in Cu-regulating genes. Although Cu concentration in metallothionein (MT)-knockout cells was increased by the knockdown of the Cu chaperone, Atox1, the concentrations of the Cu influx pump, Ctr1, and another Cu chaperone, Ccs, were paradoxically increased; namely, the cells responded to the Cu deficiency despite the fact that cellular Cu concentration was actually increased. Cu imaging showed that the elevated Cu was compartmentalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Together, the results point to the novel roles of MT and cytoplasmic vesicles in the detoxification of Cu in mammalian cells.

  1. Cloning and characterization of type 2 metallothionein-like gene from a wetland plant, Typha latifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Wen Zhang; N. F. Y Tam; Y. S Wong

    2004-01-01

    A type 2 metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene, tyMT, was cloned from Cattail (Typha latifolia), a wetland plant with constitutional tolerance to heavy metals. The gene encoded a deduced peptide of 79aa residues, containing the cysteine-rich domains, typical of plant type 2 MT-like proteins which included the presence of C-C, C-X-C, and C-X-X-C (X are other amino acids other than cysteine) motifs

  2. CYTOKININ AND METALS REGULATE A TOBACCO METALLOTHIONEIN-LIKE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To isolate cytokinin responsive genes, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia shoots/rosettes containing the heat shock inducible isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene (HS-ipt) were heat shocked and used to prepare a cDNA library that was screened with a HS-induced subtractive probe. The cDNA clone pCkn16A1 (Access...

  3. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Krze?lak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Chwatko, Gra?yna; Jó?wiak, Pawe?; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Wilkosz, Jacek; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar; Bry?, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the -5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. PMID:23466427

  4. Metallothionein genes: no association with Crohn's disease in a New Zealand population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are excellent candidate genes for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and have previously been shown to have altered expression in both animal and human studies of IBD. This is the first study to examine genetic variants within the MT genes and aims to determine whether such genetic variants have an important role in this disease. 28 tag SNPs in genes MT1 (subtypes A, B, E, F, G, H, M, X), MT2, MT3 and MT4 were selected for genotyping in a well-characterized New Zealand dataset consisting of 406 patients with Crohn's Disease and 638 controls. We did not find any evidence of association for MT genetic variation with CD. The lack of association indicates that genetic variants in the MT genes do not play a significant role in predisposing to CD in the New Zealand population. PMID:22284420

  5. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress. PMID:24918294

  6. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krze?lak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Chwatko, Gra?yna [Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Jó?wiak, Pawe?; Szymczyk, Agnieszka [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Wilkosz, Jacek; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar [2nd Department of Urology, Medical University of ?ód?, Pabianicka 62, 93-513 ?ód? (Poland); Bry?, Magdalena, E-mail: zreg@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the ? 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  7. Metallothionein gene expression in peripheral lymphocytes and renal dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jian [Department of Occupational Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Jin Taiyi [Department of Occupational Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: tyjin@smhu.edu.cn; Nordberg, Gunnar [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Nordberg, Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: monica.nordberg@imm.ki.se

    2005-08-07

    In order to study the validity of metallothionein (MT) gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as a biomarker of cadmium exposure and susceptibility to renal dysfunction, MT mRNA levels were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in PBLs from residents living in a cadmium-contaminated area. MT mRNA levels were found to increase with the increase of blood cadmium (BCd) and urinary cadmium (UCd) levels. Basal MT mRNA levels were significantly correlated with the logarithm of BCd levels and the logarithm of UCd levels confirming that MT expression in PBLs is a biomarker of cadmium exposure and internal dose. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro induced MT-mRNA level in PBLs and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG) suggesting that MT gene expression in PBLs may be used as a biomarker of susceptibility to renal toxicity of cadmium.

  8. Functional characterization of four metallothionein genes in Daphnia pulex exposed to environmental stressors

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, J.; Glaholt, S.P.; Smith, Z.; Smagghe, G.; Janssen, C.R.; Colbourne, J.K.; Shaw, J.R.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the metallothionein genes (Mt1, Mt2, Mt3, and Mt4) in Daphnia pulex on both molecular and ecotoxicological level. We therefore conducted a bioinformatical analysis of the gene location and predicted protein sequence, and screened the upstream flanking region for regulatory elements. The number of these elements and their positions relative to the start codon varied strongly among the four genes and even among two gene duplicates (Mt1A and Mt1B), suggesting different roles of the four proteins in the organisms’ response to stress. We subsequently conducted a chronic 16-day exposure of D. pulex to different environmental stressors (at sublethal levels causing approximately 50% reduction in reproduction). Based on prior knowledge, we exposed them to the metals Cd, Cu, and Ni, the moulting hormone hydroxyecdysone (20E), and the oxidative stressors cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), and paraquat (Pq). We then compared mRNA expression levels of the four Mt genes under these stress conditions with control conditions in “The Chosen One” clone (TCO), for which the full genome was sequenced and annotated. All together, the mRNA expression results under the different stress regimes indicate that different Mt genes may play different and various roles in the response of D. pulex to stress and that some (but not all) of the differences among the four genes could be related to the pattern of regulatory elements in their upstream flanking region. PMID:22266576

  9. Suppression of metallothionein 3 gene expression by androgen in LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    OTSUKA, TAKASHI; HAMADA, AKI; IGUCHI, KAZUHIRO; USUI, SHIGEYUKI; HIRANO, KAZUYUKI

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, tumors often progress towards a more aggressive phenotype despite treatment. Prostate tissue has a high zinc concentration, which may correlate with prostate cancer progression. Therefore, we investigated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the gene expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and zinc transporters in prostate cancer with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MT3 gene expression in LNCaP cells was suppressed by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. However, it increased in a culture medium containing androgen-deficient charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bicalutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, increased the gene expression of MT3 and partially reversed the suppression of MT3 gene expression induced by DHT. In PC-3 cells lacking androgen receptors, DHT and bicalutamide exerted no effect on MT3 gene expression. The reporter gene assay with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing the 5?-flanking region of MT3 demonstrated a decrease in luciferase activity caused by DHT that was reversed by bicalutamide. These results suggest that MT3 gene expression is downregulated by androgen. PMID:24648996

  10. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences. PMID:18154678

  11. Differential repair of DNA damage in the human metallothionein gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Leadon, S A; Snowden, M M

    1988-01-01

    We studied the repair of UV- and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced damage in the human metallothionein (hMT) gene family. After exposure to either UV or AFB1, DNA damage was initially repaired faster in the DNA fragments containing the transcribed hMT-IA, hMT-IE, and hMT-IIA genes than in the genome overall. By 6 h posttreatment, there was at least twice as much repair in these genes as in the rest of the genome. Repair of UV damage in the hMT-IB gene, which shows cell-type specific expression, and in the hMT-IIB gene, which is a nontranscribed processed pseudogene, was about the same as in the rest of the genome, whereas repair of AFB1-induced damage was deficient in these two genes. Inducing transcription of the three expressed hMT genes with CdCl2 or of only the hMT-IIA gene with dexamethasone increased the initial rate of repair in the induced genes another twofold over the rate observed when they were transcribed at a basal level. The rates of repair in the hMT-IB and hMT-IIB genes were not altered by these inducing treatments. Transcription of the hMT genes was transiently inhibited after UV irradiation. Inducing transcription of the genes did not shorten this UV-induced delay. Thus, the efficiency of repair of damage in a DNA sequence is dependent on the level of transcriptional activity associated with that sequence. However, an increased efficiency in repair of a gene itself is not necessarily coupled to recovery of its transcription after DNA damage. Images PMID:3149714

  12. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II gene sequences in cadmium-resistant CHO variants

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Cadmium-resistanc (Cd/sup r/) variants of the Chinese hamster cell line, CHO, have been derived by stepwise selection for growth in medium containing CdCl/sub 2/. These variants show coordinately increased production of both metallothionein (MT) I and II and were stably resistant to Cd/sup 2 +/ in the absence of continued selection. Genomic DNAs from these Cd/sup r/ sublines were analyzed for both MT gene copy number and MT gene organization, using cDNA sequence probes specific for each of the two Chinese hamster isometallothioneins. These analyses revealed coordinate amplification of MT I and II genes in all Cd/sup r/ variants which had increased copies of MT-encoding sequences. In situ hybridization of an MT-encoding probe to mitotic chromosomes of a Cd/sup r/ variant, which has amplified MT genes at least 14-fold, revealed a single chromosomal site of hybridization. These results suggest that the isoMTs constitute a functionally related gene cluster which amplifies coordinately in response to toxic metal stress.

  13. Deleterious Effects of Minocycline after in vivo Target Deprivation of Thalamocortical Neurons in the Immature, Metallothionein-Deficient Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Emily G.; Cheng, Ying; Natale, JoAnne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to adults, immature metallothionein I & II knockout (MT?/?) mice incur greater neuronal loss and a more rapid rate of microglia accumulation following target deprivation-induced injury. Since minocycline has been proposed to inhibit microglial activation and associated production of neuroinflammatory factors, we investigated its ability to promote neuronal survival in the immature, metallothionein-deficient brain. Following ablation of the visual cortex, 10-day-old MT?/? mice were treated with minocycline or saline and sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after injury. Using stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment. No effect on neuronal survival was observed at 24 hours, but 48 hours after injury an unanticipated but significant minocycline-mediated increase in neuronal loss was detected. Further, while failing to inhibit microglial accumulation, minocycline treatment increased the proportion of amoeboid microglia in the ipsilateral dLGN. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurotoxic response, we identified minocycline-mediated changes in the expression of three potentially pro-apoptotic/ inflammatory genes: growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 45? (GADD45?); interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1) and cytokine induced growth factor (CTGF). We also observed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation with minocycline treatment. Although minocycline inhibited calpain activity at 12 hours post-injury, this effect was not sustained at 24 hours. Together, these results help to explain how minocycline has a deleterious effect on neuronal survival in this injury model. PMID:19115404

  14. METALLOTHIONEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF METAL EXPOSURE IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metallothionein is a cysteine rich, low molecular weight, metal binding protein. Basal levels of endogenous metallothioneins (MT) have been reported in all eucaryotes. MT has been shown to play an essential role in regulating physiological requirements of essential metals such a...

  15. Comparison of metallothionein gene expression and nonprotein thiols in ten Arabidopsis ecotypes. Correlation with copper tolerance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Taiz, L

    1995-11-01

    Seedlings of 10 Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared with respect to copper tolerance, expression of two metallothionein genes (MT1 and MT2), and nonprotein thiol levels. MT1 was uniformly expressed in all treatments, and MT2 was copper inducible in all 10 ecotypes. MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels were compared with various growth parameters for the 10 ecotypes in the presence of 40 microM Cu2+. The best correlation (R = 0.99) was obtained between MT2 mRNA and the rate of root extension. MT2 mRNA levels also paralleled the recovery phase following inhibition by copper. Induction of MT2 mRNA was initiated at copper concentrations below the threshold for growth inhibition. In cross-induction experiments, Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and heat shock all induced significant levels of MT2 gene expression, whereas Al3+ and salicylic acid did not. The correlation between copper tolerance and nonprotein thiol levels in the 10 ecotypes was not statistically significant. However, 2 ecotypes, Ws and Enkheim, previously shown to exhibit an acclimation response, had the highest levels of nonprotein thiols. We conclude that MT2 gene expression may be the primary determinant of ecotypic differences in the copper tolerance of nonpretreated Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:8552721

  16. Gains, Losses and Changes of Function after Gene Duplication: Study of the Metallothionein Family

    PubMed Central

    Moleirinho, Ana; Carneiro, João; Matthiesen, Rune; Silva, Raquel M.; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins involved in heavy metal detoxification and protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The mammalian MT family originated through a series of duplication events which generated four major genes (MT1 to MT4). MT1 and MT2 encode for ubiquitous proteins, while MT3 and MT4 evolved to accomplish specific roles in brain and epithelium, respectively. Herein, phylogenetic, transcriptional and polymorphic analyses are carried out to expose gains, losses and diversification of functions that characterize the evolutionary history of the MT family. The phylogenetic analyses show that all four major genes originated through a single duplication event prior to the radiation of mammals. Further expansion of the MT1 gene has occurred in the primate lineage reaching in humans a total of 13 paralogs, five of which are pseudogenes. In humans, the reading frame of all five MT1 pseudogenes is reconstructed by sequence homology with a functional duplicate revealing that loss of invariant cysteines is the most frequent event accounting for pseudogeneisation. Expression analyses based on EST counts and RT-PCR experiments show that, as for MT1 and MT2, human MT3 is also ubiquitously expressed while MT4 transcripts are present in brain, testes, esophagus and mainly in thymus. Polymorphic variation reveals two deleterious mutations (Cys30Tyr and Arg31Trp) in MT4 with frequencies reaching about 30% in African and Asian populations suggesting the gene is inactive in some individuals and physiological compensation for its loss must arise from a functional equivalent. Altogether our findings provide novel data on the evolution and diversification of MT gene duplicates, a valuable resource for understanding the vast set of biological processes in which these proteins are involved. PMID:21541013

  17. Response of sugarcane to increasing concentrations of copper and cadmium and expression of metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Maria Lorena; Almeida, Raul S; Nishimura, Deborah S; Figueira, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) offers the potential to be a phytoremediator species due to its outstanding biomass production, but its prospective metal accumulation and tolerance have not been fully characterized. Sugarcane plantlets were able to tolerate up to 100microM of copper in nutrient solution for 33 days, with no significant reduction in fresh weight, while accumulating 45mgCukg(-1) shoot dry weight. Higher levels of copper in solution (250 and 500microM) were lethal. Sugarcane displayed tolerance to 500microM Cd without symptoms of toxicity, accumulating 451mgCdkg(-1) shoot dry weight after 33 days, indicating its potential as Cd phytoremediator. DNA gel blot analyses detected 8 fragments using a metallothionein (MT) Type I probe, while 10 were revealed for the MT Type II and 8 for MT Type III. The number of genes for each type of MT in sugarcane might be similar to the ones identified in rice considering the interspecific origin of sugarcane cultivars. MT Type I gene appeared to present the highest level of constitutive expression, mainly in roots, followed by MT Type II, corroborating the expression pattern described based on large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing. MT Type II and III genes were more expressed in shoots, where MT I was also importantly expressed. Increasing Cu concentration had little or no effect in modulating MT genes expression, while an apparent minor modulation of some of the MT genes could be detected in Cd treatments. However, the level of response was too small to explain the tolerance and/or accumulation of Cd in sugarcane tissues. Thus, cadmium tolerance and accumulation in sugarcane might derive from other mechanisms, although MT may be involved in oxidative responses to high levels of Cd. Sugarcane can be considered a potential candidate to be tested in Cd phytoremediation. PMID:17175063

  18. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  19. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) influences the gene expression of metallothioneins in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Falnoga, Ingrid; Zelenik Pevec, Andreja; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Žnidari?, Magda Tušek; Zajc, Irena; Mlakar, Simona Jurkovi?; Marc, Janja

    2012-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO, TRISENOX®) is used to treat patients with refractory or relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia while its application for treatment of solid cancers like glioblastoma is still under evaluation. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of arsenic trioxide with metallothionein (MT) isoforms as a possible (protective response) resistance of glioblastoma cells to arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. Special attention was focused on MT3, the isoform expressed mainly in the brain. MT3 has low metal inducibility, fast metal binding/releasing properties and outstanding neuronal inhibitory activity. The human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) cell line U87 MG was treated with 0.6, 2 and 6-7 ?M arsenic (equivalent to 0.3, 1 and 3-3.5 ?M As(2)O(3)) for 12, 24 or 48 h and gene expression for different MT isoforms, namely MT2A, MT1A, MT1F, MT1X, MT1E and MT3, was measured by real time qPCR using SYBR Green I and Taqman® gene expression assays. TfR, 18S rRNA, GAPDH and AB were tested as reference genes, and the last two evaluated to be appropriate in conditions of low (GAPDH) and high (AB) arsenic exposure. The gene expression of MT3 gene was additionally tested and confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis with PvuII. In the given conditions the mRNAs of six MT isoforms were identified in human glioblastoma cell line U87 MG. Depending on arsenic exposure conditions, an increase or decrease of MT gene expression was observed for each isoform, with the highest increase for isoforms MT1X, MT1F and MT2A mRNA (up to 13-fold) and more persistent decreases for MT1A, MT1E and MT3 mRNA. Despite the common assumption of the noninducibility of MT3, the evident MT3 mRNA increase was observed during high As exposure (up to 4-fold). In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrate the influence of As on MT isoform gene expression. The MT1X, MT1F and MT2A increase could represent brain tumour acquired resistance to As cytotoxicity while the MT3 increase is more enigmatic, with its possible involvement in arsenic-related induction of type II cell death. PMID:22555517

  20. Characterization of calcineurin-dependent response element binding protein and its involvement in copper-metallothionein gene expression in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Kalari Satish [Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Ravi Kumar, B. [Discovery Research Laboratory, Dr. Reddy's Research Foundation, Miyapur, Hyderabad (India); Siddavattam, Dayananda [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Subramanyam, Chivukula [Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India)]. E-mail: csubramanyam@hotmail.com

    2006-07-07

    In continuation of our recent observations indicating the presence of a lone calcineurin-dependent response element (CDRE) in the -3730 bp upstream region of copper-induced metallothionein (CuMT) gene of Neurospora [K.S. Kumar, S. Dayananda, C. Subramanyam, Copper alone, but not oxidative stress, induces copper-metallothionein gene in Neurospora crassa, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242 (2005) 45-50], we isolated and characterized the CDRE-binding protein. The cloned upstream region of CuMT gene was used as the template to specifically amplify CDRE element, which was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B for use as the affinity matrix to purify the CDRE binding protein from nuclear extracts obtained from Neurospora cultures grown in presence of copper. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the affinity purified protein revealed the presence of a single 17 kDa protein, which was identified and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Peptide mass finger printing of tryptic digests and analysis of the 17 kDa protein matched with the regulatory {beta}-subunit of calcineurin (Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase). Parallel identification of nuclear localization signals in this protein by in silico analysis suggests a putative role for calcineurin in the regulation of CuMT gene expression.

  1. Cloning, characterization, expression, and copper sensitivity of the metallothionein-1 gene in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei RenHui; Hui Jiang; Jiangling Sun; Lin He; Weiwei Li; Ying Wang; Qun Wang

    2011-01-01

    A full-length metallothionein-1(MT-1) cDNA was cloned from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, based upon the hepatopancreas cDNA library. The full-length cDNA contained a single 180 bp open reading frame that encoded\\u000a a 59 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was cysteine (Cys)-rich, with residues observed in patterns characteristic\\u000a of other reported MTs: Cys–X–Cys, Cys–X–X–Cys, or Cys–X–X–X–Cys. Gene structure

  2. Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  3. MouseFinder: candidate disease genes from mouse phenotype data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Kung; Mungall, Christopher J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Doelken, Sandra C; Köhler, Sebastian; Ruef, Barbara J; Smith, Cynthia; Westerfield, Monte; Robinson, Peter N; Lewis, Suzanna E; Schofield, Paul N; Smedley, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Mouse phenotype data represents a valuable resource for the identification of disease-associated genes, especially where the molecular basis is unknown and there is no clue to the candidate gene’s function, pathway involvement or expression pattern. However, until recently these data have not been systematically used due to difficulties in mapping between clinical features observed in humans and mouse phenotype annotations. Here, we describe a semantic approach to solve this problem and demonstrate highly significant recall of known disease-gene associations and orthology relationships. A web application (MouseFinder; www.mousemodels.org) has been developed to allow users to search the results of our whole-phenome comparison of human and mouse. We demonstrate its use in identifying ARTN as a strong candidate gene within the 1p34.1-p32 mapped locus for a hereditary form of ptosis. PMID:22331800

  4. Changes in copper and zinc status and response to dietary copper deficiency in metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic mouse heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that metallothionein (MT) inhibits myocardial apoptosis induced by dietary copper restriction and that this inhibition is related to the antioxidant action of MT. However, the mechanism of action of MT in vivo is not known. Recent studies have suggested that zinc release ...

  5. Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by oxidative stress and metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen K Andrews

    2000-01-01

    The metallothioneins (MT) are small, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in an array of protective stress responses. Although a single essential function of MT has not been demonstrated, MT of higher eukaryotes evolved as a mechanism to regulate zinc levels and distribution within cells and organisms. These proteins can also protect against some toxic metals and oxidative stress-inducing agents.

  6. Transgenic Brassica napus and tobacco plants harboring human metallothionein gene are resistant to toxic levels of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, S. (Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned human metallothionein-II (MT-II) processed gene was introduced into Brassica napus and tobacco cells on a disarmed Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transformants expressed MT protein as a nuclear trait, and in a constitutive manner. Seeds from self-fertilized transgenic plants were germinated on media containing toxic levels of cadmium and scored for tolerance/susceptibility to this heavy metal. The growth of root and shoot of transformed seedlings was unaffected by up to 100{mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, whereas, control seedlings showed severe inhibition of root and shoot growth and chlorosis of leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that agriculturally important plants such a B. napus can be genetically engineered for heavy metals tolerance/sequestration and eventually for partitioning of heavy metals in non-consumed plant tissues.

  7. A streptavidin-metallothionein chimera that allows specific labeling of biological materials with many different heavy metal ions.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, T; Glazer, A N; Cantor, C R

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a streptavidin-metallothionein chimeric protein in which the streptavidin moiety provides a means of binding the metallothionein moiety tightly to specific biological targets. A gene fusion of streptavidin with mouse metallothionein I was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed chimeric protein was purified to homogeneity by a simple procedure. The purified chimera, consisting of four identical subunits, bound one biotin and approximately seven Cd2+ ions per subunit (19.5 kDa). This indicates that both the streptavidin and the metallothionein moieties are fully functional. The high binding affinity of the chimera both for biotin and for heavy metal ions allows the specific labeling or conjugation of any biological material containing unhindered biotin with a variety of different heavy metal ions and their isotopes, thereby opening the way for simultaneous assay systems for a large number of biological targets. Images PMID:1542645

  8. Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression

    E-print Network

    Bonner, Anthony

    Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression Emad Andrews. emad@cs.toronto.edu Abstract. Identifying gene function has many useful applications especially in Gene Therapy. Identifying gene function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than

  9. Comparative Gene Prediction in Human and Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genis Parra; Pankaj Agarwal; Josep F. Abril; Thomas Wiehe; James W. Fickett; Roderic Guigo

    2003-01-01

    The completion of the sequencing of the mouse genome promises to help predict human genes with greater accuracy. While current ab initio gene prediction programs are remarkably sensitive (i.e., they predict at least a fragment of most genes), their specificity is often low, predicting a large number of false-positive genes in the human genome. Sequence conservation at the protein level

  10. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 ?mol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 ?mol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  11. cDNA sequence encoding metallothionein protein from Aegiceras corniculatum and its gene expression induced by Pb²? and Cd²? stresses.

    PubMed

    Yuhong, Li; Atagana, Harrison I; Jingchun, Liu; Wenlin, Wu; Shijun, Wu

    2013-12-01

    Constructing various green wetland examples for mangrove wetland systems is a useful way to use natural power to remediate the polluted wetlands at intertidal zones. Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in heavy metal tolerance, homeostasis, and detoxification of intracellular metal ions in plants. In order to understand the mechanism of heavy metal uptake in Aegiceras corniculatum, we isolated its metallothionein gene and studied the MT gene expression in response to heavy metals contamination. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of MT2 genes from young stem tissues of A. corniculatum growing in the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) polluted wetlands of Quanzhou Bay, southeast of China. The obtained cDNA sequence of MT is 512 bp in length, and it has an open reading frame encoding 79 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 7.92 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point of 4.55. The amino acids include 14 cysteine residues and 14 glycine residues. It is a non-transmembrane hydrophilic protein. Sequence and homology analysis showed the MT protein sequence shared more than 60% homology with other plant type 2 MT-like protein genes. The results suggested that the expression level of MT gene of A. corniculatum young stems induced by a certain range concentration of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) stresses (0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), and 40 ?mmol L(-1) Cd(2+); 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 ?mol L(-1) Cd(2+)) compared with control might show an adaptive protection. The expression levels of MT gene at 20 h stress treatment were higher than those at 480 h stress treatment. The expression levels of MT gene with 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) stress treatment were higher than those with 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 ?mol L(-1) Cd(2+) stress treatment, and the MT gene expression levels with 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) treatment were higher than those with 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 ?mol L(-1) Cd(2+) treatment. There exists an antagonistic action between Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in the MT metabolization of A. corniculatum. PMID:23856811

  12. CiMT-1, an unusual chordate metallothionein gene in Ciona intestinalis genome: structure and expression studies.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Nicola; Boldrin, Francesco; Ballarin, Loriano; Piccinni, Ester

    2011-02-01

    The present article reports on the characterization of the urochordate metallothionein (MT) gene, CiMT-1, from the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The predicted protein is shorter than other known deuterostome MTs, having only 39 amino acids. The gene has the same tripartite structure as vertebrate MTs, with some features resembling those of echinoderm MTs. The promoter region shows the canonical cis-acting elements recognized by transcription factors that respond to metal, ROS, and cytokines. Unusual sequences, described in fish and echinoderms, are also present. In situ hybridization suggests that only a population of hemocytes involved in immune responses, i.e. granular amebocytes, express CiMT-1 mRNA. These observations support the idea that urochordates perform detoxification through hemocytes, and that MTs may play important roles in inflammatory humoral responses in tunicates. The reported data offer new clues for better understanding the evolution of these multivalent proteins from non-vertebrate to vertebrate chordates and reinforce their functions in detoxification and immunity. PMID:21328559

  13. Prognostic evaluation of metallothionein expression in human colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Ioachim, E E; Goussia, A C; Agnantis, N J; Machera, M; Tsianos, E V; Kappas, A M

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metallothionein in colorectal tumours and the possible relation with other factors associated with tumour progression: expression of cathepsin D (CD), CD44, p53, Rb, bcl-2, c-erbB-2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proliferation indices (Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)), and conventional clinicopathological variables. METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of metallothionein was investigated in 23 cases of colorectal adenoma and 94 adenocarcinomas. Metallothionein expression was examined by the avidinbiotin peroxidase immunoperoxidase (ABC) using the monoclonal mouse antibody E9, on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. RESULTS: Positive metallothionein expression (> 5% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 30.4% of adenomas and 25.5% of adenocarcinomas, while 8.7% of adenomas and 14.9% carcinomas showed focal metallothionein positivity. In contrast, 60.9% of adenomas and 59.6% of carcinomas almost completely lacked metallothionein expression. In the series of adenocarcinomas, metallothionein expression was inversely correlated with CD44 in neoplastic cells (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference of metallothionein expression, or the other variables examined, between adenocarcinomas and adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: Metallothionein expression does not seem to indicate aggressive biological behaviour in colorectal adenocarcinomas, in comparison with the other types of carcinoma. The inverse correlation with CD44 could suggest that the decreased metallothionein expression may contribute to the metastatic spread of the lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer. Metallothionein expression does not seem to represent an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Images PMID:10711249

  14. Clusters of genes encoding mouse transplantation antigens.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, M; Winoto, A; Minard, K; Hood, L

    1982-03-01

    We constructed a cosmid library from BALB/c mouse sperm DNA and isolated 64 cosmid clones with cDNA probes for transplantation antigens (class I molecules). Of these clones, 54 mapped into 13 gene clusters containing 36 distinct class I genes and encompassing 837 kilobases of DNA. One gene cluster mapped to the L region and a second cluster with seven genes to the Qa-2,3 region of the major histocompatibility complex. Restriction map and Southern blot analyses suggest that there are subgroups of class I genes. Using a 5' flanking sequence of the L gene as a hybridization probe, we show the L gene to be present in mouse strains expressing this antigen but deleted or mutated in strains failing to express it. Our data suggest that gene duplication and deletion presumably by homologous but unequal crossing-over has altered the size and organization of the class I clusters in different mouse strains and probably is an important mechanism for generating polymorphism in these genes. Analysis of the 36 class I genes with cDNA probes specific for the 5' and 3' ends shows that the exon encoding the third external domain is far more conserved than those encoding the first and second external domains of the transplantation antigen. These differences in variability have interesting functional implications. PMID:6280871

  15. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2012-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GST as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8-48 hr) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to cadmium, whereas, more pronounced effects in olfactory and gill GST expression were observed at 48 hr relative to earlier time points. Although evaluation of GSTs reflected a cadmium-associated oxidative stress response, there was no clear GST isoform in any tissue that could serve as a reliable biomarker of acute cadmium exposure. By contrast, metallothionein (MT) mRNA was consistently and markedly induced in all three tissues by cadmium, and among the tissues examined, olfactory MT was the most sensitive marker of cadmium exposures. In summary, coho salmon exhibit a complex GST tissue profile consisting of at least 9 isoforms, all of which are present in the peripheral olfactory system. Short-term exposure to environmental levels of Cd causes transient changes in salmon GST consistent with oxidative stress, and in some cases, includes a loss of GST. In a biomarker context, however, monitoring of tissue MT mRNA expression, especially in the peripheral olfactory system, may be of greater utility for assessing short-term environmental exposures to cadmium. PMID:22257444

  16. Expression of the Human Growth Hormone Variant Gene in Cultured Fibroblasts and Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Selden; Thomas E. Wagner; Sandra Blethen; Jeung S. Yun; Mary Ellen Rowe; Howard M. Goodman

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, we have expressed a mouse metallothionein I\\/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in

  17. Global Gene Expression Analysis of the Developing Postnatal Mouse Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I. Dorrell; Edith Aguilar; Christoph Weber; Martin Friedlander

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Postnatal mouse retinal development involves glial and neuronal differentiation, vascularization, and the onset of vision. In the current study, the gene expression profiles of thousands of genes in the developing postnatal mouse retina were analyzed and compared in a large-scale, unbiased microar- ray gene expression analysis. METHODS. For each of eight different time points during post- natal mouse retinal

  18. Breaking-off tissue specific activity of the oil palm metallothionein-like gene promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato exposed to metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kamaladini, Hossein; Nor Akmar Abdullah, Siti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ismail, Ismanizan Bin; Haddadi, Fatemeh

    2013-02-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are involved in cell growth regulation, transportation of metal ions and detoxification of heavy metals. A mesocarp-specific metallothionein-like gene (MT3-A) promoter was isolated from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). A vector construct containing the MT3-A promoter fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in the pCAMBIA 1304 vector was produced and used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato. Histochemical GUS assay of different tissues of transgenic tomato showed that the MT3-A promoter only drove GUS expression in the reproductive tissues and organs, including the anther, fruit and seed coat. Competitive RT-PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity in the transgenic tomato (T(0)). No GUS mRNA was found in roots and leaves of transgenic tomato. In contrast, the leaves of transgenic tomato seedlings (T(1)) produced the highest GUS activity when treated with 150 ?M Cu(2+) compared to the control (without Cu(2+)). However, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) treatments did not show GUS expression in the leaves of the transgenic tomato seedlings. Interestingly, the results showed a breaking-off tissue-specific activity of the oil palm MT3-A promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato when subjected to Cu(2+) ions. PMID:23290536

  19. Promoter architecture of mouse olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Plessy, Charles; Pascarella, Giovanni; Bertin, Nicolas; Akalin, Altuna; Carrieri, Claudia; Vassalli, Anne; Lazarevic, Dejan; Severin, Jessica; Vlachouli, Christina; Simone, Roberto; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Kawai, Jun; Daub, Carsten O.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Mombaerts, Peter; Lenhard, Boris; Gustincich, Stefano; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Odorous chemicals are detected by the mouse main olfactory epithelium (MOE) by about 1100 types of olfactory receptors (OR) expressed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Each mature OSN is thought to express only one allele of a single OR gene. Major impediments to understand the transcriptional control of OR gene expression are the lack of a proper characterization of OR transcription start sites (TSSs) and promoters, and of regulatory transcripts at OR loci. We have applied the nanoCAGE technology to profile the transcriptome and the active promoters in the MOE. nanoCAGE analysis revealed the map and architecture of promoters for 87.5% of the mouse OR genes, as well as the expression of many novel noncoding RNAs including antisense transcripts. We identified candidate transcription factors for OR gene expression and among them confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation the binding of TBP, EBF1 (OLF1), and MEF2A to OR promoters. Finally, we showed that a short genomic fragment flanking the major TSS of the OR gene Olfr160 (M72) can drive OSN-specific expression in transgenic mice. PMID:22194471

  20. Metallothionein: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Thirumoorthy, N; Manisenthil Kumar, KT; Shyam Sundar, A; Panayappan, L; Chatterjee, Malay

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) were discovered in 1957 by Margoshes and Vallee and identified as low-molecular weight and sulphydryl rich proteins. It is not surprising that most mammalian tissues contain age related basal levels of MTs since they are involved in metalloregulatory processes that include cell growth and multiplication. In an effort to understand the biology of this intriguing tumor, various biomarkers such as oncogenes, p53 tumor suppressor gene, waf 1 protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, telomerase, microsatellite markers and cytogenetic changes have been examined. One biomarker which has recently shown to be expressed in various human tumors but still less reported in carcinoma is MT. Immunohistochemical detection of MT proteins in cold acetone-fixed paraffin embedded liver sections was performed by the streptavidin-avidin-biotin immuno-peroxidase complex method. PMID:17373731

  1. EMAGE: Electronic Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lorna; Stevenson, Peter; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nick; Rao, Jianguo; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Baldock, Richard A; Davidson, Duncan R

    2014-01-01

    The EMAGE (Electronic Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression) database (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage) allows users to perform on-line queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE data are represented spatially using a framework of 3D mouse embryo models, thus allowing uniquely spatial queries to be carried out alongside more traditional text-based queries. This spatial representation of the data also allows a comparison of spatial similarity between the expression patterns. The data are mapped to the models by a team of curators using bespoke mapping software, and the associated meta-data are curated for accuracy and completeness. The data contained in EMAGE are gathered from three main sources: from the published literature, through large-scale screens and collaborations, and via direct submissions from researchers. There are a variety of ways to query the EMAGE database via the on-line search interfaces, as well as via direct computational script-based queries. EMAGE is a free, on-line, community resource funded by the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:24318814

  2. [The relationship between mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene and the human counterpart gene].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-ping; Zhang, Si-zhong; Xia, Qing-jie

    2002-07-01

    The cloning of human fertilization antigen 1 gene(FA1) ,the supposed counterpart gene of mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene (FA1),was performed using the PCR and PCR products cloned sequencing methods. The result shows that there might be two mistakes in the mouse FA1 gene open reading frame (ORF),and human OTK27 gene and mouse FA1 gene might be homogeneous genes in the two species. PMID:16135423

  3. Functional analysis of mouse Polycomb group genes.

    PubMed

    van Lohuizen, M

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of genes, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G), have been identified in Drosophila to provide a transcriptional memory mechanism. They ensure the maintenance of transcription patterns of key regulators such as the Hox genes and thereby the correct execution of developmental programmes. Recent data suggest that this memory mechanism is conserved in vertebrates and plants. Here we discuss current insights into the role of mouse Pc-G genes, with a particular focus on the best-studied Bmi1, Mel18 and M33 genes, as representative examples. Common phenotypes observed in knockout mice mutant for each of these genes indicate an important role for Pc-G genes not only in regulation of Hox gene expression and axial skeleton development but also in control of proliferation and survival of haematopoietic cell lineages. Proliferation defects are also observed in other cell lineages derived from these null-mutant mice, and provide new tools to study the impact of Pc-G deregulation on cell cycle control. PMID:9487388

  4. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  5. In cortical cultures of trisomy 16 mouse brain the upregulated metallothionein-I\\/II fails to respond to H 2O 2 exposure or glutamate receptor stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzia Scortegagna; Zygmunt Galdzicki; Stanley I. Rapoport; Ingeborg Hanbauer

    1998-01-01

    To assess whether a defective oxidative defense may contribute to Down's syndrome, we studied the regulation of the metallothionein(MT)-I\\/II isoforms in primary cultures of cerebral cortex from fetal trisomy 16 mice and their euploid littermates. Western blot analysis showed that MT-I\\/II was upregulated and the protein carbonyl content was higher in trisomy 16 compared with euploid cultures. Addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine

  6. ScMT2-1-3, a Metallothionein Gene of Sugarcane, Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700?bp long, including a 240?bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd2+, Cu2+, PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu2+ stress but downregulated under Cd2+ stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd2+. ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties. PMID:23781509

  7. ScMT2-1-3, a metallothionein gene of sugarcane, plays an important role in the regulation of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700 bp long, including a 240 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd(2+), Cu(2+), PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu(2+) stress but downregulated under Cd(2+) stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd(2+). ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties. PMID:23781509

  8. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 ?M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 ?M CuCl2, 220 ?M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors. PMID:25572229

  9. Gene Trap Insertion Into a Novel Gene Expressed During Mouse Limb Development

    E-print Network

    Pires da Silva, Andre

    Gene Trap Insertion Into a Novel Gene Expressed During Mouse Limb Development ANDRE´ PIRES¨ttingen, Germany ABSTRACT Gene trapping is a useful method to identify new genes involved in development. Here we describe the spatiotemporal expression of a gene identified in a gene-trap screen. This gene is first

  10. Random cloning of genes from mouse chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, M; Figueroa, F; Klein, J

    1987-01-01

    We describe a method for isolating cosmid clones randomly from mouse chromosome 17. A cosmid library was constructed from the mouse-Chinese hamster cell line R4 4-1 that contains a limited amount of mouse DNA (chromosomes 17 and 18 and some other unidentified material) on a Chinese hamster background. The library was screened with the murine repetitive sequence probe pMBA14, which selectively hybridizes with mouse DNA. The mouse-derived cosmid clones thus identified were individually hybridized with DNA from the mouse-Syrian hamster cell line JS17 containing all mouse chromosomes except chromosome 17 on a Syrian hamster background. We deduced that the cosmid clones that contained sequences absent in JS17 were derived from mouse chromosome 17. One of the chromosome 17-derived cosmid clones, 3-4-1 (located proximal to the T122/T66C segment) was found to be highly polymorphic among European wild-mouse populations and may be a useful probe to elucidate the evolution and migration of Mus species. The randomly isolated mouse-derived cosmid clones can also be screened for the presence of functional genes. Using testicular cDNA as a probe, a testis-specific gene was cloned from mouse chromosome 17. Images PMID:3472212

  11. Functional analysis of a Douglas-fir metallothionein-like gene promoter: transient assays in zygotic and somatic embryos and stable transformation in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Chatthai, Malinee; Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Yevtushenko, Dmytro; Misra, Santosh

    2004-11-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco) metallothionein (PmMT) cDNA encodes a novel cysteine- and serine-rich MT, indicating a new subtype or prototype MT from which other plant MTs may have evolved. A genomic library of Douglas-fir was screened using MT cDNA probes, and genomic sequences that mediate tissue-specific, temporal as well as inducible expression of the embryo-specific MT-gene were analyzed. The promoter region of the PmMT genomic clone (gPmMT) contained a hexameric G-box, two putative ethylene-responsive elements and an inverted repeat of a motif similar to the core metal regulatory element. Interestingly, comparison of the upstream region of Douglas-fir gPm2S1 and gPmMTa genes revealed a conserved motif, CATTATTGA, not found in any known angiosperm gene promoter. Chimeric gene constructs containing a series of deletions in the gPmMTa promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene were assayed in Douglas-fir and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transient-expression assays in Douglas-fir megagametophyte and zygotic embryos indicated that the sequence -190 to +88 of gPmMTa was sufficient to drive the expression of the reporter gene and that the 225-bp fragment (-677 to -453) contained sequences necessary for high-level expression. In transgenic tobacco seedlings the beta-glucuronidase activity was localized in the vacuolar tissue and proliferating tissue of the auxiliary buds and stem elongation zone. The gPmMTa promoter was not active in the seeds of transgenic tobacco or in the roots of seedlings up to 3 weeks old. Detailed studies of transient expression and stable transformation provided important information on evolutionary conservation as well as novel features found in the conifer promoter. This is the first report of an MT-like gene promoter from conifers. PMID:15349778

  12. Metallothionein and the Biology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein with anti-apoptotic properties that has been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro. MT has not been extensively investigated within the context of aging biology. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss findings on MT that are relevant to basic aging mechanisms and to draw attention to the possible role of MT in pro-longevity interventions. MT is one of just a handful of proteins that, when overexpressed, has been demonstrated to increase mouse lifespan. MT also protects against development of obesity in mice provided a high fat diet as well as diet-induced oxidative stress damage. Abundance of MT is responsive to caloric restriction (CR) and inhibition of the insulin / insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway, and elevated MT gene expression has been observed in tissues from fasted and CR-fed mice, long-lived dwarf mice, worms maintained under CR conditions, and long-lived daf-2 mutant worms. The dysregulation of MT in these systems is likely to have tissue-specific effects on aging outcomes. Further investigation will therefore be needed to understand how MT contributes to the response of invertebrates and mice to CR and the endocrine mutations studied by aging researchers. PMID:20933613

  13. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase and DNA Methyltransferase Synergistically Activate the Methylated Metallothionein I Promoter by Activating the Transcription Factor MTF1 and Forming an Open Chromatin Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalpana Ghoshal; Jharna Datta; Sarmila Majumder; Shoumei Bai; Xiaocheng Dong; Mark Parthun; Samson T. Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) synergistically activate the methylated metallothionein I gene (MT-I) promoter in mouse lymphosarcoma cells. The cooperative effect of these two classes of inhibitors on MT-I promoter activity was robust following demethylation of only a few CpG dinucleotides by brief exposure to 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) but persisted even after prolonged treatment with the nucleoside

  14. Effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness: an update.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Junqiang; Gu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO) mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE) between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD). Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity. PMID:25110693

  15. Differential gene expression in the developing mouse ureter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor K. L. Mitchell; Darrin F. Taylor; Kyra Woods; Melissa J. Davis; Amy L. Nelson; Rohan D. Teasdale; Sean M. Grimmond; Melissa H. Little; John F. Bertram; Georgina Caruana

    2006-01-01

    In many instances, kidney dysgenesis results as a secondary consequence to defects in the development of the ureter. Through the use of mouse genetics a number of genes associated with such malformations have been identified, however, the cause of many other abnormalities remain unknown. In order to identify novel genes involved in ureter development we compared gene expression in embryonic

  16. Gene Transfer Mediated by Recombinant Baculovirus into Mouse Eye

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    , epithelial, and neuronal cells. BV may be a useful vector for transferring genes in cultured cellsGene Transfer Mediated by Recombinant Baculovirus into Mouse Eye Franc¸oise Haeseleer,1 Yoshikazu of baculoviruses (BVs) to transfer recombinant genes in vivo into murine ocular tissues. METHODS. Recombinant (r

  17. Organismal complexity, cell differentiation and gene expression: human over mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander E. Vinogradov; Olga V. Anatskaya

    2007-01-01

    We present a molecular and cellular phenomenon underlying the intriguing increase in phenotypic organizational complexity. For the same set of human-mouse orthologous genes (11 534 gene pairs) and homologous tissues (32 tissue pairs), human shows a greater fraction of tissue-specific genes and a greater ratio of the total expression of tissue-specific genes to housekeeping genes in each studied tissue, which

  18. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 ?m mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation. PMID:21518240

  19. Characterization and expression of a metallothionein gene in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Schor-Fumbarov, Tamar; Goldsbrough, Peter B; Adam, Zach; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2005-12-01

    A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein (MT) was isolated from Azolla filiculoides, termed AzMT2, accession no. AF482470. The AzMT2 transcript was expressed in sterile A. filiculoides that were free of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae after erythromycin treatment, proving that AzMT2 is encoded by the fern genome. AzMT2 RNA expression was enhanced by the addition of Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Zn(+2) and Ni(+2) to the growth medium. The transcript level of AzMT2 correlated with the metal content in the plants. Temporal analysis of AzMT2 expression demonstrated that Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) induction of AzMT2 RNA expression occurred within 48 h. AzMT2-enhanced expression responded more intensely to the toxic Cd and Ni ions in A. filiculoides suggesting that AzMT2 may participate in detoxification mechanism. The more moderate response of AzMT2 to Zn and Cu ions, which are essential micronutrients, suggest a role for AzMT2 in metal homeostasis. PMID:16133213

  20. Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S.; Wright, Matthew W.; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Cox, Laura A.; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko; Ishibashi, Shun; Lehner, Richard; Miyazaki, Masao; Perkins, Everett J.; Potter, Phillip M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Robert, Jacques; Satoh, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Yan, Bingfan; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Zechner, Rudolf; Maltais, Lois J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and “CES” (human) and “Ces” (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding “P” and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species. PMID:20931200

  1. Differential gene expression in mouse retina related to regional differences in vulnerability to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Krisztina; Stone, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In the C57BL/6J mouse retina, hyperoxia-induced degeneration of photoreceptors shows strong regional variation, beginning at a locus ~0.5 mm inferior to the optic disc. To identify gene expression differences that might underlie this variability in vulnerability, we have used microarray techniques to describe regional (superior-inferior) variations in gene expression in the retina. Methods Young adult C57BL/6J mice raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h at 5 lx and 12 h in darkness) were exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen for two weeks). Retinas were collected from hyperoxia-exposed and control animals without fixation and divided into superior and inferior halves. RNA was extracted from each sample, purified, and hybridized to Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix). The consistency of the microarray results was assessed using quantitative PCR for selected genes. Expression data were analyzed to identify genes and ncRNAs whose differential expression between the superior and inferior retina could be associated with relative vulnerability to hyperoxia. Results In control retinas, only two genes showed a fold difference in expression >2 between the superior and inferior retina; another 25 showed a fold difference of 1.5–2.0. Of these 27, the functions of six genes, including ventral anterior homeobox containing gene 2 (Vax2) and T-box 5 (Tbox5), are related to parameters of anatomic development and the functions of five are related to sensory perception. Among the latter, short-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1sw) was more strongly expressed in the inferior retina and medium-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1mw) in the superior retina. This is consistent with known differences in S- and M-cone distribution, confirming our separation of retinal regions. The highest fold difference was reported for membrane metalloendopeptidase (Mme), a member from the metallothionein group of cytoprotective proteins. To identify genes whose regulation by hyperoxia was significantly different between the inferior and superior retina, we calculated the “fold margin” (FM, the difference between hyperoxia-induced regulation in the inferior and superior retina) for each gene, and identified genes for which abs(FM) > 0.5. Genes thus identified numbered 112, and included many immune-, cell defense-, and inflammation- related genes. Conclusions Gene expression analysis revealed relatively subtle differences between inferior and superior regions of control C57BL/6J retinas, with only 27 genes showing an expression difference >1.5 fold. Among these, genes related to cytoprotection and apoptosis were included, along with genes related to central projections and cone-type differences. After hyperoxia-induced photoreceptor degeneration had begun, the number of genes that showed significant expression differences between the inferior and superior retina more than quadrupled, with genes related to immune processes, defense processes, and inflammation being numerically dominant. PMID:20454693

  2. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others] [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Enhanced Copper Tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Populations from Copper Mines Is Associated with Increased Transcript Levels of a 2b-Type Metallothionein Gene1

    PubMed Central

    van Hoof, Nathalie A.L.M.; Hassinen, Viivi H.; Hakvoort, Henk W.J.; Ballintijn, Koos F.; Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A.C.; Ernst, Wilfried H.O.; Karenlampi, Sirpa O.; Tervahauta, Arja I.

    2001-01-01

    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke has evolved populations with extremely high levels of copper tolerance. To evaluate the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in copper tolerance in S. vulgaris, we screened a cDNA library derived from a highly copper-tolerant population using Arabidopsis-based MT probes and identified an MT2b-like gene. When expressed in yeast, this gene, SvMT2b, restored cadmium and copper tolerance in different hypersensitive strains. Northern-blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that plants from the copper-tolerant S. vulgaris populations had significantly higher transcript levels of SvMT2b than plants from the copper-sensitive populations, both in roots and shoots and with and without copper exposure. Southern-blot analysis suggested that the higher expression of the latter allele was caused by gene amplification. Segregating families of crosses between copper-sensitive and copper-tolerant plants exhibited a 1 to 3 segregation for SvMT2b expression. Allele-specific PCR showed that low-expression F3 plants were homozygous for the allele inherited from the copper-sensitive parent, whereas high-expression plants possessed at least one allele from the tolerant parent. SvMT2b expression did not cosegregate with copper tolerance in crosses between sensitive and tolerant plants. However, a significant cosegregation with copper tolerance did occur in families derived from crosses between moderately tolerant F3 plants with different SvMT2b genotypes. Thus, overexpression of SvMT2b conferred copper tolerance although only within the genetic background of a copper tolerant plant. PMID:11500550

  4. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  5. The mouse Ftzf1 gene required for gonadal and adrenal development maps to mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, S.; Ashworth, A. [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-10

    The nuclear steroid receptor-like protein steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), encoded by the fuschi tarazu factor-1 (Ftzf1) gene, is essential for the development of steroidogenic organs and normal sexual differentiation. We have localized the Ftzf1 gene to the proxiaml part of mouse chromosome 2. Based on previous mapping efforts and synteny between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 9, it is likely that the human homologue FTZF1 gene will localize to human chromosome 9q33-qter. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Genomic organization and expression of mouse Tpt1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giusy Fiucci; Alexandra Lespagnol; Pamela Stumptner-Cuvelette; Séverine Beaucourt; Dominique Duflaut; Laurent Susini; Robert Amson; Adam Telerman

    2003-01-01

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), also known as histamine-releasing factor (HRF), is encoded by a gene (Tpt1) that is highly conserved throughout phylogeny. TCTP is implicated in cell growth, acute allergic response, and apoptosis. In the present study, seven putative Tpt1 genes with different chromosomal localizations were identified in the mouse genome. In six of them, analysis of the

  7. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Zorita, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Bilbao, E. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Schad, A. [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Cancio, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, M. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-04-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

  8. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity in metallothionein-null mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Rofe; E. F Barry; T. L Shelton; J. C Philcox; P Coyle

    1998-01-01

    The role of metallothionein (MT) in protecting the liver against paracetamol (PCT) toxicity was investigated in vivo and in vitro in mice lacking expression of MT?1 and MT?2 genes (MT?\\/?). In the fed, glycogen replete state, hepatotoxicity (PCT 300 mg\\/kg i.p.) at 6 h was significantly greater in MT?\\/? than MT+\\/+ mice. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

  9. Cloning, characterization and mapping of the mouse trehalase (Treh) gene.

    PubMed

    Oesterreicher, T J; Markesich, D C; Henning, S J

    2001-05-30

    Trehalase is the least studied of the membrane-bound alpha- glucosidase enzymes. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the mouse trehalase (Treh) gene. Initially, PCR using primers based on published rat cDNA sequence was used to clone a partial mouse cDNA. This allowed design of mouse primers which identified a single positive clone in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of mouse genomic DNA. Analysis of BAC subclones showed that the Treh structural gene spans approximately 13 kb and comprises 15 exons. Data from genomic Southern blotting were consistent with mouse Treh being a single copy gene. The transcription initiation site was determined by both S1 nuclease mapping and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RACE) to be located 25 nt upstream of the ATG in exon 1. The mouse Treh exons were found to have an open reading frame of 1728 nt and the encoded protein of 576 amino acids showed 81, 82 and 93% amino acid sequence identity with rabbit, human and rat trehalase, respectively. The trehalase signature sequence found at amino acids 162 to 175 had 100% identity with the corresponding region of rabbit, human and rat and 79% identity with that for yeast trehalase. When a mouse Treh cDNA was used for Northern blot analysis of RNA from 12 mouse tissues, Treh mRNA expression was detected only in kidney and small intestine. The size of the mRNA in both of these tissues was estimated to be approximately 2.1 kb, furthermore both tissues appear to have the same transcription initiation site as determined by nuclease protection. Using the T31 radiation hybrid panel, mouse Treh was shown to be located on Chromosome 9 in a broad region that is orthologous with human Chromosome 11q23. The human trehalase gene (TREH) was identified in the latter location via database searching, which also revealed the overall structure of the human gene as being similar to that of the mouse. PMID:11404018

  10. Lentiviral gene transduction of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    van Til, Niek P; Wagemaker, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors can be used to genetically modify a broad range of cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are particularly suitable for lentiviral gene augmentation, because these cells can be enriched with relative ease from mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic sources, and in principle require relatively limited cell numbers to completely reconstitute the hematopoietic system in vivo. Furthermore, lentiviral vectors are very efficient if pseudotyped with broad tropism envelope proteins. This chapter focuses on gene modification by the use of self-inactivating third-generation human immunodeficiency virus-derived lentiviral vectors for ex vivo HSC modification for both mouse and human application. PMID:25062638

  11. A Provisional Gene Regulatory Atlas for Mouse Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hailin; VanBuren, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD. PMID:24421884

  12. A provisional gene regulatory atlas for mouse heart development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hailin; VanBuren, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD. PMID:24421884

  13. Bi-allelic gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tate, Peri H; Skarnes, William C

    2011-04-01

    The EUCOMM and KOMP programs have generated targeted conditional alleles in mouse embryonic stem cells for nearly 10,000 genes. The availability of these stem cell resources will greatly accelerate the functional analysis of genes in mice and in cultured cells. We present a method for conditional ablation of genes in ES cells using vectors and targeted clones from the EUCOMM and KOMP conditional resources. Inducible homozygous cells described here provide a precisely controlled experimental system to study gene function in a model cell. PMID:21288739

  14. Genomic organization and expression of mouse Tpt1 gene.

    PubMed

    Fiucci, Giusy; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Stumptner-Cuvelette, Pamela; Beaucourt, Séverine; Duflaut, Dominique; Susini, Laurent; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam

    2003-06-01

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), also known as histamine-releasing factor (HRF), is encoded by a gene (Tpt1) that is highly conserved throughout phylogeny. TCTP is implicated in cell growth, acute allergic response, and apoptosis. In the present study, seven putative Tpt1 genes with different chromosomal localizations were identified in the mouse genome. In six of them, analysis of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions revealed the presence of flanking direct repeats and residual poly(A) tails typical of pseudogenes. Only three of the seven genes can produce a protein of the expected molecular weight. We isolated the genomic DNA of these three genes to analyze their sequence, genomic organization, and in vitro promoter activity. We found that mouse Tpt1 is localized on chromosome 14 with a canonical intron-exon organization, a functional promoter, and only one transcript that is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. PMID:12782126

  15. Three-dimensional positioning of genes in mouse cell nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Hepperger; Alexander Mannes; Julia Merz; Jürgen Peters; Steffen Dietzel

    2008-01-01

    To understand the regulation of the genome, it is necessary to understand its three-dimensional organization in the nucleus.\\u000a We investigated the positioning of eight gene loci on four different chromosomes, including the ?-globin gene, in mouse embryonic\\u000a stem cells and in in vitro differentiated macrophages by fluorescence in situ hybridization on structurally preserved nuclei,\\u000a confocal microscopy, and 3D quantitative image

  16. Gene function in mouse embryogenesis: get set for gastrulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. F. Loebel; Patrick P. L. Tam

    2007-01-01

    During early mouse embryogenesis, temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression and cell signalling influences lineage specification, embryonic polarity, the patterning of tissue progenitors and the morphogenetic movement of cells and tissues. Uniquely in mammals, the extraembryonic tissues are the source of signals for lineage specification and tissue patterning. Here we discuss recent discoveries about the lead up to gastrulation,

  17. Direct Gene Transfer into Mouse Muscle in Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon A. Wolff; Robert W. Malone; Phillip Williams; Wang Chong; Gyula Acsadi; Agnes Jani; Philip L. Felgner

    1990-01-01

    RNA and DNA expression vectors containing genes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, luciferase, and beta-galactosidase were separately injected into mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Protein expression was readily detected in all cases, and no special delivery system was required for these effects. The extent of expression from both the RNA and DNA constructs was comparable to that obtained from fibroblasts transfected in

  18. The chromosomal location of the mouse mammary tumor gene Int6 and related pseudogenes in the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.; Buttitta, F.; Gallahan, D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others

    1995-06-10

    The Int6 gene is a common insertion site for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in mouse mammary tumors. We have determined that this gene is located centromeric of the Myc protooncogene on mouse chromosome 15. In the mouse genome there are several other Int6-reactive restriction fragments that are located on mouse chromosomes 6, 11, 14, 17, and 18. Nucleotide sequence analysis of four of six of these additional Int6 fragments showed that they contain processed Int6 pseudogenes. Comparisons between the Int6 genes of the inbred mouse laboratory strains and the wild mouse species Mus spretus and Mus mus musculus indicate that some pseudogenes were present before divergence of these species and others were acquired since their separation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  20. Functional analysis of mouse Polycomb group genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. van Lohuizen

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of genes, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G), have been identified in Drosophila to provide a transcriptional memory mechanism. They ensure the maintenance of transcription patterns of key regulators such as the Hox genes and thereby the correct execution of developmental programmes. Recent data suggest that this memory mechanism is conserved in vertebrates and plants. Here

  1. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by promoter hypermethylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear. Methods Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis. Results The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG’s methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P?genes that may be implicated in MT3 overexpression and apoptosis in AML, including FOXO1. Conclusion MT3 may be a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. Epigenetic inactivation of MT3 via promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples. Overexpression of MT3 may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in AML cells. FOXO1 was dysregulated in MT3-overexpressing cells, offering an insight into the mechanism of MT3-induced apoptosis. However, further research is required to determine the underlying molecular details. PMID:24962166

  2. Metallothioneins: new functional and structural insights.

    PubMed

    Vasák, M; Hasler, D W

    2000-04-01

    In the past few years, tissue-specific mammalian metallothioneins (i. e. metallothionein-3 and metallothionein-4) have been discovered that possess distinct functional properties. Other recent developments include an insight into the role of the widely expressed mammalian metallothionein-1 and metallothionein-2 isoforms in zinc homeostasis and apoptosis. The three-dimensional structure of the evolutionary distant sea urchin Cd(7)-metallothionein A, which contains two metal-thiolate clusters, supports previous conclusions regarding the functional importance of this structural motif. Despite correlated efforts involving techniques of structural biochemistry and molecular biology, the primary function of metallothioneins remains enigmatic. PMID:10742189

  3. Sexual dimorphisms in zonal gene expression in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Negishi, Masahiko; James Squires, E

    2013-07-12

    Many of the metabolic functions of the liver are localized either in the pericentral region (zone 3) or in the periportal region (zone 1). However, a systematic analysis of the heterogeneity and sexual dimorphism of gene expression in the liver is lacking. Our objective was to obtain sections of intact tissue from zone 1 and zone 3 from both male and female mouse liver, and to measure the patterns of gene expression in these sections. Zone 1 and zone 3 areas were isolated by laser capture microdissection of liver sections, total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was conducted using Agilent Whole Mouse Genome oligo arrays. To investigate functional characteristics as well as upstream regulators of specific gene lists, we used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We identified more than 925 genes in zone 1 and more than 450 genes in zone 3 of both male and female mice. Sexual dimorphism in metabolic functions was present in zone 1 but not zone 3. In zone 1, canonical pathways related to gluconeogenesis were male predominant, while canonical pathways related to hepatic progenitor cells were female predominant. In addition, we also analyzed the upstream regulators of zone-specific genes. SREBF1 was male-specific in zone 1, while TRIM24 was female-specific in zone 3. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity and sexually dimorphic differences in gene expression in the liver. PMID:23791742

  4. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Moss, Julie; Graham, Liz; Burton, Nicholas; Hill, Bill; Rao, Jianguo; Baldock, Richard A.; Armit, Chris

    2014-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage/) is a freely available database of in situ gene expression patterns that allows users to perform online queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE is unique in providing both text-based descriptions of gene expression plus spatial maps of gene expression patterns. This mapping allows spatial queries to be accomplished alongside more traditional text-based queries. Here, we describe our recent progress in spatial mapping and data integration. EMAGE has developed a method of spatially mapping 3D embryo images captured using optical projection tomography, and through the use of an IIP3D viewer allows users to view arbitrary sections of raw and mapped 3D image data in the context of a web browser. EMAGE now includes enhancer data, and we have spatially mapped images from a comprehensive screen of transgenic reporter mice that detail the expression of mouse non-coding genomic DNA fragments with enhancer activity. We have integrated the eMouseAtlas anatomical atlas and the EMAGE database so that a user of the atlas can query the EMAGE database easily. In addition, we have extended the atlas framework to enable EMAGE to spatially cross-index EMBRYS whole mount in situ hybridization data. We additionally report on recent developments to the EMAGE web interface, including new query and analysis capabilities. PMID:24265223

  5. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Moss, Julie; Graham, Liz; Burton, Nicholas; Hill, Bill; Rao, Jianguo; Baldock, Richard A; Armit, Chris

    2014-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage/) is a freely available database of in situ gene expression patterns that allows users to perform online queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE is unique in providing both text-based descriptions of gene expression plus spatial maps of gene expression patterns. This mapping allows spatial queries to be accomplished alongside more traditional text-based queries. Here, we describe our recent progress in spatial mapping and data integration. EMAGE has developed a method of spatially mapping 3D embryo images captured using optical projection tomography, and through the use of an IIP3D viewer allows users to view arbitrary sections of raw and mapped 3D image data in the context of a web browser. EMAGE now includes enhancer data, and we have spatially mapped images from a comprehensive screen of transgenic reporter mice that detail the expression of mouse non-coding genomic DNA fragments with enhancer activity. We have integrated the eMouseAtlas anatomical atlas and the EMAGE database so that a user of the atlas can query the EMAGE database easily. In addition, we have extended the atlas framework to enable EMAGE to spatially cross-index EMBRYS whole mount in situ hybridization data. We additionally report on recent developments to the EMAGE web interface, including new query and analysis capabilities. PMID:24265223

  6. Cytological localization of adenosine kinase, nucleoside phosphorylase-1, and esterase-10 genes on mouse chromosome 14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda C. Samuelson; Rosann A. Farber

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the regional locations on mouse chromosome 14 of the genes for mouse adenosine kinase (ADK), nucleoside phosphorylase-1 (NP-1), and esterase-10 (ES-10) by analysis of rearranged mouse chromosomes in ?-irradiated Chinese hamster × mouse hybrid cell lines. Irradiated clones were screened for expression of the murine forms of these enzymes; segregant clones that expressed only one or two

  7. Effects of light on the accumulation of abscisic acid and expression of an early cysteine-labeled metallothionein gene in microspores of Triticum aestivum during induced embryogenic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Reynolds; R. L. Crawford

    1997-01-01

    A cloned cDNA to the wheat (Triticum aestivum) early cysteine-labeled metallothionein has many characteristics of a molecular marker for pollen embryogenesis in this plant. This transcript was not detected in uninucleate microspores at the time of culture or in pollen at any stage during normal ontogeny; its mRNA did begin to increase in embryogenic microspores within 6 h of culture,

  8. Methylation of mouse ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J G; Thomas, C A; Lundell, M J

    1982-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) methylation was studied in various strains of mice. We used restriction enzymes that are sensitive to methylation and a cloned probe containing the transcribed spacer and part of the 18S and 28S gene. Strains C3H/He3, C57/B6-3, and AKR/J were found to have less than 9% of the rDNA methylated. In sharp contrast, Balb/c mice showed 30-50% of the Hpa II and Hha I sites to be methylated. Further study of the Balb/c DNA showed that there are three groups of rDNA sequences. In the first group, all the Hpa II and Hha I sites are almost completely unmethylated; in the second group these sites are all methylated (greater than 30 sites for each enzyme); in the third group most sites are methylated, but there are discrete hypomethylation sites. These hypomethylation positions are at similar sites for both Hpa II and Hha I and show a tissue-specific pattern. Comparison of AKR/J with Balb/c copy level showed that AKR/J had about 60% fewer rDNA genes. The rDNA methylation level might thus be correlated directly with the number of rDNA genes. Finally, analysis of F1 mice from a cross between Balb/c and AKR/J showed both low copy number and low methylation levels. PMID:6301785

  9. Expression of cloned immunoglobulin genes introduced into mouse L cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, S D; Tonegawa, S

    1983-01-01

    Functionally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain (gamma 2b) and light-chain (lambda 1 and kappa) genes were introduced into mouse L tk- cells by co-transformation with the Herpes virus tk gene. Cloned cell lines were selected in HAT medium and tested for the presence of transfected immunoglobulin gene sequences by Southern blotting analysis. It was found that the gamma 2b gene was accurately transcribed at a low level in transfected mouse L cells and cytoplasmic gamma 2b, heavy-chain protein was detected by immunoprecipitation of cell extracts. Light-chain genes, on the other hand, were not accurately transcribed. Instead, lambda 1 or kappa RNA species were detected which were approximately 200 to 300 bases longer than the authentic mRNAs. These results suggest that the expression of rearranged heavy-chain and light-chain genes are controlled differently and that these differences can be seen in transfected, non-lymphoid cells. Images PMID:6316279

  10. Spatial gene expression in the T-stage mouse metanephros.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Georgina; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Nelson, Amy L; Kostoulias, Xenia; Woods, Kyra; Gardiner, Brooke; Davis, Melissa J; Taylor, Darrin F; Teasdale, Rohan D; Grimmond, Sean M; Little, Melissa H; Bertram, John F

    2006-10-01

    The E11.5 mouse metanephros is comprised of a T-stage ureteric epithelial tubule sub-divided into tip and trunk cells surrounded by metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Tip cells are induced to undergo branching morphogenesis by the MM. In contrast, signals within the mesenchyme surrounding the trunk prevent ectopic branching of this region. In order to identify novel genes involved in the molecular regulation of branching morphogenesis we compared the gene expression profiles of isolated tip, trunk and MM cells using Compugen mouse long oligo microarrays. We identified genes enriched in the tip epithelium, sim-1, Arg2, Tacstd1, Crlf-1 and BMP7; genes enriched in the trunk epithelium, Innp1, Itm2b, Mkrn1, SPARC, Emu2 and Gsta3 and genes spatially restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the trunk, CSPG2 and CV-2, with overlapping and complimentary expression to BMP4, respectively. This study has identified genes spatially expressed in regions of the developing kidney involved in branching morphogenesis, nephrogenesis and the development of the collecting duct system, calyces, renal pelvis and ureter. PMID:16545622

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A 950-GENE DNA ARRAY FOR EXAMINING GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN MOUSE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a 950-gene DNA array for examining gene expression patterns in mouse testis. Rockett JC, Christopher Luft J, Brian Garges J, Krawetz SA, Hughes MR, Hee Kirn K, Oudes AJ, Dix DJ. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  12. The mouse Engrailed genes: a window into Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kuemerle, Barbara; Gulden, Forrest; Cherosky, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; Herrup, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The complex behavioral symptoms and neuroanatomical abnormalities observed in autistic individuals strongly suggest a multi-factorial basis for this perplexing disease. Although not the perfect model, we believe the Engrailed genes provide an invaluable “window” into the elusive etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The Engrailed-2 gene has been associated with autism in genetic linkage studies. The En2 knock-out mouse harbors cerebellar abnormalities that are similar to those found in autistic individuals and, as we report here, has a distinct anterior shift in the position of the amygdala in the cerebral cortex. Our initial analysis of background effects in the En1 mouse knock-out provides insight as to possible molecular mechanisms and gender differences associated with autism. These findings further the connection between Engrailed and autism and provide new avenues to explore in the ongoing study of the biological basis of this multifaceted disease. PMID:17055592

  13. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY MUTAGENS IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BROMATE AND N- ETHYL-N-NITROSOUREA IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE L YMPHOMA CELLS The mouse lymphoma assay is widely used to identify chemical mutagens The Tk +1- gene located on an autosome in mouse lymphoma cells may recover a wide ra...

  14. Overexpression of mouse TTF-2 gene causes cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tian; Shi, Jia-Yu; Wu, Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Qian; Huang, Lei; Shi, Bing

    2012-01-01

    In humans, mutations of the gene encoding for thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2 or FOXE1) result in Bamforth syndrome. Bamforth syndrome is characterized by agenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair and choanal atresia. TTF-2 null mice (TTF-2?/?) also exhibit cleft palate, suggesting its involvement in the palatogenesis. However, the molecular pathology and genetic regulation by TTF2 remain largely unknown. In the present study, the recombinant expression vector pBROAD3-TTF-2 containing the promoter of the mouse ROSA26 gene was created to form the structural gene of mouse TTF-2 and was microinjected into the male pronuclei of fertilized ova. Sequence analysis confirmed that the TTF-2 transgenic mouse model was established successfully. The transgenic mice displayed a phenotype of cleft palate. In addition, we found that TTF-2 was highly expressed in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) from the embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to E14.5 in TTF-2 transgenic mice. These observations suggest that overexpression of TTF-2 during palatogenesis may contribute to formation of cleft palate. PMID:22304410

  15. A Crystallin Gene Network in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Justin P.; Wang, XiangDi; Freeman, Natalie E.; Ma, Zhiwei; Lu, Anna; Hejtmancik, Fielding; Geisert, Eldon E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the regulation of crystallin genes and protein in the mouse retina using the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Illumina Sentrix BeadChip Arrays (MouseWG-6v2) were used to analyze mRNA levels in 75 BXD RI strains along with the parental strains (C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J), and the reciprocal crosses in the Hamilton Eye Institute (HEI) Retina Dataset (www.genenetwork.org). Protein levels were investigated using immunoblots to quantify levels of proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry to define the distribution of protein. Algorithms in the Genomatix program were used to identify transcription factor binding sites common to the regulatory sequences in the 5? regions of co-regulated set of crystallin and other genes as compared to a set of control genes. As subset of genes, including many encoding lens crystallins is part of a tightly co-regulated network that is active in the retina. Expression of this crystallin network appears to be binary in nature, being expressed either at relatively low levels or being highly upregulated. Relative to a control set of genes, the 5? regulatory sequences of the crystallin network genes show an increased frequency of a set of common transcription factor-binding sites, the most common being those of the Maf family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC) confirmed the functionality of these sites, showing that MafA binds the predicted sites of CRYGA and CRYGD in HLE and CRYAB, CRYGA, CRYBA1, and CRYBB3 in RGC cells. In the retina there is a highly correlated group of genes containing many members of the ?- ?- and ?-crystallin families. These genes can be dramatically upregulated in the retina. One transcription factor that appears to be involved in this coordinated expression is the MAF family transcription of factors associated with both lens and extralenticular expression of crystallin genes. PMID:23978599

  16. Characterization of a mouse laminin receptor gene homologous to the human blood group Lutheran gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Rahuel; Yves Colin; Dominique Goossens; P. Gane; W. El Nemer; J. P. Cartron; C. Le Van Kim

    1999-01-01

    The human Lutheran (Lu) blood group antigens are carried by two glycoproteins (gps) that belong to the immunoglobulin (Ig)\\u000a superfamily. These gps represent adhesion molecules that function as the unique erythroid receptors for laminin. We report\\u000a here the cloning and functional expression of the orthologous mouse Lu mRNA as well as the genomic organization of the mouse Lu gene. The

  17. Molecular cloning, gene structure and expression profile of two mouse peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grégory Chevillard; Marie-Claude Clémencet; Philippe Etienne; Pascal Martin; Thierry Pineau; Norbert Latruffe; Valérie Nicolas-Francès

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rats, two peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes (A and B) have been cloned, whereas only one thiolase gene is found in humans. The aim of this study was thus to clone the different mouse thiolase genes in order to study both their tissue expression and their associated enzymatic activity. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned and characterized two mouse

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF EPILEPSY GENES IN HUMAN AND MOUSE*

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, Miriam H.; Kearney, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Escayg, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of molecular markers and genomic resources has facilitated the isolation of genes responsible for rare monogenic epilepsies in human and mouse. Many of the identified genes encode ion channels or other components of neuronal signaling. The electrophysiological properties of mutant alleles indicate that neuronal hyperexcitability is one cellular mechanism underlying seizures. Genetic heterogeneity and allelic variability are hallmarks of human epilepsy. For example, mutations in three different sodium channel genes can produce the same syndrome, GEFS+, while individuals with the same allele can experience different types of seizures. Haploinsufficiency for the sodium channel SCN1A has been demonstrated by the severe infantile epilepsy and cognitive deficits in heterozygotes for de novo null mutations. Large-scale patient screening is in progress to determine whether less severe alleles of the genes responsible for monogenic epilepsy may contribute to the common types of epilepsy in the human population. The development of pharmaceuticals directed towards specific epilepsy genotypes can be anticipated, and the introduction of patient mutations into the mouse genome will provide models for testing these targeted therapies. PMID:11700294

  19. Melatonin Signaling Modulates Clock Genes Expression in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Elise; Kunst, Stefanie; Spessert, Rainer; Tosini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that retinal melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of retinal daily and circadian rhythms. Melatonin exerts its influence by binding to G-protein coupled receptors named melatonin receptor type 1 and type 2 and both receptors are present in the mouse retina. Earlier studies have shown that clock genes are rhythmically expressed in the mouse retina and melatonin signaling may be implicated in the modulation of clock gene expression in this tissue. In this study we determined the daily and circadian expression patterns of Per1, Per2, Bmal1, Dbp, Nampt and c-fos in the retina and in the photoreceptor layer (using laser capture microdissection) in C3H-f+/+ and in melatonin receptors of knockout (MT1 and MT2) of the same genetic background using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our data indicated that clock and clock-controlled genes are rhythmically expressed in the retina and in the photoreceptor layer. Removal of melatonin signaling significantly affected the pattern of expression in the retina whereas in the photoreceptor layer only the Bmal1 circadian pattern of expression was affected by melatonin signaling removal. In conclusion, our data further support the notion that melatonin signaling may be important for the regulation of clock gene expression in the inner or ganglion cells layer, but not in photoreceptors. PMID:25203735

  20. Genetic mapping of tumor susceptibility genes involved in mouse plasmacytomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mock, B A; Krall, M M; Dosik, J K

    1993-10-15

    Plasmacytomas (PCTs) were induced in 47% of BALB/cAnPt mice by the intraperitoneal injection of pristane, in 2% of (BALB/c x DBA/2N)F1, and in 11% of 773 BALB/cAnPt x (BALB/cAnPt x DBA/2N)F1 N2 backcross mice. This result indicates a multigenic mode of inheritance for PCT susceptibility. To locate genes controlling this complex genetic trait, tumor susceptibility in backcross progeny generated from BALB/c and DBA/2N (resistant) mice was correlated with alleles of 83 marker loci. The genotypes of the PCT-susceptible progeny displayed an excess homozygosity for BALB/c alleles within a 32-centimorgan stretch of mouse chromosome 4 (> 95% probability of linkage) with minimal recombination (12%) near Gt10. Another susceptibility gene on mouse chromosome 1 may be linked to Fcgr2 (90% probability of linkage); there were excess heterozygotes for Fcgr2 among the susceptible progeny and excess homozygotes among the resistant progeny. Regions of mouse chromosomes 4 and 1 that are correlated with PCT susceptibility share extensive linkage homology with regions of human chromosome 1 that have been associated with cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma and lymphoid, breast, and endocrine tumors. PMID:8105477

  1. Rapid cloning of any rearranged mouse immunoglobulin variable genes

    SciTech Connect

    Dattamajumdar, A.K. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Jacobson, D.P.; Hood, L.E.; Osman, G.E. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) have been the focus of extensive study for several decades and have become an important research area for immunologists and molecular biologists. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has accelerated the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of genes of the immune system. However, cloning and sequencing the Ig variable (V) genes using the PCR technology has been a challenging task, primarily due to the very diverse nature of Ig V region genes. We have developed a simple, rapid, and reproducible PCR-based technique to clone any rearranged mouse Ig heavy or light chain genes. A close examination of all Ig heavy and light chain V gene families has resulted in the design of 5{prime} and 3{prime} universal primers from regions that are highly conserved across all heavy or light chain V gene families, and the joining or constant regions, respectively. We present our strategy for designing universal primers for Ig V gene families. These primers were able to rapidly amplify the rearranged Ig V genes, belonging to diverse Ig V gene families from very different cell lines, i.e., J558, MOPC-21, 36-60, and a chicken ovalbumin specific B-cell hybridoma. In addition, the present study provides the complete alignment of nucleotide sequences of all heavy and light chain variable gene families. This powerful method of cloning Ig V genes, therefore, allows rapid and precise analysis of B-cell hybridomas, B-cell repertoire, and B-cell ontogeny. 55 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Automated gene expression pattern annotation in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xinlin; Lin, Binbin; Zeng, Tao; Ji, Shuiwang; Ye, Jieping

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor is a fatal central nervous system disease that occurs in around 250,000 people each year globally and it is the second cause of cancer in children. It has been widely acknowledged that genetic factor is one of the significant risk factors for brain cancer. Thus, accurate descriptions of the locations of where the relative genes are active and how these genes express are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of brain tumor and for early detection. The Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas is a project on gene expression over the course of mouse brain development stages. Utilizing mouse models allows us to use a relatively homogeneous system to reveal the genetic risk factor of brain cancer. In the Allen atlas, about 435,000 high-resolution spatiotemporal in situ hybridization images have been generated for approximately 2,100 genes and currently the expression patterns over specific brain regions are manually annotated by experts, which does not scale with the continuously expanding collection of images. In this paper, we present an efficient computational approach to perform automated gene expression pattern annotation on brain images. First, the gene expression information in the brain images is captured by invariant features extracted from local image patches. Next, we adopt an augmented sparse coding method, called Stochastic Coordinate Coding, to construct high-level representations. Different pooling methods are then applied to generate gene-level features. To discriminate gene expression patterns at specific brain regions, we employ supervised learning methods to build accurate models for both binary-class and multi-class cases. Random undersampling and majority voting strategies are utilized to deal with the inherently imbalanced class distribution within each annotation task in order to further improve predictive performance. In addition, we propose a novel structure-based multi-label classification approach, which makes use of label hierarchy based on brain ontology during model learning. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the atlas and results show that the proposed approach produces higher annotation accuracy than several baseline methods. Our approach is shown to be robust on both binary-class and multi-class tasks and even with a relatively low training ratio. Our results also show that the use of label hierarchy can significantly improve the annotation accuracy at all brain ontology levels. PMID:25592576

  3. Pharmacological and rAAV Gene Therapy Rescue of Visual Functions in a Blind Mouse

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Pharmacological and rAAV Gene Therapy Rescue of Visual Functions in a Blind Mouse Model of Leber) Pharmacological and rAAV gene therapy rescue of visual functions in a blind mouse model of Leber congenital of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, 6 Department of Ophthalmology, and Powell Gene

  4. Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B produced by targeted disruption of the gene

    E-print Network

    Anagnostaras, Stephan

    Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B produced by targeted disruption of the gene encoding -N is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the gene (NAGLU) encoding -N-acetylglu- cosaminidase, the homologous mouse gene. Naglu mice were healthy and fertile while young and could survive for 8­12 mo

  5. AAV-mediated gene transfer to the mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Lorelei; Ahmed, Seemin S.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno associated virus (rAAV) vectors are great tools for gene transfer due to their ability to mediate long-term gene expression. Recombinant AAVs have been used at various ages of development with no apparent toxicity. There are multiple ways of delivering AAV vectors to the CNS, depending on the stage of development of the mouse. In neonates, intravascular injections into the facial vein are often used. In adults, direct injections into target regions of the brain are achieved with great spatiotemporal control through stereotaxic surgeries. Recently, discoveries of new AAV vectors with the ability to cross the blood brain barrier have made it possible to also target the adult CNS by intravascular injections. rAAVs have been successfully used as gene transfer vehicles in multiple animal models of CNS disorders, and several clinical trials are currently underway. PMID:23686825

  6. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Constance M.; Finger, Jacqueline H.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E.; Forthofer, Kim L.; Frost, Pete J.; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R.; Stone, Kevin R.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD; http://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD’s gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250 000 images that are accessible to our search tools. PMID:24163257

  7. Method for retinal gene repair in neonatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Dernigoghossian, Marilyn; Krigel, Arthur; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Gene correction at the site of the mutation in the chromosome is the absolute way to really cure a genetic disease. The oligonucleotide (ODN)-mediated gene repair technology uses an ODN perfectly complementary to the genomic sequence except for a mismatch at the base that is mutated. The endogenous repair machinery of the targeted cell then mediates substitution of the desired base in the gene, resulting in a completely normal sequence. Theoretically, it avoids potential gene silencing or random integration associated with common viral gene augmentation approaches and allows an intact regulation of expression of the therapeutic protein. The eye is a particularly attractive target for gene repair because of its unique features (small organ, easily accessible, low diffusion into systemic circulation). Moreover therapeutic effects on visual impairment could be obtained with modest levels of repair. This chapter describes in details the optimized method to target active ODNs to the nuclei of photoreceptors in neonatal mouse using (1) an electric current application at the eye surface (saline transpalpebral iontophoresis), (2) combined with an intravitreous injection of ODNs, as well as the experimental methods for (3) the dissection of adult neural retinas, (4) their immuno-labelling, and (5) flat-mounting for direct observation of photoreceptor survival, a relevant criteria of treatment outcomes for retinal degeneration. PMID:24557917

  8. Mouse models of gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Sawa, Akira; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions (GEI) likely play significant roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and underlie differences in pathological, behavioral, and clinical presentations of the disease. Findings from epidemiology and psychiatric genetics have assisted in the generation of animal models of GEI relevant to schizophrenia. These models may provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular, cellular, and circuitry mechanisms that mediate GEI in schizophrenia. Here we critically review current mouse models of GEI related to schizophrenia, describe directions for their improvement, and propose endophenotypes provide a more tangible basis for molecular studies of pathways of GEI and facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23748077

  9. Identify lymphatic metastasis-associated genes in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines using gene chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Song; Jian-Wu Tang; Bo Wang; Xiao-Nan Cui; Lu Sun; Li-Min Mao; Chun-Hui Zhou; Yue Du; Li-Hui Wang; Hua-Xin Wang; Ren-Shu Zheng; Lei Sun

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: In order to obtain ,lymphogenous ,metastasis- associated genes, we compared the transcriptional profiles of mouse hepatocarcinoma,cell lines Hca-F with highly lymphatic,metastasis ,potential ,and ,Hca-P with low lymphatic metastasis potential. METHODS:T otal RNA was isolated from Hca-F and Hca-P

  10. The mouse genome: Experimental examination of gene predictions and transcriptional start sites

    E-print Network

    The mouse genome: Experimental examination of gene predictions and transcriptional start sites, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA The completion of the mouse and other mammalian genome sequences will provide necessary, but not sufficient, knowledge for an understanding of much of mouse

  11. Resveratrol induces insulin gene expression in mouse pancreatic ?-cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by loss of ?-cells; therefore, ?-cell regeneration has become one of the primary approaches to diabetes therapy. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has been shown to improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients, but its action on pancreatic ?-cells is not well understood. Findings Using mouse ?-cells (?TC9), we showed that resveratrol induces expression of pancreatic ?-cell genes such as Pdx1 and Ins2 in a SirT1-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of insulin were further increased by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Conclusion In summary, we provide new mechanistic insight into the anti-diabetic action of resveratrol through its ability to express ?-cell genes in ?-cells. PMID:24330680

  12. PHYTOCHELATINS AND METALLOTHIONEINS: Roles in Heavy Metal Detoxification and Homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cobbett; Peter Goldsbrough

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Among,the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins,(MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding,the enzyme,PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion,of the Arabidopsis genome,sequence,has allowed

  13. Functional characterization of the mouse melanocortin 3 receptor gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Keisuke; Ojima, Fumiya; Shinohara, Naoto; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Mizote, Yasusyo; Aoki, Kenji; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ogoshi, Maho; Takeuchi, Sakae; Takahashi, Sumio

    2015-05-10

    Melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R) is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary in humans and rodents, and is involved in the control of feeding, energy metabolism, and pituitary function. In the mouse pituitary, MC3R is detected in mammotrophs. This study aimed to clarify the regulatory mechanism for Mc3r expression in the mouse pituitary. The promoter activities of reporter constructs for the MC3R gene 5'-flanking region up to -4000bp (transcription initiation site designated as +1) were analyzed. The promoter activity significantly increased in the -86/+109 construct, but decreased in the -38/+109 construct, indicating that the minimal promoter required for basal expression of Mc3r is located in the -86/+109 region. Putative binding sites for transcription factors AP-1 and ATF4 were found in the 5'-flanking region of Mc3r. Site-directed mutation or deletion of these sites affected the promoter activities. In gel-shift assays with a nuclear extract of mouse anterior pituitary cells, band-shifts were detected for both sites after the addition of the nuclear extract, and were decreased in the presence of excess unlabeled probe competitors. These results indicated that both sites were involved in the regulation of Mc3r expression in anterior pituitary cells. Estradiol-17? treatment increased the Mc3r promoter activity, indicating that the gene is regulated by estradiol-17?. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the minimum promoter region required for Mc3r expression, and identified two binding sites for AP-1 and ATF4 and in the 5' upstream-flanking region of Mc3r that are essential for Mc3r expression. PMID:25701401

  14. Mouse genetics in the 21st century: using gene targeting to create a cornucopia of mouse mutants possessing precise genetic modifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Wilder; Angie Rizzino

    1993-01-01

    Over 1500 mouse mutants have been identified, but few of the genes responsible for the defects have been identified. Recent developments in the area of gene targeting are revolutionizing the field of mouse genetics and our understanding of numerous genes, including those thought to be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Gene targeting was developed as a method for producing

  15. Trmt112 Gene Expression in Mouse Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tiantian; He, Hongjuan; Zhang, Yan; Han, Zhengbin; Hou, Guangyuan; Zeng, Tiebo; Liu, Qi; Wu, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Mouse Trmt112, the homologous gene of yeast Trm112 (tRNA methyltransferase 11-2), was initially cloned from RIKEN with uncertain function. The yeast TRM112 is now known to play important roles in RNA methylation. Here, we studied the expression of Trmt112 by in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR). A higher expression level of Trmt112 was observed in the brain and nervous system by whole mount in situ hybridization from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) to E11.5. At later developmental stages E13.5 and E16.5, abundant expression was prominently found in various organs and tissues including developing brain, nervous system, thymus, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, and cartilage. Furthermore, Trmt112 was persistently expressed from E9.5 to E18.5 on whole embryos and highly expressed in multiple organs at E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 by QRT-PCR. These results showed that Trmt112 gene was highly and ubiquitously expressed during mouse embryonic development, implying that it might be involved in the morphogenesis of diverse organs and tissues and numerous physiological functions. PMID:22685353

  16. Zeptomole Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Petrlova, Jitka; Wang, Joseph; Eckschlager, Tomas; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiol-rich peptides and proteins possess a large number of biological activities and may serve as markers for numerous health problems including cancer. Metallothionein (MT), a small molecular mass protein rich in cysteine, may be considered as one of the promising tumour markers. The aim of this paper was to employ chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CPSA) for highly sensitive detection of MT. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with CPSA for detection of cysteine, glutathione oxidized and reduced, phytochelatin, bovine serum albumin, and metallothionein. Under the optimal conditions, we were able to estimate detection limits down to tens of fg per ml. Further, this method was applied to detect metallothioneins in blood serum obtained from patients with breast cancer and in neuroblastoma cells resistant and sensitive to cisplatin in order to show the possible role of metallothioneins in carcinogenesis. It was found that MT level in blood serum was almost twice higher as compared to the level determined in healthy individuals. Conclusions/Significance This paper brings unique results on the application of ultra-sensitive electroanalytical method for metallothionein detection. The detection limit and other analytical parameters are the best among the parameters of other techniques. In spite of the fact that the paper is mainly focused on metallothionein, it is worth mentioning that successful detection of other biologically important molecules is possible by this method. Coupling of this method with simple isolation methods such as antibody-modified paramagnetic particles may be implemented to lab–on-chip instrument. PMID:20625429

  17. Impact of methoxyacetic acid on mouse Leydig cell gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of the widely used industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is associated with various developmental and reproductive toxicities, including neural toxicity, blood and immune disorders, limb degeneration and testicular toxicity. Testicular toxicity is caused by degeneration of germ cells in association with changes in gene expression in both germ cells and Sertoli cells of the testis. This study investigates the impact of MAA on gene expression in testicular Leydig cells, which play a critical role in germ cell survival and male reproductive function. Methods Cultured mouse TM3 Leydig cells were treated with MAA for 3, 8, and 24 h and changes in gene expression were monitored by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results A total of 3,912 MAA-responsive genes were identified. Ingenuity Pathway analysis identified reproductive system disease, inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorder as the top biological functions affected by MAA. The MAA-responsive genes were classified into 1,366 early responders, 1,387 mid-responders, and 1,138 late responders, based on the time required for MAA to elicit a response. Analysis of enriched functional clusters for each subgroup identified 106 MAA early response genes involved in transcription regulation, including 32 genes associated with developmental processes. 60 DNA-binding proteins responded to MAA rapidly but transiently, and may contribute to the downstream effects of MAA seen for many mid and late response genes. Genes within the phosphatidylinositol/phospholipase C/calcium signaling pathway, whose activity is required for potentiation of nuclear receptor signaling by MAA, were also enriched in the set of early MAA response genes. In contrast, many of the genes responding to MAA at later time points encode membrane proteins that contribute to cell adhesion and membrane signaling. Conclusions These findings on the progressive changes in gene expression induced by MAA in a cultured Leydig cell model may help elucidate signaling pathways that lead to the testicular pathophysiological responses induced by MAA exposure and may identify useful biomarkers of MAA toxicity. PMID:20565877

  18. Gene expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways underlying mouse tissue macrophage identity and diversity

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    We assessed gene expression in tissue macrophages from various mouse organs. The diversity in gene expression among different populations of macrophages was considerable. Only a few hundred mRNA transcripts were selectively ...

  19. Characterization of the gene encoding mouse serum amyloid P component. Comparison with genes encoding other pentraxins.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, A S; Rits, M

    1989-01-01

    A CBA/J-strain mouse serum amyloid P component (SAP) genomic clone was isolated and analysed. The clone contains the entire SAP gene and specifies a primary transcript of 1065 nucleotide residues. This comprises a first exon of 206 nucleotide residues containing the mRNA 5'-untranslated region and sequence encoding the pre-SAP leader peptide and the first two amino acid residues of mature SAP separated by a single 110-base intron from a 749-nucleotide-residue second exon containing sequence encoding the bulk of the mature SAP and specifying the mRNA 3'-untranslated region. The overall organization is similar to that of the human SAP gene, and the coding region and intron sequences are highly conserved. The SAP RNA cap site was defined by primer extension analysis of polyadenylated acute-phase liver RNA. The 5'-region of the mouse SAP gene contains modified CAAT and TATA promoter elements preceded by a putative hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1-recognition site; these structures are in a region that is highly homologous to the corresponding region of the human SAP gene. Comparisons of the mouse SAP gene structure and derived amino acid sequence with those of other mammalian pentraxins were made. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2481440

  20. Expression patterns of metallothionein, cytochrome P450 1A and vitellogenin genes in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in response to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, You-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three metals (Zn, Cd and Pb) on hepatic metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA expression in the liver of adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) after 1, 3 or 8d. Both concentration-response and time-course effects of hepatic MT, CYP1A and Vtg at the transcription level were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The results from this study showed that Zn, Cd and Pb could significantly induced MT, CYP1A and Vtg mRNA expression levels in mosquitofish. In general, this study demonstrated that heavy metals modulate MT, CYP1A and Vtg mRNA expression levels in a metal-, concentration- or time-dependent manner. PMID:24793519

  1. Brain Gene Expression of a Sporadic (icv-STZ Mouse) and a Familial Mouse Model (3xTg-AD Mouse) of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhihou; Sun, Shenggang; Dai, Chun-ling; Lee, Moon H.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be divided into sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). Most AD cases are sporadic and may result from multiple etiologic factors, including environmental, genetic and metabolic factors, whereas FAD is caused by mutations of presenilins or amyloid-? (A?) precursor protein (APP). A commonly used mouse model for AD is 3xTg-AD mouse, which is generated by over-expression of mutated presenilin 1, APP and tau in the brain and thus represents a mouse model of FAD. A mouse model generated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozocin (STZ), icv-STZ mouse, shows many aspects of SAD. Despite the wide use of these two models for AD research, differences in gene expression between them are not known. Here, we compared the expression of 84 AD-related genes in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex between icv-STZ mice and 3xTg-AD mice using a custom-designed qPCR array. These genes are involved in APP processing, tau/cytoskeleton, synapse function, apoptosis and autophagy, AD-related protein kinases, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and mTOR pathway. We found altered expression of around 20 genes in both mouse models, which affected each of above categories. Many of these gene alterations were consistent with what was observed in AD brain previously. The expression of most of these altered genes was decreased or tended to be decreased in the hippocampus of both mouse models. Significant diversity in gene expression was found in the cerebral cortex between these two AD mouse models. More genes related to synaptic function were dysregulated in the 3xTg-AD mice, whereas more genes related to insulin signaling and glucose metabolism were down-regulated in the icv-STZ mice. The present study provides important fundamental knowledge of these two AD mouse models and will help guide future studies using these two mouse models for the development of AD drugs. PMID:23236499

  2. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

  3. Ankrd26 gene disruption enhances adipogenesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhaoliang; Bera, Tapan K; Liu, Xiufen; Xiang, Laiman; Pastan, Ira

    2011-08-01

    We previously reported that partial disruption of the Ankrd26 gene in mice leads to hyperphagia and leptin-resistant obesity. To determine whether the Ankrd26 mutation can affect the development of adipocytes, we studied mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from the mutant mice. We found that Ankrd26(-/-) MEFs have a higher rate of spontaneous adipogenesis than normal MEFs and that adipocyte formation is greatly increased when the cells are induced with troglitazone alone or with a mixture of troglitazone, insulin, dexamethasone, and methylisobutylxanthine. Increased adipogenesis was detected as an increase in lipid droplet formation and in the expression of several markers of adipogenesis. There was an increase in expression of early stage adipogenesis genes such as Krox20, KLF5, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and late stage adipogenesis regulators KLF15, C/EBP?, PPAR?, and aP2. There was also an increase in adipocyte stem cell markers CD34 and Sca-1 and preadipocyte markers Gata2 and Pref-1, indicating an increase in both stem cells and progenitor cells in the mutant MEFs. Furthermore, ERK was found constitutively activated in Anrd26(-/-) MEFs, and the addition of MEK inhibitors to mutant cells blocked ERK activation, decreased adipogenesis induction, and significantly reduced expression of C/EBP?, KLF15, PPAR?2, CD34, and Pref-1 genes. We conclude that Ankrd26 gene disruption promotes adipocyte differentiation at both the progenitor commitment and differentiation steps and that ERK activation plays a role in this process. PMID:21669876

  4. Sleeping Beauty Mouse Models Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vyazunova, Irina; Maklakova, Vilena I.; Berman, Samuel; De, Ishani; Steffen, Megan D.; Hong, Won; Lincoln, Hayley; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Taylor, Michael D.; Akagi, Keiko; Brennan, Cameron W.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Collier, Lara S.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of human high-grade gliomas have discovered known and candidate tumor drivers. Studies in both cell culture and mouse models have complemented these approaches and have identified additional genes and processes important for gliomagenesis. Previously, we found that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in mice ubiquitously throughout the body from the Rosa26 locus led to gliomagenesis with low penetrance. Here we report the characterization of mice in which transposons are mobilized in the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) compartment. Glioma formation in these mice did not occur on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, but rare gliomas were observed when mobilization occurred in a p19Arf heterozygous background. Through cloning insertions from additional gliomas generated by transposon mobilization in the Rosa26 compartment, several candidate glioma genes were identified. Comparisons to genetic, epigenetic and mRNA expression data from human gliomas implicates several of these genes as tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in human glioblastoma. PMID:25423036

  5. Ankrd26 Gene Disruption Enhances Adipogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhaoliang; Bera, Tapan K.; Liu, Xiufen; Xiang, Laiman; Pastan, Ira

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that partial disruption of the Ankrd26 gene in mice leads to hyperphagia and leptin-resistant obesity. To determine whether the Ankrd26 mutation can affect the development of adipocytes, we studied mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from the mutant mice. We found that Ankrd26?/? MEFs have a higher rate of spontaneous adipogenesis than normal MEFs and that adipocyte formation is greatly increased when the cells are induced with troglitazone alone or with a mixture of troglitazone, insulin, dexamethasone, and methylisobutylxanthine. Increased adipogenesis was detected as an increase in lipid droplet formation and in the expression of several markers of adipogenesis. There was an increase in expression of early stage adipogenesis genes such as Krox20, KLF5, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and late stage adipogenesis regulators KLF15, C/EBP?, PPAR?, and aP2. There was also an increase in adipocyte stem cell markers CD34 and Sca-1 and preadipocyte markers Gata2 and Pref-1, indicating an increase in both stem cells and progenitor cells in the mutant MEFs. Furthermore, ERK was found constitutively activated in Anrd26?/? MEFs, and the addition of MEK inhibitors to mutant cells blocked ERK activation, decreased adipogenesis induction, and significantly reduced expression of C/EBP?, KLF15, PPAR?2, CD34, and Pref-1 genes. We conclude that Ankrd26 gene disruption promotes adipocyte differentiation at both the progenitor commitment and differentiation steps and that ERK activation plays a role in this process. PMID:21669876

  6. Investigating Different Duplication Pattern of Essential Genes in Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Debarun; Mukherjee, Dola; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major driving forces shaping genome and organism evolution and thought to be itself regulated by some intrinsic properties of the gene. Comparing the essential genes among mouse and human, we observed that the essential genes avoid duplication in mouse while prefer to remain duplicated in humans. In this study, we wanted to explore the reasons behind such differences in gene essentiality by cross-species comparison of human and mouse. Moreover, we examined essential genes that are duplicated in humans are functionally more redundant than that in mouse. The proportion of paralog pseudogenization of essential genes is higher in mouse than that of humans. These duplicates of essential genes are under stringent dosage regulation in human than in mouse. We also observed slower evolutionary rate in the paralogs of human essential genes than the mouse counterpart. Together, these results clearly indicate that human essential genes are retained as duplicates to serve as backed up copies that may shield themselves from harmful mutations. PMID:25751152

  7. Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S; Yang, Y; Scott, M J; Pannuti, A; Fehr, K C; Eisen, A; Koonin, E V; Fouts, D L; Wrightsman, R; Manning, J E

    1995-01-01

    In Drosophila the equalization of X-linked gene products between males and females, i.e. dosage compensation, is the result of a 2-fold hypertranscription of most of these genes in males. At least four regulatory genes are required for this process. Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind to numerous sites on the X chromosome of males, but not of females. Although binding to the X chromosome is negatively correlated with the function of the master regulatory gene Sex lethal (Sxl), the mechanisms that restrict this binding to males and to the X chromosome are not yet understood. We have cloned the last of the known autosomal genes involved in dosage compensation, male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2), and characterized its product. The encoded protein (MSL-2) consists of 769 amino acid residues and has a RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) and a metallothionein-like domain with eight conserved and two non-conserved cysteines. In addition, it contains a positively and a negatively charged amino acid residue cluster and a coiled coil domain that may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Males produce a msl-2 transcript that is shorter than in females, due to differential splicing of an intron of 132 bases in the untranslated leader. Using an antiserum against MSL-2 we have shown that the protein is expressed at a detectable level only in males, where it is physically associated with the X chromosome. Our observations suggest that MSL-2 may be the target of the master regulatory gene Sxl and provide the basic elements of a working hypothesis on the function of MSL-2 in mediating the 2-fold increase in transcription that is characteristic of dosage compensation. Images PMID:7796814

  8. Genomic organization of the mouse dystrobrevin gene: Comparative analysis with the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, H.J.; Blake, D.J.; Nawrotzki, R.A.; Davies, K.E. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Dystrobrevin, the mammalian orthologue of the Torpedo 87-kDa postsynaptic protein, is a member of the dystrophin gene family with homology to the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of dystrophin. Torpedo dystrobrevin copurifies with the acetylcholine receptors and is thought to form a complex with dystrophin and syntrophin. This complex is also found at the sarcolemma in vertebrates and defines the cytoplasmic component of the dystrophin-associated protein complex. Previously we have cloned several dystrobrevin isoforms from mouse brain and muscle. Here we show that these transcripts are the products of a single gene located on proximal mouse chromosome 18. To investigate the diversity of dystrobrevin transcripts we have determined that the mouse dystrobrevin gene is organized into 24 coding exons that span between 130 and 170 kb at the genomic level. The gene encodes at least three distinct protein isoforms that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Interestingly, although there is only 27% amino acid identity between the homologous regions of dystrobrevin and dystrophin, the positions of 8 of the 15 exon-intron junctions are identical. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Clustered metallothionein genes are co-regulated in rice and ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco via ROS scavenging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metallothioneins (MT) are low molecular weight, cysteine rich metal binding proteins, found across genera and species, but their function(s) in abiotic stress tolerance are not well documented. Results We have characterized a rice MT gene, OsMT1e-P, isolated from a subtractive library generated from a stressed salinity tolerant rice genotype, Pokkali. Bioinformatics analysis of the rice genome sequence revealed that this gene belongs to a multigenic family, which consists of 13 genes with 15 protein products. OsMT1e-P is located on chromosome XI, away from the majority of other type I genes that are clustered on chromosome XII. Various members of this MT gene cluster showed a tight co-regulation pattern under several abiotic stresses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of conserved cysteine residues in OsMT1e-P protein. Salinity stress was found to regulate the transcript abundance of OsMT1e-P in a developmental and organ specific manner. Using transgenic approach, we found a positive correlation between ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P and stress tolerance. Our experiments further suggest ROS scavenging to be the possible mechanism for multiple stress tolerance conferred by OsMT1e-P. Conclusion We present an overview of MTs, describing their gene structure, genome localization and expression patterns under salinity and development in rice. We have found that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P enhances tolerance towards multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco and the resultant plants could survive and set viable seeds under saline conditions. Taken together, the experiments presented here have indicated that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P protects against oxidative stress primarily through efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22780875

  10. Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine mouse pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, C.A.; Adamson, M.C.; Buckler, C.E. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others

    1995-06-10

    The single functional mouse gene for MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) has been cloned from a P1 library, and its exon/intron structure determined and shown to resemble that of the human gene. The gene was mapped to chromosome 10 using two multilocus crosses between laboratory strains and either Mus musculus or Mus spretus. Nine additional loci containing related sequences, apparently all processed pseudogenes, were also mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 17, and 19. While most of these pseudogenes were also found in inbred mice and M. spretus, some are species specific. This suggests that there have been active phases of pseudogene formation in Mus both before and after the separation of musculus and spretus. The human gene contains no pseudogene; we assigned the human gene to chromosome 19, consistent with the location of mouse and human functional genes for MIF in a region of conserved linkage. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L. [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Janssens, Veerle [Protein Phosphorylation and Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Ven, Wim J.M. van de [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.vandeven@med.kuleuven.be; Petit, Marleen M.R. [Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Department of Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, Box 602, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-02-06

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp{sup -/-} females. Fertility of Lpp{sup -/-} males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp{sup -/-} x Lpp{sup -/-} crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp{sup -/-} mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  12. The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, R.; Dyer-Montgomery, K.; Hernandez, R.; Tapscott, S.J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others] [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    1996-06-15

    The Neurod gene is a basic-helix-loop-helix gene that regulates neurogenesis and is identical to the hamster beta2 gene that was cloned as a regulator of insulin transcription. Here we report the cloning of human NEUROD and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 2q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  13. The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.G.; Loehning, C.; Frischauf, A.M. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1996-06-01

    The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrid, BXD recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the {alpha} globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  14. The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene.

    PubMed

    Olsson, P G; Löhning, C; Horsley, S; Kearney, L; Harris, P C; Frischauf, A

    1996-06-01

    The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrids, B x D recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the alpha globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. PMID:8661056

  15. Induction and turnover of catfish ( Heteropneustes fossilis ) metallothionein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aruna Chatterjee; Indu B. Maiti

    1991-01-01

    Induction of metallothionein by cadmium in catfish was a dose-dependent, transcriptionally-controlled process. Metallothionein mRNA was detected after Cd-exposure. Chronic doses produced more metallothionein than a single acute dose. Zn and Cu induced metallothionein to a lower extent compared to Cd. A few other low molecular weight proteins were induced in cadmium-exposed catfish liver, besides metallothionein. Isoelectric point of catfish metallothionein

  16. Expression of cloned monkey metallothionein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Murooka, Y; Nagaoka, T

    1987-01-01

    Expression vectors were constructed in which a cDNA specifying the monkey kidney metallothionein-II (MT-II) was linked directly to the lambda PR promoter. Enhanced expression of MT-II in Escherichia coli was observed when two initiation signals were tandemly linked to the MT-II gene and the lambda cI+ host cells were induced by nalidixic acid. PMID:3103531

  17. Hormonal replacement therapy in fish:human growth hormone gene function in hypophysectomized carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongbin Cuil; Zuoyan Zhu

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic common carp,Cyprinus carpio, produced by the microinjection of fertilized eggs with a linearized chimeric plasmid pMThGH, a human growth hormone (hGH)\\u000a gene with a mouse metallothionein-1 (MT) gene promoter in pBR322, were used to produce F1 and F2 transgenics. Following hypophysectomy of the transgenic F2 common carp, non-transgenic common carp and non-transgenic crucian carp, growth was monitored for up

  18. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Moore; Nicola J. Redhead; Jim Selfridge; James Hope; Jean C. Manson; David W. Melton

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi restore normal growth in a white poplar clone grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil, and this is associated with upregulation of foliar metallothionein and polyamine biosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cicatelli, Angela; Lingua, Guido; Todeschini, Valeria; Biondi, Stefania; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly evident that plant tolerance to stress is improved by mycorrhiza. Thus, suitable plant–fungus combinations may also contribute to the success of phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM)-polluted soil. Metallothioneins (MTs) and polyamines (PAs) are implicated in the response to HM stress in several plant species, but whether the response is modulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to check whether colonization by AMF could modify growth, metal uptake/translocation, and MT and PA gene expression levels in white poplar cuttings grown on HM-contaminated soil, and to compare this with plants grown on non-contaminated soil. Methods In this greenhouse study, plants of a Populus alba clone were pre-inoculated, or not, with either Glomus mosseae or G. intraradices and then grown in pots containing either soil collected from a multimetal- (Cu and Zn) polluted site or non-polluted soil. The expression of MT and PA biosynthetic genes was analysed in leaves using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Free and conjugated foliar PA concentrations were determined in parallel. Results On polluted soil, AMF restored plant biomass despite higher Cu and Zn accumulation in plant organs, especially roots. Inoculation with the AMF caused an overall induction of PaMT1, PaMT2, PaMT3, PaSPDS1, PaSPDS2 and PaADC gene expression, together with increased free and conjugated PA levels, in plants grown on polluted soil, but not in those grown on non-polluted soil. Conclusions Mycorrhizal plants of P. alba clone AL35 exhibit increased capacity for stabilization of soil HMs, together with improved growth. Their enhanced stress tolerance may derive from the transcriptional upregulation of several stress-related genes, and the protective role of PAs. PMID:20810743

  20. Comparative mapping of human Chromosome 14q11.2-q13 genes with mouse homologous gene regions.

    PubMed

    Kamnasaran, D; O'Brien, P C; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Cox, D W

    2000-11-01

    An examination of the synteny blocks between mouse and human chromosomes aids in understanding the evolution of chromosome divergence between these two species. We comparatively mapped the human (HSA) Chromosome (Chr) 14q11.2-q13 cytogenetic region with the intervals of orthologous genes on mouse (MMU) chromosomes. A lack of conserved gene order was identified between the human cytogenetic region and the interval of orthologs on MMU 12. The evolutionary breakpoint junction was defined within 2.5 Mb, where the conserved synteny of genes on HSA 14 changes from MMU 12 to MMU 14. At the evolutionary breakpoint junction, a human EST (GI: 1114654) with identity to the human and mouse BCL2 interacting gene, BNIP3, was mapped to mouse Chr 3. New gene homologs of LAMB1, MEOX2, NRCAM, and NZTF1 were identified on HSA 7 and on the proximal cytogenetic region of HSA 14 by mapping mouse genes recently reported to be genetically linked within the relevant MMU 12 interval. This study contributes to the identification of homology relationships between the genes of HSA 14q11.2-q13 and mouse Chr 3, 12, and 14. PMID:11063256

  1. Identify lymphatic metastasis-associated genes in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines using gene chip

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; Tang, Jian-Wu; Wang, Bo; Cui, Xiao-Nan; Hou, Li; Sun, Lu; Mao, Li-Min; Zhou, Chun-Hui; Du, Yue; Wang, Li-Hui; Wang, Hua-Xin; Zheng, Ren-Shu; Sun, Lei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In order to obtain lymphogenous metastasis-associated genes, we compared the transcriptional profiles of mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F with highly lymphatic metastasis potential and Hca-P with low lymphatic metastasis potential. METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from Hca-F and Hca-P cells and synthesized into double-stranded cDNA. In vitro transcription double-stranded cDNA was labeled with biotin (i.e., biotin-labeled cRNA, used as the probe). The cRNA probes hybridized with Affymetrix GeneChip® MOE430A (containing 22690 transcripts, including 14500 known mouse genes and 4371 ESTs) respectively and the signals were scanned by the GeneArray Scanner. The results were then analyzed by bioinformatics. RESULTS: Out of the 14500 known genes investigated, 110 (0.8%) were up regulated at least 23 fold. Among the total 4371 ESTs, 17 ESTs (0.4%) (data were not presented) were up regulated at least 23 fold. According to the Gene Ontology and TreeView analysis, the 110 genes were further classified into two groups: differential biological process profile and molecular function profile. CONCLUSION: Using high-throughput gene chip method, a large number of genes and their cellular functions about angiogenesis, cell adhesion, signal transduction, cell motility, transport, microtubule-based process, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, cell cycle, transcription, chaperone activity, motor activity, protein kinase activity, receptor binding and protein binding might be involved in the process of lymphatic metastasis and deserve to be used as potential candidates for further investigation. Cyclin D1, Fosl1, Hsp47, EGFR and AR, and Cav-1 are selected as the possible candidate genes of the metastatic phenotype, which need to be validated in later experiments. ESTs (data were not presented) might indicate novel genes associated with lymphatic metastasis. Validating the function of these genes is helpful to identify the key or candidate gene/pathway responsible for lymphatic metastasis, which might be used as the diagnostic markers and the therapeutic targets for lymphatic metastasis. PMID:15770722

  2. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human. PMID:24497224

  3. Mutations in Ras Genes in Cells Cultured from Mouse Skin Tumors Induced by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikako Nishigori; Suming Wang; Junji Miyakoshi; Mayumi Sato; Toshihiko Tsukada; Takashi Yagi; Sadao Imamura; Hiraku Takebe

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in ras oncogenes were detected in cultured cells of mouse skin tumors induced by near-UV irradiation. DNA extracted from the UV-induced tumor cells was transfected to golden hamster embryo cells, and focus-forming ability was confirmed in 22 of 26 cell strains, 15 of which had the repetitive mouse sequence. Mouse ras genes were detected in 10 of these 22

  4. Cloning, structure, and chromosome localization of the mouse glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Koeller, D.M.; DiGiulio, A.; Frerman, F.E. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States); and others

    1995-08-10

    Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) is a nuclear-encoded, mitochondrial matrix enzyme. In humans, deficiency of GCDH leads to glutaric acidemia type I, and inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative disease. In this report we describe the cloning and structure of the mouse GCDH (Gcdh) gene and cDNA and its chromosomal localization. The mouse Gcdh cDNA is 1.75 kb long and contains and open reading frame of 438 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of mouse, human, and pig GCDH are highly conserved. The mouse Gcdh gene contains 11 exons and spans 7 kb of genomic DNA. Gcdh was mapped by backcross analysis to mouse chromosome 8 within a region that is homologous to a region of human chromosome 19, where the human gene was previously mapped. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Human-mouse homologies in the region of the polycystic kidney disease gene (PKD1).

    PubMed

    Himmelbauer, H; Pohlschmidt, M; Snarey, A; Germino, G G; Weinstat-Saslow, D; Somlo, S; Reeders, S T; Frischauf, A M

    1992-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD1) is linked to the alpha-globin locus near the telomere of chromosome 16p. We established the existence of a conserved linkage group in mouse by mapping conserved sequences and cDNAs from the region surrounding the PKD1 gene in the mouse genome. Results obtained with the BXD recombinant strain system and somatic cell hybrids show the homologous region to be located on mouse chromosome 17 near the globin pseudogene Hba-ps4, an unprocessed alpha-like globin gene. The markers we mapped are widely distributed over the region known to contain the PKD1 gene, and it is therefore likely that the mouse homologue of PKD1 is also located on mouse chromosome 17. PMID:1349580

  6. Tissue-specific expression of TRP channel genes in the mouse and its variation in three different mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Kunert-Keil; Frederike Bisping; Jana Krüger; Heinrich Brinkmeier

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to study the gene expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the mouse. The application of a standardized and quantitative technique, TaqMan RT-PCR, should give information about the pattern and relative importance of TRP channels for murine tissues and cell types. To verify data sets with an independent method, we studied the

  7. A transgenic mouse strain expressing four drug-selectable marker genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry Lee Tucker; Yukang Wang; Jessica Dausman; Rudolf Jaenisch

    1997-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells are commonly cultured on feeder layers of primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Because gene targeting experi- ments often involve sequential selection for multiple- drug resistance in single ES cell lines, we have developed a new mouse strain which represents an economical donor for the production of multiple-drug resistant MEFs. MEFs prepared from the DR-4 mouse

  8. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  9. Number of CpG Islands and Genes in Human and Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Antequera; Adrian Bird

    1993-01-01

    Estimation of gene number in mammals is difficult due to the high proportion of noncoding DNA within the nucleus. In this study, we provide a direct measurement of the number of genes in human and mouse. We have taken advantage of the fact that many mammalian genes are associated with CpG islands whose distinctive properties allow their physical separation from

  10. Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Mouse and Human Protocadherin Gene Clusters

    E-print Network

    Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Mouse and Human Protocadherin Gene Clusters Qiang Wu,1 Theresa of variable region exons. Here we report the results of a comparative DNA sequence analysis of the orthologous and contains more genes than the human Pcdh gene cluster. We identified conserved DNA sequences upstream

  11. Analysis of the Mouse Transcriptome for Genes Involved in the Function of the Nervous System

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    Analysis of the Mouse Transcriptome for Genes Involved in the Function of the Nervous System and Protein Set for molecules involved in brain function. We found full-length cDNAs of many known brain genes and discovered new members of known brain gene families, including Family 3 G-protein coupled receptors, voltage

  12. Axons Mediate the Distribution of Arylsulfatase A within the Mouse Hippocampus upon Gene Delivery

    E-print Network

    Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    Axons Mediate the Distribution of Arylsulfatase A within the Mouse Hippocampus upon Gene Delivery Naldini,1,2 and Ernesto R. Bongarzone1,y 1 Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Scientific brain gene transfer in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Direct molecular

  13. Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co-expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1-4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500?Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse-knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain-specific spatio-temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty-two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning ("l/m/c") phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD-cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span ("Hyperactivity/SAS", the ontologically-derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues' disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse ("candidate-genes"), were co-expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues' mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co-expressed with ADHD candidate-genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656289

  14. Massachusetts General mouse study reveals gene expression patterns in pancreatic CTCs

    Cancer.gov

    Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer identified distinct patterns of gene expression in several groups of CTCs, including significant differences from the primary tumor that may contribute to the ability to generate metastases.

  15. Embryonic expression of three mouse genes with homology to the Drosophila melanogaster prickle gene.

    PubMed

    Bekman, Evguenia; Henrique, Domingos

    2002-11-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gene prickle-spiny-legs (pk) functions in an intercellular feedback loop that is central to the establishment of planar cell polarity in the eye and epidermis of the fly, by modulating Frizzled-Disheveled signalling. Here we identify three mouse prickle-related genes (dyxin, testin and prickle) and describe their expression pattern during murine embryogenesis (E7.5-E15.5). We report that the three genes are expressed in restricted areas of the developing mouse brain: dyxin in the most ventral region of the neural tube and in some localized regions of the ventricular layer of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, prickle in the pons region, ventrolateral part of rhombencephalon and motoneurons in the spinal cord, and testin in differentiating neurons of the spinal cord and retina. At the stages analyzed, the main site of expression of testin is the migrating cranial neural crest, while the expression of dyxin is noticeable in myotomal cells and its derivatives, with prickle expression being reciprocally localized to some sclerotomal derivatives, like bone primordia. prickle is also expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge and the most distal mesenchyme of the forming limb buds. PMID:12617840

  16. Embryonic expression of three mouse genes with homology to the Drosophila melanogaster prickle gene.

    PubMed

    Bekman, Evguenia; Henrique, Domingos

    2002-12-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gene prickle-spiny-legs (pk) functions in an intercellular feedback loop that is central to the establishment of planar cell polarity in the eye and epidermis of the fly, by modulating Frizzled-Disheveled signalling. Here we identify three mouse prickle-related genes (dyxin, testin and prickle) and describe their expression pattern during murine embryogenesis (E7.5-E15.5). We report that the three genes are expressed in restricted areas of the developing mouse brain: dyxin in the most ventral region of the neural tube and in some localized regions of the ventricular layer of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, prickle in the pons region, ventrolateral part of rhombencephalon and motoneurons in the spinal cord, and testin in differentiating neurons of the spinal cord and retina. At the stages analyzed, the main site of expression of testin is the migrating cranial neural crest, while the expression of dyxin is noticeable in myotomal cells and its derivatives, with prickle expression being reciprocally localized to some sclerotomal derivatives, like bone primordia. prickle is also expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge and the most distal mesenchyme of the forming limb buds. PMID:14516664

  17. Assignment of the mouse tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase gene (Acp5) to chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.; Reddy, S.V.; Leach, R.J.; Scarcez, T.; Sakaguchi, A.Y. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States)); Roodman, G.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States) Audie Murphy Veterans Administration Hospital, San Antonio, TX (United States)); Lalley, P.A. (Wayne State Univ. of School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)); Windle, J.J. (Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a marker enzyme for osteoclasts, the multinucleated cell responsible for bone resorption. Interspecific somatic whole cell hybrids and karyotypically simple microcell hybrids were used to map the gene encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatse (acp5) to mouse Chromosome 9. Acp5 is therefore a member of a syntenic family of genes that map to human chromosome 19p13.1-p13.3 and mouse Chromosome 9. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Evidence that the Mouse Osteocalcin-Related Gene Does Not Encode Nephrocalcin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Petrucci; Yves Paquette; François A. Leblond; Vincent Pichette; Alain Bonnardeaux

    2006-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The osteocalcin-related gene (ORG) is a mouse-specific member of the osteocalcin gene cluster predicted to encode a ?-carboxyglutamic acid-rich protein. ORG mRNA has been predicted to encode nephrocalcin and shown to be expressed in the kidney where it could serve as an important crystallization inhibitor. To determine whether ORG encodes mouse nephrocalcin, we investigated its in vivo and in

  19. Aup1, a novel gene on mouse Chromosome 6 and human Chromosome 2p13

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Wonhee; Weber, J.S.; Meisler, M.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); and others

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse cDNA, Aup1, encoding a predicted protein of 410 amino acid residues. The 1.5-kb Aup1 transcript is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues. An evolutionary relationship to the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted protein F44b9.5 is indicated by the 35% identity and 53% conservation of the amino acid sequences. Nineteen related human ESTs spanning 80% of the protein have also been identified, with a predicted amino acid sequence identity of 86% between the human and the mouse proteins. The gene has been mapped to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 2p13 and mouse Chromosome 6. Aup1 was eliminated as a candidate gene for two closely linked disorders, human LGMD2B and mouse mnd2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Metallothionein labeling for CLEM method for identification of protein subunits.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Ryutaro; Hirasaka, Yuka; Jin, Mingyue; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Yasunaga, Takuo

    2014-11-01

    CLEM (correlative light and electron microscopy) is one of the powerful techniques to elucidate the localization and structure of the target proteins or their complexes in cell. First, target proteins labeled fluorescently can be searched using a fluorescence microscope, i.e., due to its low resolution (200nm), it is used as rough searching of target proteins. After rough detection of the localization of target proteins, they can be easily observed by electron microscopy with a high resolution and processed into fine structure, especially 3D structure. On the other hand, in the case of only electron microscopy, it is difficult for researchers to detect their localization due to a narrow range of views and no labeling of them.Thus, CLEM normally needs fluorescent labels for fluorescence microscopy but a label for electron microscopy is also expectedly for easier detection. Thus we focused on metallothionein. Metallothionein binds to cadmium ions, i.e., heavy atoms with strong density in electron microscopy [1]; in addition, cadmium ions and selenium ions are known to form Qdot-like nanoparticles induced by metallothionein [2]. These are 2 ? 5nm in size, fluorescent wavelength changes depending on the size of nanoparticles. Thus, target proteins fused with metallothionein could be observed by both of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy.We here used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, single cell green algae with two flagella. Flagella are used for bending motion and motility. Flagella contain FAP20 (Flagellar Asociate Protein 20) and PACRG (PArkin Co-Regulated gene), which are related to composing axoneme architecture. If Chlamydomonas reinhardtii doesn't have FAP20 or PACRG, they can't generate bending motion. It is considered that FAP20 and PACRG locate on the root of the radial spoke. Recently the location of FAP20 was reported by Yanagisawa et al.[3]. First, we also focus on detecting localization of FAP20 and then will do so on that of PACKRG.We could observe fluorescence of metallothionein fused with FAP20 to form nanoparticle. We are now trying to observe larger electron density from metallothionein with cadmium for CLEM. PMID:25359836

  1. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Lynn E.; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T.; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M.; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Alt, Frederick W.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Murphy, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome–based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and ? light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice. PMID:24706858

  2. Functional Conservation of Gsdma Cluster Genes Specifically Duplicated in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Mizushina, Youichi; Kato, Yoriko; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Mouse Gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3) is the causative gene for dominant skin mutations exhibiting alopecia. Mouse has two other Gsdma3-related genes, Gsdma and Gsdma2, whereas human and rat have only one related gene. To date, no skin mutation has been reported for human GSDMA and rat Gsdma as well as mouse Gsdma and Gsdma2. Therefore, it is possible that only Gsdma3 has gain-of-function type mutations to cause dominant skin phenotype. To elucidate functional divergence among the Gsdma-related genes in mice, and to infer the function of the human and rat orthologs, we examined in vivo function of mouse Gsdma by generating Gsdma knockout mice and transgenic mice that overexpress wild-type Gsdma or Gsdma harboring a point mutation (Alanine339Threonine). The Gsdma knockout mice shows no visible phenotype, indicating that Gsdma is not essential for differentiation of epidermal cells and maintenance of the hair cycle, and that Gsdma is expressed specifically both in the inner root sheath of hair follicles and in suprabasal cell layers, whereas Gsdma3 is expressed only in suprabasal layers. By contrast, both types of the transgenic mice exhibited epidermal hyperplasia resembling the Gsdma3 mutations, although the phenotype depended on the genetic background. These results indicate that the mouse Gsdma and Gsdma3 genes share common function to regulate epithelial maintenance and/or homeostasis, and suggest that the function of human GSDMA and rat Gsdma, which are orthologs of mouse Gsdma, is conserved as well. PMID:23979942

  3. SPC-Cre-ERT2 transgenic mouse for temporal gene deletion in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yao-Song; Wang, Lianmei; Tian, Xinlun; Feng, Ruie; Ma, Aiping; Cai, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongbing; Xu, Kai-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Although several Cre-loxP-based gene knockout mouse models have been generated for the study of gene function in alveolar epithelia in the lung, their applications are still limited. In this study, we developed a SPC-Cre-ER(T2) mouse model, in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2)) is under the control of the human surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter. The specificity and efficiency of Cre-ER(T2) activity was first evaluated by crossing SPC-Cre-ER(T2) mouse with ROSA26R mouse, a ?-galactosidase reporter strain. We found that Cre-ER(T2) was expressed in 30.7% type II alveolar epithelial cells of SPC-Cre-ER(T2)/ROSA26R mouse lung tissues in the presence of tamoxifen. We then tested the tamoxifen-inducible recombinase activity of Cre-ER(T2) in a mouse strain bearing TSC1 conditional knockout alleles (TSC1(fx/fx)). TSC1 deletion was detected in the lungs of tamoxifen treated SPC-Cre-ER(T2)/TSC1(fx/fx) mice. Therefore this SPC-Cre-ER(T2) mouse model may be a valuable tool to investigate functions of genes in lung development, physiology and disease. PMID:23049940

  4. SPC-Cre-ERT2 Transgenic Mouse for Temporal Gene Deletion in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Yao-Song; Wang, Lianmei; Tian, Xinlun; Feng, Ruie; Ma, Aiping; Cai, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongbing; Xu, Kai-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Although several Cre-loxP-based gene knockout mouse models have been generated for the study of gene function in alveolar epithelia in the lung, their applications are still limited. In this study, we developed a SPC-Cre-ERT2 mouse model, in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ERT2) is under the control of the human surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter. The specificity and efficiency of Cre-ERT2 activity was first evaluated by crossing SPC-Cre-ERT2 mouse with ROSA26R mouse, a ?-galactosidase reporter strain. We found that Cre-ERT2 was expressed in 30.7% type II alveolar epithelial cells of SPC-Cre-ERT2/ROSA26R mouse lung tissues in the presence of tamoxifen. We then tested the tamoxifen-inducible recombinase activity of Cre-ERT2 in a mouse strain bearing TSC1 conditional knockout alleles (TSC1fx/fx). TSC1 deletion was detected in the lungs of tamoxifen treated SPC-Cre-ERT2/TSC1fx/fx mice. Therefore this SPC-Cre-ERT2 mouse model may be a valuable tool to investigate functions of genes in lung development, physiology and disease. PMID:23049940

  5. The inhibitory effects of mouse ICOS-Ig gene-modified mouse dendritic cells on T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Zhu, Lijuan; Hu, Ping; Zhu, Huifen; Lei, Ping; Liao, Wenjun; Yu, Bing; Gong, Feili; Shen, Guanxin

    2004-04-01

    The main approach to reduce graft rejection has been focused on the development of immunosuppressive agents at present. Although these strategies have reportedly reduced graft rejection, there has been a reciprocal increase in more severe immunosuppression and lethal infections, as well as severe side effects. Blockade of costimulatory T cell response has been proved as one of useful strategies to reduce graft rejection. Furthermore, it has been shown that infusion of dendritic cells (DCs) with a potent negative regulatory ability for T cells could prolong allograft survival. In this study mouse DCs (mDCs) were transfected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.0 containing mouse inducible costimulator-Ig (mICOS-Ig) cDNA by electroporation. The transient expression of mICOS-Ig in mDC could be detected by ELISA and SDS-PAGE. Mouse ICOS-Ig fusion protein expressed in mDC and mICOS-Ig gene-modified mDC could inhibit lymphocyte proliferation in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) in vitro. Furthermore, mICOS-Ig gene-modified mDC could inhibit lymphocyte proliferation in recipient mice. These results suggested that mICOS-Ig gene-modified mDC exerted inhibitory effects on T cells, and might be suitable for treatment or prevention of graft rejection and immunopathologic diseases. PMID:16212904

  6. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiying Zhang; Ricardo Proenca; Margherita Maffei; Marisa Barone; Lori Leopold; Jeffrey M. Friedman

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation ofobresults in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may

  7. Plasmid-based gene transfer ameliorates visceral storage in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Yamaguchi; Kayoko Katsuyama; Kyoko Suzuki; Kenji Kosaka; Ichiro Aoki; Shoji Yamanaka

    2003-01-01

    Sandhoff disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with visceral involvement caused by mutations in the HEXB gene coding for the g subunit of the lysosomal hexosaminidases A and B. HEXB mutations result in the accumulation of undegraded substrates such as GM2 and GA2 in lysosomes. We evaluated the efficacy of cationic liposome-mediated plasmid gene therapy using the Sandhoff disease mouse,

  8. Gene and protein expression profiling of the fat-1 mouse brain Dalma Menesi a

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    : Fat-1 Polyunsaturated fatty acids Inflammation Gene expression Alzheimer's disease NeuronalGene and protein expression profiling of the fat-1 mouse brain Dalma Me´nesi a , Kla´ra Kitajka, neuronal dysfunction, and cancer. But, the exact molecular targets of these beneficial actions of n-3 PUFAs

  9. Hox Paralog Group 2 Genes Control the Migration of Mouse Pontine Neurons

    E-print Network

    Hox Paralog Group 2 Genes Control the Migration of Mouse Pontine Neurons through Slit, 4 CNRS UMR8542, Ecole Normale Supe´rieure, Paris, France The pontine neurons (PN) represent a major, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using

  10. New mouse model for polycystic kidney disease with both recessive and dominant gene effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorranine Flaherty; Elizabeth C Bryda; Doris Collins; Ulrich Rudofsky; Jeffry C Montgomery; Lorraine Flaherty

    1995-01-01

    New mouse model for polycystic kidney disease with both recessive and dominant gene effects. In the course of studying the genetics of chlorambucil mutagenesis, we have uncovered a new model for autosomal polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In the homozygous condition, the gene, jcpk, causes a very severe disease characterized by cysts in all segments of the nephron. Death usually occurs

  11. A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is a member of a novel family of embryonically expressed genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gubbay; Jérôme Collignon; Peter Koopman; Blanche Capel; Androulla Economou; Andrea Münsterberg; Nigel Vivian; Peter Goodfellow; Robin Lovell-Badge

    1990-01-01

    A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by

  12. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (?-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  13. Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U. [USCS, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

  14. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2?/? mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2?/? mice. In the liver of aimara-fed mice, histological alterations were observed for an accumulated mercury concentration as low as 32 ng/g, dw, and metal deposits were observed within the cytoplasm of hepatic cells. PMID:22837723

  15. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins. PMID:2993224

  16. Chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin

    SciTech Connect

    Eistetter, H.R.; Adolph, S.; Ringwald, M.; Simon-Chazottes, D.; Schuh, R.; Guenet, J.L.; Kemler, R. (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Tuebingen (West Germany))

    1988-05-01

    The gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. Uvomorulin cDNA clone F5H3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in Southern blots of genomic DNA from mouse species Mus musculus domesticus and Mus spretus. By analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, Um, was defined on chromosome 8. Recombination frequency between Um and the co-segregating loci serum esterase 1 (Es-1) and tyrosine aminotransferase (Tat) places Um about 14 centimorgan (cM) distal to Es-1, and 5 cM proximal to Tat. In situ hybridization of uvomorulin ({sup 3}H)cDNA to mouse metaphase chromosomes located the Um locus close to the distal end of chromosome 8 (bands C3-E1). Since uvomorulin is evolutionarily highly conserved, its chromosomal assignment adds an important marker to the mouse genetic map.

  17. Cytological localization of adenosine kinase, nucleoside phosphorylase-1, and esterase-10 genes on mouse chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.C.; Farber, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    The authors have determined the regional locations on mouse chromosome 14 of the genes for mouse adenosine kinase (ADK), nucleoside phosphorylase- 1 (NP-1), and esterase-10 (ES-10) by analysis of rearranged mouse chromosomes in gamma-irradiated Chinese hamster X mouse hybrid cell lines. Irradiated clones were screened for expression of the murine forms of these enzymes; segregant clones that expressed only one or two of the three markers were karyotyped. The patterns of enzyme expression in these segregants were correlated with the presence of rearranged chromosomes. The Adk gene was localized to bands A2 to B, Np-1 to bands B to C1, and Es-10 to bands D2 to E2.

  18. Somatotropic and lactotropic receptors in transgenic mice expressing human or bovine growth hormone genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Aguilar; H. N. Fernandez; J. M. Dellacha; R. S. Calandra; A. Bartke; P. K. Ghosh; D. Turyn

    1992-01-01

    The somatotropic and lactotropic receptors were studied in liver microsomal preparations from transgenic mice carrying the\\u000a human growth hormone (hGH) or bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene fused to mouse metallothionein-I (MT) or phosphoenolpyruvate\\u000a carboxykinase promoter\\/regulator (PEPCK). Specificity studies indicated that, similarly to normal mice, liver microsomes from\\u000a the transgenic animals possess a mixed population of somatotropic and lactotropic binding sites.

  19. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  20. LI-cadherin gene expression during mouse intestinal development.

    PubMed

    Angres, B; Kim, L; Jung, R; Gessner, R; Tauber, R

    2001-06-01

    LI-cadherin (Liver-Intestine cadherin) is a member of a subclass (7-D cadherins) within the cadherin superfamily. Although its cellular function as a cell-cell adhesion molecule has been demonstrated in cell culture studies, its physiological function still needs to be explored in the intact organism. After isolating the cDNA for mouse LI-cadherin, we generated specific antibodies against the overexpressed protein and studied its expression pattern in adult mouse tissues and mouse embryos. The mouse LI-cadherin sequence is 91% identical to the sequence of rat LI-cadherin and exhibits the same structural features described for rat LI-cadherin. In mouse adult tissue, LI-cadherin is expressed in the intestine and in small amounts in the spleen. In contrast to rat, Mouse LI-cadherin was not expressed in liver. During mouse embryogenesis, LI-cadherin expression begins at embryonic day 12.5. With the exception of transient expression in the urogenital sinus and the common bile duct on day 13.5, LI-cadherin was found exclusively in the intestinal epithelium. Its expression coincides with the formation of intestinal villi, a developmental stage that includes major tissue remodeling, growth, and differentiation. LI-cadherin is expressed along the entire anterior-posterior axis of the developing intestine as well as along the entire villus axis once villi begin to form. LI-cadherin occupies all cell surfaces of the deeper layers of the epithelium, distributing to basolateral surfaces only in the cells of the outer epithelial layer. LI-cadherin was found to be always co-expressed with E-cadherin. PMID:11376485

  1. Expression of the mouse fragilis gene products in immune cells and association with receptor signaling complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Smith; J Young; J J Weis; J H Weis

    2006-01-01

    The mouse genome possesses five genes encoding proteins homologous to human Leu-13. The Leu-13 protein associates with immune cell receptor activation complexes: a monoclonal antibody against Leu-13 induces T and B cells to form homotypic aggregates, inhibits activation-induced proliferation and induces the shedding of L-selectin. The mouse fragilis proteins have not been previously analyzed as components of the immune response.

  2. Expression profile of active genes in mouse lymph node high endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dai Izawa; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Koichi Saito; Hideki Ogihara; Takeo Usui; Shoko Kawamoto; Kenichi Matsubara; Kosaku Okubo; Masayuki Miyasaka

    1999-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEV) allow rapid and selective lymphocyte trafficking from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we report the expression profile of active genes in mouse high endothelial cells (HEC). HEC were first purified from mouse lymph nodes (LN) by magnetic cell sorting with MECA-79 mAb and a 3-directed cDNA library that faithfully represents the composition of mRNA

  3. The NOD Mouse: Recessive Diabetogenic Gene in the Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hattori; J. B. Buse; R. A. Jackson; L. Glimcher; M. E. Dorf; M. Minami; S. Makino; K. Moriwaki; H. Kuzuya; H. Imura; W. M. Strauss; J. G. Seidman; G. S. Eisenbarth

    1986-01-01

    Examination of the histocompatibility region of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse with antibodies against class II glycoproteins (products of immune response genes of the major histocompatibility complex I-A and I-E), hybrid T-cell clones, and mixed-lymphocyte cultures and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicate that the NOD mouse has a unique class II major histocompatibility complex with no expression of

  4. A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew I. Su; Tim Wiltshire; Serge Batalov; Hilmar Lapp; Keith A. Ching; David Block; Jie Zhang; Richard Soden; Mimi Hayakawa; Gabriel Kreiman; Michael P. Cooke; John R. Walker; John B. Hogenesch

    2004-01-01

    The tissue-specific pattern of mRNA expression can indicate important clues about gene function. High-density oligonucleotide arrays offer the opportunity to examine patterns of gene expression on a genome scale. Toward this end, we have designed custom arrays that interrogate the expression of the vast majority of protein-encoding human and mouse genes and have used them to profile a panel of

  5. A type VII myosin encoded by the mouse deafness gene shaker-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gibson; J. Walsh; P. Mburu; A. Varela; K. A. Brown; M. Antonio; K. W. Beisel; K. P. Steel; S. D. M. Brown

    1995-01-01

    GENETIC deafness is common, affecting about 1 in 2,000 births1. Many of these show primary abnormalities of the sensory neuro-epithelia of the inner ear, as do several hearing-impaired mouse mutants, suggesting that genes involved in sensory transduction could be affected. Here we report the identification of one such gene, the mouseshaker-1(shl) gene. Shaker-1 homozygotes show hyperactivity, head-tossing and circling due

  6. Comparison of mouse and human genomes followed by experimental verification yields an estimated 1,019 additional genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderic Guigó; Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis; Pankaj Agarwal; Chris P. Ponting; Genís Parra; Alexandre Reymond; Josep F. Abril; Evan Keibler; Robert Lyle; Catherine Ucla; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Michael R. Brent

    2003-01-01

    A primary motivation for sequencing the mouse genome was to accelerate the discovery of mammalian genes by using sequence conservation between mouse and human to identify coding exons. Achieving this goal proved challenging because of the large proportion of the mouse and human genomes that is apparently conserved but apparently does not code for protein. We developed a two-stage procedure

  7. Introduction of Rat Growth Hormone Gene into Mouse Fibroblasts Via a Retroviral DNA Vector: Expression and Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Doehmer; Marcia Barinaga; Wylie Vale; Michael G. Rosenfeld; Inder M. Verma; Ronald M. Evans

    1982-01-01

    We have introduced the rat growth hormone gene into mouse fibroblasts via a retroviral DNA vector. The ability of the viral DNA to induce foci in the recipient cells was used as a dominant selection marker. Several copies of rat growth hormone DNA were integrated in the mouse cells. The transformed mouse cells expressed rat growth hormone-specific mRNA and secreted

  8. Comparative gene expression profiling in two congenic mouse strains following Bordetella pertussis infection

    PubMed Central

    Banus, Sander; Vandebriel, Rob J; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Gremmer, Eric R; Wester, Piet W; van Kranen, Henk J; Breit, Timo M; Demant, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Hoebee, Barbara; Kimman, Tjeerd G

    2007-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to Bordetella pertussis infection varies widely. These differences can partly be explained by genetic host factors. HcB-28 mice are more resistant to B. pertussis infection than C3H mice, which could partially be ascribed to the B. pertussis susceptibility locus-1 (Bps1) on chromosome 12. The presence of C57BL/10 genome on this locus instead of C3H genome resulted in a decreased number of bacteria in the lung. To further elucidate the role of host genetic factors, in particular in the Bps1 locus, in B. pertussis infection, and to identify candidate genes within in this region, we compared expression profiles in the lungs of the C3H and HcB-28 mouse strains following B. pertussis inoculation. Twelve and a half percent of the genomes of these mice are from a different genetic background. Results Upon B. pertussis inoculation 2,353 genes were differentially expressed in the lungs of both mouse strains. Two hundred and six genes were differentially expressed between the two mouse strains, but, remarkably, none of these were up- or down-regulated upon B. pertussis infection. Of these 206 genes, 17 were located in the Bps1 region. Eight of these genes, which showed a strong difference in gene expression between the two mouse strains, map to the immunoglobulin heavy chain complex (Igh). Conclusion Gene expression changes upon B. pertussis infection are highly identical between the two mouse strains despite the differences in the course of B. pertussis infection. Because the genes that were differentially regulated between the mouse strains only showed differences in expression before infection, it appears likely that such intrinsic differences in gene regulation are involved in determining differences in susceptibility to B. pertussis infection. Alternatively, such genetic differences in susceptibility may be explained by genes that are not differentially regulated between these two mouse strains. Genes in the Igh complex, among which Igh-1a/b, are likely candidates to explain differences in susceptibility to B. pertussis. Thus, by microarray analysis we significantly reduced the number of candidate susceptibility genes within the Bps1 locus. Further work should establish the role of the Igh complex in B. pertussis infection. PMID:17935610

  9. Characterization of the mouse prostaglandin F receptor gene: a transgenic mouse study of a regulatory region that controls its expression in the stomach and kidney but not in the ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-yuh Hasumoto; Yukihiko Sugimoto; Megumi Gotoh; Eri Segi; Atsushi Yamasaki; Masahiro Yamaguchi; Hiroaki Honda; Hisamaru Hirai; Manabu Negishi; Akira Kakizuka; Atsushi Ichikawa

    1997-01-01

    Background: The actions of prostaglandin F2a are mediated by a cell-surface receptor (FP), but little is known about the regulation of FP gene expression. To clarify the mechanisms underlying tissue specific transcription of the mouse FP gene, we isolated and characterized mouse genomic DNA clones encod- ing FP. Results: Structural analysis revealed that the mouse FP gene is composed of

  10. Structure and polymorphism of the mouse myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Daubas, P.; Pham-Dinh, D.; Dautigny, A. [Universite Paris VI (France)] [Universite Paris VI (France)

    1994-09-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized genomic clones containing the mouse myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene. It spans a region of 12.5 kb and consists of eight exons. Its exon-intron structure differs from that of classical MHC-class I genes, with which it is linked in the mouse genome. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5{prime} flanking region revelas that it contains several putative protein-binding sites, some of them in common with other myelin gene promoters. One intragenic polymorphism has been identified: it consists of a GA repeat, defining at least three alleles in mouse inbred strains, and is easily detectable using the polymerase chain reaction method.

  11. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. PMID:25645816

  12. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-01-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. PMID:25645816

  13. MOUSE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

  14. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  15. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko, E-mail: satosho@rs.tus.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Hitoshi, E-mail: shirakah@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Tomita, Shuhei, E-mail: tomita@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Tohkin, Masahiro, E-mail: tohkin@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Medical Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 267-8603 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: gonzalef@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Komai, Michio, E-mail: mkomai@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  16. Discovery of novel genes and gene isoforms by integrating transcriptomic and proteomic profiling from mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Weiran; Hao, Yunwei; Ren, Liangliang; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Ning; Wei, Handong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2014-05-01

    Comprehensively identifying gene expression in both transcriptomic and proteomic levels of one tissue is a prerequisite for a deeper understanding of its biological functions. Alternative splicing and RNA editing, two main forms of transcriptional processing, play important roles in transcriptome and proteome diversity and result in multiple isoforms for one gene, which are hard to identify by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approach due to the relative lack of isoform information in standard protein databases. In our study, we employed MS and RNA-Seq in parallel into mouse liver tissue and captured a considerable catalogue of both transcripts and proteins that, respectively, covered 60 and 34% of protein-coding genes in Ensembl. We then developed a bioinformatics workflow for building a customized protein database that for the first time included new splicing-derived peptides and RNA-editing-caused peptide variants, allowing us to more completely identify protein isoforms. Using this experimentally determined database, we totally identified 150 peptides not present in standard biological databases at false discovery rate of <1%, corresponding to 72 novel splicing isoforms, 43 new genetic regions, and 15 RNA-editing sites. Of these, 11 randomly selected novel events passed experimental verification by PCR and Sanger sequencing. New discoveries of gene products with high confidence in two omics levels demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of our approach and its potential application into improve genome annotation. All the MS data have been deposited to the iProx ( http://ww.iprox.org ) with the identifier IPX00003601. PMID:24717071

  17. Hypoxia acts through multiple signaling pathways to induce metallothionein transactivation by the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1).

    PubMed

    Dubé, Annie; Harrisson, Jean-François; Saint-Gelais, Geneviève; Séguin, Carl

    2011-12-01

    Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is essential for the induction of genes encoding metallothionein by metals and hypoxia. Here, we studied the mechanism controlling the activation of MTF-1 by hypoxia. Hypoxia activation of Mt gene transcription is dependent on the presence of metal regulatory elements (MREs) in the promoter of Mt genes. We showed that MREa and MREd are the main elements controlling mouse Mt-1 gene induction by hypoxia. Transfection experiments in Mtf-1-null cells showed that MTF-1 is essential for induction by hypoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MTF-1 DNA-binding activity was strongly enhanced in the presence of zinc but not by hypoxia. Notably, hypoxia inducible factor- (HIF) 1? was recruited to the Mt-1 promoter in response to hypoxia but not to zinc. MTF-1 activation was inhibited by PKC, JNK, and PI3K inhibitors and by the electron transport chain inhibitors rotenone and myxothiazol, but not by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. We showed that prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors can activate MTF-1, but this activation requires the presence of HIF-1?. Finally, HIF-dependent transcription is enhanced in the presence of MTF-1 and induction of an MRE promoter is stimulated by HIF-1?, thus indicating cooperation between these 2 factors. However, coimmunoprecipitation experiments did not suggest direct interaction between MTF-1 and HIF-1?. PMID:22087877

  18. Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Taketo, M. [Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Weiss, E.H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Abe, K. [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Ando, A.; Yara-Kikuti, Y.; Inoko, H. [Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara (Japan); Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ozato, K. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-01-11

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are zinc finger-containing nuclear transcription factors. They belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that contains retinoid receptors, vitamin D receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, and steroid hormone receptors as well as the so-called orphan receptors. We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: namely, the RXRA-gene (Rxra) on Chr 2 near the centromere, the RXRB gene (Rxrb) on Chr 17 in the H2 region, and the RXRG gene (Rxrg) on distal Chr 1. Using cosmid clones that cover the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we determined the precise physical map positions of the gene encoding mouse and human RXRB, respectively. The mouse gene (Rxrb) maps between H2-Ke4 and H2-Ke5: namely, immediately telomeric to H2-Ke4 which encodes a histidine-rich transmembrane protein, and 12 kilobases centromeric to H2-Ke5 which is expressed in lymphoid tissues, Rxrb and H2-Ke4 are transcribed into opposite directions from a CpG-rich promoter of about 250 base pairs. This gene organization is well conserved also in the human genome at the HLA-DP subregion of Chr 6p, underscoring the strong conservation of the gene organization in the MHC region between the two mammals. 54 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Functional characterization of mouse fetal TnI gene promoters in myocardial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Du; C. Nan; J. J. Huang; C. Zhang; J. Liu; P. Jia; M. Abers; X. P. Huang

    2008-01-01

    Two major troponin I (TnI) genes, fetal TnI (ssTnI) and adult TnI (cTnI), are expressed in the mammalian heart under the control\\u000a of a developmentally regulated program. In this study, the up-stream domain (?1,800 bp) of mouse fetal TnI gene has been cloned\\u000a and characterized. There is a high homology of this region among mouse, rat and human. Analysis of the

  20. Gene expression and phenotypic characterization of mouse heart after chronic constant or intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chenhao; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Zhou, Dan; Chen, Qiaofang; Lai, James K.; Gavrialov, Orit; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constant hypoxia (CCH), such as in pulmonary diseases or high altitude, and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), such as in sleep apnea, can lead to major changes in the heart. Molecular mechanisms underlying these cardiac alterations are not well understood. We hypothesized that changes in gene expression could help to delineate such mechanisms. The current study used a neonatal mouse model in CCH or CIH combined with cDNA microarrays to determine changes in gene expression in the CCH or CIH mouse heart. Both CCH and CIH induced substantial alterations in gene expression. In addition, a robust right ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac enlargement was found in CCH- but not in CIH-treated mouse heart. On one hand, upregulation in RNA and protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? and -4E (eIF-2? and eIF-4E) was found in CCH, whereas eIF-4E was downregulated in 1- and 2-wk CIH, suggesting that eIF-4E is likely to play an important role in the cardiac hypertrophy observed in CCH-treated mice. On the other hand, the specific downregulation of heart development-related genes (e.g., notch gene homolog-1, MAD homolog-4) and the upregulation of proteolysis genes (e.g., calpain-5) in the CIH heart can explain the lack of hypertrophy in CIH. Interestingly, apoptosis was enhanced in CCH but not CIH, and this was correlated with an upregulation of proapoptotic genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in CCH. In summary, our results indicate that 1) the pattern of gene response to CCH is different from that of CIH in mouse heart, and 2) the identified expression differences in certain gene groups are helpful in dissecting mechanisms responsible for phenotypes observed. PMID:15928208

  1. Genome-wide gene expression analysis in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Juan; García-Alcalde, Fernando; Blanco, Armando; Concha, Angel

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell studies have generated great interest, due to their ability to form a wide variety of matured cells. However, there remains a poor understanding of mechanisms regulating the cell state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and of the genes they express during early differentiation. Gene expression analysis may be a valuable tool to elucidate either the molecular pathways involved in self-renewal and pluripotency, or early differentiation and to identify potential molecular therapy targets. The aim of this study was to characterize at the molecular level the undifferentiated mouse ESC state and the early development towards embryoid bodies. To attempt this issue, we performed CodeLink Mouse Uniset I 20K bioarrays in a well-characterized mouse ESC line, MES3, 3- and 7 day-old embryoid bodies and we compared our findings with those in adult tissue cells. Gene expression results were subsequently validated in a commercial stem cell line, CGR8 (ATCC). Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) was used to identify statistically significant changes in microarray data. We identified 3664 genes expressed at significantly greater levels in MES3 stem cells than in adult tissue cells, which included 611 with 3-fold higher gene expression levels versus the adult cells. We also investigated the gene expression profile during early embryoid body formation, identifying 2040 and 2243 genes that were up-regulated in 3- and 7- day-old embryoid bodies, respectively. Our gene expression results in MES3 cells were partially confirmed in CGR8 cells, showing numerous genes that are expressed in both mouse stem cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that commonly expressed genes may be strong candidates for involvement in the maintenance of a pluripotent and undifferentiated phenotype and in early development. PMID:22252498

  2. Mouse Ribosomal RNA Genes Contain Multiple Differentially Regulated Variants

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hung; Chou, Weichin; Wang, Junwen; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shengliang; Schultz, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants) and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA). The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active), two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active), and two are not expressed (silent). These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA. PMID:18365001

  3. Mouse ribosomal RNA genes contain multiple differentially regulated variants.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung; Chou, Weichin; Wang, Junwen; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shengliang; Schultz, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants) and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA). The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active), two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active), and two are not expressed (silent). These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA. PMID:18365001

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Scrapie-Infected Mouse Brains by Using Global Gene Expression Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Xiang; Otto Windl; Gerda Wunsch; Martin Dugas; Alexander Kohlmann; Nicola Dierkes; Ingo M. Westner; Hans A. Kretzschmar

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of prion diseases, a class of transmissible fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the differentially regulated genes that correlate with the development of prion diseases for a better understanding of their pathological mechanisms. We employed Affymetrix Mouse Expression Arrays 430A containing >22,000 transcripts and compared the

  5. Manual Gene Ontology annotation workflow at the Mouse Genome Informatics Database

    PubMed Central

    Drabkin, Harold J.; Blake, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database, the Gene Expression Database and the Mouse Tumor Biology database are integrated components of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource (http://www.informatics.jax.org). The MGI system presents both a consensus view and an experimental view of the knowledge concerning the genetics and genomics of the laboratory mouse. From genotype to phenotype, this information resource integrates information about genes, sequences, maps, expression analyses, alleles, strains and mutant phenotypes. Comparative mammalian data are also presented particularly in regards to the use of the mouse as a model for the investigation of molecular and genetic components of human diseases. These data are collected from literature curation as well as downloads of large datasets (SwissProt, LocusLink, etc.). MGI is one of the founding members of the Gene Ontology (GO) and uses the GO for functional annotation of genes. Here, we discuss the workflow associated with manual GO annotation at MGI, from literature collection to display of the annotations. Peer-reviewed literature is collected mostly from a set of journals available electronically. Selected articles are entered into a master bibliography and indexed to one of eight areas of interest such as ‘GO’ or ‘homology’ or ‘phenotype’. Each article is then either indexed to a gene already contained in the database or funneled through a separate nomenclature database to add genes. The master bibliography and associated indexing provide information for various curator-reports such as ‘papers selected for GO that refer to genes with NO GO annotation’. Once indexed, curators who have expertise in appropriate disciplines enter pertinent information. MGI makes use of several controlled vocabularies that ensure uniform data encoding, enable robust analysis and support the construction of complex queries. These vocabularies range from pick-lists to structured vocabularies such as the GO. All data associations are supported with statements of evidence as well as access to source publications. PMID:23110975

  6. The Rab protein family: Genetic mapping of six Rab genes in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, M.D.F.S.; Gutierrez, M.J.; Kingsmore, S.F. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States); and others

    1995-12-10

    Rab proteins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins that are located in distinct intracellular compartments and play a role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Yeast mutations in Rab gene homologs cause defects in vesicular transport similar to those observed in beige (bg) mice. To investigate Rab genes as candidates for mouse mutations characterized by defects in vesicular trafficking, we utilized an intersubspecific backcross [C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X (C57BL/6J-bg{sup J} X CAST/Ei)F{sub 1}] segregating for the bg locus. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were obtained through Southern hybridization of F{sub 1} and C57BL/6J chromosomal DNA with the coding sequences of Rab genes. These RFLPs and 12 polymorphic microsatellites were used to determine the segregation of the Rab genes in 93 backcross mice. Rab4a, Rab4b, Rab7, Rab10, Rab22, and Rab24 were localized on mouse chromosomes 8, 7, 9, 12, 2, and 13, respectively. Although the results exclude these loci as candidates for bg, they demonstrate a wide dispersion of Rab genes throughout the mouse genome and reveal that Rab4b and Rab24 are possible candidates for the mouse mutations reduced pigmentation (rp) and purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), respectively. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O’Leary, Timothy P.; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E.; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming. PMID:23123364

  8. From chromosomal abnormalities to the identification of target genes in mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Victoria T

    2014-06-01

    Cytogenetic studies of breast cancer cells have identified numerous chromosomal imbalances, including gains in human chromosome regions 1q, 4p, 8q, and 20q and losses in regions 1p, 3p, 6q, 11q, 16q, 17p, and 22q. Mouse models have been developed to study the mechanisms of mammary carcinogenesis, and in most cases, the corresponding karyotypes have been reported. Here, I summarize the cytogenetic findings and the candidate genes that are involved in mammary tumorigenesis. The most commonly altered chromosomes in mouse breast cancer models are chromosomes 4 and 11, which are orthologous to human chromosomes that are also affected by chromosomal abnormalities in human breast cancer. The genes that are affected by chromosomal imbalances in mouse models have also been found to participate in human breast cancer. In addition, the amplification and overexpression of several new genes in mouse models have subsequently been confirmed in human breast cancer. In this review, I compile information on the available karyotypes for mouse breast cancer models. PMID:25176624

  9. Mouse Ribosomal RNA Genes Contain Multiple Differentially Regulated Variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung Tseng; Weichin Chou; Junwen Wang; Xiaohong Zhang; Shengliang Zhang; Richard M. Schultz; Peter Fraser

    2008-01-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants) and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning

  10. Expression Profiling of the Solute Carrier Gene Family in the Mouse BrainS?

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Amber; Royall, Josh; Hohmann, John G.; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The solute carrier (Slc) superfamily is a major group of membrane transport proteins present in mammalian cells. Although Slc transporters play essential and diverse roles in the central nervous system, the localization and function of the vast majority of Slc genes in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization data generated by the Allen Brain Atlas, we systematically and quantitatively analyzed the spatial and cellular distribution of 307 Slc genes, which represent nearly 90% of presently known mouse Slc genes, in the adult C57BL/6J mouse brain. Our analysis showed that 252 (82%) of the 307 Slc genes are present in the brain, and a large proportion of these genes were detected at low to moderate expression levels. Evaluation of 20 anatomical brain subdivisions demonstrated a comparable level of Slc gene complexity but significant difference in transcript enrichment. The distribution of the expressed Slc genes was diverse, ranging from near-ubiquitous to highly localized. Functional annotation in 20 brain regions, including the blood-brain and blood-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) barriers, suggests major roles of Slc transporters in supporting brain energy utilization, neurotransmission, nutrient supply, and CSF production. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed intricate Slc expression patterns associated with neuroanatomical organization. Our studies also revealed Slc genes present within defined brain microstructures and described the putative cell types expressing individual Slc genes. These results provide a useful resource for investigators to explore the roles of Slc genes in neurophysiological and pathological processes. PMID:19179540

  11. Mouse genes coding for "zinc-finger"-containing proteins: characterization and expression in differentiated cells.

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, C; Felsani, A; Caruso, M; Amati, P

    1989-01-01

    By using the zinc-finger region of human cHF.10 cDNA as a probe at low-stringency hybridization conditions, several individual phages from a mouse skeletal muscle cDNA library have been isolated. The amino acid sequences of the "zinc-finger" domains derived from the DNA sequences of three cDNA clones are shown. The expression of the corresponding mRNAs in three cell lines (NIH 3T3, F9 teratocarcinoma, and C2 myoblast cells) at different stages of differentiation and in eight adult mouse tissues has been analyzed. The transcription of these genes is induced during the in vitro differentiation of the cell lines tested. These three genes are widely and evenly expressed in adult mouse tissues, with the remarkable exception of one that is expressed predominantly in the testis. Images PMID:2512579

  12. Developmental expression profiles of Celsr ( Flamingo) genes in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tissir; O. De-Backer; A. M. Goffinet; C. Lambert de Rouvroit

    2002-01-01

    Celsr, also called Flamingo (Fmi) genes encode proteins of the cadherin superfamily. Celsr cadherins are seven-pass transmembrane proteins with nine cadherin repeats in the extracellular domain, and an anonymous intracellular C-terminus. The DrosophilaFmi gene regulates epithelial planar cell polarity and dendritic field deployment. The three Flamingo gene orthologs in man and rodents are named, respectively, CELSR1–3 and Celsr1–3. Celsr1 and

  13. Characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse APLP1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Sue; Wu, Kuo; Black, I.B.; Schaar, D.G. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)] [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the organization of the mouse APLP1 gene, an evolutionarily conserved amyloid precursor-like protein. The amyloid beta protein, important in Alzheimer diseases, is derived from these precursor proteins. By investigating the expression and structure of this murine gene, it is hoped that more will be learned about the function and regulation of the human homologue. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Effects of the steel gene product on mouse primordial germ cells in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Godin; R. Deed; J. Cooke; K. Zsebo; M. Dexter; C. C. Wylie

    1991-01-01

    MUTATIONS at the steel (si) and dominant white spotting (W) loci in the mouse affect primordial germ cells (PGC), melanoblasts and haemopoietic stem cells1. The W gene encodes a cell-surface receptor of the tyrosine kinase family2,3, the proto-oncogene c-kit. In situ analysis has shown c-kitmessenger RNA expression in PGC in the early genital ridges4. The SI gene encodes the ligand

  15. Phenotypes of major immediate-early gene mutants of mouse cytomegalovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Busche; Ana Angulo; Penelope Kay-Jackson; Peter Ghazal; Martin Messerle

    2008-01-01

    Immediate-early (IE) genes are the first genes to be transcribed during the lytic replication cycle of cytomegaloviruses (CMV),\\u000a and encode nonstructural proteins, which are assumed to have mainly regulatory functions. The IE proteins may play important\\u000a roles in the pathogenesis of CMV in vivo, for instance during the establishment of latency and during reactivation. We constructed\\u000a mouse CMV mutants with

  16. Efficient Gene Transfer into Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells with Adenovirus Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Kawabata; Fuminori Sakurai; Teruhide Yamaguchi; Takao Hayakawa; Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    2005-01-01

    Efficient and transient gene transfer into embryonic stem (ES) cells is expected to be of use for basic studies in developmental biology and for applications in regenerative medicine. Here, we report the development of an adenovirus (Ad) vector that efficiently expresses foreign genes in mouse ES (mES) cells. We prepared four LacZ-expressing Ad vectors, each of which contained one of

  17. Correction of the disease phenotype in the mouse model of Stargardt disease by lentiviral gene therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Kong; S-R Kim; K Binley; I Pata; K Doi; J Mannik; J Zernant-Rajang; O Kan; S Iqball; S Naylor; J R Sparrow; P Gouras; R Allikmets

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 (ABCR) gene. The disease phenotype that is most recognized in STGD1 patients, and also in the Abca4?\\/? mouse (a disease model), is lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium. Here, we tested whether delivery of the normal (wt) human ABCA4 gene to the subretinal space of

  18. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K. [Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Activation of Type III Interferon Genes by Pathogenic Bacteria in Infected Epithelial Cells and Mouse Placenta

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-l) genes, whose products play important in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia

  20. Mouse cytosolic and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotidases: cDNA cloning of the mitochondrial enzyme, gene structures, chromosomal

    E-print Network

    Bianchi, Vera

    Mouse cytosolic and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotidases: cDNA cloning of the mitochondrial enzyme, gene structures, chromosomal mapping and comparison with the human orthologsq Chiara Rampazzoa , Maria is a cytoplasmic enzyme (dNT-1), the other occurs in mitochondria (dNT-2). The human mitochondrial enzyme, recently

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Microarray Gene Expression in Mouse Stem Cells: Redefining Stemness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne J. K. Edwards; Kevin Bryson; David T. Jones; Winston Hide

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundWhile much progress has been made in understanding stem cell (SC) function, a complete description of the molecular mechanisms regulating SCs is not yet established. This lack of knowledge is a major barrier holding back the discovery of therapeutic uses of SCs. We investigated the value of a novel meta-analysis of microarray gene expression in mouse SCs to aid the

  2. Culture of embryonic mouse cochlear explants and gene transfer by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Haque, Khujista D; Pandey, Atul K; Kelley, Matthew W; Puligilla, Chandrakala

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hair cells located within the mouse organ of Corti detect and transmit sound information to the central nervous system. The mechanosensory hair cells are aligned in one row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells that extend along the basal to apical axis of the cochlea. The explant culture technique described here provides an efficient method to isolate and maintain cochlear explants from the embryonic mouse inner ear. Also, the morphology and molecular characteristics of sensory hair cells and nonsensory supporting cells within the cochlear explant cultures resemble those observed in vivo and can be studied within its intrinsic cellular environment. The cochlear explants can serve as important experimental tools for the identification and characterization of molecular and genetic pathways that are involved in cellular specification and patterning. Although transgenic mouse models provide an effective approach for gene expression studies, a considerable number of mouse mutants die during embryonic development thereby hindering the analysis and interpretation of developmental phenotypes. The organ of Corti from mutant mice that die before birth can be cultured so that their in vitro development and responses to different factors can be analyzed. Additionally, we describe a technique for electroporating embryonic cochlear explants ex vivo which can be used to downregulate or overexpress specific gene(s) and analyze their potential endogenous function and test whether specific gene product is necessary or sufficient in a given context to influence mammalian cochlear development(1-8). PMID:25651458

  3. Meta-Profiles of Gene Expression during Aging: Limited Similarities between Mouse and Human and an

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    Meta-Profiles of Gene Expression during Aging: Limited Similarities between Mouse and Human and an Unexpectedly Decreased Inflammatory Signature William R. Swindell1 *, Andrew Johnston2 , Liou Sun3 , Xianying Background: Skin aging is associated with intrinsic processes that compromise the structure

  4. Gene expression in mouse intestine is modulated by dietary fat intake

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Gene expression in mouse intestine is modulated by dietary fat intake Tenzin Nyima1 *, Michael on tissues like liver, muscle and white adipose. Considering the indispensable role of small intestine of the small intestine in C57Bl/6J mice. Objectives 1. To assess dose-dependent e ects of dietary fat

  5. Expression of a fusion gene consisting of the mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone gene promoter linked to the SV40 T-antigen gene in transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Nogues; E. Magnan; P. De Grandis; M. Butz; R. D. Kineman; J. J. Kopchick; L. A. Frohman

    1998-01-01

    Limited information is available concerning the regulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, largely because of the lack of a suitable cellular model. In an attempt to immortalize hypothalamic GHRH-producing neurons, we have generated a transgenic mouse model which expresses the simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen gene (Tag) under the control of the GHRH gene promoter.

  6. Number of CpG islands and genes in human and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Antequera, F.; Bird, A. (Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-15

    Estimation of gene number in mammals is difficult due to the high proportion of noncoding DNA within the nucleus. In this study, the authors provide a direct measurement of the number of genes in human and mouse. They have taken advantage of the fact that many mammalian genes are associated with CpG islands whose distinctive properties allow their physical separation from bulk DNA. The results suggest that there are [approx]45,000 CpG islands per haploid genome in humans and 37,000 in the mouse. Sequence comparison confirms that about 20% of the human CpG islands are absent from the homologous mouse genes. Analysis of a selection of germ line followed by CpG loss through mutation. This process appears to be more rapid in rodents. Combining the number of CpG islands with the proportion of island-associated genes, the authors estimate that the total number of genes per haploid genome is [approx]80,000 in both organisms.

  7. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)); Bolger, G.; Michaeli, T. (Cold Spring Harbor Lab., NY (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that mediate a number of cellular responses to external signals. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases play a role in signal transduction by regulating the cellular concentrations of these messengers. Here, the authors have applied Southern analyses of somatic cell hybrid lines and of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains as well as fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomally localize five cAMP-specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase genes in human and mouse. Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosomes 19 (DPDE1 and DPDE2), ga12 (DPDE3), and 1p31 (DPDE4) and to mouse chromosomes 8, 9, 13, and 4, respectively. The high-affinity cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene (HCP1) was mapped to human chromosome 8q13-q22. Since these genes are potential candidates for involvement in psychiatric or behavioral disorders, knowledge of their chromosomal localizations will facilitate the discovery of their association with disease genes as they are being mapped by linkage studies.

  8. Intracisternal A-particle genes as movable elements in the mouse genome.

    PubMed Central

    Kuff, E L; Feenstra, A; Lueders, K; Smith, L; Hawley, R; Hozumi, N; Shulman, M

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed two functionally defective mouse kappa light chain gene variants previously shown to contain novel insertions of repetitive DNA in their intervening sequences [Hawley, R. G., Shulman, M. J., Murialdo, H., Gibson, D. M. & Hozumi, N. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7425-7429]. Heteroduplex analysis of the cloned genes shows that the insertions consist of intracisternal A-particle (IAP) genetic elements. Each insertion includes an IAP 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence and extends to a characteristic IAP internal BamHI site where the IAP sequence is interrupted because the mutant genes were cloned from complete BamHI digests of the cellular DNAs. Restriction enzyme mapping indicates that the 5' LTR boundaries of the inserted IAP elements correspond closely to the previously determined rearrangement sites in the mutant genes. The IAP insertions in the two mutants can be distinguished by restriction-site differences and by the fact that one of them contains a deletion that is absent in the other. Nucleotide sequence data are presented for the LTRs of one full-length IAP gene copy randomly selected from a mouse genomic DNA library. These LTRs show many features typical of known integrated retroviral terminal repeat units, and the entire gene is bracketed by short direct repeats within the adjacent cellular DNA. Thus, the findings show that IAP genetic elements can appear in new locations in mouse cellular DNA and suggest that this may occur through a process of proviral insertion. Images PMID:6300886

  9. Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, Kohei [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Taminishi, Sanae [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan)

    2008-09-12

    The liver has an intrinsic ability to undergo active proliferation and recover functional liver mass in response to an injury response. This regenerative process involves a complex yet well orchestrated change in the gene expression profile. To produce accurate and reliable gene expression of target genes during various stages of liver regeneration, the determination of internal control housekeeping genes (HKGs) those are uniformly expressed is required. In the present study, the gene expression of 8 commonly used HKGs, including GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, GUSB, PPIA, TBP, TFRC, and RPL4, were studied using mouse livers that were quiescent and actively regenerating induced by partial hepatectomy. The amplification of the HKGs was statistically analyzed by two different mathematical algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Using this method, PPIA and TBP gene expression found to be relatively stable regardless of the stages of liver regeneration and would be ideal for normalization to target gene expression.

  10. Voltage-gated potassium channel genes are clustered in paralogous regions of the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, L.F.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A.; Copeland, N.G. (ABL-Basic Research Program, Frederick, MD (United States)); Street, V.A.; Migeon, M.B.; Tempel, B.L. (VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Cloning of the Drosophila Shaker gene established that a neurological phenotype including locomotor dysfunction can be caused by a mutation in a voltage-gated potassium (K) channel gene. Shaker sequences have been used to isolate a large family of related K channel genes from both flies and mammals. Toward elucidating the evolutionary relationship between loci and the potential causal connection that K channels may have to mammalian genetic disorders, the authors report here the genetic mapping of 12-16 different murine, voltage-gated K channel genes. They find that multiple genes, in some cases from distantly related K channel subfamilies, occur in clusters in the mouse genome. These mapping results suggest that the K channel gene subfamilies arose through ancient localized gene duplication events, followed by chromosomal duplications and rearrangements as well as further gene duplication. They also note that several neurologic disorders of both mouse and human are associated with the chromosomal regions containing K channel genes. 78 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Using the Gene Ontology for Data Analysis Mouse Genome Informatics

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    of gene products using vocabulary terms 3. Provide database access via these common terms to gene product annotations and associated sequences GO Project Goals: #12;TJL-2004 4 The Key Decisions: The vocabulary itself is a directed acyclic graph. All resources and annotations will be made publicly available to the community

  12. Genetics of gene expression surveyed in maize, mouse and man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric E. Schadt; Stephanie A. Monks; Thomas A. Drake; Aldons J. Lusis; Nam Che; Veronica Colinayo; Thomas G. Ruff; Stephen B. Milligan; John R. Lamb; Guy Cavet; Peter S. Linsley; Mao Mao; Roland B. Stoughton; Stephen H. Friend

    2003-01-01

    Treating messenger RNA transcript abundances as quantitative traits and mapping gene expression quantitative trait loci for these traits has been pursued in gene-specific ways. Transcript abundances often serve as a surrogate for classical quantitative traits in that the levels of expression are significantly correlated with the classical traits across members of a segregating population. The correlation structure between transcript abundances

  13. Gene Delivery to the Retina: From Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jean; Chung, Daniel C.; Maguire, Albert

    2013-01-01

    With the recent progress in identifying disease-causing genes in humans and in animal models, there are more and more opportunities for using retinal gene transfer to learn more about retinal physiology and also to develop therapies for blinding disorders. Success in preclinical studies for one form of inherited blindness have led to testing in human clinical trials. This paves the way to consider a number of other retinal diseases as ultimate gene therapy targets in human studies. The information presented here is designed to assist scientists and clinicians to use gene transfer to probe the biology of the retina and/or to move appropriate gene-based treatment studies from the bench to the clinic. PMID:22365778

  14. Signature patterns of gene expression in mouse atherosclerosis and their correlation to human coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Tabibiazar, Raymond; Wagner, Roger A; Ashley, Euan A; King, Jennifer Y; Ferrara, Rossella; Spin, Joshua M; Sanan, David A; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Tibshirani, Robert; Tsao, Philip S; Efron, Bradley; Quertermous, Thomas

    2005-07-14

    The propensity for developing atherosclerosis is dependent on underlying genetic risk and varies as a function of age and exposure to environmental risk factors. Employing three mouse models with different disease susceptibility, two diets, and a longitudinal experimental design, it was possible to manipulate each of these factors to focus analysis on genes most likely to have a specific disease-related function. To identify differences in longitudinal gene expression patterns of atherosclerosis, we have developed and employed a statistical algorithm that relies on generalized regression and permutation analysis. Comprehensive annotation of the array with ontology and pathway terms has allowed rigorous identification of molecular and biological processes that underlie disease pathophysiology. The repertoire of atherosclerosis-related immunomodulatory genes has been extended, and additional fundamental pathways have been identified. This highly disease-specific group of mouse genes was combined with an extensive human coronary artery data set to identify a shared group of genes differentially regulated among atherosclerotic tissues from different species and different vascular beds. A small core subset of these differentially regulated genes was sufficient to accurately classify various stages of the disease in mouse. The same gene subset was also found to accurately classify human coronary lesion severity. In addition, this classifier gene set was able to distinguish with high accuracy atherectomy specimens from native coronary artery disease vs. those collected from in-stent restenosis lesions, thus identifying molecular differences between these two processes. These studies significantly focus efforts aimed at identifying central gene regulatory pathways that mediate atherosclerotic disease, and the identification of classification gene sets offers unique insights into potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in atherosclerotic disease. PMID:15870398

  15. Cloning of the human keratin 18 gene and its expression in nonepithelial mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kulesh, D A; Oshima, R G

    1988-01-01

    Human keratin 18 (K18) and the homologous mouse protein, Endo B, are intermediate filament subunits of the type I keratin class. Both are expressed in many simple epithelial cell types including trophoblasts, the first differentiated cell type to appear during mouse embryogenesis. The K18 gene was identified and cloned from among the 15 to 20 similar sequences identified within the human genome. The identity of the cloned gene was confirmed by comparing the sequence of the first two exons to the K18 cDNA sequence and transfecting the gene into various murine cell lines and verifying the encoded protein as K18 by immunoprecipitation and partial peptide mapping. The transfected K18 gene was expressed in mouse HR9 parietal endodermal cells and mouse fibroblasts even though the fibroblasts fail to express endogenous Endo B. S1 nuclease protection analysis indicated that mRNA synthesized from the transfected K18 gene is initiated at the same position as authentic K18 mRNA found in both BeWo trophoblastoma cells and HeLa cells. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the human K18 protein is stable in murine parietal endodermal cells (HR9) which express EndoA, a complementary mouse type II keratin. Surprisingly, however, K18 was degraded when synthesized in cells which lack a type II keratin. This turnover of K18 may be an important mechanism by which epithelial cells maintain equal molar amounts of both type I and II keratins. In addition, the levels of the endogenous type I Endo B in parietal endodermal cells were compensatingly down regulated in the presence of the K18 protein, while the levels of the endogenous type II Endo A were not affected in any of the transfected cell lines. Images PMID:2454392

  16. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Mouse RecA-like Gene Dmc1 Is Required for Homologous Chromosome Synapsis during Meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayo Yoshida; Gen Kondoh; Yoichi Matsuda; Toshiyuki Habu; Yoshitake Nishimune; Takashi Morita

    1998-01-01

    The mouse Dmc1 gene is an E. coli RecA homolog that is specifically expressed in meiosis. The DMC1 protein was detected in leptotene-to-zygotene spermatocytes, when homolog pairing likely initiates. Targeted gene disruption in the male mouse showed an arrest of meiosis of germ cells at the early zygotene stage, followed by apoptosis. In female mice lacking the Dmc1 gene, normal

  18. Estimating the Number of Mouse Genes and the Duplicated Regions within the Mouse Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Wada; Tadashi Imanishi; Takashi Gojobori

    IntroductionTo elucidate the evolution of mammalian genomes, it is crucial to estimate the number of genes in thegenome and to measure the degree of redundancy in the genome in various species. The number ofhuman protein-coding genes was recently estimated as 35,000-40,000, though it is still controversial.Also, traces of ancient duplications of extensive chromosomal regions were being discovered withinthe human genome.

  19. Tetracycline-Inducible Gene Expression in Conditionally Immortalized Mouse Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Titus, Steve; Austin, Christopher P.; Chiotos, Kathleen; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Sakairi, Toru; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Conditionally immortalized podocytes are valuable research tools but are difficult to efficiently transfect and do not provide graded transgene expression. Methods Conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cell lines were established employing a tetracycline-inducible system. Glomerular cells, isolated from transgenic mice bearing two transgenes, NPHS2-reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator, rtTA (A transgene) and H2-Kb-thermosensitive SV40 T, ts58A (I transgene), were cloned. One clone (AI podocytes) expressing WT1 and synaptopodin was transfected with pBI-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein, G transgene) and separately with ptTS-Neo (transcriptional suppressor, T transgene) to produce stable transformants, AIG podocytes and AIT podocytes. Results AIG podocytes expressed EGFP at 33 and 37°C after doxycycline treatment, and retained podocin and rtTA mRNA expression and temperature-sensitive growth regulation. AIT podocytes, transiently transfected with luciferase-BI-EGFP (LG transgene), showed reduced background expression of EGFP and luciferase in the absence of doxycycline. In AITLG podocytes, generated by stable transfection of AIT podocytes with the LG transgene, luciferase expression was tightly regulated by doxycycline in a time- and concentration-dependent manner both at 33 and 37°C, although background expression was not entirely eliminated. These podocytes retained temperature-sensitive growth regulation and expression of podocyte differentiation markers. Conclusion Mouse podocytes expressed tetracycline-induced transgenes efficiently while retaining differentiation markers. PMID:18753740

  20. Differential Expression of Genes within the Cochlea as Defined by a Custom Mouse Inner Ear Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Ken A.; Snir, Einat; Pompeia, Celine; Koroleva, Irina V.; Kachar, Bechara; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Soares, M. Bento

    2005-01-01

    Microarray analyses have contributed greatly to the rapid understanding of functional genomics through the identification of gene networks as well as gene discovery. To facilitate functional genomics of the inner ear, we have developed a mouse inner-ear-pertinent custom microarray chip (CMA-IE1). Nonredundant cDNA clones were obtained from two cDNA library resources: the RIKEN subtracted inner ear set and the NIH organ of Corti library. At least 2000 cDNAs unique to the inner ear were present on the chip. Comparisons were performed to examine the relative expression levels of these unique cDNAs within the organ of Corti, lateral wall, and spiral ganglion. Total RNA samples were obtained from the three cochlear-dissected fractions from adult CF-1 mice. The total RNA was linearly amplified, and a dendrimer-based system was utilized to enhance the hybridization signal. Differentially expressed genes were verified by comparison to known gene expression patterns in the cochlea or by correlation with genes and gene families deduced to be present in the three tissue types. Approximately 22–25% of the genes on the array had significant levels of expression. A number of differentially expressed genes were detected in each tissue fraction. These included genes with known functional roles, hypothetical genes, and various unknown or uncharacterized genes. Four of the differentially expressed genes found in the organ of Corti are linked to deafness loci. None of these are hypothetical or unknown genes. PMID:15735932

  1. Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Templin, J. Scott; Bang, Sun Jung; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) is the major source of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the forebrain and dysfunction of this midbrain structure is implicated in affective disorders. The DR is composed of several types of 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons and their excitable-membrane properties are heterogeneous and overlapping. In order to understand how these properties may be generated, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in the DR using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Since DR cytoarchitecture is organized with respect to the midline, we sought to identify genes that were expressed in a pattern with respect to the midline, either enriched or depleted, rather than those that were homogenously expressed throughout the DR. Less than 10% of the screened genes for voltage-gated ion channels showed patterned expression within the DR. Identified genes included voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunits, potassium channels, P/Q-, N-type calcium channels, as well as the alpha2/delta-1 calcium channel. Several voltage-gated chloride channels were also identified, although these may function within intracellular compartments. Of the ligand-gated ion channels examined, 20% showed patterned expression. These consisted primarily of glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits. The identified genes likely contribute to unique excitable properties of different groups of neurons in the DR and may include novel pharmacologic targets for affective disorders. PMID:22534482

  2. Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R; Bossé, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

  3. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs: A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bossé, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

  4. Parameters of oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification in mouse ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Marieke; te Riele, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gene targeting by single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ssODNs) is emerging as a powerful tool for the introduction of subtle gene modifications in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and the generation of mutant mice. Here, we have studied the role of ssODN composition, transcription and replication of the target locus, and DNA repair pathways to gain more insight into the parameters governing ssODN-mediated gene targeting in mouse ES cells. We demonstrated that unmodified ssODNs of 35–40 nt were most efficient in correcting a chromosomally integrated mutant neomycin reporter gene. Addition of chemical modifications did not further enhance the efficacy of these ssODNs. The observed strand bias was not affected by transcriptional activity and may rather be caused by the different accessibility of the DNA strands during DNA replication. Consistently, targeting frequencies were enhanced when cells were treated with hydroxyurea to reduce the rate of replication fork progression. Transient down-regulation of various DNA repair genes by RNAi had no effect on the targeting frequency. Taken together, our data suggest that ssODN-mediated gene targeting occurs within the context of a replication fork. This implies that any given genomic sequence, irrespective of transcriptional status, should be amenable to ssODN-mediated gene targeting. The ability of ES cells to differentiate into various cell types after ssODN-mediated gene targeting may offer opportunities for future therapeutic applications. PMID:19627401

  5. Developmental regulation of myosin gene expression in mouse cardiac muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Lyons; Stefano Schiaflino; David Sassoon; Paul Barton; Margaret Buckingham

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the two isoforms of cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC), MHCot and MHC\\/3, in mammals is regulated postnatally by a variety of stim- uli, including serum hormone levels. Less is known about the factors that regulate myosin gene expression in rapidly growing cardiac muscle in embryos. Using isoform-specific 35S-labeled cRNA probes correspond- ing to the two MHC genes and

  6. High-efficiency and heritable gene targeting in mouse by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhongwei; Liu, Meizhen; Chen, Zhaohua; Shao, Yanjiao; Pan, Hongjie; Wei, Gaigai; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Ping; Fan, Heng-Yu; Du, Bing; Liu, Bin; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced somatic mutations, which were stably passed to the next generation through germ-line transmission. With one TALEN pair constructed for each of 10 target genes, mutant F0 mice for each gene were obtained with the mutation rate ranged from 13 to 67% and an average of ?40% of total healthy newborns with no significant differences between C57BL/6 and FVB/N genetic background. One TALEN pair with single mismatch to their intended target sequence in each side failed to yield any mutation. Furthermore, highly efficient germ-line transmission was obtained, as all the F0 founders tested transmitted the mutations to F1 mice. In addition, we also observed that one bi-allele mutant founder of Lepr gene, encoding Leptin receptor, had similar diabetic phenotype as db/db mouse. Together, our results suggest that TALENs are an effective genetic tool for rapid gene disruption with high efficiency and heritability in mouse with distinct genetic background. PMID:23630316

  7. Chromosomal localization of a new mouse lens opacity gene (lop18)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Bo; Hawes, N.L.; Smith, R.S. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [and others] [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States); and others

    1996-08-15

    Examination of mouse strains with a slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed that strain CBA/CaGnLe has a white cataract obvious at weaning age. It soon progresses to a large white nuclear cataract with mild cortical changes. Crosses with C57BL/GJ showed that this is inherited as a single recessive fully penetrant gene, which we have designated lop18 (lens opacity 18). Linkage analysis using visible marker T (brachyury), histocompatibility marker H2, and microsatellite markers D17MU21, D17MU28, D17MU38, and D17MU46 shows that the 1op18 gene is located, {approximately}16 cM from the centromere on mouse Chromosome 17. It is a likely candidate mutation for the {alpha}-crystallin (Cryal) gene. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. The mouse and human genes encoding the recognition component of the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Tae; Reiss, Yuval; Fried, Victor A.; Hershko, Avram; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gonda, David K.; Sangan, Pitchai; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, called N-recognin or E3, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. We report the cloning of the mouse and human Ubr1 cDNAs and genes that encode a mammalian N-recognin called E3?. Mouse UBR1p (E3?) is a 1,757-residue (200-kDa) protein that contains regions of sequence similarity to the 225-kDa Ubr1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouse and human UBR1p have apparent homologs in other eukaryotes as well, thus defining a distinct family of proteins, the UBR family. The residues essential for substrate recognition by the yeast Ubr1p are conserved in the mouse UBR1p. The regions of similarity among the UBR family members include a putative zinc finger and RING-H2 finger, another zinc-binding domain. Ubr1 is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 2 and in the syntenic 15q15-q21.1 region of human chromosome 15. Mouse Ubr1 spans ?120 kilobases of genomic DNA and contains ?50 exons. Ubr1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults, with skeletal muscle and heart being the sites of highest expression. In mouse embryos, the Ubr1 expression is highest in the branchial arches and in the tail and limb buds. The cloning of Ubr1 makes possible the construction of Ubr1-lacking mouse strains, a prerequisite for the functional understanding of the mammalian N-end rule pathway. PMID:9653112

  9. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S.; Shulkes, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene. PMID:21051525

  10. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ?2-fold increase or ?50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  11. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ?2-fold increase or ?50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  12. Assignment of genes to regions of mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E M; Washburn, L L

    1978-01-01

    A genetic mapping procedure, called the duplication-deficiency method, is described. This method permits the genetic location of a translocation to be determined within a linkage group without the use of recombination. By utilizing the duplication-deficiency method to define the genetic breakpoints for a series of translocations involving a given chromosome and integrating this information with their cytological breakpoints, obtained by Giemsa banding, a genetic map of the chromosomes is constructed whereby groups of loci are assigned to banded regions. Duplication-deficiency mapping and Giemsa banding analysis of the T(X;7)1Ct and T(7;19)145H translocations together with information from the c25H deletion have permitted mouse chromosome 7 to be divided into six and chromosome 19 into two definable genetic regions. Images PMID:273256

  13. Trio gene is required for mouse learning ability.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wen; Liu, Shuoyang; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ziyi; Wang, Dongdong; Zhang, Aizhen; Zhu, Minsheng; Gao, Jiangang

    2015-05-22

    Trio is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with multiple guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains. Trio regulates cytoskeleton dynamics and actin remodeling and is involved in cell migration and axonal guidance in neuronal development. The null allele of the Trio gene led to embryonic lethality, and Trio null embryos displayed aberrant organization in several regions of the brain at E18.5, including hippocampus. Nestin-Trio-/- mice, in which the Trio gene was deleted specifically in the neuronal system by the Nestin-Cre system, displayed severe phenotypes, including low survival rate, ataxia and multiple developmental defects of the cerebellum. All Nestin-Trio-/- mice died before reaching adulthood, which hinders research on Trio gene function in adult mice. Thus, we generated EMX1-Trio-/- mice by crossing Trio-floxed mice with EMX1-Cre mice in which Cre is expressed in the brain cortex and hippocampus. EMX1-Trio-/- mice can survive to adulthood. Trio gene deletion results in smaller brains, an abnormal hippocampus and disordered granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA). Behavior tests showed that Trio deletion interfered with the hippocampal-dependent spatial learning in the mice, suggesting that Trio plays critical roles in the learning ability of adult mice. We conclude that the Trio gene regulates the neuronal development of the hippocampus and that it affects the intelligence of adult mice. PMID:25727174

  14. Effect of microgravity on gene expression in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Desaphy, Jean Francois; Camerino, Diana Conte; Svelto, Maria; Spray, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in gravitational force such as that experienced by astronauts during space flight induce a redistribution of fluids from the caudad to the cephalad portion of the body together with an elimination of normal head-to-foot hydrostatic pressure gradients. To assess brain gene profile changes associated with microgravity and fluid shift, a large-scale analysis of mRNA expression levels was performed in the brains of 2-week control and hindlimb-unloaded (HU) mice using cDNA microarrays. Although to different extents, all functional categories displayed significantly regulated genes indicating that considerable transcriptomic alterations are induced by HU. Interestingly, the TIC class (transport of small molecules and ions into the cells) had the highest percentage of up-regulated genes, while the most down-regulated genes were those of the JAE class (cell junction, adhesion, extracellular matrix). TIC genes comprised 16% of those whose expression was altered, including sodium channel, nonvoltage-gated 1 beta (Scnn1b), glutamate receptor (Grin1), voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (Vdac1), calcium channel beta 3 subunit (Cacnb3) and others. The analysis performed by Gene-MAPP revealed several altered protein classes and functional pathways such as blood coagulation and immune response, learning and memory, ion channels and cell junction. In particular, data indicate that HU causes an alteration in hemostasis which resolves in a shift toward a more hyper-coagulative state with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Furthermore, HU treatment seems to impact on key steps of synaptic plasticity and learning processes. PMID:18704384

  15. PiggyBac Mediated Multiplex Gene Transfer in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xibin; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac system has been shown to have a high efficiency to mediate gene transfer. However, there are no reports on its efficiency to mediate multiplex transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we first established an immortalized feeder cell line by introducing four antibiotic resistance genes simultaneously into the original SNL 76/7 feeder cell line utilizing the PiggyBac system. This is the feeder cell line with the most diverse types of antibiotic resistance genes reported so far, which will enable researchers to perform simultaneous multiplex gene transfer or gene targeting experiments in ES cells. With such feeder cell line, we were able to quantitatively characterize the transposition efficiency of PiggyBac system in mouse ES cells using five transposons carrying different inducible fluorescence proteins and antibiotic resistance genes, and the efficiency ranged from about 2% for one transposon to 0.5% for five transposons. The highly efficient multiplex gene transfer mediated by PiggyBac will no doubt provide researchers with more choices in biomedical research and development. PMID:25517991

  16. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse homologue of rat OX40 protein.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, M L; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Barclay, A N

    1995-04-01

    The OX40 protein is expressed only on activated rat CD4+ T blasts and is a member of a superfamily of cell surface molecules which includes CD40, CD30, CD95 (Fas), CD27, 4-1BB antigens and the receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The proteins of this group are related to each other by having three to six repeats of a cysteine-rich sequence in their extracellular domains. Members of this family of receptors have also been shown to bind to ligands which are structurally related to TNF. The mouse homologue of the rat OX40 protein was cloned at the cDNA and genomic levels. The gene structure shows that there are several intron/exon borders shared between OX40 and CD27, CD40, TNF receptor type I, CD95 and 4-1BB genes. This group of genes is less closely related structurally to the gene structure of the NGF receptor. The gene encoding murine OX40 has been placed on mouse chromosome 4, in an area which contains the genes for TNF receptor type II and 4-1BB, and is syntenic with a region of human chromosome 1 which contains human TNF receptor type II, OX40, and CD30 genes. PMID:7737295

  17. Effect of light on global gene expression in the neuroglobin-deficient mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    ILMJÄRV, STEN; REIMETS, RIIN; HUNDAHL, CHRISTIAN ANSGAR; LUUK, HENDRIK

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have raised controversy over the functional role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in the retina. Certain studies indicate a significant impact of Ngb on retinal physiology, whereas others are conflicting. The present is an observational study that tested the effect of Ngb deficiency on gene expression in dark- and light-adapted mouse retinas. Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip® Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays and the results were compared to publicly available data sets. The lack of Ngb was found to have a minor effect on the light-induced retinal gene expression response. In addition, there was no increase in the expression of marker genes associated with hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum-stress and oxidative stress in the Ngb-deficient retina. By contrast, several genes were identified that appeared to be differentially expressed between the genotypes when the effect of light was ignored. The present study indicates that Ngb deficiency does not lead to major alternations in light-dependent gene expression response, but leads to subtle systemic differences of a currently unknown functional significance. PMID:25279145

  18. The endogenous proviral mouse mammary tumor virus genes of the GR mouse are not identical and only one corresponds to the exogenous virus.

    PubMed Central

    Herrlich, P; Hynes, N E; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Kennedy, N; Groner, B

    1981-01-01

    The endogenous proviral copies of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) were selected from a gene library of GR mouse DNA. We obtained five different lambda. MMTV recombinant clones. Four of them correspond to the 3' Eco RI fragments of the endogenous proviruses an one comprises an intact MMTV provirus with 2 to 3 kb of flanking mouse genomic DNA. Heteroduplex formation followed by S1 digestion under stringent conditions shows that there is nucleotide sequence heterology among the cloned endogenous proviral copies. Only one endogenous proviral copy, associated with the mtv-2 locus, was found to be totally homologous to the exogenous proviral DNA. Images PMID:6273791

  19. Mapping of the Sca1 and pcd genes on mouse chromosome 13 provides evidence that they are different genes

    SciTech Connect

    Servadio, A.; McCall, A.; Zoghbi, H. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Eicher, E.M. [Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME (United States)

    1995-10-10

    It is well established that large chromosomal segments have remained intact during the evolution of different mammalian species. Thus, mapping information for a gene in mammalian species facilitates mapping the same gene in another mammalian species. In addition, phenotypically similar diseases that map to linkage conserved regions in two species may be caused by mutations in the same gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited human disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria, and dysmetria. SCA1 maps to the short arm of human chromosome (Chr) 6 in the 6p23-p22 region. SCA1 is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat located within the coding region of a novel protein, ataxin-1, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) is a recessively inherited mouse disorder characterized by a moderate ataxia, usually noted by 3-4 weeks of age. Progressive degeneration of Purkinje cells is the underlying pathogenesis in this disorder. The pcd gene was assigned to mouse Chr 13 because it showed linkage to extra toes (Xt) and pearl (pe). Some doubt about this assignment existed, however, because the calculated genetic distance between pcd and Xt was 32 cM and that between pcd and pe was 18 cM. If pcd is located in Chr 13, its placement relative to Xt and pe suggests that it would be located in the region that shares linkage homology with the region that shares linkage homology with the region of human Chr 6 that contains SCA1. Here, we present data that confirm the assignment of pcd to Chr 13, map the mouse Sca1 gene to Chr 13, and eliminate Sca1 as a candidate gene for pcd. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Impact of methoxyacetic acid on mouse Leydig cell gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gargi Bagchi; Yijing Zhang; David J Waxman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of the widely used industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is associated with various developmental and reproductive toxicities, including neural toxicity, blood and immune disorders, limb degeneration and testicular toxicity. Testicular toxicity is caused by degeneration of germ cells in association with changes in gene expression in both germ cells and

  1. Genomic profiling of genes contributing to metastasis in a mouse model of thyroid follicular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of thyroid cancer-related death. However, little is known about the genes involved in the metastatic spread of thyroid carcinomas. We have created a mouse that spontaneously develops metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). This mouse harbors a targeted mutation (denoted TR?PV) in the thyroid hormone receptor ? gene (ThrbPV/PV mice). Our recent studies show that the highly elevated level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in ThrbPV/PV mice promotes proliferation of thyroid tumor cells, but requires the collaboration of the oncogenic action of TR?PV to empower the tumor cells to undergo distant metastasis. To uncover genes destined to drive the metastatic process, we used cDNA microarrays to compare the genomic expression profile of laser capture microdissected thyroid tumor lesions of ThrbPV/PV mice with that of hyperplastic thyroid cells of wild-type mice having elevated TSH induced by treatment with the anti-thyroid drug propylthiouracil (WT-PTU mice). Analyses of microarray data indicated that the expressions of 150 genes were significantly altered between ThrbPV/PV and WT-PTU mice (87 genes had higher expression and 63 genes had lower expression in ThrbPV/PV mice than in WT-PTU mice). Thirty-six percent of genes with altered expression function as key regulators in metastasis. The remaining genes were involved in various cellular processes including metabolism, intracellular trafficking, transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional modification, and cell-cell/extracellular matrix signaling. The present studies have uncovered novel genes responsible for the metastatic spread of FTC and, furthermore, have shown that the metastatic process of thyroid cancer requires effective collaboration among genes with diverse cellular functions. Importantly, the present studies indicate that the tumor cells in the primary lesions are endowed with the genes destined to promote metastasis. Thus, our study has provided new insights into the understanding of the metastatic spread of human thyroid cancer. PMID:21562609

  2. Mapping of the insulin promoter factor 1 gene (Ipf1) to distal mouse chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedorek, F.T. Jr.; Kay, E.S. [Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-08-10

    We have identified sequence variants in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the insulin promoter factor 1 (Ipf1) cDNA sequence in mice and used a PCR-based oligonucleotide hybridization assay to map the Ipf1 gene to distal mouse chromosome (Chr) 5. An identical 12-bp insertion in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the mouse Ipf1 gene sequence is present in Mus spretus and Mus m. musculus Czech II mice, two feral strains used for meiotic mapping by backcross analysis. The human IPF1 gene homolog would be expected to map to either chromosome 13q12-q14 or 7pter-q21 based on homology of synteny of other loci in this region of mouse Chr 5. Given its genetic map position, the Ipf1 gene may be part of a cassette of homeodomain-containing transcription factors involved in the development of the pancreas and other foregut-derived organs. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  3. The congenital goiter mutation is linked to the thyroglobulin gene in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, B A; Rowe, L

    1987-01-01

    Rat thyroglobulin (TG) cDNA clones were used to identify DNA restriction fragment variants among inbred mouse strains. One of these variants was shown to be closely linked to the recessive mutation congenital goiter (cog), which had previously been mapped to mouse chromosome 15. These results indicate that the structural gene for thyroglobulin is on chromosome 15 and suggest that a mutation at the site of the TG gene is the basis of the cog defect. No differences were observed between cog/cog and +/+ DNA in Southern blots using TG cDNA probes corresponding to 88% of the coding sequences, suggesting that the cog mutation is not due to a large deletion of this portion of the gene. Neither was there any obvious qualitative or quantitative difference between mutant and normal TG mRNA as judged by blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated thyroid RNAs. The thyroglobulin gene locus (Tgn) was mapped near the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase isoenzyme locus Gpt-1. The Tgn locus is syntenic with the c-myc protooncogene locus (Myc) in the mouse as in the rat and man. Images PMID:2882514

  4. Linkage analysis of the whirler deafness gene on mouse chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.; Rogers, M.J.C.; Steel, K.P. (MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park (United Kingdom)); Brown, S.D.M. (St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    The whirler mouse harbors an autosomal recessive mutation on mouse chromosome 4 that causes deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the adult that is manifested as head-bobbing and circling behavior. Although there is no obvious human homologue for this mutation as yet, whirler is a potential mouse model for human autosomal recessive deafness. Many genetic markers for this region of mouse chromosome 4 are now available, and the authors have used these to construct genetic linkage maps in both inter- and intraspecific backcrosses as the first step toward the cloning of the whirler gene. A total of 19 loci were analyzed in these crosses, giving the following gene orders: Interspecific cross, centromere-(D4Mit5, D4Mit38)-D4Mit6-(Lv,Tzn,D4Mit44)-wi-Hxb-(D4Mit25, D4Nds9)-(D4Mit7, D4Ler2)-b-D4Mit45-(D4Wsm1, D4Mit27b)-(D4Rck65, D4Mit15), and intraspecific cross, centromere-(Mup-1, wi, Hxb)-b-D4Wsm1. This analysis has positioned the wi locus in the interval between the genes for [delta]-aminolevulinate dehydratase (Lv) and hexabrachion (Hxb). The human homologues of these genes, ALAD and HXB, both lie on human chromosome 9q32-q34. They therefore predict that a human homologue of the wi gene, involved in autosomal recessive deafness, lies in this region of conserved homology on 9q32-q34. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene expression in mouse

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene Keywords: Gene function prediction Self organizing maps (SOM) Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) Gene expression Neural networks a b s t r a c t Identifying gene function has many useful applications. Identifying gene

  6. The gene encoding PBP74/CSA/motalin-1, a novel mouse hsp70, maps to mouse chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Manabu; Oyanagi, Mitsuru; Kominami, Ryo [Niigata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp70) function in folding of peptides and the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. They are encoded by a multigene family comprising both heat-inducible and constitutively expressed genes. Different family members function in different organelles: hsp70 members such as hsp70 and hsc70 are present in the cytoplasm, BiP/GRP78 in the endoplasmic reticulum, and GRP75 in the mitochondria. PBP74/CSA/motalin-1 is a novel mouse hsp70 protein that was identified by three different groups. PBP74 was found to be a peptide-binding protein implicated in antigen processing. CSA is an antigen specific for the CM strain, and motalin-1 is a protein associated with cellular mortality. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Gene expression in salivary glands: effects of diet and mouse chromosome 17 locus regulating macronutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Kruger, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Kappen, Claudia; Richards, Brenda K

    2015-01-01

    Dcpp2, Prrt1, and Has1 are plausible candidate genes for the Mnic1 (macronutrient intake-carbohydrate) locus on mouse chromosome 17, based on their map positions and sequence variants, documented expression in salivary glands, and the important role of saliva in oral food processing and taste. We investigated the effects of genotype and diet on gene expression in salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) of carbohydrate-preferring, C57BL6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to fat-preferring wild-type C57BL/6J. To achieve accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data, we evaluated multiple reference genes to identify the most stably expressed control genes in salivary gland tissues, and then used geometric averaging to produce a reliable normalization factor. Gene expression was measured in mice fed different diets: (1) rodent chow, (2) macronutrient selection diets, (3) high-fat diet, and (4) low-fat diet. In addition, we measured salivary hyaluronan concentrations. All three genes showed strain differences in expression, in at least one major salivary gland, and diet effects were observed in two glands. Dcpp2 expression was limited primarily to sublingual gland, and strongly decreased in B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to wild-type B6, regardless of diet. In contrast, both genotype and diet affected Prrt1 and Has1 expression, in a gland-specific manner, for example, Prrt1 expression in the parotid gland alone was strongly reduced in both mouse strains when fed macronutrient selection diet compared to chow. Notably, we discovered an association between diet composition and salivary hyaluronan content. These results demonstrate robust effects of genetic background and diet composition on candidate gene expression in mouse salivary glands. PMID:25713331

  8. Gene expression in salivary glands: effects of diet and mouse chromosome 17 locus regulating macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Kruger, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Kappen, Claudia; Richards, Brenda K

    2015-02-01

    Dcpp2, Prrt1, and Has1 are plausible candidate genes for the Mnic1 (macronutrient intake-carbohydrate) locus on mouse chromosome 17, based on their map positions and sequence variants, documented expression in salivary glands, and the important role of saliva in oral food processing and taste. We investigated the effects of genotype and diet on gene expression in salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) of carbohydrate-preferring, C57BL6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to fat-preferring wild-type C57BL/6J. To achieve accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data, we evaluated multiple reference genes to identify the most stably expressed control genes in salivary gland tissues, and then used geometric averaging to produce a reliable normalization factor. Gene expression was measured in mice fed different diets: (1) rodent chow, (2) macronutrient selection diets, (3) high-fat diet, and (4) low-fat diet. In addition, we measured salivary hyaluronan concentrations. All three genes showed strain differences in expression, in at least one major salivary gland, and diet effects were observed in two glands. Dcpp2 expression was limited primarily to sublingual gland, and strongly decreased in B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to wild-type B6, regardless of diet. In contrast, both genotype and diet affected Prrt1 and Has1 expression, in a gland-specific manner, for example, Prrt1 expression in the parotid gland alone was strongly reduced in both mouse strains when fed macronutrient selection diet compared to chow. Notably, we discovered an association between diet composition and salivary hyaluronan content. These results demonstrate robust effects of genetic background and diet composition on candidate gene expression in mouse salivary glands. PMID:25713331

  9. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-10-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  10. A synthetic small molecule for rapid induction of multiple pluripotency genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Ganesh N.; Nakano, Yusuke; Sato, Shinsuke; Morinaga, Hironobu; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Cellular reprogramming involves profound alterations in genome-wide gene expression that is precisely controlled by a hypothetical epigenetic code. Small molecules have been shown to artificially induce epigenetic modifications in a sequence independent manner. Recently, we showed that specific DNA binding hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) could be conjugated with chromatin modifying histone deacetylase inhibitors like SAHA to epigenetically activate certain pluripotent genes in mouse fibroblasts. In our steadfast progress to improve the efficiency of SAHA-PIPs, we identified a novel compound termed, ? that could dramatically induce the endogenous expression of Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Genome-wide gene analysis suggests that in just 24 h and at nM concentration, ? induced multiple pluripotency-associated genes including Rex1 and Cdh1 by more than ten-fold. ? treated MEFs also rapidly overcame the rate-limiting step of epithelial transition in cellular reprogramming by switching ``'' the complex transcriptional gene network.

  11. The mouse formin (Fmn) gene: Genomic structure, novel exons, and genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.; Chan, D.C.; Leder, P. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States)] [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Mutations in the mouse formin (Fmn) gene, formerly known as the limb deformity (ld) gene, give rise to recessively inherited limb deformities and renal malformations or aplasia. The Fmn gene encodes many differentially processed transcripts that are expressed in both adult and embryonic tissues. To study the genomic organization of the Fmn locus, we have used Fmn probes to isolate and characterize genomic clones spanning 500 kb. Our analysis of these clones shows that the Fmn gene is composed of at least 24 exons and spans 400 kb. We have identified two novel exons that are expressed in the developing embryonic limb bud as well as adult tissues such as brain and kidney. We have also used a microsatellite polymorphism from within the Fmn gene to map it genetically to a 2.2-cM interval between D2Mit58 and D2Mit103. 36 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. All kinesin superfamily protein, KIF, genes in mouse and human

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Harukata; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kaneshiro, Kiyofumi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for morphogenesis and functioning of the cell. The kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) have been shown to transport membranous organelles and protein complexes in a microtubule- and ATP-dependent manner. More than 30 KIFs have been reported in mice. However, the nomenclature of KIFs has not been clearly established, resulting in various designations and redundant names for a single KIF. Here, we report the identification and classification of all KIFs in mouse and human genome transcripts. Previously unidentified murine KIFs were found by a PCR-based search. The identification of all KIFs was confirmed by a database search of the total human genome. As a result, there are a total of 45 KIFs. The nomenclature of all KIFs is presented. To understand the function of KIFs in intracellular transport in a single tissue, we focused on the brain. The expression of 38 KIFs was detected in brain tissue by Northern blotting or PCR using cDNA. The brain, mainly composed of highly differentiated and polarized cells such as neurons and glia, requires a highly complex intracellular transport system as indicated by the increased number of KIFs for their sophisticated functions. It is becoming increasingly clear that the cell uses a number of KIFs and tightly controls the direction, destination, and velocity of transportation of various important functional molecules, including mRNA. This report will set the foundation of KIF and intracellular transport research. PMID:11416179

  13. Gene order is conserved within the human chromosome 21 linkage group on mouse chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, N.G.; Cabin, D.E.; Swanson, D.A.; Reeves, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1994-05-01

    One hundred progeny from each of two intersubspecific mouse backcrosses were used to construct a comparative genetic map of a region of mouse chromosome 10 (MMU10) that is homologous to the distal tip of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The analysis included five genes and three simple sequence repeat markers, two of which flanked the HSA21-homologous cluster on either side. Analysis of 200 backcross progeny detected at least one crossover between each pair of adjacent genes and demonstrated that the proximal to distal orientation of the cluster was reversed between human and mouse. The order was determined to be Fyn-1-D10Mit20-S100b-Col6a1-Itgb2-Pfk1/D10Mit7-D10Mit11. Comparative mapping supports the order of corresponding markers on HSA21 determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid line data. However, sequence tagged site content mapping of human yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) yielded conflicting data on the relative positions of human COL6A1 and S100B on HSA21. This discrepancy was resolved here by demonstrating that several key YACs used in the human contig analysis were mistyped for S100B. The murine map reported here provides a scaffold for construction of physical maps and yeast artificial chromosome contigs that will be useful in the development of mouse models for the study of Down syndrome. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Positional Cloning of the Mouse Circadian Clock Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P King; Yaliang Zhao; Ashvin M Sangoram; Lisa D Wilsbacher; Minoru Tanaka; Marina P Antoch; Thomas D. L Steeves; Martha Hotz Vitaterna; Jon M Kornhauser; Phillip L Lowrey; Fred W Turek; Joseph S Takahashi

    1997-01-01

    We used positional cloning to identify the circadian Clock gene in mice. Clock is a large transcription unit with 24 exons spanning ?100,000 bp of DNA from which transcript classes of 7.5 and ?10 kb arise. Clock encodes a novel member of the bHLH–PAS family of transcription factors. In the Clock mutant allele, an A?T nucleotide transversion in a splice

  16. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  17. Multi-stage analysis of gene expression and transcription regulation in C57/B6 mouse liver development

    E-print Network

    Multi-stage analysis of gene expression and transcription regulation in C57/B6 mouse liver development Microarray Gene expression Function Transcriptional regulation The liver performs a number of the liver. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to study the gene expression and transcription

  18. Subretinal Injection of Gene Therapy Vectors and Stem Cells in the Perinatal Mouse Eye

    PubMed Central

    Wert, Katherine J.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Davis, Richard J.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of sight affects approximately 3.4 million people in the United States and is expected to increase in the upcoming years.1 Recently, gene therapy and stem cell transplantations have become key therapeutic tools for treating blindness resulting from retinal degenerative diseases. Several forms of autologous transplantation for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as iris pigment epithelial cell transplantation, have generated encouraging results, and human clinical trials have begun for other forms of gene and stem cell therapies.2 These include RPE65 gene replacement therapy in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis and an RPE cell transplantation using human embryonic stem (ES) cells in Stargardt's disease.3-4 Now that there are gene therapy vectors and stem cells available for treating patients with retinal diseases, it is important to verify these potential therapies in animal models before applying them in human studies. The mouse has become an important scientific model for testing the therapeutic efficacy of gene therapy vectors and stem cell transplantation in the eye.5-8 In this video article, we present a technique to inject gene therapy vectors or stem cells into the subretinal space of the mouse eye while minimizing damage to the surrounding tissue. PMID:23207897

  19. Expression Profile of DNA Damage Signaling Genes in Proton Exposed Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    Exposure of living systems to radiation results in a wide assortment of lesions, the most signif-icant of is damage to genomic DNA which induce several cellular functions such as cell cycle arrest, repair, apoptosis etc. The radiation induced DNA damage investigation is one of the im-portant area in biology, but still the information available regarding the effects of proton is very limited. In this report, we investigated the differential gene expression pattern of DNA damage signaling genes particularly, damaged DNA binding, repair, cell cycle arrest, checkpoints and apoptosis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR array in proton exposed mouse brain tissues. The expression profiles showed significant changes in DNA damage related genes in 2Gy proton exposed mouse brain tissues as compared with control brain tissues. Furthermore, we also show that significantly increased levels of apoptotic related genes, caspase-3 and 8 activities in these cells, suggesting that in addition to differential expression of DNA damage genes, the alteration of apoptosis related genes may also contribute to the radiation induced DNA damage followed by programmed cell death. In summary, our findings suggest that proton exposed brain tissue undergo severe DNA damage which in turn destabilize the chromatin stability.

  20. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  1. Pharmacological and rAAV Gene Therapy Rescue of Visual Functions in a Blind Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    E-print Network

    Batten, Matthew L.; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Tu, Daniel C.; Doan, Thuy; Zhu, Li; Pang, Jijing; Glushakova, Lyudmila; Moise, Alexander R.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Van Gelder, Russell N.; Hauswirth, William W.; Rieke, Fred; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-11-01

    for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina. Methods and Findings An animal model of LCA, the Lrat?/? mouse, recapitulates clinical features of the human disease. Here, we report that two interventions—intraocular gene therapy and oral pharmacologic...

  2. The Consensus Coding Sequence (Ccds) Project: Identifying a Common Protein-Coding Gene Set for the Human and Mouse Genomes

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    Effective use of the human and mouse genomes requires reliable identification of genes and their products. Although multiple public resources provide annotation, different methods are used that can result in similar but ...

  3. Differential display and cloning of the hippocampal gene mRNAs in senescence accelerated mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Wei; Yongxiang Zhang; Jinhuang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Identification of genes that are specifically expressed in the hippocampus of senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) is important for understanding the molecular basis of the pathological changes in the brain and of the deterioration of learning and memory in SAM-prone\\/8 (SAMP8), a substrain of SAM. The differential display technique was applied to compare mRNAs expression between SAMP8 and SAM-resistance 1 (SAMR1),

  4. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L S Pike; B A Tannous; N C Deliolanis; G Hsich; D Morse; C-H Tung; M Sena-Esteves; X O Breakefield

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene replacement for lysosomal disorders have been spurred by the ability of some serotypes to efficiently transduce neurons in the brain and by the ability of lysosomal enzymes to cross-correct among cells. Here, we explored enzyme replacement therapy in a knock-out mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), the most severe of the NCLs in humans.

  5. Mouse Small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox-containing gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Hill; Jack Favor; Brigid L. M. Hogan; Carl C. T. Ton; Grady F. Saunders; Isabel M. Hanson; Jane Prosser; Tim Jordan; Nicholas D. Hastie; Veronica Van Heyningen

    1991-01-01

    SMALL eye (Sey) in mouse is a semidominant mutation which in the homozygous condition results in the complete lack of eyes and nasal primordia. On the basis of comparative mapping studies and on phenotypic similarities, Sey has been suggested to be homologous to congenital aniridia (lack of iris) in human1,2. A candidate gene for the aniridia (AN) locus at 11p13

  6. Two Distinct Mechanisms Elicit Androgen-Dependent Expression of the Mouse Sex-Limited Protein Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie A. Nelson; Diane M. Robins

    1997-01-01

    The mouse sex-limited protein (Slp) gene is ex- pressed in liver and kidney of adult males and is testosterone-inducible in females, indicative of an- drogen dependence. Analysis of mRNA levels and chromatin configuration reveals that this androgen regulation is achieved by distinct means in the two tissues. In the liver, Slp expression requires pitu- itary function, and specifically, as shown

  7. Fgf10 gene expression is delayed in the embryonic lung mesenchyme in the adriamycin mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Hajduk; Paula Murphy; Prem Puri

    2010-01-01

    Background  The adriamycin mouse model is a well-established teratogenic model of esophageal atresia\\/tracheoesophageal fistula. Fibroblast\\u000a growth factor 10 (Fgf10) plays a key role in branching of the lung buds during lung morphogenesis. Fgf10 knockout mice exhibit\\u000a the absence of the lungs. Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a technique that allows three-dimensional (3D) imaging of\\u000a gene expression in small tissue specimens in

  8. Structure and expression of the mouse growth hormone receptor\\/growth hormone binding protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moffat; F Talamantes

    1999-01-01

    The mouse growth hormone receptor\\/growth hormone-binding protein (GHR\\/BP) gene produces several distinct mRNA forms through alterna- tive splicing, including mRNAs encoding the membrane-bound growth hormone receptor (GHR) and the soluble growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP). Transcripts are also heterogeneous in their 5* regions due to alternative selection of two major 5* untranslated region (5*UTR) sequences, designated L1 and L2. Here we

  9. Decreased expression of striatal signaling genes in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Luthi-Carter; Andrew Strand; Nikki L. Peters; Steven M. Solano; Zane R. Hollingsworth; Anil S. Menon; Ariel S. Frey; Boris S. Spektor; Ellen B. Penney; Gabriele Schilling; A. Ross; David R. Borchelt; Stephen J. Tapscott; Anne B. Young; Jang-Ho J. Cha; James M. Olson

    2000-01-01

    To understand gene expression changes mediated by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the human hunt- ingtin protein, we used oligonucleotide DNA arrays to profile ~6000 striatal mRNAs in the R6\\/2 mouse, a trans- genic Huntington's disease (HD) model. We found diminished levels of mRNAs encoding components of the neurotransmitter, calcium and retinoid signaling pathways at both early and late symptomatic

  10. Left-Right Function of dmrt2 Genes Is Not Conserved between Zebrafish and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Raquel; Lopes, Susana S.; Saúde, Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the Dmrt family, generally associated with sex determination, were shown to be involved in several other functions during embryonic development. Dmrt2 has been studied in the context of zebrafish development where, due to a duplication event, two paralog genes dmrt2a and dmrt2b are present. Both zebrafish dmrt2a/terra and dmrt2b are important to regulate left-right patterning in the lateral plate mesoderm. In addition, dmrt2a/terra is necessary for symmetric somite formation while dmrt2b regulates somite differentiation impacting on slow muscle development. One dmrt2 gene is also expressed in the mouse embryo, where it is necessary for somite differentiation but with an impact on axial skeleton development. However, nothing was known about its role during left-right patterning in the lateral plate mesoderm or in the symmetric synchronization of somite formation. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a dmrt2 mutant mouse line, we show that this gene is not involved in symmetric somite formation and does not regulate the laterality pathway that controls left-right asymmetric organ positioning. We reveal that dmrt2a/terra is present in the zebrafish laterality organ, the Kupffer's vesicle, while its homologue is excluded from the mouse equivalent structure, the node. On the basis of evolutionary sub-functionalization and neo-functionalization theories we discuss this absence of functional conservation. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the role of dmrt2 gene is not conserved during zebrafish and mouse embryonic development. PMID:21203428

  11. Molecular Cloning, Structure, and Chromosomal Localization of the Mouse LIM\\/Homeobox Gene Lhx5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Bertuzzi; Hui Z. Sheng; Neal G. Copeland; Debra J. Gilbert; Nancy A. Jenkins; Masanori Taira; Igor B. Dawid; Heiner Westphal

    1996-01-01

    Lhx5,the mouse ortholog of theXenopus Xlim-5,is a LIM\\/homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system during both embryonic development and adulthood. During development its domain of expression is mainly localized at the most anterior portion of the neural tube, and it precedes the morphological differentiation of the forebrain; for this reason we believe thatLhx5could play an important role in forebrain

  12. Biological Pacemaker Engineered by Nonviral Gene Transfer in a Mouse Model of Complete Atrioventricular Block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Piron; Khai Le Quang; François Briec; Jean-Christophe Amirault; Anne-Laure Leoni; Léa Desigaux; Denis Escande; Bruno Pitard; Flavien Charpentier

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that a nonviral gene delivery of the hyperpolarization-activated HCN2 channel combined with the ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) would generate a functional pacemaker in a mouse model of complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) induced by radiofrequency ablation of the His bundle. Plasmids encoding HCN2 and ADRB2 mixed with tetronic 304, a poloxamine block copolymer, were injected in the left ventricular free

  13. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lamerdin, J.E.; Stilwagen, S.A.; Ramirez, M.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); and others

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3{prime} of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Manual annotation and analysis of the defensin gene cluster in the C57BL\\/6J mouse reference genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Amid; Linda M Rehaume; Kelly L Brown; James GR Gilbert; Gordon Dougan; Robert EW Hancock; Jennifer L Harrow

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Host defense peptides are a critical component of the innate immune system. Human alpha- and beta-defensin genes are subject to copy number variation (CNV) and historically the organization of mouse alpha-defensin genes has been poorly defined. Here we present the first full manual genomic annotation of the mouse defensin region on Chromosome 8 of the reference strain C57BL\\/6J, and

  15. Cloning and characterization of the gene for mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.; Bacher, M.; Bernhagen, J. [Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-15

    An emerging body of data indicates that the protein mediator described originally as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exerts a central and wide ranging role in host inflammatory responses. MIF is a major constituent of corticotrophic cells within the anterior pituitary gland and is secreted into the circulation in a hormone-like fashion. MIF also exists preformed in monocytes/macrophages and is a pivotal mediator in the host response to endotoxic shock. To gain further insight into the biologic expression of this protein that encompasses components of both the immune and the endocrine systems, we have cloned the mouse MIF gene and identified potential regulatory sequences present within the 5{prime}-proximal promoter region. The gene for mouse MIF is located on chromosome 10, spans approximately 1 kb, and shares a high degree of structural homology with its human counterpart. Of note, the consensus enhancer/promoter motifs identified include both inflammatory/growth factor-related elements and sites associated with the genes for certain peptide hormones. We also report the structures of two MIF pseudogenes that account for early observations suggesting that mouse MIF is encoded by a highly homologous multigene family. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Construction of Transgenic and Gene Knockout/Knockin Mouse Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alfred; McGarry, Michael P.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic and physiological similarities between mice and humans have focused considerable attention on rodents as potential models of human health and disease. Together with the wealth of resources, knowledge, and technologies surrounding the mouse as a model system, these similarities have propelled this species to the forefront of biomedical research. The advent of genomic manipulation has quickly led to the creation and use of genetically engineered mice as powerful tools for cutting edge studies of human disease research, including the discovery, refinement, and utility of many currently available therapeutic regimes. In particular, the creation of genetically modified mice as models of human disease has remarkably changed our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways underlying disease states. Moreover, the mouse models resulting from gene transfer technologies have been important components correlating an individual’s gene expression profile to the development of disease pathologies. The objective of this review is to provide physician-scientists with an expansive historical and logistical overview of the creation of mouse models of human disease through gene transfer technologies. Our expectation is that this will facilitate on-going disease research studies and may initiate new areas of translational research leading to enhanced patient care. PMID:21800101

  17. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  18. Cell Type-specific Signaling Function of RhoA GTPase: Lessons from Mouse Gene Targeting*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Zheng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    RhoA GTPase is a key intracellular regulator of actomyosin dynamics and other cell functions, including adhesion, proliferation, survival, and gene expression. Most of our knowledge of RhoA signaling function is from studies in immortalized cell lines utilizing inhibitors or dominant mutant overexpression, both of which are limited in terms of specificity, dosage, and clonal variation. Recent mouse gene targeting studies of rhoA and its regulators/effectors have revealed cell type-specific signaling mechanisms in the context of mammalian physiology. The new knowledge may present therapeutic opportunities for the rational targeting of RhoA signaling-mediated pathophysiologies. PMID:24202176

  19. Physical mapping, amplification, and overexpression of the mouse mdr gene family in multidrug-resistant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, M; Rose, E; Housman, D E; Gros, P

    1990-01-01

    The mouse mdr gene family consists of three distinct genes (mdr1, mdr2, and mdr3), for which we have isolated full-length cDNA clones. cDNA subfragments corresponding to discrete regions showing little sequence conservation among the three mdr genes were used as gene-specific DNA probes in hybridization experiments. Long-range mapping by pulse-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the three mdr genes are closely linked on a genomic DNA segment of approximately 625 kilobases. The gene order and direction of transcription of the three genes were determined and indicate the arrangement (5') mdr3 (3')-(5') mdr1 (3')-(3') mdr2 (5'). Southern blotting analyses of genomic DNA from a panel of independently derived multidrug-resistant cell lines identified mdr gene amplification in 10 of 12 cell lines studied. In individual cell lines showing gene amplification, the copy number of each of the three mdr genes was identical, suggesting that the three mdr genes became amplified as part of a single amplicon in these cells. Although increased expression of all three mdr genes was detected in 2 of 12 cell lines tested, multidrug resistance was associated in 10 of 12 lines with the independent overexpression of either mdr1 (7 of 12) or mdr3 (3 of 12) but not mdr2. mdr1 overexpression was consistently associated with gene amplification, while increased mdr3 expression was detected in certain cell lines that did not show gene amplification. Increased levels of mdr1 mRNA were linked to the overexpression of a P glycoprotein of apparent molecular weight 180,000 to 200,000, whereas increased mdr3 expression resulted in increased expression of a P glycoprotein of molecular weight 160,000 to 180,000. Our results suggest that at least two members of the mouse mdr gene family, mdr1 and mdr3, can independently confer multidrug resistance in the cell lines examined. Images PMID:1969609

  20. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  1. CFTR gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells mediated by Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)

    PubMed Central

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Filareto, Antonio; Spitalieri, Paola; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Caroppo, Rosa; Mango, Ruggiero; Bruscia, Emanuela; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Casavola, Valeria; De Felici, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, “Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)”, has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely last any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols. PMID:17981772

  2. Cftr gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells mediated by Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR).

    PubMed

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Filareto, Antonio; Spitalieri, Paola; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Caroppo, Rosa; Mango, Ruggiero; Bruscia, Emanuela; Gruenert, Dieter C; Casavola, Valeria; De Felici, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, "Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)", has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely lost any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols. PMID:17981772

  3. Localization of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene (PCNT) to chromosome 21qter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haiming [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland); Gos, A.; Morris, M.A. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others] [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    1996-08-01

    Exon trapping was used to identify portions of genes from cosmid DNA of a human chromosome 21-specific library LL21NC02-Q. More than 650 potential exons have been cloned and characterized to date. Among these, 3 trapped {open_quotes}exons{close_quotes} showed strong homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse pericentrin (Pcnt) gene, indicating that these 3 exons are portions of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene. With PCR amplification, Southern blot analysis, and FISH, we have mapped this presumed human pericentrin gene (PCNT) to the long arm of chromosome 21 between marker PFKL and 21qter. Pericentrin is a conserved protein component of the filamentous matrix of the centrosome involved in the initial establishment of the organized microtubule array. No candidate hereditary disorder for pericentrin deficiency/abnormality has yet been mapped in the most distal region of 21q; in addition the role of triplication of the pericentrin gene in the pathophysiology or etiology of trisomy 21 is currently unknown. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Cloning and tissue-specific expression of the gene for mouse C-reactive protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Mortensen, R F

    1993-01-01

    C-reactive protein is a serum acute-phase reactant that increases several thousand-fold in concentration during inflammation in most mammals. However, mouse C-reactive protein is considered to be a minor acute-phase reactant, since its blood level increases only from approx. 0.1 to 1-2 micrograms/ml. A mouse genomic clone of approximately 5 kb was obtained to determine the molecular basis for the regulation of the expression of mouse C-reactive protein. Several cis-acting elements in the 5' flanking region that potentially regulate transcription were identified: two glucocorticoid-responsive elements, two CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C (C/EBP) consensus elements that are required for the interleukin-1 responsiveness of some acute-phase reactant genes, an interleukin-6-responsive element, two hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) elements and a single heat-shock element. Transfection of the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B.2 with a pCAT expression vector containing the 5' flanking sequence from -1083 to -3 bp from the transcriptional start site, and truncations of this sequence, localized elements that control the tissue-specific expression of mouse C-reactive protein to the two HNF-1 elements and a C/EBP, interleukin-1-responsive element located between -220 and -153, and -90 and -50 bp from the transcriptional start site. A constitutive nuclear protein from mouse-liver hepatocytes specifically binds to the HNF-1 elements. These findings explain the tissue-specific expression of the gene, as well as its limited expression during the acute-phase response. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7916620

  5. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  6. Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Oltjen, Sharon L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Estep, Jason; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Gong, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC. Results Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh?/? eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh?/? mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh?/? eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results. Conclusions Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC. PMID:25684976

  7. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling of prion infection in mouse models reveals networks of responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Garrett; Medina, Sarah; Parchaliuk, Debra; Phillipson, Clark; Robertson, Catherine; Booth, Stephanie A

    2008-01-01

    Background Prion infection results in progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system invariably resulting in death. The pathological effects of prion diseases in the brain are morphologically well defined, such as gliosis, vacuolation, and the accumulation of disease-specific protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). However, the underlying molecular events that lead to the death of neurons are poorly characterised. Results In this study cDNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes in the brains of two different strains of mice infected with three strains of mouse-adapted scrapie. Extensive data was collected and analyzed, from which we identified a core group of 349 prion-related genes (PRGs) that consistently showed altered expression in mouse models. Gene ontology analysis assigned many of the up-regulated genes to functional groups associated with one of the primary neuropathological features of prion diseases, astrocytosis and gliosis; protein synthesis, inflammation, cell proliferation and lipid metabolism. Using a computational tool, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), we were able to build networks of interacting genes from the PRG list. The regulatory cytokine TGFB1, involved in modulating the inflammatory response, was identified as the outstanding interaction partner for many of the PRGs. The majority of genes expressed in neurons were down-regulated; a number of these were involved in regulatory pathways including synapse function, calcium signalling, long-term potentiation and ERK/MAPK signalling. Two down-regulated genes coding for the transcription regulators, EGR1 and CREB1, were also identified as central to interacting networks of genes; these factors are often used as markers of neuronal activity and their deregulation could be key to loss of neuronal function. Conclusion These data provides a comprehensive list of genes that are consistently differentially expressed in multiple scrapie infected mouse models. Building networks of interactions between these genes provides a means to understand the complex interplay in the brain during neurodegeneration. Resolving the key regulatory and signaling events that underlie prion pathogenesis will provide targets for the design of novel therapies and the elucidation of biomarkers. PMID:18315872

  8. Gene expression profile of mouse fibroblasts exposed to a biodegradable iron alloy for stents.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Agung; Hermawan, Hendra; Champetier, Serge; Mantovani, Diego; Couet, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Iron-based materials could constitute an interesting option for cardiovascular biodegradable stent applications due to their superior ductility compared to their counterparts - magnesium alloys. Since the predicted degradation rate of pure iron is considered slow, manganese (35% w/w), an alloying element for iron, was explored to counteract this problem through the powder metallurgy process (Fe-35 Mn). However, manganese presents a high cytotoxic potential; thus its effect on cells must first be established. Here, we established the gene expression profile of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to Fe-35 Mn degradation products in order to better understand cell response to potentially cytotoxic degradable metallic material (DMM). Mouse 3T3 cells were exposed to degradation products eluting through tissue culture insert filter (3 ?m pore size) containing cytostatic amounts of 3.25 mg ml(-1) of Fe-35 Mn powder, 0.25 mg ml(-1) of pure Mn powder or 5 mg ml(-1) of pure iron powder for 24 h. We then conducted a gene expression profiling study from these cells. Exposure of 3T3 cells to Fe-35 Mn was associated with the up-regulation of 75 genes and down-regulation of 59 genes, while 126 were up-regulated and 76 down-regulated genes in the presence of manganese. No genes were found regulated for the iron powder. When comparing the GEP of 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of Fe-35 Mn and Mn, 68 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated genes were common. These results were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for a subset of these genes. This GEP study could provide clues about the mechanism behind degradation products effects on cells of the Fe-35 Mn alloy and may help in the appraisal of its potential for DMM applications. PMID:23499988

  9. Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 ?M ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 ?M CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 ?M CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

  10. Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Nakano, H; Tamai, K; Sawamura, D; Hanada, K; Hashimoto, I; Arima, Y

    1998-01-01

    Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent. PMID:9424082

  11. Identifying aging-related genes in mouse hippocampus using gateway nodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput studies continue to produce volumes of metadata representing valuable sources of information to better guide biological research. With a stronger focus on data generation, analysis models that can readily identify actual signals have not received the same level of attention. This is due in part to high levels of noise and data heterogeneity, along with a lack of sophisticated algorithms for mining useful information. Networks have emerged as a powerful tool for modeling high-throughput data because they are capable of representing not only individual biological elements but also different types of relationships en masse. Moreover, well-established graph theoretic methodology can be applied to network models to increase efficiency and speed of analysis. In this project, we propose a network model that examines temporal data from mouse hippocampus at the transcriptional level via correlation of gene expression. Using this model, we formally define the concept of “gateway” nodes, loosely defined as nodes representing genes co-expressed in multiple states. We show that the proposed network model allows us to identify target genes implicated in hippocampal aging-related processes. Results By mining gateway genes related to hippocampal aging from networks made from gene expression in young and middle-aged mice, we provide a proof-of-concept of existence and importance of gateway nodes. Additionally, these results highlight how network analysis can act as a supplement to traditional statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Finally, we use the gateway nodes identified by our method as well as functional databases and literature to propose new targets for study of aging in the mouse hippocampus. Conclusions This research highlights the need for methods of temporal comparison using network models and provides a systems biology approach to extract information from correlation networks of gene expression. Our results identify a number of genes previously implicated in the aging mouse hippocampus related to synaptic plasticity and apoptosis. Additionally, this model identifies a novel set of aging genes previously uncharacterized in the hippocampus. This research can be viewed as a first-step for identifying the processes behind comparative experiments in aging that is applicable to any type of temporal multi-state network. PMID:24886704

  12. The human and mouse receptors of hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Roller, M.L.; Camper, S.A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAAM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific back-crosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Sequence organisation and transcriptional regulation of the mouse elastase II and trypsin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, B J; Hagenbüchle, O; Wellauer, P K

    1986-01-01

    Elastase II and trypsin mRNAs were cloned in form of their cDNAs from pancreas of strain A/J mice, and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. The elastase II mRNA is 912 nucleotides long and encodes a protein of 271 amino acids. The cloned trypsin mRNA species is 814 nucleotides long and encodes a protein of 246 amino acids. The elastase II gene, which exists as a single copy in the haploid mouse genome, measures 11.2 kb from cap to poly(A) site and is interrupted by at least seven introns. Between 5 and 10 trypsin genes exist in the mouse genome. Five different trypsin genes, two of which are closely linked in a tail-to-tail manner, were studied in detail. They vary in size between 3.4 and 4.0kb, and all are interrupted by four introns. DNA sequence comparison of the elastase II, trypsin and Amy-2a alpha-amylase genes reveals a conserved 13 nucleotide motif in their 5'-flanking regions. The differential accumulation of the elastase II and trypsin mRNAs in the cytoplasm of the acinar pancreatic cell is regulated predominantly at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:3641189

  14. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    From 1971--1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. Absence of any of these fragments on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southern blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice showed a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  15. Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A.; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A.; Notredame, Cedric; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

  16. Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A; Notredame, Cedric; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

  17. Restricted development of mouse triploid fetuses with disorganized expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Takahashi, Masashi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2014-10-16

    Summary Eukaryotic species commonly contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. The diploid state appears to be advantageous for mammals because it enables sexual reproduction and facilitates genetic recombination. Nonetheless, the effects of DNA ploidy on mammalian ontogeny have yet to be understood. The present study shows phenotypic features and expression patterns of imprinted genes in tripronucleate diandric and digynic triploid (DAT and DGT) mouse fetuses on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Measurement of crown-rump length revealed that the length of DGT fetuses (1.87 ± 0.13 mm; mean ± standard error of the mean) was much smaller than that of diploid fetuses (4.81 ± 0.05 mm). However, no significant difference was observed in the crown-rump length between diploid and DAT fetuses (3.86 ± 0.43 mm). In DGT fetuses, the expression level of paternally expressed genes, Igf2, Dlk1, Ndn, and Peg3, remained significantly reduced and that of maternally expressed genes, Igf2r and Grb10, increased. Additionally, in DAT fetuses, the Igf2 mRNA expression level was approximately twice that in diploid fetuses, as expected. These results provide the first demonstration that imprinted genes in mouse triploid fetuses show distinctive expression patterns independent of the number of parental-origin haploid sets. These data suggest that both DNA ploidy and asymmetrical functions of parental genomes separately influence mammalian ontogeny. PMID:25318586

  18. Molecular cloning, structure, and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM/homeobox gene Lhx5.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, S; Sheng, H Z; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Taira, M; Dawid, I B; Westphal, H

    1996-09-01

    Lhx5, the mouse ortholog of the Xenopus Xlim-5, is a LIM/homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system during both embryonic development and adulthood. During development its domain of expression is mainly localized at the most anterior portion of the neural tube, and it precedes the morphological differentiation of the forebrain; for this reason we believe that Lhx5 could play an important role in forebrain patterning. Here we present the structural organization and the chromosomal localization of the Lhx5 gene. The gene is composed of five exons spanning more than 10 kb of genomic sequence. The first and second LIM domains are encoded by the first and second exon, while the codons of the homeobox are split between the third and the fourth exons. The structure of Lhx5 is similar to that of other LIM/homeodomain proteins, Lhx1/lim1 and Lhx3/lim3, but differs from that of other LIM genes, such as mec3 and LMO1/Rbtn1, in which the codons for the LIM domains are interrupted by introns. We have mapped Lhx5 to the central region of mouse chromosome 5. PMID:8812449

  19. Molecular cloning, structure, and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM/homeobox gene Lhx5

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuzzi, S.; Sheng, Hui Z.; Westphal, H. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others

    1996-09-01

    Lhx5, the mouse ortholog of the Xenopus Xlim-5, is a LIM/homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system during both embryonic development and adulthood. During development its domain of expression is mainly localized at the most anterior portion of the neural tube, and it precedes the morphological differentiation of the forebrain; for this reason we believe that Lhx5 could play an important role in forebrain patterning. Here we present the structural organization and the chromosomal localization of the Lhx5 gene. The gene is composed of five exons spanning more than 10 kb of genomic sequence. The first and second LIM domains are encoded by the first and second exon, while the codons of the homeobox are split between the third and the fourth exons. The structure of Lhx5 is similar to that of other LIM/homeodomain proteins, Lxh1/lim1 and Lhx3/lim3, but differs from that of other LIM genes, such as mec3 and LMO1/Rbtn1, in which the codons for the LIM domains are interrupted by introns. We have mapped Lhx5 to the central region of mouse chromosome 5. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  20. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines.

    PubMed

    West, David B; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M; Engelhard, Eric K; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; Jong, Pieter J de; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2015-04-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ?80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ?20% showed no specific staining, ?13% had staining in only one tissue, and ?25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (?50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  1. The mouse immunoglobulin kappa locus contains about 140 variable gene segments.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, T; Jaenichen, R; Zachau, H G

    1996-07-01

    In continuation of our efforts to elucidate the immunoglobulin kappa locus of the mouse we analyzed 46 yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing V kappa, J kappa and C kappa genes. The YACs, which were derived from DNA of C57BL/6 and C3H mice, ranged from 0.3-1.9 Mb in size. On the basis of hybridization with probes specific for the V kappa gene families a group of 13 YACs was selected for detailed analysis. The V kappa genes of the YACs were then characterized by hybridization to the family-specific probes and by the sizes of the EcoRI fragments on which they were found. This way evidence was obtained for 140 different V kappa gene signals on the YACs. Of these 63 had been characterized before on clones from a cosmid library of total mouse DNA (I. Zocher et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1995. 25: 3326-3331) and 22 others were found now on cosmid clones derived from the YACs. Six V kappa genes of the previous study which were not found on the YACs are probably located outside of the kappa locus. The YACs were arrayed in a unique order establishing a YACs panel which most likely contains the whole kappa locus. The cosmid contigs and solitary cosmid clones which contain the 63 plus 22 V kappa gene signals mentioned above comprise about 2.0 Mb. Assuming that the remaining 55 V kappa genes are spaced at the same average distance of 24 kb, one may extrapolate to a locus size of 3.3 Mb. PMID:8766569

  2. A short upstream promoter region mediates transcriptional regulation of the mouse doublecortin gene in differentiating neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Doublecortin (Dcx), a MAP (Microtubule-Associated Protein), is transiently expressed in migrating and differentiating neurons and thereby characterizes neuronal precursors and neurogenesis in developing and adult neurogenesis. In addition, reduced Dcx expression during development has been related to appearance of brain pathologies. Here, we attempt to unveil the molecular mechanisms controlling Dcx gene expression by studying its transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation. Results To determine and analyze important regulatory sequences of the Dcx promoter, we studied a putative regulatory region upstream from the mouse Dcx coding region (pdcx2kb) and several deletions thereof. These different fragments were used in vitro and in vivo to drive reporter gene expression. We demonstrated, using transient expression experiments, that pdcx2kb is sufficient to control specific reporter gene expression in cerebellar cells and in the developing brain (E14.5). We determined the temporal profile of Dcx promoter activity during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and found that transcriptional activation of the Dcx gene varies along with neuronal differentiation of mESC. Deletion experiments and sequence comparison of Dcx promoters across rodents, human and chicken revealed the importance of a highly conserved sequence in the proximal region of the promoter required for specific and strong expression in neuronal precursors and young neuronal cells. Further analyses revealed the presence in this short sequence of several conserved, putative transcription factor binding sites: LEF/TCF (Lymphoid Enhancer Factor/T-Cell Factor) which are effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway; HNF6/OC2 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6/Oncecut-2) members of the ONECUT family and NF-Y/CAAT (Nuclear Factor-Y). Conclusions Studies of Dcx gene regulatory sequences using native, deleted and mutated constructs suggest that fragments located upstream of the Dcx coding sequence are sufficient to induce specific Dcx expression in vitro: in heterogeneous differentiated neurons from mESC, in primary mouse cerebellar neurons (PND3) and in organotypic slice cultures. Furthermore, a region in the 3'-end region of the Dcx promoter is highly conserved across several species and exerts positive control on Dcx transcriptional activation. Together, these results indicate that the proximal 3'-end region of the mouse Dcx regulatory sequence is essential for Dcx gene expression during differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:20509865

  3. Interferon regulatory factor 1 is required for mouse Gbp gene activation by gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Briken, V; Ruffner, H; Schultz, U; Schwarz, A; Reis, L F; Strehlow, I; Decker, T; Staeheli, P

    1995-01-01

    Full-scale transcriptional activation of the mouse Gbp genes by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) requires protein synthesis in embryonic fibroblasts. Although the Gbp-1 and Gbp-2 promoters contain binding sites for transcription factors Stat1 and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), deletion analysis revealed that the Stat1 binding site is dispensable for IFN-gamma inducibility of Gbp promoter constructs in transfected fibroblasts. However, activation of the mouse Gbp promoter by IFN-gamma requires transcription factor IRF-1. Transient overexpression of IRF-1 cDNA in mouse fibroblasts resulted in high-level expression of Gbp promoter constructs. Unlike wild-type cells, IRF-1% embryonic stem cells lacking functional transcription factor IRF-1 contained very low levels of Gbp transcripts that were not increased in response to differentiation or treatment with IFN-gamma. Treatment of IRF-1% mice with IFN-gamma resulted in barely detectable levels of Gbp RNA in spleens, lungs, and livers, whereas such treatment induced high levels of Gbp RNA in the organs of wild-type mice. These observations suggest two alternative pathways for transcriptional induction of genes in response to IFN-gamma: immediate response that results from activation of preformed Stat1 and delayed response that results from induced de novo synthesis of transcription factor IRF-1. PMID:7823961

  4. Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

  5. The Mmachc gene is required for pre-implantation embryogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A; Pupavac, Mihaela; Rosenblatt, David S; Tremblay, Michel L; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2014-07-01

    Patients with mutations in MMACHC have the autosomal recessive disease of cobalamin metabolism known as cblC. These patients are unable to convert cobalamin into the two active forms, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin and consequently have elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in blood and urine. In addition, some cblC patients have structural abnormalities, including congenital heart defects. MMACHC is conserved in the mouse and shows tissue and stage-specific expression pattern in midgestation stage embryos. To create a mouse model of cblC we generated a line of mice with a gene-trap insertion in intron 1 of the Mmachc gene, (Mmachc(Gt(AZ0348)Wtsi)). Heterozygous mice show a 50% reduction of MMACHC protein, and have significantly higher levels of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in their blood. The Mmachc(Gt) allele was inherited with a transmission ratio distortion in matings with heterozygous animals. Furthermore, homozygous Mmachc(Gt) embryos were not found after embryonic day 3.5 and these embryos were unable to generate giant cells in outgrowth assays. Our findings confirm that cblC is modeled in mice with reduced levels of Mmachc and suggest an early requirement for Mmachc in mouse development. PMID:24889031

  6. An epigenetic regulatory element of the Nodal gene in the mouse and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Arai, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Koji; Ohgane, Jun; Hirosawa, Mitsuko; Nakao, Yoichi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Nodal signaling plays critical roles during embryonic development. The Nodal gene is not expressed in adult tissues but is frequently activated in cancer cells, contributing to progression toward malignancy. Although several regulatory elements of the Nodal gene have been identified, the epigenetic mechanisms by which Nodal expression is regulated over the long term remain unclear. We found a region exhibiting dynamic changes in DNA methylation at approximately -3.0?kb to -0.4?kb upstream from the transcriptional start site (TSS) that we termed the epigenetic regulatory element (ERE). The ERE was unmethylated in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) but became increasingly methylated in differentiated cells and tissues, concomitant with the downregulation of Nodal mRNA expression. In vitro reporter assays identified an Oct3/4 binding motif within the ERE, indicating that the ERE is responsible for the activation of Nodal in mESCs. Furthermore, the ERE was a target of differentiation-associated Polycomb silencing, and the chromatin condensed when mESCs differentiated to embryoid bodies (EBs). Pharmacological inhibition of PRC2 led to the reactivation of Nodal expression in EBs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The ERE was also targeted by PRC2 in normal human cells. In NODAL-expressing human cancer cells, accumulation of EZH2 and trimethylation of H3K27 at the ERE were diminished. In conclusion, Nodal is epigenetically controlled through the ERE in the mouse embryo and human cells. PMID:25528267

  7. NFAT5 regulates transcription of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiki, Tsukasa; Udono, Miyako; Kotake, Yojiro; Yamashita, Makiko; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakura, Yoshinori, E-mail: katakura.yoshinori.528@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-10

    We aimed to clarify the transcription-regulation mechanisms of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (mTERT). First, we searched for the promoter region required for transcriptional activation of mTERT and identified an enhancer cis-element (named mTERT-EE) located between - 200 and - 179 bp of the mouse TERT gene (mTERT). EMSA results suggested that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) member proteins bind to mTERT-EE. We then identified NFAT5 as the factor binding to mTERT-EE and found that it activates the transcription of the mTERT core promoter. The results that siRNA directed against NFAT5 significantly reduced mTERT expression and mTERT core promoter activity and that the expressions of NFAT5 and mTERT were well correlated in various mouse tissues except liver suggest that NFAT5 dominantly and directly regulates mTERT expression. To clarify their functionality further, we investigated the effect of hypertonic stress, a known stimulus affecting the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT5, on mTERT expression. The result indicated that hypertonic stress activates mTERT transcription via the activation and recruitment of NFAT5 to the mTERT promoter. These results provide useful information about the transcription-regulation mechanisms of mTERT.

  8. Identification of mouse histone deacetylase 1 as a growth factor-inducible gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bartl, S; Taplick, J; Lagger, G; Khier, H; Kuchler, K; Seiser, C

    1997-01-01

    Reversible acetylation of core histones plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. The acetylation state of histones is controlled by the activities of acetylating and deacetylating enzymes. By using differential mRNA display, we have identified a mouse histone deacetylase gene, HD1, as an interleukin-2-inducible gene in murine T cells. Sequence alignments revealed that murine HD1 is highly homologous to the yeast RPD3 pleiotropic transcriptional regulator. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy proved that mouse HD1 is a nuclear protein. When expressed in yeast, murine HD1 was also detected in the nucleus, although it failed to complement the rpd3delta deletion phenotype. HD1 mRNA expression was low in G0 mouse cells but increased when the cells crossed the G1/S boundary after growth stimulation. Immunoprecipitation experiments and functional in vitro assays showed that HD1 protein is associated with histone deacetylase activity. Both HD1 protein levels and total histone deacetylase activity increased upon interleukin-2 stimulation of resting B6.1 cells. When coexpressed with a luciferase reporter construct, HD1 acted as a negative regulator of the Rous sarcoma virus enhancer/promoter. HD1 overexpression in stably transfected Swiss 3T3 cells caused a severe delay during the G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Our results indicate that balanced histone acetylation/deacetylation is crucial for normal cell cycle progression of mammalian cells. PMID:9271381

  9. Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing of RARB in Areca Carcinogens Induced Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yung-An; Fan, Shin-Ru; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Nai-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development, chewing areca is known to be a strong risk factor in many Asian cultures. Therefore, we established an OSCC induced mouse model by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or arecoline, or both treatments, respectively. These are the main two components of the areca nut that could increase the occurrence of OSCC. We examined the effects with the noncommercial MCGI (mouse CpG islands) microarray for genome-wide screening the DNA methylation aberrant in induced OSCC mice. The microarray results showed 34 hypermethylated genes in 4-NQO plus arecoline induced OSCC mice tongue tissues. The examinations also used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and bisulfite sequencing to realize the methylation pattern in collected mouse tongue tissues and human OSCC cell lines of different grades, respectively. These results showed that retinoic acid receptor ? (RARB) was indicated in hypermethylation at the promoter region and the loss of expression during cancer development. According to the results of real-time PCR, it was shown that de novo DNA methyltransferases were involved in gene epigenetic alternations of OSCC. Collectively, our results showed that RARB hypermethylation was involved in the areca-associated oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25197641

  10. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  11. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF[sub 1] mice irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mRb gene.

  12. Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S

    1994-01-01

    Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. Images PMID:7972033

  13. Induction of Metallothionein I by Arsenic via Metal-activated Transcription Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoqing; Ma, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. The mechanism of MTF1 activation has not been well understood. We analyzed the interaction between arsenic (As3+) and MTF1 for Mt1 induction. As3+ potently induces Mt1 mRNA expression in mouse hepa1c1c7 cells. Induction is dependent upon functional MTF1 as induction is lost in Mtf1 knockout cells but is restored upon reconstitution with Mtf1; moreover, As3+ induces the binding of MTF1 to the metal response elements of endogenous Mt1. Induction is not affected by modulating zinc concentrations but is markedly enhanced by cycloheximide. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), which covalently binds to vicinal protein cysteine thiol groups, induces Mt1 with a magnitude of higher potency than that of As3+. PAO affinity beads effectively pulls down the carboxyl half of MTF1 (MTF1321–675) by binding to a cluster of five cysteine residues near the terminus. Preincubation with As3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ag+, Hg2+, and Bi3+ blocks pulldown of MTF1321–675 by PAO beads in vitro and in vivo, indicating that binding of the metal inducers to the same C-terminal cysteine cluster as PAO occurs. Deletion of the C-terminal cysteine cluster or mutation of the cysteine residues abolishes or markedly reduces the transcription activation activity of MTF1 and the ability of MTF1 to restore Mt1 induction in Mtf1 knockout cells. The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription via arsenic-cysteine thiol interaction. PMID:19276070

  14. Metallothionein levels in ovarian tumours before and after chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; McGown, A. T.; Crowther, D.; Mander, A.; Fox, B. W.

    1991-01-01

    The metallothionein content of ovarian tumours is considerably higher than that found in normal ovaries (greater than 100-fold differences in mean values, P less than 0.001). There was no difference between the metallothionein content of tumours from patients who had completed chemotherapy, usually with a regimen containing a platinum drug, and tumours from untreated patients. Similarly, the level of metallothionein was not influenced by response to therapy, age, stage, histology, or tumour cell differentiation state. These data do not support the hypothesis that metallothionein content is a major determinant of tumour sensitivity in ovarian cancer. PMID:2039697

  15. Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Repair Corrects a Mouse Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Nicole K.; Wursthorn, Karsten; Wang, Zhongya; Finegold, Milton J.; Kay, Mark A.; Grompe, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are ideal for performing gene repair due to their ability to target multiple different genomic loci, low immunogenicity, capability to achieve targeted and stable expression through integration, and low mutagenic and oncogenic potential. However, many handicaps to gene repair therapy remain. Most notable is the low frequency of correction in vivo. To date, this frequency is too low to be of therapeutic value for any disease. To address this, a point-mutation– based mouse model of the metabolic disease hereditary tyrosinemia type I was used to test whether targeted AAV integration by homologous recombination could achieve high-level stable gene repair in vivo. Both neonatal and adult mice were treated with AAV serotypes 2 and 8 carrying a wild-type genomic sequence for repairing the mutated Fah (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase) gene. Hepatic gene repair was quantified by immunohistochemistry and supported with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serology for functional correction parameters. Successful gene repair was observed with both serotypes but was more efficient with AAV8. Correction frequencies of up to 10?3 were achieved and highly reproducible within typical dose ranges. In this model, repaired hepatocytes have a selective growth advantage and are thus able to proliferate to efficiently repopulate mutant livers and cure the underlying metabolic disease. Conclusion AAV-mediated gene repair is feasible in vivo and can functionally correct an appropriate selection-based metabolic liver disease in both adults and neonates. PMID:20162619

  16. CpG island-mediated global gene regulatory modes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Beck, Samuel; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Rhee, Catherine; Song, Jawon; Woo, Andrew J; Kim, Jonghwan

    2014-01-01

    Both transcriptional and epigenetic regulations are fundamental for the control of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we perform a compendium analysis of >200 large sequencing data sets to elucidate the regulatory logic of global gene expression programs in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We define four major classes of DNA-binding proteins (Core, PRC, MYC and CTCF) based on their target co-occupancy, and discover reciprocal regulation between the MYC and PRC classes for the activity of nearly all genes under the control of the CpG island (CGI)-containing promoters. This CGI-dependent regulatory mode explains the functional segregation between CGI-containing and CGI-less genes during early development. By defining active enhancers based on the co-occupancy of the Core class, we further demonstrate their additive roles in CGI-containing gene expression and cell type-specific roles in CGI-less gene expression. Altogether, our analyses provide novel insights into previously unknown CGI-dependent global gene regulatory modes. PMID:25405324

  17. CpG island-mediated global gene regulatory modes in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Samuel; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Rhee, Catherine; Song, Jawon; Woo, Andrew J.; Kim, Jonghwan

    2014-01-01

    Both transcriptional and epigenetic regulations are fundamental for the control of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we perform a compendium analysis of >200 large sequencing data sets to elucidate the regulatory logic of global gene expression programs in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We define four major classes of DNA-binding proteins (Core, PRC, MYC and CTCF) based on their target co-occupancy, and discover reciprocal regulation between the MYC and PRC classes for the activity of nearly all genes under the control of the CpG island (CGI)-containing promoters. This CGI-dependent regulatory mode explains the functional segregation between CGI-containing and CGI-less genes during early development. By defining active enhancers based on the co-occupancy of the Core class, we further demonstrate their additive roles in CGI-containing gene expression and cell type-specific roles in CGI-less gene expression. Altogether, our analyses provide novel insights into previously unknown CGI-dependent global gene regulatory modes. PMID:25405324

  18. Differential gene expression in mouse liver associated with the hepatoprotective effect of clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Moffit, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, CT (United States); Koza-Taylor, Petra H. [Pfizer, Inc., Groton Laboratories, Molecular and Investigative Toxicology, Groton, CT (United States); Holland, Ricky D. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Division of Systems Toxicology, Jefferson, AR (United States); Thibodeau, Michael S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, CT (United States); Beger, Richard D. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Division of Systems Toxicology, Jefferson, AR (United States); Lawton, Michael P. [Pfizer, Inc., Groton Laboratories, Molecular and Investigative Toxicology, Groton, CT (United States); Manautou, Jose E. [University of Connecticut, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, CT (United States)]. E-mail: jose.manautou@uconn.edu

    2007-07-15

    Pretreatment of mice with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that activation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is required for this effect. The present study utilizes gene expression profile analysis to identify potential pathways contributing to PPAR{alpha}-mediated hepatoprotection. Gene expression profiles were compared between wild type and PPAR{alpha}-null mice pretreated with vehicle or CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 10 days) and then challenged with APAP (400 mg/kg, p.o.). Total hepatic RNA was isolated 4 h after APAP treatment and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MGU74 v2.0 GeneChips. Gene expression analysis was performed utilizing GeneSpring (registered) software. Our analysis identified 53 genes of interest including vanin-1, cell cycle regulators, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, an acetaminophen binding protein. Vanin-1 could be important for CFB-mediated hepatoprotection because this protein is involved in the synthesis of cysteamine and cystamine. These are potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating APAP toxicity in rodents and humans. HPLC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of liver extracts indicates that enhanced vanin-1 gene expression results in elevated cystamine levels, which could be mechanistically associated with CFB-mediated hepatoprotection.

  19. Evolutionarily Diverged Regulation of X-chromosomal Genes as a Primal Event in Mouse Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain. PMID:24743563

  20. Structure and expression of the mouse AhR nuclear translocator (mArnt) gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Gao, J X; Mimura, J; Kobayashi, A; Sogawa, K; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y

    1998-09-18

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) nuclear translocator (Arnt) gene has been isolated and characterized from a mouse genomic DNA library. The gene is about 60 kilobases long and split into 22 exons. An unusual exon/intron junctional sequence was found in the 11th intron of the gene that begins with GC at its 5'-end. The exon/intron arrangement of mArnt gene differs greatly from those of the other members of the same basic-helix-loop-helix/PAS family. The gene is TATA-less and has several transcription start sites. The promoter region of the mArnt gene is GC-rich and contains a number of putative regulatory DNA sequences such as two GC-boxes, a cAMP-responsive element, E-box, AP-1 site, and CAAT-box. Deletion experiments revealed that all these DNA elements made substantial contributions to a high level of expression of the gene, except for the cAMP-responsive element. Of all, two GC-boxes displayed the most dominant enhancing effects. It was demonstrated that there exist specific factors binding to these DNA elements in the nuclear extracts of HeLa cells. Among them, Sp1 and Sp3, and CAAT-box binding factor-A were identified to bind the GC-boxes and CAAT-box, respectively. Expression of MyoD in HeLa cells stimulated the Arnt promoter activity by binding to the E-box. PMID:9733792

  1. Rapid validation of cancer genes in chimeras derived from established genetically engineered mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Huijbers, Ivo J; Krimpenfort, Paul; Berns, Anton; Jonkers, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Recent technological advances have opened the door for the fast and cost-effective generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study cancer. We describe here a conceptually novel approach for the generation of chimeric GEMMs based on the controlled introduction of various genetic elements in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are derived from existing mouse strains with a predisposition for cancer. The isolation of GEMM-derived ESC lines is greatly facilitated by the availability of the newly defined culture media containing inhibitors that effectively preserve ESC pluripotency. The feasibility of the GEMM-ESC approach is discussed in light of current literature and placed into the context of existing models. This approach will allow for fast and flexible validation of candidate cancer genes and drug targets and will result in a repository of GEMM-ESC lines and corresponding vector collections that enable easy distribution and use of preclinical models to the wider scientific community. PMID:21735458

  2. Mapping TNNC1, the gene that encodes cardiac troponin I in the human and the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, N.; Hernandez, D.; Fisher, E.M.C. [St. Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [St. Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-12-10

    We have mapped the TNNC1 gene, whose protein product is the cardiac TnI protein. TnI is one of the proteins that makes up the troponin complex, which mediates the response of muscle to calcium ions. The human TNNC1 locus had been assigned to a large region of chromosome 19, and we have refined the mapping position to the distal end of the chromosome by amplification of DNAs from a chromosome 19 mapping panel. We have also mapped the mouse Tnnc1 locus, by following the segregation of an intron sequence through DNAs from the European Interspecific Backcross. Tnnc1 maps close to the centromere on mouse chromosome 7. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Expression of Slit and Robo Genes in the Developing Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Medioni, Caroline; Bertrand, Nicolas; Mesbah, Karim; Hudry, Bruno; Dupays, Laurent; Wolstein, Orit; Washkowitz, Andrew J.; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Mohun, Timothy J.; Harvey, Richard P.; Zaffran, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Development of the mammalian heart is mediated by complex interactions between myocardial, endocardial, and neural crest-derived cells. Studies in Drosophila have shown that the Slit-Robo signaling pathway controls cardiac cell shape changes and lumen formation of the heart tube. Here, we demonstrate by in situ hybridization that multiple Slit ligands and Robo receptors are expressed in the developing mouse heart. Slit3 is the predominant ligand transcribed in the early mouse heart and is expressed in the ventral wall of the linear heart tube and subsequently in chamber but not in atrioventricular canal myocardium. Furthermore, we identify that the homeobox gene Nkx2-5 is required for early ventral restriction of Slit3 and that the T-box transcription factor Tbx2 mediates repression of Slit3 in nonchamber myocardium. Our results suggest that patterned Slit-Robo signaling may contribute to the control of oriented cell growth during chamber morphogenesis of the mammalian heart. PMID:20941780

  4. A change of expression in the conserved signaling gene MKK7 is associated with a selective sweep in the western house mouse Mus

    E-print Network

    Nachman, Michael

    in the western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus B. HARR,* C. VOOLSTRA,* T. J. A. J. HEINEN,* J. F. BAINES,* R an analysis of gene expression differences between subspe- cies of the house mouse Mus musculus: adaptation; gene expression; microarray; mus musculus; selective sweep. Abstract Changes in gene expression

  5. Stereotaxic Injection of a Viral Vector for Conditional Gene Manipulation in the Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Inquimbert, Perrine; Moll, Martin; Kohno, Tatsuro; Scholz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection. PMID:23542888

  6. Gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells following levitation in an ultrasound standing wave trap.

    PubMed

    Bazou, Despina; Kearney, Roisin; Mansergh, Fiona; Bourdon, Celine; Farrar, Jane; Wride, Michael

    2011-02-01

    In the present paper, gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells levitated in a novel ultrasound standing wave trap (USWT) (Bazou et al. 2005a) at variable acoustic pressures (0.08-0.85 MPa) and times (5-60 min) was performed. Our results showed that levitation of ES cells at the highest employed acoustic pressure for 60 min does not modify gene expression and cells maintain their pluripotency. Embryoid bodies (EBs) also expressed the early and late neural differentiation markers, which were also unaffected by the acoustic field. Our results suggest that the ultrasound trap microenvironment is minimally invasive as the biologic consequences of ES cell replication and EB differentiation proceed without significantly affecting gene expression. The technique holds great promise in safe cell manipulation techniques for a variety of applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21208732

  7. Gene Expression Analysis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Following Levitation in an Ultrasound Standing Wave Trap

    PubMed Central

    Bazou, Despina; Kearney, Roisin; Mansergh, Fiona; Bourdon, Celine; Farrar, Jane; Wride, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells levitated in a novel ultrasound standing wave trap (USWT) (Bazou et al. 2005a) at variable acoustic pressures (0.08–0.85 MPa) and times (5–60 min) was performed. Our results showed that levitation of ES cells at the highest employed acoustic pressure for 60 min does not modify gene expression and cells maintain their pluripotency. Embryoid bodies (EBs) also expressed the early and late neural differentiation markers, which were also unaffected by the acoustic field. Our results suggest that the ultrasound trap microenvironment is minimally invasive as the biologic consequences of ES cell replication and EB differentiation proceed without significantly affecting gene expression. The technique holds great promise in safe cell manipulation techniques for a variety of applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (E-mail: Bazoud@tcd.ie) PMID:21208732

  8. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M. [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); and others

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Role of Metallothionein in Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Nejdl, Lukas; Gumulec, Jaromir; Zitka, Ondrej; Masarik, Michal; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Free radicals are chemical particles containing one or more unpaired electrons, which may be part of the molecule. They cause the molecule to become highly reactive. The free radicals are also known to play a dual role in biological systems, as they can be either beneficial or harmful for living systems. It is clear that there are numerous mechanisms participating on the protection of a cell against free radicals. In this review, our attention is paid to metallothioneins (MTs) as small, cysteine-rich and heavy metal-binding proteins, which participate in an array of protective stress responses. The mechanism of the reaction of metallothioneins with oxidants and electrophilic compounds is discussed. Numerous reports indicate that MT protects cells from exposure to oxidants and electrophiles, which react readily with sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, MT plays a key role in regulation of zinc levels and distribution in the intracellular space. The connections between zinc, MT and cancer are highlighted. PMID:23502468

  10. HER2/neu DNA vaccination by intradermal gene delivery in a mouse tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Hoai, Tam; Kobelt, Dennis; Hohn, Oliver; Vu, Minh D.; Schlag, Peter M.; Dörken, Bernd; Norley, Steven; Lipp, Martin; Walther, Wolfgang; Pezzutto, Antonio; Westermann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines are potential tools for the induction of immune responses against both infectious disease and cancer. The dermal application of DNA vaccines is of particular interest since the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin are characterized by an abundance of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The aim of our study was to compare tumor protection as obtained by two different methods of intradermal DNA delivery (gene gun and jet injector) in a well-established HER2/neu mouse tumor model. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with a HER2/neu-coding plasmid by gene gun or jet injector. Mice were then subcutaneously challenged with HER2/neu+ syngeneic D2F2/E2 tumor cells. Protection against subsequent challenges with tumor cells as well as humoral and T-cell immune responses induced by the vaccine were monitored. Gene gun immunization was far superior to jet injector both in terms of tumor protection and induction of HER2/neu-specific immune responses. After gene gun immunization, 60% of the mice remained tumor-free until day 140 as compared with 25% after jet injector immunization. Furthermore, gene gun vaccination was able to induce both a strong TH1-polarized T-cell response with detectable cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity and a humoral immune response against HER2/neu, whereas the jet injector was not. Although the disadvantages that were associated with the use of the jet injector in our model may be overcome with methodological modifications and/or in larger animals, which exhibit a thicker skin and/or subcutaneous muscle tissue, we conclude that gene gun delivery constitutes the method of choice for intradermal DNA delivery in preclinical mouse models and possibly also for the clinical development of DNA-based vaccines. PMID:23264900

  11. Identification of Novel SHOX Target Genes in the Developing Limb Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Beiser, Katja U.; Glaser, Anne; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Scholl, Isabell; Röth, Ralph; Li, Li; Gretz, Norbert; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Karperien, Marcel; Marchini, Antonio; Richter, Wiltrud; Rappold, Gudrun A.

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of the human short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) has been identified in several disorders characterized by reduced height and skeletal anomalies such as Turner syndrome, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia as well as isolated short stature. SHOX acts as a transcription factor during limb development and is expressed in chondrocytes of the growth plates. Although highly conserved in vertebrates, rodents lack a SHOX orthologue. This offers the unique opportunity to analyze the effects of human SHOX expression in transgenic mice. We have generated a mouse expressing the human SHOXa cDNA under the control of a murine Col2a1 promoter and enhancer (Tg(Col2a1-SHOX)). SHOX and marker gene expression as well as skeletal phenotypes were characterized in two transgenic lines. No significant skeletal anomalies were found in transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Quantitative and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that Tg(Col2a1-SHOX), however, affected extracellular matrix gene expression during early limb development, suggesting a role for SHOX in growth plate assembly and extracellular matrix composition during long bone development. For instance, we could show that the connective tissue growth factor gene Ctgf, a gene involved in chondrogenic and angiogenic differentiation, is transcriptionally regulated by SHOX in transgenic mice. This finding was confirmed in human NHDF and U2OS cells and chicken micromass culture, demonstrating the value of the SHOX-transgenic mouse for the characterization of SHOX-dependent genes and pathways in early limb development. PMID:24887312

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse carboxyl ester lipase gene and evidence for expression in the lactating mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Lidmer, A S; Kannius, M; Lundberg, L; Bjursell, G; Nilsson, J

    1995-09-01

    DNA hybridization was used to isolate a 2.04-kb cDNA encoding carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) from a mouse lactating mammary gland, lambda gt10 cDNA library. The cDNA sequence translated into a protein of 599 amino acids, including 20 amino acids of a putative signal peptide. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse CEL with CEL from five other species revealed that there is a high degree of homology between the different species. The mouse CEL gene was also isolated and found to span approximately 7.2 kb and to include 11 exons. This organization is similar to those of the recently reported human and rat CEL genes. We have also analyzed expression of the CEL gene in the mammary glands from other species by performing a Northern blot analysis with RNA from goat and cow. The results show that the gene is expressed in both species. PMID:8530060

  13. Tmem79/Matt is the matted mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Sean P.; Goh, Christabelle S.M.; Brown, Sara J.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Porter, Rebecca M.; Cole, Christian; Campbell, Linda E.; Gierlinski, Marek; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Schneider, Georg; Balmain, Allan; Prescott, Alan R.; Weidinger, Stephan; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kabesch, Michael; Gieger, Christian; Lee, Young-Ae; Tavendale, Roger; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Turner, Stephen W.; Madhok, Vishnu B.; Sullivan, Frank M.; Relton, Caroline; Burn, John; Meggitt, Simon; Smith, Catherine H.; Allen, Michael A.; Barker, Jonathan N.W. N.; Reynolds, Nick J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Irvine, Alan D.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Sandilands, Aileen; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a major inflammatory condition of the skin caused by inherited skin barrier deficiency, with mutations in the filaggrin gene predisposing to development of AD. Support for barrier deficiency initiating AD came from flaky tail mice, which have a frameshift mutation in Flg and also carry an unknown gene, matted, causing a matted hair phenotype. Objective We sought to identify the matted mutant gene in mice and further define whether mutations in the human gene were associated with AD. Methods A mouse genetics approach was used to separate the matted and Flg mutations to produce congenic single-mutant strains for genetic and immunologic analysis. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the matted gene. Five independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human gene and AD. Results The matted phenotype in flaky tail mice is due to a mutation in the Tmem79/Matt gene, with no expression of the encoded protein mattrin in the skin of mutant mice. Mattft mice spontaneously have dermatitis and atopy caused by a defective skin barrier, with mutant mice having systemic sensitization after cutaneous challenge with house dust mite allergens. Meta-analysis of 4,245 AD cases and 10,558 population-matched control subjects showed that a missense SNP, rs6694514, in the human MATT gene has a small but significant association with AD. Conclusion In mice mutations in Matt cause a defective skin barrier and spontaneous dermatitis and atopy. A common SNP in MATT has an association with AD in human subjects. PMID:24084074

  14. Gene expression regulation in the context of mouse interspecific mosaic genomes

    PubMed Central

    L'Hôte, David; Serres, Catherine; Veitia, Reiner A; Montagutelli, Xavier; Oulmouden, Ahmad; Vaiman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence points to the mosaic nature of the mouse genome. However, little is known about the way the introgressed segments are regulated within the context of the recipient genetic background. To address this question, we have screened the testis transcriptome of interspecific recombinant congenic mouse strains (IRCSs) containing segments of Mus spretus origin at a homozygous state in a Mus musculus background. Results Most genes (75%) were not transcriptionally modified either in the IRCSs or in the parent M. spretus mice, compared to M. musculus. The expression levels of most of the remaining transcripts were 'dictated' by either M. musculus transcription factors ('trans-driven'; 20%), or M. spretus cis-acting elements ('cis-driven'; 4%). Finally, 1% of transcripts were dysregulated following a cis-trans mismatch. We observed a higher sequence divergence between M. spretus and M. musculus promoters of strongly dysregulated genes than in promoters of similarly expressed genes. Conclusion Our study indicates that it is possible to classify the molecular events leading to expressional alterations when a homozygous graft of foreign genome segments is made in an interspecific host genome. The inadequacy of transcription factors of this host genome to recognize the foreign targets was clearly the major path leading to dysregulation. PMID:18752664

  15. Recalculation of 23 mouse HDL QTL datasets improves accuracy and allows for better candidate gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

    2013-04-01

    In the past 15 years, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach has been applied to crosses between different inbred mouse strains to identify genetic loci associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although successful, a disadvantage of this method is low mapping resolution, as often several hundred candidate genes fall within the confidence interval for each locus. Methods have been developed to narrow these loci by combining the data from the different crosses, but they rely on the accurate mapping of the QTL and the treatment of the data in a consistent manner. We collected 23 raw datasets used for the mapping of previously published HDL QTL and reanalyzed the data from each cross using a consistent method and the latest mouse genetic map. By utilizing this approach, we identified novel QTL and QTL that were mapped to the wrong part of chromosomes. Our new HDL QTL map allows for reliable combining of QTL data and candidate gene analysis, which we demonstrate by identifying Grin3a and Etv6, as candidate genes for QTL on chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively. In addition, we were able to narrow a QTL on Chr 19 to five candidates. PMID:23393305

  16. DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Aso, Ester; Panayotis, Nicolas; Lott, Ira; Dierssen, Mara; Rabano, Alberto; Urdinguio, Rocio G.; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Astudillo, Aurora; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Balint, Balazs; Fraga, Mario F.; Gomez, Antonio; Gurnot, Cecile; Roux, Jean-Christophe; Avila, Jesus; Hensch, Takao K.; Ferrer, Isidre

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system has a pattern of gene expression that is closely regulated with respect to functional and anatomical regions. DNA methylation is a major regulator of transcriptional activity, and aberrations in the distribution of this epigenetic mark may be involved in many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we have analysed 12 distinct mouse brain regions according to their CpG 5’-end gene methylation patterns and observed their unique epigenetic landscapes. The DNA methylomes obtained from the cerebral cortex were used to identify aberrant DNA methylation changes that occurred in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. We were able to translate these findings to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, identifying DNA methylation-associated silencing of three targets genes: thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) and spectrin beta 4 (SPTBN4). These hypermethylation targets indicate that the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation pathway and the axon initial segment could contribute to the disease. PMID:24030951

  17. Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the mouse embryonic TEA domain-containing factor (ETF) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazuo; Yasunami, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Matsuda, Yoichi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others] [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); and others

    1996-09-01

    Embryonic TEA domain-containing factor (ETF) belongs to the family of proteins structurally related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and is implicated in neural development. Isolation and characterization of the cosmid clones encoding the mouse ETF gene (Etdf) revealed that Etdf spans approximately 17.9 kb and consists of 12 exons. The exon-intron structure of Etdf closely resembles that of the Drosophila scalloped gene, indicating that these genes may have evolved from a common ancestor. Then multiple transcription initiation sites revealed by S1 protection and primer extension analyses are consistent with the absence of the canonical TATA and CAAT boxes in the 5{prime}-flanking region, which contains many potential regulatory sequences, such as the E-box, N-box, Sp1 element, GATA-1 element, TAATGARAT element, and B2 short interspersed element (SINE) as well as several direct and inverted repeat sequences. The Etdf locus was assigned to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and linkage mapping analyses. These results provide the molecular basis for studying the regulation, in vivo function, and evolution of Etdf. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Delimiting the Location of the Scrapie Prion Incubation Time Gene on Chromosome 2 of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G. A.; Ebeling, C.; Torchia, M.; Westaway, D.; Prusiner, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible neurodegenerative disease caused by unusual pathogens called prions. The interval between inoculation and illness for experimental mouse scrapie is dramatically influenced by an incubation time gene (Prn-i) that is linked to Prn-p, the structural gene for prion protein (PrP). Although prion proteins from mouse strains with short and long scrapie incubation times differ by two amino acids, mice with discordant disease phenotype and Prn-p genotype occur in segregating crosses, suggesting recombination between Prn-p and a distinct incubation time locus. In addition, expression of Prn-p(b) transgenes from long incubation time mice shortened, rather than prolonged, incubation time. In this study, mice carrying chromosomes with meiotic crossovers near Prn-p were analyzed for scrapie incubation time phenotype. The results indicated that Prn-i (should it exist) must lie within an interval 0.67 cM proximal and 0.22 cM distal to Prn-p. The results also suggest that the cumulative effects of other genes, rather than meiotic recombination, were responsible for the putative recombinants of earlier studies. However, the effect of Prn-p(b) transgene expression in abbreviating scrapie incubation time was mitigated when the transgenes were transferred to mice with an endogenous long incubation time allele. Thus, Prn-p(b) transgenes and Prn-i may modulate scrapie pathogenesis by different mechanisms. PMID:8462855

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anuj; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Puri, Raj K; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated. Changes in gene expression were correlated with histological changes in the brain. In addition, a molecular framework of changes in gene expression associated with progression of the disease was studied. Results Our results demonstrate that genes related to important immune pathways such as antigen presentation, inflammation, apoptosis and response to virus (Cxcl10, CxCl11, Ccl5, Ifr7, Ifi27 Oas1b, Fcerg1,Mif, Clusterin and MHC class II) were upregulated as a result of virus infection. The number of over-expressed genes (>1.5-fold level) increased as the disease progressed (from 197, 296, 400, to 1086 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post infection, respectively). Conclusion Identification of differentially expressed genes in brain will help in the understanding of VEEV-induced pathogenesis and selection of biomarkers for diagnosis and targeted therapy of VEEV-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:18558011

  20. Genetic mapping of the adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (Ant2) to the mouse proximal X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.W.; Salido, E.C.; Shapiro, L.J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocases are mitochondrial membrane proteins encoded by a small dispersed multigene family. We have previously cloned cDNAs derived from the mouse adenine nucleotide translocase-1 and -2 genes (Ant1 and Ant2) and assigned to the loci to mouse chromosomes 8 and X, respectively. Here we describe the genomic organization of the Ant2 gene and its regional map position on the X chromosome, which was determined through linkage analysis using an interspecific backcross between Mus musculus and Mus spretus inbred strains. Ant2 cosegregates with DXMit49 and DXMit50 and lies distal to Agtr2 in the proximal region of the mouse X chromosome. This map assignment further defines a region of conserved synteny between human Xq22-q25 and the mouse proximal X chromosome. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Multiple Mechanisms Regulate Imprinting of the Mouse Distal Chromosome 7 Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Caspary, Tamara; Cleary, Michele A.; Baker, Catherine C.; Guan, Xiao-Juan; Tilghman, Shirley M.

    1998-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that results in the preferential silencing of one of the two parental copies of a gene. Although the precise mechanisms by which genomic imprinting occurs are unknown, the tendency of imprinted genes to exist in chromosomal clusters suggests long-range regulation through shared regulatory elements. We characterize a 800-kb region on the distal end of mouse chromosome 7 that contains a cluster of four maternally expressed genes, H19, Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57Kip2, as well as two paternally expressed genes, Igf2 and Ins2, and assess the expression and imprinting of Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57Kip2 during development in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Unlike Igf2 and Ins2, which depend on H19 for their imprinting, Mash2, p57Kip2, and Kvlqt1 are unaffected by a deletion of the H19 gene region, suggesting that these more telomeric genes are not regulated by the mechanism that controls H19, Igf2, and Ins2. Mutations in human p57Kip2 have been implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a disease that has also been associated with loss of imprinting of IGF2. We find, however, that a deletion of the gene has no effect on imprinting within the cluster. Surprisingly, the three maternally expressed genes are regulated very differently by DNA methylation; p57Kip2 is activated, Kvlqt1 is silenced, and Mash2 is unaffected in mice lacking DNA methyltransferase. We conclude that H19 is not a global regulator of imprinting on distal chromosome 7 and that the telomeric genes are imprinted by a separate mechanism(s). PMID:9584186

  2. Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

    PubMed

    Derry, Jonathan M J; Zhong, Hua; Molony, Cliona; MacNeil, Doug; Guhathakurta, Debraj; Zhang, Bin; Mudgett, John; Small, Kersten; El Fertak, Lahcen; Guimond, Alain; Selloum, Mohammed; Zhao, Wenqing; Champy, Marie France; Monassier, Laurent; Vogt, Tom; Cully, Doris; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2010-01-01

    To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2) cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans. PMID:21179467

  3. A Conditional Immortalized Mouse Müller Glial Cell Line Expressing Glial and Retinal Stem Cell Genes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Müller glia have multiple functions in the retina, including synthesis of neurotrophic factors, uptake and metabolism of neurotransmitters, spatial buffering of ions, maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier, and response to injury. A population of Müller glia has some stem cell-like characteristics both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this study was to generate and characterize novel Müller glial cell lines from the postnatal mouse retina. Methods. Cells were cultured from postnatal day (P) 10 double heterozygous transgenic (H-2Kb-tsA58/+; HRhoGFP/+) or C57BL/6 mice after papain dissociation. Interferon gamma (IFN?) induction of the SV40 T-antigen (TAg) was assayed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Proliferation was assayed by BrdU uptake and cell counts of calcein AM/ethidium bromide–stained cells. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results. Conditionally immortalized (ImM10 [Immortmouse Müller P10]) and spontaneously immortalized (C57M10 [C57BL/6 Müller P10]) Müller glial cell lines were selected by differential adherence to laminin; both consisted of adherent flat cells with large, diffusely staining nuclei and an epithelial morphology. TAg induction stimulated BrdU uptake by Müller glia in mixed retinal cultures from H-2Kb-tsA58/+; HRhoGFP/+ mice and increased the proliferation of ImM10 cells. ImM10 and C57M10 cells expressed genes characteristic of Müller glia but not genes characteristic of differentiated retinal neurons. ImM10 cells also expressed retinal stem cell genes. Conclusions. The ImM10 cell line is a novel, conditionally immortalized Müller glial cell line isolated from the P10 mouse retina that expresses genes characteristic of Müller glial and retinal stem cells. PMID:20505190

  4. The rhombotin gene family encode related LIM-domain proteins whose differing expression suggests multiple roles in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Foroni, L; Boehm, T; White, L; Forster, A; Sherrington, P; Liao, X B; Brannan, C I; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Rabbitts, T H

    1992-08-01

    The rhombotin (RBTN1 or Ttg-1) gene was first identified at a chromosome translocation in a T-cell acute leukaemia and later used to isolate two related genes (RBTN2 or Ttg-2 and RBTN3). Complete characterization of these genes in man and mouse shows that all three encode cysteine-rich proteins with typical LIM domains. RBTN1 and RBTN3-derived proteins have 98% identity in the LIM domains but are located on separate chromosomes in man and in mouse while RBTN1 and RBTN2, both located on human chromosome 11p but are on separate chromosomes in mouse, are only 48% identical in this part of the protein. The exon organization of RBTN1 and RBTN3 genes are similar, both having an intron, absent from the RBTN2 gene, in the LIM2-encoding region. The remarkable similarity between rbtn-1 and rbtn-3 proteins is parallelled in their expression patterns in mouse development, since both genes show high expression in restricted areas of the brain, but little lymphoid expression. rbtn-2 expression, however, is more ubiquitous. This gene shows a low level of thymus expression but high expression in fetal liver, adult spleen and B-cell lines, consistent with a role in B-cell development. These results suggest multiple cellular targets for the action of these proteins during development. PMID:1507224

  5. Expression of metallothionein and ?-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Njeri, Martha; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kenya, Eucharia; Githure, John I; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes have been shown to adapt to heavy metals in their natural habitats. In this study we explored the possibility of using Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as bio-reporters for environmental heavy metal pollution through expressions of their metal responsive metallothionein and ?-tubulin genes. The study was undertaken with third instar larvae after selection by cadmium, copper, or lead at LC30 through five successive generations. Expression levels were determined in the fifth generation by semi quantitative RT-PCR on the experimental and control populations. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The highest metallothionein (F3, 11= 4.574, P = 0.038) and ?-tubulin (F3,11= 12.961, P = 0.002) responses were observed in cadmium-tolerant treatments. There was significantly higher expression of metallothionein in cadmium or copper treatments relative to the control (P = 0.012), and in cadmium than in lead treatments (P = 0.044). Expressions of ?-tubulin were significantly higher in cadmium than in control treatments (P = 0.008). These results demonstrate capacity of An. gambiae s.s. to develop tolerance to increased levels of heavy metal challenge. The results also confirm the potential of heavy metal responsive genes in mosquitoes as possible bio-indicators of heavy metal environmental pollution. How the tolerance and expressions relate to An. gambiae s.s. fitness and vectorial capacity in the environment remains to be elucidated. PMID:19735939

  6. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others] [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); and others

    1994-08-01

    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Altered brain gene expression but not steroid biochemistry in a genetic mouse model of neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 39,XY*O mouse, which lacks the orthologues of the ADHD and autism candidate genes STS (steroid sulphatase) and ASMT (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase), exhibits behavioural phenotypes relevant to developmental disorders. The neurobiology underlying these phenotypes is unclear, although there is evidence for serotonergic abnormalities in the striatum and hippocampus. Methods Using microarray and quantitative gene expression analyses, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we compared brain gene expression and steroid biochemistry in wildtype (40,XY) and 39,XY*O adult mice to identify non-obvious genetic and endocrine candidates for between-group differences in behaviour and neurochemistry. We also tested whether acute STS inhibition by COUMATE in wildtype (40,XY) adult male mice recapitulated any significant gene expression or biochemical findings from the genetic comparison. Data were analysed by unpaired t-test or Mann Whitney U-test depending on normality, with a single factor of KARYOTYPE. Results Microarray analysis indicated seven robust gene expression differences between the two groups (Vmn2r86, Sfi1, Pisd-ps1, Tagap1, C1qc, Metap1d, Erdr1); Erdr1 and C1qc expression was significantly reduced in the 39,XY*O striatum and hippocampus, whilst the expression of Dhcr7 (encoding 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, a modulator of serotonin system development), was only reduced in the 39,XY*O hippocampus. None of the confirmed gene expression changes could be recapitulated by COUMATE administration. We detected ten free, and two sulphated steroids in 40,XY and 39,XY*O brain; surprisingly, the concentrations of all of these were equivalent between groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the mutation in 39,XY*O mice: i) directly disrupts expression of the adjacent Erdr1 gene, ii) induces a remarkably limited suite of downstream gene expression changes developmentally, with several of relevance to associated neurobehavioural phenotypes and iii) does not elicit large changes in brain steroid biochemistry. It is possible that individuals with STS/ASMT deficiency exhibit a similarly specific pattern of gene expression changes to the 39,XY*O mouse, and that these contribute towards their abnormal neurobiology. Future work may focus on whether complement pathway function, mitochondrial metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways are perturbed in such subjects. PMID:24602487

  8. Bisulfite Sequencing in Preimplantation Embryos: DNA Methylation Profile of the Upstream Region of the Mouse Imprinted H19Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Warnecke; Jeffrey R. Mann; Marianne Frommer; Susan J. Clark

    1998-01-01

    In this study we describe a modification of the bisulfite genomic sequencing protocol that enables detection of methylation from as few as five diploid cells from preimplantation mouse embryos. We have used bisulfite genomic sequencing to study the methylation profile of the putative imprinting element upstream of the mouseH19gene at several stages of embryonic development, including fertilized oocytes and two-cell

  9. Using standard nomenclature to adequately name transgenes, knockout gene alleles and any mutation associated to a genetically modified mouse strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lluís Montoliu; C. Bruce A. Whitelaw

    2011-01-01

    Mice provide an unlimited source of animal models to study mammalian gene function and human diseases. The powerful genetic\\u000a modification toolbox existing for the mouse genome enables the creation of, literally, thousands of genetically modified mouse\\u000a strains, carrying spontaneous or induced mutations, transgenes or knock-out\\/knock-in alleles which, in addition, can exist\\u000a in hundreds of different genetic backgrounds. Such an immense

  10. Gene expression profile during acute rejection in rat-to-mouse concordant cardiac xenograft by means of DNA microarray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Saiura; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Yasushi Harihara; Masataka Sata; Takao Hamakubo; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2002-01-01

    Using a rat-to-mouse concordant cardiac transplantation model and DNA microarrays, we studied the gene expression profiles during acute rejection. We used inbred BALB\\/c and C3H\\/He mice and Lewis rats for our study, in which heterotopic cardiac transplantations were performed. Total RNA was isolated from xenografts (Lewis to C3H), allografts (BALB\\/c to C3H), rat isografts (Lewis to Lewis) and mouse isografts

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns of the Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related gene in the mouse head.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomoyuki; Sakuma, Chie; Ueno, Takayuki; Yamada, Yuriko; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ueda, Shuichi; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (Hip1r) was originally identified due to its homology to Huntingtin-interacting protein 1, which contributes to the development of Huntington's disease (HD). We studied the expression of the mouse Hip1r (mHip1r) gene in the mouse head by in situ hybridization. In early embryogenesis at embryonic day (E) 13, mHip1r expression was especially prominent in the olfactory epithelium, cerebral cortex layer 1, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. During later development from E15 to E17, strong expression of mHip1r transcripts continued to be observed in the olfactory epithelium, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. Furthermore, not only the subplate and subventricular zone of the cortex, but also secretory glands, such as the nasal gland and the submandibular gland, were mHip1r-positive. Other positive tissues included the retinal ganglion cells, vomeronasal organ, trigeminal ganglion, and the developing molar tooth. In the adult mouse brain, similar expression patterns were observed in the cerebral cortex layers and other brain regions except the cerebellum. Additionally, by using an antibody against mHip1r, we confirmed these expression patterns at the protein level. Specific expression of mHip1r in the embryonic brain and secretory glands suggests a possible role for Hip1r in normal development and in the pathology of HD. PMID:24712472

  12. Genomic organization and comparative sequence analysis of the mouse and human FRS2, FRS3 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; McDougall, Kathryn; Kubu, Christopher J; Verdi, Joseph M; Meakin, Susan O

    2003-03-01

    The signaling adapter proteins FRS2 and FRS3 are implicated in the transmission of extracellular signals from nerve growth factor (NGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. This study presents the genomic sequence and exon-intron organization of the mouse FRS2 and FRS3 loci as well as their evolutionary conservation with their human counterparts. Both FRS2 and FRS3 contain 5 coding exons spanning over 7 kb of genomic sequence with similar exon sizes and organization. Comparative genomic sequence analyses show a highly conserved genomic organization between mouse and human in both FRS2 and FRS3 genes. Non-coding sequences, highly conserved between mouse and human, were identified in the FRS3 introns that may potentially function as regulatory elements. To assay potential differences in their patterns of expression, RT-PCR analysis was used to assay FRS2 and FRS3 expression in the developing embryo and neural tube (NT) during the time of neurogenesis. PMID:12688531

  13. Transgenic mice overexpressing the mouse homoeobox-containing gene Hox-1.4 exhibit abnormal gut development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra J. Wolgemuth; Richard R. Behringer; Margaret P. Mostoller; Ralph L. Brinster; Richard D. Palmiter

    1989-01-01

    The mouse homoeobox-containing genes exhibit temporally and spatially specific patterns of expression in embryonic and adult tissues and are thought to be important in regulation of development and cellular differentiation, perhaps by mechanisms analogous to homoeotic genes in Drosophila melanogaster 1-4. There has been no direct demonstration that expression of these mammalian genes can affect developmental processes, however. Hox-1.4, like

  14. Mutations in the helix termination motif of mouse type I IRS keratin genes impair the assembly of keratin intermediate filament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigekazu Tanaka; Ikuo Miura; Atsushi Yoshiki; Yoriko Kato; Haruka Yokoyama; Akiko Shinogi; Hiroshi Masuya; Shigeharu Wakana; Masaru Tamura; Toshihiko Shiroishi

    2007-01-01

    Two classical mouse hair coat mutations, Rex (Re) and Rex wavy coat (Rewc), are linked to the type I inner root sheath (IRS) keratin genes of chromosome 11. An N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutation, M100573, also maps close to the type I IRS keratin genes. In this study, we demonstrate that Re and M100573 mice bear mutations in the type I IRS gene

  15. Intrinsic Sex Differences in the Early Growth Hormone Responsiveness of Sex-Specific Genes in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wauthier, Valerie; Sugathan, Aarathi; Meyer, Rosana D.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Waxman, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in liver gene expression are dictated by sex differences in circulating GH profiles. Presently, the pituitary hormone dependence of mouse liver gene expression was investigated on a global scale to discover sex-specific early GH response genes that could contribute to sex-specific regulation of downstream GH targets and to ascertain whether intrinsic sex differences characterize hepatic responses to plasma GH stimulation. Global RNA expression analysis identified two distinct classes of sex-specific mouse liver genes: genes subject to positive regulation (class I) and genes subject to negative regulation by pituitary hormones (class II). Genes activated or repressed in hypophysectomized (Hypox) mouse liver within 30–90 min of GH pulse treatment at a physiological dose were identified as putative direct targets of GH action (early response genes). Intrinsic sex differences in the GH responsiveness of a subset of these early response genes were observed. Notably, 45 male-specific genes, including five encoding transcriptional regulators that may mediate downstream sex-specific transcriptional responses, were induced by GH within 30 min in Hypox male but not Hypox female mouse liver. The early GH response genes were enriched in 29 male-specific targets of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2, whose activation in hepatic stellate cells is associated with liver fibrosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma, a male-predominant disease. Thus, the rapid activation by GH pulses of certain sex-specific genes is modulated by intrinsic sex-specific factors, which may be associated with prior hormone exposure (epigenetic mechanisms) or genetic factors that are pituitary-independent, and could contribute to sex differences in predisposition to liver cancer or other hepatic pathophysiologies. PMID:20150183

  16. Ducky Mouse Phenotype of Epilepsy and Ataxia Is Associated with Mutations in the Cacna2d2 Gene and Decreased Calcium Channel

    E-print Network

    Dolphin, Annette C.

    Ducky Mouse Phenotype of Epilepsy and Ataxia Is Associated with Mutations in the Cacna2d2 Gene, Virginia 22908-0735 The mouse mutant ducky, a model for absence epilepsy, is characterized by spike of ataxia and epilepsy in the mouse. Key words: epilepsy; ataxia; calcium channel; subunit; Pur- kinje cell

  17. The mouse homologue of the tuberin gene (TSC2) maps to a conserved synteny group between mouse chromosome 17 and human 16p13.3

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.G.; Sutherland, H.F.; Nowicka, U. [Lincoln`s Inn Fields, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Lincoln`s Inn Fields, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-01-01

    The tuberous sclerosis gene (TSC2) on human chromosome 16p13.3 has recently been identified. Several markers from this region have previously been shown to be members of a conserved synteny group, in the mouse located on chromosome 17. The mouse region includes markers D17Lon1, D17Lon2, D17Lon3, and D17Lon4, which are linked to the {alpha}-globin pseudogene Hba-ps4 on chromosome 17, while the corresponding human markers, NK12, NK92, sazD, and KM17, are linked to the functional {alpha}-globin locus near the tip of chromosome 16p. Since the human TSC2 maps in close proximity to NK12, we wanted to investigate whether a mouse gene, homologous to TSC2, was present on mouse chromosome 17 and thus included in the conserved synteny group. During the characterization of transcripts from the human PKD1 region on human chromosome 16p13.3, we isolated three short clones encoding fragments of TSC2 from a human fetal brain cDNA library enriched for transcripts from the PKD1 region. These TSC2 clones were used as probes to screen a mouse teratocarcinoma (PCC4) cDNA library (Stratagene), at a final stringency of 0.3 x SSC, 0.1% SDS at 65{degrees}C. One of the positive clones isolated, mTS-1, had a 2.8-kb insert. Two hundred bases from each end of the insert were sequenced, showing 88 and 83.5% identity to the human tuberin nucleotide sequence, with the 5{prime} end of the clone starting at position 2351 and the 3{prime} end ending at position 5265. The high degree of homology to the human tuberin sequence suggests that clone mTS-1 is indeed derived from the mouse homologue of TSC2. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Peroxiredoxins are involved in metallothionein protection from doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Jing; Yingliang Wu; Jing Wu; Jun Zhao; Daiying Zuo; Shuangqing Peng

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that metallothionein (MT) can antagonize the myocardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (Dox), a most effective anticancer agent. However, the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Using a proteomics approach we have detected that major peroxiredoxins (Prxs), an important redox regulating molecule family, may be involved in this process. In the present study, we assessed a link between metallothionein

  19. Induction of Nrf2 and metallothionein as a common mechanism of hepatoprotective medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Dan; Tao, Na; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Jin, Tao; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Many Chinese medicines have the potential to be hepatoprotective and therefore can be used to treat acute and chronic liver diseases. The challenge is to identify the molecular target for their protective mechanism. This study investigated the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2(NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant genes and metallothionein as a common mechanism of hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicines such as Piper puberulum. Mice were pretreated with Piper puberulum extract (PPE, 500 mg/kg, po) or vehicles for seven days, followed by intoxication with CCl 4 (25 ?l/kg, ip for 16 h), D-galactosamine (800 mg/kg, ip for 8 h), or acetaminophen (400 mg/kg, ip for 8 h). Hepatotoprotection was evaluated by serum enzyme activities and histopathology. To determine the mechanism of protection, mice were given PPE (250-1000 mg/kg, po for seven days) and livers were collected to quantify the expression of Nrf2-targeted genes and metallothionein. Nrf2-null mice were also used to determine the role of Nrf2 in PPE-mediated hepatoprotection.PPE pretreatment protected against the hepatotoxicity produced by CCl 4, D-galactosamine, and acetaminophen, as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities and ameliorated liver lesions. PPE treatment increased the expression of hepatic Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (Nqo1), heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), glutamate-cysteine ligases (Gclc), and metallothionein (MT), at both transcripts and protein levels. PPE protected wild-type mice from CCl 4 and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, but not Nrf2-null mice, fortifying the Nrf2-dependent protection. In conclusion, induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathways and metallothionein appears to be a common mechanism for hepatoprotective herbs such as PPE. PMID:24467545

  20. Optimizing in vivo gene transfer into mouse corpus cavernosum by use of surface electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang-Moon; Choi, Min Ji; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Ghatak, Kalyan; Park, Soo-Hwan; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Ryu, Ji-Kan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Electroporation is known to enhance the efficiency of gene transfer through a transient increase in cell membrane permeability. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for in vivo electroporation-mediated gene delivery into mouse corpus cavernosum. Materials and Methods Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. After intracavernous injection of pCMV-Luc (100 µg/40 µL), different electroporation settings (5-50 V, 8-16 pulses with a duration of 40-100 ms) were applied to the penis to establish the optimal conditions for electroporation. Gene expression was evaluated by luciferase assay. We also assessed the undesired consequences of electroporation by visual inspection and hematoxylin-eosin staining of penile tissue. Results Electroporation profoundly induced gene expression in the corpus cavernosum tissue of normal mice in a voltage-dependent manner. We observed electrical burn scars in the penis of normal mice who received electroporation with eight 40-ms pulses at a voltage of 50 V and sixteen 40-ms pulses, eight 100-ms pulses, and sixteen 100-ms pulses at a voltage of 30 V. No detectable burn scars were noted in normal mice stimulated with eight 40-ms pulses at a voltage of 30 V. Electroporation also significantly induced gene expression in diabetic mice stimulated with 40-ms pulse at a voltage of 30 V without injury to the penis. Conclusions We have established the optimal electroporation conditions for maximizing gene transfer into the corpus cavernosum of mice while avoiding damage to the erectile tissue. The electroporation-mediated gene delivery technique will be a valuable tool for gene therapy in the field of erectile dysfunction.

  1. Identification of Gene Expression Changes from Colitis to CRC in the Mouse CAC Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Gao, Yuyan; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Guangyu; Yang, Yan mei; Yang, Yue; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2014-01-01

    A connection between colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammation is well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Chemically induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is an outstanding mouse model for studying the link between inflammation and cancer. Additionally, the CAC model is used for examining novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers for use in clinical practice. Here, a CAC model was established in less than 100 days using azoxymethane (AOM) with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) in BALB/c mice. We examined the mRNA expression profiles of three groups: control untreated mice (K), DSS-induced chronic colitis mice (D), and AOM/DSS-induced CAC (AD) mice. We identified 6301 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the three groups, including 93 persistently upregulated genes and 139 persistently downregulated genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that the most persistent DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic or inflammatory components in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, several associated DEGs were identified as potential DEGs by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We selected 14 key genes from the DEGs and potential DEGs for further quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verification. Six persistently upregulated, 3 persistently downregulated DEGs, and the other 3 genes showed results consistent with the microarray data. We demonstrated the regulation of 12 key genes specifically involved in Wnt signaling, cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions, homeostasis, and tumor-associated metabolism during colitis-associated CRC. Our results suggest that a close relationship between metabolic and inflammatory mediators of the tumor microenvironment is present in CAC. PMID:24743346

  2. Enriched Environment-induced Maternal Weight Loss Reprograms Metabolic Gene Expression in Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-02-20

    The global prevalence of weight loss is increasing, especially in young women. However, the extent and mechanisms by which maternal weight loss affects the offspring is still poorly understood. Here, using an enriched environment (EE)-induced weight loss model, we show that maternal weight loss improves general health and reprograms metabolic gene expression in mouse offspring, and the epigenetic alterations can be inherited for at least two generations. EE in mothers induced weight loss and its associated physiological and metabolic changes such as decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their offspring exhibited improved general health such as reduced fat accumulation, decreased plasma and hepatic lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Maternal weight loss altered gene expression patterns in the liver of offspring with coherent down-regulation of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Epigenomic profiling of offspring livers revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on maternal weight loss, including reproducible changes in promoter methylation over several key lipid biosynthesis genes, correlated with their expression patterns. Embryo transfer studies indicated that oocyte alteration in response to maternal metabolic conditions is a strong factor in determining metabolic and epigenetic changes in offspring. Several important lipid metabolism-related genes have been identified to partially inherit methylated alleles from oocytes. Our study reveals a molecular and mechanistic basis of how maternal lifestyle modification affects metabolic changes in the offspring. PMID:25555918

  3. Lim Homeobox Gene, Lhx8, Is Essential for Mouse Oocyte Differentiation and Survival1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngsok; Ballow, Daniel J.; Xin, Yun; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Lhx8 is a member of the LIM-homeobox transcription factor family and preferentially expressed in oocytes and germ cells within the mouse ovary. We discovered that Lhx8 knockout females lose oocytes within 7 days after birth. At the time of birth, histological examination shows that Lhx8-deficient (Lhx8?/?) ovaries are grossly similar to the newborn wild-type ovaries. Lhx8?/? ovaries fail to maintain the primordial follicles, and the transition from primordial to growing follicles does not occur. Lhx8?/? ovaries misexpress oocyte-specific genes, such as Gdf9, Pou5f1, and Nobox. Very rapid loss of oocytes may partly be due to the drastic downregulation of Kit and Kitl in Lhx8?/? ovaries. We compared Lhx8?/? and wild-type ovaries using an Affymetrix 430 2.0 microarray platform. A total of 80 (44%) of 180 of the genes downregulated more than 5-fold in Lhx8?/? ovaries were preferentially expressed in oocytes, whereas only 3 (2%) of 146 genes upregulated more than 5-fold in the absence of Lhx8 were preferentially expressed in oocytes. In addition, the comparison of genes regulated in Lhx8?/? and Nobox?/? newborn ovaries discovered a common set of 34 genes whose expression level was affected in both Lhx8- and Nobox-deficient mice. Our findings show that Lhx8 is a critical factor for maintenance and differentiation of the oocyte during early oogenesis, and it acts in part by downregulating the Nobox pathway. PMID:18509161

  4. Rapid screening of gene function by systemic delivery of morpholino oligonucleotides to live mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Kathryn S; Wainwright, Elanor N; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

  5. Evidence for genes controlling resistance to Heligmosomoides bakeri on mouse chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Harry; Githiori, John; Bradley, Jan E; Kemp, Steve; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-04-01

    Resistance to infections with Heligmosomoides bakeri is associated with a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL-Hbnr1) on mouse chromosome 1 (MMU1). We exploited recombinant mice, with a segment of MMU1 from susceptible C57Bl/10 mice introgressed onto MMU1 in intermediate responder NOD mice (strains 1094 and 6109). BALB/c (intermediate responder) and C57Bl/6 mice (poor responder) were included as control strains and strain 1098 (B10 alleles on MMU3) as NOD controls. BALB/c mice resisted infection rapidly and C57Bl/6 accumulated heavy worm burdens. Fecal egg counts dropped by weeks 10-11 in strain 1098, but strains 1094 and 6109 continued to produce eggs, harbouring more worms when autopsied (day 77). PubMed search identified 3 genes (Ctla4, Cd28, Icos) as associated with 'Heligmosomoides' in the B10 insert. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences in Ctla4 could be responsible for regulatory changes in gene function, and a SNP within a splice site in Cd28 could have an impact on function, but no polymorphisms with predicted effects on function were found in Icos. Therefore, one or more genes encoded in the B10 insert into NOD mice contribute to the response phenotype, narrowing down the search for genes underlying the H. bakeri resistance QTL, and suggest Cd28 and Ctla4 as candidate genes. PMID:25377239

  6. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles in distal parts of the mouse renal tubule.

    PubMed

    Pradervand, Sylvain; Zuber Mercier, Annie; Centeno, Gabriel; Bonny, Olivier; Firsov, Dmitri

    2010-11-01

    The distal parts of the renal tubule play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis of extracellular fluids. In this review, we present an in-depth analysis of microarray-based gene expression profiles available for microdissected mouse distal nephron segments, i.e., the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the connecting tubule (CNT), and for the cortical portion of the collecting duct (CCD; Zuber et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:16523-16528, 2009). Classification of expressed transcripts in 14 major functional gene categories demonstrated that all principal proteins involved in maintaining the salt and water balance are represented by highly abundant transcripts. However, a significant number of transcripts belonging, for instance, to categories of G-protein-coupled receptors or serine/threonine kinases exhibit high expression levels but remain unassigned to a specific renal function. We also established a list of genes differentially expressed between the DCT/CNT and the CCD. This list is enriched by genes related to segment-specific transport functions and by transcription factors directing the development of the distal nephron or collecting ducts. Collectively, this in silico analysis provides comprehensive information about relative abundance and tissue specificity of the DCT/CNT and the CCD expressed transcripts and identifies new candidate genes for renal homeostasis. PMID:20686783

  7. Ex vivo magnetofection: A novel strategy for the study of gene function in mouse organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Svingen, Terje; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Combes, Alexander N.; Hosking, Brett; Harley, Vincent R.; Sinclair, Andrew H.; Koopman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Gene function during mouse development is often studied through the production and analysis of transgenic and knock-out models. However, these techniques are time- and resource-consuming, and require specialized equipment and expertise. We have established a new protocol for functional studies that combines organ culture of explanted fetal tissues with micro-injection and magnetically-induced transfection (“magnetofection”) of gene expression constructs. As proof-of-principle, we magnetofected cDNA constructs into genital ridge tissue as a means of gain-of-function analysis, and shRNA constructs for loss-of-function analysis. Ectopic expression of Sry induced female-to-male sex-reversal, whereas knockdown of Sox9 expression caused male-to-female sex-reversal, consistent with the known functions of these genes. Further, ectopic expression of Tmem184a, a gene of unknown function, in female genital ridges, resulted in failure of gonocytes to enter meiosis. This technique will likely be applicable to the study of gene function in a broader range of developing organs and tissues. PMID:19301396

  8. Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

  9. A Mutation in the Mouse Ttc26 Gene Leads to Impaired Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Swiderski, Ruth E.; Nakano, Yoko; Mullins, Robert F.; Seo, Seongjin; Bánfi, Botond

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of the spontaneous mutant mouse hop-sterile (hop) is characterized by a hopping gait, polydactyly, hydrocephalus, and male sterility. Previous analyses of the hop mouse revealed a deficiency of inner dynein arms in motile cilia and a lack of sperm flagella, potentially accounting for the hydrocephalus and male sterility. The etiology of the other phenotypes and the location of the hop mutation remained unexplored. Here we show that the hop mutation is located in the Ttc26 gene and impairs Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Expression analysis showed that this mutation led to dramatically reduced levels of the Ttc26 protein, and protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that wild-type Ttc26 binds directly to the Ift46 subunit of Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) complex B. Although IFT is required for ciliogenesis, the Ttc26 defect did not result in a decrease in the number or length of primary cilia. Nevertheless, Hh signaling was reduced in the hop mouse, as revealed by impaired activation of Gli transcription factors in embryonic fibroblasts and abnormal patterning of the neural tube. Unlike the previously characterized mutations that affect IFT complex B, hop did not interfere with Hh-induced accumulation of Gli at the tip of the primary cilium, but rather with the subsequent dissociation of Gli from its negative regulator, Sufu. Our analysis of the hop mouse line provides novel insights into Hh signaling, demonstrating that Ttc26 is necessary for efficient coupling between the accumulation of Gli at the ciliary tip and its dissociation from Sufu. PMID:25340710

  10. A mutation in the mouse ttc26 gene leads to impaired hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Ruth E; Nakano, Yoko; Mullins, Robert F; Seo, Seongjin; Bánfi, Botond

    2014-10-01

    The phenotype of the spontaneous mutant mouse hop-sterile (hop) is characterized by a hopping gait, polydactyly, hydrocephalus, and male sterility. Previous analyses of the hop mouse revealed a deficiency of inner dynein arms in motile cilia and a lack of sperm flagella, potentially accounting for the hydrocephalus and male sterility. The etiology of the other phenotypes and the location of the hop mutation remained unexplored. Here we show that the hop mutation is located in the Ttc26 gene and impairs Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Expression analysis showed that this mutation led to dramatically reduced levels of the Ttc26 protein, and protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that wild-type Ttc26 binds directly to the Ift46 subunit of Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) complex B. Although IFT is required for ciliogenesis, the Ttc26 defect did not result in a decrease in the number or length of primary cilia. Nevertheless, Hh signaling was reduced in the hop mouse, as revealed by impaired activation of Gli transcription factors in embryonic fibroblasts and abnormal patterning of the neural tube. Unlike the previously characterized mutations that affect IFT complex B, hop did not interfere with Hh-induced accumulation of Gli at the tip of the primary cilium, but rather with the subsequent dissociation of Gli from its negative regulator, Sufu. Our analysis of the hop mouse line provides novel insights into Hh signaling, demonstrating that Ttc26 is necessary for efficient coupling between the accumulation of Gli at the ciliary tip and its dissociation from Sufu. PMID:25340710

  11. Maintenance of amelogenin gene expression by transformed epithelial cells of mouse enamel organ.

    PubMed

    Chen, L S; Couwenhoven, R I; Hsu, D; Luo, W; Snead, M L

    1992-10-01

    Electroporation was used to introduce foreign genes into cells derived from the mouse enamel organ epithelia (EOE). Optimal conditions for this electroporation were established. The introduction of a plasmid construct bearing the coding region for the large T-antigen from polyoma virus into EOE cells permitted the establishment of a derivative cell line that has the following characteristics: (1) the cells could be passaged many times; (2) they expressed a keratin-containing cytoskeleton; and (3) approx. 60% of the cells expressed amelogenin, a tissue-specific gene product unique to ameloblasts. Potential uses for such a cell line include analysis of: (1) the upstream regulatory regions required for temporally and spatially restricted expression of amelogenin; (2) the post-translational modification of amelogenin in synchronized cells and (3) the organization and biomineralization of enamel extracellular matrix in monolayer culture. PMID:1444889

  12. Large-scale gene trapping in C57BL/6N mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gwenn M; Markesich, Diane C; Burnett, Michael B; Zhu, Qichao; Dionne, Karen M; Richter, Lizabeth J; Finnell, Richard H; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian P; Abuin, Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    We report the construction and analysis of a mouse gene trap mutant resource created in the C57BL/6N genetic background containing more than 350,000 sequence-tagged embryonic stem (ES) cell clones. We also demonstrate the ability of these ES cell clones to contribute to the germline and produce knockout mice. Each mutant clone is identified by a genomic sequence tag representing the exact insertion location, allowing accurate prediction of mutagenicity and enabling direct genotyping of mutant alleles. Mutations have been identified in more than 10,000 genes and show a bias toward the first intron. The trapped ES cell lines, which can be requested from the Texas A&M Institute for Genomic Medicine, are readily available to the scientific community. PMID:18799693

  13. Dissecting the heterogeneity of gene expressions in mouse embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Thomson, Matt; Liu, S. John; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2011-03-01

    A population of genetically identical cells, of the same nominal cell type, and cultured in the same petri dish, will nevertheless often exhibit varying patterns of gene expression. Taking mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system, we use immunofluorescence and flow cytometry to examine in detail the distribution of expression levels for various transcription factors key to the maintenance of the ES cell identity. We find the population-level distribution of many proteins, once rescaled by the average expression level, have very similar shapes. This suggest the largest component of observed heterogeneity comes from a single source. More subtly, we find the expression many of genes appears to modulate with the cell cycle. This may suggest that the program for maintaining ES cell identity is tightly coupled to the cell cycle machinery.

  14. Gene therapy restores vision and delays degeneration in the CNGB1(-/-) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Stylianos; Koch, Susanne; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Schulze, Elisabeth; Becirovic, Elvir; Koch, Fred; Seide, Christina; Beck, Susanne C; Seeliger, Mathias W; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Biel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a severe retinal disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of rod photoreceptors and a secondary loss of cone function. Here, we used CNGB1-deficient (CNGB1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model for autosomal recessive RP, to evaluate the efficacy of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy for the treatment of RP. The treatment restored normal expression of rod CNG channels and rod-driven light responses in the CNGB1(-/-) retina. This led to a substantial delay of retinal degeneration and long-term preservation of retinal morphology. Finally, treated CNGB1(-/-) mice performed significantly better than untreated mice in a rod-dependent vision-guided behavior test. In summary, this study holds promise for the treatment of rod channelopathy-associated retinitis pigmentosa by AAV-mediated gene replacement. PMID:24664765

  15. Cadmium bioaccumulation and metallothionein induction in the liver of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii during an on-site short-term exposure to the metal via seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Illuminati; C. Truzzi; A. Annibaldi; B. Migliarini; O. Carnevali; G. Scarponi

    2010-01-01

    A short-term experiment (7 days) was carried out to study cadmium accumulation and metallothionein (MT) gene expression in the liver of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii when exposed to 2.0 mg Cd L seawater. Metal determinations were carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry while MT gene expression was determined by the Real Time PCR Detection System. In controls,

  16. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Òscar Palacios; Ayelen Pagani; Sílvia Pérez-Rafael; Margit Egg; Martina Höckner; Anita Brandstätter; Mercè Capdevila; Sílvia Atrian; Reinhard Dallinger

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion

  17. Transgenic mouse model for skin malignant melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Kato; Masahide Takahashi; Anwarul A Akhand; Wei Liu; Yan Dai; Satoru Shimizu; Takashi Iwamoto; Haruhiko Suzuki; Izumi Nakashima

    1998-01-01

    We report here on a novel metallothionein-I (MT)\\/ret transgenic mouse line in which skin melanosis, benign melanocytic tumor and malignant melanoma metastasizing to distant organs develop stepwise. The process of tumor development and its malignant transformation in this line may resemble that of the human giant congenital melanocytic nevus that is present at birth and that frequently gives rise to

  18. Host modifier genes affect mouse autoimmunity induced by the lpr gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Nose, M.; Kamoto, T.; Nishimura, M.; Hiai, H.

    1997-01-01

    A defect in apoptotic signal transmission through CD95 is an essential genetic mechanism for lymphoproliferation and autoimmunities in lpr or gld mice. However, disease manifestations are largely affected by the host genetic background. To identify and map such host genes modifying lpr gene effect, ie, the lpr modifier (Lprm) genes, 82 MRL/lpr x (MRL/lpr x C3H/lpr) F1 mice were subjected to immunopathological and genetical analyses. High-grade vasculitis and glomerulonephritis among backcross mice were observed in separate groups of mice. Microsatellite analysis revealed that there were two host genes affecting the occurrence of vasculitis, Lprm1 (chromosome 4) and Lprm2 (chromosome 3). A recessive MRL allele at Lprm1 enhanced vasculitis to occur in both sexes, whereas that of Lprm2 inhibited its development selectively in females. Genotype combinations of these two genes explained the severity of vasculitis in crosses of MRL/lpr and C3H/lpr mice and also the vasculitis-prone recombinant inbred strain McH5/lpr. A recessive MRL allele at Lprm3 (chromosome 14) suppressed glomerulonephritis. The weight of the spleen was increased by a recessive MRL allele at Lprm4 (chromosome 5) yielding a logarithm of odds score of 2.02 in a quantitative trait locus analysis. In contrast, the weight of axillary lymph nodes was increased by a recessive MRL allele at a locus on chromosome 2, but its presence was not supported by the quantitative trait locus analysis. The titer of anti-dsDNA autoantibody was controlled by the locus Lprm5 on chromosome 16, which had an logarithm of odds score of 3.41. Possible candidate genes for Lprm genes deduced from their map locations are discussed and compared with the autoimmunity genes reported thus far. In conclusion, autoimmune disease manifestations by the lpr mutation are affected by multiple host genes separately. PMID:9403730

  19. The Sry-related HMG box-containing gene Sox6 is expressed in the adult testis and developing nervous system of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, F; Wright, E; Denny, P; Koopman, P; Ashworth, A

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA for the HMG box-containing, SRY-related gene Sox6 from mouse. The deduced protein sequence of Sox6 has considerable homology with that of the previously determined Sox5 sequence. It seems likely that these genes have diverged more recently than other members of the SOX gene family, although the two genes map to different chromosomes in the mouse. In common with Sox5, Sox6 is highly expressed in the adult mouse testis and the HMG domains of both proteins bind to the sequence 5'-AACAAT-3'. This suggests that the two genes may have overlapping functions in the regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis in the adult mouse. However, Sox6 may have an additional role in the mouse embryo, where it is specifically expressed in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:7567444

  20. Regional localization of the gene for thyroid peroxidase to human chromosome 2p25 and mouse chromosome 12C

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yuichi; Onogi, Satoshi; Fujita, Teizo [Fukushima Medical College (Japan)] [and others] [Fukushima Medical College (Japan); and others

    1995-02-10

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) plays a central role in thyroid gland function. The enzyme catalyzes two important reactions of thyroid hormone synthesis, i.e., the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Previously, we isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse TPOs and assigned the human TPO gene to the short arm of chromosome 2 by somatic cell hybrid mapping. By a similar analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids, the human TPO gene was mapped to 2pter-p12. The mouse TPO gene was localized to chromosome 12 using a rat TPO cDNA as a probe to hybridize with mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to confirm the localization of human and mouse TPO genes to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 12 and to assign them regionally to 2p25 and 12C, respectively. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Gene targeting in NOD mouse embryos using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Forsberg, Matthew H; Khaja, Shamim; Ciecko, Ashley E; Hessner, Martin J; Geurts, Aron M

    2014-01-01

    Studies in NOD mice have provided important insight into the genetics and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our goal was to further explore novel methods of genetic manipulation in this mouse model. We tested the feasibility of using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to knock out a gene directly in a pure NOD background, bypassing the need of embryonic stem cells. We report here the successful application of ZFN pairs to specifically and efficiently knock out Tnfrsf9 (encoding CD137/4-1BB) directly in the NOD mouse by embryo microinjection. Histology and T1D incidence studies indicated that CD137 was dispensable for the development of insulitis but played a role to promote progression to overt diabetes in NOD mice. We also demonstrated that CD137-deficient T-cells were less diabetogenic than their wild-type counterpart when adoptively transferred into NOD.Rag1(-/-) recipients, even when CD25(+) cells were predepleted. In vitro assays suggested that CD137 deficiency had a limited effect on the suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Therefore, CD137 deficiency predominately affected effector T-cells rather than Tregs. Our study demonstrates the ability to generate gene-targeted knockouts in a pure NOD background by using ZFNs without potential confounding factors introduced by contaminating genetic materials obtained from other strains. PMID:23974926

  2. Gene Targeting in NOD Mouse Embryos Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Forsberg, Matthew H.; Khaja, Shamim; Ciecko, Ashley E.; Hessner, Martin J.; Geurts, Aron M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in NOD mice have provided important insight into the genetics and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our goal was to further explore novel methods of genetic manipulation in this mouse model. We tested the feasibility of using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to knock out a gene directly in a pure NOD background, bypassing the need of embryonic stem cells. We report here the successful application of ZFN pairs to specifically and efficiently knock out Tnfrsf9 (encoding CD137/4–1BB) directly in the NOD mouse by embryo microinjection. Histology and T1D incidence studies indicated that CD137 was dispensable for the development of insulitis but played a role to promote progression to overt diabetes in NOD mice. We also demonstrated that CD137-deficient T-cells were less diabetogenic than their wild-type counterpart when adoptively transferred into NOD.Rag1?/? recipients, even when CD25+ cells were predepleted. In vitro assays suggested that CD137 deficiency had a limited effect on the suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Therefore, CD137 deficiency predominately affected effector T-cells rather than Tregs. Our study demonstrates the ability to generate gene-targeted knockouts in a pure NOD background by using ZFNs without potential confounding factors introduced by contaminating genetic materials obtained from other strains. PMID:23974926

  3. Mouse cathepsin F: cDNA cloning, genomic organization and chromosomal assignment of the gene.

    PubMed

    Deussing, J; Tisljar, K; Papazoglou, A; Peters, C

    2000-06-27

    A murine cysteine protease of the papain family was identified by dbEST-database search. A 1.87kb full-length cDNA encoding a predicted polypeptide of 462 amino acids was sequenced. Since the encoded polypeptide shows more than 80% sequence identity with human cathepsin F, it is most likely that this cDNA represents the murine homologue of cathepsin F, and it was therefore named accordingly. Murine cathepsin F exhibits a domain structure typical for papain-like cysteine proteases, a 20 amino acid N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence followed by an extraordinarily long propeptide of 228 amino acids and the domain of the mature protease comprising 214 amino acids. The mature region contains all features characteristic of a papain-like cysteine protease, including the highly conserved cysteine, histidine and asparagine residues of the 'catalytic triad'. Genomic clones covering the murine cathepsin F gene were isolated. The mouse cathepsin F gene consists of 14 exons and 13 introns and spans 5.8kb. Murine cathepsin F was mapped to chromosome 19, a region with synteny homology to a region of human chromosome 11 to which human cathepsin F has been mapped previously. Northern blot analysis of RNA from multiple tissues revealed a ubiquitous expression of cathepsin F in mouse and man. PMID:10876093

  4. Targeted disruption of the murine Facc gene: Towards the establishment of a mouse model for Fanconi anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Auerbach, W.; Buchwald, M. [Hospital for Sick Childern, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital malformations and predisposition to malignancies. The gene responsible for the defect in FA group C has been cloned and designated the Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C gene (FACC). A murine cDNA for this gene (Facc) was also cloned. Here we report our progress in the establishment of a mouse model for FA. The mouse Facc cDNA was used as probe to screen a genomic library of mouse strain 129. More than twenty positive clones were isolated. Three of them were mapped and found to be overlapping clones, encompassing the genomic region from exon 8 to the end of the 3{prime} UTR of the mouse cDNA. A targeting vector was constructed using the most 5{prime} mouse genomic sequence available. The end result of the homologous recombination is that exon 8 is deleted and the neo gene is inserted. The last exon, exon 14, is essential for the complementing function of the FACC gene product; the disruption in the middle of the murine Facc gene should render this locus biologically inactive. This targeting vector was linearized and electroporated into R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells which were derived from the 129 mouse. Of 102 clones screened, 19 positive cell lines were identified. Four targeted cell lines have been used to produce chimeric mice. 129-derived ES cells were aggregated ex vivo into the morulas derived from CD1 mice and then implanted into foster mothers. 22 chimeras have been obtained. Moderately and strongly chimeric mice have been bred to test for germline transmission. Progeny with the expected coat color derived from 2 chimeras are currently being examined to confirm transmission of the targeted allele.

  5. CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Chen, Sidi; Yin, Hao; Tammela, Tuomas; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Joshi, Nikhil S; Cai, Wenxin; Yang, Gillian; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G; Zhang, Feng; Anderson, Daniel G; Sharp, Phillip A; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-10-16

    The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system in vivo in wild-type mice. We used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to the liver that directly target the tumour suppressor genes Pten (ref. 5) and p53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53) (ref. 6), alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre-LoxP technology. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumours that mimicked those caused by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumour tissue revealed insertion or deletion mutations of the tumour suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumours. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harbouring sgRNAs targeting the ?-catenin gene and a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of ?-catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics. PMID:25119044

  6. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Bio-MAX Inst., Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mingoo [Seoul National Univ. Biomedical Informatics College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Han [Seoul National Univ. Biomedical Informatics College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung-Sun [Dept. of Veterinary Public Health College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Lae [Dept. of Biochemistry College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Byung-Il [School of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National Univ., Kangwon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu [Dept. of Pathology College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Ock [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Bio-MAX Inst., Seoul National Univ., Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]|[Toxicogenomics Research Consortium, Hanyang Univ., Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: molee@snu.ac.kr

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  7. Variation and genetic control of gene expression in primary immunocytes across inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Sara; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bogue, Molly A; Hattori, Kimie; Pop, Cristina; Koller, Daphne; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4(+) T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4(+) T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. PMID:25267973

  8. Developmental gene expression profiling along the tonotopic axis of the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun Jin; Wu, Ling; Yoon, Heejei; Kim, Sunhee; Choi, Jae Young; Bok, Jinwoong

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cochlear duct is tonotopically organized such that the basal cochlea is tuned to high frequency sounds and the apical cochlea to low frequency sounds. In an effort to understand how this tonotopic organization is established, we searched for genes that are differentially expressed along the tonotopic axis during neonatal development. Cochlear tissues dissected from P0 and P8 mice were divided into three equal pieces, representing the base, middle and apex, and gene expression profiles were determined using the microarray technique. The gene expression profiles were grouped according to changes in expression levels along the tonotopic axis as well as changes during neonatal development. The classified groups were further analyzed by functional annotation clustering analysis to determine whether genes associated with specific biological function or processes are particularly enriched in each group. These analyses identified several candidate genes that may be involved in cochlear development and acquisition of tonotopy. We examined the expression domains for a few candidate genes in the developing mouse cochlea. Tnc (tenacin C) and Nov (nephroblastoma overexpressed gene) are expressed in the basilar membrane, with increased expression toward the apex, which may contribute to graded changes in the structure of the basilar membrane along the tonotopic axis. In addition, Fst (Follistatin), an antagonist of TGF-?/BMP signaling, is expressed in the lesser epithelial ridge and at gradually higher levels towards the apex. The graded expression pattern of Fst is established at the time of cochlear specification and maintained throughout embryonic and postnatal development, suggesting its possible role in the organization of tonotopy. Our data will provide a good resource for investigating the developmental mechanisms of the mammalian cochlea including the acquisition of tonotopy. PMID:22808246

  9. Gene expression profiling in mouse lung following polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-T. [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Ylostalo, Joni [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Friedman, Mitchell [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Hoyle, Gary W. [Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)]. E-mail: ghoyle@tulane.edu

    2005-05-15

    Isocyanates are a common cause of occupational lung disease. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a component of polyurethane spray paints, can induce respiratory symptoms, inflammation, lung function impairment, and isocyanate asthma. The predominant form of HDI in polyurethane paints is a nonvolatile polyisocyanate known as HDI biuret trimer (HDI-BT). Exposure of mice to aerosolized HDI-BT results in pathological effects, including pulmonary edema, lung inflammation, cellular proliferation, and fibrotic lesions, which occur with distinct time courses following exposure. To identify genes that mediate lung pathology in the distinct temporal phases after exposure, gene expression profiles in HDI-BT-exposed C57BL/6J mouse lungs were analyzed. RNase protection assay (RPA) of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and inflammation revealed increased expression of I{kappa}B{alpha}, Fas, Bcl-X{sub L}, TNF{alpha}, KC, MIP-2, IL-6, and GM-CSF following HDI-BT exposure. Microarray analysis of approximately 10 000 genes was performed on lung RNA collected from mice 6, 18, and 90 h after HDI-BT exposure and from unexposed mice. Classes of genes whose expression was increased 6 h after exposure included those involved in stress responses (particularly oxidative stress and thiol redox balance), growth arrest, apoptosis, signal transduction, and inflammation. Types of genes whose expression was increased at 18 h included proteinases, anti-proteinases, cytoskeletal molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Transcripts increased at 90 h included extracellular matrix components, transcription factors, inflammatory mediators, and cell cycle regulators. This characterization of the gene expression profile in lungs exposed to HDI-BT will provide a basis for investigating injury and repair pathways that are operative during isocyanate-induced lung disease.

  10. Developmental Gene Expression Profiling along the Tonotopic Axis of the Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Eun Jin; Wu, Ling; Yoon, Heejei; Kim, Sunhee; Choi, Jae Young; Bok, Jinwoong

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cochlear duct is tonotopically organized such that the basal cochlea is tuned to high frequency sounds and the apical cochlea to low frequency sounds. In an effort to understand how this tonotopic organization is established, we searched for genes that are differentially expressed along the tonotopic axis during neonatal development. Cochlear tissues dissected from P0 and P8 mice were divided into three equal pieces, representing the base, middle and apex, and gene expression profiles were determined using the microarray technique. The gene expression profiles were grouped according to changes in expression levels along the tonotopic axis as well as changes during neonatal development. The classified groups were further analyzed by functional annotation clustering analysis to determine whether genes associated with specific biological function or processes are particularly enriched in each group. These analyses identified several candidate genes that may be involved in cochlear development and acquisition of tonotopy. We examined the expression domains for a few candidate genes in the developing mouse cochlea. Tnc (tenacin C) and Nov (nephroblastoma overexpressed gene) are expressed in the basilar membrane, with increased expression toward the apex, which may contribute to graded changes in the structure of the basilar membrane along the tonotopic axis. In addition, Fst (Follistatin), an antagonist of TGF-?/BMP signaling, is expressed in the lesser epithelial ridge and at gradually higher levels towards the apex. The graded expression pattern of Fst is established at the time of cochlear specification and maintained throughout embryonic and postnatal development, suggesting its possible role in the organization of tonotopy. Our data will provide a good resource for investigating the developmental mechanisms of the mammalian cochlea including the acquisition of tonotopy. PMID:22808246

  11. Recent Progress in Mouse Models for Tumor Suppressor Genes and its Implications in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A.; Taneja, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) lead to cancer. In most human cancers, these mutations occur in somatic tissues. However, hereditary forms of cancer exist for which individuals are heterozygous for a germline mutation in a TSG locus at birth. The second allele is frequently inactivated by gene deletion, point mutation, or promoter methylation in classical TSGs that meet Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. Conversely, the second allele remains as wild-type, even in tumors in which the gene is haplo-insufficient for tumor suppression. This article highlights the importance of PTEN, APC, and other tumor suppressors for counteracting aberrant PI3K, ?-catenin, and other oncogenic signaling pathways. We discuss the use of gene-engineered mouse models (GEMM) of human cancer focusing on Pten and Apc knockout mice that recapitulate key genetic events involved in initiation and progression of human neoplasia. Finally, the therapeutic potential of targeting these tumor suppressor and oncogene signaling networks is discussed. PMID:23843721

  12. Human balanced translocation and mouse gene inactivation implicate Basonuclin 2 in distal urethral development

    PubMed Central

    Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Ramos, Purita; Baker, Linda A; Cost, Nicholas; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Elder, Frederick F; Bleyl, Steven B; Bowles, Neil E; Arrington, Cammon B; Delhomme, Brigitte; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe; Zinn, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    We studied a man with distal hypospadias, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, mild limb-length inequality and a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 13. To gain insight into the etiology of his birth defects, we mapped the translocation breakpoints by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), using chromosome 9- and 13-specific tiling arrays to analyze genetic material from a spontaneously aborted fetus with unbalanced segregation of the translocation. The chromosome 13 breakpoint was ?400?kb away from the nearest gene, but the chromosome 9 breakpoint fell within an intron of Basonuclin 2 (BNC2), a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved nuclear zinc-finger protein. The BNC2/Bnc2 gene is abundantly expressed in developing mouse and human periurethral tissues. In all, 6 of 48 unrelated subjects with distal hypospadias had nine novel nonsynonymous substitutions in BNC2, five of which were computationally predicted to be deleterious. In comparison, two of 23 controls with normal penile urethra morphology, each had a novel nonsynonymous substitution in BNC2, one of which was predicted to be deleterious. Bnc2?/? mice of both sexes displayed a high frequency of distal urethral defects; heterozygotes showed similar defects with reduced penetrance. The association of BNC2 disruption with distal urethral defects and the gene's expression pattern indicate that it functions in urethral development. PMID:21368915

  13. Rapid target gene validation in complex cancer mouse models using re-derived embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Huijbers, Ivo J; Bin Ali, Rahmen; Pritchard, Colin; Cozijnsen, Miranda; Kwon, Min-Chul; Proost, Natalie; Song, Ji-Ying; Vries, Hilda; Badhai, Jitendra; Sutherland, Kate; Krimpenfort, Paul; Michalak, Ewa M; Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Human cancers modeled in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) can provide important mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of tumor development and enable testing of new intervention strategies. The inherent complexity of these models, with often multiple modified tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, has hampered their use as preclinical models for validating cancer genes and drug targets. In our newly developed approach for the fast generation of tumor cohorts we have overcome this obstacle, as exemplified for three GEMMs; two lung cancer models and one mesothelioma model. Three elements are central for this system; (i) The efficient derivation of authentic Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from established GEMMs, (ii) the routine introduction of transgenes of choice in these GEMM-ESCs by Flp recombinase-mediated integration and (iii) the direct use of the chimeric animals in tumor cohorts. By applying stringent quality controls, the GEMM-ESC approach proofs to be a reliable and effective method to speed up cancer gene assessment and target validation. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that MycL1 is a key driver gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer. PMID:24401838

  14. Binding Sites for Transcription Factor SF1 in Promoter Regions of Genes Encoding Mouse Steroidogenesis Enzymes 3?HSDI and P450c17

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Busygina; G. V. Vasiliev; N. V. Klimova; E. V. Ignatieva; A. V. Osadchuk

    2005-01-01

    Using gel retardation of DNA samples and specific antibodies, binding sites for the transcription factor SF-1 were found in\\u000a positions ?53\\/?44-and ?285\\/?270 in the promoter region of the mouse Cyp17 gene and in position ?117\\/?108 of the promoter region\\u000a of the mouse 3?HSDI gene.

  15. Increased expression of metallothionein is associated with irinotecan resistance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jong Ho; Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, Eugene; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Ju Han; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Il Ju; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Kim, Il-Jin; Kang, Hio Chung; Park, Jae-Hyun; Bae, Jae-Moon; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2004-07-15

    To gain insight into clinically relevant mechanisms of irinotecan resistance, we undertook oligonucleotide microarray analyses on paired malignant effusion samples obtained from eight gastric cancer patients treated with weekly irinotecan. Pretreatment and posttreatment (48 h) effusion samples were obtained for each patient, and the change in expression profile was compared between clinical responders and nonresponders. When differences in the expression of genes were examined using SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) software, five isoforms of the metallothionein family were identified to have significantly higher signal log ratios in five nonresponders, compared with three responders. Compared with control cells, metallothionein 1X (MT1X)-transfected AGS cells showed a 1.4-fold higher irinotecan IC(50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and tended to form more colonies. These findings collectively suggest that irinotecan-induced up-regulation of metallothionein might be associated with irinotecan resistance in patients with gastric cancer, although it remains to be confirmed in a larger data set. PMID:15256434

  16. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mitchell B; Thibodeaux, Julie R; Wood, Carmen R; Zehr, Robert D; Schmid, Judith E; Lau, Christopher

    2007-09-24

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a stable perfluoroalkyl acid used to synthesize fluoropolymers during the manufacture of a wide variety of products. Concerns have been raised over the potential health effects of PFOA because it is persistent in the environment and can be detected in blood and other tissues of many animal species, including humans. PFOA has also been shown to induce growth deficits and mortality in murine neonates. To better understand the mechanism of PFOA induced developmental toxicity, lung and liver gene expression profiling was conducted in PFOA-exposed full-term mouse fetuses. Thirty timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were orally dosed from gestation days 1-17 with either 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10mg/(kgday) PFOA in water. At term, fetal lung and liver were collected, total RNA prepared, and samples pooled from three fetuses per litter. Five biological replicates consisting of individual litter samples were then evaluated for each treatment group using Affymetrix mouse 430_2 microarrays. The expression of genes related to fatty acid catabolism was altered in both the fetal liver and lung. In the fetal liver, the effects of PFOA were robust and also included genes associated with lipid transport, ketogenesis, glucose metabolism, lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, steroid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, proteosome activation, and inflammation. These changes are consistent with transactivation of PPARalpha, although, with regard to bile acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism, non-PPARalpha related effects were suggested as well. Additional studies will be needed to more thoroughly address the role of PPARalpha, and other nuclear receptors, in PFOA mediated developmental toxicity. PMID:17681415

  17. Melatonin-related genes expressed in the mouse uterus during early gestation promote embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    He, Changjiu; Wang, Jing; Li, Yu; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Xu, Zhiyuan; Song, Yile; Song, Yukun; Liu, Guoshi

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin, a superior antioxidant, is an important molecule which regulates female reproduction due to its receptor-mediated and receptor-independent antioxidant actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on early gestation in a mouse model. During early gestation, the expression of the melatonin's rate-limiting enzyme, AANAT, gradually increased - in the uterus while the MT2 melatonin receptor was only expressed at day 2 of gestation and no MT1 was detected. Based on these findings, we conducted a melatonin injection experiment which demonstrated that 15 mg/kg melatonin significantly improved the number of implantation sites and the litter size. Also, the blastocyst and uterus were collected to identify the local action of melatonin. In the melatonin-treated mice, the endometrium was thicker than in the control mice; melatonin also caused an increase in density of uterine glands, and the uterine gland index (UGI) was significantly elevated over that of the control. Serum steroid hormone measurements revealed that at day 6 of gestation (postimplantation), melatonin significantly downregulated the E2 level, with no obvious effects on progesterone. Gene expression assay revealed that melatonin significantly upregulated expression of HB-EGF, a crucial gene involved in implantation as well as its receptor ErbB1 in the blastocyst. In addition, PRA, an important gene which influences the decidual response and luminal cell differentiation, p53, which regulates uterine through leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), were both increased after melatonin treatment. These data suggest that melatonin and its MT2 receptor influence early gestation. Exogenous melatonin treatment can improve mouse embryo implantation and litter size, which may have important applications in human reproductive health and animal husbandry. PMID:25689975

  18. Gene expression profiles of a mouse congenic strain carrying an obesity susceptibility QTL under obesigenic diets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Yon; Stewart, Taryn P.; Wyatt, Brantley N.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic factors are strongly involved in the development of obesity, likely through the interactions of susceptibility genes with obesigenic environments, such as high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets. Previously, we have established a mouse congenic strain on C57BL/6 J background, carrying an obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL), tabw2, derived from obese diabetic TALLYHO/JngJ mice. The tabw2 congenic mice exhibit increased adiposity and hyperleptinemia, which becomes exacerbated upon feeding HFS diets. In this study, we conducted genome-wide gene expression profiling to evaluate differentially expressed genes between tabw2 and control mice fed HFS diets, which may lead to identification of candidate genes as well as insights into the mechanisms underlying obesity mediated by tabw2. Both tabw2 congenic mice and control mice were fed HFS diets for 10 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age, and total RNA was isolated from liver and adipose tissue. Whole-genome microarray analysis was performed and verified by real-time quantitative RT–PCR. At False Discovery Rate adjusted P < 0.05, 1026 genes were up-regulated and 308 down-regulated in liver, whereas 393 were up-regulated and 187 down-regulated in adipose tissue in tabw2 congenic mice compared to controls. Within the tabw2 QTL interval, 70 genes exhibited differential expression in either liver or adipose tissue. A comprehensive pathway analysis revealed a number of biological pathways that may be perturbed in the diet-induced obesity mediated by tabw2. PMID:20020228

  19. Valproic acid-induced changes in gene expression during neurulation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, B C; Craig, J C; Bennett, G D; Calvin, J A; Finnell, R H

    1996-12-01

    The teratogenic potential of valproic acid has been well established both in experimental models and in human clinical studies. As with all human teratogens, there are genetically determined differences in individual susceptibility to the induction of congenital defects. Using a mouse model of valproate-induced neural tube defects, a study was undertaken to examine differential changes in gene expression for selected transcription factor (Pax-3, Emx-1, Emx-2, c-fos, c-jun, creb) and cell cycle checkpoint genes (bcl-2, p53, wee-1) during neural tube closure. In general, exposure to teratogenic concentrations of valproic acid elicited GD 9:12 control levels of transcription factor mRNA expression in GD 9:0 embryos of both strains. This accelerated developmental profile is marked by significant elevation of Emx-1, Emx-2, c-fos, c-jun, and creb expression. There was also a significant over expression of the cell cycle genes p53 and bcl-2 in the LM/Bc embryos in response to the teratogenic insult. Examination of the ratio of expression of these genes clearly favored bcl-2, which supports the hypothesis that altered neuroepithelial cell proliferation rates, rather than increased apoptosis, is the underlying mechanism by which valproic acid alters normal neural tube morphogenesis. An investigation into interactive effects of these genes on the molecular profile of GD 9:0 embryos further validated this observation. That is, the overall proliferative state among the control embryos was prematurely modified into a more differentiated state following teratogenic insult. These results suggest that alterations in the expression of multiple genes are most likely responsible for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects. PMID:9098922

  20. Paternal Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure Affects Gene Expression in the Early Developing Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Duale, Nur

    2012-01-01

    The health of the offspring depends on the genetic constitution of the parental germ cells. The paternal genome appears to be important; e.g., de novo mutations in some genes seem to arise mostly from the father, whereas epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones are frequent in the paternal gonads. Environmental contaminants which may affect the integrity of the germ cells comprise the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). B[a]P has received much attention due to its ubiquitous distribution, its carcinogenic and mutagenic potential, and also effects on reproduction. We conducted an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment using sperm cells from B[a]P-exposed male mice to study effects of paternal B[a]P exposure on early gene expression in the developing mouse embryo. Male mice were exposed to a single acute dose of B[a]P (150mg/kg, ip) 4 days prior to isolation of cauda sperm, followed by IVF of oocytes from unexposed superovulated mice. Gene expression in fertilized zygotes/embryos was determined using reverse transcription-qPCR at the 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and blastocyst cell stages of embryo development. We found that paternal B[a]P exposure altered the expression of numerous genes in the developing embryo especially at the blastocyst stage. Some genes were also affected at earlier developmental stages. Embryonic gene expression studies seem useful to identify perturbations of signaling pathways resulting from exposure to contaminants, and can be used to address mechanisms of paternal effects on embryo development. PMID:22641617

  1. Isolation of cDNAs for mouse phenol and bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and mapping of the mouse gene for phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugtlal) to chromosome 1 by restriction fragment length variations

    SciTech Connect

    Koiwai, O.; Yasui, Y. [Aichi Cancer Center Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Hasada, K. [Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi (Japan)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The mouse gene for phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT; Ugtla1) was mapped at 42 cM on chromosome 1, a position identical to that of the gene for bilirubin UDPGT (Ugtla1), from linkage analysis of a three-point cross test with Idh-1, En-1, and Ugtla1 as marker genes. The cDNAs for mouse phenol and bilirubin UDPGTs, isolated after amplification by PCR, shared an identical 3{prime}-half region. Our results strongly suggest that mouse bilirubin and phenol UDPGTs are expressed from a single gene and involve alternative splicing events. We also detect duplication of the gene for phenol UDPGT in all mouse strains examined with the exception of MOL-MIT and SUB-SHH. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Gene delivery in mouse auditory brainstem and hindbrain using in utero electroporation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manipulation of gene expression via recombinant viral vectors and creation of transgenic knock-out/in animals has revolutionized our understanding of genes that play critical roles during neuronal development and pathophysiology of neurological disorders. Recently, target-specific genetic manipulations are made possible to perform in combination with specific Cre-lines, albeit costly, labor-intensive and time consuming. Thus, alternative methods of gene manipulations to address important biological questions are highly desirable. In this study, we utilized in utero electroporation technique which involves efficient delivery of hindbrain-specific enhancer/promoter construct, Krox20 into the third ventricle of live mouse embryo to investigate green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression pattern in mouse auditory brainstem and other hindbrain neurons. Results We created a GFP/DNA construct containing a Krox20 B enhancer and ?-globin promoter to drive GFP expression in the hindbrain via injection into the third ventricle of E12 to E13.5 mice. Electrical currents were applied directly to the embryonic hindbrain to allow DNA uptake into the cell. Confocal images were then acquired from fixed brain slices to analyze GFP expression in mouse whole brain at different postnatal stages (P6-P21). By using a cell-type specific enhancer as well as region specific injection and electroporation, robust GFP expression in the cerebellum and auditory brainstem but not in the forebrain was observed. GFP expression in calyx of Held terminals was more robust in P15 mice. In contrast, GFP expression in MNTB neurons was more prevalent in >P15 compared to

  3. Trehalose Maintains Vitality of Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells and Mediates Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jian; Qin, Jinzhou; Bao, Jianqiang; Hu, Yuan; Zeng, Wenxian; Dong, Wuzi

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, trehalose was utilized to improve primary culture of mouse epididymal epithelial cells in vitro, and to enhance naked DNA delivery in epididymis in vivo. During the six-day culture, the proliferation activity of the cells in the medium with addition of trehalose was higher than that of those cells cultured in absence of trehalose (p<0.01). To determine the optimal concentration for cell proliferation, a series of trehalose concentrations (0, 60, 120, 180 mM) were tested, and the result indicated that the cell in the medium with 120 mM trehalose showed the highest proliferation potential. The epididymis epithelial cells were cultured in the medium containing 120 mM trehalose upon 16th passage, and they continued expressing markers of epididymal epithelial cell, such as rE-RABP, AR and ER-beta. Our study also indicated that trehalose concentrations of 120–240 mM, especially 180 mM, could effectively enhance DNA delivery into the mouse epididymis epithelial cell in vitro. Moreover, trehalose could induce in vivo expression of exogenous DNA in epididymal epithelial cells and help to internalize plasmid into sperm,which did not influence motility of sperm when the mixture of trehalose (180 mM) and DNA was injected into epididymal lumen through efferent tubule. This study suggested that trehalose, as an effective and safer reagent, could be employed potentially to maintain vitality of mouse epididymal epthetial cells during long-term culture in vitro and to mediate in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. PMID:24651491

  4. The complete mouse nebulin gene sequence and the identification of cardiac nebulin.

    PubMed

    Kazmierski, Steven T; Antin, Parker B; Witt, Christian C; Huebner, Norbert; McElhinny, Abigail S; Labeit, Siegfried; Gregorio, Carol C

    2003-05-01

    Nebulin is a giant (M(r) 750-850kDa), modular sarcomeric protein proposed to regulate the assembly, and to specify the precise lengths of actin (thin) filaments in vertebrate skeletal muscles. Nebulin's potential role as a molecular template is based on its structural and biochemical properties. Its central approximately 700kDa portion associates with actin along the entire length of the thin filament, its N-terminal region extends to thin filament pointed ends, and approximately 80kDa of its C-terminal region integrates within the Z-line lattice. Here, we determined the exon/intron organization of the entire mouse nebulin gene, which contains 165 exons in a 202kb segment. We identified 16 novel exons, 15 of which encode nebulin-repeat motifs (12 from its central region and 3 from its Z-line region). One novel exon shares high sequence homology to the 20 residue repeats of the tight-junction protein, ZO-1. RT-PCR analyses revealed that all 16 novel exons are expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, we also amplified mRNA transcripts from mouse and human heart cDNA using primers designed along the entire length of nebulin. The expression of cardiac-specific nebulin transcripts was confirmed by in situ hybridization in fetal rat cardiomyocytes and in embryonic Xenopus laevis (frog) heart. On the protein level, antibodies specific for skeletal muscle nebulin's N and C-terminal regions stained isolated rat cardiac myofibrils at the pointed and barbed ends of thin filaments, respectively. These data indicate a conserved molecular layout of the nebulin filament systems in both cardiac and skeletal myofibrils. We propose that thin filament length regulation in cardiac and skeletal muscles may share conserved nebulin-based mechanisms, and that nebulin isoform diversity may contribute to thin filament length differences in cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:12729758

  5. The use of carboxymethylcellulose gel to increase non-viral gene transfer in mouse airways

    PubMed Central

    Griesenbach, Uta; Meng, Cuixiang; Farley, Raymond; Wasowicz, Marguerite; Munkonge, Felix M; Chan, Mario; Stoneham, Charlotte; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie; Pringle, Ian A.; Gill, Deborah R.; Hyde, Stephen C.; Stevenson, Barbara; Holder, Emma; Ban, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K; Sinn, Patrick L; McCray, Paul B; Alton, Eric WFW

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed whether viscoelastic gels known to inhibit mucociliary clearance can increase lipid-mediated gene transfer. Methylcellulose or carboxymethylcellulose (0.25 to 1.5%) were mixed with complexes of the cationic lipid GL67A and plasmids encoding luciferase and perfused onto the nasal epithelium of mice. Survival after perfusion with 1% CMC or1% MC was 90 and 100%, respectively. In contrast 1.5% CMC was uniformly lethal likely due to the viscous solution blocking the airways. Perfusion with 0.5% CMC containing lipid/DNA complexes reproducibly increased gene expression by approximately 3-fold (n= 16, p<0.05). Given this benefit, likely related to increased duration of contact, we also assessed the effect of prolonging contact time of the liposome/DNA complexes by delivering our standard 80 ?g DNA dose over either approximately 22 or 60 min of perfusion. This independently increased gene transfer by 6-fold (n=8, p<0.05) and could be further enhanced by the addition of 0.5% CMC, leading to an overall 25-fold enhancement (n=8, p<0.001) in gene expression. As a result of these interventions CFTR transgene mRNA transgene levels were increased several logs above background. Interestingly, this did not lead to correction of the ion transport defects in the nasal epithelium of cystic fibrosis mice nor for immunohistochemical quantification of CFTR expression. To assess if 0.5% CMC also increased gene transfer in the mouse lung, we used whole body nebulisation chambers. CMC was nebulised for 1 hr immediately before, or simultaneously with GL67A/pCIKLux. The former did not increase gene transfer, whereas co-administration significantly increased gene transfer by 4-fold (p<0.0001, n=18). This study suggests that contact time of non-viral gene transfer agents is a key factor for gene delivery, and suggests two methods which may be translatable for use in man. PMID:20022367

  6. Regulation of Mouse Lens Maturation and Gene Expression by Krüppel-Like Factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Harvey, Stephen A.K.; Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2013-01-01

    Conditional disruption of Klf4 in the surface ectoderm-derived tissues of the eye results in defective cornea, conjunctiva and the lens. This report describes the effects of disruption of Klf4 in the lens in greater detail. Expression of Klf4, first detected in the embryonic day-12 (E12) mouse lens, peaked at E16 and was decreased in later stages. Early embryonic disruption of Klf4 resulted in a smaller lens with cortical vacuolation and nuclear opacity. Microarray comparison of Klf4CN and WT lens transcriptomes revealed fewer changes in the E16.5 (59 increases, 20 decreases of >1.5-fold) than the PN56 Klf4CN lens (239 increases, 182 decreases of >2-fold). Klf4-target genes in the lens were distinct from those previously identified in the cornea, suggesting disparate functions for Klf4 in these functionally related tissues. Transcripts encoding different crystallins were down-regulated in the Klf4CN lens. Shsp/?B-crystallin promoter activity was stimulated upon co-transfection with pCI-Klf4. Mitochondrial density was significantly higher in the Klf4CN lens epithelial cells, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction being the most significantly affected pathway within the PN56 Klf4CN lens. The Klf4CN lens contained elevated levels of Alox12 and Alox15 transcripts, less reduced glutathione (GSH) and more oxidized glutathione (GSSG) than the WT, suggesting that it is oxidatively stressed. Although the expression of 2087 genes was modulated during WT lens maturation, transcripts encoding crystallins were abundant at E16.5 and remained stable at PN56. Among the 1065 genes whose expression increased during WT lens maturation, there were 104 Klf4-target genes (9.8%) with decreased expression in the PN56 Klf4CN lens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Klf4 expression is developmentally regulated in the mouse lens, where it controls the expression of genes associated with lens maturation and redox homeostasis. PMID:24076321

  7. Bilateral enucleation alters gene expression and intraneocortical connections in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomically and functionally distinct sensory and motor neocortical areas form during mammalian development through a process called arealization. This process is believed to be reliant on both activity-dependent and activity-independent mechanisms. Although both mechanisms are thought to function concurrently during arealization, the nature of their interaction is not understood. To examine the potential interplay of extrinsic activity-dependent mechanisms, such as sensory input, and intrinsic activity-independent mechanisms, including gene expression in mouse neocortical development, we performed bilateral enucleations in newborn mice and conducted anatomical and molecular analyses 10 days later. In this study, by surgically removing the eyes of the newborn mouse, we examined whether early enucleation would impact normal gene expression and the development of basic anatomical features such as intraneocortical connections and cortical area boundaries in the first 10 days of life, before natural eye opening. We examined the acute effects of bilateral enucleation on the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the neocortical somatosensory-visual area boundary through detailed analyses of intraneocortical connections and gene expression of six developmentally regulated genes at postnatal day 10. Results Our results demonstrate short-term plasticity on postnatal day 10 resulting from the removal of the eyes at birth, with changes in nuclear size and gene expression within the lateral geniculate nucleus as well as a shift in intraneocortical connections and ephrin A5 expression at the somatosensory-visual boundary. In this report, we highlight the correlation between positional shifts in ephrin A5 expression and improper refinement of intraneocortical connections observed at the somatosensory-visual boundary in enucleates on postnatal day 10. Conclusions Bilateral enucleation induces a positional shift of both ephrin A5 expression and intraneocortical projections at the somatosensory-visual border in only 10 days. These changes occur prior to natural eye opening, suggesting a possible role of spontaneous retinal activity in area border formation within the neocortex. Through these analyses, we gain a deeper understanding of how extrinsic activity-dependent mechanisms, particularly input from sensory organs, are integrated with intrinsic activity-independent mechanisms to regulate neocortical arealization and plasticity. PMID:22289655

  8. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  9. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT) were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT) with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was achieved exclusively by evolutionary modulation of non-cysteine amino acid positions. Conclusion The Roman snail HpCdMT and HpCuMT isoforms can thus be regarded as prototypes of isoform families that evolved genuine metal-specificity within pulmonate molluscs. Diversification into these isoforms may have been initiated by gene duplication, followed by speciation and selection towards opposite needs for protecting copper-dominated metabolic pathways from nonessential cadmium. The mechanisms enabling these proteins to be metal-specific could also be relevant for other metalloproteins. PMID:21255385

  10. Genomic organization, chromosomal assignment, and expression analysis of the mouse Suppressor of fused gene ( Sufu ) coding a Gli protein partner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Simon-Chazottes; Mélanie Paces-Fessy; Claudie Lamour-Isnard; Jean-Louis Guénet; Marie-Françoise Blanchet-Tournier

    2000-01-01

    .  \\u000a Suppressor of fused (Sufu) is a negative regulator of the Hedgehog pathway both in Drosophila and vertebrates. Here, we report the genomic organization of the mouse Sufu gene (mSufu). This gene comprises 11 exons spanning more than 30 kb and encodes a protein with a putative PEST sequence. DNA-consensus\\u000a sequences recognized by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, referred to as

  11. Spontaneous Locomotor Hyperactivity in a Mouse Mutant with a Deletion Including the Snap Gene on Chromosome 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hess; H. A. Jinnah; C. A. Kozak; M. C. Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding the synaptosomal-associated protein- 25 kDa (SNAP-25) was mapped by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and an intersubspecies backcross to mouse Chro- mosome 2. To identify potential mutants for SNAP-25, mice bearing mutations mapping to this region of Chromosome 2 were screened for Snap gene abnormalities. Mice hetero- zygous for the semidominant mutation coloboma (Cm\\/+) were identified that

  12. Systemic Delivery of a High-Capacity Adenoviral Vector Expressing Mouse CTLA4Ig Improves Skeletal Muscle Gene Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhilong Jiang; Eleanor Feingold; Stefan Kochanek; Paula R. Clemens

    2002-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors (AdV) are promising vectors for gene transfer of skeletal muscle. To alleviate humoral and cellular immune responses that limit successful gene transfer, the present study determined the route of administration of AdmCTLA4Ig (an adenovirus that encodes a fusion protein of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and the Fc protion of immunoglobulin G (IgG), CTLA4Ig) that provided

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi bba66 Gene Inactivation Results in Attenuated Mouse Infection by Tick Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Toni G.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Nolder, Christi; Clifton, Dawn R.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Borrelia burgdorferi surface-localized immunogenic lipoprotein BBA66 on vector and host infection was evaluated by inactivating the encoding gene, bba66, and characterizing the mutant phenotype throughout the natural mouse-tick-mouse cycle. The BBA66-deficient mutant isolate, Bb?A66, remained infectious in mice by needle inoculation of cultured organisms, but differences in spirochete burden and pathology in the tibiotarsal joint were observed relative to the parental wild-type (WT) strain. Ixodes scapularis larvae successfully acquired Bb?A66 following feeding on infected mice, and the organisms persisted in these ticks through the molt to nymphs. A series of tick transmission experiments (n = 7) demonstrated that the ability of Bb?A66-infected nymphs to infect laboratory mice was significantly impaired compared to that of mice fed upon by WT-infected ticks. trans-complementation of Bb?A66 with an intact copy of bba66 restored the WT infectious phenotype in mice via tick transmission. These results suggest a role for BBA66 in facilitating B. burgdorferi dissemination and transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host as part of the disease process for Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23630963

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi bba66 gene inactivation results in attenuated mouse infection by tick transmission.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Brandt, Kevin S; Nolder, Christi; Clifton, Dawn R; Carroll, James A; Gilmore, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The impact of the Borrelia burgdorferi surface-localized immunogenic lipoprotein BBA66 on vector and host infection was evaluated by inactivating the encoding gene, bba66, and characterizing the mutant phenotype throughout the natural mouse-tick-mouse cycle. The BBA66-deficient mutant isolate, Bb(?A66), remained infectious in mice by needle inoculation of cultured organisms, but differences in spirochete burden and pathology in the tibiotarsal joint were observed relative to the parental wild-type (WT) strain. Ixodes scapularis larvae successfully acquired Bb(?A66) following feeding on infected mice, and the organisms persisted in these ticks through the molt to nymphs. A series of tick transmission experiments (n = 7) demonstrated that the ability of Bb(?A66)-infected nymphs to infect laboratory mice was significantly impaired compared to that of mice fed upon by WT-infected ticks. trans-complementation of Bb(?A66) with an intact copy of bba66 restored the WT infectious phenotype in mice via tick transmission. These results suggest a role for BBA66 in facilitating B. burgdorferi dissemination and transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host as part of the disease process for Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23630963

  15. Transcriptional repression of the mouse wee1 gene by TBP-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Nanba, Yasu-aki; Park, Kyoung-ae; Mabuchi, Tomoko; Suenaga, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Seiji; Shimada, Miho; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Tamura, Taka-aki

    2007-01-01

    TBP-related factor 2 (TRF2), one of the TBP family proteins, is involved in various cellular functions through its transcription stimulation activity. We previously reported that TRF2 is involved in reduction of wee1 mRNA in genotoxin-treated chicken cells. In this study, we investigated the role of TRF2 in wee1 gene expression. It was found that wee1 mRNA was decreased in hydroxyurea-treated NIH3T3 cells. Mouse wee1 promoter activity was repressed by TRF2 in mouse and chicken cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and plasmid immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that TRF2 is recruited to the wee1 promoter in accordance with the transcriptional repression. A mutant TRF2 that lacks TFIIA-binding capacity lost its repressive function. This mutant was less recruited to the wee1 promoter than was the wild-type one, and provided a decline in promoter-recruited TFIIA. Data in this study suggest that transcription repressive activity of TRF2 to wee1 promoter needs association with the promoter and TFIIA. PMID:17109819

  16. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (NdpAP). In the CNS, NdpAP expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of NdpAP expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, NdpAP expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. PMID:21055480

  17. Profiling target genes of FGF18 in the postnatal mouse lung:1 possible relevance for alveolar development2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Profiling target genes of FGF18 in the postnatal mouse lung:1 possible relevance for alveolar alveolarization mechanisms could help improve prevention and treatment of diseases characterized by reduced alveolar number. Although signaling through fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors is essential

  18. Genes on human chromosome 19 show extreme divergence from the mouse orthologs and a high GC content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Castresana

    2002-01-01

    Mutational rates are known to be variable along the mammalian genome but the extent of this non-random fluctuation and their causes are less well understood. Using 5509 human and mouse orthologous genes with known chromosome positions, it is shown here that there are extreme differences in synonymous evolutionary rates between different human chromo- somes when distances are measured using maximum-

  19. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    E-print Network

    Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

    Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time Keywords: Vesicant Sulfur mustard Microarray Alkylating agent Skin MMP inhibitor MMP Matrix metalloproteinase Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering

  20. Identification of a Thyroid Hormone Response Element in the Mouse Kruppel-Like Factor 9 Gene to

    E-print Network

    Denver, Robert J.

    Identification of a Thyroid Hormone Response Element in the Mouse Kru¨ppel-Like Factor 9 Gene-1048 Brain development is critically dependent on thyroid hormone (T3). Kru¨ ppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) is a T­3943, 2009) Thyroid hormone deficiency during the period of active neu- rogenesis (up to 6 months postpartum

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Mouse Obesity Gene tubby: A Member of a Novel Gene Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W Kleyn; Wei Fan; Steve G Kovats; John J Lee; Jacqueline C Pulido; Ye Wu; Lucy R Berkemeier; Don J Misumi; Lisa Holmgren; Olga Charlat; Elizabeth A Woolf; Olga Tayber; Thomas Brody; Pei Shu; Fiona Hawkins; Brenda Kennedy; Linda Baldini; Chris Ebeling; Geoffrey D Alperin; Jim Deeds; Nathan D Lakey; Janice Culpepper; Hong Chen; M. Alexandra Glücksmann-Kuis; George A Carlson; Geoffrey M Duyk; Karen J Moore

    1996-01-01

    The mutated gene responsible for the tubby obesity phenotype has been identified by positional cloning. A single base change within a splice donor site results in the incorrect retention of a single intron in the mature tub mRNA transcript. The consequence of this mutation is the substitution of the carboxy-terminal 44 amino acids with 24 intron-encoded amino acids. The normal

  2. Biallelic targeting of expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells using the Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Krawczyk, Przemek M.; Jasin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting – homologous recombination between transfected DNA and a chromosomal locus – is greatly stimulated by a DNA break in the target locus. Recently, the RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease, involved in bacterial adaptive immunity, has been modified to function in mammalian cells. Unlike other site-specific endonucleases whose specificity resides within a protein, the specificity of Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage is determined by a guide RNA (gRNA) containing an ~20 nucleotide locus-specific RNA sequence, representing a major advance for versatile site-specific cleavage of the genome without protein engineering. This article provides a detailed method using the Cas9 system to target expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. In this method, a promoterless marker flanked by short homology arms to the target locus is transfected into cells together with Cas9 and gRNA expression vectors. Importantly, biallelic gene knockout is obtained at high frequency by only one round of targeting using a single marker. PMID:24929070

  3. Comparison of two mouse ameloblast-like cell lines for enamel-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Juni; Simanian, Emil J.; Tuggy, Sarah Y.; Bartlett, John D.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Paine, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblasts are ectoderm-derived cells that produce an extracellular enamel matrix that mineralizes to form enamel. The development and use of immortalized cell lines, with a stable phenotype, is an important contribution to biological studies as it allows for the investigation of molecular activities without the continuous need for animals. In this study we compare the expression profiles of enamel-specific genes in two mouse derived ameloblast-like cell lines: LS8 and ALC cells. Quantitative PCR analysis indicates that, relative to each other, LS8 cells express greater mRNA levels for genes that define secretory-stage activities (Amelx, Ambn, Enam, and Mmp20), while ALC express greater mRNA levels for genes that define maturation-stage activities (Odam and Klk4). Western blot analyses show that Amelx, Ambn, and Odam proteins are detectable in ALC, but not LS8 cells. Unstimulated ALC cells form calcified nodules, while LS8 cells do not. These data provide greater insight as to the suitability of both cell lines to contribute to biological studies on enamel formation and biomineralization, and highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses when relying on enamel epithelial organ-derived cell lines to study molecular activities of amelogenesis. PMID:25120490

  4. Genome-wide patterns of gene flow across a house mouse hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Katherine C.; Payseur, Bret A.; Harris, Leslie W.; Bakewell, Margaret A.; Thibodeau, Lisa M.; O’Brien, Janelle E.; Krenz, James G.; Sans-Fuentes, Maria A.; Nachman, Michael W.; Tucker, Priscilla K.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid zones between closely related species or subspecies provide useful settings for studying the genetic architecture of speciation. Using markers distributed throughout the mouse genome, we use a hybrid zone between two recently diverged species of house mice (Mus musculus and Mus domesticus) as a natural mapping experiment to identify genomic regions that may be involved in reproductive isolation. Using cline analysis we document a nearly 50-fold variation in level of introgression among markers. Some markers have extremely narrow cline widths; these genomic regions may contribute to reproductive isolation. Biological processes associated with these narrow clines include physiological and immune responses to the environment as well as physiological and behavioral aspects of reproduction. Other autosomal markers exhibit asymmetrically broad clines, usually with high frequencies of M. domesticus alleles on the M. musculus side of the hybrid zone. These markers identify genome regions likely housing genes with alleles that are spreading from one species to the other. Biological processes associated with these wide clines include cell signaling, olfaction, and pheromone response. These processes play important roles in survival and reproduction, and associated genes are likely targets of selection. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the center of the hybrid zone suggest that isolation may be caused by multiple epistatic interactions between sets of genes. These data highlight the complex genetic architecture underlying speciation even at early stages of divergence and point to some of the biological processes that may govern this architecture. PMID:18025268

  5. Highly efficient method for gene delivery into mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingli; Reynaud, Florie; Falk, Julien; Spencer, Ambre; Ding, Yin-Di; Baumlé, Véronique; Lu, Ruisheng; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5–16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60–80%) and low toxicity (>60% survival) were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, 3–50 times fewer cells are needed (6 × 104) compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures. PMID:25698920

  6. Highly efficient method for gene delivery into mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingli; Reynaud, Florie; Falk, Julien; Spencer, Ambre; Ding, Yin-Di; Baumlé, Véronique; Lu, Ruisheng; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5-16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60-80%) and low toxicity (>60% survival) were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, 3-50 times fewer cells are needed (6 × 10(4)) compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures. PMID:25698920

  7. 17?-Estradiol Modulates Gene Expression in the Female Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gwendolyn I.; Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    17?-estradiol (E2) plays critical roles in a number of target tissues including the mammary gland, reproductive tract, bone, and brain. Although it is clear that E2 reduces inflammation and ischemia-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of E2 in this brain region are lacking. Thus, we examined the cortical transcriptome using a mouse model system. Female adult mice were ovariectomized and implanted with silastic tubing containing oil or E2. After 7 days, the cerebral cortices were dissected and RNA was isolated and analyzed using RNA-sequencing. Analysis of the transcriptomes of control and E2-treated animals revealed that E2 treatment significantly altered the transcript levels of 88 genes. These genes were associated with long term synaptic potentiation, myelination, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, mitogen activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. E2 also altered the expression of genes linked to lipid synthesis and metabolism, vasoconstriction and vasodilation, cell-cell communication, and histone modification. These results demonstrate the far-reaching and diverse effects of E2 in the cerebral cortex and provide valuable insight to begin to understand cortical processes that may fluctuate in a dynamic hormonal environment. PMID:25372139

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Microarray Gene Expression in Mouse Stem Cells: Redefining Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Bryson, Kevin; Jones, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Background While much progress has been made in understanding stem cell (SC) function, a complete description of the molecular mechanisms regulating SCs is not yet established. This lack of knowledge is a major barrier holding back the discovery of therapeutic uses of SCs. We investigated the value of a novel meta-analysis of microarray gene expression in mouse SCs to aid the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms common to SCs and particular SC types. Methodology/Principal Findings We added value to previously published microarray gene expression data by characterizing the promoter type likely to regulate transcription. Promoters of up-regulated genes in SCs were characterized in terms of alternative promoter (AP) usage and CpG-richness, with the aim of correlating features known to affect transcriptional control with SC function. We found that SCs have a higher proportion of up-regulated genes using CpG-rich promoters compared with the negative controls. Comparing subsets of SC type with the controls a slightly different story unfolds. The differences between the proliferating adult SCs and the embryonic SCs versus the negative controls are statistically significant. Whilst the difference between the quiescent adult SCs compared with the negative controls is not. On examination of AP usage, no difference was observed between SCs and the controls. However, comparing the subsets of SC type with the controls, the quiescent adult SCs are found to up-regulate a larger proportion of genes that have APs compared to the controls and the converse is true for the proliferating adult SCs and the embryonic SCs. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that looking at features associated with control of transcription is a promising future approach for characterizing “stemness” and that further investigations of stemness could benefit from separate considerations of different SC states. For example, “proliferating-stemness” is shown here, in terms of promoter usage, to be distinct from “quiescent-stemness”. PMID:18628962

  9. Global mapping of DNA methylation in mouse promoters reveals epigenetic reprogramming of pluripotency genes.

    PubMed

    Farthing, Cassandra R; Ficz, Gabriella; Ng, Ray Kit; Chan, Chun-Fung; Andrews, Simon; Dean, Wendy; Hemberger, Myriam; Reik, Wolf

    2008-06-01

    DNA methylation patterns are reprogrammed in primordial germ cells and in preimplantation embryos by demethylation and subsequent de novo methylation. It has been suggested that epigenetic reprogramming may be necessary for the embryonic genome to return to a pluripotent state. We have carried out a genome-wide promoter analysis of DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ (EG) cells, sperm, trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and primary embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs). Global clustering analysis shows that methylation patterns of ES cells, EG cells, and sperm are surprisingly similar, suggesting that while the sperm is a highly specialized cell type, its promoter epigenome is already largely reprogrammed and resembles a pluripotent state. Comparisons between pluripotent tissues and pMEFs reveal that a number of pluripotency related genes, including Nanog, Lefty1 and Tdgf1, as well as the nucleosome remodeller Smarcd1, are hypomethylated in stem cells and hypermethylated in differentiated cells. Differences in promoter methylation are associated with significant differences in transcription levels in more than 60% of genes analysed. Our comparative approach to promoter methylation thus identifies gene candidates for the regulation of pluripotency and epigenetic reprogramming. While the sperm genome is, overall, similarly methylated to that of ES and EG cells, there are some key exceptions, including Nanog and Lefty1, that are highly methylated in sperm. Nanog promoter methylation is erased by active and passive demethylation after fertilisation before expression commences in the morula. In ES cells the normally active Nanog promoter is silenced when targeted by de novo methylation. Our study suggests that reprogramming of promoter methylation is one of the key determinants of the epigenetic regulation of pluripotency genes. Epigenetic reprogramming in the germline prior to fertilisation and the reprogramming of key pluripotency genes in the early embryo is thus crucial for transmission of pluripotency. PMID:18584034

  10. Feminized Behavior and Brain Gene Expression in a Novel Mouse Model of Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ngun, Tuck C.; Ghahramani, Negar M.; Creek, Michelle M.; Williams-Burris, Shayna M.; Barseghyan, Hayk; Itoh, Yuichiro; Sánchez, Francisco J.; McClusky, Rebecca; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Arnold, Arthur P.; Vilain, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter Syndrome is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy in men and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome (XXY). In some Klinefelter males, certain traits may be feminized or shifted from the male-typical pattern towards a more female-typical one. Among them might be partner choice, one of the most sexually dimorphic traits in the animal kingdom. We investigated the extent of feminization in XXY male mice (XXYM) in partner preference and gene expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum in mice from the Sex Chromosome Trisomy model. We tested for partner preference using a three-chambered apparatus in which the test mouse was free to choose between stimulus animals of either sex. We found that partner preference in XXYM was feminized. These differences were likely due to interactions of the additional X chromosome with the Y. We also discovered genes that differed in expression in XXYM vs. XYM. Some of these genes are feminized in their expression pattern. Lastly, we also identified genes that differed only between XXYM vs. XYM and not XXM vs. XYM. Genes that are both feminized and unique to XXYM vs. XYM represent strong candidates for dissecting the molecular pathways responsible for phenotypes present in KS/XXYM but not XXM. In sum, our results demonstrated that investigating behavioral and molecular feminization in XXY males can provide crucial information about the pathophysiology of Klinefelter Syndrome and may aid our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior. PMID:24923877

  11. Feminized behavior and brain gene expression in a novel mouse model of Klinefelter Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ngun, Tuck C; Ghahramani, Negar M; Creek, Michelle M; Williams-Burris, Shayna M; Barseghyan, Hayk; Itoh, Yuichiro; Sánchez, Francisco J; McClusky, Rebecca; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Arnold, Arthur P; Vilain, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy in men and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome (XXY). In some Klinefelter males, certain traits may be feminized or shifted from the male-typical pattern towards a more female-typical one. Among them might be partner choice, one of the most sexually dimorphic traits in the animal kingdom. We investigated the extent of feminization in XXY male mice (XXYM) in partner preference and gene expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum in mice from the Sex Chromosome Trisomy model. We tested for partner preference using a three-chambered apparatus in which the test mouse was free to choose between stimulus animals of either sex. We found that partner preference in XXYM was feminized. These differences were likely due to interactions of the additional X chromosome with the Y. We also discovered genes that differed in expression in XXYM versus XYM. Some of these genes are feminized in their expression pattern. Lastly, we also identified genes that differed only between XXYM versus XYM and not XXM versus XYM. Genes that are both feminized and unique to XXYM versus XYM represent strong candidates for dissecting the molecular pathways responsible for phenotypes present in KS/XXYM but not XXM. In sum, our results demonstrated that investigating behavioral and molecular feminization in XXY males can provide crucial information about the pathophysiology of KS and may aid our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior. PMID:24923877

  12. Metabolic consequences of NDUFS4 gene deletion in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Federica; Monge, Claire; Forkink, Marleen; de Groof, Ad J C; Benard, Giovanni; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Swarts, Herman G; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Rodenburg, Richard J; Calvaruso, Maria A; Nijtmans, Leo G J; Heeman, Bavo; Roestenberg, Peggy; Wieringa, Be; Smeitink, Jan A M; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H G M

    2012-10-01

    Human mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is associated with progressive neurological disorders. To better understand the CI pathomechanism, we here studied how deletion of the CI gene NDUFS4 affects cell metabolism. To this end we compared immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from wildtype (wt) and whole-body NDUFS4 knockout (KO) mice. Mitochondria from KO cells lacked the NDUFS4 protein and mitoplasts displayed virtually no CI activity, moderately reduced CII, CIII and CIV activities and normal citrate synthase and CV (F(o)F(1)-ATPase) activity. Native electrophoresis of KO cell mitochondrial fractions revealed two distinct CI subcomplexes of ~830kDa (enzymatically inactive) and ~200kDa (active). The level of fully-assembled CII-CV was not affected by NDUFS4 gene deletion. KO cells exhibited a moderately reduced maximal and routine O(2) consumption, which was fully inhibited by acute application of the CI inhibitor rotenone. The aberrant CI assembly and reduced O(2) consumption in KO cells were fully normalized by NDUFS4 gene complementation. Cellular [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio, lactate production and mitochondrial tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) accumulation were slightly increased in KO cells. In contrast, NDUFS4 gene deletion did not detectably alter [NADP(+)]/[NADPH] ratio, cellular glucose consumption, the protein levels of hexokinases (I and II) and phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (P-PDH), total cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, free cytosolic [ATP], cell growth rate, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We conclude that the NDUFS4 subunit is of key importance in CI stabilization and that, due to the metabolic properties of the immortalized MEFs, NDUFS4 gene deletion has only modest effects at the live cell level. This article is part of a special issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22430089

  13. GATA6 is an astrocytoma tumor suppressor gene identified by gene trapping of mouse glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Kamnasaran, Deepak; Qian, Baoping; Hawkins, Cynthia; Stanford, William L.; Guha, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are the most common and lethal adult primary brain tumor. Retroviral gene trapping of nontransformed neonatal astrocytes from a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP):V12Ha-Ras murine astrocytoma model led to isolation of the transcription factor Gata6. Loss of Gata6 resulted in enhanced proliferation and transformation of astrocytes. Human malignant astrocytoma cell lines, explant xenografts, and operative specimens demonstrated loss of GATA6 expression. Loss-of-function GATA6 mutations with loss of heterozygosity of the GATA6 locus were found in human malignant astrocytoma specimens but not in lower-grade astrocytomas or normal adult astrocytes. Knockdown of Gata6 expression in V12Ha-Ras or p53?/? astrocytes, but not in parental murine or human astrocytes, led to acceleration of tumorgenesis. Knockin GATA6 expression in human malignant astrocytoma cells reduced their tumorgenic growth with decreased VEGF expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GATA6, isolated from a murine astrocytoma model, is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is a direct target of mutations during malignant progression of murine and human astrocytomas. This work also demonstrates the utility of random mutagenesis strategies, such as gene trapping, on murine cancer models toward discovery of novel genetic alterations in corresponding human cancers. PMID:17463088

  14. The human and mouse homologs of the yeat RAD52 gene: cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, assignment to human chromosome 12p12.2-p13, and mRNA expression in mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.; Chen, D.J.; Denison, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); and others

    1995-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 gene is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and mitotic/meiotic recombination. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of yeast S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Kluyveromyces lactis and chicken is highly conserved. Using the technology of mixed oligonucleotide primed amplification of cDNA (MOPAC), two mouse RAD52 homologous cDNA fragments were amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, we have cloned the cDNA of the human and mouse homologs of yeast RAD52 gene by screening cDNA libraries using the identified mouse cDNA fragments. Sequence analysis of cDNA derived amino acid revealed a highly conserved N-terminus among human, mouse, chicken, and yeast RAD52 genes. The human RAD52 gene was assigned to chromosome 12p12.2-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, R-banding, and DNA analysis of somatic cell hybrids. Unlike chicken RAD52 and mouse RAD51, no significant difference in mouse RAD52 mRNA level was found among mouse heart, brain, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testis. In addition to an {approximately}1.9-kb RAD52 mRNA band that is present in all of the tested tissues, an extra mRNA species of {approximately}0.85 kb was detectable in mouse testis. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Transgenic and gene knock-out mouse models of sickle cell anemia and the thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Pászty, C

    1997-03-01

    Sickle cell anemia and the thalassemias are globally the most common class of inherited disorders. Current treatment options are limited (transfusion, iron chelation) and are not suited to large-scale use in developing countries where the population of affected individuals is expected to undergo a tremendous increase in the near future. As such, the development of more practical and more permanent therapies is urgently needed. Recently, transgenic and gene knock-out technologies have been used to create mouse models for sickle cell anemia and all of the clinically relevant thalassemias (hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis, hemoglobin H disease, beta-thalassemia intermedia, beta-thalassemia major/Cooley's anemia). These newly developed murine models should play an important role in the development of improved approaches for treating these commonly occurring genetic diseases. PMID:9107524

  16. Planar cell polarity effector gene Fuzzy regulates cilia formation and Hedgehog signal transduction in mouse.

    PubMed

    Heydeck, Westley; Zeng, Huiqing; Liu, Aimin

    2009-12-01

    Precise planar cell polarity (PCP) is critical for the development of multiple organ systems in animals. A group of core-PCP proteins are recognized to play crucial roles in convergent extension and other PCP-related processes in mammals. However, the functions of another group of PCP-regulating proteins, the PCP-effector proteins, are yet to be fully studied. In this study, the generation and characterization of a mouse mutant for the PCP effector gene Fuzzy (Fuz) is reported. Fuz homozygous mutants are embryonically lethal, with multiple defects including neural tube defects, abnormal dorsal/ventral patterning of the spinal cord, and defective anterior/posterior patterning of the limb buds. Fuz mutants also exhibit abnormal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and inefficient proteolytic processing of Gli3. Finally, a significant decrease in cilia was found in Fuz homozygous mutants. In conclusion, Fuz plays an important role in cilia formation, Hh signal transduction, and embryonic development in mammals. PMID:19877275

  17. Novel genes in Human Asthma Based on a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Human Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Temesi, Gergely; Virág, Viktor; Hadadi, Éva; Ungvári, Ildikó; Fodor, Lili E; Bikov, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Horváth, Ildikó; Kiss, András; Hullám, Gábor; Gézsi, András; Sárközy, Péter; Antal, Péter; Buzás, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Based on a previous gene expression study in a mouse model of asthma, we selected 60 candidate genes and investigated their possible roles in human asthma. Methods In these candidate genes, 90 SNPs were genotyped using MassARRAY technology from 311 asthmatic children and 360 healthy controls of the Hungarian (Caucasian) population. Moreover, gene expression levels were measured by RT PCR in the induced sputum of 13 asthmatics and 10 control individuals. t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were carried out in order to assess associations of SNP frequency and expression level with asthma. Permutation tests were performed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Results The frequency of 4 SNPs in 2 genes differed significantly between asthmatic and control subjects: SNPs rs2240572, rs2240571, rs3735222 in gene SCIN, and rs32588 in gene PPARGC1B. Carriers of the minor alleles had reduced risk of asthma with an odds ratio of 0.64 (0.51-0.80; P=7×10-5) in SCIN and 0.56 (0.42-0.76; P=1.2×10-4) in PPARGC1B. The expression levels of SCIN, PPARGC1B and ITLN1 genes were significantly lower in the sputum of asthmatics. Conclusions Three potentially novel asthma-associated genes were identified based on mouse experiments and human studies. PMID:25374748

  18. Multiple positive and negative regulatory elements in the promoter of the mouse homeobox gene Hoxb-4.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, A; Gilthorpe, J; Rigby, P W

    1994-01-01

    Mouse Hoxb-4 (Hox-2.6) is a homeobox gene that belongs to a family which also includes Hoxa-4, Hoxc-4, and Hoxd-4 and that is related to the Deformed gene in Drosophila melanogaster. We have determined the sequence of 1.2 kb of 5' flanking DNA of mouse Hoxb-4 and by nuclease S1 and primer extension experiments identified two transcription start sites, P1 and P2, 285 and 207 nucleotides upstream of the ATG initiator codon, respectively. We have shown that this region harbors two independent promoters which drive CAT expression in several different cell lines with various efficiencies, suggesting that they are subject to cell-type-specific regulation. Through detailed mutational analysis, we have identified several cis-regulatory elements, located upstream and downstream of the transcription start sites. They include two cell-type-specific negative regulatory elements, which are more active in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells than in neuroblastoma cells (regions a and d at -226 to -186 and +169 to +205, respectively). An additional negative regulatory element has been delimited (region b between +22 and +113). Positive regulation is achieved by binding of HoxTF, a previously unknown factor, to the sequence GCCATTGG (+148 to +155) that is essential for efficient Hoxb-4 expression. We have also defined the minimal promoter sequences and found that they include two 12-bp initiator elements centered around each transcription start site. The complex architecture of the Hoxb-4 promoter provides the framework for fine-tuned transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. Images PMID:7969151

  19. Mechanical Unloading of Mouse Bone in Microgravity Significantly Alters Cell Cycle Gene Set Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Kaplan, Warren; Burns, Brnedan

    2012-07-01

    Spaceflight factors, including microgravity and space radiation, have many detrimental short-term effects on human physiology, including muscle and bone degradation, and immune system dysfunction. The long-term progression of these physiological effects is still poorly understood, and a serious concern for long duration spaceflight missions. We hypothesized that some of the degenerative effects of spaceflight may be caused in part by an inability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate normally resulting in an impairment of tissue regenerative processes. Furthermore, we hypothesized that long-term bone tissue degeneration in space may be mediated by activation of the p53 signaling network resulting in cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in osteoprogenitors. In our analyses we found that spaceflight caused significant bone loss in the weight-bearing bones of mice with a 6.3% reduction in bone volume and 11.9% decrease in bone thickness associated with increased osteoclastic activity. Along with this rapid bone loss we also observed alterations in the cell cycle characterized by an increase in the Cdkn1a/p21 cell cycle arrest molecule independent of Trp53. Overexpression of Cdkn1a/p21 was localized to osteoblasts lining the periosteal surface of the femur and chondrocytes in the head of the femur, suggesting an inhibition of proliferation in two key regenerative cell types of the femur in response to spaceflight. Additionally we found overexpression of several matrix degradation molecules including MMP-1a, 3 and 10, of which MMP-10 was localized to osteocytes within the shaft of the femur. This, in conjunction with 40 nm resolution synchrotron nano-Computed Tomography (nano-CT) observations of an increase in osteocyte lacunae cross-sectional area, perimeter and a decrease in circularity indicates a potential role for osteocytic osteolysis in the observed bone degeneration in spaceflight. To further investigate the genetic response of bone to mechanical unloading in spaceflight, we conducted genome wide microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from the mouse pelvis. Specifically, 16 week old mice were subjected to 15 days spaceflight onboard NASA's STS-131 space shuttle mission. The pelvis of the mice was dissected, the bone marrow was flushed and the bones were briefly stored in RNAlater. The pelvii were then homogenized, and RNA was isolated using TRIzol. RNA concentration and quality was measured using a Nanodrop spectrometer, and 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples of cDNA were analyzed using an Affymetrix GeneChip\\S Gene 1.0 ST (Sense Target) Array System for Mouse and GenePattern Software. We normalized the ST gene arrays using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, which summarizes perfectly matched spots on the array through the median polish algorithm, rather than normalizing according to mismatched spots. We also used Limma for statistical analysis, using the BioConductor Limma Library by Gordon Smyth, and differential expression analysis to identify genes with significant changes in expression between the two experimental conditions. Finally we used GSEApreRanked for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), with Kolmogorov-Smirnov style statistics to identify groups of genes that are regulated together using the t-statistics derived from Limma. Preliminary results show that 6,603 genes expressed in pelvic bone had statistically significant alterations in spaceflight compared to ground controls. These prominently included cell cycle arrest molecules p21, and p18, cell survival molecule Crbp1, and cell cycle molecules cyclin D1, and Cdk1. Additionally, GSEA results indicated alterations in molecular targets of cyclin D1 and Cdk4, senescence pathways resulting from abnormal laminin maturation, cell-cell contacts via E-cadherin, and several pathways relating to protein translation and metabolism. In total 111 gene sets out of 2,488, about 4%, showed statistically significant set alterations. These alterations indicate significant impairment of normal cellular function in the mechanically unloaded envi

  20. Hemoglobin synthesis in somatic cell hybrids: globin gene expression in hybrids between mouse erythroleukemia and human marrow cells or fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, A; Burk, R; Picciano, D; Anderson, W F; Nienhuis, A; Minna, J

    1975-01-01

    Somatic cell hybrids were generated by fusion of mouse erythroleukemia cells either to mouse L cells (B82), human fibroblasts (W1-18 VA2), or human marrow fractions enriched in erythroblasts. The hybrid cells were examined for globin gene expression by benzidine staining to detect cytoplasmic hemoglobin, and by molecular hybridization of cellular RNA to globin complementary DNA (cDNA) to detect globin messenger RNA (MRNA). The fibroblast (human or mouse) times erythroleukemia cell hybrids grown in monolayer retained most of the chromosomes of each parent. Neither cytoplasmic hemoglobin nor globin mRNA was detected in dimethylsulfoxide-treated fibroblast times erythroleukemia hybrid cells, indicating extinction of hemoglobin synthesis prior to the formation of cytoplasmic mRNA. The human marrow times mouse erythroleukemia hybrid cells grown in suspension culture contained only a few human chromosomes and exhibited low levels of hemoglobin synthesis which were amplified by 2% dimethylsulfoxide. Mouse (but not human) globin mRNA was demonstrated in these hybrid cells. The results suggest that somatic cell hybrids may be useful in searching for genetic factors which regulate activity of the globin genes. Images PMID:1055369

  1. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  2. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Yeung, A T Y; Hale, C; Xia, J; Tate, P H; Goulding, D; Keane, J A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Forrester, L; Billker, O; Skarnes, W C; Hancock, R E W; Dougan, G

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  3. Mouse p53 represses the rat brain creatine kinase gene but activates the rat muscle creatine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Schmieg, F I; Simmons, D T; Molloy, G R

    1994-01-01

    The creatine kinases (CK) regenerate ATP for cellular reactions with a high energy expenditure. While muscle CK (CKM) is expressed almost exclusively in adult skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain CK (CKB) expression is more widespread and is highest in brain glial cells. CKB expression is also high in human lung tumor cells, many of which contain mutations in p53 alleles. We have recently detected high levels of CKB mRNA in HeLa cells and, in this study, have tested whether this may be due to the extremely low amounts of p53 protein present in HeLa cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that wild-type mouse p53 severely repressed the rat CKB promoter in HeLa but not CV-1 monkey kidney cells, suggesting that, in HeLa but not CV-1 cells, p53 either associates with a required corepressor or undergoes a posttranslational modification necessary for CKB repression. Conversely, mouse wild-type p53 strongly activated the rat CKM promoter in CV-1 cells but not in HeLa cells, suggesting that, in CV-1 cells, p53 may associate with a required coactivator or is modified in a manner necessary for CKM activation. The DNA sequences required for p53-mediated modulations were found to be within bp -195 to +5 of the CKB promoter and within bp -168 to -97 of the CKM promoter. Moreover, a 112-bp fragment from the proximal rat CKM promoter (bp -168 to -57), which contained five degenerate p53-binding elements, was capable of conferring p53-mediated activation on a heterologous promoter in CV-1 cells. Also, this novel p53 sequence, when situated in the native 168-bp rat CKM promoter, conferred p53-mediated activation equal to or greater than that of the originally characterized far-upstream (bp -3160) mouse CKM p53 element. Therefore, CKB and CKM may be among the few cellular genes which could be targets of p53 in vivo. In addition, we analyzed a series of missense mutants with alterations in conserved region II of p53. Mutations affected p53 transrepression and transactivation activities differently, indicating that these activities in p53 are separable. The ability of p53 mutants to transactivate correlated well with their ability to inhibit transformation of rat embryonic fibroblasts by adenovirus E1a and activated Ras. Images PMID:7969181

  4. The Stoichiometric Transition from Zn6Cu1-Metallothionein to Zn7-Metallothionein Underlies the Up-regulation of Metallothionein (MT) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Lydia; Gonzalez-Iglesias, Hector; Garcia, Montserrat; Ghosh, Sikha; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Coca-Prados, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    We examined the profiling of gene expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in human tissues from cadaver eyes with microarray-based analysis. All MT1 isoforms, with the exception of MT1B, were abundantly expressed in lens and corneal tissue. Along with MT1B, MT4 was not detected in any tissues. Antibodies to MT1/2 labeled the corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, whereas MT3 label the retinal ganglion cells. We studied the effects of zinc and cytokines on the gene expression of MT isoforms in a corneal epithelial cell line (HCEsv). Zinc exerted an up-regulation of the expression of MT isoforms, and this effect was further potentiated in the presence of IL1? or TNF?. Zinc also elicited a strong down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and this effect was blocked in the presence of TNF? or IL1?. The concentration of MTs, bound zinc, and the metal stoichiometry of MTs in cultured HCEsv were determined by mass spectrometry. The total concentration of MTs was 0.24 ± 0.03 ?m and, after 24 h of zinc exposure, increased to 0.96 ± 0.01 ?m. The combination of zinc and IL1? further enhanced the level of MTs to 1.13 ± 0.03 ?m. The average metal stoichiometry of MTs was Zn6Cu1-MT, and after exposure to the different treatments, it changed to Zn7-MT. Actinomycin D blocked transcription, and cycloheximide attenuated synthesis of MTs in the presence or absence of zinc, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Overall the data provide molecular and analytical evidence on the interplay between zinc, MTs, and proinflammatory cytokines in HCEsv cells, with potential implications on cell-based inflammatory eye diseases. PMID:22722935

  5. Effects of Apigenin on Steroidogenesis and Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Gene Expression in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Yin, Xiangling; Chen, Jau-Jiin; Stocco, Douglas M.; Grammas, Paula; Wang, XingJia

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the age-related decline in testosterone biosynthesis is associated with a decrease in the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein which regulates the rate-limiting step of testosterone biosynthesis. To explore the possibility of delaying this decline using a dietary approach, we have examined the effect of a natural flavonoid, apigenin, on StAR gene expression in mouse Leydig cells. Incubation of these cells with the flavonoid enhanced cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced steroidogenesis and StAR protein expression. The results from the analyses of StAR mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the luciferase assays of StAR promoter activity indicated that this flavonoid enhanced StAR gene expression at the level of transcription. Further studies showed that apigenin blocked the thromboxane A2 receptor and interrupted the signaling through the cyclooxygenase-2-thromboxane A synthase-thromboxane A2-receptor pathway, resulting in a reduction of DAX-1 (dosage sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) protein, a transcriptional repressor of StAR gene expression. When DAX-1 protein was reduced, the sensitivity of the Leydig cells was dramatically enhanced, with sub-threshold level of cAMP being able to induce maximal levels of StAR protein expression and steroid hormone production. The present study suggests a potential application of apigenin to improve StAR protein expression and steroidogenic sensitivity of aging Leydig cells. PMID:20537519

  6. Zonation of nitrogen and glucose metabolism gene expression upon acute liver damage in mouse.

    PubMed

    Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Li, Qi; Scholl, Catharina; Dooley, Steven; Wölfl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zonation of metabolic activities within specific structures and cell types is a phenomenon of liver organization and ensures complementarity of variant liver functions like protein production, glucose homeostasis and detoxification. To analyze damage and regeneration of liver tissue in response to a toxic agent, expression of liver specific enzymes was analyzed by in situ hybridization in mouse over a 6 days time course following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection. CCl4 mixed with mineral oil was administered to BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection, and mice were sacrificed at different time points post injection. Changes in the expression of albumin (Alb), arginase (Arg1), glutaminase 2 (Gls2), Glutamine synthetase (Gs), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc), glycogen synthase 2 (Gys2), Glycerinaldehyd-3-phosphat-Dehydrogenase (Gapdh), Cytochrom p450 2E1 (Cyp2e1) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr) genes in the liver were studied by in situ hybridization and qPCR. We observed significant changes in gene expression of enzymes involved in nitrogen and glucose metabolism and their local distribution following CCl4 injury.