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Sample records for mouse oocyte killing

  1. Microinjection of Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Laurinda A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Marina; Ratzan, William J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    The mammalian oocyte develops within a complex of somatic cells known as a follicle, within which signals from the somatic cells regulate the oocyte, and signals from the oocyte regulate the somatic cells. Because isolation of the oocyte from the follicle disrupts these communication pathways, oocyte physiology is best studied within an intact follicle. Here we describe methods for quantitative microinjection of follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, thus allowing the introduction of signaling molecules as well as optical probes into the oocyte within its physiological environment.

  2. Quantitative Microinjection of Mouse Oocytes and Eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Douglas

    Quantitative microinjection is used to introduce known quantities of molecules or probes into single cells to examine cellular function. The relatively large mammalian oocyte or egg is easily manipulated and can be injected with impermeant reagents including a variety of signaling molecules and fluorescent probes. Techniques have been developed to inject picoliter quantities of solution into oocytes and eggs with precision and reliability. The methods described here outline the quantitative injection procedures as they are used to inject mouse oocytes and eggs in a culture dish on the stage on an inverted microscope. The techniques are applicable to the oocytes, eggs, and early embryos of most mammalian species. Included are some general instructions on fabrication of transfer pipettes, holding pipettes, beveled injection pipettes, and equipment for quantitative injection.

  3. Somatic cell-oocyte interactions in mouse oogenesis: stage-specific regulation of mouse oocyte protein phosphorylation by granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Colonna, R; Cecconi, S; Tatone, C; Mangia, F; Buccione, R

    1989-05-01

    The relative rate of synthesis of a number of proteins and the protein phosphorylation pattern of growing and fully grown oocytes were influenced by the presence of granulosa cells. In particular, a 74-kDa phosphorylated protein was detected only in granulosa cell-enclosed growing mouse oocytes. When reaggregated with granulosa cells, the growing oocyte displayed the phosphorylated form of the 74-kDa protein but when oocytes were cultured on Sertoli cell monolayers or in granulosa cell-conditioned medium the 74-kDa protein was not phosphorylated. We propose that (1) granulosa cells regulate protein phosphorylation in mouse oocytes; (2) a 74-kDa protein is phosphorylated only in growing oocytes when surrounded by granulosa cells; and (3) granulosa cells, but not Sertoli cells, are competent to send the appropriate "signal" to the growing oocyte. PMID:2707483

  4. Mitofusin-2 is required for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Teng; Gao, Si-Hua; Wang, Ke; Yang, Xiu-Yan; Mo, Fang-Fang; Na Yu; An, Tian; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Guang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is essential for embryonic development, anti-apoptotic events, protection against free radical-induced lesions, and mitochondrial fusion in many cells. However, little is known about its mechanism and function during oocyte maturation. In this study, we found that Mfn2 was expressed in the cytoplasm during different stages of mouse oocyte maturation. Mfn2 was mainly associated with α-tubulin during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of Mfn2 by specific siRNA injection into oocytes caused the mitochondrial morphology and quantity to change, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes. This led to metaphase I arrest and the failure of first polar body extrusion. Furthermore, Mfn2 depletion from GV stage oocytes caused the redistribution of p38 MAPK in oocyte cytoplasm. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated cellular alterations, which may have significant implications for oocyte maturation. PMID:27485634

  5. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  6. Mitofusin-2 is required for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Teng; Gao, Si-Hua; Wang, Ke; Yang, Xiu-Yan; Mo, Fang-Fang; Na Yu; An, Tian; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Guang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is essential for embryonic development, anti-apoptotic events, protection against free radical-induced lesions, and mitochondrial fusion in many cells. However, little is known about its mechanism and function during oocyte maturation. In this study, we found that Mfn2 was expressed in the cytoplasm during different stages of mouse oocyte maturation. Mfn2 was mainly associated with α-tubulin during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of Mfn2 by specific siRNA injection into oocytes caused the mitochondrial morphology and quantity to change, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes. This led to metaphase I arrest and the failure of first polar body extrusion. Furthermore, Mfn2 depletion from GV stage oocytes caused the redistribution of p38 MAPK in oocyte cytoplasm. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated cellular alterations, which may have significant implications for oocyte maturation. PMID:27485634

  7. Differences in oocyte development and estradiol sensitivity among mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Pepling, Melissa E; Sundman, Emily A; Patterson, Nicole L; Gephardt, Grant W; Medico, Leonard; Wilson, Krystal I

    2010-02-01

    Mouse oocytes develop in clusters of interconnected cells called germline cysts. Shortly after birth, the majority of cysts break apart and primordial follicles form, consisting of one oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells. Concurrently, oocyte number is reduced by two-thirds. Exposure of neonatal females to estrogenic compounds causes multiple oocyte follicles that are likely germline cysts that did not break down. Supporting this idea, estrogen disrupts cyst breakdown and may regulate normal oocyte development. Previously, the CD-1 strain was used to study cyst breakdown and oocyte survival, but it is unknown if there are differences in these processes in other mouse strains. It is also unknown if there are variations in estrogen sensitivity during oocyte development. Here, we examined neonatal oocyte development in FVB, C57BL/6, and F2 hybrid (Oct4-GFP) strains, and compared them with the CD-1 strain. We found variability in oocyte development among the four strains. We also investigated estrogen sensitivity differences, and found that C57BL/6 ovaries are more sensitive to estradiol than CD-1, FVB, or Oct4-GFP ovaries. Insight into differences in oocyte development will facilitate comparison of mice generated on different genetic backgrounds. Understanding variations in estrogen sensitivity will lead to better understanding of the risks of environmental estrogen exposure in humans. PMID:19846484

  8. Age-Associated Lipidome Changes in Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-01-01

    The quality of mammalian oocytes declines with age, which negatively affects fertilization and developmental potential. The aging process often accompanies damages to macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. To investigate if aged oocytes display an altered lipidome compared to young oocytes, we performed a global lipidomic analysis between oocytes from 4-week-old and 42 to 50-week-old mice. Increased oxidative stress is often considered as one of the main causes of cellular aging. Thus, we set up a group of 4-week-old oocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a commonly used oxidative stressor, to compare if similar lipid species are altered between aged and oxidative-stressed oocytes. Between young and aged oocytes, we identified 26 decreased and 6 increased lipids in aged oocytes; and between young and H2O2-treated oocytes, we identified 35 decreased and 26 increased lipids in H2O2-treated oocytes. The decreased lipid species in these two comparisons were overlapped, whereas the increased lipid species were distinct. Multiple phospholipid classes, phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) significantly decreased both in H2O2-treated and aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is similarly affected under these conditions. In contrast, a dramatic increase in diacylglycerol (DG) was only noted in H2O2-treated oocytes, indicating that the acute effect of H2O2-caused oxidative stress is distinct from aging-associated lipidome alteration. In H2O2-treated oocytes, the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 increased along with increases in phosphatidylcholine. Overall, our data reveal that several classes of phospholipids are affected in aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is associated with maintaining fertilization and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. PMID:26881843

  9. High survival of mouse oocytes using an optimized vitrification protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Dong-Hui; Niu, Xin-Xin; Kong, Xiang-Wei; Li, Yan-Jiao; Ren, Jing; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Lu, Angeleem; Zhao, Yue-Fang; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The method of vitrification has been widely used for cryopreservation. However, the effectiveness of this method for mammalian oocytes could be improved by optimizing each step of the process. In the present study, we tested the effects of varying several key parameters to determine the most effective protocol for mouse oocyte vitrification. We found that cryoprotectant containing ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide plus 20% fetal calf serum produced the highest rates of oocyte survival, fertilization, and blastocyst formation. The duration and temperature of oocyte exposure to vitrification and thawing solutions influenced survival rate. The presence of cumulus cells surrounding oocytes and the incubation of thawed oocytes in Toyoda-Yokoyama-Hosoki medium also increased oocyte survival. Open pulled straw and nylon loop methods were more effective than the mini-drop method. Finally, the combination of these improved methods resulted in better spindle morphology when compared to the unimproved methods. These results demonstrate that the outcomes of mouse oocyte vitrification can be improved by a suitable combination of cryopreservation methods, which could be applied to future clinical research with human oocytes. PMID:26781721

  10. The type and extent of injuries in vitrified mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yang; Ning, Fang-Yong; Du, Wen-Jing; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Piao, Shan-Hua; An, Tie-Zhu

    2012-04-01

    To improve the vitrification of mouse oocytes using straws, we attempted to estimate the type and extent of injuries during vitrification with a vitrification solution EAFS10/10. Injuries in oocytes were assessed based on cellular viability, the integrity of the plasma membrane, the status of the meiotic spindle/chromosomes, and morphological appearance. For morphologically normal oocytes, the ability to be fertilized and to develop into blastocysts was examined. Morphological assessment revealed 15% of oocytes to be injured by intracellular ice formed during vitrification, and 10% by osmotic swelling during removal of the cryoprotectant. When assessed by the status of spindles/chromosomes, the most sensitive criterion, damage was found in 16% of oocytes without any treatment. This value was similar to the proportion of fresh oocytes that did not cleave after insemination (13%). On exposure to EAFS10/10, the spindles/chromosomes were affected in 33% of oocytes. The exposure reduced the rate of cleavage by 18% points and the rate of development into blastocysts by 19 points. Vitrification reduced these rates by 15% and 36% points, respectively. Although the mechanism responsible for this moderate toxic effect on developmental ability is not known, information obtained in the present study will be useful to develop a practical method for the vitrification of mouse oocytes using straws. PMID:22202671

  11. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E.; Kinsey, William H.

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  12. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimir; Sakakibara, Yogo; Brzakova, Adela; Ferencova, Ivana; Motlik, Jan; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Schultz, Richard M; Solc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Because low levels of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) appear not to activate the ATM-mediated prophase I checkpoint in full-grown oocytes, there may exist mechanisms to protect chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. Using live imaging we demonstrate that low levels of DSBs induced by the radiomimetic drug Neocarzinostatin (NCS) increase the incidence of chromosome fragments and lagging chromosomes but do not lead to APC/C activation and anaphase onset delay. The number of DSBs, represented by γH2AX foci, significantly decreases between prophase I and metaphase II in both control and NCS-treated oocytes. Transient treatment with NCS increases >2-fold the number of DSBs in prophase I oocytes, but less than 30% of these oocytes enter anaphase with segregation errors. MRE11, but not ATM, is essential to detect DSBs in prophase I and is involved in H2AX phosphorylation during metaphase I. Inhibiting MRE11 by mirin during meiotic maturation results in anaphase bridges and also increases the number of γH2AX foci in metaphase II.  Compromised DNA integrity in mirin-treated oocytes indicates a role for MRE11 in chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. PMID:26745237

  13. Active diffusion positions the nucleus in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, Maria; Ahmed, Wylie W; Bussonnier, Matthias; Mailly, Philippe; Betz, Timo; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2015-04-01

    In somatic cells, the position of the cell centroid is dictated by the centrosome. The centrosome is instrumental in nucleus positioning, the two structures being physically connected. Mouse oocytes have no centrosomes, yet harbour centrally located nuclei. We demonstrate how oocytes define their geometric centre in the absence of centrosomes. Using live imaging of oocytes, knockout for the formin 2 actin nucleator, with off-centred nuclei, together with optical trapping and modelling, we discover an unprecedented mode of nucleus positioning. We document how active diffusion of actin-coated vesicles, driven by myosin Vb, generates a pressure gradient and a propulsion force sufficient to move the oocyte nucleus. It promotes fluidization of the cytoplasm, contributing to nucleus directional movement towards the centre. Our results highlight the potential of active diffusion, a prominent source of intracellular transport, able to move large organelles such as nuclei, providing in vivo evidence of its biological function. PMID:25774831

  14. Differential sensitivity of mouse oocytes to colchicine-induced aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Mailhes, J.B.; Yuan, Z.P.

    1987-01-01

    Unpublished results from our laboratory showed that colchicine increased the incidence of hyperploid mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes when injected at the same time as human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The objective of the present study was to determine whether the time of administering colchicine influenced the incidence of aneuploidy in MII oocytes. CD-1 mice were given pregnant mare's serum (PMS) and, 48 hr later, HCG. An intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg/kg colchicine was given at +4, +2, 0, -2, or -4 hr relative to HCG. Oocytes were collected 17 hr post-HCG and processed, and chromosomes were subsequently C-banded. The percentage of hyperploid oocytes was 0.77, 2.56, 5.71, 7.79, 3.54, and 2.70 for control, +4, +2, 0, -2, or -4 hr pre/post-HCG, respectively. Chi-square analyses of these data demonstrated that colchicine significantly increases the proportion of aneuploid oocytes, and that the relative sensitivity of colchicine-induced aneuploidy depends upon the time that this drug is administered relative to HCG.

  15. KL/KIT co-expression in mouse fetal oocytes.

    PubMed

    Doneda, Luisa; Klinger, Francesca-Gioia; Larizza, Lidia; De Felici, Massimo

    2002-12-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, KIT, and its ligand, KL are important regulators of germ cell development. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the expression of the genes encoding these proteins (White and Steel, respectively) during the fetal period (14.5-18.5 days post coitum, dpc) and the two weeks after birth in mouse ovaries using the highly sensitive in situ reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR). KL and KIT mRNAs were not detected in 14.5-15.5 dpc ovaries but, between 16.5 and 17.5 dpc, most of the oocytes in the outer regions of the ovaries positively stained for both mRNAs. The majority of the co-expressing oocytes were identified at the zygotene/pachytene stage of meiotic prophase I. At 18.5 dpc, positive staining for KL mRNA was present only in the somatic cells in the outer regions of the ovaries. At birth, faint KL mRNA-labelled somatic cells were mainly found in the central region of the ovaries and, by P7-14, a higher level of expression was detected in the follicle cells of one- and two-layered growing follicles. Between 17.5 dpc and birth, most of the oocytes expressed KIT mRNA and, from P7 onward, there was a considerable accumulation of transcripts in the growing oocytes. The results of in situ RT-PCR were confirmed by RT-PCR on purified populations of oocytes, and at protein level by means of immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of KL and KIT in a fraction of fetal oocytes suggests that the KL/KIT system, besides the well known paracrine functions on germ cells, may exert a novel autocrine role during the mid-stage of the oocyte meiotic prophase. The possibility that this autocrine loop plays a role in sustaining the survival of fetal oocytes in this stage is supported by the finding that the addition to the culture medium of anti-KL or anti-KIT antibodies led to a significant increase in oocyte apoptosis in the absence of exogenous KL. PMID:12533025

  16. Impact of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses on nucleolus-like bodies of mouse GV oocyte and the ability of mouse oocytes to mature.

    PubMed

    Astafev, A A; Zalesskiy, A D; Zatsepina, O V; Kostrov, A N; Krivoharchenko, A S; Osychenko, A A; Serobyan, G A; Nadtochenko, V A

    2016-03-01

    Using femtosecond laser radiation, nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of mouse oocytes were locally dissected without damage to zona pellucida, cytoplasmic membrane, nuclear membrane, and nucleoplasm surrounding NLB. It was found that, after dissection of 2.7 × 10(-11) cm(3) of NLB material, which is approximately 5.2% of 10 μm NLB volume, the probability of germinal vesicle oocyte development to metaphase II stage of meiosis decreased 3-7 times compared to the non-treated oocytes. This result indicates that NLB material organization is significant for mouse oocyte maturation. PMID:27193718

  17. Antioxidant supplementation overcomes the deleterious effects of maternal restraint stress-induced oxidative stress on mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hua-Yu; Gao, Yan; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Wang, Tian-Yang; Li, Hong; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-12-01

    In this study, using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that restraint stress would impair the developmental potential of oocytes by causing oxidative stress and that antioxidant supplementation could overcome the adverse effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. Female mice were subjected to restraint stress for 24 h starting 24 h after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. At the end of stress exposure, mice were either killed to recover oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) or injected with human chorionic gonadotropin and caged with male mice to observe in vivo development. The effect of antioxidants was tested in vitro by adding them to IVM medium or in vivo by maternal injection immediately before restraint stress exposure. Assays carried out to determine total oxidant and antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels indicated that restraint stress increased oxidative stress in mouse serum, ovaries, and oocytes. Whereas the percentage of blastocysts and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in oocytes from restraint-stressed mice, addition of antioxidants to IVM medium significantly improved their blastocyst development. Supplementation of cystine and cysteamine to IVM medium reduced ROS levels and aneuploidy while increasing glutathione synthesis and improving pre- and postimplantation development of oocytes from restraint-stressed mice. Furthermore, injection of the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate into restraint-stressed mice significantly improved the blastocyst formation and postimplantation development of their oocytes. In conclusion, restraint stress at the oocyte prematuration stage impaired the developmental potential of oocytes by increasing oxidative stress and addition of antioxidants to IVM medium or maternal antioxidant injection overcame the detrimental effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. The data reported herein are helpful when making attempts to

  18. Axin-1 Regulates Meiotic Spindle Organization in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Yu-Ting; Xu, Lin; Chen, Ming-Huang; Wang, Ya-Long; Xu, Bai-Hui; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Hai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Axin-1, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, is a versatile scaffold protein involved in centrosome separation and spindle assembly in mitosis, but its function in mammalian oogenesis remains unknown. Here we examined the localization and function of Axin-1 during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Axin-1 was localized around the spindle. Knockdown of the Axin1 gene by microinjection of specific short interfering (si)RNA into the oocyte cytoplasm resulted in severely defective spindles, misaligned chromosomes, failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion, and impaired pronuclear formation. However, supplementing the culture medium with the Wnt pathway activator LiCl improved spindle morphology and pronuclear formation. Downregulation of Axin1 gene expression also impaired the spindle pole localization of γ-tubulin/Nek9 and resulted in retention of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 at kinetochores after 8.5 h of culture. Our results suggest that Axin-1 is critical for spindle organization and cell cycle progression during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. PMID:27284927

  19. Preparation of Cell Lysate from Mouse Oocytes for Western Blotting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marangos, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Western Blotting has been used extensively for the identification of the protein factors that regulate mammalian oocyte meiosis. However, the limitations in collecting sufficient numbers of oocytes can hinder the efficiency of the technique. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the accurate preparation of mouse oocyte samples for Western Blotting analysis. PMID:27557583

  20. Aurora kinase A controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saskova, Adela; Solc, Petr; Baran, Vladimir; Kubelka, Michal; Schultz, Richard M.; Motlik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA), which is a centrosome-localized serine/threonine kinase crucial for cell cycle control, is critically involved in centrosome maturation and spindle assembly in somatic cells. Active T288 phosphorylated AURKA localizes to the centrosome in the late G2 and also spreads to the minus ends of mitotic spindle microtubules. AURKA activates centrosomal CDC25B and recruits cyclin B1 to centrosomes. We report here functions for AURKA in meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes, which is a model system to study the G2 to M transition. Whereas AURKA is present throughout the entire GV-stage oocyte with a clear accumulation on microtubule organizing centers (MTOC), active AURKA becomes entirely localized to MTOCs shortly before germinal vesicle breakdown. In contrast to somatic cells in which active AURKA is present at the centrosomes and minus ends of microtubules, active AURKA is mainly located on MTOCs at metaphase I (MI) in oocytes. Inhibitor studies using Roscovitine (CDK1 inhibitor), LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and SH-6 (PKB inhibitor) reveal that activation of AURKA localized on MTOCs is independent on PI3K-PKB and CDK1 signaling pathways and MOTC amplification is observed in roscovitine- and SH-6-treated oocytes that fail to undergo nuclear envelope breakdown. Moreover, microinjection of Aurka mRNA into GV-stage oocytes cultured in 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX)-containing medium to prevent maturation also results in MOTC amplification in the absence of CDK1 activation. Overexpression of AURKA also leads to formation of an abnormal MI spindle, whereas RNAi-mediated reduction of AURKA interferes with resumption of meiosis and spindle assembly. Results of these experiments indicate that AURKA is a critical MTOC-associated component involved in resumption of meiosis, MTOC multiplication, proper spindle formation and the metaphase I-metaphase II transition. PMID:18677115

  1. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Objective Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Methods Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. Results The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7f/f;Zp3-Cre (Atg7d/d) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7f/f) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7d/d oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7f/f oocytes, comparable to the Atg5d/d oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7d/d MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7d/d oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. Conclusion We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7d/d oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses. PMID:27104152

  2. Cryopreservation of kunming mouse oocytes using slow cooling, ultrarapid cooling and vitrification protocols.

    PubMed

    Men, H S; Chen, J C; Ji, W Z; Shang, E Y; Yang, S C; Zou, R J

    1997-05-01

    The cryopreservation of oocytes has been only marginally successful with any of the current protocols, including slow cooling, rapid cooling and vitrification. We wished to test the hypothesis that oocytes from a single mouse strain would freeze successfully by 1 of the 3 mentioned protocols. Unfertilized Kunming mouse oocytes obtained 14 h after PMSG/hCG administration were randomly assigned to be cryopreserved after slow cooling, ultra rapid cooling and vitrification. Oocytes were thawed by straws being placed into 37 degrees C water, and their morphological appearance and in vitro fertilization capability were compared with that of oocytes that had not undergone cryopreservation. Survival of oocytes was indicated by the absence of darkened ooplasm or by broken membranes or zona pellucida. Functional integrity was evaluated by the formation of a 2-cell embryo after IVF. Survival rate of slow cooled oocytes did not differ from that seen in vitrified oocytes (55.1 vs 65.9%) but was significantly lower in the rapidly cooled oocytes (24.2%; P < 0.01). The results of IVF of slow cooled and vitrified oocytes were similar to those of the control group (72 and 73 vs 77%; P > 0.05). It appears that Kunming mouse oocytes can be successfully cryopreserved using the slow cooling method with 1,2-propanediol and vitrification, which contains both permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotectants. PMID:16728088

  3. Time-Lapse Dynamics of the Mouse Oocyte Chromatin Organisation during Meiotic Resumption

    PubMed Central

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian oocyte, distinct patterns of centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin localisation correlate with the gamete's developmental competence. Mouse antral oocytes display two main types of chromatin organisation: SN oocytes, with a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus, and NSN oocytes lacking this ring. When matured to MII and fertilised, only SN oocytes develop beyond the 2-cell, and reach full term. To give detailed information on the dynamics of the SN or NSN chromatin during meiosis resumption, we performed a 9 hr time-lapse observation. The main significant differences recorded are: (1) reduction of the nuclear area only in SN oocytes; (2) ~17 min delay of GVBD in NSN oocytes; (3) chromatin condensation, after GVBD, in SN oocytes; (4) formation of 4-5 CHCs in SN oocytes; (5) increase of the perivitelline space, ~57 min later in NSN oocytes; (6) formation of a rosette-like disposition of CHCs, ~84 min later in SN oocytes; (7) appearance of the MI plate ~40 min later in NSN oocytes. Overall, we described a pathway of transition from the GV to the MII stage that is punctuated of discrete recordable events showing their specificity and occurring with different time kinetics in the two types of oocytes. PMID:24864231

  4. Generation of live offspring from vitrified mouse oocytes of C57BL/6J strain.

    PubMed

    Kohaya, Natsuki; Fujiwara, Katsuyoshi; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, unfertilized oocytes are one of the most available stages for cryopreservation because the cryopreserved oocytes can be used for assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, it has generally been reported that the fertility and developmental ability of the oocytes are reduced by cryopreservation. C57BL/6J mice, an inbred strain, are used extensively for the production of transgenic and knockout mice. If the oocytes from C57BL/6J mice can be successfully cryopreserved, the cryopreservation protocol used will contribute to the high-speed production of not only gene-modified mice but also hybrid mice. Very recently, we succeeded in the vitrification of mouse oocytes derived from ICR (outbred) mice. However, our protocol can be applied to the vitrification of oocytes from an inbred strain. The aim of the present study was to establish the vitrification of oocytes from C57BL/6J mice. First, the effect of cumulus cells on the ability of C57BL/6J mouse oocytes to fertilize and develop in vitro was examined. The fertility and developmental ability of oocyte-removed cumulus cells (i.e., denuded oocytes, or DOs) after IVF were reduced compared to cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) in both fresh and cryopreserved groups. Vitrified COCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher fertility and ability to develop into the 2-cell and blastocyst stages compared to the vitrified DOs with cumulus cells and vitrified DOs alone. The vitrified COCs developed to term at a high success rate, equivalent to the rate obtained with IVF using fresh COCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that we succeeded for the first time in the vitrification of mouse oocytes from C57BL/6J mice. Our findings will also contribute to the improvement of oocyte vitrification not only in animals but also in clinical applications for human infertility. PMID:23516430

  5. Effective protein inhibition in intact mouse oocytes through peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Jin, Zhen; Gao, Leilei; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Female meiosis is a fundamental area of study in reproductive medicine, and the mouse oocyte model of in vitro maturation (IVM) is most widely used to study female meiosis. To investigate the probable role(s) of an unknown protein in female meiosis, the method traditionally used involves microinjecting a specific antibody into mouse oocytes. Recently, in studies on somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection has become a popular tool because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, untill now no researchers have tried using this technique on mouse oocytes because the zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane) is usually thought or proved to be a tough barrier to macromolecules such as antibodies and proteins. Therefore, we attempted to introduce an antibody into mouse oocytes using a peptide nanoparticle. Here we show for the first time that with our optimized method, an antibody can be effectively delivered into mouse oocytes and inhibit its target protein with high specificity. We obtained significant results using small GTPase Arl2 as a test subject protein. We propose peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection to be a superior alternative to antibody microinjection for preliminary functional studies of unknown proteins in mouse oocytes. PMID:27114861

  6. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  7. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  8. NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Hui; LIN, Xiujiao; LIU, Fang; WANG, Cheng; ZHANG, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    Nlrp9a, Nlrp9b and Nlrp9c are preferentially expressed in oocytes and early embryos in the mouse. Simultaneous genetic ablation of Nlrp9a and Nlrp9c does not affect early embryonic development, but the function of Nlrp9b in the process of oocyte maturation and embryonic development has not been elucidated. Here we show that both Nlrp9b mRNA and its protein are expressed in ovaries and the small intestine. Moreover, the NLRP9B protein was restricted to oocytes in the ovary and declined with oocyte aging. After ovulation and fertilization, NLRP9B protein was found in preimplantation embryos. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that it was mainly localized in the cytoplasm in the oocytes and blastomeres. Thus, this protein might play a role in oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. However, knockdown of Nlrp9b expression in GV-stage oocytes using RNA interference did not affect oocyte maturation or subsequent parthenogenetic development after Nlrp9b-deficient oocytes were activated. Furthermore, Nlrp9b knockdown zygotes could reach the blastocyst stage after being cultured for 3.5 days in vitro. These results provide the first evidence that the NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:26411641

  9. L-proline: a highly effective cryoprotectant for mouse oocyte vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Xue, Xu; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Jin, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that L-proline is a natural osmoprotectant and an antioxidant to protect cells from injuries such as that caused by freezing and thawing in many species including plant, ram sperm and human endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this nontoxic cryoprotectant has not yet been applied to mammalian oocyte vitrification. In this study we evaluated the efficiency and safety of the new cryoprotectant in oocyte vitrification. The results indicated that L-proline improves the survival rate of vitrified oocytes, protects mitochondrial functions and could be applied as a new cryoprotectant in mouse oocyte vitrification. PMID:27412080

  10. L-proline: a highly effective cryoprotectant for mouse oocyte vitrification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Xue, Xu; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Jin, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that L-proline is a natural osmoprotectant and an antioxidant to protect cells from injuries such as that caused by freezing and thawing in many species including plant, ram sperm and human endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this nontoxic cryoprotectant has not yet been applied to mammalian oocyte vitrification. In this study we evaluated the efficiency and safety of the new cryoprotectant in oocyte vitrification. The results indicated that L-proline improves the survival rate of vitrified oocytes, protects mitochondrial functions and could be applied as a new cryoprotectant in mouse oocyte vitrification. PMID:27412080

  11. Effect of Acrylamide on Oocyte Nuclear Maturation and Cumulus Cells Apoptosis in Mouse In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuzhen; Jiang, Ligang; Zhong, Tao; Kong, Shuhui; Zheng, Rongbin; Kong, Fengyun; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Lei; An, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical compound with severe neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Recent studies showed that ACR impairs the function of reproductive organs, e.g., epididymis and testes. In vitro maturation of mouse oocyte is a sensitive assay to identify potential chemical hazard to female fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of ACR on the nuclear maturation and cumulus cells apoptosis of mouse oocytes in vitro. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were incubated in a maturation medium containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 μM of ACR. Chromosome alignment and spindle morphology of oocytes was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that oocytes exposed to different doses of ACR in vitro were associated with a significant decrease of oocyte maturation, significant increase of chromosome misalignment rate, occurrence of abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of oocyte parthenogenetic activation. Furthermore, apoptosis of cumulus cells was determined by TUNEL and CASPASE-3 assay. Results showed that apoptosis in cumulus cells was enhanced and the expression of CASPASE-3 was increased after cumulus–oocyte complexes were exposed to ACR. Therefore, ACR may affect the nuclear maturation of oocytes via the apoptosis of cumulus cells in vitro. PMID:26275143

  12. Effects of ovarian endometriotic fluid exposure on fertilization rate of mouse oocytes and subsequent embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure of oocyte/cumulus complex to endometriotic fluid is not uncommon during oocyte retrieval. Only two studies were available on this subject and they gave conflicting results. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effect of controlled exposure of oocytes to ovarian endometriotic fluid. Methods Mouse oocytes/cumulus complexes (n = 862) were divided into 4 groups, and were exposed to endometriotic fluid (group 1), pooled sera from subjects without endometrioma (group 2), phosphate-buffered saline (group 3), and fertilization medium (controls). After five minutes, oocytes were washed and inseminated. Embryo development was observed daily. The quality of hatching blastocysts was assessed by counting the number of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells. Results The fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in the four groups were not statistically different. The proportions of hatching/hatched blastocysts from fertilized oocytes in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than those in group 3 and controls (P = 0.015). Hatching blastocysts from all groups showed no significant difference in the number of ICM and TE cells. Conclusions Exposure of mouse oocytes/cumulus complexes to endometriotic fluid had subtle detrimental effects on subsequent blastocyst development. However, one should be cautious in projecting the results of this study to contaminated human oocytes in a clinical setting. PMID:23332096

  13. Effect of mycotoxin-containing diets on epigenetic modifications of mouse oocytes by fluorescence microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Hou, Yan-Jun; Han, Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin B1, zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON), are commonly found in many food commodities. Mycotoxins have been shown to increase DNA methylation levels in a human intestinal cell line. We previously showed that the developmental competence of oocytes was affected in mice that had been fed a mycotoxin-containing diet. In this study, we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse oocyte developmental competence after mycotoxin treatment in an epigenetic modification perspective. Mycotoxin-contaminated maize (DON at 3,875 μg/kg, ZEA at 1,897 μg/kg, and AF at 806 μg/kg) was included in diets at three different doses (mass percentage: 0, 15, and 30%) and fed to mice for 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that the general DNA methylation levels increased in oocytes from high dose mycotoxin-fed mice. Mouse oocyte histone methylation was also altered. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 level increased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice, whereas H3K27me3 and H4K20me2 level decreased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice. Thus, our results indicate that naturally occurring mycotoxins have effects on epigenetic modifications in mouse oocytes, which may be one of the reasons for reduced oocyte developmental competence. PMID:24810297

  14. p90Rsk is not involved in cytostatic factor arrest in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Julien; Umbhauer, Muriel; Rassinier, Pascale; Hanauer, André; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Vertebrate oocytes arrest in metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII), where they maintain a high cdc2/cyclin B activity and a stable, bipolar spindle because of cytostatic factor (CSF) activity. The Mos–MAPK pathway is essential for establishing CSF. Indeed, oocytes from the mos−/− strain do not arrest in MII and activate without fertilization, as do Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with morpholino oligonucleotides directed against Mos. In Xenopus oocytes, p90Rsk (ribosomal S6 kinase), a MAPK substrate, is the main mediator of CSF activity. We show here that this is not the case in mouse oocytes. The injection of constitutively active mutant forms of Rsk1 and Rsk2 does not induce a cell cycle arrest in two-cell mouse embryos. Moreover, these two mutant forms do not restore MII arrest after their injection into mos−/− oocytes. Eventually, oocytes from the triple Rsk (1, 2, 3) knockout present a normal CSF arrest. We demonstrate that p90Rsk is not involved in the MII arrest of mouse oocytes. PMID:15837801

  15. Mouse oocytes differentiate through organelle enrichment from sister cyst germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C

    2016-04-01

    Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors. Membrane breakdown within the cyst and an apoptosis-like process are associated with organelle transfer into the oocyte, events reminiscent of nurse cell dumping in Drosophila We propose that cytoplasmic and organelle transport plays an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important role in mammalian oocyte differentiation. PMID:26917595

  16. Rab6a is a novel regulator of meiotic apparatus and maturational progression in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jiaqi; Li, Ling; Ma, Rujun; Ge, Juan; Han, Longsen; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Rab family GTPases have been well known to regulate intracellular vesicle transport, however their function in mammalian oocytes has not been addressed. In this study, we report that when Rab6a is specifically knockdown, mouse oocytes are unable to progress normally through meiosis, arresting at metaphase I. Moreover, in these oocytes, the defects of chromosome alignment and spindle organization are readily observed during maturation, and resultantly increasing the aneuploidy incidence. We further reveal that kinetochore-microtubule attachments are severely compromised in Rab6a-depleted oocytes, which may in part mediate the meiotic phenotypes described above. In addition, when Rab6a function is altered, BubR1 levels on the kinetochores are markedly increased in metaphase oocytes, indicating the activation of spindle assembly checkpoint. In sum, we identify Rab6a as an important player in modulating oocyte meiosis, specifically the chromosome/spindle organization and metaphase-anaphase transition. PMID:26915694

  17. Zearalenone exposure affects mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a metabolite of Fusarium and is a common contaminant of grains and foodstuffs. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered to be cytotoxic, tissue toxic, and genotoxic, which causes abortions and stillbirths in humans and animals. Since estrogens affect oocyte maturation during meiosis, in this study we investigated the effects of ZEN on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation. Our results showed that ZEN-treated oocyte maturation rates were decreased, which might be due to the disrupted cytoskeletons: (1) ZEN treatment resulted in significantly more oocytes with abnormal spindle morphologies; (2) actin filament expression and distribution were also disrupted after ZEN treatment, which was confirmed by the aberrant distribution of actin regulatory proteins. In addition, cortical granule-free domains (CGFDs) were disrupted after ZEN treatment, which indicated that ZEN may affect mouse oocyte fertilization capability. ZEN reduced mouse granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL apoptosis analysis, which may be another cause for the decreased oocyte maturation. Thus, our results demonstrated that exposure to zearalenone affected oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation in mouse. PMID:24733567

  18. Essential Role for Endogenous siRNAs during Meiosis in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paula; Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Li, Fan; Cárdenas, Fabián L.; Davydenk, Olga; Vandivier, Lee E.; Gregory, Brian D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Schultz, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    The RNase III enzyme DICER generates both microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous short interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs). Both small RNA species silence gene expression post-transcriptionally in association with the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family of proteins. In mammals, there are four AGO proteins (AGO1-4), of which only AGO2 possesses endonucleolytic activity. siRNAs trigger endonucleolytic cleavage of target mRNAs, mediated by AGO2, whereas miRNAs cause translational repression and mRNA decay through association with any of the four AGO proteins. Dicer deletion in mouse oocytes leads to female infertility due to defects during meiosis I. Because mouse oocytes express both miRNAs and endo-siRNAs, this phenotype could be due to the absence of either class of small RNA, or both. However, we and others demonstrated that miRNA function is suppressed in mouse oocytes, which suggested that endo-siRNAs, not miRNAs, are essential for female meiosis. To determine if this was the case we generated mice that express a catalytically inactive knock-in allele of Ago2 (Ago2ADH) exclusively in oocytes and thereby disrupted the function of siRNAs. Oogenesis and hormonal response are normal in Ago2ADH oocytes, but meiotic maturation is impaired, with severe defects in spindle formation and chromosome alignment that lead to meiotic catastrophe. The transcriptome of these oocytes is widely perturbed and shows a highly significant correlation with the transcriptome of Dicer null and Ago2 null oocytes. Expression of the mouse transcript (MT), the most abundant transposable element in mouse oocytes, is increased. This study reveals that endo-siRNAs are essential during meiosis I in mouse females, demonstrating a role for endo-siRNAs in mammals. PMID:25695507

  19. Suppression of Chemically Induced and Spontaneous Mouse Oocyte Activation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase1

    PubMed Central

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oocyte activation is an important process triggered by fertilization that initiates embryonic development. However, parthenogenetic activation can occur either spontaneously or with chemical treatments. The LT/Sv mouse strain is genetically predisposed to spontaneous activation. LT oocytes have a cell cycle defect and are ovulated at the metaphase I stage instead of metaphase II. A thorough understanding of the female meiosis defects in this strain remains elusive. We have reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA) has an important role in stimulating meiotic resumption and promoting completion of meiosis I while suppressing premature parthenogenetic activation. Here we show that early activation of PRKA during the oocyte maturation period blocked chemically induced activation in B6SJL oocytes and spontaneous activation in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. This inhibitory effect was associated with high levels of MAPK1/3 activity. Furthermore, stimulation of PRKA partially rescued the meiotic defects of LT/Sv mouse oocytes in concert with correction of abnormal spindle pole localization of PRKA and loss of prolonged spindle assembly checkpoint activity. Altogether, these results confirm a role for PRKA in helping sustain the MII arrest in mature oocytes and suggest that dysfunctional PRKA contributes to meiotic defects in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. PMID:23390161

  20. Involvement of Rab6a in organelle rearrangement and cytoskeletal organization during mouse oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Jiaqi; Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Liu, Honglin; Rui, Rong; Gu, Ling; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Rab GTPases have been reported to define the identity and transport routes of vesicles. Rab6 is one of the most extensively studied Rab proteins involved in regulating organelle trafficking and integrity maintenance. However, to date, the function of Rab6 in mammalian oocytes has not been addressed. Here we report severe disorganization of endoplasmic reticulum upon specific knockdown of Rab6a in mouse oocytes. In line with this finding, intracellular Ca2+ stores are accordingly reduced in Rab6a-depleted oocytes. Furthermore, in these oocytes, we observe the absence of cortical granule free domain, which is a kind of special organelle in matured oocytes and its exocytosis is calcium dependent. On the other hand, following Rab6a knockdown, the prominent defects of cytoskeletal structures are detected during oocyte meiosis. In particular, the majority of Rab6a-depleted oocytes fail to form the actin cap, and the frequency of spindle defects and chromosome misalignment is significantly elevated. In summary, our data reveal that Rab6a not only participates in modulating the organization of oocyte organelles, but also is a novel regulator of meiotic apparatus in mammalian oocytes. PMID:27030207

  1. Effect of warming rate on the survival of vitrified mouse oocytes and on the recrystallization of intracellular ice.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Successful cryopreservation demands there be little or no intracellular ice. One procedure is classical slow equilibrium freezing, and it has been successful in many cases. However, for some important cell types, including some mammalian oocytes, it has not. For the latter, there are increasing attempts to cryopreserve them by vitrification. However, even if intracellular ice formation (IIF) is prevented during cooling, it can still occur during the warming of a vitrified sample. Here, we examine two aspects of this occurrence in mouse oocytes. One took place in oocytes that were partly dehydrated by an initial hold for 12 min at -25 degrees C. They were then cooled rapidly to -70 degrees C and warmed slowly, or they were warmed rapidly to intermediate temperatures and held. These oocytes underwent no IIF during cooling but blackened from IIF during warming. The blackening rate increased about 5-fold for each five-degree rise in temperature. Upon thawing, they were dead. The second aspect involved oocytes that had been vitrified by cooling to -196 degrees C while suspended in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectants and warmed at rates ranging from 140 degrees C/min to 3300 degrees C/min. Survivals after warming at 140 degrees C/min and 250 degrees C/min were low (<30%). Survivals after warming at > or =2200 degrees C/min were high (80%). When warmed slowly, they were killed, apparently by the recrystallization of previously formed small internal ice crystals. The similarities and differences in the consequences of the two types of freezing are discussed. PMID:18562703

  2. Maturation, Fertilization, and the Structure and Function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cryopreserved Mouse Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Katie M.; Weitzman, Vanessa N.; Maier, Donald; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is a promising technology that could benefit women undergoing assisted reproduction. Most studies examining the effects of cryopreservation on fertilization and developmental competence have been done using metaphase II-stage oocytes, while fewer studies have focused on freezing oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, followed by in vitro maturation. Herein, we examined the effects of vitrifying GV-stage mouse oocytes on cytoplasmic structure and on the ability to undergo cytoplasmic changes necessary for proper fertilization and early embryonic development. We examined the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as one indicator of cytoplasmic structure, as well as the ability of oocytes to develop Ca2+ release mechanisms following vitrification and in vitro maturation. Vitrified GV-stage oocytes matured in culture to metaphase II at a rate comparable to that of controls. These oocytes had the capacity to release Ca2+ following injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, demonstrating that Ca2+ release mechanisms developed during meiotic maturation. The ER remained intact during the vitrification procedure as assessed using the lipophilic fluorescent dye DiI. However, the reorganization of the ER that occurs during in vivo maturation was impaired in oocytes that were vitrified before oocyte maturation. These results show that vitrification of GV-stage oocytes does not affect nuclear maturation or the continuity of the ER, but normal cytoplasmic maturation as assessed by the reorganization of the ER is disrupted. Deficiencies in factors that are responsible for proper ER reorganization during oocyte maturation could contribute to the low developmental potential previously reported in vitrified in vitro-matured oocytes. PMID:19299317

  3. Disruption of Bidirectional Oocyte-Cumulus Paracrine Signaling During In Vitro Maturation Reduces Subsequent Mouse Oocyte Developmental Competence1

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Christine X.; Gilchrist, Robert B.; Lane, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte-cumulus cell bidirectional communication is essential for normal development of the oocyte and cumulus cells (CCs) within the follicle. We showed recently that addition of recombinant growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), which signals through the SMAD2/3 pathway, during mouse oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) increased fetal viability. This study thus aimed to observe the effects of disrupting oocyte-CC bidirectional communication during IVM on oocyte developmental competence and fetal outcomes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from equine chorionic gonadotropin-primed prepubertal (CBA/C57BL6) mice were cultured with or without 50 mIU/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 4 μM SMAD2/3 inhibitor SB-431542. Cumulus expansion and first polar body extrusion were then assessed, or COCs were fertilized and stained to evaluate sperm entry or cultured to the blastocyst stage. Embryo development and blastocyst quality were assessed, and Day 4.5 blastocysts were transferred to pseudopregnant recipients to analyze fetal outcomes. SMAD2/3 inhibition or FSH/EGF absence during IVM resulted in decreased cumulus expansion. First polar body extrusion and sperm entry were decreased in the absence of FSH/EGF, whereas only sperm entry was affected in SB-431542-matured COCs. Embryo development and blastocyst rates were unaffected; however, blastocyst quality was significantly altered, with reduced inner cell mass cell numbers in embryos derived from COCs matured in both treatments. When COCs were matured with SB-431542 in the absence of FSH/EGF, cumulus expansion was reduced, but fertilization, embryo development, and embryo quality were not. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling in the presence of FSH/EGF significantly reduced fetal survival but had no effect on implantation or fetal and placental dimensions and morphology. PMID:19144958

  4. MOUSE VERSUS RAT: PROFOUND DIFFERENCES IN MEIOTIC REGULATION AT THE LEVEL OF THE ISOLATED OOCYTE

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO), denuded oocytes (DO) or dissected follicles were obtained 44–48 h after priming immature mice (20–23-days-old) with 5 IU or immature rats (25–27-days-old) with 12.5 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and exposed to a variety of culture conditions. Mouse oocytes were more effectively maintained in meiotic arrest by hypoxanthine, dbcAMP, IBMX, milrinone, and 8-Br-cGMP. The guanylate cyclase activator, atrial natriuretic peptide, suppressed maturation in CEO from both species, but mycophenolic acid reversed IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in mouse CEO with little activity in rat CEO. IBMX-arrested mouse, but not rat, CEO were induced to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and amphiregulin, while human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was ineffective in both species. Nevertheless, FSH and amphiregulin stimulated cumulus expansion in both species. FSH and hCG were both effective inducers of GVB in cultured mouse and rat follicles while amphiregulin was stimulatory only in mouse follicles. Changing the culture medium or altering macromolecular supplementation had no effect on FSH-induced maturation in rat CEO. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, AICAR, was a potent stimulator of maturation in mouse CEO and DO, but only marginally stimulatory in rat CEO and ineffective in rat DO. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked meiotic induction more effectively in hCG-treated mouse follicles and heat-treated mouse CEO. Both agents produced contrasting results on polar body formation in cultured CEO in the two species. Active AMPK was detected in germinal vesicles of immature mouse, but not rat, oocytes prior to hCG-induced maturation in vivo; it colocalized with chromatin after GVB in rat and mouse oocytes, but did not appear at the spindle poles in rat oocytes as it did in mouse oocytes. Finally, cultured mouse and rat CEO displayed disparate maturation responses to energy substrate

  5. Role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in modulating postovulatory aging of mouse and rat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Xin; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, Jiang; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Tan, Jing-He

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in modulating oocyte postovulatory aging by observing changes in NCX contents and activities in aging mouse and rat oocytes. Whereas the NCX activity was measured by observing oocyte activation following culture with NCX inhibitor or activator, the NCX contents were determined by immunohistochemical quantification. Although NCX was active in freshly-ovulated rat oocytes recovered 13 h post hCG injection and in aged oocytes recovered 19 h post hCG in both species, it was not active in freshly-ovulated mouse oocytes. However, NCX became active when the freshly-ovulated mouse oocytes were activated with ethanol before culture. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ revealed Ca2+ increases always before NCX activation. Whereas levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation susceptibility increased, the density of NCX member 1 (NCX1) decreased significantly with oocyte aging in both species. While culture with H2O2 decreased the density of NCX1 significantly, culture with NaCl supplementation sustained the NCX1 density in mouse oocytes. It was concluded that (a) the NCX activity was involved in the modulation of oocyte aging and spontaneous activation; (b) ROS and Na+ regulated the NCX activity in aging oocytes by altering its density as well as functioning; and (c) cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation was essential for NCX activation in the oocyte. PMID:24695407

  6. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the germline is important for reproductive success of mammals. Misregulation of genes whose expression is correlated with reproductive success may result in subfertility or infertility. To study epigenetic events that occur during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development, it is important to generate large numbers of ovarian follicles and embryos. Oocyte maturation can be modeled using in vitro maturation (IVM), which is a system of maturing ovarian follicles in a culture dish. In addition, fertilization and early embryogenesis can be modeled using in vitro fertilization (IVF), which involves the fertilization of mature oocytes with capacitated sperm in a culture dish. Here, we describe protocols for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture. These protocols are suitable for the study of oocyte and embryo biology and the production of embryonic mice. PMID:24743999

  7. Development of mouse and rat oocytes in chimeric reaggregated ovaries after interspecific exchange of somatic and germ cell components.

    PubMed

    Eppig, J J; Wigglesworth, K

    2000-10-01

    The germ cell and somatic cell compartments of newborn rat and mouse ovaries, which contain only primordial stage follicles, were completely exchanged and reaggregated to produce xenogeneic chimeric ovaries. The reaggregated ovaries were grafted beneath the renal capsules of ovariectomized SCID mice to develop for periods up to 21 days. Xenogeneic follicles developed with essentially normal morphological characteristics. Both rat and mouse oocytes with species-specific characteristics grew within follicles that were composed of somatic cells exclusively of the alternative species. Rat oocytes grown in mouse follicles became competent to resume meiosis, and progressed to metaphase II when they were removed from follicles and cultured. In addition, mouse oocytes grown in rat follicles underwent fertilization and preimplantation development in vitro, and developed to term after embryos were transferred to pseudopregnant mouse foster mothers. Therefore, despite an estimated 11 million years of divergent evolution, oocytes and somatic cells of rat and mouse ovaries can be exchanged and can produce functional oocytes. It is concluded that factors involved in oocyte-somatic cell interactions necessary to support oocyte development and appropriate differentiation of the oocyte-associated granulosa cells are conserved between rats and mice. Moreover, although granulosa cells play important roles in oocyte development, the development of species-specific characteristics of oocytes occurs without apparent modification by a xenogeneic follicular environment. PMID:10993822

  8. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Swann, Karl; Borri, Paola

    2016-06-15

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  9. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  10. Growth of Mouse Oocytes to Maturity from Premeiotic Germ Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Liang, Gui-Jin; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Chao, Hu-He; Li, Lan; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Shi, Qing-Hua; Sun, Qing-Yuan; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we established an in vitro culture system suitable for generating fertilizable oocytes from premeiotic mouse female germ cells. These results were achieved after first establishing an in vitro culture system allowing immature oocytes from 12–14 day- old mice to reach meiotic maturation through culture onto preantral granulosa cell (PAGC) monolayers in the presence of Activin A (ActA). To generate mature oocytes from premeiotic germ cells, pieces of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with ActA for 28 days and the oocytes formed within the explants were isolated and cocultured onto PAGC monolayers in the presence of ActA for 6–7 days. The oocytes were then subjected to a final meiotic maturation assay to evaluate their capability to undergo germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage. We found that during the first 28 days of culture, a significant number of oocytes within the ovarian explants reached nearly full growth and formed preantral follicle-like structures with the surrounding somatic cells. GSH level and Cx37 expression in the oocytes within the explants were indicative of proper developmental conditions. Moreover, the imprinting of Igf2r and Peg3 genes in these oocytes was correctly established. Further culture onto PAGCs in the presence of ActA allowed about 16% of the oocytes to undergo GVBD, among which 17% reached the MII stage during the final 16–18 hr maturation culture. These MII oocytes showed normal spindle and chromosome assembly and a correct ERK1/2 activity. About 35% of the in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and 53.44% of them were able to reach the 2-cell stage. Finally, around 7% of the 2-cell embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage. PMID:22848595

  11. Granulosa cell-oocyte interactions: the phosphorylation of specific proteins in mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage is dependent upon the differentiative state of companion somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cecconi, S.; Tatone, C.; Buccione, R.; Mangia, F.; Colonna, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of granulosa cells in the regulation of mouse ovarian oocyte metabolism was investigated. Fully grown antral oocytes, isolated from surrounding cumulus cells, were cultured on monolayers of preantral granulosa cells in the presence of dbcAMP to prevent the resumption of meiosis. Under these conditions metabolic cooperativity was established between the two cell types as early as 1 hr after seeding. Moreover, cocultured oocytes phosphorylated two polypeptides of 74 and 21 kDa which are normally phosphorylated in follicle-enclosed growing oocytes but not in cumulus cell-enclosed fully grown oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. When cocultured oocytes were allowed to resume meiosis, the 74 and 21 kDa proteins were synthesized but no longer phosphorylated even though intercellular coupling between the two cell types was maintained during radiolabeling. It appears therefore: (a) that the different protein kinase activity of growing and fully grown germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes is related to the differentiative state of granulosa cells, and (b) that the regulation of oocyte protein phosphorylation activity by granulosa cells is dependent on the meiotic stage of the oocyte.

  12. Apoptotic effects on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization and fetal development by puerarin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Jen; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-10-01

    Previously we identified puerarin, an isoflavone compound, as a risk factor for normal embryonic development that triggers apoptotic processes in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, leading to retardation of embryonic development and cell viability. In the current study, we investigated whether puerarin exerts deleterious effects on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, puerarin caused significant impairment of these processes in vitro. Pre-incubation of oocytes with puerarin during in vitro maturation led to increased post-implantation embryo resorption and decreased mouse fetal weight. In an in vivo animal model, intravenous injection with or without puerarin (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 days caused a decrease in oocyte maturation and IVF, and led to deleterious effects on early embryonic development. Importantly, pre-incubation of oocytes with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively blocked puerarin-triggered deleterious effects, clearly implying that embryonic injury induced by puerarin is mediated by a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. These results clearly demonstrate that puerarin has deleterious effects on mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26712108

  13. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  14. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  15. Investigations of oocyte in vitro maturation within a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alexis Heng Boon; Chye, Ng Soon

    2004-02-01

    This study attempted to develop a 'less meiotically competent' murine model for oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), which could more readily be extrapolated to human clinical assisted reproduction. Oocyte meiotic competence was drastically reduced upon shortening the standard duration of in vivo gonadotrophin stimulation from 48 h to 24 h, and by selecting only naked or partially naked germinal vesicle oocytes, instead of fully cumulus enclosed oocyte complexes. With such a less meiotically competent model, only porcine granulosa coculture significantly enhanced the oocyte maturation rate in vitro, whereas no significant enhancement was observed with macaque and murine granulosa coculture. Increased serum concentrations and the supplementation of gonadotrophins, follicular fluid and extracellular matrix gel within the culture medium did not enhance IVM under either cell-free or coculture conditions. Culture medium conditioned by porcine granulosa also enhanced the maturation rate, and this beneficial effect was not diminished upon freeze-thawing. Enhanced IVM in the presence of porcine granulosa coculture did not, however, translate into improved developmental competence, as assessed by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. PMID:15214575

  16. Exceptional material requirement for reproduction in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Wang, S F; Zhai, Q Z; Yao, Y Q; Jiang, F; Lu, Y X

    2015-01-01

    Limited information on oocytes and fertilization prevents the efficient therapy of patients with infertility. The most important reason for this lack of understanding is a deficiency in research dedicated to oocytes and fertilization. Currently, we are concerned with the role of nutrition in the process of oocyte development to better understand the relationship between nutrition and infertility. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some exceptional materials and infertility to elucidate the role of these materials in oocyte development. We used proteomic analysis to identify numerous nutrition-related proteins in three developmental stages: the germinal vesicle stage, the metaphase II-arrested stage, and the fertilized oocyte-zygote stage. Specific proteins were abundantly expressed during the three stages. These proteins included astacin-like metalloendopeptidase, selenium-binding proteins, and other proteins involved in metabolic and signaling pathways. Other proteins were involved in the citrate cycle, the electron transport chain, the urea cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and the insulin signaling pathway. Almost all these proteins exhibited different expression levels in the three stages. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of early embryonic development and suggest new treatment methods for infertility. PMID:26600495

  17. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on In Vivo Oocyte Maturation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuZhen; Jiang, LiGang; Meng, XiaoQian; Han, XiaoYing; Cheng, Dong; Zhang, TianLiang; Miao, YiLiang

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Though some studies provided evidence that PCBs had adverse effects on reproductive function, most of these results were from in vitro models. Therefore we investigated the effect of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCBs mixture) treatments on in vivo maturation and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. In the present study, female ICR mice were treated with different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCB mixture) once every 72 hours by intraperitoneal injection for 9 days. After three treatments of Aroclor 1254, the mice were superovulated to collect oocytes one day after the last exposure. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation embryonic development were investigated. Immunofluorescence-stained oocytes were observed under a confocal microscope to assess the effects of Aroclor 1254 on spindle morphology. Parthenogenic activation and the incidence of cumulus apoptosis in cumulus-oocyte complexes were observed as well. Oocytes exposed to different doses of Aroclor 1254 in vivo were associated with a significant decrease in outgrowth potential, abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of parthenogenetic activation of ovulated oocytes. Furthermore, the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells was increased after exposed to Aroclor 1254. These results may provide reference for the treatment of reproductive diseases such as infertility or miscarriage caused by environmental contaminants. PMID:25013911

  18. TRAIP is involved in chromosome alignment and SAC regulation in mouse oocyte meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yi-Feng; Ren, Yi-Xin; Yuan, Peng; Yan, Li-Ying; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recent whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies demonstrated that TRAIP is associated with primordial dwarfism. Although TRAIP was partially studied in mitosis, its function in oocyte meiosis remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of TRAIP during mouse oocyte meiosis. TRAIP was stably expressed during oocytes meiosis and co-localized with CREST at the centromere region. Knockdown of TRAIP led to DNA damage, as revealed by the appearance of γH2AX. Although oocytes meiotic maturation was not affected, the proportions of misaligned chromosomes and aneuploidy were elevated after TRAIP knockdown, suggesting TRAIP is required for stable kinetochore–microtubule (K-MT) attachment. TRAIP knockdown decreased the accumulation of Mad2 on centromeres, potentially explaining why oocyte maturation was not affected following formation of DNA lesions. Securin, a protein which was prevent from precocious degradation by Mad2, was down-regulated after TRAIP knockdown. Inhibition of TRAIP by microinjection of antibody into pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) stage oocytes resulted in precocious first polar body (PB1) extrusion, and live-cell imaging clearly revealed misaligned chromosomes after TRAIP knockdown. Taken together, these data indicate that TRAIP plays important roles in oocyte meiosis regulation. PMID:27405720

  19. TRAIP is involved in chromosome alignment and SAC regulation in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Feng; Ren, Yi-Xin; Yuan, Peng; Yan, Li-Ying; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recent whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies demonstrated that TRAIP is associated with primordial dwarfism. Although TRAIP was partially studied in mitosis, its function in oocyte meiosis remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of TRAIP during mouse oocyte meiosis. TRAIP was stably expressed during oocytes meiosis and co-localized with CREST at the centromere region. Knockdown of TRAIP led to DNA damage, as revealed by the appearance of γH2AX. Although oocytes meiotic maturation was not affected, the proportions of misaligned chromosomes and aneuploidy were elevated after TRAIP knockdown, suggesting TRAIP is required for stable kinetochore-microtubule (K-MT) attachment. TRAIP knockdown decreased the accumulation of Mad2 on centromeres, potentially explaining why oocyte maturation was not affected following formation of DNA lesions. Securin, a protein which was prevent from precocious degradation by Mad2, was down-regulated after TRAIP knockdown. Inhibition of TRAIP by microinjection of antibody into pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) stage oocytes resulted in precocious first polar body (PB1) extrusion, and live-cell imaging clearly revealed misaligned chromosomes after TRAIP knockdown. Taken together, these data indicate that TRAIP plays important roles in oocyte meiosis regulation. PMID:27405720

  20. The effect of glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    González, Raquel; Ruiz-León, Yolanda; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2010-02-01

    Increased glucocorticoid levels, due to medical therapy or stress-related, may affect reproduction via the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis or directly at the oocyte level. We examined the effects of natural (corticosterone) or synthetic (dexamethasone) glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte maturation and underlying changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation patterns. Fertilization and progression up to the blastocyst stage were also evaluated. Oocytes were exposed to corticosterone or dexamethasone (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 or 250microM) for 17h during in vitro maturation. After maturation, ERK-1/2 activation in oocytes was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in vitro. Corticosterone exposure during oocyte maturation significantly decreased progression to metaphase II, fertilization and embryo development at the highest concentration. Corticosterone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation, with the highest concentration resulting in considerable inhibition of oocyte ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and no blastocyst development. In contrast, dexamethasone had no effect on maturation, fertilization and cleavage, and no effect was seen on ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these in vitro findings, high glucocorticoid levels may have consequences for subsequent development, although a short exposure to physiologic or stress-related glucocorticoid levels may not represent a hazard to meiosis progression of the oocyte. PMID:19733225

  1. Intact fetal ovarian cord formation promotes mouse oocyte survival and development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Female reproductive potential, or the ability to propagate life, is limited in mammals with the majority of oocytes lost before birth. In mice, surviving perinatal oocytes are enclosed in ovarian follicles for subsequent oocyte development and function in the adult. Before birth, fetal germ cells of both sexes develop in clusters, or germline cysts, in the undifferentiated gonad. Upon sex determination of the fetal gonad, germ cell cysts become organized into testicular or ovarian cord-like structures and begin to interact with gonadal somatic cells. Although germline cysts and testicular cords are required for spermatogenesis, the role of cyst and ovarian cord formation in mammalian oocyte development and female fertility has not been determined. Results Here, we examine whether intact fetal ovarian germ and somatic cell cord structures are required for oocyte development using mouse gonad re-aggregation and transplantation to disrupt gonadal organization. We observed that germ cells from disrupted female gonad prior to embryonic day e13.5 completed prophase I of meiosis but did not survive following transplantation. Furthermore, re-aggregated ovaries from e13.5 to e15.5 developed with a reduced number of oocytes. Oocyte loss occurred before follicle formation and was associated with an absence of ovarian cord structure and ovary disorganization. However, disrupted ovaries from e16.5 or later were resistant to the re-aggregation impairment and supported robust oocyte survival and development in follicles. Conclusions Thus, we demonstrate a critical window of oocyte development from e13.5 to e16.5 in the intact fetal mouse ovary, corresponding to the establishment of ovarian cord structure, which promotes oocyte interaction with neighboring ovarian somatic granulosa cells before birth and imparts oocytes with competence to survive and develop in follicles. Because germline cyst and ovarian cord structures are conserved in the human fetal ovary, the

  2. Nuf2 is required for chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Qian, Wei-Ping; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Nuf2 plays an important role in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and thus is involved in regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis. In this study, we examined the localization and function of Nuf2 during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Myc6-Nuf2 mRNA injection and immunofluorescent staining showed that Nuf2 localized to kinetochores from germinal vesicle breakdown to metaphase I stages, while it disappeared from the kinetochores at the anaphase I stage, but relocated to kinetochores at the MII stage. Overexpression of Nuf2 caused defective spindles, misaligned chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint, and thus inhibited chromosome segregation and metaphase-anaphase transition in oocyte meiosis. Conversely, precocious polar body extrusion was observed in the presence of misaligned chromosomes and abnormal spindle formation in Nuf2 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Our data suggest that Nuf2 is a critical regulator of meiotic cell cycle progression in mammalian oocytes. PMID:26054848

  3. Toxic effects of HT-2 toxin on mouse oocytes and its possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Zhang, Yue; Duan, Xing; Han, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-06-01

    T-2 toxin is one of the type A trichothecene mycotoxins that is considered to be the most toxic of the trichothecenes. T-2 toxin has been shown to exert various toxic effects in farm animals and humans, as it induces lesions in the brain and in lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal tissues. HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite of T-2 toxin. There is little information regarding the effects of HT-2 toxin on the female reproductive system, particularly oocyte maturation. Thus, in this study, we investigated the toxic effects of HT-2 on mouse oocyte maturation and its possible mechanisms of action. HT-2 toxin exposure disrupted oocyte maturation, reduced actin expression in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, and disrupted meiotic spindle morphology by reducing p-MAPK protein level. HT-2 toxin exposure also induced oxidative stress and resulted in oocyte apoptosis, as shown by ROS accumulation, increased SOD mRNA level, and the expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and increased caspase-3 and bax mRNA levels. Additionally, HT-2 toxin exposure increased LC3 and ATG12 protein levels and lc3 and atg14 mRNA levels, which indicated that HT-2 toxin induced autophagy in mouse oocytes. We also examined for possible epigenetic modifications. Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that 5mC level increased after HT-2 toxin exposure, whereas H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 levels decreased after HT-2 toxin exposure, which indicated that DNA and histone methylations were altered. Thus, our results indicated that HT-2 toxin exposure reduced mouse oocyte maturation capability by affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, apoptosis/autophagy, oxidative stress, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26138683

  4. Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Teng; Qi, Shu-Tao; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-06-10

    Nek11, a member of the never in mitosis gene A (NIMA) family, is activated in somatic cells associated with G1/S or G2/M arrest. However, its function in meiosis is unknown. In this research, the expression, localization and functions of NEK11 in the mouse oocyte meiotic maturation were examined. Western blotting indicated that NEK11S was the major NEK11 protein in mouse oocyte. MYC-tagged Nek11 mRNA microinjection and immunofluorescent staining showed that NEK11 was localized to the meiotic spindles at MI and MII stage. Knockdown of Nek11 by microinjection of siRNA did not affect germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body extrusion, but caused formation of 2-cell-like eggs. These results demonstrate that Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27150633

  5. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on maturation of starfish and mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Picard, André; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Palavan, Golbahar; Robert, Stéphanie; Pesando, Danielle; Ciapa, Brigitte

    2003-05-01

    Methoxychlor, lindane, and dieldrin are organochlorine pesticides that have been described as altering different reproductive functions in mammals and in invertebrates. However, few data have been published concerning the effects these pesticides have on oocyte maturation and fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine whether these compounds could affect maturation of mouse and starfish oocytes. We observed that germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in starfish oocytes was significantly inhibited by the pesticides. Furthermore, formation of the first meiotic spindle and extrusion of the first polar body were also altered in mouse as well as in starfish. Our results suggest that the three pesticides act on common intracellular targets in invertebrates as well as in vertebrates. PMID:12700411

  6. Generation of an Oocyte-Specific Cas9 Transgenic Mouse for Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhou, Jiankui; Han, Jinxiong; Hu, Bian; Hou, Ningning; Shi, Yun; Huang, Xingxu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed as an easy-handle and multiplexable approach for engineering eukaryotic genomes by zygote microinjection of Cas9 and sgRNA, while preparing Cas9 for microinjection is laborious and introducing inconsistency into the experiment. Here, we describe a modified strategy for gene targeting through using oocyte-specific Cas9 transgenic mouse. With this mouse line, we successfully achieve precise gene targeting by injection of sgRNAs only into one-cell-stage embryos. Through comprehensive analysis, we also show allele complexity and off-target mutagenesis induced by this strategy is obviously lower than Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA injection. Thus, injection of sgRNAs into oocyte-specific Cas9 transgenic mouse embryo provides a convenient, efficient and reliable approach for mouse genome editing. PMID:27119535

  7. Effects of ochratoxin a on mouse oocyte maturation and fertilization, and apoptosis during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Jen; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, and is a risk factor for abnormal embryonic development. More specifically, OTA triggers apoptotic processes in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, decreasing cell viability and embryonic development. In the current study, we investigated the deleterious effects of OTA on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, OTA significantly impaired mouse oocyte maturation, decreased IVF rates, and inhibited subsequent embryonic development in vitro. Preincubation of oocytes with OTA during in vitro maturation increased postimplantation embryonic resorption and decreased mouse fetal weight. In an in vivo animal model, provision of 1-10 μM OTA in the drinking water or intravenous injection of 1 or 2 mg/kg body weight of OTA decreased oocyte maturation and IVF, and had deleterious effects on early embryonic development. Importantly, preincubation of oocytes with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively blocked these OTA-triggered deleterious effects, suggesting that the embryonic injury induced by OTA is mediated via a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. Furthermore, OTA upregulated the levels of p53 and p21 in blastocyst cells derived from OTA-pretreated oocytes, indicating that such cells undergo apoptosis via p53-, p21-, and caspase-3-dependent regulatory mechanisms. This could have deleterious effects on embryonic implantation and fetal survival rates, as seen in our animal models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 724-735, 2016. PMID:25504763

  8. Nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes after treatment with synthetic meiosis-activating sterol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hegele-Hartung, C; Kuhnke, J; Lessl, M; Grøndahl, C; Ottesen, J; Beier, H M; Eisner, S; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U

    1999-11-01

    Synthetically produced meiosis-activating sterol, a sterol originally derived from follicular fluid (FF-MAS), induces meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. We therefore compared FF-MAS-induced maturation of naked mouse oocytes arrested in prophase I by either hypoxanthine (Hx) or forskolin (Fo) with spontaneous maturation of naked oocytes. FF-MAS-treated oocytes overcame the meiotic block by Hx or Fo, although germinal vesicle breakdown was delayed by 11 h and 7 h, respectively. We also investigated the influence of FF-MAS on chromosome, microtubule, and ultrastructural dynamics in Hx-cultured oocytes by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Similarly to spontaneously matured oocytes, chromosomes became aligned, a barrel-shaped spindle formed, and overall organelle distribution was normal in FF-MAS-matured oocytes. The number of small cytoplasmic asters was elevated in FF-MAS-treated oocytes. Although the number of cortical granules (CGs) was similar to that in spontaneously matured oocytes, the overall distance between CGs and oolemma was increased in the FF-MAS group. These observations suggest that the initiation of meiotic maturation in FF-MAS-treated oocytes in the presence of high cAMP levels leads to a delayed but otherwise normal nuclear maturation. FF-MAS appears to improve oocyte quality by supporting microtubule assembly and by delaying CG release, which is known to contribute to reduced fertilization. PMID:10529286

  9. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes is an important way to provide a steady source of materials for research and practice of parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization, and nuclear transfer. However, oocytes cryopreservation has not been common used, as there still are some problems waiting to be solved on the repeatability, safety, and validity. Then, it is necessary to investigate the damage occurred from vitrification and find a way to avoid or repair it. In this study, mouse mature oocytes were firstly pretreated in different equilibrium media, such as 5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 10% EG + 10% DMSO, and 15% EG + 15% DMSO in TCM199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively, and then oocytes were transferred into vitrification solution (20% EG, 20% DMSO, 0.3 M sucrose, and 20% FCS in TCM199, M2, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, and 0.9% saline medium, respectively) and immediately loaded into glass capillaries to be plunged into liquid nitrogen. After storage from 1 h to 1 wk, they were diluted in stepwise sucrose solutions. The surviving oocytes were stained for cortical granule, meiotic spindles, and chromosomes. Oocytes without treatments were used as controls. The results showed that oocytes pretreated in 5% EG +5% DMSO group for 3-5 min or in 10% EG + 10% DMSO group for 1-3 min were better than other treatments. Oocytes vitrified in TCM199 as basic medium showed higher survival and better subsequent embryonic development than other groups. When the concentration of FCS in vitrification solution reduced below 15%, the rates of survival, fertilization, and developing to blastocyst declined dramatically. The inner diameter (0.6 mm) of glass capillaries and amount of vitrification solution (1-3 microl) achieved more rapid cooling and warming and so reduce the injury to oocytes. Cropreservation led to the exocytosis of cortical granule of oocytes (about 10%) and serious disturbance of

  10. Depletion of the LINC complex disrupts cytoskeleton dynamics and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yibo; Lee, In-Won; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology) proteins constitute the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex on the nuclear envelope. To date, the SUN1/KASH5 complex is known to function as meiotic-specific factors. In this study, gene-silencing methods were used to explore the roles of SUN1 and KASH5 in mouse oocytes after prophase. SUN1 was detected throughout the nucleus; however, KASH5 was dispersed through the cell. After germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), SUN1 and KASH5 migrated during spindle formation and localized to the spindle poles at the MII stage. Most oocytes were arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after depletion of either SUN1 or KASH5. The DNA damage response was triggered in SUN1-depleted oocytes and thus gave rise to the G2/M checkpoint protein, p-CHK1. Oocytes that underwent GVBD had relatively small and abnormal spindles and lower levels of cytoplasm F-actin mesh. Immunofluorescence results also indicated the dislocation of pericentrin and P150Glued after SUN1 or KASH5 depletion. Furthermore, KASH5 localized exclusively near the oocyte cortex after SUN1 depletion, but SUN1 localization was unaffected in KASH5-depleted oocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that SUN1 and KASH5 are essential factors in the regulation of meiotic resumption and spindle formation. PMID:26842404

  11. Sirt6 depletion causes spindle defects and chromosome misalignment during meiosis of mouse oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Han, Longsen; Ge, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hou, Xiaojing; Li, Bin; Moley, Kelle; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Sirt6, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD-dependent protein deacetylases, has been implicated in multiple biological processes. However, the roles of Sirt6 in meiosis have not been addressed. In the present study, by employing knockdown analysis in mouse oocytes, we evaluated the effects of Sirt6 on meiotic apparatus. We found that specific depletion of Sirt6 results in disruption of spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in oocytes. Consistent with this observation, incidence of aneuploidy is also markedly increased in Sirt6-depleted oocytes. Furthermore, confocal scanning showed that kinetochore-microtubule interaction, an important mechanism controlling chromosome segregation, is severely impaired in metaphase oocytes following Sirt6 knockdown. Unexpectedly, we discovered that Sirt6 modulates the acetylation status of histone H4K16 as their knockdown specifically induces the hyperacetylation of H4K16 in oocytes, which may be associated with the defective phenotypes described above via altering kinetochore function. Altogether, our data reveal a novel function of Sirt6 during oocyte meiosis and indicate a pathway regulating meiotic apparatus. PMID:26481302

  12. Mouse Oocytes Transcribe Injected Xenopus 5S RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Ralph L.; Chen, Howard Y.; Trumbauer, Myrna E.

    2016-01-01

    Transcripts produced after injection of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene into oocyte germinal vesicles of mice migrate electrophoretically with the 5S RNA marker, an indication that the gene is transcribed and processed with considerable accuracy, Approximately two 5S RNA molecules are transcribed per gene per hour. This system may be useful in studying DNA processing and gene regulation by the mammalian ovum and might be modified to allow permanent incorporation of specific genes into mice. PMID:7194505

  13. Vitrification by Cryotop and the Maturation, Fertilization, and Developmental Rates of Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abedpour, Neda; Rajaei, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is an important part of modern fertility treatment. The effect of vitrification on the fertilization and developmental rates of embryo is still a matter of debate. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitrification on the success of mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation development in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 200 germinal vesicle (GV) and 200 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were obtained from ovaries and fallopian tubes of NMRI mice, respectively and divided into two control and experimental (vitrified) groups. Oocytes in the experimental group were vitrified by Cryotop using vitrification medium (Origio, Denmark) and kept in liquid nitrogen for one month. Then, they were cultured in maturation medium for 24 hours. In vitro maturated metaphase 2 (IVM-MII) and ovulated metaphase 2 (OV-MII) oocytes were inseminated and the fertilized embryos assessed until the hatching blastocyst stage. Outcomes were assessed for statistical significance by Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results: Vitrification caused a significant reduction in the maturation rate of oocytes. Of those that matured, the fertilization rate of vitrified IVM-MII (44.1%) and OV-MII oocytes (50%) was not significantly different from each other but both were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in developmental rates of both vitrified groups and the control group. Conclusions: The present study showed that vitrification using Cryotop and freezing medium can damage oocytes by reducing the maturation and fertilization rates in both developmental stages. PMID:26568845

  14. The Defensive Role of Cumulus Cells Against Reactive Oxygen Species Insult in Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Ali, Iyad; Thakur, Mili; Saed, Mohammed G; Dai, Jing; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Banerjee, Jashoman; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical ((·)OH), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), to overcome the defensive capacity of cumulus cells and elucidate the mechanism through which ROS differentially deteriorate oocyte quality. Metaphase II mouse oocytes with (n = 1634) and without cumulus cells (n = 1633) were treated with increasing concentration of ROS, and the deterioration in oocyte quality was assessed by the changes in the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. Oocyte and cumulus cell viability and cumulus cell number were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, staining of gap junction protein, and trypan blue staining. The treated oocytes showed decreased quality as a function of increasing concentrations of ROS when compared to controls. Cumulus cells show protection against H2O2 and (·)OH insult at lower concentrations, but this protection was lost at higher concentrations (>50 μmol/L). At higher H2O2 concentrations, treatment dramatically influenced the cumulus cell number and viability with resulting reduction in the antioxidant capacity making the oocyte more susceptible to oxidative damage. However, cumulus cells offered no significant protection against HOCl at any concentration used. In all circumstances in which cumulus cells did not offer protection to the oocyte, both cumulus cell number and viability were decreased. Therefore, the deterioration in oocyte quality may be caused by one or more of the following: a decrease in the antioxidant machinery by the loss of cumulus cells, the lack of scavengers for specific ROS, and/or the ability of the ROS to overcome these defenses. PMID:26468254

  15. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane. PMID:2657842

  16. Meiotic Spindle Assessment in Mouse Oocytes by siRNA-mediated Silencing.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Claudia; Viveiros, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Errors in chromosome segregation during meiotic division in gametes can lead to aneuploidy that is subsequently transmitted to the embryo upon fertilization. The resulting aneuploidy in developing embryos is recognized as a major cause of pregnancy loss and congenital birth defects such as Down's syndrome. Accurate chromosome segregation is critically dependent on the formation of the microtubule spindle apparatus, yet this process remains poorly understood in mammalian oocytes. Intriguingly, meiotic spindle assembly differs from mitosis and is regulated, at least in part, by unique microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Assessment of MTOC-associated proteins can provide valuable insight into the regulatory mechanisms that govern meiotic spindle formation and organization. Here, we describe methods to isolate mouse oocytes and deplete MTOC-associated proteins using a siRNA-mediated approach to test function. In addition, we describe oocyte fixation and immunofluorescence analysis conditions to evaluate meiotic spindle formation and organization. PMID:26485537

  17. A three-step MTOC fragmentation mechanism facilitates bipolar spindle assembly in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Clift, Dean; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of a bipolar microtubule spindle is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. In somatic cells, spindle bipolarity is determined by the presence of exactly two centrosomes. Remarkably, mammalian oocytes do not contain canonical centrosomes. This study reveals that mouse oocytes assemble a bipolar spindle by fragmenting multiple acentriolar microtubule-organizing centres (MTOCs) into a high number of small MTOCs to be able to then regroup and merge them into two equal spindle poles. We show that MTOCs are fragmented in a three-step process. First, PLK1 triggers a decondensation of the MTOC structure. Second, BicD2-anchored dynein stretches the MTOCs into fragmented ribbons along the nuclear envelope. Third, KIF11 further fragments the MTOCs following nuclear envelope breakdown so that they can be evenly distributed towards the two spindle poles. Failure to fragment MTOCs leads to defects in spindle assembly, which delay chromosome individualization and congression, putting the oocyte at risk of aneuploidy. PMID:26147444

  18. Improved Low-CPA Vitrification of Mouse Oocytes Using Quartz Microcapillary

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation by low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has the potential to combine all the advantages of the conventional high-CPA vitrification and slow-freezing approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. However, current low-CPA vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of oocytes requires a lengthy and multi-step procedure for unloading CPAs. In this study, we report a much-simplified procedure of using quartz microcapillary (QMC) for low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes with only one step for unloading CPAs. The immediate viability of oocytes after the improved low-CPA vitrification was determined to be more than 90%. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in terms of embryonic development from the two-cell to blastocyst stages between the fresh and vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This improved low-CPA vitrification technology has the potential for efficient cryopreservation of oocytes to preserve the fertility of mammals including humans for assisted reproductive medicine, maintenance of animal resource and endangered species, and livestock management. PMID:25869750

  19. The Role of Microfilaments in Early Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calarco, Patricia G.

    2005-04-01

    Mouse oocyte microfilaments (MF) were perturbed by depolymerization (cytochalasin B) or stabilization (jasplakinolide) and correlated meiotic defects examined by confocal microscopy. MF, microtubules, and mitochondria were vitally stained; centrosomes ([gamma]-tubulin), after fixation. MF depolymerization by cytochalasin in culture medium did not affect central migration of centrosomes, mitochondria, or nuclear breakdown (GVBD); some MF signal was localized around the germinal vesicle (GV). In maturation-blocking medium (containing IBMX), central movement was curtailed and cortical MF aggregations made the plasma membrane wavy. Occasional long MF suggested that not all MF were depolymerized. MF stabilization by jasplakinolide led to MF aggregations throughout the cytoplasm. GVBD occurred (unless IBMX was present) but no spindle formed. Over time, most oocytes constricted creating a dumbbell shape with MF concentrated under one-half of the oocyte cortex and on either side of the constriction. In IBMX medium, the MF-containing half of the dumbbell over time sequestered the GV, MF, mitochondria, and one to two large cortical centrosomes; the non-MF half appeared empty. Cumulus processes contacted the oocyte surface (detected by microtubule content) and mirrored MF distribution. Results demonstrated that MF play an essential role in meiosis, primarily through cortically mediated events, including centrosome localization, spindle (or GV) movement to the periphery, activation of (polar body) constriction, and establishment of oocyte polarity. The presence of a cortical “organizing pole” is hypothesized.

  20. Improved low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes using quartz microcapillary.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation by low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has the potential to combine all the advantages of the conventional high-CPA vitrification and slow-freezing approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. However, current low-CPA vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of oocytes requires a lengthy and multi-step procedure for unloading CPAs. In this study, we report a much-simplified procedure of using quartz microcapillary (QMC) for low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes with only one step for unloading CPAs. The immediate viability of oocytes after the improved low-CPA vitrification was determined to be more than 90%. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in terms of embryonic development from the two-cell to blastocyst stages between the fresh and vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This improved low-CPA vitrification technology has the potential for efficient cryopreservation of oocytes to preserve the fertility of mammals including humans for assisted reproductive medicine, maintenance of animal resource and endangered species, and livestock management. PMID:25869750

  1. Next Generation Sequencing-Based Comprehensive Chromosome Screening in Mouse Polar Bodies, Oocytes, and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Treff, Nathan R; Krisher, Rebecca L; Tao, Xin; Garnsey, Heather; Bohrer, Chelsea; Silva, Elena; Landis, Jessica; Taylor, Deanne; Scott, Richard T; Woodruff, Teresa K; Duncan, Francesca E

    2016-04-01

    Advanced reproductive age is unequivocally associated with increased aneuploidy in human oocytes, which contributes to infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects. The frequency of meiotic chromosome segregation errors in oocytes derived from reproductively aged mice appears to be similar to that observed in humans, but a limitation of this important model system is our inability to accurately identify chromosome-specific aneuploidy. Here we report the validation and application of a new low-pass whole-genome sequencing approach to comprehensively screen chromosome aneuploidy in individual mouse oocytes and blastocysts. First, we validated this approach by using single mouse embryonic fibroblasts engineered to have stable trisomy 16. We further validated this method by identifying reciprocal chromosome segregation errors in the products of meiosis I (gamete and polar body) in oocytes from reproductively aged mice. Finally, we applied this technology to investigate the incidence of aneuploidy in blastocysts derived from in vitro- and in vivo-matured oocytes in both young and reproductively aged mice. Using this next generation sequencing approach, we quantitatively assessed meiotic and mitotic segregation errors at the single chromosome level, distinguished between errors due to premature separation of sister chromatids and classical nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes, and quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation in individual cells. This whole-genome sequencing technique, therefore, greatly improves the utility of the mouse model system for the study of aneuploidy and is a powerful quantitative tool with which to examine the molecular underpinnings of mammalian gamete and early embryo chromosome segregation in the context of reproductive aging and beyond. PMID:26911429

  2. Factor in urinary extracts from pregnant women that inhibit mouse oocyte maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, R; Sakai, K; Sakurai, Y; Kohnoura, T; Ishiguro, M

    1993-01-01

    Mouse oocyte maturation inhibitory factors, on the basis of inhibitory activity of spontaneous germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) of denuded mouse oocytes in culture, were extracted and partially purified by reversed-phase resin adsorption and Sephadex G-100 and G-50 column chromatographies from the urine of pregnant women. Denuded oocytes obtained from ovaries of ICR mice underwent spontaneous GVBD by cultivation for 3 h in modified Krebs-Ringer's buffered solution, while this spontaneous GVBD was found to be inhibited by adding the final preparation (U-D-4) of urine. The inhibition was dose dependent, ranging from 0.6 to 10 micrograms protein/ml medium. Oocytes treated with U-D-4 and resuspended in control medium resumed GVBD. The molecular mass of U-D-4 was estimated to be less than 2,000 Da with gel filtration. Ether treatment failed to extract inhibitory factor(s) from U-D-4 and pepsin treatment inactivated U-D-4, indicating that inhibitory factor(s) in U-D-4 are peptide-like substances. The inhibitory effect of U-D-4 on spontaneous GVBD was partially reversed in the presence of naloxone, a potent opioid antagonist. U-D-4s obtained from urine samples of pregnant women, nonpregnant women, and men showed the inhibitory effect on spontaneous GVBD; however, the activity of U-D-4 obtained from pregnancy urine was significantly more potent than those of the other urine samples. PMID:8418810

  3. Clathrin heavy chain 1 is required for spindle assembly and chromosome congression in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Liu, Li; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Guang-Peng; Schatten, Heide; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation. PMID:23816345

  4. Oocyte heterogeneity with respect to the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed X chromosomes in the XY female mouse.

    PubMed

    Taketo, Teruko; Naumova, Anna K

    2013-10-01

    In the XY pachytene spermatocyte, the sex chromosomes do not synapse except for the pseudoautosomal region and become transcriptionally silenced. It has been suggested that the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) also occurs in oocytes. In the XY sex-reversed female mouse, the sex chromosomes fail to pair in the majority of oocytes and a greater number of oocytes are eliminated during the meiotic prophase compared to the XX female. Yet, many XY oocytes survive to reach the second meiotic metaphase. The goal of our current study was to determine whether the single X chromosome shows the characteristics of asynapsis and meiotic silencing in a proportion of XY oocytes, which can explain the survival of the remaining oocytes. We first examined the accumulation of markers associated with asynapsis or transcriptional silencing, i.e., BRCA1, γH2AX, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3, at the single X chromosome in the XY oocyte. We found that γH2AX and BRCA1 were enriched on the single X chromosome whereas H3K9me3 was not, and H3K27me3 was enriched at all chromosomes in the majority of XY oocytes. We next examined the meiotic silencing of the single X chromosome using enrichment of the X-encoded ATRX protein. On average, ATRX enrichment was lower in XY oocytes than in XX oocytes as expected from its half gene dosage. However, the intensity of ATRX staining in XY oocytes harboring γH2AX domains showed a remarkable heterogeneity. We conclude that MSUC occurs with varying consequences, resulting in a heterogeneous population of oocytes with respect to protein enrichment in the XY female mouse. PMID:23760560

  5. Behavior of centrosomes during fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald; Balczon, Ron; Simerly, Calvin; Mazia, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of centrosomes during the stages of fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs was monitored in an immunofluorescence microscope, using autoimmune centrosomal antiserum derived from a patient with scleroderma to label the centrosomal material. These observations showed that centrosomes reproduce during the interphase and aggregate and separate during cell mitosis. Results supported the hypothesis of Mazia (1984), who proposed that centrosomes are 'flexible bodies'. It was also found that, while the sea urchin centrosomes are paternally inherited as was initially proposed by Bovery (1904), the mouse centrosomes are of maternal origin.

  6. Bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis through pronuclear injection of fertilized mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Vintersten, Kristina; Testa, Giuseppe; Naumann, Ronald; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis

    2008-01-01

    In the mouse, conventional transgenes often produced unpredictable results mainly because they were too small to recapitulate a natural gene context. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are large enough to encompass the natural context of most mammalian genes and consequently deliver more reliable recapitulations of their endogenous counterparts. Furthermore, recombineering methods now make it easy to engineer precise changes in a BAC transgene. Consequently, BACs have become the preferred vehicle for mouse transgenesis. Here, we detail methods for BAC transgenesis through pronuclear injection of fertilized oocytes. PMID:18370149

  7. Tropomodulin-3 is essential in asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yu-Jin; Jang, Woo-In; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Namgoong, Suk

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments is essential for various cellular processes such as cell migration, rotation, cytokinesis, and mammalian oocyte maturation. Tropomodulin 3 (Tmod3) binds to the slow-growing (pointed) ends of the actin filament, thereby protecting the filament from depolymerization. However, the roles of Tmod3 in mammalian oocyte maturation remain elusive. Tmod3 mRNA and protein is present at all stages of mouse oocyte maturation. Tmod3 protein is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and appears enriched near the chromosome during maturation. By knocking down or ectopically overexpressing Tmod3, we confirmed that Tmod3 regulate the level of the intracytoplasmic actin mesh and asymmetric spindle migration. Expression of N-terminal Tmod3 (correspond to 1–155 amino acids), which contains the tropomyosin-binding site, results in decreased density of the actin mesh, thereby demonstrating the importance of the interaction between tropomyosin and tropomodulin for the maintenance of the actin mesh. Taken together, these findings indicate that Tmod3 plays crucial roles in oocyte maturation, presumably by protecting the actin filament from depolymerization and thereby controlling the density of the cytoplasmic actin mesh. PMID:27374327

  8. Tropomodulin-3 is essential in asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yu-Jin; Jang, Woo-In; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Namgoong, Suk

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments is essential for various cellular processes such as cell migration, rotation, cytokinesis, and mammalian oocyte maturation. Tropomodulin 3 (Tmod3) binds to the slow-growing (pointed) ends of the actin filament, thereby protecting the filament from depolymerization. However, the roles of Tmod3 in mammalian oocyte maturation remain elusive. Tmod3 mRNA and protein is present at all stages of mouse oocyte maturation. Tmod3 protein is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and appears enriched near the chromosome during maturation. By knocking down or ectopically overexpressing Tmod3, we confirmed that Tmod3 regulate the level of the intracytoplasmic actin mesh and asymmetric spindle migration. Expression of N-terminal Tmod3 (correspond to 1-155 amino acids), which contains the tropomyosin-binding site, results in decreased density of the actin mesh, thereby demonstrating the importance of the interaction between tropomyosin and tropomodulin for the maintenance of the actin mesh. Taken together, these findings indicate that Tmod3 plays crucial roles in oocyte maturation, presumably by protecting the actin filament from depolymerization and thereby controlling the density of the cytoplasmic actin mesh. PMID:27374327

  9. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, S.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors (CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)) each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP.

  10. Rab3A, Rab27A, and Rab35 regulate different events during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, H H; Cui, Q; Zhang, T; Wang, Z B; Ouyang, Y C; Shen, W; Ma, J Y; Schatten, H; Sun, Q Y

    2016-06-01

    Rab family members play important roles in membrane trafficking, cell growth, and differentiation. Almost all components of the cell endomembrane system, the nucleus, and the plasma membrane are closely related to RAB proteins. In this study, we investigated the distribution and functions of three members of the Rab family, Rab3A, Rab27A, and Rab35, in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and activation. The three Rab family members showed different localization patterns in oocytes. Microinjection of siRNA, antibody injection, or inhibitor treatment showed that (1) Rab3A regulates peripheral spindle and cortical granule (CG) migration, polarity establishment, and asymmetric division; (2) Rab27A regulates CG exocytosis following MII-stage oocyte activation; and (3) Rab35 plays an important role in spindle organization and morphology maintenance, and thus meiotic nuclear maturation. These results show that Rab proteins play important roles in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and activation and that different members exert different distinct functions. PMID:26791531

  11. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model. PMID:26267363

  12. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model. PMID:26267363

  13. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  14. Live Imaging of Intracellular Dynamics During Meiotic Maturation in Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Sakakibara, Yogo; Kitajima, Tomoya S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence live imaging is a powerful approach to study intracellular dynamics during cellular events such as cell division. By applying automated confocal live imaging to mouse oocytes, in which meiotic maturation can be induced in vitro after the introduction of fluorescent proteins through microinjection, the meiotic dynamics of intracellular structures, such as chromosomes, can be monitored at high resolution. A combination of this method with approaches for the perturbation of specific proteins opens up opportunities for understanding the molecular and intracellular basis of mammalian meiosis. PMID:27557586

  15. [The effect of in-situ nerve growth factor from different biological sources on the reinitiation of mouse oocyte meiotic maturation in culture and on parthenogenetic activation].

    PubMed

    Fedorushchenko, A N; Koval', T Iu; Khamidov, D Kh

    1999-01-01

    We studied the capacity of mouse oocytes to complete meiotic maturation in vitro and form the female pronucleus upon parthenogenetic activation by cycloheximide, in response to a single injection into the mouse ovaries in situ of a purified fraction of 2.5 S NGF from mouse submaxillary glands and beta-NGF from bovine sperm. Injection of NGF from both sources at 10 ng/ml with subsequent incubation of the ovaries for 1 h increased the capacity of matured oocytes for parthenogenetic formation of the pronucleus. The frequency of pronucleus formation in both "naked oocyte" and oocytes surrounded by the cumulus cells was four times that in the control. PMID:10624718

  16. Mouse fertility is enhanced by oocyte-specific loss of core 1-derived O-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Suzannah A; Stanley, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of the number of eggs ovulated by different mammalian species remains poorly understood. Here we show that oocyte-specific deletion at the primary follicle stage of core 1 β1,3galactosyltransferase (T-synthase; generates core 1-derived O-glycans), leads to a sustained increase in fertility. T-syn mutant females ovulated 30–50% more eggs and had a sustained increase in litter size compared to controls. Ovarian weights and follicle numbers were greater in mutants but follicular apoptosis was not decreased. The number of follicles entering the growing pool was unaltered and 3 week mutants ovulated less eggs suggesting that increased fertility results from prolonged follicle development. T-syn mutant ovaries also contained numerous multiple-oocyte follicles (MOFs) that appeared to form by adjacent, predominantly preantral, follicles joining - a new mechanism for MOF generation. Ovulation of multiple eggs from MOFs was not the reason for increased fertility based on ovulated egg and corpora lutea numbers. Thus the absence of T-synthase caused modified follicular development leading to the maturation and ovulation of more follicles, to MOF formation at late stages of folliculogenesis, and to increased fertility. These results identify novel roles for glycoprotein(s) from the oocyte as suppressor(s) of fertility and regulator(s) of follicular integrity in the mouse. PMID:18276833

  17. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    SUMITOMO, Jun-ichi; EMORI, Chihiro; MATSUNO, Yuta; UENO, Mizuki; KAWASAKI, Kurenai; ENDO, Takaho A.; SHIROGUCHI, Katsuyuki; FUJII, Wataru; NAITO, Kunihiko; SUGIURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15–/–/Gdf9+/– (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  18. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Jun-Ichi; Emori, Chihiro; Matsuno, Yuta; Ueno, Mizuki; Kawasaki, Kurenai; Endo, Takaho A; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-08-25

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15(-/-)/Gdf9(+/-) (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  19. Nicotinamide Impairs Entry into and Exit from Meiosis I in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Riepsamen, Angelique; Wu, Lindsay; Lau, Laurin; Listijono, Dave; Ledger, William; Sinclair, David; Homer, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Following exit from meiosis I, mammalian oocytes immediately enter meiosis II without an intervening interphase, accompanied by rapid reassembly of a bipolar spindle that maintains condensed chromosomes in a metaphase configuration (metaphase II arrest). Here we study the effect of nicotinamide (NAM), a non-competitive pan-sirtuin inhibitor, during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Sirtuins are a family of seven NAD+-dependent deacetylases (Sirt1-7), which are involved in multiple cellular processes and are emerging as important regulators in oocytes and embryos. We found that NAM significantly delayed entry into meiosis I associated with delayed accumulation of the Cdk1 co-activator, cyclin B1. GVBD was also inhibited by the Sirt2-specific inhibitor, AGK2, and in a very similar pattern to NAM, supporting the notion that as in somatic cells, NAM inhibits sirtuins in oocytes. NAM did not affect subsequent spindle assembly, chromosome alignment or the timing of first polar body extrusion (PBE). Unexpectedly, however, in the majority of oocytes with a polar body, chromatin was decondensed and a nuclear structure was present. An identical phenotype was observed when flavopiridol was used to induce Cdk1 inactivation during late meiosis I prior to PBE, but not if Cdk1 was inactivated after PBE when metaphase II arrest was already established, altogether indicating that NAM impaired establishment rather than maintenance of metaphase II arrest. During meiosis I exit in NAM-treated medium, we found that cyclin B1 levels were lower and inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation was increased compared with controls. Although activation of the anaphase-promoting complex-Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) occurred on-time in NAM-treated oocytes, Cdc20 levels were higher in very late meiosis I, pointing to exaggerated APC-Cdc20-mediated proteolysis as a reason for lower cyclin B1 levels. Collectively, therefore, our data indicate that by disrupting Cdk1 regulation, NAM impairs entry into meiosis I and

  20. Regulation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Function During Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cheon, Banyoon; Zhang, Nan; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2011-01-01

    At the time of fertilization, an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) underlies egg activation and initiation of development in all species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1), which is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates the majority of this Ca2+ release. The sensitivity of IP3R1, i.e. its Ca2+ releasing capability, is increased during oocyte maturation so that the optimum [Ca2+]i response concurs with fertilization, which in mammals occurs at metaphase of second meiosis. Multiple IP3R1 modifications affect its sensitivity, including phosphorylation, sub-cellular localization and ER Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]ER). Here we evaluated using mouse oocytes how each of these factors affected IP3R1 sensitivity. The capacity for IP3-induced Ca2+ release markedly increased at the germinal vesicle breakdown stage, although oocytes only acquire the ability to initiate fertilization-like oscillations at later stages of maturation. The increase in IP3R1 sensitivity was underpinned by an increase in [Ca2+]ER and receptor phosphorylation(s) but not by changes in IP3R1 cellular distribution, as inhibition of the former factors reduced Ca2+ release, whereas inhibition of the latter had no impact. Therefore, the results suggest that the regulation of [Ca2+]ER and IP3R1 phosphorylation during maturation enhance IP3R1 sensitivity rendering oocytes competent to initiate oscillations at the expected time of fertilization. The temporal discrepancy between the initiation of changes in IP3R1 sensitivity and acquisition of mature oscillatory capacity suggest that other mechanisms that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis also shape the pattern of oscillations in mammalian eggs. PMID:21465476

  1. C-type natriuretic peptide improved vitrified-warmed mouse cumulus oocyte complexes developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wei, Qiang; Li, Wei; Ge, Junbang; Zhao, Xiaoe; Ma, Baohua

    2016-04-01

    Cryopreservation of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) is important for reproductive medicine. However, the vitrified-warmed COCs have lower maturation rate and subsequent developmental competence compared with fresh COCs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed mouse COCs. Addition of CNP to the maturation medium improved the maturation rate and enhanced the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed mouse COCs. The reason may be that vitrified COCs led to a decline in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Furthermore, addition of CNP to the maturation medium elevated cGMP levels of the vitrified-warmed COCs. In conclusion, cryopreservation-associated lower maturation rate and developmental competence of COCs may be ameliorated by CNP during maturation culture after warming. PMID:26921772

  2. Ejaculated Mouse Sperm Enter Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes More Efficiently In Vitro than Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo. PMID:25996155

  3. Bayesian Inference of Forces Causing Cytoplasmic Streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos and Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Hufnagel, Lars; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are hydrodynamically interconnected, such that force generation in one location can move distal structures. One example of this phenomenon is cytoplasmic streaming, whereby active forces at the cell cortex induce streaming of the entire cytoplasm. However, it is not known how the spatial distribution and magnitude of these forces move distant objects within the cell. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that used cytoplasm hydrodynamics to infer the spatial distribution of shear stress at the cell cortex induced by active force generators from experimentally obtained flow field of cytoplasmic streaming. By applying this method, we determined the shear-stress distribution that quantitatively reproduces in vivo flow fields in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and mouse oocytes during meiosis II. Shear stress in mouse oocytes were predicted to localize to a narrower cortical region than that with a high cortical flow velocity and corresponded with the localization of the cortical actin cap. The predicted patterns of pressure gradient in both species were consistent with species-specific cytoplasmic streaming functions. The shear-stress distribution inferred by our method can contribute to the characterization of active force generation driving biological streaming. PMID:27472658

  4. Eccentric localization of catalase to protect chromosomes from oxidative damages during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seok; You, Seung Yeop; Cho, Sungrae; Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; Lee, Sukchan; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity and stability is essential for the survival of every organism. Unfortunately, DNA is vulnerable to attack by a variety of damaging agents. Oxidative stress is a major cause of DNA damage because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Cells have developed eloquent antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves from oxidative damage along with aerobic metabolism. Here, we show that catalase (CAT) is present in mouse oocytes to protect the genome from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation. CAT was expressed in the nucleus to form unique vesicular structures. However, after nuclear envelope breakdown, CAT was redistributed in the cytoplasm with particular focus at the chromosomes. Inhibition of CAT activity increased endogenous ROS levels, but did not perturb meiotic maturation. In addition, CAT inhibition produced chromosomal defects, including chromosome misalignment and DNA damage. Therefore, our data suggest that CAT is required not only to scavenge ROS, but also to protect DNA from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. PMID:27160095

  5. APCFZR1 prevents nondisjunction in mouse oocytes by controlling meiotic spindle assembly timing

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Janet E.; Lane, Simon I. R.; Jennings, Phoebe; García-Higuera, Irene; Moreno, Sergio; Jones, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    FZR1 is an anaphase-promoting complex (APC) activator best known for its role in the mitotic cell cycle at M-phase exit, in G1, and in maintaining genome integrity. Previous studies also established that it prevents meiotic resumption, equivalent to the G2/M transition. Here we report that mouse oocytes lacking FZR1 undergo passage through meiosis I that is accelerated by ∼1 h, and this is due to an earlier onset of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) satisfaction and APCCDC20 activity. However, loss of FZR1 did not compromise SAC functionality; instead, earlier SAC satisfaction was achieved because the bipolar meiotic spindle was assembled more quickly in the absence of FZR1. This novel regulation of spindle assembly by FZR1 led to premature bivalent attachment to microtubules and loss of kinetochore-bound MAD2. Bivalents, however, were observed to congress poorly, leading to nondisjunction rates of 25%. We conclude that in mouse oocytes FZR1 controls the timing of assembly of the bipolar spindle and in so doing the timing of SAC satisfaction and APCCDC20 activity. This study implicates FZR1 as a major regulator of prometaphase whose activity helps to prevent chromosome nondisjunction. PMID:22918942

  6. Bayesian Inference of Forces Causing Cytoplasmic Streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos and Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Tomoya S.; Hufnagel, Lars; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are hydrodynamically interconnected, such that force generation in one location can move distal structures. One example of this phenomenon is cytoplasmic streaming, whereby active forces at the cell cortex induce streaming of the entire cytoplasm. However, it is not known how the spatial distribution and magnitude of these forces move distant objects within the cell. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that used cytoplasm hydrodynamics to infer the spatial distribution of shear stress at the cell cortex induced by active force generators from experimentally obtained flow field of cytoplasmic streaming. By applying this method, we determined the shear-stress distribution that quantitatively reproduces in vivo flow fields in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and mouse oocytes during meiosis II. Shear stress in mouse oocytes were predicted to localize to a narrower cortical region than that with a high cortical flow velocity and corresponded with the localization of the cortical actin cap. The predicted patterns of pressure gradient in both species were consistent with species-specific cytoplasmic streaming functions. The shear-stress distribution inferred by our method can contribute to the characterization of active force generation driving biological streaming. PMID:27472658

  7. WASH complex regulates Arp2/3 complex for actin-based polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Guang-Li; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Prior to their fertilization, oocytes undergo asymmetric division, which is regulated by actin filaments. Recently, WASH complex were identified as actin nucleation promoting factors (NPF) that activated Arp2/3 complex. However, the roles of WASH complex remain uncertain, particularly for oocyte polarization and asymmetric division. Here, we examined the functions of two important subunits of a WASH complex, WASH1 and Strumpellin, during mouse oocyte meiosis. Depleting WASH1 or disrupting Strumpellin activity by WASH1 morpholino (MO) injection or Strumpellin antibody injection decreased polar body extrusion and caused oocyte symmetric division, and this may have been due to spindle formation and migration defects. Time lapse microscopy showed that actin filaments distribution and relative amount at the membrane and in the cytoplasm of oocytes was significantly decreased after disrupting WASH complex. In addition, Arp2/3 complex expression was reduced after WASH1 depletion. Thus, our data indicated that WASH complex regulated Arp2/3 complex and were required for cytokinesis and following polar body extrusion during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:24998208

  8. Relocalization of STIM1 in mouse oocytes at fertilization: early involvement of store-operated calcium entry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, Carolina; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Gañán-Parra, Miguel; Perianes, Mario J; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier

    2009-08-01

    Calcium waves represent one of the most important intracellular signaling events in oocytes at fertilization required for the exit from metaphase arrest and the resumption of the cell cycle. The molecular mechanism ruling this signaling has been described in terms of the contribution of intracellular calcium stores to calcium spikes. In this work, we considered the possible contribution of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) to this signaling, by studying the localization of the protein STIM1 in oocytes. STIM1 has been suggested to play a key role in the recruitment and activation of plasma membrane calcium channels, and we show here that mature mouse oocytes express this protein distributed in discrete clusters throughout their periphery in resting cells, colocalizing with the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin. However, immunolocalization of the endogenous STIM1 showed considerable redistribution over larger areas or patches covering the entire periphery of the oocyte during Ca(2+) store depletion induced with thapsigargin or ionomycin. Furthermore, pharmacological activation of endogenous phospholipase C induced a similar pattern of redistribution of STIM1 in the oocyte. Finally, fertilization of mouse oocytes revealed a significant and rapid relocalization of STIM1, similar to that found after pharmacological Ca(2+) store depletion. This particular relocalization supports a role for STIM1 and SOCE in the calcium signaling during early stages of fertilization. PMID:19470709

  9. Reversible Disassembly of the Actin Cytoskeleton Improves the Survival Rate and Developmental Competence of Cryopreserved Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Basarab G.; Mullen, Steven F.; Critser, John K.; Forgacs, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    Effective cryopreservation of oocytes is critically needed in many areas of human reproductive medicine and basic science, such as stem cell research. Currently, oocyte cryopreservation has a low success rate. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms associated with oocyte cryopreservation through biophysical means using a mouse model. Specifically, we experimentally investigated the biomechanical properties of the ooplasm prior and after cryopreservation as well as the consequences of reversible dismantling of the F-actin network in mouse oocytes prior to freezing. The study was complemented with the evaluation of post-thaw developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Our results show that the freezing-thawing process markedly alters the physiological viscoelastic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. The reversible depolymerization of the F-actin network prior to freezing preserves normal ooplasm viscoelastic properties, results in high post-thaw survival and significantly improves developmental competence. These findings provide new information on the biophysical characteristics of mammalian oocytes, identify a pathophysiological mechanism underlying cryodamage and suggest a novel cryopreservation method. PMID:18665248

  10. VEGF and FGF2 Improve Revascularization, Survival, and Oocyte Quality of Cryopreserved, Subcutaneously-Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Chang, Hsiao-Ho; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. Autologous subcutaneous transplantation of vitrified-thawed mouse ovarian tissues treated with (experimental group) or without (control group) VEGF and FGF2 was performed. After transplantation to the inguinal region for two or three weeks, graft survival, angiogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte quality were examined after gonadotropin administration. VEGF coupled with FGF2 (VEGF/FGF2) promoted revascularization and significantly increased the survival rate of subcutaneously-transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissues compared with untreated controls. The two growth factors did not show long-term effects on the ovarian grafts. In contrast to the untreated ovarian grafts, active folliculogenesis was revealed as the number of follicles at various stages and of mature oocytes in antral follicles after gonadotropin administration were remarkably higher in the VEGF/FGF2-treated groups. Although the fertilization rate was similar between the VEGF/FGF2 and control groups, the oocyte quality was much better in the VEGF/FGF2-treated grafts as demonstrated by the higher ratio of blastocyst development. Introducing angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and FGF2, may be a promising strategy to improve revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:27483256

  11. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing You Gui Wan on Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization Competence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Yan-li; Lu, Hua; Duan, Heng; Zhen, Xia; Hu, Xiang; Liang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    You Gui Wan (YGW) is a classic herbal formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for the clinical treatment of infertility. This study was to explore whether YGW has an impact on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro and subsequent fertilization competence. Rat medicated serum containing YGW was prepared by orally administrating YGW. Mouse immature oocytes were cultured with YGW medicated serum and compared to those cultured with or without normal rat serum or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). YGW medicated serum significantly increased the percentages of matured oocytes when compared to the groups with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, YGW medicated serum increased the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) when compared to the groups treated with FSH and with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.001). YGW medicated serum also had significant effects on the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, MAPK, PKC, PKG, and MPF and the concentrations of cAMP, cGMP, and NO in matured oocytes. These results indicate that YGW can promote mouse oocyte maturation and IVF in vitro. Signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/PKA/MAPK, the PKC-MAPK, and the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, which are similar to those induced by FSH, may be responsible for this action. PMID:25530775

  12. VEGF and FGF2 Improve Revascularization, Survival, and Oocyte Quality of Cryopreserved, Subcutaneously-Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Chang, Hsiao-Ho; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. Autologous subcutaneous transplantation of vitrified-thawed mouse ovarian tissues treated with (experimental group) or without (control group) VEGF and FGF2 was performed. After transplantation to the inguinal region for two or three weeks, graft survival, angiogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte quality were examined after gonadotropin administration. VEGF coupled with FGF2 (VEGF/FGF2) promoted revascularization and significantly increased the survival rate of subcutaneously-transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissues compared with untreated controls. The two growth factors did not show long-term effects on the ovarian grafts. In contrast to the untreated ovarian grafts, active folliculogenesis was revealed as the number of follicles at various stages and of mature oocytes in antral follicles after gonadotropin administration were remarkably higher in the VEGF/FGF2-treated groups. Although the fertilization rate was similar between the VEGF/FGF2 and control groups, the oocyte quality was much better in the VEGF/FGF2-treated grafts as demonstrated by the higher ratio of blastocyst development. Introducing angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and FGF2, may be a promising strategy to improve revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:27483256

  13. Structural and functional measurements of fertilized mouse oocytes with combined high-resolution OCT and inverted microscope (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Karol; Ajduk, Anna; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Szkulmowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive imaging methodology for 3D structural and functional measurements of fertilized mouse oocytes. In contrary to methods used for mouse zygote imaging so far OCT provides 3D data without z axis movement of sample or objective lens. Furthermore, complex scanning protocols used in this study give access to different scales of repetition times and thus may become a tool for investigation of a different dynamic processes. Additionally, proposed scanning approach via variety of statistic operations can be used to enhance the quality of structural images. OCT system capabilities are presented and compared to standard microscopy. With a single 3D measurements one can extract 3D structure of the oocytes as well as en-face images that correspond to both bright and dark field microscopy. As an example of dynamic oocyte imaging pronuclei motion during development is presented. Limitations and possibilities of the new system are discussed.

  14. Immunogenicity of killed Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Baskerville, A J; Brothwell, E; Oliphant, J

    1982-03-01

    Two intramuscular injections (two weeks apart of graded doses of killed strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica from the pig (OLN 14 or LBF 1) or the dog (D1) had produced in mice circulating agglutinins ranging in mean titre (log2) per group from about 3.3 to 10.2 two weeks later. These levels depended partly on vaccinal strains and dose, and partly on the strain used as agglutinogen. Other such mice were challenged intraperitoneally with about 50 LD50 (approximately or equal to 10(7.4) viable bacteria) of two pig strains, one (293) from a British case of atrophic rhinitis and the other (N) from an American herd. Against challenge vaccinal strain OLN 14 was about 10 and LBF 1 about 100 times more immunogenic than vaccinal strain D1. In a separate experiment mice given intramuscularly amounts of LBF 1 or D1 vaccine estimated as being immunogenically equivalent were challenged intraperitoneally with one or other of seven pig or seven dog strains. On aggregate each vaccine protected to about the same extent against challenge by the pig strains, although LBF 1 vaccine was less effective than D1 vaccine against a strain of Danish origin. Both vaccines also protected more mice against challenge by the dog than the pig strans but LBF 1 vaccine was somewhat less effective than D1 vaccine, especially when challenged by strain D1. PMID:7079606

  15. Kid depletion in mouse oocytes associated with multinucleated blastomere formation and inferior embryo development.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Akiyoshi; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Islam, Md Rashedul; Yamagami, Kazuki; Tanaka, Asami; Suyama, Hikaru; El-Sayed, El-Sharawy Mohamed; Tabata, Shoji; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the knockdown (KD) of Kid on maturation developmental competence and multinucleation of mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. Data revealed that Kid messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in GV and MII stage oocyte and 1- and 2-cell embryos. Additionally, Kid mRNA expression in the Kid KD group decreased by nearly 46% compared to the control small interfering RNA (siRNA) groups. The rate of multinucleated embryos in the Kid KD group (52.4%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control siRNA group (4.7%). Finally, the developmental rates were significantly lower in the Kid siRNA group at > 4-cell stage (28.6% vs. 53.5%) and the blastocyst stage (2.4% vs. 23.3%) compared to the control siRNA groups. Suppression of Kid using siRNA caused multinucleation in early embryos with high frequency and it may increase 2- to 4-cell arrested embryos and reduce the developmental competence to blastocyst. PMID:26890962

  16. Estrogen and bisphenol A disrupt spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mohri, Tatsuma; Yoshida, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effects of estrogen or endocrine disrupters (EDs) on the dynamic changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of mouse immature oocytes (IOs) loaded with Ca(2+)-sensitive dye Fura-2 using an image analyzer. The majority of IOs isolated from the ovary exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations at regular intervals. Entry of external Ca(2+), probably through gap junctions, contributes to Ca(2+) oscillations since they were reversibly inhibited by removing Ca(2+) from the bathing medium or by the application of a gap-junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 30 microM). Both 17beta-estradiol (E2) and E2-BSA, a membrane impermeable estrogen, shortened the duration of Ca(2+) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner (1-1000 nM), and produced an irregular pattern of the oscillations, strongly suggesting that E2 acts on the plasma membrane of the oocyte. For bisphenol A (BPA), one of the estrogen-mimicking EDs, a 10,000-fold higher concentration (100 microM) was necessary to exert similar inhibitory action to that of E2. PMID:15567167

  17. Maternal Diet-Induced Obesity Alters Mitochondrial Activity and Redox Status in Mouse Oocytes and Zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Igosheva, Natalia; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Poston, Lucilla; Eckert, Judith J.; Fleming, Tom P.; Duchen, Michael R.; McConnell, Josie

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of obesity on reproductive success is well documented but the stages at which development of the conceptus is compromised and the mechanisms responsible for the developmental failure still remain unclear. Recent findings suggest that mitochondria may be a contributing factor. However to date no studies have directly addressed the consequences of maternal obesity on mitochondria in early embryogenesis. Using an established murine model of maternal diet induced obesity and a live cell dynamic fluorescence imaging techniques coupled with molecular biology we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of obesity-induced reduced fertility. Our study is the first to show that maternal obesity prior to conception is associated with altered mitochondria in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Specifically, maternal diet-induced obesity in mice led to an increase in mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial DNA content and biogenesis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was raised while glutathione was depleted and the redox state became more oxidised, suggestive of oxidative stress. These altered mitochondrial properties were associated with significant developmental impairment as shown by the increased number of obese mothers who failed to support blastocyst formation compared to lean dams. We propose that compromised oocyte and early embryo mitochondrial metabolism, resulting from excessive nutrient exposure prior to and during conception, may underlie poor reproductive outcomes frequently reported in obese women. PMID:20404917

  18. Maternal diabetes causes abnormal dynamic changes of endoplasmic reticulum during mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse effects of maternal diabetes on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been reported. Methods In this study, we used time-lapse live cell imaging confocal microscopy to investigate the dynamic changes of ER and the effects of diabetes on the ER’s structural dynamics during oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Results We report that the ER first became remodeled into a dense ring around the developing MI spindle, and then surrounded the spindle during migration to the cortex. ER reorganization during mouse early embryo development was characterized by striking localization around the pronuclei in the equatorial section, in addition to larger areas of fluorescence deeper within the cytoplasm. In contrast, in diabetic mice, the ER displayed a significantly higher percentage of homogeneous distribution patterns throughout the entire ooplasm during oocyte maturation and early embryo development. In addition, a higher frequency of large ER aggregations was detected in GV oocytes and two cell embryos from diabetic mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the diabetic condition adversely affects the ER distribution pattern during mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development. PMID:23597066

  19. Effects of protein kinase C activators on germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body emission of mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bornslaeger, E.A.; Poueymirou, W.T.; Mattei, P.; Schultz, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is instrumental in maintaining meiotic arrest of mouse oocytes. To assess whether protein phosphorylation mediated by calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) might also inhibit the resumption of meiosis, oocytes were treated with activators of this enzyme. The active phorbol esters 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 4..beta..-phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4..beta..-PDD) inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), as did a more natural activator of protein kinase, C, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/). An inactive phorbol ester, 4a-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4..cap alpha..-PDD), did not inhibit GVBD. TPA did not inhibit the maturation-associated decrease in oocyte cAMP. Microinjected heat-stable protein inhibitor of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase failed to induce GVBD in the presence of TPA. Both TPA and diC/sub 8/ partially inhibited specific changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are tightly correlated with resumption of meiosis; these agents also induced the apparent phosphorylation of specific oocyte proteins. These results suggest that protein kinase C activators may inhibit resumption of meiosis by acting distal to a decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, but prior to changes in oocyte phosphoprotein metabolism that are presumably required for resumption of meiosis.

  20. Acute fasting decreases the expression of GLUT1 and glucose utilisation involved in mouse oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Jinlian; Teng, Zhen; Bian, Fenghua; Guo, Meng; Mao, Guankun; Li, Junxia; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Acute fasting impairs meiotic resumption and glucose consumption in mouse cumulus cell and oocyte complexes (COCs). This study examines the effects of acute fasting on the regulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and glucose consumption in oocyte maturation. Our results indicate that the restriction of glucose utilisation by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mimicked the inhibitory effects of acute fasting on oocyte meiotic resumption and cumulus cell expansion, effects that were rescued by high glucose concentrations in the culture medium. GLUT1 protein levels were higher in cumulus cells compared with oocytes, and GLUT1 expression in COCs increased with FSH treatment in vitro. However, under acute fasting conditions, GLUT1 expression in COCs decreased and the response to FSH disappeared. Exposure to high glucose conditions (27.5mM and 55mM), significantly increased both glucose consumption and GLUT1 levels in COCs. Inhibition of GLUT1 function using an anti-GLUT1 antibody significantly inhibited FSH-induced oocyte meiotic resumption. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fasting decreases GLUT1 expression and glucose utilisation, inhibiting the processes of oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion. PMID:22697123

  1. Method of Euthanasia Influences the Oocyte Fertilization Rate with Fresh Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required. PMID:25650969

  2. Pseudogene-derived small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tam, Oliver H; Aravin, Alexei A; Stein, Paula; Girard, Angelique; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Cheloufi, Sihem; Hodges, Emily; Anger, Martin; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Schultz, Richard M; Hannon, Gregory J

    2008-05-22

    Pseudogenes populate the mammalian genome as remnants of artefactual incorporation of coding messenger RNAs into transposon pathways. Here we show that a subset of pseudogenes generates endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in mouse oocytes. These endo-siRNAs are often processed from double-stranded RNAs formed by hybridization of spliced transcripts from protein-coding genes to antisense transcripts from homologous pseudogenes. An inverted repeat pseudogene can also generate abundant small RNAs directly. A second class of endo-siRNAs may enforce repression of mobile genetic elements, acting together with Piwi-interacting RNAs. Loss of Dicer, a protein integral to small RNA production, increases expression of endo-siRNA targets, demonstrating their regulatory activity. Our findings indicate a function for pseudogenes in regulating gene expression by means of the RNA interference pathway and may, in part, explain the evolutionary pressure to conserve argonaute-mediated catalysis in mammals. PMID:18404147

  3. Pseudogene-derived small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Oliver H.; Aravin, Alexei A.; Stein, Paula; Girard, Angelique; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Cheloufi, Sihem; Hodges, Emily; Anger, Martin; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Schultz, Richard M.; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudogenes populate the mammalian genome as remnants of artefactual incorporation of coding messenger RNAs into transposon pathways1. Here we show that a subset of pseudogenes generates endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in mouse oocytes. These endo-siRNAs are often processed from double-stranded RNAs formed by hybridization of spliced transcripts from protein-coding genes to antisense transcripts from homologous pseudogenes. An inverted repeat pseudogene can also generate abundant small RNAs directly. A second class of endo-siRNAs may enforce repression of mobile genetic elements, acting together with Piwi-interacting RNAs. Loss of Dicer, a protein integral to small RNA production, increases expression of endo-siRNA targets, demonstrating their regulatory activity. Our findings indicate a function for pseudogenes in regulating gene expression by means of the RNA interference pathway and may, in part, explain the evolutionary pressure to conserve argonaute-mediated catalysis in mammals. PMID:18404147

  4. Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on Mammalian Development. Part 2: Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes During Clinostat Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the role of gravity in basic cellular processes that are important during development, the effects of a simulated microgravity environment on mammalian gametes and early embryos cultured in vitro are examined. A microgravity environment is simulated by use of a clinostat, which essentially reorients cells relative to the gravity vector. Initial studies have focused on assessing the effects of clinostat rotation on the meiotic progression of mouse oocytes. Modifications centered on providing the unique in vitro culture of the clinostat requirements of mammalian oocytes and embryos: 37 C temperature, constant humidity, and a 5% CO2 in air environment. The oocytes are observed under the dissecting microscope for polar body formation and gross morphological appearance. They are then processed for cytogenetic analysis.

  5. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mokhber Maleki, Elham; Eimani, Hussein; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Golkar Narenji, Afsane; Abedi, Reyhane

    2016-01-01

    Background Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH) synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml), 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO), or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631) were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII) oocytes after IVM (n=240) were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results Supplementation of IVM media with 10 µg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05) increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 µg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 µg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential of mouse

  6. Microtubule organisation, pronuclear formation and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection or parthenogenetic activation and then slow-freezing with 1, 2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Li, Dun-Gao; Zhu, Yan; Xing, Feng-Ying; Li, Shan-Gang; Chen, Xue-Jin; Jiang, Man-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cryopreservation on oocytes at different times after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and parthenogenetic activation. The study was performed in mouse oocytes fertilised by ICSI, or in artificially-activated oocytes, which were cryopreserved immediately, one hour or five hours later through slow-freezing. After thawing, the rates of survival, fertilisation-activation, embryonic development of oocytes-zygotes and changes in the cytoskeleton and ploidy were observed. Our results reveal a significant difference in survival rates of 0-, 1- and 5-h cryopreserved oocytes following ICSI and artificial activation. Moreover, significant differences in two pronuclei (PN) development existed between the 0-, 1- and 5-h groups of oocytes frozen after ICSI, while the rates of two-PN development of activated oocytes were different between the 1-h and 5-h groups. Despite these initial differences, there was no difference in the rate of blastocyst formation from two-PN zygotes following ICSI or artificial activation. However, compared with ICSI or artificially-activated oocytes cryopreserved at 5h, many oocytes from the 0- and 1-h cryopreservation groups developed to zygotes with abnormal ploidy; this suggests that too little time before cryopreservation can result in some activated oocytes forming abnormal ploidy. However, our results also demonstrate that spermatozoa can maintain normal fertilisation capacity in frozen ICSI oocytes and the procedure of freeze-thawing did not affect the later development of zygotes. PMID:23594385

  7. The relationship between apoptosis, chromatin configuration, histone modification and competence of oocytes: A study using the mouse ovary-holding stress model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Juan; Chen, Fei; Sun, Ming-Ju; Zhu, Jiang; Li, You-Wei; Pan, Liu-Zhu; Zhang, Jie; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic factors causing competence differences between SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (non-surrounded nucleolus) oocytes, the significance for the increased histone acetylation and methylation in SN oocytes, and whether chromatin configuration or histone modification determines oocyte competence, are unclear. This study has addressed these issues by using the ovary-holding (OH) stress models where oocyte SN configuration was uncoupled from histone modifications and developmental potential. Prepubertal mouse ovaries containing high percentages of NSN oocytes were preserved at 37 or 39 °C for 1 or 2 h before examination for oocyte chromatin configuration, developmental competence, histone modification and apoptosis. Whereas 1-h OH at 37 °C caused a moderate apoptosis with increased oocyte competence, improved histone modification and a normal NSN-to-SN transition, harsher OH conditions induced a severe apoptosis with decreased oocyte competence, impaired histone modification and a pseudo (premature) NSN-to-SN transition. Observations on Fas/FasL expression and using the gld (generalized lymphoproliferative disorder) mice harboring FasL mutations indicated that OH triggered oocyte apoptosis with activation of the Fas signaling. It was concluded that OH stress caused oocyte apoptosis with activation of the Fas/FasL system and that oocyte competence was more closely correlated with histone modification than with chromatin configuration. PMID:27321442

  8. Transcriptome based identification of mouse cumulus cell markers that predict the developmental competence of their enclosed antral oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cumulus cells (CCs) enveloping antral and ovulated oocytes have been regarded as putative source of non-invasive markers of the oocyte developmental competence. A number of studies have indeed observed a correlation between CCs gene expression, embryo quality, and final pregnancy outcome. Here, we isolated CCs from antral mouse oocytes of known developmental incompetence (NSN-CCs) or competence (SN-CCs) and compared their transcriptomes with the aim of identifying distinct marker transcripts. Results Global gene expression analysis highlighted that both types of CCs share similar transcriptomes, with the exception of 422 genes, 97.6% of which were down-regulated in NSN-CCs vs. SN-CCs. This transcriptional down-regulation in NSN-CCs was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of CC-related genes (Has2, Ptx3, Tnfaip6 and Ptgs2). Only ten of the 422 genes were up-regulated with Amh being the most up-regulated in NSN-CCs, with an average 4-fold higher expression when analysed by qRT-PCR. Conclusions The developmental incompetence (NSN) or competence (SN) of antral oocytes can be predicted using transcript markers expressed by their surrounding CCs (i.e., Has2, Ptx3, Tnfaip6, Ptgs2 and Amh). Overall, the regulated nature of the group of genes brought out by whole transcriptome analysis constitutes the molecular signature of CCs associated either with developmentally incompetent or competent oocytes and may represent a valuable resource for developing new molecular tools for the assessment of oocyte quality and to further investigate the complex bi-directional interaction occurring between CCs and oocyte. PMID:23758669

  9. Closed vitrification of mouse oocytes using the CryoLogic vitrification method: A modification that improves developmental competence

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jun Woo; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the mouse oocyte vitrification outcomes of the CryoLogic vitrification method (CVM) and the conventional open method using a Cryotop. Two CVM methods (original CVM and modified CVM) were tested. Methods Mature oocytes obtained from female BDF-1 mice were vitrified by two-step exposure to equilibrium and vitrification solutions. Three vitrification protocols were tested on three groups: the CVM-kit, modified CVM, and Cryotop groups. After exposure to the two solutions, the oocytes were vitrified. After warming, the oocytes were fertilized in vitro, and the embryo development was assessed. Blastomeres positive for caspase were counted using an in situ assay kit. The spindle morphology and chromosome configurations of warmed vitrified oocytes were also assessed. Results The modified CVM and Cryotop groups showed similar developmental capacities, and similar proportions of cells with intact spindles and chromosome configurations. The modified CVM protocol was superior to the original CVM protocol for developmental competence and intact spindle preservation. However, the CVM group showed a relatively higher number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Conclusion Closed vitrification using the modified CVM protocol may be used as an alternative to the conventional open method, but strategies to decrease apoptosis in the blastomere need to be investigated. PMID:24505560

  10. Effects of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and 17β-Estradiol on the Mouse Ovarian Follicle Development and Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T.; Suzuki, Nao

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that androstenedione induces abnormalities of follicle development and oocyte maturation in the mouse ovary. In granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle, androstenedione is aromatized to 17β-estradiol (E2). To determine whether the androgen or estrogen acts directly on the follicle to induce the above-mentioned abnormalities, we compared the effects of a non-aromatizable androgen, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), with those of E2 on murine follicular development and oocyte maturation in a single follicle culture system. The high dose (10−6 M) of DHT prompted normal follicular development, and there was no effect on oocyte meiotic maturation after stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). In contrast, culture with the high dose (10−6 M) of E2 delayed follicular growth and also suppressed proliferation of granulosa cells and antrum formation. Furthermore, culture with E2 delayed or inhibited oocyte meiotic maturation, such as chromosome alignment on the metaphase plate and extrusion of the first polar body, after addition of hCG and EGF. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that E2, but not DHT, induces abnormalities of follicular development, which leads to delay or inhibition of oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:24911314

  11. Selective Disruption of Aurora C Kinase Reveals Distinct Functions from Aurora B Kinase during Meiosis in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balboula, Ahmed Z.; Schindler, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Aurora B kinase (AURKB) is the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an essential regulator of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, the CPC is required to regulate kinetochore microtubule (K-MT) attachments, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Germ cells express an AURKB homolog, AURKC, which can also function in the CPC. Separation of AURKB and AURKC function during meiosis in oocytes by conventional approaches has not been successful. Therefore, the meiotic function of AURKC is still not fully understood. Here, we describe an ATP-binding-pocket-AURKC mutant, that when expressed in mouse oocytes specifically perturbs AURKC-CPC and not AURKB-CPC function. Using this mutant we show for the first time that AURKC has functions that do not overlap with AURKB. These functions include regulating localized CPC activity and regulating chromosome alignment and K-MT attachments at metaphase of meiosis I (Met I). We find that AURKC-CPC is not the sole CPC complex that regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint in meiosis, and as a result most AURKC-perturbed oocytes arrest at Met I. A small subset of oocytes do proceed through cytokinesis normally, suggesting that AURKC-CPC is not the sole CPC complex during telophase I. But, the resulting eggs are aneuploid, indicating that AURKC is a critical regulator of meiotic chromosome segregation in female gametes. Taken together, these data suggest that mammalian oocytes contain AURKC to efficiently execute meiosis I and ensure high-quality eggs necessary for sexual reproduction. PMID:24586209

  12. Laser-Assisted In Vitro Fertilization Facilitates Fertilization of Vitrified-Warmed C57BL/6 Mouse Oocytes with Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa, Producing Live Pups

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie E.; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G.; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  13. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  14. Nek9 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiosis and its location in early embryo mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shang-Wu; Gao, Chen; Chen, Lei; Song, Ya-Li; Zhu, Jin-Liang; Qi, Shu-Tao; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Lin, Fei; Huang, Hao; Xing, Fu-Qi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Nek9 (also known as Nercc1), a member of the NIMA (never in mitosis A) family of protein kinases, regulates spindle formation, chromosome alignment and segregation in mitosis. Here, we showed that Nek9 protein was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages in mouse oocytes with no detectable changes. Confocal microscopy identified that Nek9 was localized to the spindle poles at the metaphase stages and associated with the midbody at anaphase or telophase stage in both meiotic oocytes and the first mitotic embyros. Depletion of Nek9 by specific morpholino injection resulted in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes with significant pro-MI/MI arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Knockdown of Nek9 also impaired the spindle-pole localization of γ-tubulin and resulted in retention of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Bub3 at the kinetochores even after 10 h of culture. Live-cell imaging analysis also confirmed that knockdown of Nek9 resulted in oocyte arrest at the pro-MI/MI stage with abnormal spindles, misaligned chromosomes and failed polar body emission. Taken together, our results suggest that Nek9 may act as a MTOC-associated protein regulating microtubule nucleation, spindle organization and, thus, cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization and early embryo cleavage. PMID:23159858

  15. Inhibition of the Binding between RGS2 and β-Tubulin Interferes with Spindle Formation and Chromosome Segregation during Mouse Oocyte Maturation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao-Gui; Zhang, Zhi; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    RGS2 is a negative regulator of G protein signaling that contains a GTPase-activating domain and a β-tubulin binding region. This study aimed to determine the localization and function of RGS2 during mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that RGS2 was widely expressed in the cytoplasm with a greater abundance on both meiotic spindles and first/second polar bodies from the fully-grown germinal vesicle (GV) stage to the MII stages. Co-expression of RGS2 and β-tubulin could also be detected in the spindle and polar body of mouse oocytes at the MI, AI, and MII stages. Inhibition of the binding site between RGS2 and β-tubulin was accomplished by injecting anti-RGS2 antibody into GV-stage oocytes, which could result in oocytes arrest at the MI or AI stage during in vitro maturation, but it did not affect germinal vesicle breakdown. Moreover, injecting anti-RGS2 antibody into oocytes resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of first polar body extrusion and abnormal spindle formation. Additionally, levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2 were significantly reduced in anti-RGS2 antibody injected oocytes compared with control oocytes. These findings suggest that RGS2 might play a critical role in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation by affecting β-tubulin polymerization and chromosome segregation. PMID:27463806

  16. Isolation of apoptotic mouse fetal oocytes by AnnexinV assay.

    PubMed

    Lobascio, Anna-Maria; Klinger, Francesca-Gioia; De Felici, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Expression of phosphotidylserine by fetal oocytes in culture renders significant numbers of such cells able to bind AnnexinV-coated microbeads and allows their separation from Annexin V-negative oocytes on a Magnetic Cell Separation (MACS) column in a magnetic field. The majority of oocytes (> or =75%) which bound Annexin V-coated microbeads were viable, as indicated by their propidium iodine (PI) negativity. However, they showed apoptotic morphologies and were found to be TUNEL-positive. On the other hand, AnnexinV-negative oocytes, besides being PI negative, appeared morphologically healthy and TUNEL negative. Moreover, AnnexinV-positive oocytes showed a marked lower ratio of Bcl-xL/Bax transcripts in comparison to AnnexinV-negative oocytes. We conclude that the present method is able to separate fetal oocytes in two distinct populations: AnnexinV-positive oocytes showing features typical of apoptotic cells and AnnexinV-negative oocytes comprising for the most part viable non-apoptotic cells. This procedure should greatly facilitate studies aimed to identify the currently poorly understood molecular pathways governing apoptosis in mammalian fetal oocytes. PMID:17294366

  17. TCTP regulates spindle microtubule dynamics by stabilizing polar microtubules during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Park, Yong Seok; Chang, Jong Wook; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic changes in spindle structure and function are essential for maintaining genomic integrity during the cell cycle. Spindle dynamics are highly dependent on several microtubule-associated proteins that coordinate the dynamic behavior of microtubules, including microtubule assembly, stability and organization. Here, we show that translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a novel microtubule-associated protein that regulates spindle dynamics during meiotic maturation. TCTP was expressed and widely distributed in the cytoplasm with strong enrichment at the spindle microtubules during meiosis. TCTP was found to be phosphorylated during meiotic maturation, and was exclusively localized to the spindle poles. Knockdown of TCTP impaired spindle organization without affecting chromosome alignment. These spindle defects were mostly due to the destabilization of the polar microtubules. However, the stability of kinetochore microtubules attached to chromosomes was not affected by TCTP knockdown. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylable mutant of TCTP disturbed meiotic maturation, stabilizing the spindle microtubules. In addition, Plk1 was decreased by TCTP knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TCTP is a microtubule-associating protein required to regulate spindle microtubule dynamics during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. PMID:26802898

  18. Mouse Oocyte Control of Granulosa Cell Development and Function: Paracrine Regulation of Cumulus Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Su, You-Qiang; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional communication between oocytes and the companion granulosa cells is essential for the development and functions of both compartments. Oocytes are deficient in their ability to transport certain amino acids and in carrying out glycolysis and cholesterol biosynthesis, and require that cumulus cells provide them with the specific amino acids and the products in these metabolic pathways. Oocytes control metabolic activities in cumulus cells by promoting the expression of genes in cumulus cells encoding specific amino acid transporters and enzymes essential for the oocyte-deficient metabolic processes. Hence, oocytes outsource metabolic functions to cumulus cells to compensate for oocyte metabolic deficiencies. Oocyte control of granulosa cell metabolism may also participate in regulating the rate of follicular development in coordination with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals. Oocytes influence granulosa cell development mainly by secretion of paracrine factors although juxtacrine signals probably also participate. Key oocyte-derived paracine factors include growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) 15, and fibroblast growth factor 8B (FGF8B). PMID:19197803

  19. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-06-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3' mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  20. Dynamic maintenance of asymmetric meiotic spindle position through Arp2/3 complex-driven cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Kexi; Unruh, Jay R.; Deng, Manqi; Slaughter, Brian D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Mature mammalian oocytes are poised for the completion of second polar body extrusion upon fertilization by positioning the metaphase spindle in close proximity to an actomyosin-rich cortical cap. Loss of this spindle position asymmetry is often associated with poor oocyte quality and infertility 1–3. Here, we report a novel role for the Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex in the maintenance of asymmetric spindle position in mature mouse oocytes. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to the cortical cap in a Ran GTPase-dependent manner and accounts for the nucleation of the majority of actin filaments in both the cortical cap and a cytoplasmic actin network. Inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity or localization leads to rapid dissociation of the spindle from the cortex. High resolution live imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis reveal that in normal oocytes actin filaments flow continuously away from the Arp2/3-rich cortex, generating a cytoplamic streaming that results in a net pushing force on the spindle toward the actomyosin cap. Arp2/3 inhibition not only diminishes this actin flow and cytoplamic streaming but also enables a reverse streaming driven by myosin-II-based cortical contraction, leading to spindle movement away from the cortex. We conclude that the Arp2/3 complex maintains asymmetric meiotic spindle position by generating an actin polymerization-driven cytoplamic streaming and by suppressing a counteracting force from myosin-II-based contractility. PMID:21874009

  1. 1,2-propanediol-induced premature centromere separation in mouse oocytes and aneuploidy in one-cell zygotes.

    PubMed

    Mailhes, J B; Young, D; London, S N

    1997-07-01

    Aneuploidy in germ cells results in reproductive failure and mental and physical disorders in humans. Unfortunately, little is known about the causes and mechanisms of aneuploidy induction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol; PG) induces cytogenetic aberrations in mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes that predispose zygotes to aneuploidy. Female ICR mice received 7.5 IU eCG and 5.0 IU hCG 48 h later. PG doses of 1300, 2600, and 5200 mg/kg body weight were given 3 h post-hCG; controls received the solvent deionized water. Ovulated oocytes were collected 16 h after administration of PG and processed for cytogenetic analysis. For the one-cell zygote cytogenetic study, females were given PG and paired (1:1) with ICR males for 16 h. Females that mated were given 2 x 10(-3) M colchicine 22 h post-PG, and zygotes were collected 18 h later. PG significantly (p < 0.05) increased both the proportion of MII oocytes with premature centromere separation (PCS) and the proportion of aneuploid one-cell zygotes. These results support the hypothesis that PG-induced PCS in MII oocytes predisposes zygotes to aneuploidy. PMID:9209085

  2. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3′ mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  3. Meiosis-activating sterol promotes resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes cultured in vitro in contrast to related oxysterols.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, C; Ottesen, J L; Lessl, M; Faarup, P; Murray, A; Grønvald, F C; Hegele-Hartung, C; Ahnfelt-Rønne, I

    1998-05-01

    The sterol 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3beta-ol (FF-MAS [follicular-fluid meiosis-activating sterol]) from human follicular fluid has recently been identified as a compound that induces the resumption of meiosis. FF-MAS and various oxysterols have been reported to transactivate the orphan receptor LXRalpha. The objective was to determine the biological activity of synthetic FF-MAS on the resumption of meiosis and final maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. In order to evaluate whether LXRalpha might mediate FF-MAS action on the oocyte, we compared the capability of various compounds to activate LXRalpha-dependent transcription and to induce resumption of meiosis in the oocyte assay. Ovaries were isolated from immature mice primed with FSH 48 h before collection. Naked oocytes (NkO) and cumulus enclosed oocytes (CEO) were isolated from follicles. The oocytes were cultured in two groups, NkO and CEO, respectively, in media containing either 3 mM hypoxanthine, 5 microM IBMX, or 0.100 mM dbcAMP to maintain the oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage. The resumption of meiosis was assessed by the frequency of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after 24 h of in vitro culture. FF-MAS overcame the meiotic inhibition by hypoxanthine in both the NkO group and CEO group in a dose-dependent manner within the concentration range 0.07-7 microM. FF-MAS displayed similar potency in all inhibitory agents used. Also, FF-MAS significantly increased the formation of polar bodies in both the CEO and NkO group. The oxysterols 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (a potent ligand for the LXRalpha receptor), 16-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, as well as cholesterol, were tested without any significant effect on maturation compared to that of controls. Oxysterols and FF-MAS were observed to activate LXRalpha. In conclusion, the results reported here clearly demonstrate that synthetic FF-MAS exclusively is capable of mediating resumption of meiosis in

  4. FSH Regulates mRNA Translation in Mouse Oocytes and Promotes Developmental Competence.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Federica; Manandhar, Shila; Conti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    A major challenge in assisted reproductive technology is to develop conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation yielding high-quality eggs. Efforts are underway to assess whether known hormonal and local factors play a role in oocyte developmental competence and to identify the molecular mechanism involved. Here we have tested the hypothesis that FSH improves oocyte developmental competence by regulating the translational program in the oocyte. Accumulation of oocyte proteins (targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin xklp2 and IL-7) associated with improved oocyte quality is increased when cumulus-oocyte complexes are incubated with FSH. This increase is due to enhanced translation of the corresponding mRNAs, as indicated by microinjection of constructs in which the 3' untranslated region of the Tpx2 or Il7 transcripts is fused to the luciferase reporter. A transient activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-phosphate/AKT cascade in the oocyte preceded the increase in translation. When the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is down-regulated in follicular cells, the FSH-induced rate of maternal mRNA translation and AKT activation were lost, demonstrating that the effects of FSH are indirect and require EGF receptor signaling in the somatic compartment. Using Pten(fl/fl):Zp3cre oocytes in which the AKT is constitutively activated, translation of reporters was increased and was no longer sensitive to FSH stimulation. More importantly, the oocytes lacking the phosphate and tensin homolog gene showed increased developmental competence, even when cultured in the absence of FSH or growth factors. Thus, we demonstrate that FSH intersects with the follicular EGF network to activate the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-phosphate/AKT cascade in the oocyte to control translation and developmental competence. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the use of FSH to improve egg quality. PMID:26653334

  5. Prophase I Mouse Oocytes Are Deficient in the Ability to Respond to Fertilization by Decreasing Membrane Receptivity to Sperm and Establishing a Membrane Block to Polyspermy1

    PubMed Central

    Kryzak, Cassie A.; Moraine, Maia M.; Kyle, Diane D.; Lee, Hyo J.; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Robinson, Douglas N.; Evans, Janice P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Changes occurring as the prophase I oocyte matures to metaphase II are critical for the acquisition of competence for normal egg activation and early embryogenesis. A prophase I oocyte cannot respond to a fertilizing sperm as a metaphase II egg does, including the ability to prevent polyspermic fertilization. Studies here demonstrate that the competence for the membrane block to polyspermy is deficient in prophase I mouse oocytes. In vitro fertilization experiments using identical insemination conditions result in monospermy in 87% of zona pellucida (ZP)-free metaphase II eggs, while 92% of ZP-free prophase I oocytes have four or more fused sperm. The membrane block is associated with a postfertilization reduction in the capacity to support sperm binding, but this reduction in sperm-binding capacity is both less robust and slower to develop in fertilized prophase I oocytes. Fertilization of oocytes is dependent on the tetraspanin CD9, but little to no release of CD9 from the oocyte membrane is detected, suggesting that release of CD9-containing vesicles is not essential for fertilization. The deficiency in membrane block establishment in prophase I oocytes correlates with abnormalities in two postfertilization cytoskeletal changes: sperm-induced cortical remodeling that results in fertilization cone formation and a postfertilization increase in effective cortical tension. These data indicate that cortical maturation is a component of cytoplasmic maturation during the oocyte-to-egg transition and that the egg cortex has to be appropriately primed and tuned to be responsive to a fertilizing sperm. PMID:23863404

  6. Possible involvement of integrin-mediated signalling in oocyte activation: evidence that a cyclic RGD-containing peptide can stimulate protein kinase C and cortical granule exocytosis in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Carbone, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Mammalian sperm-oocyte interaction at fertilization involves several combined interactions between integrins on the oocyte and integrin ligands (disintegrins) on the sperm. Recent research has indicated the ability of peptides containing the RGD sequence that characterized several sperm disintegrins, to induce intracellular Ca2+ transients and to initiate parthenogenetic development in amphibian and bovine oocytes. In the present study, we investigate the hypothesis that an integrin-associated signalling may participate in oocyte activation signalling by determining the ability of a cyclic RGD-containing peptide to stimulate the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the exocytosis of cortical granules in mouse oocytes. Methods An In-Vitro-Fertilization assay (IVF) was carried in order to test the condition under which a peptide containing the RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Val), was able to inhibit sperm fusion with zona-free mouse oocytes at metaphase II stage. PKC activity was determined by means of an assay based on the ability of cell lysates to phosphorylate MARKS peptide, a specific PKC substrate. Loss of cortical granules was evaluated by measuring density in the oocyte cortex of cortical granules stained with LCA-biotin/Texas red-streptavidin. In all the experiments, effects of a control peptide containing a non RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Ala-Asp-D-Phe-Val), were evaluated. Results The IVF assay revealed that the fusion rate declined significantly when insemination was carried out in the presence of cyclic RGD peptide at concentrations > or = 250 microM (P < 0.05, Student-Newman-Keuls Method). When the peptide was applied to the oocytes at these concentrations, a dose-dependent increase of PKC activity was observed, in association with a loss of cortical granules ranging from 38+/-2.5 % to 52+/-5.4 %. Evaluation of meiotic status revealed that cyclic RGD peptide was ineffective in inducing meiosis resumption under conditions used in the

  7. Sirt3 prevents maternal obesity-associated oxidative stress and meiotic defects in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Longsen; Ma, Rujun; Hou, Xiaojing; Yu, Yang; Sun, Shaochen; Xu, Yinxue; Schedl, Tim; Moley, Kelle H; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obese environment has been reported to induce oxidative stress and meiotic defects in oocytes, however the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, using mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) as an obesity model, we first detected enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and reduced Sirt3 expression in HFD oocytes. We further observed that specific depletion of Sirt3 in control oocytes elevates ROS levels while Sirt3 overexpression attenuates ROS production in HFD oocytes, with significant suppression of spindle disorganization and chromosome misalignment phenotypes that have been reported in the obesity model. Candidate screening revealed that the acetylation status of lysine 68 on superoxide dismutase (SOD2K68) is dependent on Sirt3 deacetylase activity in oocytes, and acetylation-mimetic mutant SOD2K68Q results in almost threefold increase in intracellular ROS. Moreover, we found that acetylation levels of SOD2K68 are increased by ∼80% in HFD oocytes and importantly, that the non-acetylatable-mimetic mutant SOD2K68R is capable of partially rescuing their deficient phenotypes. Together, our data identify Sirt3 as an important player in modulating ROS homeostasis during oocyte development, and indicate that Sirt3-dependent deacetylation of SOD2 plays a protective role against oxidative stress and meiotic defects in oocytes under maternal obese conditions. PMID:25790176

  8. Application of oocyte cryopreservation technology in TALEN-mediated mouse genome editing.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamasaki, Sho; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive engineering techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cryopreservation of embryos or spermatozoa, are essential for preservation, reproduction, and transportation of genetically engineered mice. However, it has not yet been elucidated whether these techniques can be applied for the generation of genome-edited mice using engineered nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of frozen oocytes fertilized in vitro using frozen sperm for TALEN-mediated genome editing in mice. We examined side-by-side comparisons concerning sperm (fresh vs. frozen), fertilization method (mating vs. IVF), and fertilized oocytes (fresh vs. frozen) for the source of oocytes used for TALEN injection; we found that fertilized oocytes created under all tested conditions were applicable for TALEN-mediated mutagenesis. In addition, we investigated whether the ages in weeks of parental female mice can affect the efficiency of gene modification, by comparing 5-week-old and 8-12-week-old mice as the source of oocytes used for TALEN injection. The genome editing efficiency of an endogenous gene was consistently 95-100% when either 5-week-old or 8-12-week-old mice were used with or without freezing the oocytes. Thus, our report describes the availability of freeze-thawed oocytes and oocytes from female mice at various weeks of age for TALEN-mediated genome editing, thus boosting the convenience of such innovative gene targeting strategies. PMID:25077765

  9. Leptin and ObRa/MEK signalling in mouse oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yinghui; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Mitsue; Kawamura, Nanami; Groenen, Peter; Sollewijn Gelpke, Maarten D; Kumagai, Jin; Fukuda, Jun; Tanaka, Toshinobu

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that LH stimulates production of ovarian paracrine factors that induce meiosis of the oocyte. DNA microarray analyses of ovarian transcripts were performed in mice and major increases of a short isoform of leptin receptor, ObRa, were identified by the preovulatory LH/human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) surge. In oocytes, the level of ObRa transcripts was increased shortly after HCG stimulation, whereas the level of ObRb transcripts was not changed. Leptin was produced by cumulus, granulosa, theca and interstitial cells of ovaries and its transcript level was not regulated during gonadotrophin treatment. Treatment with leptin promoted germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in oocytes within preovulatory follicles, and enhance first polar body extrusion in both cumulus-oocyte complexes and denuded oocytes. The leptin-promoted GVBD and first polar body extrusion were blocked by a mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase kinases (MEK)1/2 inhibitor, U0126, but not its inactive analogue U0124. Furthermore, leptin promoted fertilization of oocytes and the in-vitro development of zygotes to preimplantation embryos. These findings suggest paracrine roles of leptin in the enhancement of nuclear maturation of oocytes through MEK1/2 signalling, and in the promotion of cytoplasmic maturation essential for successful oocyte development to the preimplantation embryos. PMID:19712552

  10. Mouse Ovarian Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Resist Chemotherapy and Retain Ability to Initiate Oocyte-Specific Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Kalpana; Bhartiya, Deepa; Anand, Sandhya; Bhutda, Smita

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate stem cells in adult mouse ovary, the effect of chemotherapy on them and their potential to differentiate into germ cells. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that were SCA-1+/Lin-/CD45-, positive for nuclear octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (OCT-4), Nanog, and cell surface stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, were identified in adult mouse ovary. Chemotherapy resulted in complete loss of follicular reserve and cytoplasmic OCT-4 positive progenitors (ovarian germ stem cells) but VSELs survived. In ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell cultures from chemoablated ovary, proliferating germ cell clusters and mouse vasa homolog/growth differentiation factor 9-positive oocyte-like structure were observed by day 6, probably arising as a result of differentiation of the surviving VSELs. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exerted a direct stimulatory action on the OSE and induced stem cells proliferation and differentiation into premeiotic germ cell clusters during intact chemoablated ovaries culture. The FSH analog pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment to chemoablated mice increased the percentage of surviving VSELs in ovary. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of potential VSELs in mouse ovaries and show that they survive chemotherapy, are modulated by FSH, and retain the ability to undergo oocyte-specific differentiation. These results show relevance to women who undergo premature ovarian failure because of oncotherapy. PMID:25779995

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Mouse Oocytes Identifies PRMT7 as a Reprogramming Factor that Replaces SOX2 in the Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingyuan; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Drexler, Hannes C A; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The reprogramming process that leads to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may benefit from adding oocyte factors to Yamanaka's reprogramming cocktail (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, with or without MYC; OSK(M)). We previously searched for such facilitators of reprogramming (the reprogrammome) by applying label-free LC-MS/MS analysis to mouse oocytes, producing a catalog of 28 candidates that are (i) able to robustly access the cell nucleus and (ii) shared between mature mouse oocytes and pluripotent embryonic stem cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that our 28 reprogrammome candidates would also be (iii) abundant in mature oocytes, (iv) depleted after the oocyte-to-embryo transition, and (v) able to potentiate or replace the OSKM factors. Using LC-MS/MS and isotopic labeling methods, we found that the abundance profiles of the 28 proteins were below those of known oocyte-specific and housekeeping proteins. Of the 28 proteins, only arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) changed substantially during mouse embryogenesis and promoted the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into iPSCs. Specifically, PRMT7 replaced SOX2 in a factor-substitution assay, yielding iPSCs. These findings exemplify how proteomics can be used to prioritize the functional analysis of reprogrammome candidates. The LC-MS/MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003093. PMID:27225728

  12. Age-Dependent Susceptibility of Chromosome Cohesion to Premature Separase Activation in Mouse Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Teresa; Schultz, Richard M.; Lampson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hypothesis to explain the maternal age-dependent increase in formation of aneuploid eggs is deterioration of chromosome cohesion. Although several lines of evidence are consistent with this hypothesis, whether cohesion is actually reduced in naturally aged oocytes has not been directly tested by any experimental perturbation. To directly target cohesion, we increased the activity of separase, the protease that cleaves the meiotic cohesin REC8, in oocytes. We show that cohesion is more susceptible to premature separase activation in old oocytes than in young oocytes, demonstrating that cohesion is significantly reduced. Furthermore, cohesion is protected by two independent mechanisms that inhibit separase, securin and an inhibitory phosphorylation of separase by CDK1; both mechanisms must be disrupted to prematurely activate separase. With the continual loss of cohesins from chromosomes that occurs throughout the natural reproductive lifespan, tight regulation of separase in oocytes may be particularly important to maintain cohesion and prevent aneuploidy. PMID:21865557

  13. Quantitative Microinjection of Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides into Mouse Oocytes to Examine Gene Function in Meiosis-I.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shoma; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Specific protein depletion is a powerful approach for assessing individual gene function in cellular processes, and has been extensively employed in recent years in mammalian oocyte meiosis-I. Conditional knockout mice and RNA interference (RNAi) methods such as siRNA or dsRNA microinjection are among several approaches to have been applied in this system over the past decade. RNAi by microinjection of Morpholino antisense Oligonucleotides (MO), in particular, has proven highly popular and tractable in many studies, since MOs have high specificity of interaction, low cell toxicity, and are more stable than other microinjected RNAi molecules. Here, we describe a method of MO microinjection into the mouse germinal vesicle-stage (GV) oocyte followed by a simple immunofluorescence approach for examination of gene function in meiosis-I. PMID:27557584

  14. Shugoshin1 May Play Important Roles in Separation of Homologous Chromosomes and Sister Chromatids during Mouse Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shen; Ai, Jun-Shu; Shi, Li-Hong; Wei, Liang; Yuan, Ju; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Background Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I and sister chromatids separate in meiosis II, generating haploid gametes. To address the question why sister chromatids do not separate in meiosis I, we explored the roles of Shogoshin1 (Sgo1) in chromosome separation during oocyte meiosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Sgo1 function was evaluated by exogenous overexpression to enhance its roles and RNAi to suppress its roles during two meioses of mouse oocytes. Immunocytochemistry and chromosome spread were used to evaluate phenotypes. The exogenous Sgo1 overexpression kept homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids not to separate in meiosis I and meiosis II, respectively, while the Sgo1 RNAi promoted premature separation of sister chromatids. Conclusions Our results reveal that prevention of premature separation of sister chromatids in meiosis I requires the retention of centromeric Sgo1, while normal separation of sister chromatids in meiosis II requires loss of centromeric Sgo1. PMID:18949044

  15. Altered hepatic clearance and killing of Candida albicans in the isolated perfused mouse liver model.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R T; Horst, M N; Garner, R E; Hudson, J; Jenkins, P R; Richardson, A L

    1990-01-01

    The adherence of Candida albicans was studied in situ by using the perfused mouse liver model. After exhaustive washing, 10(6) C. albicans were infused into mouse livers. At the time of recovery, 62 +/- 5% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of the infused C. albicans were recovered from the liver and 14 +/- 3% were recovered from the effluent for a total recovery of 76 +/- 4%. This indicates that 86 +/- 3% of the original inoculum was trapped by the liver and that 24 +/- 4% was killed within the liver. Chemical pretreatment of C. albicans with 8 M urea, 12 mM dithiothreitol, 2% beta-mercaptoethanol, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 10% Triton X-100, or 3 M potassium chloride or enzyme pretreatment with alpha-mannosidase, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin, beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, pronase, trypsin, papain, or lipase did not alter adherence of C. albicans to hepatic tissue. By contrast, pepsin pretreatment significantly decreased hepatic trapping. Simultaneous perfusion with either 100 mg of C. albicans glycoprotein per liter or 100 mg of C. albicans mannan per liter also decreased trapping. Furthermore, both substances eluted previously trapped C. albicans from hepatic tissue. Chemical pretreatment with 8 M urea, 12 mM dithiothreitol, or 3 M KCI or enzymatic pretreatment with alpha-mannosidase, subtilisin, alpha-chymotrypsin, or papain increased killing of C. albicans three- to fivefold within hepatic tissue. The data suggest that mannose-containing structures on the surface of C. albicans, for example. mannans or glucomannoproteins, mediate adherence of C. albicans within the liver. Indirectly, chemical and enzymatic pretreatment renders C. albicans more susceptible to hepatic killing. PMID:2117571

  16. Calcium-free vitrification reduces cryoprotectant-induced zona pellucida hardening and increases fertilization rates in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Larman, Mark G; Sheehan, Courtney B; Gardner, David K

    2006-01-01

    Despite the success of embryo cyropreservation, routine oocyte freezing has proved elusive with only around 200 children born since the first reported birth in 1986. The reason for the poor efficiency is unclear, but evidence of zona pellucida hardening following oocyte freezing indicates that current protocols affect oocyte physiology. Here we report that two cryoprotectants commonly used in vitrification procedures, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol, cause a large transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration in mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes comparable to the initial increase triggered at fertilization. Removal of extracellular calcium from the medium failed to affect the response exacted by DMSO challenge, but significantly reduced the ethylene glycol-induced calcium increase. These results suggest that the source of the DMSO-induced calcium increase is solely from the internal calcium pool, as opposed to ethylene glycol that causes an influx of calcium across the plasma membrane from the external medium. By carrying out vitrification in calcium-free media, it was found that zona hardening is significantly reduced and subsequent fertilization and development to the two-cell stage significantly increased. Furthermore, such calcium-free treatment appears not to affect the embryo adversely, as shown by development rates to the blastocyst stage and cell number/allocation. Since zona hardening is one of the early activation events normally triggered by the sperm-induced calcium increases observed at fertilization, it is possible that other processes are negatively affected by the calcium rise caused by cryoprotectants used during oocyte freezing, which might explain the current poor efficiency of this technique. PMID:16388009

  17. The Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Adapter Protein B (SHB) Regulates Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Calounova, Gabriela; Livera, Gabriel; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Liu, Kui; Gosden, Roger G.; Welsh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    SHB (Src homology 2 domain-containing adapter protein B) is involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Mice deficient in the Shb gene have been found to exhibit a transmission ratio distortion with respect to inheritance of the Shb null allele among offspring and this phenomenon was linked to female gamete production. Consequently, we postulated that Shb plays a role for oocyte biology and thus decided to investigate oocyte formation, meiotic maturation, and early embryo development in relation to absence of the Shb gene. Oogenesis was apparently accelerated judging from the stages of oocyte development on fetal day 18.5 and one week postnatally in Shb −/− mice; but in adulthood ovarian follicle maturation was impaired in these mice. Completion of meiosis I (first polar body extrusion) was less synchronized, with a fraction of oocytes showing premature polar body extrusion in the absence of Shb. In vitro fertilization of mature oocytes isolated from Shb +/+, +/− and −/− mice revealed impaired early embryo development in the −/− embryos. Moreover, the absence of Shb enhanced ERK (extracellular-signal regulated kinase) and RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) signaling in oocytes and these effects were paralleled by an increased ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and activation. It is concluded that SHB regulates normal oocyte and follicle development and that perturbation of SHB signaling causes defective meiosis I and early embryo development. PMID:20585392

  18. Germinal vesicle material drives meiotic cell cycle of mouse oocyte through the 3'UTR-dependent control of cyclin B1 synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Steffen; Tsurumi, Chizuko; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Polanski, Zbigniew

    2006-04-01

    We compared the profile of histone H1 kinase activity, reflecting Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) activity in oocytes bisected at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and allowed to mature as separate oocyte halves in vitro. Whereas the oocyte halves containing the nucleus exhibited the same profile of increased kinase activity as that typical for intact oocytes, the anuclear halves revealed strong inhibition of the increase in this activity soon after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In contrast, the profile of MAP kinase activity did not differ significantly between anuclear and nucleus-containing oocyte halves throughout maturation. Of the two MPF components, CDK1 and cyclin B1, the amount of the latter was significantly reduced in anuclear halves, a reduction due to low-level synthesis and not to enhanced degradation. Expression of three reporter luciferase RNAs constructed, respectively, to contain cyclin B1-specific 3'UTR, the globin-specific 3'UTR, or no 3'UTR sequence was enhanced in nuclear halves, with significantly greater enhancement for the construct containing cyclin B1-specific 3'UTR as compared to the two other RNAs. We conclude that the profile of activity of MPF during mouse oocyte maturation is controlled by an unknown GV-associated factor(s) acting via 3'UTR-dependent control of cyclin B1 synthesis. These results require the revision of the hitherto prevailing view that the control of MPF activity during mouse oocyte maturation is independent of GV-derived material. PMID:16490186

  19. Thioglycolic acid inhibits mouse oocyte maturation and affects chromosomal arrangement and spindle configuration.

    PubMed

    Hou, S Y; Zhang, L; Wu, K; Xia, L

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that thioglycolic acid (TGA) leads to potential reproductive toxicology. To clarify the exact effects of this compound on reproduction, mice oocytes were treated with different TGA doses. At the end of the culture period, the nuclear status of mice oocytes was assessed under an inverted microscope. After immunofluorescence staining, the chromosomal arrangement and spindle configuration of oocytes were evaluated. The results indicated that TGA decreases the percentage of first polar body formation but does not influence that of germinal vesicle breakdown. TGA induces abnormal chromosomal arrangement and spindle elongation. In conclusion, TGA inhibits in-vitro maturation of mice oocytes and affects chromosomal arrangement and spindle configuration. Furthermore, it probably interferes with biochemical changes that occur during meiosis, resulting in aberrant development. PMID:19022875

  20. Phosphorylation of threonine 3 on histone H3 by haspin kinase is required for meiosis I in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Alexandra L.; Gentilello, Amanda S.; Balboula, Ahmed Z.; Shrivastava, Vibha; Ohring, Jacob; Schindler, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meiosis I (MI), the division that generates haploids, is prone to errors that lead to aneuploidy in females. Haspin is a kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 on threonine 3, thereby recruiting Aurora kinase B (AURKB) and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to kinetochores to regulate mitosis. Haspin and AURKC, an AURKB homolog, are enriched in germ cells, yet their significance in regulating MI is not fully understood. Using inhibitors and overexpression approaches, we show a role for haspin during MI in mouse oocytes. Haspin-perturbed oocytes display abnormalities in chromosome morphology and alignment, improper kinetochore–microtubule attachments at metaphase I and aneuploidy at metaphase II. Unlike in mitosis, kinetochore localization remained intact, whereas the distribution of the CPC along chromosomes was absent. The meiotic defects following haspin inhibition were similar to those observed in oocytes where AURKC was inhibited, suggesting that the correction of microtubule attachments during MI requires AURKC along chromosome arms rather than at kinetochores. Our data implicate haspin as a regulator of the CPC and chromosome segregation during MI, while highlighting important differences in how chromosome segregation is regulated between MI and mitosis. PMID:25315835

  1. Kinetics and activation energy of recrystallization of intracellular ice in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling✧

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular ice formation (IIF) is almost invariably lethal. In most cases, it results from the too rapid cooling of cells to below −40°C, but in some cases it is manifested, not during cooling, but during warming when cell water that vitrified during cooling first devitrifies and then recrystallizes during warming. Recently, Mazur et al. [Cryobiol. 55 (2007) 158] dealt with one such case in mouse oocytes. It involved rapidly cooling the oocytes to −25°C, holding them 10 min, rapidly cooling them to −70°C, and warming them slowly until thawed. No IIF occurred during cooling but intracellular freezing, as evidenced by blackening of the cells, became detectable at −56°C during warming and was complete by −46°C. The present study differs in that the oocytes were warmed rapidly from −70°C to temperatures between −65°C and −50°C and held for 3 to 60 min. This permitted us to determine the rate of blackening as function of temperature. That in turn allowed us to calculate the activation energy (Ea) for the blackening process; namely, 27.5 kcal/mole. This translates to about a quadrupling of the blackening rate for every 5° rise in temperature. These data then allowed us to compute the degree of blackening as a function of temperature for oocytes warmed at rates ranging from 10 to 10,000°C/min. A 10-fold increase in warming rate increased the temperature at which a given degree of blackening occurred by 8°C. These findings have significant implications both for cryobiology and cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:18359013

  2. Perturbing microtubule integrity blocks AMP-activated protein kinase-induced meiotic resumption in cultured mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    The oocyte meiotic spindle is comprised of microtubules (MT) that bind chromatin and regulate both metaphase plate formation and karyokinesis during meiotic maturation; however, little information is known about their role in meiosis reinitiation. This study was conducted to determine if microtubule integrity is required for meiotic induction and to ascertain how it affects activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important participant in the meiotic induction process. Treatment with microtubule-disrupting agents nocodazole and vinblastine suppressed meiotic resumption in a dose-dependent manner in both arrested cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) stimulated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and arrested denuded oocytes (DO) stimulated with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR). This effect coincided with suppression of AMPK activation as determined by western blotting and germinal vesicle immunostaining. Treatment with the MT stabilizer paclitaxel also suppressed meiotic induction. Targeting actin filament polymerization had only a marginal effect on meiotic induction. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that active AMPK colocalized with γ-tubulin during metaphase I and II stages, while it localized at the spindle midzone during anaphase. This discrete localization pattern was dependent on MT integrity. Treatment with nocodazole led to disruption of proper spindle pole localization of active AMPK, while paclitaxel induced excessive polymerization of spindle MT and formation of ectopic asters with accentuated AMPK colocalization. Although stimulation of AMPK increased the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB), spindle formation and polar body (PB) extrusion, the kinase had no effect on peripheral movement of the spindle. These data suggest that the meiosis-inducing action and localization of AMPK are regulated by MT spindle integrity during mouse oocyte maturation. PMID:23199370

  3. Stability of mouse oocytes at -80 °C: the role of the recrystallization of intracellular ice.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The germplasm of mutant mice is stored as frozen oocytes/embryos in many facilities worldwide. Their transport to and from such facilities should be easy and inexpensive with dry ice at -79 °C. The purpose of our study was to determine the stability of mouse oocytes with time at that temperature. The metaphase II oocytes were cryopreserved with a vitrification solution (EAFS10/10) developed by M Kasai and colleagues. Two procedures were followed. In one, the samples were cooled at 187 °C/min to -196 °C, warmed to -80 °C, held at -80 °C for 1 h to 3 months, and warmed to 25 °C at one of three rates. With the highest warming rate (2950 °C/min), survival remained at 75% for the first month, but then slowly declined to 40% over the next 2 months. With the slowest warming (139 °C/min), survival was only ∼ 5% even at 0 time at -80 °C. In the second procedure, the samples were cooled at 294 °C/min to -80 °C (without cooling to -196 °C) and held for up to 3 months before warming at 2950 °C/min. Survival was ∼ 90% after 7 days and dropped slowly to 35% after 3 months. We believe that small non-lethal quantities of intracellular ice formed during the cooling and that the intracellular crystals increased to a damaging size by recrystallization during the 3 month's storage at -80 °C. From the practical point of view, this protocol yields sufficient stability to make it feasible to ship oocytes worldwide in dry ice. PMID:21239524

  4. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2016-06-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocytes by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The folate receptors FOLR1 and FOLR2 as well as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, SLC19A1 protein) each appeared to be present in follicular cells including granulosa cells. In growing oocytes, however, only FOLR2 immunoreactivity appeared abundant. Localization of apparent FOLR2 immunofluorescence near the plasma membrane increased with oocyte growth and peaked in oocytes as they neared full size. We assessed folate transport using the model folate leucovorin (folinic acid). Unexpectedly, there was a transient burst of folate transport activity for a brief period during oocyte growth as they neared full size, while folate transport was otherwise undetectable for the rest of oogenesis and in fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes. This folate transport was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis, but insensitive to the anion transport inhibitor stilbene 4-acetamido-40-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,20-disulfonic acid, consistent with folate receptor-mediated transport but not with RFC1-mediated transport. Thus, near the end of their growth, growing oocytes may take up folates that could support the final stage of oogenesis or be stored to provide the endogenous folates needed in early embryogenesis. PMID:27122634

  5. Acrylamide toxic effects on mouse oocyte quality and fertility in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical that has attracted considerable attention due to its presumed carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. In this study we investigated possible acrylamide reproductive toxic effects in female mice. Mice were fed an acrylamide-containing diet for 6 weeks. Our results showed the following effects of an acrylamide-containing diet. (1) Ovary weights were reduced in acrylamide-treated mice and oocyte developmental competence was also reduced, as shown by reduced GVBD and polar body extrusion rates. (2) Acrylamide feeding resulted in aberrant oocyte cytoskeletons, as shown by an increased abnormal spindle rate and confirmed by disrupted γ-tubulin and p-MAPK localization. (3) Acrylamide feeding resulted in oxidative stress and oocyte early stage apoptosis, as shown by increased ROS levels and p-MAPK expression. (4) Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that DNA methylation levels were reduced in acrylamide-treated oocytes and histone methylation levels were also altered, as H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 levels were reduced after acrylamide treatment. (5) After acrylamide feeding, the litter sizes of acrylamide-treated mice were significantly smaller compared to thus of control mice. Thus, our results indicated that acrylamide might affect oocyte quality through its effects on cytoskeletal integrity, ROS generation, apoptosis induction, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26108138

  6. SLX2 interacting with BLOS2 is differentially expressed during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xin-Jie; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Bo; Chen, Lei; Tang, Wen-Hao; Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Gametogenesis is a complex biological process of producing cells for sexual reproduction. Xlr super family members containing a conserved COR1 domain play essential roles in gametogenesis. In the present study, we identified that Slx2, a novel member of Xlr super family, is specifically expressed in the meiotic oocytes, which is demonstrated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry studies. In the first meiotic prophase, SLX2 is unevenly distributed in the nuclei of oocytes, during which phase SLX2 is partly co-localized with SYCP3 in synaptonemal complex and γH2AX in the nucleus of oocytes. Interestingly, the localization of SLX2 was found to be switched into the cytoplasm of oocytes after prometaphase I during oocyte maturation. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that SLX2 interacts with BLOS2, which is a novel centrosome-associated protein, and co-localized with γ-Tubulin, which is a protein marker of chromosome segregation in meiosis. These results indicated that SLX2 might get involved in chromosomes segregation during meiosis by interaction with BLOS2. In conclusion, SLX2 might be a novel gametogenesis-related protein that could play multiple roles in regulation of meiotic processes including synaptonemal complex assembly and chromosome segregation. PMID:24870619

  7. Acrylamide toxic effects on mouse oocyte quality and fertility in vivo.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical that has attracted considerable attention due to its presumed carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. In this study we investigated possible acrylamide reproductive toxic effects in female mice. Mice were fed an acrylamide-containing diet for 6 weeks. Our results showed the following effects of an acrylamide-containing diet. (1) Ovary weights were reduced in acrylamide-treated mice and oocyte developmental competence was also reduced, as shown by reduced GVBD and polar body extrusion rates. (2) Acrylamide feeding resulted in aberrant oocyte cytoskeletons, as shown by an increased abnormal spindle rate and confirmed by disrupted γ-tubulin and p-MAPK localization. (3) Acrylamide feeding resulted in oxidative stress and oocyte early stage apoptosis, as shown by increased ROS levels and p-MAPK expression. (4) Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that DNA methylation levels were reduced in acrylamide-treated oocytes and histone methylation levels were also altered, as H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 levels were reduced after acrylamide treatment. (5) After acrylamide feeding, the litter sizes of acrylamide-treated mice were significantly smaller compared to thus of control mice. Thus, our results indicated that acrylamide might affect oocyte quality through its effects on cytoskeletal integrity, ROS generation, apoptosis induction, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26108138

  8. ROLE OF AMPK THOUGHOUT MEIOTIC MATURATION IN THE MOUSE OOCYTE: EVIDENCE FOR PROMOTION OF POLAR BODY FORMATION AND SUPPRESSION OF PREMATURE ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.; Ya, Ru; Davis, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the role of AMPK in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle stage to metaphase II. Exposure of mouse cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and denuded oocytes (DO) during spontaneous maturation in vitro to AMPK-activating agents resulted in augmentation of the rate and frequency of polar body formation. Inhibitors of AMPK had an opposite, inhibitory effect. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor, compound C (Cmpd C) increased the frequency of oocyte activation. The stimulatory action of the AMPK-activating agent, AICAR, and the inhibitory action of Cmpd C were diminished if exposure was delayed, indicating an early action of AMPK on polar body formation. The frequency of spontaneous and Cmpd C-induced activation in CEO was reduced as the period of hormonal priming was increased, and AMPK stimulation eliminated the activation response. Immunostaining of oocytes with antibody to active AMPK revealed an association of active kinase with chromatin, spindle poles and midbody during maturation. Immunolocalization of the α1 catalytic subunit of AMPK showed an association with condensed chromatin and the meiotic spindle, but not in the spindle poles or midbody; α2 stained only diffusely throughout the oocyte. These data suggest that AMPK is involved in a regulatory capacity throughout maturation and helps promote the completion of meiosis while suppressing premature activation. PMID:20830737

  9. HDAC1 and HDAC2 in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos: Specificity versus compensation.

    PubMed

    Ma, P; Schultz, R M

    2016-07-01

    Oocyte and preimplantation embryo development entail dynamic changes in chromatin structure and gene expression, which are regulated by a number of maternal and zygotic epigenetic factors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which tighten chromatin structure, repress transcription and gene expression by removing acetyl groups from histone or non-histone proteins. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are two highly homologous Class I HDACs and display compensatory or specific roles in different cell types or in response to different stimuli and signaling pathways. We summarize here the current knowledge about the functions of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in regulating histone modifications, transcription, DNA methylation, chromosome segregation, and cell cycle during oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. What emerges from these studies is that although HDAC1 and HDAC2 are highly homologous, HDAC2 is more critical than HDAC1 for oocyte development and reciprocally, HDAC1 is more critical than HDAC2 for preimplantation development. PMID:27082454

  10. Embryonic development after exposure of mouse oocyte to various amount of ovarian endometriotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hashin; Jeong, Mina; Kim, Seul Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the fertilization and blastocyst-forming rate in mice cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) after the exposure of human ovarian endometriotic fluid. Endometriotic fluid was obtained from a single patient by aspiration at the time of a laparoscopic cystectomy and serially diluted. COCs were obtained from 46-week-old female BDF1 mice. After exposure to ovarian endometriotic fluid for five minutes, the COCs were washed three times and the oocytes were then fertilized by mice sperm. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rate and the proportion of hatching/hatched blastocyst in the four treatment groups were not inferior to those in non-exposure group. PMID:27462598

  11. MBTD1 is associated with Pr-Set7 to stabilize H4K20me1 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Bo; Ma, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lin, Fei; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Huang, Lin; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    H4K20me1 is a critical histone lysine methyl modification in eukaryotes. It is recognized and "read" by various histone lysine methyl modification binding proteins. In this study, the function of MBTD1, a member of the Polycomb protein family containing four MBT domains, was comprehensively studied in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The results showed that depletion of MBTD1 caused reduced expression of histone lysine methyl transferase Pr-Set7 and H4K20me1 as well as increased oocyte arrest at the GV stage. Increased γH2AX foci were formed, and DNA damage repair checkpoint protein 53BP1 was downregulated. Furthermore, depletion of MBTD1 activated the cell cycle checkpoint protein Chk1 and downregulated the expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2. MBTD1 knockdown also affected chromosome configuration in GV stage oocytes and chromosome alignment at the MII stage. All these phenotypes were reproduced when the H4K20 methyl transferase Pr-Set7 was depleted. Co-IP demonstrated that MBTD1 was correlated with Pr-Set7 in mouse oocytes. Our results demonstrate that MBTD1 is associated with Pr-Set7 to stabilize H4K20me1 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:23475131

  12. Survivals of mouse oocytes approach 100% after vitrification in 3-fold diluted media and ultra-rapid warming by an IR laser pulse✰

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mazur, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification is the most sought after route to the cryopreservation of animal embryos and oocytes and other cells of medical, genetic, and agricultural importance. Current thinking is that successful vitrification requires that cells be suspended in and permeated by high concentrations of protective solutes and that they be cooled at very high rates to below − 100°C. We report here that neither of these beliefs holds for mouse oocytes. Rather, we find that if mouse oocytes are suspended in media that produce considerable osmotic dehydration before vitrification and are subsequently warmed at ultra high rates (10,000,000°C/min) achieved by a laser pulse, nearly 100% will survive even when cooled rather slowly and when the concentration of solutes in the medium is only 1/3rd of standard. PMID:24662030

  13. Survivals of mouse oocytes approach 100% after vitrification in 3-fold diluted media and ultra-rapid warming by an IR laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Kleinhans, F W; Mazur, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Vitrification is the most sought after route to the cryopreservation of animal embryos and oocytes and other cells of medical, genetic, and agricultural importance. Current thinking is that successful vitrification requires that cells be suspended in and permeated by high concentrations of protective solutes and that they be cooled at very high rates to below -100°C. We report here that neither of these beliefs holds for mouse oocytes. Rather, we find that if mouse oocytes are suspended in media that produce considerable osmotic dehydration before vitrification and are subsequently warmed at ultra high rates (10,000,000°C/min) achieved by a laser pulse, nearly 100% will survive even when cooled rather slowly and when the concentration of solutes in the medium is only 1/3rd of standard. PMID:24662030

  14. Nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes contain key nucleolar proteins but are impoverished for rRNA.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that fully-grown mammalian oocytes, rather than typical nucleoli, contain prominent but structurally homogenous bodies called "nucleolus-like bodies" (NLBs). NLBs accumulate a vast amount of material, but their biochemical composition and functions remain uncertain. To clarify the composition of the NLB material in mouse GV oocytes, we devised an assay to detect internal oocyte proteins with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and applied the fluorescent RNA-binding dye acridine orange to examine whether NLBs contain RNA. Our results unequivocally show that, similarly to typical nucleoli, proteins and RNA are major constituents of transcriptionally active (or non-surrounded) NLBs as well as of transcriptionally silent (or surrounded) NLBs. We also show, by exposing fixed oocytes to a mild proteinase K treatment, that the NLB mass in oocytes of both types contains nucleolar proteins that are involved in all major steps of ribosome biogenesis, including rDNA transcription (UBF), early rRNA processing (fibrillarin), and late rRNA processing (NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23, nucleolin/C23), but none of the nuclear proteins tested, including SC35, NOBOX, topoisomerase II beta, HP1α, and H3. The ribosomal RPL26 protein was detected within the NLBs of NSN-type oocytes but is virtually absent from NLBs of SN-type oocytes. Taking into account that the major class of nucleolar RNA is ribosomal RNA (rRNA), we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 18S and 28S rRNAs. The results show that, in contrast to active nucleoli, NLBs of fully-grown oocytes are impoverished for the rRNAs, which is consistent with the absence of transcribed ribosomal genes in the NLB mass. Overall, the results of this study suggest that NLBs of fully-grown mammalian oocytes serve for storing major nucleolar proteins but not rRNA. PMID:25481757

  15. Effects of glucose metabolism during in vitro maturation on cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Li; Wang, Yan-Bo; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Kong, De-Ling; Li, Qing; Li, Hong; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many reports on the effect of glucose metabolism on oocyte nuclear maturation, there are few studies on its effect on ooplasmic maturation. By manipulating glucose metabolism pathways using a maturation medium that could support oocyte nuclear maturation but only a limited blastocyst formation without glucose, this study determined effects of glucose metabolism pathways on ooplasmic maturation. During maturation of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) with glucose, the presence of PPP inhibitor, DHEA or glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate significantly decreased blastocyst rates, intraoocyte glutathione and ATP. While blastocyst rates, GSH/GSSG ratio and NADPH were higher, ROS was lower significantly in COCs matured with iodoacetate than with DHEA. Fructose-6-phosphate overcame the inhibitory effect of DHEA on PPP. During maturation of COCs with pyruvate, electron transport inhibitor, rotenone or monocarboxylate transfer inhibitor, 4-CIN significantly decreased blastocyst rates. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had a limited capacity to use glucose or lactate, but they could use pyruvate to support maturation. In conclusion, whereas glycolysis promoted ooplasmic maturation mainly by supplying energy, PPP facilitated ooplasmic maturation to a greater extent by both reducing oxidative stress and supplying energy through providing fructose-6-phosphate for glycolysis. Pyruvate was transferred by monocarboxylate transporters and utilized through mitochondrial electron transport to sustain ooplasmic maturation. PMID:26857840

  16. Effects of glucose metabolism during in vitro maturation on cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong-Li; Wang, Yan-Bo; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Kong, De-Ling; Li, Qing; Li, Hong; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many reports on the effect of glucose metabolism on oocyte nuclear maturation, there are few studies on its effect on ooplasmic maturation. By manipulating glucose metabolism pathways using a maturation medium that could support oocyte nuclear maturation but only a limited blastocyst formation without glucose, this study determined effects of glucose metabolism pathways on ooplasmic maturation. During maturation of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) with glucose, the presence of PPP inhibitor, DHEA or glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate significantly decreased blastocyst rates, intraoocyte glutathione and ATP. While blastocyst rates, GSH/GSSG ratio and NADPH were higher, ROS was lower significantly in COCs matured with iodoacetate than with DHEA. Fructose-6-phosphate overcame the inhibitory effect of DHEA on PPP. During maturation of COCs with pyruvate, electron transport inhibitor, rotenone or monocarboxylate transfer inhibitor, 4-CIN significantly decreased blastocyst rates. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had a limited capacity to use glucose or lactate, but they could use pyruvate to support maturation. In conclusion, whereas glycolysis promoted ooplasmic maturation mainly by supplying energy, PPP facilitated ooplasmic maturation to a greater extent by both reducing oxidative stress and supplying energy through providing fructose-6-phosphate for glycolysis. Pyruvate was transferred by monocarboxylate transporters and utilized through mitochondrial electron transport to sustain ooplasmic maturation. PMID:26857840

  17. The methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for meiosis and mitosis in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Eymery, Angeline; Liu, Zichuan; Ozonov, Evgeniy A; Stadler, Michael B; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2016-08-01

    Oocytes develop the competence for meiosis and early embryogenesis during their growth. Setdb1 is a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for post-implantation development and has been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of genes and endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs). To address its role in oogenesis and pre-implantation development, we conditionally deleted Setdb1 in growing oocytes. Loss of Setdb1 expression greatly impaired meiosis. It delayed meiotic resumption, altered the dynamics of chromatin condensation, and impaired kinetochore-spindle interactions, bipolar spindle organization and chromosome segregation in more mature oocytes. The observed phenotypes related to changes in abundance of specific transcripts in mutant oocytes. Setdb1 maternally deficient embryos arrested during pre-implantation development and showed comparable defects during cell cycle progression and in chromosome segregation. Finally, transcriptional profiling data indicate that Setdb1 downregulates rather than silences expression of ERVK and ERVL-MaLR retrotransposons and associated chimearic transcripts during oogenesis. Our results identify Setdb1 as a newly discovered meiotic and embryonic competence factor safeguarding genome integrity at the onset of life. PMID:27317807

  18. A comparison of the multiple oocyte maturation gene expression patterns between the newborn and adult mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Talaei Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei fard, Nehleh; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interaction between follicular cells and oocyte leads to a change in gene expression involved in oocyte maturation processes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the expression of more common genes involved in follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the expression of genes was evaluated with qRT-PCR assay in female BALB/c mice pups at 3-day of pre-pubertal and 8 week old virgin adult ovaries. The tissue was prepared by H&E staining for normal morphological appearance. The data were calculated with the 2-∆Ct formula and assessed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The data showed a significant increase in the level of Stra8 and GDF9 in adult compared with newborn mice ovaries (p=0.049). In contrast, a significant decrease in the level of Mvh, REC8, SCP1, SCP3, and ZP2 was observed in adult mice ovaries compared to those in the newborn mice ovaries (all p=0.049 except SCP1: p=0.046). There was no significant difference in the level of OCT4 and Cx37 expression between adult and newborn mice ovaries. Conclusion: The modifications in gene expression patterns coordinate the follicular developmental processes. Furthermore, the findings showed higher expression level of premeiotic gene (Stra8) and lower level of meiotic entry markers (SCP1, SCP3, and REC8) in juvenile than newborn mouse ovaries. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Nehleh Zarei fard) PMID:24639702

  19. DEHP exposure impairs mouse oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly through estrogen receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xinyi; Liao, Xinggui; Chen, Xuemei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Meirong; Shen, Cha; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing; He, Junlin

    2015-11-15

    Estrogen plays an essential role in the development of mammalian oocytes, and recent studies suggest that it also regulates primordial follicle assembly in the neonatal ovaries. During the last decade, potential exposure of humans and animals to estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a growing concern. In the present study, we focused on the effect of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a widespread plasticizer with estrogen-like activity, on germ-cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly in the early ovarian development of mouse. Neonatal mice injected with DEHP displayed impaired cyst breakdown. Using ovary organ cultures, we revealed that impairment was mediated through estrogen receptors (ERs), as ICI 182,780, an efficient antagonist of ER, reversed this DEHP-mediated effect. DEHP exposure reduced the expression of ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR), and Notch2 signaling components. Finally, DEHP reduced proliferation of pregranulosa precursor cells during the process of primordial folliculogenesis. Together, our results indicate that DEHP influences oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation through several mechanisms. Therefore, exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during fetal or neonatal development may adversely influence early ovarian development. PMID:26073378

  20. Temporary developmental arrest after storage of fertilized mouse oocytes at 4 degrees C: effects on embryonic development, maternal mRNA processing and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kimura, Minoru; Sato, Masahiro

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether fertilized mouse oocytes can survive after short-term incubation (for 6-48 h) at 4 degrees C. When fertilized oocytes of ICR and C57BL/6 (B6) strain were incubated at 4 degrees C and returned to normal culture conditions (37 degrees C), development of these 4 degrees C-treated embryos for up to 12 h (for ICR) to blastocyst stage did not differ from that of untreated oocytes. Even 4 degrees C-treated embryos for 48 h developed to blastocysts at relatively good rates (33.3% for ICR and 50.8% for B6). The in vivo development of 4 degrees C-treated embryos for 12, 24 and 36 h to fetal stage was similar to that of untreated ones. BrdU labelling assay revealed temporary cessation of DNA replication in 4 degrees C-treated fertilized oocytes. Post-fertilization events including cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal mRNAs, mRNA degradation of a cell cycle-related gene and elevated mRNA expression of zygotic gene activation-related genes were temporarily suppressed in 4 degrees C-treated embryos. These findings indicate that 4 degrees C-treatment of fertilized murine oocytes results in temporary cessation of molecular events. We also show that 4 degrees C-treated fertilized oocytes for 12 h can be used for preparation of transgenic mice. PMID:15805144

  1. The Mos/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates the size and degradation of the first polar body in maturing mouse oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, T; Fukasawa, K; Zhou, R; Tessarollo, L; Borror, K; Resau, J; Vande Woude, G F

    1996-01-01

    Mos is an upstream activator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and, in mouse oocytes, is responsible for metaphase II arrest. This activity has been likened to its function in Xenopus oocytes as a component of cytostatic factor. Thus, Mos-deficient female mice (MOS-/-) are less fertile and oocytes derived from these animals fail to arrest at metaphase II and undergo parthenogenetic activation [Colledge, W. H., Carlton, M. B. L., Udy, C. B. & Evans, M. J. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 65-68 and Hashimoto, N., Watanabe, N., Furuta. Y., Tamemoto, B., Sagata, N., Yokoyama, M., Okazaki, K., Nagayoshi, M., Takeda, N., Ikawa, Y. & Aizawa, S. (1994) Nature (London) 370, 68-71]. Here we show that maturing MOS-/- oocytes fail to activate MAPK throughout meiosis, while p34cdc2 kinase activity is normal until late in metaphase II when it decreases prematurely. Phenotypically, the first meiotic division of MOS-/- oocytes frequently resembles mitotic cleavage or produces an abnormally large polar body. In these oocytes, the spindle shape is altered and the spindle fails to translocate to the cortex, leading to the establishment of an altered cleavage plane. Moreover, the first polar body persists instead of degrading and sometimes undergoes an additional cleavage, thereby providing conditions for parthenogenesis. These studies identify meiotic spindle formation and programmed degradation of the first polar body as new and important roles for the Mos/MAPK pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692939

  2. [Influence of Acetylcysteine on Cytogenetic Effects of Etoposide in Mouse Oocytes].

    PubMed

    Pligina, K L; Zhanataev, A K; Kulakova, A V; Chaika, Z V; Durnev, A D

    2016-02-01

    The influence of N-acetylcysteine (ACC) on the cytogenetic effects of etoposide in F1 CBA x C57BL/6 mice was studied. Etoposide introduced intraperitoneally in doses of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg has a dose-dependent clastogenic activity and has an aneugenic effect with the induction of mainly hypohaploid oocytes. ACC significantly decreases the aneugenic and clastogenic activity of etoposide (20 mg/kg) in oocytes of 6-, 9-, and 12-week-old mice during triple introduction at a dose 200 mg/kg per os. The most pronounced anticlastogenic ACC activity (an 80% decrease) was registered in 9-week-old females; a 100% decrease in aneugenesis was detected in 6-week-old female mice. PMID:27215036

  3. DNA damage induces a meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Josie K.; Lane, Simon I. R.; Merriman, Julie A.; Jones, Keith T.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive damage to maternal DNA during meiosis causes infertility, birth defects and abortions. However, it is unknown if fully grown oocytes have a mechanism to prevent the creation of DNA-damaged embryos. Here we show that DNA damage activates a pathway involving the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in response to chemically induced double strand breaks, UVB and ionizing radiation. DNA damage can occur either before or after nuclear envelope breakdown, and provides an effective block to anaphase-promoting complex activity, and consequently the formation of mature eggs. This contrasts with somatic cells, where DNA damage fails to affect mitotic progression. However, it uncovers a second function for the meiotic SAC, which in the context of detecting microtubule–kinetochore errors has hitherto been labelled as weak or ineffectual in mammalian oocytes. We propose that its essential role in the detection of DNA damage sheds new light on its biological purpose in mammalian female meiosis. PMID:26522232

  4. DNA damage induces a meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Collins, Josie K; Lane, Simon I R; Merriman, Julie A; Jones, Keith T

    2015-01-01

    Extensive damage to maternal DNA during meiosis causes infertility, birth defects and abortions. However, it is unknown if fully grown oocytes have a mechanism to prevent the creation of DNA-damaged embryos. Here we show that DNA damage activates a pathway involving the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in response to chemically induced double strand breaks, UVB and ionizing radiation. DNA damage can occur either before or after nuclear envelope breakdown, and provides an effective block to anaphase-promoting complex activity, and consequently the formation of mature eggs. This contrasts with somatic cells, where DNA damage fails to affect mitotic progression. However, it uncovers a second function for the meiotic SAC, which in the context of detecting microtubule-kinetochore errors has hitherto been labelled as weak or ineffectual in mammalian oocytes. We propose that its essential role in the detection of DNA damage sheds new light on its biological purpose in mammalian female meiosis. PMID:26522232

  5. Uptake of betaine into mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes via the SLC7A6 isoform of y+L transporter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Hannah E; Dubé, Chantal D; Slow, Sandy; Lever, Michael; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2014-04-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) has previously been shown to function in cell volume homeostasis in early mouse embryos and also to be a key donor to the methyl pool in the blastocyst. A betaine transporter (SLC6A20A or SIT1) has been shown to be activated after fertilization, but there is no saturable betaine uptake in mouse oocytes or eggs. Unexpectedly, the same high level of betaine is present in mature metaphase II (MII) eggs as is found in one-cell embryos despite the lack of transport in oocytes or eggs. Significant saturable betaine transport is, however, present in intact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). This transport system has an affinity for betaine of ∼227 μM. The inhibition profile indicates that betaine transport by COCs could be completely blocked by methionine, proline, leucine, lysine, and arginine, and transport is dependent on Na(+) but not Cl(-). This is consistent with transport by a y+L-type amino acid transport system. Both transcripts and protein of one y+L isoform, SLC7A6 (y+LAT2), are present in COCs, with little or no expression in isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, MII eggs, or one-cell embryos. Betaine accumulated by COCs is transferred into the enclosed GV oocyte, which requires functional gap junctions. Thus, at least a portion of the endogenous betaine in MII eggs could be derived from transport into cumulus cells and subsequent transfer into the enclosed oocyte before gap junction closure during meiotic maturation. The oocyte-derived betaine then could be regulated and supplemented by the SIT1 transporter that arises in the embryo after fertilization. PMID:24599290

  6. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells. PMID:27457928

  7. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-08-01

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells. PMID:27457928

  8. Effect of the expression of aquaporins 1 and 3 in mouse oocytes and compacted eight-cell embryos on the nucleation temperature for intracellular ice formation.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Edashige, Keisuke; Wada, Sakiko; Mazur, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence of intracellular ice formation (IIF) is the most important factor determining whether cells survive a cryopreservation procedure. What is not clear is the mechanism or route by which an external ice crystal can traverse the plasma membrane and cause the heterogeneous nucleation of the supercooled solution within the cell. We have hypothesized that one route is through preexisting pores in aquaporin (AQP) proteins that span the plasma membranes of many cell types. Since the plasma membrane of mature mouse oocytes expresses little AQP, we compared the ice nucleation temperature of native oocytes with that of oocytes induced to express AQP1 and AQP3. The oocytes were suspended in 1.0  M ethylene glycol in PBS for 15  min, cooled in a Linkam cryostage to -7.0  ° C, induced to freeze externally, and finally cooled at 20  ° C/min to -70  ° C. IIF that occurred during the 20  ° C/min cooling is manifested by abrupt black flashing. The mean IIF temperatures for native oocytes, for oocytes sham injected with water, for oocytes expressing AQP1, and for those expressing AQP3 were -34, -40, -35, and -25  ° C respectively. The fact that the ice nucleation temperature of oocytes expressing AQP3 was 10-15  ° C higher than the others is consistent with our hypothesis. AQP3 pores can supposedly be closed by low pH or by treatment with double-stranded Aqp3 RNA. However, when morulae were subjected to such treatments, the IIF temperature still remained high. A possible explanation is suggested. PMID:21734033

  9. Effect of lectins on hepatic clearance and killing of Candida albicans by the isolated perfused mouse liver.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R T; Garner, R E; Hudson, J A

    1992-01-01

    The isolated perfused mouse liver model was used to study the effects of various lectins on hepatic trapping and killing of Candida albicans. After mouse livers were washed with 20 to 30 ml of perfusion buffer, 10(6) C. albicans CFU were infused into the livers. At the time of recovery, 63% +/- 2% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of the infused C. albicans CFU were recovered from the liver and 14% +/- 1% were recovered from the effluent for a total recovery of 77% +/- 2%. This indicated that 86% +/- 9% of the original inoculum was trapped by the liver and that 23% +/- 2% was killed within the liver. When included in both preperfusion and postperfusion buffers (0.2 mg of lectin per ml), Ulex europeaus lectin (binding specificity for fucose) decreased hepatic trapping of C. albicans by 37% and eluted trapped C. albicans from the liver only when included in postperfusion buffer. By comparison, treatment of C. albicans with U. europeaus lectin before infusion had no effect on the trapping or killing of yeast cells. When Lens culinaris lectin (binding specificity for mannose) was included in the perfusion buffers, hepatic killing of C. albicans increased by 16% with no significant effect on hepatic killing when yeast cells were treated with L. culinaris lectin before infusion. Forty to 55% of the infused C. albicans were killed when concanavalin A (binding specificities for mannose and glucose), Glycine max (binding specificity for N-acetylgalactosamine), or Arachis hypogea (binding specificity for galactose) lectin was included in the perfusion buffer or when yeast cells were treated with these lectins before their infusion. When C. albicans was treated with concanavalin A at a concentration of less than 0.02 mg/ml, hepatic killing of yeast cells was not significantly increased. The data suggest that a fucose-containing receptor on the surface of either sinusoidal endothelial cells or Kupffer cells is involved in the trapping of C. albicans by the perfused mouse

  10. Effects of simulated weightlessness on mammalian development. Part 1: Development of clinostat for mammalian tissue culture and use in studies on meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolegemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on three aspects of mammalian reproduction: oocyte development, fertilization, and early embryogenesis was studied. Zero-gravity conditions within the laboratory by construction of a clinostat designed to support in vitro tissue culture were simulated and the effects of simulated weightlessness on meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes using mouse as the model system were studied. The timing and frequency of germinal vesicule breakdown and polar body extrusion, and the structural and numerical properties of meiotic chromosomes at Metaphase and Metaphase of meiosis are assessed.

  11. [Visualization of the age-related changes in expressions of DNA methyltransferases in mouse oocytes using two-photon imaging system].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ning; Zhang, Lu; Zheng, Jing-Hao; Li, Ying; Ma, Wan-Yun

    2012-12-01

    Quantum dot (QD) is widely used as fluorescent labeling dye for its strong anti-fluorescence quenching, high quantum yield, wide absorption spectra, and narrow emission spectra. In the present paper, QD 585-labeled DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and Hoechst 33342-labeled chromosomes were imaged simultaneously using two-photon imaging system. The authors' results showed that aging mouse oocytes may be not suitable for in-vitro maturation: both the localizations and expression levels of Dnmts in in-vitro matured oocytes of aging mice were changed, and these changes may be related to the abnormal DNA methylation modification. PMID:23427529

  12. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

  13. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    SciTech Connect

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  14. The behavior of the X- and Y-chromosomes in the oocyte during meiotic prophase in the B6.Y(TIR)sex-reversed mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Alton, Michelle; Lau, Mau Pan; Villemure, Michele; Taketo, Teruko

    2008-02-01

    Sexual differentiation of the germ cells follows gonadal differentiation, which is determined by the presence or the absence of the Y-chromosome. Consequently, oogenesis and spermatogenesis take place in the germ cells with XX and XY sex chromosomal compositions respectively. It is unclear how sexual dimorphic regulation of meiosis is associated with the sex-chromosomal composition. In the present study, we examined the behavior of the sex chromosomes in the oocytes of the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed female mouse, in comparison with XO and XX females. As the sex chromosomes fail to pair in both XY and XO oocytes during meiotic prophase, we anticipated that the pairing failure may lead to excessive oocyte loss. However, the total number of germ cells, identified by immunolabeling of germ cell nuclear antigen 1 (GCNA1), did not differ between XY and XX ovaries or XO and XX ovaries up to the day of delivery. The progression of meiotic prophase, assessed by immunolabeling of synaptonemal complex components, was also similar between the two genotypes of ovaries. These observations suggest that the failure in sex-chromosome pairing is not sufficient to cause oocyte loss. On the other hand, labeling of phosphorylated histone gammaH2AX, known to be associated with asynapsis and transcriptional repression, was seen over the X-chromosome but not over the Y-chromosome in the majority of XY oocytes at the pachytene stage. For comparison, gammaH2AX labeling was seen only in the minority of XX oocytes at the same stage. We speculate that the transcriptional activity of sex chromosomes in the XY oocyte may be incompatible with ooplasmic maturation. PMID:18239052

  15. Fertilization of C57BL/6 mouse sperm collected from cauda epididymides after preservation or transportation at 4 degrees C using laser-microdissected oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Kondo, Tomoko; Machida, Hiromi; Koga, Mika; Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Saiki, Kiyora; Noshiba, Shiho; Nakagata, Naomi

    2009-08-01

    The C57BL/6 mouse is commonly used to produce transgenic and knockout strains for biomedical research. However, the motility and fertility of its sperm decrease markedly with freezing. Short-term preservation of sperm without freezing can avoid this. Furthermore, such samples can be transported safety without the special skills or equipment needed for the transportation of live animals or frozen products. We evaluated the motility and fertility of sperm collected from cauda epididymides after preservation or transportation at 4 degrees C. Oocytes with the zona pellucida subjected to laser-microdissection were used to assist fertilization in vitro. Although the motility of sperm gradually decreased with storage (P<0.05), no disruption of the sperm plasma membrane was seen. The proportion of zona-intact oocytes fertilized with sperm preserved for 0, 24, 48 and 72h were 70, 14, 5 and 1%, respectively. On the other hand, 45, 20 and 14% of laser-microdissected oocytes were fertilized by sperm preserved for 24, 48 and 72h, respectively (P<0.05). The fertility of sperm collected from cauda epididymides of two transgenic strains after transportation at 4 degrees C were also significantly increased using laser-microdissected oocytes rather than zona-intact oocytes (57 and 68% vs. 5%, P<0.05). Efficient production of offspring from sperm preserved or transported at 4 degrees C was achieved using laser-microdissected oocytes. Thus the fertility of sperm preserved or transported at 4 degrees C could be maintained, although motility gradually decreased with storage. Laser-microdissected oocytes will contribute to the efficient production of embryos and offspring using such preserved sperm samples. PMID:19394323

  16. The Effects of cAMP-elevating Agents and Alpha Lipoic Acid on In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Ali; Zavareh, Saeed; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of extensive efforts to improve in vitro oocyte maturation, the obtained results are not very efficient. This study was conducted to assess impacts of cAMP elevating agents and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization. Methods Mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were categorized into cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs; n=896) and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs; n=1077) groups. GV oocytes were matured in vitro with or without ALA; (I) without the meiotic inhibitors; (II) supplemented with cilostamide; (III) supplemented with forskolin and (IV) supplemented with Forskolin plus cilostamide. The obtained metaphase II (MII) oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization. Independent-samples t-testand ANOVA were used for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The COCs maturation, fertilization and two cell embryo rates were higher than those of DOs in the control group, while no significant difference was observed between relevant COCs and DOs when they were cultured with cilostamide meiotic inhibitors in two step manner. Combined treatment of cilostamide and forskolin significantly elevated the developmental rates in both COCs and DOs as compared to other groups. The developmental rates of COCs and DOs in the presence of ALA were similar to their respective groups without ALA. Conclusion cAMP elevating agents were more effective on DOs than COCs with regard to rates of maturation and fertilization. However, ALA did not affect the developmental rates of both COCs and DOs in in vitro maturation in one or two step manner. PMID:24551571

  17. Data on the concentrations of etoposide, PSC833, BAPTA-AM, and cycloheximide that do not compromise the vitality of mature mouse oocytes, parthenogencially activated and fertilized embryos.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jacinta H; Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; Lord, Tessa; Nixon, Brett

    2016-09-01

    These data document the vitality of mature mouse oocytes (Metaphase II (MII)) and early stage embryos (zygotes) following exposure to the genotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, in combination with PSC833, a selective inhibitor of permeability glycoprotein. They also illustrate the vitality of parthenogencially activated and fertilized embryos following incubation with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)), cycloheximide (an antibiotic that is capable of inhibiting protein synthesis), and hydrogen peroxide (a potent reactive oxygen species). Finally, they present evidence that permeability glycoprotein is not represented in the proteome of mouse spermatozoa. Our interpretation and discussion of these data feature in the article "Identification of a key role for permeability glycoprotein in enhancing the cellular defense mechanisms of fertilized oocytes" (Martin et al., in press) [1]. PMID:27547800

  18. Effect of inhibition of sterol delta 14-reductase on accumulation of meiosis-activating sterol and meiotic resumption in cumulus-enclosed mouse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leonardsen, L; Strömstedt, M; Jacobsen, D; Kristensen, K S; Baltsen, M; Andersen, C Y; Byskov, A G

    2000-01-01

    Two sterols of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway induce resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes in vitro. The sterols, termed meiosis-activating sterols (MAS), have been isolated from human follicular fluid (FF-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3 beta-ol) and from bull testicular tissue (T-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,24-diene-3 beta-ol). FF-MAS is the first intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol and is converted to T-MAS by sterol delta 14-reductase. An inhibitor of delta 7-reductase and delta 14 reductase, AY9944-A-7, causes cells with a constitutive cholesterol biosynthesis to accumulate FF-MAS and possibly other intermediates between lanosterol and cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AY9944-A-7 added to cultures of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) from mice resulted in accumulation of MAS and meiotic maturation. AY9944-A-7 stimulated dose dependently (5-25 mumol l-1) COC to resume meiosis when cultured for 22 h in alpha minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) containing 4 mmol hypoxanthine l-1, a natural inhibitor of meiotic maturation. In contrast, naked oocytes were not induced to resume meiosis by AY9944-A-7. When cumulus cells were separated from their oocytes and co-cultured, AY9944-A-7 did not affect resumption of meiosis, indicating that intact oocyte-cumulus cell connections are important for AY9944-A-7 to exert its effect on meiosis. Cultures of COC with 10 mumol AY9944-A-7 l-1 in the presence of [3H]mevalonic acid, a natural precursor for steroid synthesis, resulted in accumulation of labelled FF-MAS, which had an 11-fold greater amount of radioactivity incorporated per COC compared with the control culture without AY9944-A-7. In contrast, incorporation of radioactivity into the cholesterol fraction was reduced 30-fold in extracts from the same oocytes. The present findings demonstrate for the first time that COC can synthesize cholesterol from mevalonate and accumulate FF-MAS in

  19. Ultra-Rapid Warming Yields High Survival of Mouse Oocytes Cooled to −196°C in Dilutions of a Standard Vitrification Solution

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular ice is generally lethal. One way to avoid it is to vitrify cells; that is, to convert cell water to a glass rather than to ice. The belief has been that this requires both the cooling rate and the concentration of glass-inducing solutes be very high. But high solute concentrations can themselves be damaging. However, the findings we report here on the vitrification of mouse oocytes are not in accord with the first belief that cooling needs to be extremely rapid. The important requirement is that the warming rate be extremely high. We subjected mouse oocytes in the vitrification solution EAFS 10/10 to vitrification procedures using a broad range of cooling and warming rates. Morphological survivals exceeded 80% when they were warmed at the highest rate (117,000°C/min) even when the prior cooling rate was as low as 880°C/min. Functional survival was >81% and 54% with the highest warming rate after cooling at 69,000 and 880°C/min, respectively. Our findings are also contrary to the second belief. We show that a high percentage of mouse oocytes survive vitrification in media that contain only half the usual concentration of solutes, provided they are warmed extremely rapidly; that is, >100,000°C/min. Again, the cooling rate is of less consequence. PMID:22558325

  20. Ultra-rapid warming yields high survival of mouse oocytes cooled to -196°c in dilutions of a standard vitrification solution.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular ice is generally lethal. One way to avoid it is to vitrify cells; that is, to convert cell water to a glass rather than to ice. The belief has been that this requires both the cooling rate and the concentration of glass-inducing solutes be very high. But high solute concentrations can themselves be damaging. However, the findings we report here on the vitrification of mouse oocytes are not in accord with the first belief that cooling needs to be extremely rapid. The important requirement is that the warming rate be extremely high. We subjected mouse oocytes in the vitrification solution EAFS 10/10 to vitrification procedures using a broad range of cooling and warming rates. Morphological survivals exceeded 80% when they were warmed at the highest rate (117,000°C/min) even when the prior cooling rate was as low as 880°C/min. Functional survival was >81% and 54% with the highest warming rate after cooling at 69,000 and 880°C/min, respectively. Our findings are also contrary to the second belief. We show that a high percentage of mouse oocytes survive vitrification in media that contain only half the usual concentration of solutes, provided they are warmed extremely rapidly; that is, >100,000°C/min. Again, the cooling rate is of less consequence. PMID:22558325

  1. Oocyte-Specific Expression of Mouse MEX3C652AA in the Ovary and Its Potential Role in Regulating Maternal Fos mRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Li, Yan; Liu, Chunlian; Jin, Mulan; Lu, Baisong

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the human MEX3C gene is known to encode an RNA-binding protein of 659 amino acid residues. Here we show that the MEX3C gene has alternative splicing forms giving rise to multiple MEX3C variants, and some cells express MEX3C transcripts coding for short MEX3C isoforms but not transcripts for MEX3C(659AA) MEX3C(659AA) functions as an adaptor protein for Exportin 1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export since it increases the cytoplasmic distribution of poly(A)(+) RNA and since addition of the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence to a short MEX3C isoform MEX3C(464AA) confers similar cytoplasmic poly(A)(+) RNA accumulation activity as MEX3C(659AA) FOS mRNA is a potential MEX3C target mRNA. One mechanism by which MEX3C(659AA) could regulate FOS mRNA is by promoting its nuclear export. Overexpressing MEX3C(659AA) significantly increased FOS mRNA expression, whereas mutating the NES of MEX3C(659AA) and treating cells with leptomycin B to inhibit XPO1-mediated nuclear export attenuated FOS upregulation. FOS mRNA is unstable in somatic cells but less so in oocytes; how it is stabilized in the oocytes is unknown. Transcripts for the mouse counterpart of human MEX3C(659AA) (MEX3C(652AA)) are specifically expressed in developing oocytes in the ovary, although total Mex3c transcripts are expressed in both granulosa cells and oocytes. The specific expression of this long MEX3C isoform in oocytes and its ability to enhance FOS mRNA nuclear export and stability all suggest that MEX3C(659AA) is an RNA-binding protein that preserves maternal FOS mRNA in oocytes. PMID:27053362

  2. Oocyte-expressed yes-associated protein is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Ji, Shu-Yan; Dang, Yu-Jiao; Sha, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Yi-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Qiao, Jie; Tang, Fuchou; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In early mammalian embryos, the genome is transcriptionally quiescent until the zygotic genome activation (ZGA) which occurs 2-3 days after fertilization. Despite a long-standing effort, maternal transcription factors regulating this crucial developmental event remain largely elusive. Here, using maternal and paternal mouse models of Yap1 deletion, we show that maternally accumulated yes-associated protein (YAP) in oocyte is essential for ZGA. Maternal Yap1-knockout embryos exhibit a prolonged two-cell stage and develop into the four-cell stage at a much slower pace than the wild-type controls. Transcriptome analyses identify YAP target genes in early blastomeres; two of which, Rpl13 and Rrm2, are required to mediate maternal YAP's effect in conferring developmental competence on preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, the physiological YAP activator, lysophosphatidic acid, can substantially improve early development of wild-type, but not maternal Yap1-knockout embryos in both oviduct and culture. These observations provide insights into the mechanisms of ZGA, and suggest potentials of YAP activators in improving the developmental competence of cultured embryos in assisted human reproduction and animal biotechnology. PMID:26902285

  3. High survival of mouse oocytes/embryos after vitrification without permeating cryoprotectants followed by ultra-rapid warming with an IR laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Mazur, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vitrification is now the main route to the cryopreservation of human and animal oocytes and preimplantation embryos. A central belief is that for success, the cells must be placed in very high concentrations of cryoprotective solutes and must be cooled extremely rapidly. We have shown recently that these beliefs are incorrect. Over 90% of mouse oocytes and embryos survive being cooled relatively slowly even in solutions containing only 1/3(rd) the normal solute concentrations, provided that they are warmed ultra-rapidly at 10(7)°C/min by a laser pulse. Nearly all vitrification solutions contain both permeating and non-permeating solutes, and an important question is whether the former protect because they permeate the cells and promote intracellular vitrification (as is almost universally believed), or because they osmotically withdraw a large fraction of intracellular water prior to cooling. The answer for the mouse system is clearly the latter. When oocytes or embryos are placed in 1 molal concentrations of the impermeable solute sucrose, they osmotically lose ~85% of their cellular water in less than 2 minutes. If the cells are then cooled rapidly to -196°C, nearly 90% remain viable after warming, again provided that the warming is ultra rapid. PMID:25786677

  4. Estrogen Promotes the Development of Mouse Cumulus Cells in Coordination with Oocyte-Derived GDF9 and BMP15

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Koji; Su, You-Qiang; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The differentiation and function of cumulus cells depend upon oocyte-derived paracrine factors, but studies on the estrogen receptor knockout mice suggested that estrogen also participates in these processes. This study investigates the possible coordination of estrogen and oocytes in the development and function of cumulus cells using cumulus expansion and the expression of transcripts required for expansion as functional endpoints. Preantral granulosa cell-oocyte complexes developed in vitro with 17β-estradiol (E2) exhibited increased levels of cumulus expansion and Has2 transcripts, encoding hyaluronan synthase 2, compared with those developed without E2. Moreover, cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) isolated from antral follicles and maintained in culture without E2 exhibited reduced cumulus expansion and Has2 mRNA levels compared with freshly isolated COCs. Exogenous E2, provided during the maintenance culture, alleviated these deficiencies. However, when oocytes were removed from COCs, E2 supplementation did not maintain competence to undergo expansion; the presence in culture of either fully grown oocytes or recombinant growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was required. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 15, but not fibroblast growth factor 8, augmented the GDF9 effect. Oocytes or GDF9 suppressed cumulus cell levels of Nrip1 transcripts encoding nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1, a potential inhibitor of estrogen receptor signals. Therefore, E2 and oocyte-derived paracrine factors GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 coordinate to promote the development of cumulus cells and maintain their competence to undergo expansion. Furthermore, suppression of Nrip1 expression in cumulus cells by oocyte may be one mechanism mediating cross talk between oocyte and E2 signals that promotes follicular development. PMID:21047911

  5. The meiotic response of cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes to follicle-stimulating hormone in the presence of different macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Downs, S M; Dow, M P; Fagbohun, C F

    1991-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of different macromolecules on the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced maturation of mouse oocytes in culture. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) were isolated from gonadotropin-primed mice and maintained in meiotic arrest for 17-18 h with the cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP). Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was stimulated by the addition of FSH. Medium was supplemented with either no macromolecule or with varying concentrations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylalcohol (PVA), crystallized bovine serum albumin (BSA), or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Oocyte maturation in all FSH-free cultures occurred at a frequency of about 30% or below. High frequencies of maturation were achieved when FSH was added to macromolecule-free medium or to cultures containing PVP, PVA, or BSA. Crystallized BSA was the most effective of these in supporting stimulation of maturation (94% GVB at 3 mg/ml, compared with 72-74% with synthetic polymer-supplemented or macromolecule-free media). The BSA effect was not due to contaminating fatty acids, and a less pure fraction V BSA was not as effective in supporting FSH-induced maturation. FBS suppressed FSH stimulation of maturation in a dose-dependent fashion. Sera from pigs, goats, horses, and rats were also inhibitory, but bovine calf serum (BCS) permitted a high maturation frequency (80% GVB). When added to medium containing either FBS or BCS, crystallized BSA had no effect on FSH-stimulated maturation, but fraction V BSA suppressed maturation in both serum-supplemented media. Under no conditions did FSH stimulate maturation in cumulus cell-free oocytes. These results demonstrate that hormone-induced oocyte maturation is supported in vitro by nonprotein polymers as well as BSA and that the behavior of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex depends on the purity of the BSA sample. In addition, serum contains inhibitory factors that suppress the positive response to FSH. Thus, the

  6. Heat-killed bacteria induce genome instability in mouse small intestine, liver and spleen tissues.

    PubMed

    Koturbash, Igor; Thomas, James E; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2009-06-15

    Bacterial infection has been associated with several malignancies, yet the exact mechanism of infection-associated carcinogenesis remains obscure. Furthermore, it is still not clear whether oncontransformation requires an active infection process, or merely the presence of inactivated bacteria remnants is enough to cause deleterious effects. Here, we analyzed whether or not consumption of non-pathogenic and pathogenic heat-killed Escherichia coli leads to changes in genome stability in somatic tissues of exposed animals. For one week, mice were given to drink filtered or not-filtered water contaminated with heat-killed non-pathogenic E. coli DH5alpha or heat-killed pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 Sakai. Control animals received tap water. One week after exposure, molecular changes were analyzed in the small intestine, an organ that is in immediate contact with contaminated water. Additionally, we studied the effect in the distant spleen and liver, the organs that are involved in an immune response and detoxification, respectively. Finally, muscles were chosen as neutral tissues that were not supposed to be affected. Intestinal, liver and spleen but not muscle cells responded to all bacterial treatments with an increased level of DNA damage monitored by the induction of gammaH2AX foci. In the intestine, elevated levels of DNA damage were in parallel with an increase in Ku70 and p53 expression. We have also found an elevated level of cellular proliferation in the intestine, liver and spleen but not in muscle tissues of all exposed animals as measured by increase in PCNA levels. Our data suggest that exposure to heat-killed filtered bacteria can trigger substantial molecular responses and cause genomic instability in target and distant organs. Even though bacteria were non-pathogenic and unable to cause infection, their remnants still caused a profound effect on exposed animals. PMID:19440049

  7. In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes Increases the Level of Kif11/Eg5 on Meiosis II Spindles.

    PubMed

    Kovacovicova, Kristina; Awadova, Thuraya; Mikel, Pavel; Anger, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Although in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes has been used for a relatively long time, during which the culture conditions have improved remarkably, the resulting germ cells are still not fully comparable to the cells obtained from the ovary in many important aspects, namely in fertilization rate and subsequent embryonic development. Some of the differences between IVM and in vivo maturation (IVV) oocytes were already discovered, including variability in spindle assembly and morphology. In this study we focused on a role of molecular motor Kif11 (hereafter referred to as Eg5) in maintaining bipolar spindle structure in IVM and IVV oocytes. Our experiments revealed that in IVM oocytes, Eg5 is abundant on meiosis II spindle, which makes these cells more sensitive to Eg5 inhibition than IVV oocytes. We further demonstrate that this sensitivity is acquired gradually with exposure to the in vitro conditions. This is a remarkable difference in function of spindle apparatus between IVM and IVV oocytes, and we believe our results are important not only for understanding of the chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes but also because they indicate cells are using alternative pathways to achieve the same function when exposed to different conditions. PMID:27146033

  8. Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2003-07-01

    It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

  9. Targeting and Killing of Metastatic Cells in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model With Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi, Maryam; Tearle, Howard; Fazli, Ladan; Bell, John C; Jia, William; Rennie, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus which selectively infects and kills cancer cells. The goal of the present study was to determine whether VSV is capable of targeting metastatic lesions that arise in situ in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The interferon (IFN)-responsive luciferase containing VSV(AV3) strain was injected intraprostatically into both control and TRAMP mice. Distribution, infectivity, apoptosis, and status of the IFN response were evaluated at the site of viral injection (prostate), as well as in metastatic lesions (lymph nodes), through plaque, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunohistochemical analysis. Bioluminescence analyses demonstrated that VSV(AV3) persisted at high levels in the prostate region of TRAMP mice for up to 96 hours, but at relatively low levels and for only 48 hours in control mice. Live virus was discovered in the lymph nodes of TRAMP mice, but not in control mice. TUNEL staining revealed increased cell death in VSV(AV3) infected metastatic cells present in the lymph nodes of TRAMP mice. There was an evidence of IFN activation in lymph nodes containing metastatic cells. Our results indicate that intraprostatic injections of VSV(AV3) can be used as a means to infect and kill metastatic lesions associated with advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23337981

  10. Association of Maternal mRNA and Phosphorylated EIF4EBP1 Variants With the Spindle in Mouse Oocytes: Localized Translational Control Supporting Female Meiosis in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Romasko, Edward J.; Amarnath, Dasari; Midic, Uros; Latham, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other species, localized maternal mRNAs are not believed to be prominent features of mammalian oocytes. We find by cDNA microarray analysis enrichment for maternal mRNAs encoding spindle and other proteins on the mouse oocyte metaphase II (MII) spindle. We also find that the key translational regulator, EIF4EBP1, undergoes a dynamic and complex spatially regulated pattern of phosphorylation at sites that regulate its association with EIF4E and its ability to repress translation. These phosphorylation variants appear at different positions along the spindle at different stages of meiosis. These results indicate that dynamic spatially restricted patterns of EIF4EBP1 phosphorylation may promote localized mRNA translation to support spindle formation, maintenance, function, and other nearby processes. Regulated EIF4EBP1 phosphorylation at the spindle may help coordinate spindle formation with progression through the cell cycle. The discovery that EIF4EBP1 may be part of an overall mechanism that integrates and couples cell cycle progression to mRNA translation and subsequent spindle formation and function may be relevant to understanding mechanisms leading to diminished oocyte quality, and potential means of avoiding such defects. The localization of maternal mRNAs at the spindle is evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other vertebrates and is also seen in mitotic cells, indicating that EIF4EBP1 control of localized mRNA translation is likely key to correct segregation of genetic material across cell types. PMID:23852387

  11. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. PMID:27288338

  12. The Testicular and Epididymal Expression Profile of PLCζ in Mouse and Human Does Not Support Its Role as a Sperm-Borne Oocyte Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wei; Tse, Man Y.; Pang, Stephen C.; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter; Oko, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte activating factor (SOAF) which has recently received attention as a potential biomarker of human male infertility. However, important SOAF attributes of PLCζ, including its developmental expression in mammalian spermiogenesis, its compartmentalization in sperm head perinuclear theca (PT) and its release into the ooplasm during fertilization have not been established and are addressed in this investigation. Different detergent extractions of sperm and head/tail fractions were compared for the presence of PLCζ by immunoblotting. In both human and mouse, the active isoform of PLCζ was detected in sperm fractions other than PT, where SOAF is expected to reside. Developmentally, PLCζ was incorporated as part of the acrosome during the Golgi phase of human and mouse spermiogenesis while diminishing gradually in the acrosome of elongated spermatids. Immunofluorescence localized PLCζ over the surface of the postacrosomal region of mouse and bull and head region of human spermatozoa leading us to examine its secretion in the epididymis. While previously thought to have strictly a testicular expression, PLCζ was found to be expressed and secreted by the epididymal epithelial cells explaining its presence on the sperm head surface. In vitro fertilization (IVF) revealed that PLCζ is no longer detectable after the acrosome reaction occurs on the surface of the zona pellucida and thus is not incorporated into the oocyte cytoplasm for activation. In summary, we show for the first time that PLCζ is compartmentalized as part of the acrosome early in human and mouse spermiogenesis and is secreted during sperm maturation in the epididymis. Most importantly, no evidence was found that PLCζ is incorporated into the detergent-resistant perinuclear theca fraction where SOAF resides. PMID:22428063

  13. The GTPase SPAG-1 orchestrates meiotic program by dictating meiotic resumption and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunjie; Wu, Di; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiaofei; Guan, Kaifeng; Huo, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, a finite population of oocytes is generated during embryogenesis, and proper oocyte meiotic divisions are crucial for fertility. Sperm-associated antigen 1 (SPAG-1) has been implicated in infertility and tumorigenesis; however, its relevance in cell cycle programs remains rudimentary. Here we explore a novel role of SPAG-1 during oocyte meiotic progression. SPAG-1 associated with meiotic spindles and its depletion severely compromised M-phase entry (germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD]) and polar body extrusion. The GVBD defect observed was due to an increase in intraoocyte cAMP abundance and decrease in ATP production, as confirmed by the activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK). SPAG-1 RNA interference (RNAi)-elicited defective spindle morphogenesis was evidenced by the dysfunction of γ-tubulin, which resulted from substantially reduced phosphorylation of MAPK and irregularly dispersed distribution of phospho-MAPK around spindles instead of concentration at spindle poles. Significantly, actin expression abruptly decreased and formation of cortical granule-free domains, actin caps, and contractile ring disrupted by SPAG-1 RNAi. In addition, the spindle assembly checkpoint remained functional upon SPAG-1 depletion. The findings broaden our knowledge of SPAG-1, showing that it exerts a role in oocyte meiotic execution via its involvement in AMPK and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27053660

  14. Direct exposure of mouse ovaries and oocytes to high doses of an adenovirus gene therapy vector fails to lead to germ cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J W

    2001-04-01

    The risk of insertion of adenovirus gene therapy DNA into female germ cells during the course of somatic gene therapy was stringently tested in the mouse by injecting up to 10(10) infectious particles directly into the ovary and by incubating naked oocytes in a solution of 2 x 10(8) particles/ml for 1 h prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The vector used was a recombinant adenovirus carrying the bacterial lacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Adbeta-gal). Ovaries were stained for LacZ activity, or immunochemically for LacZ, 5-7 days after injection. Although very large amounts of LacZ activity and protein were detected, all positive staining was in the thecal portion of the ovary, with no staining seen in oocytes. In another series of experiments, mice with injected ovaries were mated, and preimplantation embryos or fetuses were analyzed either for LacZ expression or by PCR for lacZ DNA. None of 202 preimplantation embryos stained positively for LacZ and none of 58 fetuses were positive for DNA by PCR analysis. Finally, more than 1400 eggs were fertilized after exposure to the vector prior to IVF and stained as morulae for LacZ activity. Fewer than 2% of the embryos stained positively for LacZ, and experiments indicated that the staining was due to incomplete washing of the eggs prior to IVF. These data provide strong evidence that adenoviruses cannot infect oocytes and that the risk of female germ-line transduction with such vectors is very low. PMID:11319918

  15. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  16. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M. )

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.

  17. The chromosome passenger complex is required for fidelity of chromosome transmission and cytokinesis in meiosis of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Bedra; Na, Jie; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Laue, Ernest; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2010-12-15

    The existence of two forms of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) in the mammalian oocyte has meant that its role in female meiosis has remained unclear. Here we use loss- and gain-of function approaches to assess the meiotic functions of one of the shared components of these complexes, INCENP, and of the variable kinase subunits, Aurora B or Aurora C. We show that either the depletion of INCENP or the combined inhibition of Aurora kinases B and C activates the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) before chromosomes have properly congressed in meiosis I and also prevents cytokinesis and hence extrusion of the first polar body. Overexpression of Aurora C also advances APC/C activation and results in cytokinesis failure in a high proportion of oocytes, indicative of a dominant effect on CPC function. Together, this points to roles for the meiotic CPC in functions similar to the mitotic roles of the complex: correcting chromosome attachment to microtubules, facilitating the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) function and enabling cytokinesis. Surprisingly, overexpression of Aurora B leads to a failure of APC/C activation, stabilization of securin and consequently a failure of chiasmate chromosomes to resolve - a dominant phenotype that is completely suppressed by depletion of INCENP. Taken together with the differential distribution of Aurora proteins B and C on chiasmate chromosomes, this points to differential functions of the two forms of CPC in regulating the separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I. PMID:21123620

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of oocyte loss.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Travis C; Fitzpatrick, Katherine E; Johnson, Joshua

    2010-12-01

    A great deal of evolutionary conservation has been found in the control of oocyte development, from invertebrates to women. However, little is known of mechanisms that control oocyte loss over time. Oocyte loss is often assumed to be a result of oocyte-intrinsic deficiencies or damage. In fruit flies, starvation results in halted oocyte production by germline stem cells and induces oocyte loss midway through development. When we fed wild-type flies the bacterial compound Rapamycin (RAP) to mimic starvation, production of new oocytes continued, but mid-stage loss sterilized the animals. Surprisingly, follicle cell invasion and phagocytosis of the oocyte preceded any signs of germ cell death. RAP-induced egg chamber loss was prevented when RAP receptor FKBP12 was knocked down specifically in follicle cells. Oogenesis continued past the mid-stages, and these mutants continued to lay embryos that could develop into normal adults. Hence, intact healthy oocytes can be destroyed by somatic cells responding to extrinsic stimuli. We termed this process inducible somatic oocyte destruction. RAP treatment of mouse follicles in vitro resulted in phagocytic uptake of the oocyte by granulosa cells as seen in flies. We hypothesize that extrinsic modes of oocyte loss occur in mammals. PMID:20651035

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with RLP068 kills methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and improves wound healing in a mouse model of infected skin abrasion PDT with RLP068/Cl in infected mouse skin abrasion.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Daniela; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Liyi; Fantetti, Lia; Roncucci, Gabrio; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for infections that can kill drug resistant bacteria without damaging host-tissue. In this study we used bioluminescent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in a mouse skin abrasion model, to investigate the effect of PDT on bacterial inactivation and wound healing. RLP068/Cl, a tetracationic Zn(II)phthalocyanine derivative and toluidine blue (TBO) were used. The light-dose response of PDT to kill bacteria in vivo and the possible recurrence in the days post-treatment were monitored by real-time bioluminescence imaging, and wound healing by digital photography. The results showed PDT with RLP068/Cl (but not TBO) was able to kill bacteria, to inhibit bacterial re-growth after the treatment and to significantly accelerate the wound healing process (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:22987338

  20. Enhanced killing effects of caffein post-treatment in ultraviolet-light irradiated mouse lymphoma cells: is cAMP a mediator of the effects?

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Y; Miyachi, Y; Okada, S; Iio, M; Nakamura, N

    1983-01-01

    Effects of post-treatment with caffein, cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and N6, O2-dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) were investigated in ultraviolet light (UV)-irradiated mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Under conditions where UV or each chemical alone caused only slight cytotoxic effects, caffein post-treatment showed clear synergistic effects in cell killing but not for cAMP or dbcAMP. Subsequently, a mutant clone resistant to cAMP was isolated. This mutant was supposed to be deficient in cAMP-mediated cellular functions. Using the mutant cells, it was found that these cells were also sensitive to caffein post-treatment as wild cells after UV-irradiation. The results imply that the enhanced killing effects by caffein post-treatment in UV irradiated cells is not mediated by cAMP. PMID:6093199

  1. Proteomes of Animal Oocytes: What Can We Learn for Human Oocytes in the In Vitro Fertilization Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes are crucial cells for mammalian reproduction, yet the molecular principles underlying oocyte development are only partially understood. Therefore, contemporary proteomic approaches have been used increasingly to provide new insights into oocyte quality and maturation in various species such as mouse, pig, and cow. Especially, animal studies have helped in elucidating the molecular status of oocytes during in vitro maturation and other procedures of assisted reproduction. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature on mammalian oocyte proteome and secretome research in the light of natural and assisted reproduction and on lessons to be learned for human oocytes, which have so far remained inaccessible for proteome analysis. PMID:24804254

  2. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, T; Blumenstock, E; Kanegasaki, S

    1981-01-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria. Images PMID:6788707

  3. Repair-deficient 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase homozygous mutant mouse cells have increased sensitivity to alkylation-induced chromosome damage and cell killing.

    PubMed Central

    Engelward, B P; Dreslin, A; Christensen, J; Huszar, D; Kurahara, C; Samson, L

    1996-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the repair of 3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA lesions prevents alkylation-induced cell death because unrepaired 3MeA blocks DNA replication. Whether this lesion is cytotoxic to mammalian cells has been difficult to establish in the absence of 3MeA repair-deficient cell lines. We previously isolated and characterized a mouse 3MeA DNA glycosylase cDNA (Aag) that provides resistance to killing by alkylating agents in E. coli. To determine the in vivo role of Aag, we cloned a large fragment of the Aag gene and used it to create Aag-deficient mouse cells by targeted homologous recombination. Aag null cells have no detectable Aag transcripts or 3MeA DNA glycosylase activity. The loss of Aag renders cells significantly more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate-induced chromosome damage, and to cell killing induced by two methylating agents, one of which produces almost exclusively 3MeAs. Aag null embryonic stem cells become sensitive to two cancer chemotherapeutic alkylating agents, namely 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and mitomycin C, indicating that Aag status is an important determinant of cellular resistance to these agents. We conclude that this mammalian 3MeA DNA glycosylase plays a pivotal role in preventing alkylation-induced chromosome damage and cytotoxicity. Images PMID:8631315

  4. How neutrophils kill fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the prevention of invasive fungal infections. Whereas mouse studies have demonstrated the role of various neutrophil pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), signal transduction pathways, and cytotoxicity in the murine antifungal immune response, much less is known about the killing of fungi by human neutrophils. Recently, novel primary immunodeficiencies have been identified in patients with a susceptibility to fungal infections. These human 'knock-out' neutrophils expand our knowledge to understand the role of PRRs and signaling in human fungal killing. From the studies with these patients it is becoming clear that neutrophils employ fundamentally distinct mechanisms to kill Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:27558342

  5. MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TRANSPORT ACTIVITY PROTECTS OOCYTES FROM CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS AND CHANGES DURING OOCYTE MATURATION

    PubMed Central

    Brayboy, Lynae M.; Oulhen, Nathalie; Witmyer, Jeannine; Robins, Jared; Carson, Sandra; Wessel, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the multidrug resistant (MDR) transporter activity in oocytes and their potential role in oocyte susceptibility to chemotherapy. Design Experimental laboratory study Setting University and Academic Center for reproductive medicine. Patients/Animals Women with eggs retrieved for ICSI cycles and adult female FVBN and B6C3F1 mouse strains. Intervention Inhibition of MDR activity in oocytes. Main Outcome measure(s) Efflux activity of MDRs using quantitative fluorescent dye efflux and oocyte cell death when exposed to chemotherapy. Results Oocytes effluxed fluorescent reporters and this activity was significantly reduced in the presence of the MDR inhibitor PSC 833. GV oocytes are more efficient at efflux compared to M2 oocytes. Human oocytes exposed to cyclophosphamide and PSC 833 showed cell death using two different viability assays compared to controls and those exposed to cyclophosphamide alone. Immunoblots detected MDR-1 in all oocytes with the greatest accumulation in the GV stage. Conclusions Oocytes have a vast repertoire of active MDRs. The implications of this study are that these protective mechanisms are important during oogenesis, and these activities change with maturation, increasing susceptibility to toxicants. Future directions may exploit the up regulation of these transporters during gonadotoxic therapy. PMID:23953328

  6. Oocyte and cumulus cell transcripts from cultured mouse follicles are induced to deviate from normal in vivo conditions by combinations of insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Flor; Romero, Sergio; Smitz, Johan

    2011-09-01

    Gonadotropins and insulin are major regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in cultured mouse ovarian follicles. Applications of variable doses of insulin in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were studied at the gene expression level in oocytes and cumulus cells. Early preantral follicles grown over 9 days were sequentially exposed to combinations of doses of insulin, FSH, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). From culture Day 1 to 6 (preantral stage), two insulin concentrations (5 ng/ml and 5 μg/ml) were combined with 10 mIU/ml FSH. From Days 6 to 9 (antral stage), the three variable gonadotropin treatments set under each insulin condition were 10 mIU/ml FSH, 25 mIU/ml FSH, and 25 mIU/ml FSH plus 3 mIU/ml hCG. The Gdf9, Bmp15, Fgf8, Dazl, Pou5f1, and Pik3ca mRNA transcripts were quantified in oocytes, and the Amh, Lhcgr, Hsd3b1, Vegfa, and Insig1 mRNA transcripts were quantified in cumulus cells. In vivo controls were unprimed and eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin)-primed prepubertal female mice. During the preantral stage, none except the Amh transcripts was regulated by insulin. Oocyte transcripts were not affected by the variable gonadotropin treatments on the last culture day but were upregulated in the combination of high insulin plus 25 mIU/ml FSH. Under low insulin conditions, high FSH levels increased levels of Lhcgr and Vegfa expression, and hCG abated this effect. However, under high insulin conditions, hCG upregulated levels of Lhcgr, Vegfa, and Insig1 mRNA. High insulin concentrations upregulated Hsd3b1 transcripts. These results demonstrate that in an in vitro follicle culture, a near physiological insulin background yields oocyte and cumulus cell transcript levels that are more similar to those in vivo. PMID:21565993

  7. Cyclic AMP-elevating Agents Promote Cumulus Cell Survival and Hyaluronan Matrix Stability, Thereby Prolonging the Time of Mouse Oocyte Fertilizability.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Monica; Camaioni, Antonella; Klinger, Francesca G; Bonfiglio, Rita; Salustri, Antonietta

    2016-02-19

    Cumulus cells sustain the development and fertilization of the mammalian oocyte. These cells are retained around the oocyte by a hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix synthesized before ovulation, a process called cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Hyaluronan release and dispersion of the cumulus cells progressively occur after ovulation, paralleling the decline of oocyte fertilization. We show here that, in mice, postovulatory changes of matrix are temporally correlated to cumulus cell death. Cumulus cell apoptosis and matrix disassembly also occurred in ovulated COCs cultured in vitro. COCs expanded in vitro with FSH or EGF underwent the same changes, whereas those expanded with 8-bromo-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) maintained integrity for a longer time. It is noteworthy that 8-Br-cAMP treatment was also effective on ovulated COCs cultured in vitro, prolonging the vitality of the cumulus cells and the stability of the matrix from a few hours to >2 days. Stimulation of endogenous adenylate cyclase with forskolin or inhibition of phosphodiesterase with rolipram produced similar effects. The treatment with selective cAMP analogues suggests that the effects of cAMP elevation are exerted through an EPAC-independent, PKA type II-dependent signaling pathway, probably acting at the post-transcriptional level. Finally, overnight culture of ovulated COCs with 8-Br-cAMP significantly counteracted the decrease of fertilization rate, doubling the number of fertilized oocytes compared with control conditions. In conclusion, these studies suggest that cAMP-elevating agents prevent cumulus cell senescence and allow them to continue to exert beneficial effects on oocyte and sperm, thereby extending in vitro the time frame of oocyte fertilizability. PMID:26694612

  8. Candida albicans killing by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells: effects of Candida genotype, infection ratios, and gamma interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Marcil, A; Harcus, D; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    2002-11-01

    Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are potential components of the immune defense that protects mammals against Candida albicans infection. We have tested the interaction between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and a variety of mutant strains of C. albicans. We used an end point dilution assay to monitor the killing of C. albicans at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Several mutants that show reduced virulence in mouse systemic-infection models show reduced colony formation in the presence of macrophage cells. To permit analysis of the macrophage-Candida interaction at higher MOIs, we introduced a luciferase reporter gene into wild-type and mutant Candida cells and used loss of the luminescence signal to quantify proliferation. This assay gave results similar to those for the end point dilution assay. Activation of the macrophages with mouse gamma interferon did not enhance anti-Candida activity. Continued coculture of the Candida and macrophage cells eventually led to death of the macrophages, but for the RAW 264.7 cell line this was not due to apoptotic pathways involving caspase-8 or -9 activation. In general Candida cells defective in the formation of hyphae were both less virulent in animal models and more sensitive to macrophage engulfment and growth inhibition. However the nonvirulent, hypha-defective cla4 mutant line was considerably more resistant to macrophage-mediated inhibition than the wild-type strain. Thus although mutants sensitive to engulfment are typically less virulent in systemic-infection models, sensitivity to phagocytic macrophage cells is not the unique determinant of C. albicans virulence. PMID:12379711

  9. Exposing cultured mouse ovarian follicles under increased gonadotropin tonus to aromatizable androgens influences the steroid balance and reduces oocyte meiotic capacity.

    PubMed

    Romero, Sergio; Smitz, Johan

    2010-10-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence relies on the well-controlled events accompanying antral follicular development. Elevated basal androgen levels, as in PCOS, potentially affect oocyte quality. Current experiments in an in vitro follicle bioassay studied dose-effects of androstenedione and testosterone on FSH and hCG stimulated antral follicle growth and meiotic maturation. The addition of either androgens altered follicle's endogenous production of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and affected the oocyte's capacity to resume meiosis. Exposure to 200 nM androstenedione induced an increased production of testosterone and estradiol. Exposure to a concentration of ≥200 nM testosterone induced elevated levels of estradiol and progesterone. Significant dose-dependent negative effects on polar body extrusion were seen at concentrations of ≥200 nM of either androgen. In addition, chromosome displacement on the metaphase plate was observed in oocytes obtained from androstenedione-treated follicles. Follicles exposed to a combination of 25 mIU/ml FSH and 3 mIU/ml hCG and elevated aromatizable androgens altered the steroid production profile, affected the follicular development and impaired oocyte meiotic competence. PMID:21046485

  10. Unique subcellular distribution of phosphorylated Plk1 (Ser137 and Thr210) in mouse oocytes during meiotic division and pPlk1(Ser137) involvement in spindle formation and REC8 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Cao, Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Nana; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Dandan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Qunyuan; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is pivotal for proper mitotic progression, its targeting activity is regulated by precise subcellular positioning and phosphorylation. Here we assessed the protein expression, subcellular localization and possible functions of phosphorylated Plk1 (pPlk1(Ser137) and pPlk1(Thr210)) in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. Western blot analysis revealed a peptide of pPlk1(Ser137) with high and stable expression from germinal vesicle (GV) until metaphase II (MII), while pPlk1(Thr210) was detected as one large single band at GV stage and 2 small bands after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), which maintained stable up to MII. Immunofluorescence analysis showed pPlk1(Ser137) was colocalized with microtubule organizing center (MTOC) proteins, γ-tubulin and pericentrin, on spindle poles, concomitantly with persistent concentration at centromeres and dynamic aggregation between chromosome arms. Differently, pPlk1(Thr210) was persistently distributed across the whole body of chromosomes after meiotic resumption. The specific Plk1 inhibitor, BI2536, repressed pPlk1(Ser137) accumulation at MTOCs and between chromosome arms, consequently disturbed γ-tubulin and pericentrin recruiting to MTOCs, destroyed meiotic spindle formation, and delayed REC8 cleavage, therefore arresting oocytes at metaphase I (MI) with chromosome misalignment. BI2536 completely reversed the premature degradation of REC8 and precocious segregation of chromosomes induced with okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor to protein phosphatase 2A. Additionally, the protein levels of pPlk1(Ser137) and pPlk1(Thr210), as well as the subcellular distribution of pPlk1(Thr210), were not affected by BI2536. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Plk1 activity is required for meiotic spindle assembly and REC8 cleavage, with pPlk1(Ser137) is the action executor, in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. PMID:26654596

  11. A novel chemosynthetic peptide with β-sheet motif efficiently kills Klebsiella pneumoniae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shirui; Gan, Changpei; Li, Rongpeng; Ye, Yan; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Xu; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections and is increasingly becoming multiple drug resistant. However, the molecular pathogenesis of Kp in causing tissue injury and dysregulated host defense remains elusive, further dampening the development of novel therapeutic measures. We have previously screened a series of synthetic antimicrobial beta-sheet forming peptides and identified a peptide (IRIKIRIK; ie, IK8L) with a broad range of bactericidal activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro. Here, employing an animal model, we investigated the antibacterial effects of IK8L in acute infection and demonstrated that peritoneal injection of IK8L to mice down-regulated inflammatory cytokines, alleviated lung injury, and importantly, decreased mortality compared to sham-injected controls. In addition, a math model was used to evaluate in vivo imaging data and predict infection progression in infected live animals. Mechanistically, IK8L can kill Kp by inhibiting biofilm formation and modulating production of inflammatory cytokines through the STAT3/JAK signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings reveal that IK8L may have potential for preventing or treating Kp infection. PMID:25709431

  12. A novel chemosynthetic peptide with β-sheet motif efficiently kills Klebsiella pneumoniae in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shirui; Gan, Changpei; Li, Rongpeng; Ye, Yan; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Xu; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections and is increasingly becoming multiple drug resistant. However, the molecular pathogenesis of Kp in causing tissue injury and dysregulated host defense remains elusive, further dampening the development of novel therapeutic measures. We have previously screened a series of synthetic antimicrobial beta-sheet forming peptides and identified a peptide (IRIKIRIK; ie, IK8L) with a broad range of bactericidal activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro. Here, employing an animal model, we investigated the antibacterial effects of IK8L in acute infection and demonstrated that peritoneal injection of IK8L to mice down-regulated inflammatory cytokines, alleviated lung injury, and importantly, decreased mortality compared to sham-injected controls. In addition, a math model was used to evaluate in vivo imaging data and predict infection progression in infected live animals. Mechanistically, IK8L can kill Kp by inhibiting biofilm formation and modulating production of inflammatory cytokines through the STAT3/JAK signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings reveal that IK8L may have potential for preventing or treating Kp infection. PMID:25709431

  13. Killing and conformal Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Konstantin; Moroianu, Andrei; Semmelmann, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an appropriate formalism in order to study conformal Killing (symmetric) tensors on Riemannian manifolds. We reprove in a simple way some known results in the field and obtain several new results, like the classification of conformal Killing 2-tensors on Riemannian products of compact manifolds, Weitzenböck formulas leading to non-existence results, and construct various examples of manifolds with conformal Killing tensors.

  14. Luteinizing Hormone Reduces the Activity of the NPR2 Guanylyl Cyclase in Mouse Ovarian Follicles, Contributing to the Cyclic GMP Decrease that Promotes Resumption of Meiosis in Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jerid W.; Zhang, Meijia; Shuhaibar, Leia C.; Norris, Rachael P.; Geerts, Andreas; Wunder, Frank; Eppig, John J.; Potter, Lincoln R.; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2012-01-01

    In preovulatory ovarian follicles of mice, meiotic prophase arrest in the oocyte is maintained by cyclic GMP from the surrounding granulosa cells that diffuses into the oocyte through gap junctions. The cGMP is synthesized in the granulosa cells by the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) in response to the agonist C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In response to luteinizing hormone (LH), cGMP in the granulosa cells decreases, and as a consequence, oocyte cGMP decreases and meiosis resumes. Here we report that within 20 minutes, LH treatment results in decreased guanylyl cyclase activity of NPR2, as determined in the presence of a maximally activating concentration of CNP. This occurs by a process that does not reduce the amount of NPR2 protein. We also show that by a slower process, first detected at 2 hours, LH decreases the amount of CNP available to bind to the receptor. Both of these LH actions contribute to decreasing cGMP in the follicle, thus signaling meiotic resumption in the oocyte. PMID:22546688

  15. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

  16. Technical aspects of the piezo, laser-assisted, and conventional methods for nuclear transfer of mouse oocytes and their efficiency and efficacy: Piezo minimizes damage of the ooplasmic membrane at injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shee-Uan; Chao, Kuang-Han; Chang, Chia-Yi; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2004-04-01

    Assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the piezo, laser, and conventional methods for nuclear transfer has remained elusive. Furthermore, although the piezo method had been used by some investigators for research of sperm injection and nuclear transfer for several years, many researchers have failed to operate the technique smoothly and achieve reproducible results. The procedures of nuclear transfer using piezo were ascertained and described in detail. Mouse oocytes were enucleated, and injected with cumulus cells using the piezo, laser, or conventional methods. We investigated the time needed and survival of nuclear transfer. Development was compared among the three methods and parthenogenetic control specimens. The average time of nuclear transfer for each oocyte was significantly shorter using the piezo (118 +/- 9 s) and laser methods (120 +/- 11 s) than using the conventional method (170 +/- 11 s). The damage rate was smaller for the piezo group (10%) than the laser (37%) and conventional (40%) groups. The percentages of blastocyst formation (14%, 12%, and 11%) and the number of nuclei of blastocysts (54 +/- 13, 51 +/- 11, and 52 +/- 12) were similar among the piezo, laser, and conventional groups, but significantly lower than for the control group (83%, 105 +/- 14). The piezo technique is more efficient than the conventional method for nuclear transfer. The laser method is easy to operate, but the equipment is expensive. In addition, piezo induced fewer traumas while breaking the membrane than the aspiration techniques used in the laser and conventional methods. PMID:15039993

  17. Inhibition of GABAA receptor-mediated current responses by enoxacin (new quinolone) and felbinac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse-brain messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, J; Shimokawa, M; Yamamoto, K; Sawada, Y; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Iga, T

    1993-07-01

    The convulsant interaction between enoxacin (ENX), a new quinolone antibacterial agent (NQ), and felbinac (FLB), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in vivo was reproduced as the change of GABA-induced current response in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse brain mRNA. GABA (10 microM) response was inhibited by ENX in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 of ENX was 96 microM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ENX was 80-fold potentiated in the presence of 10 microM FLB. The GABAA-antagonistic interaction between these two drugs in vitro was considered a possible mechanism of convulsant reaction after concomitant administration of NQs and NSAIDs in vivo. PMID:7691340

  18. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Kong, Xiang-Wei; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Yue-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs). Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods. PMID:26966678

  19. Phenotypes of Aging Postovulatory Oocytes After Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Reum; Shimoike, Takashi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kishigami, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Oocytes rapidly lose their developmental potential after ovulation, termed postovulatory oocyte aging, and often exhibit characteristic phenotypes, such as cytofragmentation, abnormal spindle shapes, and chromosome misalignments. Here, we reconstructed mouse oocytes using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to reveal the effect of somatic cell-derived nuclei on oocyte physiology during aging. Normal oocytes started undergoing cytofragmentation 24 hours after oocyte collection; however, this occurred earlier in SCNT oocytes and was more severe at 48 hours, suggesting that the transferred somatic cell nuclei affected oocyte physiology. We found no difference in the status of acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-Tub) and α-tubulin (Tub) between normal and SCNT aging oocytes, but unlike normal oocytes, aging SCNT oocytes did not have astral microtubules. Interestingly, aging SCNT oocytes displayed more severely scattered chromosomes or irregularly shaped spindles. Observations of the microfilaments showed that, in normal oocytes, there was a clear actin ring beneath the plasma membrane and condensed microfilaments around the spindle (the actin cap) at 0 hours, and the actin filaments started degenerating at 1 hour, becoming completely disrupted and distributed to the cytoplasm at 24 hours. By contrast, in SCNT oocytes, an actin cap formed around the transplanted nuclei within 1 hour of SCNT, which was still present at 24 hours. Thus, SCNT oocytes age in a similar but distinct way, suggesting that they not only contain nuclei with abnormal epigenetics but are also physiologically different. PMID:27253626

  20. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or x rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Szekely, J.; Lobreau, A.; Azzam, E.I.

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D/sub o/=0.50 Gy) than FELC (D/sub o/ = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D/sub o/ = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0/sup 0/C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0/sup 0/C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5/sup 0/C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0/sup 0/C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  1. Molecular control of the oocyte to embryo transition.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Barbara B; Evsikov, Alexei V; de Vries, Wilhelmine N; Peaston, Anne E; Solter, Davor

    2003-01-01

    The elucidation of the molecular control of the initiation of mammalian embryogenesis is possible now that the transcriptomes of the full-grown oocyte and two-cell stage embryo have been prepared and analysed. Functional annotation of the transcriptomes using gene ontology vocabularies, allows comparison of the oocyte and two-cell stage embryo between themselves, and with all known mouse genes in the Mouse Genome Database. Using this methodology one can outline the general distinguishing features of the oocyte and the two-cell stage embryo. This, when combined with oocyte-specific targeted deletion of genes, allows us to dissect the molecular networks at play as the differentiated oocyte and sperm transit into blastomeres with unlimited developmental potential. PMID:14511485

  2. Functional expression of murine multidrug resistance in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, G.; Vera, J.C.; Rosen, O.M. ); Yang, Chiaping Huang; Horwitz, S.B. )

    1990-06-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with the overproduction of a plasma membrane glycoprotein, P glycoprotein. Here the authors report the functional expression of a member of the murine MDR family of proteins and show that Xenopus oocytes injected with RNA encoding the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein develop a MDR-like phenotype. Immunological analysis indicated that oocytes injected with the mdr1b RNA synthesized a protein with the size and immunological characteristics of the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein. These oocytes exhibited a decreased accumulation of ({sup 3}H)vinblastine and showed an increased capacity to extrude the drug compared to control oocytes not expressing the P glycoprotein. In addition, competition experiments indicated that verapamil, vincristine, daunomycin, and quinidine, but not colchicine, can overcome the rapid drug efflux conferred by the expression of the mouse P glycoprotein.

  3. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  4. Follicle environment and quality of in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sirard, Marc-André

    2011-06-01

    In mammalian reproduction, the oocyte depends on the ovarian follicle for most of its growth. They form a bipolar partnership and the status of one will impact the functioning of the other. When oocytes are removed from their follicle by ovulation, they have normally completed all the steps required to begin their journey into the oviduct and drive the early embryonic development. When oocytes are removed from their follicle before natural ovulation, the process by which they acquire all the important components for their journey might not be completed and their ability to mature, fertilize or develop into embryos or to term might be compromised. Animal models have been useful to define the important steps required for the oocyte's growth phase, and in the mouse, when the oocyte has reached its full size, the program is ready. This is not the case in larger mammals where the completion of growth does not ensure that the oocyte is fully capable of undergoing all the steps to the embryo and to term. The final steps of oocyte preparation also involve a progressive condensation of the chromatin that may facilitate normal maturation but may also indirectly reduce the lifespan of the oocyte. In such a scenario, the oocyte would have an expiration date when fully competent. In humans, a number of indications may justify the aspiration of oocytes from unstimulated patients and the development of an in vitro maturation (IVM) process that would allow fertilization and subsequent development. This objective could be realized by a better understanding of the essential follicular contribution required before removing the oocyte. Therefore, this review will focus on the large animal models where IVM has been used and studied for more than 25 years. The status of the follicle at the time of oocyte recovery and the status of the oocyte's chromatin will be described in detail as they have a significant impact on the outcome. PMID:21394521

  5. Tetraspanin CD9 in bovine oocytes and its role in fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Bin; Liu, Guo-Shi; Meng, Qing-Gang; Liu, Ying; Hou, Yun-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Ning; Zhu, Shi-En

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in bovine to investigate whether CD9 (a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of proteins) is present on oocytes and whether it functions in sperm-oocyte binding and fusion. First, the presence of CD9 in bovine matured oocytes was examined by immunofluorescence with the anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse antibody, and the results showed that CD9 was expressed on the plasma membrane of matured oocytes. Sperm binding and fusion with oocytes was then examined by in vitro fertilization. When the zona pellucida-free matured oocytes were fertilized, both sperm binding to ooplasma and sperm penetrating into oocytes were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in anti-CD9 antibody-treated oocytes (6.3 +/- 0.7 per oocyte and 41.6%, respectively) compared with untreated control oocytes (19.0 +/- 0.7 per oocyte and 81.3%, respectively), indicating that the anti-CD9 mAb potentially inhibits sperm-oocyte binding and fusion. These results demonstrated that the CD9 present on bovine matured oocytes is involved in sperm-oocyte interaction during fertilization. PMID:19293563

  6. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in "Pocket" liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Sine, Jessica; Urban, Cordula; Thayer, Derek; Charron, Heather; Valim, Niksa; Tata, Darrell B; Schiff, Rachel; Blumenthal, Robert; Joshi, Amit; Puri, Anu

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported laser-triggered release of photosensitive compounds from liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2 bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC(8,9)PC). We hypothesized that the permeation of photoactivated compounds occurs through domains of enhanced fluidity in the liposome membrane and have thus called them "Pocket" liposomes. In this study we have encapsulated the red light activatable anticancer photodynamic therapy drug 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) (Ex/Em410/670 nm) together with calcein (Ex/Em490/517 nm) as a marker for drug release in Pocket liposomes. A mole ratio of 7.6:1 lipid:HPPH was found to be optimal, with >80% of HPPH being included in the liposomes. Exposure of liposomes with a cw-diode 660 nm laser (90 mW, 0-5 minutes) resulted in calcein release only when HPPH was included in the liposomes. Further analysis of the quenching ratios of liposome-entrapped calcein in the laser treated samples indicated that the laser-triggered release occurred via the graded mechanism. In vitro studies with MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cell line showed significant cell killing upon treatment of cell-liposome suspensions with the laser. To assess in vivo efficacy, we implanted MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells containing the luciferase gene along the mammary fat pads on the ribcage of mice. For biodistribution experiments, trace amounts of a near infrared lipid probe DiR (Ex/Em745/840 nm) were included in the liposomes. Liposomes were injected intravenously and laser treatments (90 mW, 0.9 cm diameter, for an exposure duration ranging from 5-8 minutes) were done 4 hours postinjection (only one tumor per mouse was treated, keeping the second flank tumor as control). Calcein release occurred as indicated by an increase in calcein fluorescence from laser treated tumors only. The animals were observed for up to 15 days postinjection and tumor volume and luciferase expression was measured. A

  7. History of oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gook, Debra A

    2011-09-01

    The potential advantages of being able to cryopreserve oocytes have been apparent for many decades. Technical difficulties associated with the unique properties of the mammalian oocyte initially retarded rapid development in this area but recent advances have overcome many of the problems. A stage has now been reached where oocyte cryopreservation can be considered an important component of human assisted reproductive technology. The potential advantages of being able to cryopreserve oocytes have been apparent for many decades. Technical difficulties associated with the unique properties of the mammalian oocyte initially retarded rapid development in this area but recent advances have overcome many of the problems. A stage has now been reached where oocyte cryopreservation can be considered an important component of human assisted reproductive technology. PMID:21549640

  8. Isolation of Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sive, Hazel L; Grainger, Robert M; Harland, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    Xenopus oocytes are obtained from sexually mature females by surgically removing parts of the ovary. The operation is not fatal and can be performed on an anesthetized frog several times during its lifetime. However, a recovery period of 2 wk is recommended between operations. A careful record of all operations performed, including details of oocyte quality, should be kept. A frog that produces one good batch of oocytes; e.g., those that translate injected messenger RNAs (mRNAs) efficiently, should be recorded and used again, because oocyte quality is generally frog-dependent. PMID:21123421

  9. Cryopreservation of starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hamaratoğlu, Fisun; Eroğlu, Ali; Toner, Mehmet; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2005-02-01

    Research from many laboratories over the past several decades indicates that invertebrate oocytes and eggs are extraordinarily difficult to freeze. Since starfish oocytes, eggs, and embryos are an important cell and developmental biology model system, there is great interest to cryopreserve these cells. Previous starfish oocyte cryopreservation studies using slow cooling protocols revealed that these cells are highly sensitive to osmotic stress and form intracellular ice at very high sub-zero temperatures, suggesting that common freezing methodologies may not prove useful. We report here that a short exposure to 1.5 M Me2SO/1 M trehalose in hypotonic salt solution followed by ultra-rapid cooling to cryogenic temperatures allows starfish oocytes to be cryopreserved with the average survival rate of 34% when normalized to control oocytes that were exposed to CPA, but not frozen. On average, 51% of the oocytes in 77% of the batches of frozen oocytes underwent meiotic maturation in response to the starfish maturation hormone, 1-methyladenine. In one experiment, eggs developing from thawed oocytes were capable of being fertilized and two developed into embryos. These data suggests that successful cryopreservation of starfish oocytes is possible, but will need further refinement to increase the numbers of fully competent embryos. PMID:15710368

  10. Developmental competence of oocytes grown in vitro: Has it peaked already?

    PubMed Central

    MOROHAKU, Kanako; HIRAO, Yuji; OBATA, Yayoi

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of immature oocytes provides opportunities to increase gametic resources and to understand the mechanisms underlying oocyte development. Many studies on the in vitro growth of oocytes have been reported thus far; however, only a few cases have been reported, which demonstrated that oocytes can support full-term development after in vitro fertilization. Our research group recently found that culture of mouse neonatal primordial follicles increased the birthrate; however, the establishment of an in vitro system that can completely mimic follicle or oocyte growth in vivo and control oogenesis remains an ongoing challenge. PMID:26685717

  11. Evaluation of Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation Developmental Competency in Dynamic Culture Systems by Design and Construction of A Lab on A Chip Device and Its Comparison with Conventional Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghzadeh Oskouei, Behnaz; Pashaiasl, Maryam; Heidari, Mohammad Hasan; Salehi, Mohammad; Veladi, Hadi; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firuz; Shahabi, Parviz; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    Objective In conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART), oocytes are cultured in static microdrops within Petri dishes that contain vast amounts of media. However, the in vivo environment is dynamic. This study assesses in vitro oocyte maturation through the use of a new microfluidic device. We evaluate oocyte fertilization to the blastocyct stage and their glutathione (GSH) contents in each experimental group. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we established a dynamic culture condition. Immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. Oocytes were randomly placed in static (passive) and dynamic (active) in vitro maturation (IVM) culture medium for 24 hours. In vitro matured oocytes underwent fertilization, after which we placed the pronucleus (PN) stage embryos in microdrops and followed their developmental stages to blastocyst formation after 3 days. GSH content of the in vitro matured oocytes was assessed by monochlorobimane (MCB) staining. Results We observed significantly higher percentages of mature metaphase II oocytes (MII) in the passive and active dynamic culture systems (DCS) compared to the static group (P<0.01). There were significantly less mean numbers of germinal vesicle (GV) and degenerated oocytes in the passive and active dynamic groups compared to the static group (P<0.01). Fertilization and blastocyst formation rate in the dynamic systems were statistically significant compared to the static cultures (P<0.01). There was significantly higher GSH content in dynamically matured oocytes compared to statically matured oocytes (P<0.01). Conclusion Dynamic culture for in vitro oocyte maturation improves their developmental competency in comparison with static culture conditions. PMID:27540525

  12. Beyond killing

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Pedro F.; McNally, Luke; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; King, Kayla C.; Popat, Roman; Domingo-Sananes, Maria R.; Allen, Judith E.; Soares, Miguel P.; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic pipeline is running dry and infectious disease remains a major threat to public health. An efficient strategy to stay ahead of rapidly adapting pathogens should include approaches that replace, complement or enhance the effect of both current and novel antimicrobial compounds. In recent years, a number of innovative approaches to manage disease without the aid of traditional antibiotics and without eliminating the pathogens directly have emerged. These include disabling pathogen virulence-factors, increasing host tissue damage control or altering the microbiota to provide colonization resistance, immune resistance or disease tolerance against pathogens. We discuss the therapeutic potential of these approaches and examine their possible consequences for pathogen evolution. To guarantee a longer half-life of these alternatives to directly killing pathogens, and to gain a full understanding of their population-level consequences, we encourage future work to incorporate evolutionary perspectives into the development of these treatments. PMID:27016341

  13. In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujit Raj; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. Although fertilization rate is significantly higher in ICSI cycles, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of ICSI in improving the pregnancy rate. Poor technical skill, and suboptimal in vitro conditions may account for the ICSI results however, there is no report on the effects of oocyte manipulations on the ICSI outcome. Objective The present study elucidates the influence of mock ICSI on the functional and genetic integrity of the mouse oocytes. Methods Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, mitochondrial status, and phosphorylation of H2AX were assessed in the in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI. Results A significant increase in ROS level was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P<0.05-0.001) whereas unique mitochondrial distribution pattern was found only in IVM oocytes (P<0.01-0.001). Importantly, differential H2AX phosphorylation was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P <0.001). Conclusion The data from this study suggests that mock ICSI can alter genetic and functional integrity in oocytes and IVM oocytes are more vulnerable to mock ICSI induced changes. PMID:25786120

  14. Mutations in TUBB8 and Human Oocyte Meiotic Arrest.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ruizhi; Sang, Qing; Kuang, Yanping; Sun, Xiaoxi; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Shaozhen; Shi, Juanzi; Tian, Guoling; Luchniak, Anna; Fukuda, Yusuke; Li, Bin; Yu, Min; Chen, Junling; Xu, Yao; Guo, Luo; Qu, Ronggui; Wang, Xueqian; Sun, Zhaogui; Liu, Miao; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Hongyan; Feng, Yi; Shao, Ruijin; Chai, Renjie; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Rui; Nogales, Eva; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Gupta, Mohan L; Cowan, Nicholas J; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-21

    Background Human reproduction depends on the fusion of a mature oocyte with a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg. The genetic events that lead to the arrest of human oocyte maturation are unknown. Methods We sequenced the exomes of five members of a four-generation family, three of whom had infertility due to oocyte meiosis I arrest. We performed Sanger sequencing of a candidate gene, TUBB8, in DNA samples from these members, additional family members, and members of 23 other affected families. The expression of TUBB8 and all other β-tubulin isotypes was assessed in human oocytes, early embryos, sperm cells, and several somatic tissues by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We evaluated the effect of the TUBB8 mutations on the assembly of the heterodimer consisting of one α-tubulin polypeptide and one β-tubulin polypeptide (α/β-tubulin heterodimer) in vitro, on microtubule architecture in HeLa cells, on microtubule dynamics in yeast cells, and on spindle assembly in mouse and human oocytes. Results We identified seven mutations in the primate-specific gene TUBB8 that were responsible for oocyte meiosis I arrest in 7 of the 24 families. TUBB8 expression is unique to oocytes and the early embryo, in which this gene accounts for almost all the expressed β-tubulin. The mutations affect chaperone-dependent folding and assembly of the α/β-tubulin heterodimer, disrupt microtubule behavior on expression in cultured cells, alter microtubule dynamics in vivo, and cause catastrophic spindle-assembly defects and maturation arrest on expression in mouse and human oocytes. Conclusions TUBB8 mutations have dominant-negative effects that disrupt microtubule behavior and oocyte meiotic spindle assembly and maturation, causing female infertility. (Funded by the National Basic Research Program of China and others.). PMID:26789871

  15. Mutations in TUBB8 cause human oocyte meiotic arrest

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruizhi; Sang, Qing; Kuang, Yanping; Sun, Xiaoxi; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Shaozhen; Shi, Juanzi; Tian, Guoling; Luchniak, Anna; Fukuda, Yusuke; Li, Bin; Yu, Min; Chen, Junling; Xu, Yao; Guo, Luo; Qu, Ronggui; Wang, Xueqian; Sun, Zhaogui; Liu, Miao; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Hongyan; Feng, Yi; Shao, Ruijin; Chai, Renjie; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Rui; Nogales, Eva; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Gupta, Mohan L.; Cowan, Nicholas J.; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Successful human reproduction depends on the fusion of a mature oocyte with a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg. The genetic events that lead to human oocyte maturation arrest are unknown. Methods We recruited a rare four-generation family with female infertility as a consequence of oocyte meiosis I arrest. We applied whole-exome and direct Sanger sequencing to an additional 23 patients following identification of mutations in a candidate gene, TUBB8. Expression of TUBB8 and all other β-tubulin isotypes was measured in human oocytes, early embryos, sperm cells and several somatic tissues by qRT-PCR. The effect of the TUBB8 mutations was assessed on α/β tubulin heterodimer assembly in vitro, on microtubule architecture in HeLa cells, on microtubule dynamics in yeast cells, and on spindle assembly in mouse and human oocytes via microinjection of the corresponding cRNAs. Results We identified seven mutations in the primate-specific gene TUBB8 that are responsible for human oocyte meiosis I arrest in seven families. TUBB8 expression is unique to oocytes and the early embryo, where this gene accounts for almost all of the expressed β-tubulin. The mutations affect the chaperone-dependent folding and assembly of the α/β-tubulin heterodimer, induce microtubule chaos upon expression in cultured cells, alter microtubule dynamics in vivo, and cause catastrophic spindle assembly defects and maturation arrest upon expression in mouse and human oocytes. Conclusions TUBB8 mutations function via dominant negative effects that massively disrupt proper microtubule behavior. TUBB8 is a key gene involved in human oocyte meiotic spindle assembly and maturation. PMID:26789871

  16. Oocyte activation and latent HIV-1 reactivation: AMPK as a common mechanism of action linking the beginnings of life and the potential eradication of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2016-08-01

    In all mammalian species studied to date, the initiation of oocyte activation is orchestrated through alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Upon sperm binding to the oocyte plasma membrane, a sperm-associated phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, PLC zeta (PLCζ), is released into the oocyte cytoplasm. PLCζ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. Subsequent Ca(2+) oscillations are generated that drive oocyte activation to completion. Ca(2+) ionophores such as ionomycin have been successfully used to induce artificial human oocyte activation, facilitating fertilization during intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. Early studies have also demonstrated that the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) acts synergistically with Ca(2+) ionophores to induce parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes. Interestingly, the Ca(2+)-induced signaling cascade characterizing sperm or chemically-induced oocyte activation, i.e. the "shock and live" approach, bears a striking resemblance to the reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs via the so called "shock and kill" approach, a method currently being pursued to eradicate HIV-1 from infected individuals. PMA and ionomycin combined, used as positive controls in HIV-1 latency reversal studies, have been shown to be extremely efficient in reactivating latent HIV-1 in CD4(+) memory T cells by inducing T cell activation. Similar to oocyte activation, T cell activation by PMA and ionomycin induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and activation of DAG, PKC, and downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways necessary for proviral transcription. Interestingly, AMPK, a master regulator of cell metabolism that is activated thorough the induction of cellular

  17. Imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tanino, Motohiko; Matoba, Ryo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Oocytes have unique characteristics compared with other cell types. In mouse and human oocytes, two X chromosomes are maintained in the active state. Previous microarray studies have shown that the balance of the expression state is maintained in haploid oocytes. Here, we investigated transcripts using RNA-sequence technology in mouse and human oocytes. The median expression ratio between X chromosome and autosomal genes (X:A) in immature mouse oocytes increased as the gene expression levels increased, reaching a value of 1. However, the ratio in mature oocytes was under 1 for all expression categories. Moreover, we observed a markedly low ratio resulting from the bimodal expression patterns of X–linked genes. The low X:A expression ratio in mature oocyte was independent of DNA methylation. While mature human oocytes exhibited a slightly low X:A expression ratio, this was the result of the skewed high frequency of lowly expressed X-linked genes rather than the bimodal state. We propose that this imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes is a feature of transcripts in mammalian oocytes lacking X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:26370379

  18. Peroxynitrite deteriorates oocyte quality through disassembly of microtubule organizing centers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana N; Shaeib, Faten; Thakur, Mili; Jeelani, Roohi; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Goud, Pravin T; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-02-01

    Previous theoretical studies have suggested that utilization of 3-D imaging to acquire morphologic parameters of meiotic spindles may be useful in infertility related procedures as an assessment of oocyte quality. However, our results show that treatment of oocytes with increasing concentrations of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) caused a dramatic alteration in spindle shape in which morphologic parameters are not measurable or are uninformative in terms of oocyte quality. Metaphase II mouse oocytes (n=520) were treated with increasing concentrations of ONOO(-), after which all oocytes were fixed and subjected to indirect immunofluorescence. Oocyte quality was assessed by alterations in the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), pericentrin location, microtubule morphology, and chromosomal alignment. In untreated oocytes, pericentrin is primarily assembled utilizing the acentrosomal MTOC, which appears as a condensation at both spindle poles. The spindle has a symmetrical pointed barrel shape, assembled around the chromosomal plate at the spindle equator. Oocytes treated with low concentrations of ONOO(-) (<2.5 μM) showed shortening of the spindle apparatus, while pericentrin scatters from a tight condensation to a dispersed cluster around each spindle pole. At higher ONOO(-) concentrations (>2.5μM) the central attachments between microtubules are strained and bend or unevenly break, and the MTOC proteins are further dispersed or undetectable. Peroxynitrite mediated MTOC damage, which deranges the chromosomal scaffold at the time of assembly and separation, caused the deterioration in oocyte quality. These results provide a link between reactive oxygen species and poor reproductive outcomes and elucidate the underlying etiology, which could be used as a superior biomarker for oocyte quality compared to existing assessment tools. PMID:26746586

  19. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  20. Glucocorticoids impair oocyte developmental potential by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells via activating the Fas system

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong-Jie; Han, Xiao; He, Nan; Wang, Guo-Liang; Gong, Shuai; Lin, Juan; Gao, Min; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that stress damages oocytes with increased secretion of glucorticoids. However, although injection of female mice with cortisol decreased oocyte competence, exposure of mouse oocytes directly to physiological or stress-induced concentrations of glucorticoids did not affect oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study has explored the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids impair oocyte competence. Female mice were injected with cortisol and the effects of cortisol-injection on oocyte competence, ovarian cell apoptosis and Fas/FasL activation were observed. The results showed that cortisol-injection decreased (a) oocyte developmental potential, (b) the E2/P4 ratio in serum and ovaries, and (c) expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor in mural granulosa cells (MGCs), while increasing levels of (a) cortisol in serum and ovaries, (b) apoptosis in MGCs and cumulus cells (CCs), (c) FasL secretion in ovaries and during oocyte maturation in vitro, and (d) Fas in MGCs, CCs and oocytes. The detrimental effects of cortisol-injection on oocyte competence and apoptosis of MGCs and CCs were significantly relieved when the gld (generalized lymphoproliferative disorder) mice harboring FasL mutations were observed. Together, the results suggested that glucocorticoids impair oocyte competence by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells via activating the Fas system. PMID:27040909

  1. Glucocorticoids impair oocyte developmental potential by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells via activating the Fas system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Jie; Han, Xiao; He, Nan; Wang, Guo-Liang; Gong, Shuai; Lin, Juan; Gao, Min; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that stress damages oocytes with increased secretion of glucorticoids. However, although injection of female mice with cortisol decreased oocyte competence, exposure of mouse oocytes directly to physiological or stress-induced concentrations of glucorticoids did not affect oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study has explored the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids impair oocyte competence. Female mice were injected with cortisol and the effects of cortisol-injection on oocyte competence, ovarian cell apoptosis and Fas/FasL activation were observed. The results showed that cortisol-injection decreased (a) oocyte developmental potential, (b) the E2/P4 ratio in serum and ovaries, and (c) expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor in mural granulosa cells (MGCs), while increasing levels of (a) cortisol in serum and ovaries, (b) apoptosis in MGCs and cumulus cells (CCs), (c) FasL secretion in ovaries and during oocyte maturation in vitro, and (d) Fas in MGCs, CCs and oocytes. The detrimental effects of cortisol-injection on oocyte competence and apoptosis of MGCs and CCs were significantly relieved when the gld (generalized lymphoproliferative disorder) mice harboring FasL mutations were observed. Together, the results suggested that glucocorticoids impair oocyte competence by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells via activating the Fas system. PMID:27040909

  2. Chromosome Cohesion Established by Rec8-Cohesin in Fetal Oocytes Is Maintained without Detectable Turnover in Oocytes Arrested for Months in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Sabrina; Borsos, Máté; Szydlowska, Anna; Godwin, Jonathan; Williams, Suzannah A.; Cohen, Paula E.; Hirota, Takayuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Tachibana-Konwalski, Kikuë

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis [1]. Rec8-containing cohesin, bound to Smc3/Smc1α or Smc3/Smc1β, maintains bivalent cohesion in mammalian meiosis [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. In females, meiotic DNA replication and recombination occur in fetal oocytes. After birth, oocytes arrest at the prolonged dictyate stage until recruited to grow into mature oocytes that divide at ovulation. How cohesion is maintained in arrested oocytes remains a pivotal question relevant to maternal age-related aneuploidy. Hypothetically, cohesin turnover regenerates cohesion in oocytes. Evidence for post-replicative cohesion establishment mechanism exists, in yeast and invertebrates [7, 8]. In mouse fetal oocytes, cohesin loading factor Nipbl/Scc2 localizes to chromosome axes during recombination [9, 10]. Alternatively, cohesion is maintained without turnover. Consistent with this, cohesion maintenance does not require Smc1β transcription, but unlike Rec8, Smc1β is not required for establishing bivalent cohesion [11, 12]. Rec8 maintains cohesion without turnover during weeks of oocyte growth [3]. Whether the same applies to months or decades of arrest is unknown. Here, we test whether Rec8 activated in arrested mouse oocytes builds cohesion revealed by TEV cleavage and live-cell imaging. Rec8 establishes cohesion when activated during DNA replication in fetal oocytes using tamoxifen-inducible Cre. In contrast, no new cohesion is detected when Rec8 is activated in arrested oocytes by tamoxifen despite cohesin synthesis. We conclude that cohesion established in fetal oocytes is maintained for months without detectable turnover in dictyate-arrested oocytes. This implies that women’s fertility depends on the longevity of cohesin proteins that established cohesion in utero. PMID:26898469

  3. Strategies to support human oocyte development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Evelyn E; McLaughlin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many young cancer patients are now being given the option to store ovarian cortical biopsies before undergoing potentially damaging chemo- or radiotherapy. This tissue mainly contains large numbers of immature primordial follicles. Currently the only option to restore fertility using this tissue is by transplantation which may not be a viable option for all patients. Greater options to realise the potential of this tissue to restore fertility could be achieved by the development of in vitro systems that support oocyte development. The ability to develop human oocytes from the most immature stages of follicles (primordial) through to maturation and fertilisation in vitro would revolutionise fertility preservation practice. This has been achieved in mouse where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. However, developing IVG systems to support complete development of human oocytes has been more difficult because of differences in scale of timing and size. Our lab has been working on a multi-step culture system to support growth and development of bo-vine and human oocytes from primordial through to fully grown, using fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. This review outlines the approaches being taken to obtain complete in vitro development of human oocytes and strategies for assessing the health and viability of IVG oocytes. PMID:23417412

  4. Cryobiological Characteristics of L-proline in Mammalian Oocyte Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Xue, Xu; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Jin, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: L-proline is a natural, nontoxic cryoprotectant that helps cells and tissues to tolerate freezing in a variety of plants and animals. The use of L-proline in mammalian oocyte cryopreservation is rare. In this study, we explored the cryobiological characteristics of L-proline and evaluated its protective effect in mouse oocyte cryopreservation. Methods: The freezing property of L-proline was detected by Raman spectroscopy and osmometer. Mature oocytes obtained from 8-week-old B6D2F1 mice were vitrified in a solution consisting various concentration of L-proline with a reduced proportion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG), comparing with the control group (15% DMSO and 15% EG without L-proline). The survival rate, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) expression, fertilization rate, two-cell rate, and blastocyst rate in vitro were assessed by immunofluorescence and in vitro fertilization. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: L-proline can penetrate the oocyte membrane within 1 min. The osmotic pressure of 2.00 mol/L L-proline mixture is similar to that of the control group. The survival rate of the postthawed oocyte in 2.00 mol/L L-proline combining 7.5% DMSO and 10% EG is significantly higher than that of the control group. There is no difference of 5-mC expression between the L-proline combination groups and control. The fertilization rate, two-cell rate, and blastocyst rate in vitro from oocyte vitrified in 2.00 mol/L L-proline combining 7.5% DMSO and 10% EG solution are similar to that of control. Conclusions: It indicated that an appropriate concentration of L-proline can improve the cryopreservation efficiency of mouse oocytes with low concentrations of DMSO and EG, which may be applicable to human oocyte vitrification. PMID:27503023

  5. Oocyte ageing and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhao-Jia; Schatten, Heide; Zhang, Cui-Lian; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    It has become a current social trend for women to delay childbearing. However, the quality of oocytes from older females is compromised and the pregnancy rate of older women is lower. With the increased rate of delayed childbearing, it is becoming more and more crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying the compromised quality of oocytes from older women, including mitochondrial dysfunctions, aneuploidy and epigenetic changes. Establishing proper epigenetic modifications during oogenesis and early embryo development is an important aspect in reproduction. The reprogramming process may be influenced by external and internal factors that result in improper epigenetic changes in germ cells. Furthermore, germ cell epigenetic changes might be inherited by the next generations. In this review, we briefly summarise the effects of ageing on oocyte quality. We focus on discussing the relationship between ageing and epigenetic modifications, highlighting the epigenetic changes in oocytes from advanced-age females and in post-ovulatory aged oocytes as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:25391845

  6. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. Methods: We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Results: Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women <37 years old remains constant with a mean of 4.47%. A significant proportion of young women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. Discussion and Conclusion: The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock. PMID:24753920

  7. High-resolution microscopy of active ribosomal genes and key members of the rRNA processing machinery inside nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-10-01

    Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin. PMID:26226217

  8. A novel, native-format bispecific antibody triggering T-cell killing of B-cells is robustly active in mouse tumor models and cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric J.; Olson, Kara; Haber, Lauric J.; Varghese, Bindu; Duramad, Paurene; Tustian, Andrew D.; Oyejide, Adelekan; Kirshner, Jessica R.; Canova, Lauren; Menon, Jayanthi; Principio, Jennifer; MacDonald, Douglas; Kantrowitz, Joel; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D.; Thurston, Gavin; Davis, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies, while showing great therapeutic potential, pose formidable challenges with respect to their assembly, stability, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics. Here we describe a novel class of bispecific antibodies with native human immunoglobulin format. The design exploits differences in the affinities of the immunoglobulin isotypes for Protein A, allowing efficient large-scale purification. Using this format, we generated a bispecific antibody, REGN1979, targeting the B cell marker, CD20, and the CD3 component of the T cell receptor, which triggers redirected killing of B cells. In mice, this antibody prevented growth of B cell tumors and also caused regression of large established tumors. In cynomolgus monkeys, low doses of REGN1979 caused prolonged depletion of B cells in peripheral blood with a serum half-life of approximately 14 days. Further, the antibody induced a deeper depletion of B cells in lymphoid organs than rituximab. This format has broad applicability for development of clinical bispecific antibodies. PMID:26659273

  9. Perforin facilitates beta cell killing and regulates autoreactive CD8+ T-cell responses to antigen in mouse models of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Prerak; Graham, Kate L; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramaninan; Fynch, Stacey; Slattery, Robyn M; Kay, Thomas W H; Thomas, Helen E

    2016-04-01

    In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) directly interact with pancreatic beta cells through major histocompatibility complex class I. An immune synapse facilitates delivery of cytotoxic granules, comprised mainly of granzymes and perforin. Perforin deficiency protects the majority of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from autoimmune diabetes. Intriguingly perforin deficiency does not prevent diabetes in CD8(+) T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice. We therefore investigated the importance of perforin-dependent killing via CTL-beta cell contact in autoimmune diabetes. Perforin-deficient CTL from NOD mice or from NOD8.3 mice were significantly less efficient at adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes into NODRag1(-/-) mice, confirming that perforin is essential to facilitate beta cell destruction. However, increasing the number of transferred in vitro-activated perforin-deficient 8.3 T cells reversed the phenotype and resulted in diabetes. Perforin-deficient NOD8.3 T cells were present in increased proportion in islets, and proliferated more in response to antigen in vivo indicating that perforin may regulate the activation of CTLs, possibly by controlling cytokine production. This was confirmed when we examined the requirement for direct interaction between beta cells and CD8(+) T cells in NOD8.3 mice, in which beta cells specifically lack major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I through conditional deletion of β2-microglobulin. Although diabetes was significantly reduced, 40% of these mice developed diabetes, indicating that NOD8.3 T cells can kill beta cells in the absence of direct interaction. Our data indicate that although perforin delivery is the main mechanism that CTL use to destroy beta cells, they can employ alternative mechanisms to induce diabetes in a perforin-independent manner. PMID:26446877

  10. Improved Oocyte Isolation and Embryonic Development of Outbred Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Choi, Jung; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the protocol for isolating cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from the outbred deer mice by using only one hormone (instead of the widely used combination of two hormones) with reduced dose. Moreover, we identified that significantly more metaphase II (MII) oocytes could be obtained by supplementing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and leukemia inhibition factor (LIF) into the previously established medium for in vitro maturation (IVM) of the COCs. Furthermore, we overcame the major challenge of two-cell block during embryonic development of deer mice after either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) of the MII oocytes, by culturing the two-cell stage embryos on the feeder layer of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in the medium of mouse embryonic stem cells. Collectively, this work represents a major step forward in using deer mice as an outbred animal model for biomedical research on reproduction and early embryonic development. PMID:26184014

  11. Oocyte Maturation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Terret, Marie-Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is essential for many organisms to propagate themselves. It requires the formation of haploid female and male gametes: oocytes and sperms. These specialized cells are generated through meiosis, a particular type of cell division that produces cells with recombined genomes that differ from their parental origin. In this review, we highlight the end process of female meiosis, the divisions per se, and how they can give rise to a functional female gamete preparing itself for the ensuing zygotic development. In particular, we discuss why such an essential process in the propagation of species is so poorly controlled, producing a strong percentage of abnormal female gametes in the end. Eventually, we examine aspects related to the lack of centrosomes in female oocytes, the asymmetry in size of the mammalian oocyte upon division, and in mammals the direct consequences of these long-lived cells in the ovary. PMID:26998245

  12. Signal transduction in mammalian oocytes during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Machaty, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian embryo development begins when the fertilizing sperm triggers a series of elevations in the oocyte's intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration. The elevations are the result of repeated release and re-uptake of Ca(2+) stored in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Ca(2+) release is primarily mediated by the phosphoinositide signaling system of the oocyte. The system is stimulated when the sperm causes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG); IP3 then binds its receptor on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum that induces Ca(2+) release. The manner in which the sperm generates IP3, the Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger, has been the subject of extensive research for a long time. The sperm factor hypothesis has eventually gained general acceptance, according to which it is a molecule from the sperm that diffuses into the ooplasm and stimulates the phosphoinositide cascade. Much evidence now indicates that the sperm-derived factor is phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that cleaves PIP2 and generates IP3, eventually leading to oocyte activation. A recent addition to the candidate sperm factor list is the post-acrosomal sheath WW domain-binding protein (PAWP), whose role at fertilization is currently under debate. Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane is also important as, in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), the oscillations run down prematurely. In pig oocytes, the influx that sustains the oscillations seems to be regulated by the filling status of the stores, whereas in the mouse other mechanisms might be involved. This work summarizes the current understanding of Ca(2+) signaling in mammalian oocytes. PMID:26453398

  13. Merotelic attachments allow alignment and stabilization of chromatids in meiosis II oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kouznetsova, Anna; Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan; Höög, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The chromosome segregation process in human oocytes is highly error-prone, generating meiosis II (MII) oocytes with unbalanced chromatids that contribute to aneuploidy in offspring. This raises questions regarding the mechanism for transmission of chromatids and how chromatids evade the error correction mechanisms in MII oocytes. Here, we analyse the behaviour of chromatids in mouse MII oocytes. We find that chromatids align at the spindle equator at the metaphase stage of MII and that their presence does not obstruct entry into the anaphase stage. The alignment process is mediated by merotelic (bi-directional) microtubule-kinetochore attachments, revealing a multi-domain organization of the kinetochore of mammalian meiotic chromosomes. Our results suggest that biorientation of chromatids stabilize microtubule attachments at the kinetochores in a tension-dependent manner. Our results also suggest that merotelic attachments contribute to chromosome mis-segregation in wild-type MII oocytes. Thus, merotely is an important promoter of aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes. PMID:25007239

  14. THERMOSTABILITY OF SPERM NUCLEI ASSESSED BY MICROINJECTION INTO HAMSTER OOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees - 125 degrees for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  15. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  16. Synergistic streptococcal phage λSA2 and B30 endolysins kill streptococci in cow milk and in a mouse model of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary J; Pohl, Calvin S; Donovan, David M

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis results in billion dollar losses annually in the USA alone. Streptococci are among the most relevant causative agents of this disease. Conventional antibiotic therapy is often unsuccessful and contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins represent a new class of antimicrobials against these bacteria. In this work, we characterized the endolysins (lysins) of the streptococcal phages λSA2 and B30 and evaluated their potential as anti-mastitis agents. When tested in vitro against live streptococci, both enzymes exhibited near-optimum lytic activities at ionic strengths, pH, and Ca(2+) concentrations consistent with cow milk. When tested in combination in a checkerboard assay, the lysins were found to exhibit strong synergy. The λSA2 lysin displayed high activity in milk against Streptococcus dysgalactiae (reduction of CFU/ml by 3.5 log units at 100 μg/ml), Streptococcus agalactiae (2 log), and Streptococcus uberis (4 log), whereas the B30 lysin was less effective. In a mouse model of bovine mastitis, both enzymes significantly reduced intramammary concentrations of all three streptococcal species (except for B30 vs. S. dysgalactiae), and the effects on mammary gland wet weights and TNFα concentrations were consistent with these findings. Unexpectedly, the synergistic effect determined for the two enzymes in vitro was not observed in the mouse model. Overall, our results illustrate the potential of endolysins for treatment of Streptococcus-induced bovine mastitis. PMID:25895090

  17. The study of mammalian oocyte competence by transcriptome analysis: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Rémi; Sirard, Marc-André

    2014-02-01

    Various morphological and cytological traits of oocytes and their surrounding cumulus cells may be used to select oocytes for assisted reproduction. However, even with careful selection, successful IVF and subsequent embryo development remain uncertain. The factors that ensure oocyte competence are unclear and other approaches to assessing developmental potential must be explored. With the constant development of the molecular toolbox, genomic/transcriptomic analysis is becoming a more and more interesting approach to understand oocyte quality on the basis of RNA composition. Using bovine and mouse models as well as human oocytes of known developmental potential, various efforts are underway to characterize the mRNA profile of the competent oocyte using microarray technology. The proliferation of gene expression data sets raises new opportunities to identify the mechanisms involved in this complex phenotype, which should lead to improved techniques of assisted reproduction. Although several molecular markers of oocyte quality are known, translating these into cellular functions remains challenging, largely due to the poor correlation between mRNA level and protein synthesis. Unlike most somatic cells, the oocyte can store mRNA for days, with transcriptional activity remaining at a halt during the 4-5 days beginning before ovulation and ending with embryonic genome activation. This review provides an overview of the transcriptomic data obtained from oocytes of different quality as well as interesting avenues to explore in order to improve our understanding of oocyte competence. PMID:24233546

  18. Bisphenol A Exposure during Oocyte Maturation in vitro Results in Spindle Abnormalities and Chromosome Misalignment in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in humans is widespread, and BPA has been detected in a variety of samples including follicular fluid. BPA levels have been found to negatively correlate with the developmental potential of oocytes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and to induce meiotic abnormalities experimentally in human and mouse models. BPA may detrimentally affect oocyte maturation, and different concentrations of exposure can cause various outcomes. Because of the importance of oocyte maturation on developmental potential, disturbances during this time can significantly impact oocyte viability. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment of the media. The levels of BPA taken up by the oocytes were much lower than the initial exposure. Medium treatment with 30 ng/ml resulted in an average of 2.48 ng/ml BPA measured in mature oocytes. These oocytes exhibited decreased maturation and increased incidence of spindle abnormalities. Only 57.4% of oocytes exposed to 30 ng/ml BPA reached maturity compared to 72.4% of controls (p < 0.05). Mature oocytes following BPA exposure displayed increased abnormal spindle morphology (67.9%) and chromosome dispersal (60%) compared to all other groups analyzed (p < 0.05). Thus, exposure to BPA during in vitro oocyte maturation has the potential to decrease oocyte quality. PMID:25871885

  19. Optimization of Cryoprotectant Loading into Murine and Human Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Jens O.M.; Szurek, Edyta A.; Higgins, Adam Z.; Lee, Sang R.; Eroglu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Loading of cryoprotectants into oocytes is an important step of the cryopreservation process, in which the cells are exposed to potentially damaging osmotic stresses and chemical toxicity. Thus, we investigated the use of physics-based mathematical optimization to guide design of cryoprotectant loading methods for mouse and human oocytes. We first examined loading of 1.5 M dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) into mouse oocytes at 23°C. Conventional one-step loading resulted in rates of fertilization (34%) and embryonic development (60%) that were significantly lower than those of untreated controls (95% and 94%, respectively). In contrast, the mathematically optimized two-step method yielded much higher rates of fertilization (85%) and development (87%). To examine the causes for oocyte damage, we performed experiments to separate the effects of cell shrinkage and Me2SO exposure time, revealing that neither shrinkage nor Me2SO exposure single-handedly impairs the fertilization and development rates. Thus, damage during one-step Me2SO addition appears to result from interactions between the effects of Me2SO toxicity and osmotic stress. We also investigated Me2SO loading into mouse oocytes at 30°C. At this temperature, fertilization rates were again lower after one-step loading (8%) in comparison to mathematically optimized two-step loading (86%) and untreated controls (96%). Furthermore, our computer algorithm generated an effective strategy for reducing Me2SO exposure time, using hypotonic diluents for cryoprotectant solutions. With this technique, 1.5 M Me2SO was successfully loaded in only 2.5 min, with 92% fertilizability. Based on these promising results, we propose new methods to load cryoprotectants into human oocytes, designed using our mathematical optimization approach. PMID:24246951

  20. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  1. Oocyte freezing: timely reproductive insurance?

    PubMed

    Molloy, David; Hall, Barbara A; Ilbery, Mariannne; Irving, Jacqui; Harrison, Keith L

    2009-03-01

    Cryopreservation of unfertilised oocytes for later use in initiating pregnancy is now a viable technology, with acceptable pregnancy rates (over 20% per thaw cycle). Oocyte cryopreservation used as a form of insurance against "social" (age-related) infertility can improve the lifetime chance of pregnancy in women who defer pregnancy into their late 30s or early 40s. We report two pregnancies using oocytes that were frozen for social rather than medical reasons, as part of a larger series of nine pregnancies using cryopreserved oocytes. Use of oocytes harvested and frozen from women aged under 35 years may more than double the chance of pregnancy for a 41-year-old woman. The disadvantages of oocyte freezing for social infertility reasons include cost, the usual risks associated with in-vitro fertilisation, and the lack of a guarantee of eventual pregnancy. PMID:19296788

  2. The crucial role of zona pellucida in cryopreservation of oocytes by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification. PMID:26297946

  3. Oocyte glycoproteins regulate the form and function of the follicle basal lamina and theca cells.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Alice P; Patel, Saloni H; Grasa, Patricia; Christian, Helen C; Williams, Suzannah A

    2015-05-15

    Maintaining follicle integrity during development, whereby each follicle is a functional unit containing a single oocyte, is essential for the generation of healthy oocytes. However, the mechanisms that regulate this critical function have not been determined. In this paper we investigate the role of the oocyte in maintaining follicle development. To investigate this role, we use a mouse model with oocyte-specific deletion of C1galt1 which is required for the generation of core 1-derived O-glycans. The loss of oocyte-generated O-glycans results in the joining of follicles and the generation of Multiple-Oocyte Follicles (MOFs). The aim was to determine how Mutant follicle development is modified thus enabling follicles to join. Extracellular matrix and follicle permeability were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). In ovaries containing Mutant Oocytes, the Follicle basal lamina (FBL) is altered both functionally and structurally from the primary stage onwards with Mutant follicles possessing unexpectedly thicker FBL. In Mutant ovaries, the theca cell layer is also modified with intermingling of theca between adjacent follicles. MOF function was analysed but despite increased numbers of preantral MOFs in Mutants, these do not reach the preovulatory stage after gonadotrophin stimulation. We propose a model describing how oocyte initiated changes in FBL and theca cells result in follicles joining. These data reveal new and important roles for the oocyte in follicle development and follicle integrity. PMID:25557622

  4. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  5. Oocyte-specific inactivation of Omcg1 leads to DNA damage and c-Abl/TAp63-dependent oocyte death associated with dramatic remodeling of ovarian somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandormael-Pournin, S; Guigon, C J; Ishaq, M; Coudouel, N; Avé, P; Huerre, M; Magre, S; Cohen-Tannoudji, J; Cohen-Tannoudji, M

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant loss of oocytes following cancer treatments or genetic mutations leads to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) associated with endocrine-related disorders in 1% of women. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing oocyte death is crucial for the preservation of female fertility. Here, we report the striking reproductive features of a novel mouse model of POI obtained through oocyte-specific inactivation (ocKO) of Omcg1/Zfp830 encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein involved in pre-mRNA processing. Genetic ablation of OMCG1 in early growing oocytes leads to reduced transcription, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and subsequent c-Abl/TAp63-dependent oocyte death, thus uncovering the key role of OMCG1 for oocyte genomic integrity. All adult Omcg1ocKO females displayed complete elimination of early growing oocytes and sterility. Unexpectedly, mutant females exhibited a normal onset of puberty and sexual receptivity. Detailed studies of Omcg1ocKO ovaries revealed that the ovarian somatic compartment underwent a dramatic structural and functional remodeling. This allowed the cooperation between oocyte-depleted follicles and interstitial tissue to produce estradiol. Moreover, despite early folliculogenesis arrest, mutant mice exhibited sexual cyclicity as shown by cyclical changes in estrogen secretion, vaginal epithelium cytology and genital tract weight. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the key role of Omcg1 for oocyte survival and highlight the contribution of p63 pathway in damaged oocyte elimination in adulthood. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that sexual cyclicity is tightly dependent upon the pace of folliculogenesis and luteal differentiation. PMID:25168238

  6. Developmental competence in oocytes and cumulus cells: candidate genes and networks.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Lynne C; Mehta, Jai; Lonergan, Patrick; Hensey, Carmel; Fair, Trudee

    2012-04-01

    Common aspects of infertility can be seen across several species. In humans, dairy cows, and mares there is only a 25-35% chance of producing a live offspring after a single insemination, whether natural or artificial. Oocyte quality and subsequent embryo development can be affected by factors such as nutrition, hormonal regulation, and environmental influence. The objective of this study was to identify genes expressed in oocytes and/or cumulus cells, across a diverse range of species, which may be linked to the ability an oocyte has to develop following fertilization. Performing a meta-analysis on previously published microarray data on various models of oocyte and embryo quality allowed for the identification of 56 candidate genes associated with oocyte quality across several species, 4 of which were identified in the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte. Twenty-one potential biomarkers were associated with increased competence and 35 potential biomarkers were associated with decreased competence. The upregulation of Metap2, and the decrease of multiple genes linked to mRNA and protein synthesis in models of competence, highlights the importance of de novo protein synthesis and its regulation for successful oocyte maturation and subsequent development. The negative regulation of Wnt signaling has emerged in human, monkey, bovine, and mouse models of oocyte competence. Atrx expression was linked to decreased competence in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Biological networks and transcription factor regulation associated with increased and decreased competence were also identified. These genes could potentially act as biomarkers of oocyte quality or as pharmacological targets for manipulation in order to improve oocyte developmental potential. PMID:22313243

  7. Expression of mammalian beta-adrenergic receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bahouth, S.W.; Malbon, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    Xenopus laevis oocytes are a useful transcription and expression system for DNA and RNA, respectively. Total cellular RNA was extracted from mouse lymphoma S49 cells and poly(A)/sup +/mRNA prepared by affinity chromatography of RNA on oligo(dT) cellulose. The membranes of S49 cells contain beta-adrenergic receptors that display pharmacological characteristics of beta/sub 2/-subtype. Xenopus laevis oocytes were injected with 50 ng of mRNA/oocyte. Expression of beta-adrenergic receptors in oocytes incubated for 30 hr after microinjection was assessed in membranes by radioligand binding using (/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol. The injected oocytes displayed 0.34 fmol receptor/oocyte as compared to 0.02 fmol receptor/oocyte in the control oocytes. The affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors in injected oocytes for this radioligand was 2 nM, a value similar to the affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors for DHA in S49 cell membranes. The potency of beta-adrenergic agonists in competing for DHA binding to oocytes membranes was isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepineprine, indicating that the expressed beta-adrenergic receptors were of the beta/sub 2/-subtype. The K/sub I/ of these agonists for the beta-adrenergic receptor in oocyte membranes was 0.03, 0.15 and 1.2 ..mu..M, respectively. The role of post-translational modification in dictating receptor subtype is analyzed using mRNA of beta/sub 1/- as well as beta/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors.

  8. RAD51 plays a crucial role in halting cell death program induced by ionizing radiation in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kujjo, Loro L; Ronningen, Reg; Ross, Pablo; Pereira, Ricardo J G; Rodriguez, Ramon; Beyhan, Zeki; Goissis, Marcelo D; Baumann, Thomas; Kagawa, Wataru; Camsari, Cagri; Smith, George W; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Cibelli, Jose B; Perez, Gloria I

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive health of humans and animals exposed to daily irradiants from solar/cosmic particles remains largely understudied. We evaluated the sensitivities of bovine and mouse oocytes to bombardment by krypton-78 (1 Gy) or ultraviolet B (UV-B; 100 microjoules). Mouse oocytes responded to irradiation by undergoing massive activation of caspases, rapid loss of energy without cytochrome-c release, and subsequent necrotic death. In contrast, bovine oocytes became positive for annexin-V, exhibited cytochrome-c release, and displayed mild activation of caspases and downstream DNAses but with the absence of a complete cell death program; therefore, cytoplasmic fragmentation was never observed. However, massive cytoplasmic fragmentation and increased DNA damage were induced experimentally by both inhibiting RAD51 and increasing caspase 3 activity before irradiation. Microinjection of recombinant human RAD51 prior to irradiation markedly decreased both cytoplasmic fragmentation and DNA damage in both bovine and mouse oocytes. RAD51 response to damaged DNA occurred faster in bovine oocytes than in mouse oocytes. Therefore, we conclude that upon exposure to irradiation, bovine oocytes create a physiologically indeterminate state of partial cell death, attributed to rapid induction of DNA repair and low activation of caspases. The persistence of these damaged cells may represent an adaptive mechanism with potential implications for livestock productivity and long-term health risks associated with human activity in space. PMID:22190703

  9. Transplantation directs oocyte maturation from embryonic stem cells and provides a therapeutic strategy for female infertility

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Cory R.; Haston, Kelly M.; Grewall, Amarjeet K.; Longacre, Teri A.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2009-01-01

    Ten to 15% of couples are infertile, with the most common causes being linked to the production of few or no oocytes or sperm. Yet, our understanding of human germ cell development is poor, at least in part due to the inaccessibility of early stages to genetic and developmental studies. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an in vitro system to study oocyte development and potentially treat female infertility. However, most studies of ESC differentiation to oocytes have not documented fundamental properties of endogenous development, making it difficult to determine the physiologic relevance of differentiated germ cells. Here, we sought to establish fundamental parameters of oocyte development during ESC differentiation to explore suitability for basic developmental genetic applications using the mouse as a model prior to translating to the human system. We demonstrate a timeline of definitive germ cell differentiation from ESCs in vitro that initially parallels endogenous oocyte development in vivo by single-cell expression profiling and analysis of functional milestones including responsiveness to defined maturation media, shared genetic requirement of Dazl, and entry into meiosis. However, ESC-derived oocyte maturation ultimately fails in vitro. To overcome this obstacle, we transplant ESC-derived oocytes into an ovarian niche to direct their functional maturation and, thereby, present rigorous evidence of oocyte physiologic relevance and a potential therapeutic strategy for infertility. PMID:19696121

  10. Reduced fertility and inability of oocytes to resume meiosis in mice deficient of the Lxr genes.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Knut R; Robertson, Kirsten; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2006-08-15

    Cholesterol precursors act as activators of the nuclear hormone receptor, liver X receptor (LXR). One of these LXR-activating ligands is meiosis activating sterol (MAS), which also induces resumption of meiosis in oocytes from mice in vitro. Whether LXR participates in the regulation of oocyte maturation and whether the expression of either one of the two paralogues of LXR (alpha and beta) affect fertility of mice has, however, not yet been clarified. Female mice lacking Lxra, Lxrb or both genes (Lxra(-/-), Lxrb(-/-) and Lxrab(-/-), respectively) conceive less frequently and have significantly fewer pups per litter as compared to wild type mice. Both Lxra and Lxrb mRNA were found to be expressed in mouse oocytes. The relative expression of, in particular, Lxrb was almost two orders of magnitude higher than in liver, brain and testis. A water-soluble LXR agonist caused naked oocytes, but not cumulus enclosed oocytes (CEO), from wild type mice to resume meiosis significantly more often than control oocytes. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a potent stimulator of meiosis in CEO from wild type mice, but was without effect in mice lacking both Lxr genes. Zymosterol, a MAS active substance, induced resumption of meiosis in oocytes from Lxrab(-/-) mice, but significantly less effectively than in oocytes from wild type mice. Taken together, LXRs seem to affect ovarian function, suggesting specific roles of cholesterol precursors in regulation of female reproduction. PMID:16895745

  11. Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tischer, Thomas; Santhanam, Balaji; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    During fertilization, an egg and a sperm fuse to form a new embryo. Eggs develop from oocytes in a process called meiosis. Meiosis in human oocytes is highly error-prone1,2, and defective eggs are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Down’s syndrome3-5. Which genes safeguard accurate progression through meiosis is largely unclear. Here, we developed high-content phenotypic screening methods for the systematic identification of mammalian meiotic genes. We targeted 774 genes by RNAi within follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes to block protein expression from an early stage of oocyte development onwards. We then analysed the function of several genes simultaneously by high-resolution imaging of chromosomes and microtubules in live oocytes and scored each oocyte quantitatively for 50 phenotypes, generating a comprehensive resource of meiotic gene function. The screen generated an unprecedented annotated dataset of meiotic progression in 2,241 mammalian oocytes, which allowed us to analyse systematically which defects are linked to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis, identifying progression into anaphase with misaligned chromosomes as well as defects in spindle organization as risk factors. This study demonstrates how high-content screens can be performed in oocytes, and now allows systematic studies of meiosis in mammals. PMID:26147080

  12. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  13. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  14. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species. PMID:10601982

  15. Comparative safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of several anti‐H5N1 influenza experimental vaccines in a mouse and chicken models (Testing of killed and live H5 vaccine)

    PubMed Central

    Gambaryan, Alexandra S.; Lomakina, Natalia F.; Boravleva, Elizaveta Y.; Kropotkina, Ekaterina A.; Mashin, Vadim V.; Krasilnikov, Igor V.; Klimov, Alexander I.; Rudenko, Larisa G.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Gambaryan et al. (2011) Comparative safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of several anti‐H5N1 influenza experimental vaccines in a mouse and chicken models. Parallel testing of killed and live H5 vaccine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), 188–195. Objective  Parallel testing of inactivated (split and whole virion) and live vaccine was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous and heterosubtypic challenge by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Method  Four experimental live vaccines based on two H5N1 influenza virus strains were tested; two of them had hemagglutinin (HA) of A/Vietnam/1203/04 strain lacking the polybasic HA cleavage site, and two others had hemagglutinins from attenuated H5N1 virus A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05, with amino acid substitutions of Asp54/Asn and Lys222/Thr in HA1 and Val48/Ile and Lys131/Thr in HA2 while maintaining the polybasic HA cleavage site. The neuraminidase and non‐glycoprotein genes of the experimental live vaccines were from H2N2 cold‐adapted master strain A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (VN‐Len and Ku‐Len) or from the apathogenic H6N2 virus A/Gull/Moscow/3100/2006 (VN‐Gull and Ku‐Gull). Inactivated H5N1 and H1N1 and live H1N1 vaccine were used for comparison. All vaccines were applied in a single dose. Safety, immunogenicity, and protectivity against the challenge with HPAI H5N1 virus A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05 were estimated. Results  All experimental live H5 vaccines tested were apathogenic as determined by weight loss and conferred more than 90% protection against lethal challenge with A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05 infection. Inactivated H1N1 vaccine in mice offered no protection against challenge with H5N1 virus, while live cold‐adapted H1N1 vaccine reduced the mortality near to zero level. Conclusions  The high yield, safety, and protectivity of VN‐Len and Ku‐Len made them promising strains for the production of inactivated and live

  16. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  17. Nanoliter droplet vitrification for oocyte cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Khimji, Imran; Shao, Lei; Safaee, Hooman; Desai, Khanjan; Keles, Hasan Onur; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M; Maas, Richard L; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Aim Oocyte cryopreservation remains largely experimental, with live birth rates of only 2–4% per thawed oocyte. In this study, we present a nanoliter droplet technology for oocyte vitrification. Materials & methods An ejector-based droplet vitrification system was designed to continuously cryopreserve oocytes in nanoliter droplets. Oocyte survival rates, morphologies and parthenogenetic development after each vitrification step were assessed in comparison with fresh oocytes. Results Oocytes were retrieved after cryoprotectant agent loading/unloading, and nanoliter droplet encapsulation showed comparable survival rates to fresh oocytes after 24 h in culture. Also, oocytes recovered after vitrification/thawing showed similar morphologies to those of fresh oocytes. Additionally, the rate of oocyte parthenogenetic activation after nanoliter droplet encapsulation was comparable with that observed for fresh oocytes. This nanoliter droplet technology enables the vitrification of oocytes at higher cooling and warming rates using lower cryoprotectant agent levels (i.e., 1.4 M ethylene glycol, 1.1 M dimethyl sulfoxide and 1 M sucrose), thus making it a potential technology to improve oocyte cryopreservation outcomes. PMID:22188180

  18. Acid ceramidase improves the quality of oocytes and embryos and the outcome of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Efrat; Shtraizent, Nataly; Martinuzzi, Kurt; Barritt, Jason; He, Xingxuan; Wei, Hong; Chaubal, Sanjeev; Copperman, Alan B; Schuchman, Edward H

    2010-04-01

    A major challenge of assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) is to mimic the natural environment required to sustain oocyte and embryo survival. Herein, we show that the ceramide-metabolizing enzyme, acid ceramidase (AC), is expressed in human cumulus cells and follicular fluid, essential components of this environment, and that the levels of this enzyme are positively correlated with the quality of human embryos formed in vitro. These observations led us to develop a new approach for oocyte and embryo culture that markedly improved the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The addition of recombinant AC (rAC) to human and mouse oocyte culture medium maintained their healthy morphology in vitro. Following fertilization, the number of mouse embryos formed in the presence of rAC also was improved (from approximately 40 to 88%), leading to approximately 5-fold more healthy births. To confirm these observations, immature bovine oocytes were matured in vitro and subjected to IVF in the presence of rAC. Significantly more high-grade blastocysts were formed, and the number of morphologically intact, hatched embryos was increased from approximately 24 to 70%. Overall, these data identify AC as an important component of the in vivo oocyte and embryo environment, and provide a novel technology for enhancing the outcome of assisted fertilization. Eliyahu, E., Shtraizent, N., Martinuzzi, K., Barritt, J., He, X., Wei, H., Chaubal, S., Copperman, A. B., Schuchman, E. H. Acid ceramidase improves the quality of oocytes and embryos and the outcome of in vitro fertilization. PMID:20007509

  19. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes. PMID:27096707

  20. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  1. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  2. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  3. Mos is not required for the initiation of meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dupré, Aude; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, René; Haccard, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    In Xenopus oocytes, the c-mos proto-oncogene product has been proposed to act downstream of progesterone to control the entry into meiosis I, the transition from meiosis I to meiosis II, which is characterized by the absence of S phase, and the metaphase II arrest seen prior to fertilization. Here, we report that inhibition of Mos synthesis by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides does not prevent the progesterone-induced initiation of Xenopus oocyte meiotic maturation, as previously thought. Mos-depleted oocytes complete meiosis I but fail to arrest at metaphase II, entering a series of embryonic-like cell cycles accompanied by oscillations of Cdc2 activity and DNA replication. We propose that the unique and conserved role of Mos is to prevent mitotic cell cycles of the female gamete until the fertilization in Xenopus, starfish and mouse oocytes. PMID:12145203

  4. Mos is not required for the initiation of meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Aude; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, René; Haccard, Olivier

    2002-08-01

    In Xenopus oocytes, the c-mos proto-oncogene product has been proposed to act downstream of progesterone to control the entry into meiosis I, the transition from meiosis I to meiosis II, which is characterized by the absence of S phase, and the metaphase II arrest seen prior to fertilization. Here, we report that inhibition of Mos synthesis by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides does not prevent the progesterone-induced initiation of Xenopus oocyte meiotic maturation, as previously thought. Mos-depleted oocytes complete meiosis I but fail to arrest at metaphase II, entering a series of embryonic-like cell cycles accompanied by oscillations of Cdc2 activity and DNA replication. We propose that the unique and conserved role of Mos is to prevent mitotic cell cycles of the female gamete until the fertilization in Xenopus, starfish and mouse oocytes. PMID:12145203

  5. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment in oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Głuszek, A. Agata; Cullen, C. Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A.; Radford, Sarah J.; Costa, Mariana F.; McKim, Kim S.; Goshima, Gohta

    2015-01-01

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  6. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Głuszek, A Agata; Cullen, C Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A; Radford, Sarah J; Costa, Mariana F; McKim, Kim S; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-21

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  7. The double-edged sword of the mammalian oocyte--advantages, drawbacks and approaches for basic and clinical analysis at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Brayboy, L M; Wessel, G M

    2016-03-01

    Oocytes are usually the largest cells in the body and as such offer unique opportunities for single-cell analysis. Unfortunately, these cells are also some of the rarest in the mammalian female, usually necessitating single-cell analysis. In cases of infertility in humans, determining the quality of the oocyte is often restricted to a morphological analysis or to the study of cellular behaviors in the developing embryo. Minimally invasive approaches could greatly assist the clinician to prioritize oocytes for fertilization or following fertilization, which embryo to transfer back into the woman. Transcriptomics of human and mouse oocytes may have great utility, and recently it was learned that the polar body faithfully reflects the transcript prevalence in the oocyte. The polar body may thus serve as a minimally invasive proxy for an oocyte in the clinic. In the mouse, the transcriptomes of oocytes from mice of the same strain are markedly similar; no significant differences are apparent in transcript prevalence or identity. In human oocytes however, the transcript pool is highly variable. This is likely the result of different histories of each oocyte, in the age of the donor woman, the different hormonal exposures and the prolonged time from specification of the primary oocyte to the fully grown and ovulated egg. This variability in human oocytes also emphasizes the need for cell-by-cell analysis of the oocytes in vitro; which oocytes have a better potential for fertilization and development? To this end, new imaging capabilities are being employed. For example, a single-cell analytical device for oocytes (the simple perfusion apparatus, or SPA) enables investigators to load multiple oocytes in individual wells, to visualize them on the microscope and to use controlled temperature and media flow by perfusion for optimal clinical applications. Recently, developed Raman microspectroscopy approaches suggest that this imaging modality may enable more in

  8. Inhibitory effect of new quinolones on GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and its potentiation with felbinac in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse-brain mRNA: correlation with convulsive potency in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, J; Yamamoto, K; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1997-08-01

    Convulsions induced by the interaction of new quinolone antimicrobial agents (NQs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were previously reported, and blockade of GABA(A) receptor by NQs and its potentiation with NSAIDs were considered as one of its possible mechanisms. However, useful methodology for prediction of convulsive potencies of NQs with or without NSAIDs in vivo based on in vitro screening was not established. Therefore, we applied the Xenopus oocytes translation system of exogenous messenger RNA (mRNA) to examine the mechanism of convulsion induced by interaction of NQs and NSAIDs, and the relationship between convulsive potencies in vivo and inhibitory effect on GABA-induced current response in vitro was investigated. This system also has alternative possibility for the in vivo toxicological studies sacrificing innumerous animals. Glutamic acid, kainic acid, quisqualic acid, NMDA, and serotonin-induced currents were not modified by ENX of NQs and/or FLB of NSAIDs, while glycine- and ACh-induced currents were slightly inhibited. GABA (10 microM)-induced current was inhibited by norfloxacin (NFLX), ciprofloxacin, ENX, and ofloxacin (OFLX) with IC50 of 17, 33, 58, and 280 microM, respectively. IC50 of NQs decreased to 1/3 (OFLX)-1/165 (NFLX) in the presence of 10 microM FLB, while FLB did not modulate the GABA response in the absence of NQs. CSF concentration of ENX at the time of convulsion in clinical situation approximated the IC50 of ENX for the GABA response. The increase of incidence for NQs-induced convulsion by concomitant NSAIDs in vivo could also be explained by the potentiation of inhibitory effects of NQs with FLB in the normal range of CSF concentration of these drugs. We also examined convulsive potency (threshold dose for convulsion) in CNS by intracerebral infusion of NQs to mice with or without FLB pretreatment, and significant correlations between the convulsive potencies and IC50 of NQs for the GABA response were observed

  9. Nucleoli from growing oocytes support the development of enucleolated full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the maternal nucleolus is essential for embryonic development. The morphology of the nucleolus in growing oocytes differs from that in full-grown oocytes. We determined the ability of nucleoli from growing oocytes to substitute for nucleoli of full-grown oocytes in terms of supporting embryonic development in this study. Growing (around 100 microm in diameter) and full-grown porcine oocytes (120 microm) were collected from small (0.6-1.0 mm) and large antral follicles (4-5 mm), respectively. The nucleolus was aspirated from full-grown oocytes by micromanipulation, and the resulting enucleolated oocytes were matured to metaphase II; the nucleoli originating from full-grown and growing oocytes were then injected into the oocytes. The Chromatin of growing oocytes was aspirated with the nucleolus during the enucleolation process. Growing oocytes were thus treated with actinomycin D to release the chromatin from their nucleoli, and the nucleoli were collected and transferred to the enucleolated and matured full-grown oocytes. After activation by electro-stimulation, nucleoli were formed in pronuclei of sham-operated oocytes. Enucleolated oocytes that had been injected with nucleoli from either full-grown or growing, however, did not form any nucleoli in the pronuclei. No enucleolated oocytes developed to blastocysts, whereas enucleolated oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes (15%) or growing oocytes (18%) developed to blastocysts. These results indicate that the nucleoli from growing oocytes can substitute for nucleoli from full-grown oocytes during early embryonic development. PMID:19908251

  10. Sperm-derived WW domain-binding protein, PAWP, elicits calcium oscillations and oocyte activation in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; Balakier, Hanna; Bashar, Siamak; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Sutovsky, Peter; Librach, Clifford L; Oko, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian zygotic development is initiated by sperm-mediated intracellular calcium oscillations, followed by activation of metaphase II-arrested oocytes. Sperm postacrosomal WW binding protein (PAWP) fulfils the criteria set for an oocyte-activating factor by inducing oocyte activation and being stored in the perinuclear theca, the sperm compartment whose content is first released into oocyte cytoplasm during fertilization. However, proof that PAWP initiates mammalian zygotic development relies on demonstration that it acts upstream of oocyte calcium oscillations. Here, we show that PAWP triggers calcium oscillations and pronuclear formation in human and mouse oocytes similar to what is observed during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Most important, sperm-induced calcium oscillations are blocked by coinjection of a competitive inhibitor, derived from the WWI domain-binding motif of PAWP, implying the requirement of sperm PAWP and an oocyte-derived WWI domain protein substrate of PAWP for successful fertilization. Sperm-delivered PAWP is, therefore, a unique protein with a nonredundant role during human and mouse fertilization, required to trigger zygotic development. Presented data confirm our previous findings in nonmammalian models and suggest potential applications of PAWP in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility.- PMID:24970390

  11. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-06-01

    The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte. PMID:14985245

  12. Children Who Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)

  13. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  14. Oocyte donation programs: strategy for improving results.

    PubMed

    Borini, Andrea; Suriano, Rosanna; Barberi, Marzia; Dal Prato, Luca; Bulletti, Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Oocyte donation is now a useful option for women who cannot start a spontaneous pregnancy for reasons related to advanced age, iatrogenic factors, early depletion of ovarian reserve, or genetic disorders. Embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, and pregnancy outcomes among women included in oocyte donation programs were shown to be comparable to those of spontaneous or in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. With oocyte freezing and cryobanks, recipients may have a successful response to oocyte donation, with no need to be on waiting lists, access to a larger number of oocytes from the same donor, and a lesser risk of infectious disease transmission. PMID:21401626

  15. Mammalian oocyte growth and development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eppig, J J; O'Brien, M; Wigglesworth, K

    1996-06-01

    This paper is a review of the current status of technology for mammalian oocyte growth and development in vitro. It compares and contrasts the characteristics of the various culture systems that have been devised for the culture of either isolated preantral follicles or the oocyte-granulosa cell complexes form preantral follicles. The advantages and disadvantages of these various systems are discussed. Endpoints for the evaluation of oocyte development in vitro, including oocyte maturation and embryogenesis, are described. Considerations for the improvement of the culture systems are also presented. These include discussions of the possible effects of apoptosis and inappropriate differentiation of oocyte-associated granulosa cells on oocyte development. Finally, the potential applications of the technology for oocyte growth and development in vitro are discussed. For example, studies of oocyte development in vitro could help to identify specific molecules produced during oocyte development that are essential for normal early embryogenesis and perhaps recognize defects leading to infertility or abnormalities in embryonic development. Moreover, the culture systems may provide the methods necessary to enlarge the populations of valuable agricultural, pharmaceutical product-producing, and endangered animals, and to rescue the oocytes of women about to undergo clinical procedures that place oocytes at risk. PMID:9115726

  16. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  17. Cold-induced changes in amphibian oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angelier, N.; Moreau, N.A.; N'Da, E.A.; Lautredou, N.F. )

    1989-08-01

    Female Pleurodeles waltl newts (Amphibia, urodele), usually raised at 20 degrees C, were submitted to low temperatures; oocytes responded to this cold stress by drastic changes both in lampbrush chromosome structure and in protein pattern. Preexisting lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes were reduced in size and number, while cold-induced loops which were tremendously developed, occurred on defined bivalents of the oocyte at constant, reproducible sites. A comparison of protein patterns in control and stressed oocytes showed two main differences: in stressed oocytes, overall protein synthesis was reduced, except for a set of polypeptides, the cold-stress proteins; second, there was a striking inversion of the relative amount of beta- and gamma-actin found in the oocyte nucleus before and after cold stress. Whereas beta-actin was the predominant form in control oocytes, gamma-actin became the major form in stressed oocytes.

  18. Relationship of a human oocyte scoring system to oocyte maturity and fertilizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, M M; Fleetham, J

    1990-01-01

    A simple, quick, and semiquantitative human oocyte scoring system is described. Oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes were spread, either by tilting the dish or by aspiration of the fluid, and examined under the dissecting microscope. A maximum of four points was assigned to each of the following: cumulus expansion, cumulus appearance, amount of cumulus, corona expansion, corona appearance, and oocyte appearance. The oocyte score was significantly correlated to two important physiological parameters of oocytes, nuclear maturity (P less than .02) and fertilization rate (P less than .0001). This oocyte scoring system is useful for selecting oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) or gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT), for training new laboratory personnel in recognizing the important characteristics of a mature oocyte, and in the standardized reporting of oocyte quality by different IVF-ET or GIFT programs. PMID:1977717

  19. Dynamic changes in histone modifications precede de novo DNA methylation in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathleen R; Veselovska, Lenka; Kim, Jeesun; Huang, Jiahao; Saadeh, Heba; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2015-12-01

    Erasure and subsequent reinstatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in nondividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and trimethylation (H3K4me3) in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylase KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-seq in oocytes and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events. PMID:26584620

  20. Dynamic changes in histone modifications precede de novo DNA methylation in oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kathleen R.; Veselovska, Lenka; Kim, Jeesun; Huang, Jiahao; Saadeh, Heba; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A.; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Erasure and subsequent reinstatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in nondividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and trimethylation (H3K4me3) in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylase KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-seq in oocytes and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events. PMID:26584620

  1. Driving folliculogenesis by the oocyte-somatic cell dialog: Lessons from genetic models.

    PubMed

    Monniaux, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    This review focuses on the role of the dialog between the oocyte and its companion somatic cells in driving folliculogenesis from the primordial to the preovulatory follicle stage. Mouse and sheep genetic models have brought complementary evidence of these cell interactions and their consequences for ovarian function. In mouse, the deletion of genes encoding connexins has shown that functional gap junction channels between oocytes and granulosa cells and between granulosa cells themselves maintain the follicle in a functionally integrated state. Targeted deletions in oocytes or granulosa cells have revealed the cell- and stage-specific role of ubiquist factors belonging to the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling pathway in primordial follicle activation, oocyte growth and follicle survival. Various models of transgenic mice and sheep carrying natural loss-of-function mutations associated with sterility have established that the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 orchestrate follicle development, support cumulus metabolism and maturation and participate in oocyte meiosis arrest. Unexpectedly in sheep, mutations resulting in the attenuation of BMP signaling lead to enhanced ovulation rate, likely resulting from a lowered follicular atresia rate and the enhancement of FSH-regulated follicular maturation. Both the activation level of BMP signaling and an adequate equilibrium between BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 determine follicle survival, maturation, and development toward ovulation. The physiological approaches which were implemented on genetic animal models during the last 20 years have opened up new perspectives for female fertility by identifying the main signaling pathways of the oocyte-somatic cell dialog. PMID:27155734

  2. Targeted Disruption of Nrg1 in Granulosa Cells Alters the Temporal Progression of Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Ikko; Umehara, Takashi; Noma, Noritaka; Kawai, Tomoko; Shitanaka, Manami

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is induced in granulosa cells by LH and acts on granulosa and cumulus cells during ovulation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of NRG1 in oocyte maturation by generating a granulosa cell–specific Nrg1 knockout mouse (Nrg1flox/flox;Cyp19a1Cre mice [gcNrg1KO]). In the gcNrg1KO mice, meiosis was induced 2 hours earlier than in control mice. More than 60% of the oocytes in the mutant mice spontaneously re-resumed meiosis beyond the MII stage. The percentage of successful fertilization was comparable in oocytes of both genotypes collected at 14 or 16 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection but was significantly lower in oocytes of the gcNrg1KO mice at 18 or 20 hours. The number of pups per litter was significantly decreased in gcNrg1KO mice. To determine the molecular events associated with the abnormal progression of meiosis in the gcNrg1KO mouse oocytes, the defects of cumulus/granulosa cell functions were analyzed. The expression of genes involved in luteinization and cumulus expansion was significantly higher at 2 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the gcNrg1KO mice; this was related to abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphorylation of connexin-43 in cumulus cells. Changes in connexin-43 by PKC might lead to early meiotic resumption of oocytes in gcNrg1KO mice. We conclude that NRG1 is induced by LH in mural granulosa cells and exerts an important regulatory role in oocyte meiotic maturation and competence by reducing PKC activation in cumulus cells and preventing premature progression to the MII stage that leads to abnormal fertilization and fertility. PMID:24650175

  3. How microglia kill neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. PMID:26341532

  4. DNase I and II present in avian oocytes: a possible involvement in sperm degradation at polyspermic fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stepińska, Urszula; Olszańska, Bozenna

    2003-02-01

    During polyspermic fertilisation in birds numerous spermatozoa enter the eggs, in contrast to the situation in mammals where fertilisation is monospermic. However, in birds only one of the spermatozoa which have entered an egg participates in zygote nucleus formation, while the supernumerary spermatozoa degenerate at early embryogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the presence in preovulatory quail oocytes of DNase I and II activities able to digest naked lambdaDNA/HindIII substrate in vitro. In the present studies, the activities of both DNases in quail oocytes at different stages of oogenesis and in ovulated mouse oocytes were assayed in vitro using the same substrate. Degradation of quail spermatozoa by quail oocyte extracts was also checked. Digestion of the DNA substrate was evaluated by electrophoresis on agarose gels. The activities of DNase I and II in quail oocytes increased during oogenesis and were the highest in mature oocytes. The activities were present not only in germinal discs but also in a thin layer of cytoplasm adhering to the perivitelline layer surrounding the yolk. At all stages of oogenesis the activity of DNase II was much higher than that of DNase I. DNA contained in spermatozoa was also degraded by the quail oocyte extracts under conditions optimal for both DNases. In contrast to what is observed in quail oocytes, no DNase activities were detected in ovulated mouse eggs; this is logical as they would be useless or even harmful in monospermic fertilisation. The possible role of DNase activities in avian oocytes, in degradation of accessory spermatozoa during polyspermic fertilisation, is discussed. PMID:12625527

  5. Comparison of Blastocyst and Sage Media for In Vitro Maturation of Human Immature Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pongsuthirak, Pallop; Songveeratham, Sorramon

    2015-01-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an attractive alternative to conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, as it involves no or minimal ovarian stimulation. Currently, commercialized media specifically designed for IVM are often used. These media are expensive, have limited shelf life, and must be ordered in advance. If standard culture media can be used in place of the specialized IVM media, it would simplify management and make IVM more feasible and more widely employed in ART centers around the world, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. This study was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that blastocyst medium was as good as commercial IVM medium to support maturation and developmental competence of human immature oocytes as previously shown in the mouse system. Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 89 pregnant women during cesarean deliveries between April 2012 and February 2013. Sibling oocytes were allocated to Sage IVM media (512 oocytes) or blastocyst medium (520 oocytes) and assessed for maturation 36 hours later. Mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured up to 144 hours. There was no difference in maturation rate (65.0% vs 68.7%; P = .218) or fertilization rate (66.9% vs 66.4%; P = .872) of oocytes matured in vitro in both media. There was also no difference in the formation of good-quality blastocysts (46.6% vs 45.9%; P = .889) in the 2 groups. Further study should be done to ascertain implantation and pregnancy potential of these embryos. PMID:25015901

  6. Production of Live Offspring from Vitrified-Warmed Oocytes Collected at Metaphase I Stage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Cheng, An-Sheng; Chang, Chia-Chun; Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Yang, Cho-Chen; Ding, Shih-Torng; Sung, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Vitrification of matured oocytes is widely adopted in human clinics and animal research laboratories. Cryopreservation of immature oocytes, particularly those at metaphase I (MI), remains a challenge. In the present work, mouse MI oocytes denuded of cumulus cells were vitrified and warmed (V/W) either prior to (V/W-BEFORE-IVM, n = 562) or after (V/W-AFTER-IVM, n = 664) in vitro maturation (IVM). Derivative metaphase II (MII) oocytes were then used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the control groups, in vivo matured MII oocytes were used freshly (FRESH-MII, n = 517) or after V/W (MII-V/W, n = 617). In vitro and in vivo developmental competencies were compared among groups. Satisfactory blastocyst rates were achieved in V/W-BEFORE-IVM (27.5%) and V/W-AFTER-IVM (32.4%) groups, albeit as expected still lower than those from fresh-MII (56.1%) or MII-V/W (45.6%) oocytes. Similarly, the term development rates from V/W-BEFORE-IVM and V/W-AFTER-IVM were 12.4% and 16.7% respectively, acceptable but lower than those of the fresh-MII (41.2%) and MII-V/W (23.3%) groups. These data demonstrate that oocytes collected at MI stage are amenable to V/W, which can be performed before or after IVM with acceptable development rates including production of healthy pups. These findings provide useful knowledge to researchers and clinical practitioners for preservation and use of the otherwise discarded MI oocytes. PMID:27333297

  7. Mouse zygotes with one diploid pronucleus formed as a result of ICSI can develop normally beyond birth.

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Anna; Tarkowski, Andrzej K

    2005-11-01

    A mouse spermatozoon was injected into mouse secondary oocytes (ICSI) in the vicinity of the metaphase spindle. In 22% of oocytes injected successfully, the maternal chromatin (the haploid chromatids formed after the second meiotic division) and paternal chromatin (from the sperm nucleus) were surrounded by a common nuclear envelope to form one diploid bi-parental pronucleus. However, the use of spermatozoa in which BrdU had been incorporated into DNA during spermatogenesis revealed, that maternal and paternal chromatin occupied two separate compartments within the one pronucleus. In the living state, the diploid pronucleus could be distinguished from a haploid one by its distinctly larger size and by a greater number of "nucleolus-like bodies"-criteria confirmed karylogically at the 1st cleavage division. Such zygotes with one diploid pronucleus were able to develop in vitro into blastocysts as often as those with two haploid pronuclei [11/29 (38%) vs. 14/35 (40%)]. Seventy nine 2-cell embryos developing in vitro from zygotes with one diploid pronucleus were transplanted to the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipients: two females had six foetuses when killed on the 17th day, and two females gave birth to nine young, eight of which survived and developed into normal fertile animals. PMID:16047392

  8. Spindle Dynamics during Meiosis in Drosophila Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Endow, Sharyn A.; Komma, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    Mature oocytes of Drosophila are arrested in metaphase of meiosis I. Upon activation by ovulation or fertilization, oocytes undergo a series of rapid changes that have not been directly visualized previously. We report here the use of the Nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd) microtubule motor protein fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to monitor changes in the meiotic spindle of live oocytes after activation in vitro. Meiotic spindles of metaphase-arrested oocytes are relatively stable, however, meiotic spindles of in vitro–activated oocytes are highly dynamic: the spindles elongate, rotate around their long axis, and undergo an acute pivoting movement to reorient perpendicular to the oocyte surface. Many oocytes spontaneously complete the meiotic divisions, permitting visualization of progression from meiosis I to II. The movements of the spindle after oocyte activation provide new information about the dynamic changes in the spindle that occur upon re-entry into meiosis and completion of the meiotic divisions. Spindles in live oocytes mutant for a lossof-function ncd allele fused to gfp were also imaged. The genesis of spindle defects in the live mutant oocytes provides new insights into the mechanism of Ncd function in the spindle during the meiotic divisions. PMID:9182665

  9. [Controversy in ART: should we cryopreserve oocytes or embryos? Do prefer oocytes].

    PubMed

    Boyer, P

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of IVF, cryopreservation concern spermatozoa or embryos due to the poor efficiency of oocyte freezing. To date, oocyte vitrification allows changing our practice privileging female gamete vitrification instead of human embryo freezing. PMID:25153440

  10. [New possibilities resulting from oocyte banking].

    PubMed

    Revel, Ariel; Revel, Michel; Laufer, Neri; Kasher, Asa

    2011-06-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation solves the legal and ethical problems associated with the cryopreservation of embryos in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures. Furthermore, it may also offer the possibility of extending the reproductive capability of young women with malignant diseases in cases where the treatment may compromise the ovarian reserve. Moreover, it may also offer alternatives for infertile patients who are subject to ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome or premature ovarian faiLure or who require oocyte donation. The creation of banks for cryopreserved oocytes avoids the need for cycle synchronization or the formation of an over-supply of embryos destined for cryopreservation. If a Large number of oocytes is obtained it could possibly enable women and couples the opportunity to postpone childbirth according to their wishes. This paper reviews the revolution obtained by oocyte vitrification, reports on ethical issues and discusses the pros and cons of oocyte banking and its potential effects on society. PMID:21800492

  11. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  12. Distinct subtypes of zona pellucida morphology reflect canine oocyte viability and cumulus-oocyte complex quality.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Matthew O; Wright, Shirley J

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze surface morphology of the zona pellucida (ZP) and assess its relationship with oocyte viability, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) quality, and oocyte donor age in dogs. Canine ovaries were sliced to release COCs for use in three experiments. In Experiment 1, oocytes from high-quality (grade I) COCs were viewed with scanning electron microscopy to visualize the zona surface. Four zonae, classified as types I, II, III, and IV, were detectable on high-quality oocytes. Most (95.5%) dog donors had oocytes with two or three ZP types. The ZP type I had a smooth compact surface with few pores. The ZP type II was less compact with many distinct circular or elliptical pores. The ZP type III had a rough surface with folds and many irregular shaped pores and hollows. The ZP type IV also had a rough surface with folds, but in addition, stringy filaments obscured the pores and hollows. The frequency of ZP type I in the oocyte population was low (2.7%), whereas ZP types II, III, and IV each occurred in approximately one-third of the oocyte population. In Experiment 2, oocytes from high-quality COCs were stained with propidium iodide (PI) before scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship of oocyte viability with ZP morphology. In Experiment 3, oocytes were collected from low-quality (grade 2) and high-quality (grade 1) COCs to investigate the role of COC quality on zona structure. Zonae types I and II were characteristic of PI-positive (dead) oocytes and oocytes from low-quality COCs, whereas ZP types III and IV were prevalent on PI-negative (living) oocytes and oocytes from high-quality COCs. We concluded that the heterogeneous ZP surface underwent structural rearrangements related to oocyte viability and COC quality. This warrants further investigation into ZP structure and may be useful for canine-assisted reproduction. PMID:23790239

  13. 5-Azacytidine induces early stage apoptosis and promotes in vitro maturation by changing chromosomal construction in murine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F Y; Shao, C P; Li, Y; Ma, W Y; Tian, N; Zheng, J H

    2013-06-01

    As an anticancer drug, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) has been widely used to treat various cancers. To investigate the effect of 5-AzaC on mouse oocytes cultured in vitro, we have performed morphological and molecular biology studies to examine the behavior of chromosomes and oocyte development. In 5-AzaC-treated oocytes, chromosomes were decondensed and unstable. The mRNA levels of Caspase3, Caspase8, and Caspase9 increased with the occurrence of early stage apoptosis in oocytes following 5-AzaC treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gdf9 and Bmp15 also increased with the corresponding morphological changes in 5-AzaC-treated oocytes. In conclusion, 5-AzaC not only induced early apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, but also had a positive effect on the developmental competence of mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. These effects may be due to changes in chromosomal construction induced by DNA hypomethylation. PMID:23395740

  14. Vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Parnpai, Rangsun; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Somfai, Tamas; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    During the past decade, vitrification has been acknowledged as an efficient alternative to traditional slow-rate freezing in both human and animal embryology. The buffalo is the major milk and meat producing farm animal in many developing countries. Cryopreservation of buffalo oocytes and embryos is very important in preserving this species for future use. This review discusses the recent buffalo oocytes and embryos vitrification procedures, different types of cryoinjuries, and other factors affecting the vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos. PMID:27160442

  15. mTORC1 Signaling in Oocytes Is Dispensable for the Survival of Primordial Follicles and for Female Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Gorre, Nagaraju; Adhikari, Deepak; Lindkvist, Rebecca; Brännström, Mats; Liu, Kui; Shen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive aging and menopausal age in female mammals are poorly understood. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central controller of cell growth and proliferation. To determine whether mTORC1 signaling in oocytes plays a direct role in physiological follicular development and fertility in female mice, we conditionally deleted the specific and essential mTORC1 component Rptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTORC1) from the oocytes of primordial follicles by using transgenic mice expressing growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf-9) promoter-mediated Cre recombinase. We provide in vivo evidence that deletion of Rptor in the oocytes of both primordial and further-developed follicles leads to the loss of mTORC1 signaling in oocytes as indicated by loss of phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4e-bp1 at T389 and S65, respectively. However, the follicular development and fertility of mice lacking Rptor in oocytes were not affected. Mechanistically, the loss of mTORC1 signaling in Rptor-deleted mouse oocytes led to the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling that maintained normal follicular development and fertility. Therefore, this study shows that loss of mTORC1 signaling in oocytes triggers a compensatory activation of the PI3K signaling cascade that maintains normal ovarian follicular development and fertility. PMID:25338086

  16. Fourier analysis of mitochondrial distribution in oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, Joseph L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Newmark, Judith A.; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to quantifying mitochondrial patterns which are typically described using the qualitative terms "diffuse" "aggregated" and are potentially key indicators for an oocyte's health and survival potential post-implantation. An oocyte was isolated in a confocal image and a coarse grid was superimposed upon it. The spatial spectrum was calculated and an aggregation factor was generated. A classifier for healthy cells was developed and verified. The aggregation factor showed a clear distinction between the healthy and unhealthy oocytes. The ultimate goal is to screen oocytes for viability preimplantation, thus improving the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.

  17. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the potomac river and selected nearby drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Smith, D.R.; Young, J.A.; Hedrick, J.D.; Foster, S.W.; Reeser, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages.

    PubMed

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Iwanowicz, D D; Smith, D R; Young, J A; Hedrick, J D; Foster, S W; Reeser, S J

    2007-12-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity. PMID:18333481

  19. The role of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, on oocyte maturation and subsequent pregnancy in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yu, Yang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Zhao, Yue; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Hsueh, Aaron J; Qiao, Jie

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify effective contraceptive drugs that cause minimal disruption to physiological processes. Phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitors suppress meiosis in oocytes by decreasing the level of cAMP and blocking the extrusion of the first polar body. In this study, we tested the PDE3 inhibitor, cilostazol, as a potential contraceptive agent. The effects of cilostazol treatment in vitro and in vivo on the suppression of oocyte maturation in a mouse model were investigated. The results indicated that treatment with increasing concentrations of cilostazol led to a dose-dependent arrest in meiosis progression. The effective in vitro concentration was 1 µM and was 300 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of cilostazol was reversible. After removal of the drug, meiosis resumed and mouse oocytes matured in vitro, and showed normal chromosome alignment and spindle organization. After fertilization using an ICSI method, the oocytes showed normal morphology, fertilization rate, embryo cleavage, blastocyst formation, and number of viable pups when compared with controls. The offspring showed similar body weight and fertility. In vivo, the mice became infertile if the drug was injected sequentially, and became pregnant following discontinuation of cilostazol. More importantly, no side effects of cilostazol were observed in treated female mice as demonstrated by blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. It is concluded that cilostazol, a drug routinely used for intermittent claudication, can effectively inhibit oocyte maturation in vitro and in vivo, does not affect the developmental potential of oocytes following drug removal and has few side effects in female mice treated with this drug. These findings suggest that cilostazol may be a potential new contraceptive agent that may facilitate an efficacy and safety study of this drug. PMID:22292006

  20. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  1. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  2. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  3. Effect of aspiration pressure during oocyte harvesting on oocyte recovery and in vitro development of ovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G

    2008-02-01

    Oocytes from abattoir-sourced ovine ovaries were aspirated from 2- to 4-mm follicles using 25, 50 or 100 mmHg pressure and an aspiration pump, or a needle (20-G) and syringe (2.5 ml) and subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to determine the effect of aspiration pressure on the number and quality of oocytes recovered, and early embryonic development. Oocyte recovery rate was similar between groups (range: 57.1-73.1%; p > 0.05). The number and percentage of grade I and II oocytes recovered was reduced for 100 mm (24.5 +/- 3.6 and 31.1 +/- 6.1%) compared with 25 mm (51.4 +/- 7.0 and 60.2 +/- 7.8%) and 50 mm pressure (40.8 +/- 5.6 and 50.3 +/- 4.4%) and a syringe (40.3 +/- 12.0 and 45.2 +/- 2.1%; p < 0.05). Oocyte cleavage was similar for all groups at 24 (range: 30.9-49.6%) and 48 h post-insemination (49.7-65.5%), but blastocyst formation (% cleaved oocytes) was lower for oocytes aspirated with 25 mm (37.8%) than 50 (69.2%) or 100 mm (67.2%) pressure, and a syringe (72.0%; p < 0.05). Embryo production efficiency (% of oocytes cultured developing to the blastocyst stage) was higher for oocytes aspirated with 50 mm (45.4%) and 100 mm pressure (43.8%) and a syringe (45.0%) than 25 mm pressure (18.8%; p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the aspiration of ovine oocytes with an aspiration pressure of 50 mm, or aspiration with a needle and syringe are equally efficacious for the in vitro production of embryos. PMID:18199266

  4. Simple Perfusion Apparatus (SPA) for Manipulation, Tracking and Study of Oocytes and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Angione, Stephanie L.; Oulhen, Nathalie; Brayboy, Lynae M.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a device and protocol for oocyte analysis at a single cell level. The device must be capable of high resolution imaging, temperature control, perfusion of media, drugs, sperm, and immunolabeling reagents all at defined flow-rates. Each oocyte and resultant embryo must remain spatially separated and defined. Design Experimental laboratory study Setting University and Academic Center for reproductive medicine. Patients/Animals Women with eggs retrieved for ICSI cycles, adult female FVBN and B6C3F1 mouse strains, sea stars. Intervention Real-time, longitudinal imaging of oocytes following fluorescent labeling, insemination, and viability tests. Main outcome measure(s) Cell and embryo viability, immunolabeling efficiency, live cell endocytosis quantitation, precise metrics of fertilization and embryonic development. Results Single oocytes were longitudinally imaged following significant changes in media, markers, endocytosis quantitation, and development, all with supreme control by microfluidics. Cells remained viable, enclosed, and separate for precision measurements, repeatability, and imaging. Conclusions We engineered a simple device to load, visualize, experiment, and effectively record individual oocytes and embryos, without loss of cells. Prolonged incubation capabilities provide longitudinal studies without need for transfer and potential loss of cells. This simple perfusion apparatus (SPA) provides for careful, precise, and flexible handling of precious samples facilitating clinical in vitro fertilization approaches. PMID:25450296

  5. Differential contributions of connexin37 and connexin43 to oogenesis revealed in chimeric reaggregated mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Gittens, Joanne E I; Kidder, Gerald M

    2005-11-01

    The gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin43 are required for ovarian folliculogenesis in the mouse. To define their respective roles in oogenesis, chimeric ovaries containing either null mutant oocytes and wild-type granulosa cells or the reverse combination were grafted to the renal capsules of immunodeficient female mice. After three weeks, the oocytes were tested for meiotic competence and fertilizability in vitro. Ovaries composed of connexin43-deficient oocytes and wild-type granulosa cells produced antral follicles enclosing oocytes that could develop to at least the two-cell stage, demonstrating that oocytes need not express connexin43 to reach maturity. Conversely, both follicle development and oocyte maturation were impaired in ovaries containing either wild-type oocytes and connexin43-deficient granulosa cells or connexin37-deficient oocytes and wild-type granulosa cells. Thus absence of connexin43 from granulosa cells or connexin37 from oocytes is sufficient to compromise both oocyte and follicle development. Wild-type oocytes paired with connexin37-deficient granulosa cells generated antral follicles containing oocytes that developed to at least the two-cell stage. Therefore, connexin37 absence from granulosa cells need not impair fertility in mice. Dye transfer experiments revealed persistent oocyte-granulosa cell coupling in those follicles, indicating functional compensation by another connexin. The results indicate that mouse oocytes do not need to express connexin43 in order to develop into meiotically competent, fertilizable gametes, but must express connexin37 for communication with granulosa cells, a requirement for oogenesis. PMID:16254245

  6. Control of Oocyte Reawakening by Kit.

    PubMed

    Saatcioglu, Hatice Duygu; Cuevas, Ileana; Castrillon, Diego H

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, females are born with finite numbers of oocytes stockpiled as primordial follicles. Oocytes are "reawakened" via an ovarian-intrinsic process that initiates their growth. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3 controls reawakening downstream of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the identity of the presumptive upstream cell surface receptor controlling the PI3K-AKT-Foxo3 axis has been questioned. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit controls reawakening. Oocyte-specific expression of a novel constitutively-active KitD818V allele resulted in female sterility and ovarian failure due to global oocyte reawakening. To confirm this result, we engineered a novel loss-of-function allele, KitL. Kit inactivation within oocytes also led to premature ovarian failure, albeit via a contrasting phenotype. Despite normal initial complements of primordial follicles, oocytes remained dormant with arrested oocyte maturation. Foxo3 protein localization in the nucleus versus cytoplasm explained both mutant phenotypes. These genetic studies provide formal genetic proof that Kit controls oocyte reawakening, focusing future investigations into the causes of primary ovarian insufficiency and ovarian aging. PMID:27500836

  7. DNA damage responses in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Josie K; Jones, Keith T

    2016-07-01

    DNA damage acquired during meiosis can lead to infertility and miscarriage. Hence, it should be important for an oocyte to be able to detect and respond to such events in order to make a healthy egg. Here, the strategies taken by oocytes during their stages of growth to respond to DNA damaging events are reviewed. In particular, recent evidence of a novel pathway in fully grown oocytes helps prevent the formation of mature eggs with DNA damage. It has been found that fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes that have been DNA damaged do not arrest at this point in meiosis, but instead undergo meiotic resumption and stall during the first meiotic division. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, which is a well-known mitotic pathway employed by somatic cells to monitor chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules, appears to be utilised by oocytes also to respond to DNA damage. As such maturing oocytes are arrested at metaphase I due to an active Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. This is surprising given this checkpoint has been previously studied in oocytes and considered to be weak and ineffectual because of its poor ability to be activated in response to microtubule attachment errors. Therefore, the involvement of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in DNA damage responses of mature oocytes during meiosis I uncovers a novel second function for this ubiquitous cellular checkpoint. PMID:27069010

  8. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals. PMID:25958165

  9. Control of Oocyte Reawakening by Kit

    PubMed Central

    Castrillon, Diego H.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, females are born with finite numbers of oocytes stockpiled as primordial follicles. Oocytes are “reawakened” via an ovarian-intrinsic process that initiates their growth. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3 controls reawakening downstream of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the identity of the presumptive upstream cell surface receptor controlling the PI3K-AKT-Foxo3 axis has been questioned. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit controls reawakening. Oocyte-specific expression of a novel constitutively-active KitD818V allele resulted in female sterility and ovarian failure due to global oocyte reawakening. To confirm this result, we engineered a novel loss-of-function allele, KitL. Kit inactivation within oocytes also led to premature ovarian failure, albeit via a contrasting phenotype. Despite normal initial complements of primordial follicles, oocytes remained dormant with arrested oocyte maturation. Foxo3 protein localization in the nucleus versus cytoplasm explained both mutant phenotypes. These genetic studies provide formal genetic proof that Kit controls oocyte reawakening, focusing future investigations into the causes of primary ovarian insufficiency and ovarian aging. PMID:27500836

  10. Cep55 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression in meiotic oocyte.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Yang; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Guo, Lei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Cep55 is a relatively novel member of the centrosomal protein family. Here, we show that Cep55 is expressed in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages. Immuostaining and confocal microscopy as well as time lapse live imaging after injection of mRNA encoding fusion protein of Cep55 and GFP identified that Cep55 was localized to the meiotic spindle, especially to the spindle poles at metaphase, while it was concentrated at the midbody in telophase in meiotic oocytes. Knockdown of Cep55 by specific siRNA injection caused the dissociation of γ-tubulin from the spindle poles, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes, leading to metaphase I arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Correspondingly, cyclin B accumulation and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation were observed in Cep55 knockdown oocytes. Our results suggest that Cep55 may act as an MTOC-associated protein regulating spindle organization, and thus cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:26582107

  11. Cep55 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression in meiotic oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhao-Yang; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Guo, Lei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Cep55 is a relatively novel member of the centrosomal protein family. Here, we show that Cep55 is expressed in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages. Immuostaining and confocal microscopy as well as time lapse live imaging after injection of mRNA encoding fusion protein of Cep55 and GFP identified that Cep55 was localized to the meiotic spindle, especially to the spindle poles at metaphase, while it was concentrated at the midbody in telophase in meiotic oocytes. Knockdown of Cep55 by specific siRNA injection caused the dissociation of γ-tubulin from the spindle poles, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes, leading to metaphase I arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Correspondingly, cyclin B accumulation and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation were observed in Cep55 knockdown oocytes. Our results suggest that Cep55 may act as an MTOC-associated protein regulating spindle organization, and thus cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:26582107

  12. Ran GTPase promotes oocyte polarization by regulating ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin) inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Dehapiot, Benoit; Halet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric meiotic divisions in mammalian oocytes are driven by the eccentric positioning of the spindle, along with a dramatic reorganization of the overlying cortex, including a loss of microvilli and formation of a thick actin cap. Actin polarization relies on a Ran-GTP gradient centered on metaphase chromosomes; however, the downstream signaling cascade is not completely understood. In a recent study, we have shown that Ran promotes actin cap formation via the polarized activation of Cdc42. The related GTPase Rac is also activated in a polarized fashion in the oocyte cortex and co-localizes with active Cdc42. In other cells, microvilli collapse can be triggered by inactivation of the ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin) family of actin-membrane crosslinkers under the control of Rac. Accordingly, we show here that Ran-GTP promotes a substantial loss of phosphorylated ERMs in the cortex overlying the spindle in mouse oocytes. However, this polarized phospho-ERM exclusion zone was unaffected by Rac or Cdc42 inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that Ran activates two distinct pathways to regulate actin cap formation and microvilli disassembly in the polarized cortex of mouse oocytes. The possibility of a crosstalk between Rho GTPase and ERM signaling and a role for ERM inactivation in promoting cortical actin dynamics are also discussed. PMID:23656777

  13. Oocyte donation: particular technical and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Englert, Y; Govaerts, I

    1998-05-01

    This paper analyses the reasons that oocyte and sperm donation are experienced very differently by couples, despite their apparent similarity, and stresses the impact of the difficulties on donor recruitment in all oocyte donation programmes. The various types of donors (occasional, relational, in-vitro fertilization patient and professional) are described together with their motivations, resistance, advantages and disadvantages. The contradictory consequences with free or paid donation, the particular risks of oocyte donation (in comparison with sperm donation) both for the donor and for the recipient are highlighted. The problem of maintaining anonymity is then analysed in ethical terms but also in terms of technical efficacy. A strategy is described which, due to the decision of retaining anonymity, authorizes the sharing of oocytes between recipients. This has as a consequence, an increase in treatment efficacy by avoiding wastage of oocytes offered as a donation. PMID:9665329

  14. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  15. Psychological Stress on Female Mice Diminishes the Developmental Potential of Oocytes: A Study Using the Predatory Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Xiang; Cheng, Ya-Nan; Miao, Yi-Long; Wei, De-Li; Zhao, Li-Hua; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2012-01-01

    Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation. PMID:23118931

  16. Oocyte maturation and fertilization in marine nemertean worms: using similar sorts of signaling pathways as in mammals, but often with differing results.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Stephen A; Cline, Cory; Goodrich, David

    2013-08-01

    In marine worms belonging to the phylum Nemertea, oocyte maturation and fertilization are regulated by the same general kinds of signals that control such processes in mammals. However, unlike mammalian oocytes that develop within follicles, nemertean oocytes characteristically lack a surrounding sheath of follicle cells and often respond differently to maturation-related cues than do mammalian oocytes. For example, elevators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels promote the resumption of meiotic maturation (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in nemertean oocytes, whereas increasing intraoocytic cAMP and cGMP typically blocks GVBD in mammals. Similarly, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling keeps nemertean oocytes from maturing, but in mouse oocytes, AMPK activation triggers GVBD. In addition, protein kinase C (PKC) activity is required for seawater-induced GVBD in nemerteans, whereas some PKCs have been shown to inhibit GVBD in mammals. Furthermore, although fertilization causes both types of oocytes to reorganize their endoplasmic reticulum and generate calcium oscillations that can involve soluble sperm factor activity and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling, some discrepancies in the spatiotemporal patterns and underlying mechanisms of fertilization are also evident in nemerteans versus mammals. Thus, to characterize differences and similarities in gamete biology more fully, aspects of oocyte maturation and fertilization in marine nemertean worms are reviewed and briefly compared with related findings that have been published for mammalian oocytes. In addition, possible causes of the alternative responses displayed by oocytes in these two animal groups are addressed. PMID:23995739

  17. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  18. Diffused Intra-Oocyte Hydrogen Peroxide Activates Myeloperoxidase and Deteriorates Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sana N.; Shaeib, Faten; Najafi, Tohid; Kavdia, Mahendra; Gonik, Bernard; Saed, Ghassan M.; Goud, Pravin T.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relatively long-lived signaling molecule that plays an essential role in oocyte maturation, implantation, as well as early embryonic development. Exposure to relatively high levels of H2O2 functions efficiently to accelerate oocyte aging and deteriorate oocyte quality. However, little precise information exists regarding intra-oocyte H2O2 concentrations, and its diffusion to the oocyte milieu. In this work, we utilized an L-shaped amperometric integrated H2O2-selective probe to directly and quantitatively measure the real-time intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration. This investigation provides an exact measurement of H2O2 in situ by reducing the possible loss of H2O2 caused by diffusion or reactivity with other biological systems. This experiment suggests that the intra-oocyte H2O2 levels of oocytes obtained from young animals are reasonably high and remained constant during the procedure measurements. However, the intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration dropped significantly (40-50% reduction) in response to catalase pre-incubation, suggesting that the measurements are truly H2O2 based. To further confirm the extracellular diffusion of H2O2, oocytes were incubated with myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the diffused H2O2 triggered MPO chlorinating activity. Our results show that the generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) facilitated the deterioration in oocyte quality, a process that could be prevented by pre-incubating the oocytes with melatonin, which was experimentally proven to be oxidized utilizing HPLC methods. This study is the first to demonstrate direct quantitative measurement of intracellular H2O2, and its extracellular diffusion and activation of MPO as well as its impact on oocyte quality. These results may help in designing more accurate treatment plans in assisted reproduction under inflammatory conditions. PMID:26197395

  19. Extra- and intra-cellular ice formation in Stage I and II Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Guenther, James F; Seki, Shinsuke; Kleinhans, F W; Edashige, Keisuke; Roberts, Daniel M; Mazur, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We are currently investigating factors that influence intracellular ice formation (IIF) in mouse oocytes and oocytes of the frog Xenopus. A major reason for choosing these two species is that while their eggs normally do not possess aquaporin channels in their plasma membranes, these channels can be made to express. We wish to see whether IIF is affected by the presence of these channels. The present Xenopus study deals with control eggs not expressing aquaporins. The main factor studied has been the effect of a cryoprotective agent [ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol] and its concentration. The general procedure was to (a) cool the oocytes on a cryostage to slightly below the temperatures at which extracellular ice formation occurs, (b) warm them to just below the melting point, and (c) then re-cool them to -50 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. In the majority of cases, IIF occurs well into step (c), but a sizeable minority undergo IIF in steps (a) or (b). The former group we refer to as low-temperature flashers; the latter as high-temperature flashers. IIF is manifested as abrupt blackening of the egg, which we refer to as "flashing." Observations on the Linkam cryostage are restricted to Stage I and II oocytes, which have diameters of 200 300 microm. In the absence of a cryoprotective agent, that is in frog Ringers, the mean flash temperature for the low-temperature freezers is -11.4 degrees C, although a sizeable percentage flash at temperatures much closer to that of the EIF (-3.9 degrees C). When EG is present, the flash temperature for the low-temperatures freezers drops significantly to approximately -20 degrees C for EG concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The presence of 1.5 M glycerol also substantially reduces the IIF temperature of the low-temperature freezers; namely, to -29 degrees C, but 0.5 and 1 M glycerol exert little or no effect. The IIF temperatures observed using the Linkam cryostage agree well with those estimated by calorimetry [F

  20. Functional disparity between human PAWP and PLCζ in the generation of Ca2+ oscillations for oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Sanders, Jessica R; Kashir, Junaid; Sanusi, Randa; Buntwal, Luke; Love, Daniel; Ashley, Peter; Sanders, David; Knaggs, Paul; Bunkheila, Adnan; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian oocyte activation is mediated by cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations initiated upon delivery of a putative 'sperm factor' by the fertilizing sperm. Previous studies suggest the identity of this sperm factor as the testis-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ). Recently, a post-acrosomal sheath WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) has been proposed as an alternative sperm factor candidate, following a report that human PAWP protein and cRNA elicited Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse and human oocytes. Those Ca(2+) oscillations were inhibited by a PAWP-derived peptide corresponding to a functional PPGY binding motif. Herein, using a series of human PAWP expression constructs, we demonstrate that both human PAWP protein and cRNA are, in our experiments, unable to elicit Ca(2+) release following microinjection into mouse oocytes. Parallel experiments performed with human PLCζ elicited the characteristic Ca(2+) oscillations present at mammalian fertilization, which produced oocyte activation and embryo development. Furthermore, sperm-induced Ca(2+) oscillations were not inhibited by the PAWP-derived PPGY peptide following in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Thus, the functional disparity with PLCζ leads us to conclude that human PAWP is neither sufficient nor necessary for the Ca(2+) oscillations that initiate mammalian oocyte activation at fertilization. PMID:26116451

  1. Aquaporin7 plays a crucial role in tolerance to hyperosmotic stress and in the survival of oocytes during cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Ding, Guo-Lian; Li, Rong; Wang, Li; Jin, Li; Lin, Xian-Hua; Gao, Ling; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress may induce apoptosis of different cells. However, oocytes show tolerance to osmotic stress during cryopreservation by vitrification, which is an assisted reproductive technique. The underlying mechanism is still not understood. Here, we demonstrated that hyperosmosis produced by high concentrations of cryoprotectants, including DMSO, ethylene glycol and sucrose, significantly upregulated the protein levels of aquaporin (AQP) 7, but not AQP3 and AQP9, in mouse oocytes. Knockdown of AQP7 expression by siRNA-injection significantly reduced the survival of oocytes after vitrification. In oocytes, AQP7 was shown to bind with F-actin, a protein involved in almost all biological events. Moreover, we found that hyperosmosis could upregulate the phosphorylation levels of CPE-binding protein (CPEB) and Aurora A. Inhibition of the PI3K and PKC pathways blocked the hyperosmosis-induced upregulation of AQP7 and the phosphorylation of CPEB and Aurora A in oocytes. In conclusion, hyperosmosis could upregulate the expression of AQP7 via Aurora A/CPEB phosphorylation mediated by the PI3K and PKC pathways, and upregulation of AQP7 plays an important role in improving of tolerance to hyperosmotic stress and survival of oocytes during cryopreservation by vitrification. PMID:26634435

  2. Effects of reaggregated granulosa cells and oocytes derived from early antral follicles on the properties of oocytes grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oi, Ayano; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of reconstructed oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (EAFs; 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter). When denuded oocytes were cocultured with granulosa cells derived from other EAFs, the oocytes and granulosa cells aggregated to form OGCs after 2 days of culture. After 14 days of culture, we compared cell number, oocyte diameter, and oocyte chromatin configuration in unmanipulated (natural) OGCs, reconstructed OGCs, and OGCs collected from antral follicles (AFs, 3.0-6.0 mm in diameter). The diameters of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs grown in vitro were not different from those of oocytes from natural OGCs, although they were significantly smaller than those of oocytes from antral follicle (AF) OGCs. Oocyte chromatin configuration did not differ among the 3 OGC groups, but the oocyte nuclear maturation rate was lower in the reconstructed OGCs and higher in the AF OGCs. However, when the in vitro culture period for the reconstructed OGCs was extended by 2 days, the nuclear maturation rate of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs was similar to that of oocytes from natural OGCs. In addition, blastocysts were successfully obtained from oocytes from reconstructed OGCs. In conclusion, we established an innovative culture method that allows oocytes and granulosa cells from EAFs to reaggregate as reconstructed OGCs, which yield oocytes with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:25740588

  3. Detection of DNA damage in oocytes of small ovarian follicles following phosphoramide mustard exposures of cultured rodent ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Stephanie K; Desmeules, Patrice; Truong, To-Quyen; Devine, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    Healthy oocytes are critical for producing healthy children, but little is known about whether or not oocytes have the capacity to identify and recover from injury. Using a model ovotoxic alkylating drug, cyclophosphamide (CPA), and its active metabolite, phosphoramide mustard (PM), we previously showed that PM (≥3μM) caused significant follicle loss in postnatal day 4 (PND4) mouse ovaries in vitro. We now investigate whether PM induces DNA damage in oocytes, examining histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Exposure of cultured PND4 mouse ovaries to 3 and 0.1μM PM induced significant losses of primordial and small primary follicles, respectively. PM-induced γH2AX was observed predominantly in oocytes, in which foci of γH2AX staining increased in a concentration-dependent manner and peaked 18-24h after exposure to 3-10μMPM. Numbers of oocytes with ≥5 γH2AX foci were significantly increased both 1 and 8days after exposure to ≥1μMPM compared to controls. Inhibiting the kinases that phosphorylate H2AX significantly increased follicle loss relative to PM alone. In adult mice, CPA also induced follicle loss in vivo. PM also significantly decreased primordial follicle numbers (≥30μM) and increased γH2AX foci (≥3μM) in cultured PND4 Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. Results suggest oocytes can detect PM-induced damage at or below concentrations which cause significant follicle loss, and there are quantitative species-specific differences in sensitivity. Surviving oocytes with DNA damage may represent an increased risk for fertility problems or unhealthy offspring. PMID:21439308

  4. Detection of DNA damage in oocytes of small ovarian follicles following phosphoramide mustard exposures of cultured rodent ovaries in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Desmeules, Patrice; Truong, To-Quyen; Devine, Patrick J.

    2011-06-01

    Healthy oocytes are critical for producing healthy children, but little is known about whether or not oocytes have the capacity to identify and recover from injury. Using a model ovotoxic alkylating drug, cyclophosphamide (CPA), and its active metabolite, phosphoramide mustard (PM), we previously showed that PM ({>=} 3 {mu}M) caused significant follicle loss in postnatal day 4 (PND4) mouse ovaries in vitro. We now investigate whether PM induces DNA damage in oocytes, examining histone H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Exposure of cultured PND4 mouse ovaries to 3 and 0.1 {mu}M PM induced significant losses of primordial and small primary follicles, respectively. PM-induced {gamma}H2AX was observed predominantly in oocytes, in which foci of {gamma}H2AX staining increased in a concentration-dependent manner and peaked 18-24 h after exposure to 3-10 {mu}M PM. Numbers of oocytes with {>=} 5 {gamma}H2AX foci were significantly increased both 1 and 8 days after exposure to {>=} 1 {mu}M PM compared to controls. Inhibiting the kinases that phosphorylate H2AX significantly increased follicle loss relative to PM alone. In adult mice, CPA also induced follicle loss in vivo. PM also significantly decreased primordial follicle numbers ({>=} 30 {mu}M) and increased {gamma}H2AX foci ({>=} 3 {mu}M) in cultured PND4 Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. Results suggest oocytes can detect PM-induced damage at or below concentrations which cause significant follicle loss, and there are quantitative species-specific differences in sensitivity. Surviving oocytes with DNA damage may represent an increased risk for fertility problems or unhealthy offspring.

  5. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  6. Translational Control in Oocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Joel D.; Lasko, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Translational control of specific mRNAs is a widespread mechanism of gene regulation, and it is especially important in pattern formation in the oocytes of organisms in which the embryonic axes are established maternally. Drosophila and Xenopus have been especially valuable in elucidating the relevant molecular mechanisms. Here, we comprehensively review what is known about translational control in these two systems, focusing on examples that illustrate key concepts that have emerged. We focus on protein-mediated translational control, rather than regulation mediated by small RNAs, as the former appears to be predominant in controlling these developmental events. Mechanisms that modulate the ability of the specific mRNAs to be recruited to the ribosome, that regulate polyadenylation of specific mRNAs, or that control the association of particular mRNAs into translationally inert ribonucleoprotein complexes will all be discussed. PMID:21690213

  7. Notes on super Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2016-03-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  8. Follicular Oocytes Better Support Development in Rabbit Cloning Than Oviductal Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Li-Ying; Chen, Chien-Hong; Xu, Jie; Lin, Tzu-An; Su, Hwa-Yun; Chang, Wei-Fang; Liu, Chia-Chia; Sung, Yun-Shao; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Zhang, Jifeng; Tian, X. Cindy; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to determine the effect of rabbit oocytes collected from ovaries or oviducts on the developmental potential of nuclear transplant embryos. Donor nuclei were obtained from adult skin fibroblasts, cumulus cells, and embryonic blastomeres. Rabbit oocytes were flushed from the oviducts (oviductal oocytes) or aspirated from the ovaries (follicular oocytes) of superovulated does at 10, 11, or 12 h post-hCG injection. The majority of collected oocytes were still attached to the sites of ovulation on the ovaries. We found that follicular oocytes had a significantly higher rate of fusion with nuclear donor cells than oviductal oocytes. There was no difference in the cleavage rate between follicular and oviductal groups, but morula and blastocyst development was significantly higher in the follicular group than in the oviductal group. Two live clones were produced in follicular group using blastomere and cumulus nuclear donors, whereas one live clone was produced in the oviductal group using a cumulus nuclear donor. These results demonstrate that cloned rabbit embryos derived from follicular oocytes have better developmental competence than those derived from oviductal oocytes. PMID:22029417

  9. Effects of cryoprotectants and ice-seeding temperature on intracellular freezing and survival of human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Trad, F S; Toner, M; Biggers, J D

    1999-06-01

    The accurate determination of the freezing conditions that promote intracellular ice formation (IIF) is crucial for designing cryopreservation protocols for cells. In this paper, the range of temperatures at which IIF occurs in human oocytes was determined. Fresh oocytes with a germinal vesicle, failed-to-fertilize (metaphase I and metaphase II stages) and polyspermic eggs were used for this study. The occurrence of IIF was first visualized at a cooling rate of 120 degrees C/min using a programmable thermal microscope stage connected to a videomicroscope. Then, with a cooling rate of 0.2 degrees C/min, the seeding temperature of the extracellular ice was modified to decrease the incidence of IIF and increase the survival rate of frozen-thawed human oocytes. After adding different cryoprotectants, the median temperature of IIF (TMED) was decreased by approximately 23 degrees C in mouse and only by approximately 6.5 degrees C in human oocytes. Using 1.5 M propylene glycol and seeding temperatures of -8.0, -6.0 and -4.5 degrees C, the incidence of IIF was 22/28 (78%), 8/24 (33%) and 0/33 (0%) and the 24 h post-thaw survival rate was 10/31(32%), 19/34 (56%) and 52/56 (93%) respectively. The results show that IIF occurs more readily in human oocytes, and that ice seeding between -6 degrees C and -8 degrees C triggers IIF in a large number of human oocytes. Undesirable IIF can be prevented and survival rates maximized by raising the seeding temperature as close as possible to the melting point of the solution, which in our instrument was -4.5 degrees C. PMID:10357978

  10. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-11-12

    Poly(A(+)) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at -15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC(50) (125 microM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  11. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Poly(A+) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at −15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC50 (125 μM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  12. Rebuilding MTOCs upon centriole loss during mouse oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luksza, Małgorzata; Queguigner, Isabelle; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Brunet, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    The vast majority of animal cells contain canonical centrosomes as a main microtubule-organizing center defined by a central pair of centrioles. As a rare and striking exception to this rule, vertebrate oocytes loose their centrioles at an early step of oogenesis. At the end of oogenesis, centrosomes are eventually replaced by numerous acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) that shape the spindle poles during meiotic divisions. The mechanisms involved in centrosome and acentriolar MTOCs metabolism in oocytes have not been elucidated yet. In addition, little is known about microtubule organization and its impact on intracellular architecture during the oocyte growth phase following centrosome disassembly. We have investigated this question in the mouse by coupling immunofluorescence and live-imaging approaches. We show that growing oocytes contain dispersed pericentriolar material, responsible for microtubule assembly and distribution all over the cell. The gradual enlargement of PCM foci eventually leads in competent oocytes to the formation of big perinuclear MTOCs and to the assembly of large microtubule asters emanating from the close vicinity of the nucleus. Upon meiosis resumption, perinuclear MTOCs spread around the nuclear envelope, which in parallel is remodelled before breaking-down, via a MT- and dynein-dependent mechanism. Only fully competent oocytes are able to perform this dramatic reorganization at NEBD. Therefore, the MTOC-MT reorganization that we describe is one of key feature of mouse oocyte competency. PMID:23954884

  13. [Successful pregnancies after oocyte and embryo vitrification].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Francisco Hernández; Loza, Erik Omar Okhuysen; Lucas, Maria Teresa Huerta J; Gutiérrez, Gustavo Romero

    2008-02-01

    Cryopreservation of human oocytes represents a solution for ethic conflict about frozen embryo storage for patients with risk to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; also is an available technique to preserve fertility in women with cancer under treatment, in poor response patients, in case of premature ovarian failure or aging and for other medical or social conditions that require to delay pregnancies, as well as to make easier oocyte donation programs. This paper reports two cases of successful pregnancies after embryo and oocyte vitrification, as well as their results. The technique of vitrification with the cryotop method is an excellent alternative, efficient, fast and cheap for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation with high ranges of fertilization, cleavage and pregnancies with a normal evolution. PMID:18798404

  14. Effect of In Vitro Maturation Technique and Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Oocyte Maturation Rate: Focus on Oxidative Status of Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zavareh, Saeed; Karimi, Isaac; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Rahnama, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic potential of in vitro maturation (IVM) in infertility is growing with great promise. Although significant progress is obtained in recent years, existing IVM protocols are far from favorable results. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether two step IVM manner change reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total anti- oxidant capacity (TAC) levels. The second aim was to find the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on oocyte maturation rate and on ROS/TAC levels during IVM. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes divided into cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs) and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) groups. GVs were matured in vitro in the presence or absence of ALA only for 18 hours (control) or with pre-culture of forskolin plus cilostamide for an additional 18 hours. Matured oocytes obtained following 18 and 36 hours based on experimental design. In parallel, the ROS and TAC levels were measured at different time (0, 18 and 36 hours) by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) probe and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Results Maturation rate of COCs was significantly higher than DOs in control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between COCs and DOs when were pre-cultured with forskolin plus cilostamide. ROS and TAC levels was increased and decreased respectively in DOs after 18 hours while in COCs did not change at 18 hours and showed a significant increase and decrease respectively at 36 hours (P<0.05). ROS and TAC levels in the presence of ALA were significantly decreased and increased respectively after 36 hours (P<0.05) whereas, maturation rates of COCs and DOs were similar to their corresponding control groups. Conclusion ALA decreased ROS and increased TAC but could not affect maturation rate of both COCs and DOs in one or two step IVM manner. PMID:26985332

  15. Effects of reaggregated granulosa cells and oocytes derived from early antral follicles on the properties of oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    OI, Ayano; TASAKI, Hidetaka; MUNAKATA, Yasuhisa; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of reconstructed oocyte–granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (EAFs; 0.5–0.7 mm in diameter). When denuded oocytes were cocultured with granulosa cells derived from other EAFs, the oocytes and granulosa cells aggregated to form OGCs after 2 days of culture. After 14 days of culture, we compared cell number, oocyte diameter, and oocyte chromatin configuration in unmanipulated (natural) OGCs, reconstructed OGCs, and OGCs collected from antral follicles (AFs, 3.0–6.0 mm in diameter). The diameters of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs grown in vitro were not different from those of oocytes from natural OGCs, although they were significantly smaller than those of oocytes from antral follicle (AF) OGCs. Oocyte chromatin configuration did not differ among the 3 OGC groups, but the oocyte nuclear maturation rate was lower in the reconstructed OGCs and higher in the AF OGCs. However, when the in vitro culture period for the reconstructed OGCs was extended by 2 days, the nuclear maturation rate of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs was similar to that of oocytes from natural OGCs. In addition, blastocysts were successfully obtained from oocytes from reconstructed OGCs. In conclusion, we established an innovative culture method that allows oocytes and granulosa cells from EAFs to reaggregate as reconstructed OGCs, which yield oocytes with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:25740588

  16. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E. C.; Ryan, J. P.; Saunders, D. M.; Hayes, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes. PMID:20591337

  17. Pregnancy and child outcome after oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Söderström-Anttila, V

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade oocyte donation has been highly successful for treating women previously thought to be hopelessly infertile. The pregnancy rate after oocyte donation is among the highest reported for any fertility-enhancing procedure. Most investigators have noted an increased rate of obstetric complications in these pregnancies. In particular, pregnancy-induced hypertension appears to occur more often than expected, and the Caesarean section rate is high. However, the majority of oocyte recipients experience a favourable pregnancy and perinatal outcome. When perinatal complications occur they are usually related to multiple gestation. The high frequency of multiple pregnancy after oocyte donation, as well as in all other fields of assisted reproduction, deserves attention, and efforts to avoid multi-fetal gestation must be made. There are only a few studies on post-natal growth and development of young children born after oocyte donation. The health of these children appears to be within normal ranges. The psychological consequences of the treatment on the child require further investigation. Thus far, studies have shown normal socio-emotional development in the child and a warm relationship between the parents and the child in oocyte donation families. PMID:11212070

  18. Rescue of platinum-damaged oocytes from programmed cell death through inactivation of the p53 family signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S-Y; Cordeiro, M H; Serna, V A; Ebbert, K; Butler, L M; Sinha, S; Mills, A A; Woodruff, T K; Kurita, T

    2013-01-01

    Non-proliferating oocytes within avascular regions of the ovary are exquisitely susceptible to chemotherapy. Early menopause and sterility are unintended consequences of chemotherapy, and efforts to understand the oocyte apoptotic pathway may provide new targets for mitigating this outcome. Recently, the c-Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib) has become the focus of research as a fertoprotective drug against cisplatin. However, the mechanism by which imatinib protects oocytes is not fully understood, and reports of the drug's efficacy have been contradictory. Using in vitro culture and subrenal grafting of mouse ovaries, we demonstrated that imatinib inhibits the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of oocytes within primordial follicles. We found that, before apoptosis, cisplatin induces c-Abl and TAp73 expression in the oocyte. Oocytes undergoing apoptosis showed downregulation of TAp63 and upregulation of Bax. While imatinib was unable to block cisplatin-induced DNA damage and damage response, such as the upregulation of p53, imatinib inhibited the cisplatin-induced nuclear accumulation of c-Abl/TAp73 and the subsequent downregulation of TAp63 and upregulation of Bax, thereby abrogating oocyte cell death. Surprisingly, the conditional deletion of Trp63, but not ΔNp63, in oocytes inhibited apoptosis, as well as the accumulation of c-Abl and TAp73 caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that TAp63 is the master regulator of cisplatin-induced oocyte death. The expression kinetics of TAp63, c-Abl and TAp73 suggest that cisplatin activates TAp63-dependent expression of c-Abl and TAp73 and, in turn, the activation of TAp73 by c-Abl-induced BAX expression. Our findings indicate that imatinib protects oocytes from cisplatin-induced cell death by inhibiting c-Abl kinase, which would otherwise activate TAp73-BAX-mediated apoptosis. Thus, imatinib and other c-Abl kinase inhibitors provide an intriguing new way to halt cisplatin-induced oocyte death in early follicles

  19. Formation fracturing kills Indonesian blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Wizyodiazjo, S.; Salech, M.; Sumanta, K.

    1982-11-15

    Dynamic killing methods without fracturing could not be applied in killing PT-29 blowout, due to the reservoir rock properties (shaley sand formation). A special fracturing and acidizing technique was required in order to allow the calculated kill rate of 40 bbl/ min. A low injection rate of 0.5 bbl/min with high injection pressure of 1,250 psi occurred due to a degree of formation damage and the mud cake covering the sand face. The calculated formation fracture pressure of 1,393 psi was a reliable value compared to actual fracture pressure of 1,400 psi. The designed killing rate of 40 bbl/ min could not reach the blowout well due to some leak-off of the injected fluid in unexpected directions of the induced fractures. Clearing PT-29 of all debris was very important for immediate well capping. The capping operation was done after the fire was extinguished; although the well was still flowing gas and water, no hazard of explosion was detected. The exact subsurface position of the blowout well of PT-29 was uncertain due to the lack of directional survey data. This problem reduced the effectiveness of the killing operation. A reliable water supply is important to the success of the killing job. Once the fracture had been induced, kill fluid had to be pumped continuously; any interruption might cause the fracture to heal. Deviation and directional survey data on every vertical or directional well are absolutely important for accurate relief well drilling purposes in case it is required.

  20. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A; Orkin, Stuart H; Chen, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:26626423

  1. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Chen, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:26626423

  2. Preovulatory Aging In Vivo and In Vitro Affects Maturation Rates, Abundance of Selected Proteins, Histone Methylation Pattern and Spindle Integrity in Murine Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Demond, Hannah; Trapphoff, Tom; Dankert, Deborah; Heiligentag, Martyna; Grümmer, Ruth; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ovulation and delayed fertilization can lead to reduced developmental competence of the oocyte. In contrast to the consequences of postovulatory aging of the oocyte, hardly anything is known about the molecular processes occurring during oocyte maturation if ovulation is delayed (preovulatory aging). We investigated several aspects of oocyte maturation in two models of preovulatory aging: an in vitro follicle culture and an in vivo mouse model in which ovulation was postponed using the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix. Both models showed significantly reduced oocyte maturation rates after aging. Furthermore, in vitro preovulatory aging deregulated the protein abundance of the maternal effect genes Smarca4 and Nlrp5, decreased the levels of histone H3K9 trimethylation and caused major deterioration of chromosome alignment and spindle conformation. Protein abundance of YBX2, an important regulator of mRNA stability, storage and recruitment in the oocyte, was not affected by in vitro aging. In contrast, in vivo preovulatory aging led to reduction in Ybx2 transcript and YBX2 protein abundance. Taken together, preovulatory aging seems to affect various processes in the oocyte, which could explain the low maturation rates and the previously described failures in fertilization and embryonic development. PMID:27611906

  3. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  4. Mitogenomes of polar bodies and corresponding oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gianaroli, Luca; Gianoarli, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Crivello, Anna Maria; Lang, Martin; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; De Fanti, Sara; Magli, M Cristina; Romeo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an approach that could assess the chromosomal status and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of oocytes and their corresponding polar bodies (PBs) with the goal of obtaining a comparative picture of the segregation process both for nuclear and mtDNA. After Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome was attempted to analyze the segregation of mutant and wild-type mtDNA during human meiosis. Three triads, composed of oocyte and corresponding PBs, were analyzed and their chromosome status was successfully assessed. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was almost entirely sequenced in the oocytes (95.99% compared to 98.43% in blood), while the percentage of sequences obtained in the corresponding PB1 and PB2 was lower (69.70% and 69.04% respectively). The comparison with the mtDNA sequence in blood revealed no changes in the D-loop region for any of the cells of each triad. In the coding region of blood mtDNA and oocyte mtDNA sequences showed full correspondence, whereas all PBs had at least one change with respect to the blood-oocyte pairs. In all, 9 changes were found, either in PB1 or PB2: 4 in MT-ND5, 2 in MT-RNR2, and 1 each in MT-ATP8, MT-ND4, MT-CYTB. The full concordance between oocyte and blood in the 3 triads, and the relegation of changes to PBs, revealed the unexpected coexistence of different variants, giving a refined estimation of mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Should these findings be confirmed by additional data, an active mechanism could be postulated in the oocyte to preserve a condition of 'normality'. PMID:25032828

  5. Mitogenomes of Polar Bodies and Corresponding Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gianoarli, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Crivello, Anna Maria; Lang, Martin; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; De Fanti, Sara; Magli, M. Cristina; Romeo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an approach that could assess the chromosomal status and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of oocytes and their corresponding polar bodies (PBs) with the goal of obtaining a comparative picture of the segregation process both for nuclear and mtDNA. After Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome was attempted to analyze the segregation of mutant and wild-type mtDNA during human meiosis. Three triads, composed of oocyte and corresponding PBs, were analyzed and their chromosome status was successfully assessed. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) was almost entirely sequenced in the oocytes (95.99% compared to 98.43% in blood), while the percentage of sequences obtained in the corresponding PB1 and PB2 was lower (69.70% and 69.04% respectively). The comparison with the mtDNA sequence in blood revealed no changes in the D-loop region for any of the cells of each triad. In the coding region of blood mtDNA and oocyte mtDNA sequences showed full correspondence, whereas all PBs had at least one change with respect to the blood-oocyte pairs. In all, 9 changes were found, either in PB1 or PB2: 4 in MT-ND5, 2 in MT-RNR2, and 1 each in MT-ATP8, MT-ND4, MT-CYTB. The full concordance between oocyte and blood in the 3 triads, and the relegation of changes to PBs, revealed the unexpected coexistence of different variants, giving a refined estimation of mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Should these findings be confirmed by additional data, an active mechanism could be postulated in the oocyte to preserve a condition of ‘normality’. PMID:25032828

  6. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter; Chen, Fenghua; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Holm, Peter; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-04-01

    Prepubertal pig oocytes are associated with lower developmental competence. The aim of this experiment was to conduct an exhaustive survey of oocyte ultrastructure and to use a design-unbiased stereological approach to quantify the numerical density and total number of mitochondria in oocytes with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number, but no differences were observed in mitochondrial densities between groups. Mature postpubertal oocytes adhered to the following characteristics: presence of metaphase II, lack of contact between cumulus cells and oocyte, absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, peripheral location of cortical granules and central localisation of mitochondria, vesicles and lipid droplets. Prepubertal oocytes displayed more variation. The ultrastructure of large pre- and postpubertal oocytes was compatible with higher developmental competence, whereas that of smaller prepubertal oocytes could explain their reduced capacity. The higher number of mitochondria in large pre- and postpubertal oocytes could have an influence on oocyte competence, by increasing the pool of mitochondria available for early embryonic development. PMID:25482576

  7. Selective Killing of Nonreplicating Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J.; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease. PMID:18329613

  8. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  9. Killing symmetries as Hamiltonian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The existence of a Killing symmetry in a gauge theory is equivalent to the addition of extra Hamiltonian constraints in its phase space formulation, which imply restrictions both on the Dirac observables (the gauge invariant physical degrees of freedom) and on the gauge freedom. When there is a time-like Killing vector field only pure gauge electromagnetic fields survive in Maxwell theory in Minkowski space-time, while in ADM canonical gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times only inertial effects without gravitational waves survive.

  10. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  11. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  12. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  13. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  15. Adding insult to injury: effects of xenobiotic-induced preantral ovotoxicity on ovarian development and oocyte fusibility.

    PubMed

    Sobinoff, Alexander P; Pye, Victoria; Nixon, Brett; Roman, Shaun D; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian females are born with a finite number of nonrenewing primordial follicles, the majority of which remain in a quiescent state for many years. Because of their nonrenewing nature, these "resting" oocytes are particularly vulnerable to xenobiotic insult, resulting in premature ovarian senescence and the formation of dysfunctional oocytes. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of ovotoxicity for three ovotoxic agents, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), methoxychlor (MXC), and menadione (MEN), all of which target immature follicles. Microarray analysis of neonatal mouse ovaries exposed to these xenobiotics in vitro revealed a more than twofold significant difference in transcript expression (p < 0.05) for a number of genes associated with apoptotic cell death and primordial follicle activation. Histomorphological and immunohistological analysis supported the microarray data, showing signs of primordial follicle activation and preantral follicle atresia both in vitro and in vivo. Sperm-oocyte fusion assays on oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in a dose-dependent manner for all the xenobiotic treatments. Additionally, lipid peroxidation analysis on xenobiotic-cultured oocytes indicated a dose-dependent increase in oocyte lipid peroxidation for all three xenobiotics in vitro. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of preantral ovotoxicity involving the homeostatic recruitment of primordial follicles to maintain the pool of developing follicles destroyed by xenobiotic exposure and to our knowledge provide the first documented evidence of short-term, low- and high-dose (VCD 40-80 mg/kg/day, MXC 50-100 mg/kg/day, MEN 7.5-15 mg/kg/day) neonatal exposure to xenobiotics causing long-term reactive oxygen species-induced oocyte dysfunction. PMID:20829426

  16. Motility contrast imaging of live porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ran; Turek, John; Machaty, Zoltan; Nolte, David

    2013-02-01

    Freshly-harvested porcine oocytes are invested with cumulus granulosa cells in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The cumulus cell layer is usually too thick to image the living oocyte under a conventional microscope. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the oocyte viability. The low success rate of implantation is the main problem for in vitro fertilization. In this paper, we demonstrate our dynamic imaging technique called motility contrast imaging (MCI) that provides a non-invasive way to monitor the COCs before and after maturation. MCI shows a change of intracellular activity during oocyte maturation, and a measures dynamic contrast between the cumulus granulosa shell and the oocytes. MCI also shows difference in the spectral response between oocytes that were graded into quality classes. MCI is based on shortcoherence digital holography. It uses intracellular motility as the endogenous imaging contrast of living tissue. MCI presents a new approach for cumulus-oocyte complex assessment.

  17. CYTOPLASMIC MICROTUBULAR DYNAMIC AND CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION DURING MAMMALIAN OOCYTE MATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coordinated alterations in oocyte chromosome and microtubule disposition occur during oogenesis and oocyte maturation in the mammal. imely transitions in meiotic spindle and cytoplasmic microtubules, due to modifications in both the assembly competence of the tubulin pool and nuc...

  18. Modifications of human growth differentiation factor 9 to improve the generation of embryos from low competence oocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Jie; Sugimura, Satoshi; Mueller, Thomas D; White, Melissa A; Martin, Georgia A; Ritter, Lesley J; Liang, Xiao-Yan; Gilchrist, Robert B; Mottershead, David G

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is an oocyte-derived growth factor that plays a critical role in ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte developmental competence and belongs to the TGF-β family of proteins. Recombinant human GDF9 (hGDF9) is secreted in a latent form, which in the case of the fully processed protein, has the proregion noncovalently associated with the mature region. In this study, we investigated a number of amino acid residues in the mature region of hGDF9 that are different from the corresponding residues in the mouse protein, which is not latent. We designed, expressed, and purified 4 forms of chimeric hGDF9 (M1-M4) that we found to be active in a granulosa cell bioassay. Using a porcine in vitro maturation model with inherent low developmental competence (yielding 10%-20% blastocysts), we tested the ability of the chimeric hGDF9 proteins to improve oocyte maturation and developmental competence. Interestingly, one of the chimeric proteins, M3, was able to significantly increase the level of embryo production using such low competence oocytes. Our molecular modeling studies suggest that in the case of hGDF9 the Gly(391)Arg mutation probably increases receptor binding affinity, thereby creating an active protein for granulosa cells in vitro. However, for an improvement in oocyte developmental competence, a second mutation (Ser(412)Pro), which potentially decreases the affinity of the mature region for the proregion, is also required. PMID:25394262

  19. Expression of microRNA processing machinery genes in rhesus monkey oocytes and embryos of different developmental potentials

    PubMed Central

    MTANGO, NAMDORI R.; POTIREDDY, SANTHI; LATHAM, KEITH E.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that silence gene expression. In animal cells, miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated regions of specific mRNAs and inhibit their translation. The correct regulation of mRNA expression by miRNAs is believed to be important for oocyte maturation, early development and implantation. We examined the expression of 25 mRNAs involved in the microRNA processing pathway in a non human primate oocyte and embryo model. We observed that mRNAs related to miRNA splicing are downregulated during oocyte maturation while those related to miRNA processing are upregulated, indicating that there may exist a temporal difference in their activities related to transcriptional activity in germinal vesicle stage oocytes. We also observed that the vast majority of mRNAs examined were insensitive to α-amanitin at the 8-16 cell stage. The expression data did not reveal a major impact of embryo culture, and hormonal stimulation protocol affected only a small number of mRNAs, suggesting that the components of the pathway may be accumulated in the oocyte during oogenesis and resistant to exogenous insults. In comparison to published mouse array data, we observed species differences and similarities in the temporal expression patterns of some genes, suggesting that miRNA processing may be regulated differently. These data extend our understanding of the potential roles of miRNA during primate embryogenesis. PMID:18646051

  20. Obesity-Dependent Increases in Oocyte mRNAs Are Associated With Increases in Proinflammatory Signaling and Gut Microbial Abundance of Lachnospiraceae in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Anderson, Christopher L; Timme, Kelsey R; Kurz, Scott G; Fernando, Samodha C; Wood, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    RNAs stored in the metaphase II-arrested oocyte play important roles in successful embryonic development. Their abundance is defined by transcriptional activity during oocyte growth and selective degradation of transcripts during LH-induced oocyte maturation. Our previous studies demonstrated that mRNA abundance is increased in mature ovulated oocytes collected from obese humans and mice and therefore may contribute to reduced oocyte developmental competence associated with metabolic dysfunction. In the current study mouse models of diet-induced obesity were used to determine whether obesity-dependent increases in proinflammatory signaling regulate ovarian abundance of oocyte-specific mRNAs. The abundance of oocyte-specific Bnc1, Dppa3, and Pou5f1 mRNAs as well as markers of proinflammatory signaling were significantly increased in ovaries of obese compared with lean mice which were depleted of fully grown preovulatory follicles. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses also demonstrated increased association of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 with the Pou5f1 promoter in ovaries of obese mice suggesting that proinflammatory signaling regulates transcription of this gene in the oocyte. The cecum microbial content of lean and obese female mice was subsequently examined to identify potential relationships between microbial composition and proinflammatory signaling in the ovary. Multivariate Association with Linear Models identified significant positive correlations between cecum abundance of the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae and ovarian abundance of Tnfa as well as Dppa3, Bnc1, and Pou5f1 mRNAs. Together, these data suggest that diet-induced changes in gut microbial composition may be contributing to ovarian inflammation which in turn alters ovarian gene expression and ultimately contributes to obesity-dependent reduction in oocyte quality and development of infertility in obese patients. PMID:26881311

  1. Elective oocyte cryopreservation: who should pay?

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Despite the initial reactions of disapproval, more and more fertility clinics are now offering oocyte cryopreservation to healthy women in order to extend their reproductive options. However, so-called social freezing is not placed on an equal footing with 'regular' IVF treatments where public funding is concerned. In those countries or states where IVF patients receive a number of free cycles, we argue that fertilization and transfer cycles of women who proactively cryopreserved their oocytes should be covered. Moreover, when the argument of justice is consistently applied, coverage should also include the expenses of ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval and storage. Different modalities are possible: full coverage from the onset, reimbursement in cash or reimbursement in kind, by offering more free transfer cycles. PMID:22082981

  2. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed. PMID:16684344

  3. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  4. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  5. Subcellular localization of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 during oocyte fertilization and early-embryo development in mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-Qian; Dai, Yuan-Yuan; Jing, Lai-Dong; Bai, Jing; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Zheng, Ke-Gang; Pan, Jie

    2016-08-25

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family and is highly expressed in oocytes. Using a combination of confocal microscopy and RNAi, we localized and studied the function of both Pyk2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated Pyk2 (p-Pyk2) during mouse oocyte fertilization and early embryo development. At the onset of fertilization, Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 were detected predominantly in sperm heads and the oocyte cytoplasm. Upon formation of male and female pronuclei, Pyk2 and its activated form leave the cytoplasm and accumulate in the two pronuclei. We detected Pyk2 in blastomere nuclei and found both Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 in the pre-blastula cytoplasm. Pyk2 and its activated form then disappeared from the blastula nuclei and localized to the perinuclear regions, where blastula cells come into contact with each other. Pyk2 knockdown via microinjection of siRNA into the zygote did not inhibit early embryo development. Our results suggest that Pyk2 plays multiple functional roles in mouse oocyte fertilization as well as throughout early embryo development. PMID:27086609

  6. Subcellular localization of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 during oocyte fertilization and early-embryo development in mice

    PubMed Central

    MENG, Xiao-qian; DAI, Yuan-yuan; JING, Lai-dong; BAI, Jing; LIU, Shu-zhen; ZHENG, Ke-gang; PAN, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family and is highly expressed in oocytes. Using a combination of confocal microscopy and RNAi, we localized and studied the function of both Pyk2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated Pyk2 (p-Pyk2) during mouse oocyte fertilization and early embryo development. At the onset of fertilization, Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 were detected predominantly in sperm heads and the oocyte cytoplasm. Upon formation of male and female pronuclei, Pyk2 and its activated form leave the cytoplasm and accumulate in the two pronuclei. We detected Pyk2 in blastomere nuclei and found both Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 in the pre-blastula cytoplasm. Pyk2 and its activated form then disappeared from the blastula nuclei and localized to the perinuclear regions, where blastula cells come into contact with each other. Pyk2 knockdown via microinjection of siRNA into the zygote did not inhibit early embryo development. Our results suggest that Pyk2 plays multiple functional roles in mouse oocyte fertilization as well as throughout early embryo development. PMID:27086609

  7. TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells— required for this transition—and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative

  8. Fbos, a novel oocyte-specific protein, interacts with proteins important for oocyte development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oogenesis is characterized by a series of developmentally regulated events, which result in the matured oocyte that can give rise to a new organism after fertilization. Oocyte-specific genes play critical roles in oogenesis; however, the molecular details of oocyte-specific genes are poorly defined....

  9. Sperm and Oocyte Communication Mechanisms Controlling C. elegans Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Min; Cottee, Pauline A.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During sexual reproduction in many species, sperm and oocyte secrete diffusible signaling molecules to help orchestrate the biological symphony of fertilization. In the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, bidirectional signaling between sperm and oocyte is important for guiding sperm to the fertilization site and inducing oocyte maturation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate sperm guidance and oocyte maturation are being delineated. Unexpectedly, these mechanisms are providing insight into human diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and cancer. Here we review sperm and oocyte communication in C. elegans and discuss relationships to human disorders. PMID:20034089

  10. Artificial oocyte activation: evidence for clinical readiness.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Montag, M

    2016-03-01

    Artificial oocyte activation using Ca(2+)ionophores or similar compounds is a widely applied technique in IVF laboratories. This is all the more interesting as most of the agents aiming for intracellular Ca(2+) increase do not result in physiological Ca(2+) oscillations but much rather cause a single Ca(2+) transient. Two observations from mammals may explain why a rather non-physiological single Ca(2+) peak caused by ionophores is sufficient to rescue cycles showing severe male factor infertility, deficient oocyte maturation, developmental problems in humans, or both. On the one hand, it has been shown that it is mainly the initial Ca(2+) rise that drives further downstream events, in particular calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) action, and on the other, it is possible that this enzyme remains active even in the absence of Ca(2+). It therefore seems that mammalian oocytes can respond to a wide range of intracellular Ca(2+) signals and have a surprisingly high degree of tolerance for changes in cytosolic Ca(2+). As epigenetic consequences or differences in gene expression have not been studied to date, artificial oocyte activation has to be considered as experimental and should only be applied with a proper indication. PMID:26776820

  11. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  12. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  13. Oocyte-secreted factors in oocyte maturation media enhance subsequent development of bovine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmin; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Successful in vitro maturation (IVM) and oocyte quality both affect the subsequent development of cloned embryos derived from somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Developmental competence is usually lower in oocytes matured in vitro compared with those that matured in vivo, possibly due to insufficient levels of oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) and disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication. This study investigated the effects of OSFs secreted by denuded oocytes (DOs) during IVM on the subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles of slaughtered-cow ovaries collected from an abattoir were divided into four groups: COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for SCNT, as well as COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Based on the developmental competence and embryo quality of bovine embryos generated from these four groups, we found that co-culturing the COCs with DOs enhanced the in vitro development of IVF and cloned bovine embryos, and potentially generated more high-quality cloned blastocysts that possessed locus-specific histone modifications at levels similar to in vitro-fertilized embryos. These results strongly suggest that co-culturing COCs with DOs enhances subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryo. PMID:24420374

  14. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence. PMID:26885679

  15. Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of ... More "Deep Vein Thrombosis" Articles Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT / Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About ...

  16. Effect of oocyte-secreted factors on porcine in vitro maturation, cumulus expansion and developmental competence of parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ma Ninia L; Kang, Jung Taek; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Su Jin; Kwon, Dae Kee; Park, Sol Ji; Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Hong, So Gun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-05-01

    The oocyte is known from recent studies in the mouse, cow, sheep and human to be a central regulator of follicular cell function. However, in the pig, little information is known about the regulation of cumulus expansion by oocyte-secreted factors and oocyte quality. We investigated the possible effects of oocyte-secreted factors during in vitro maturation on cumulus expansion and on porcine oocytes as judged by subsequent embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) from antral follicles of pig ovaries collected from a local abattoir were divided into control and treatment groups and were cultured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with follicle-stimulating hormone. Treatment groups consisted of increasing numbers of denuded oocytes (DO) co-cultured with COC (at ratios of COC to DO of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5). After incubation for 44 h, cumulus expansion and maturation rates were assessed and oocytes were activated parthenogenetically. Cumulus expansion in the 1 COC:4 DO and 1 COC:5 DO groups was low and altered because full dispersion of the outer layer did not occur. Cell viability was not affected, as measured by the automated cell counter, but scanning electron microscopy revealed only a scanty extracellular matrix. Blastocyst rate was significantly higher in the 1 COC:4 DO (34.4%) and in the 1 COC:5 DO (34.9%) groups (p < 0.05) when compared with other groups. Maturation rate, cleavage rate and total cell number showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Amplification by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed up-regulation of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) in the cumulus cells in the 1 COC:4 DO group at 44 h. We conclude that denuded porcine oocytes could improve the maturation of COC as evidenced by increased blastocyst development in the 1 COC:4 DO, even though cumulus expansion was poor. This improvement could be a result of the GDF9 up

  17. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be...

  18. Coculturing cumulus oocyte complexes with denuded oocytes alters zona pellucida ultrastructure in in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Hyun; Bang, Jae-Il; Jin, Jong-In; Kim, Seong-Su; Jo, Hyun-Tae; Deb, Gautam Kumar; Ghanem, Nasser; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kong, Il-Keun

    2013-12-01

    Oocyte quality is a key factor affecting success of in vitro embryo production in cattle. Improving the microenvironment of oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) can increase developmental rate and embryo quality. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether denuded oocytes (DO) affect embryo development and ultrastructure of the zona pellucida (ZP) in in vitro matured bovine oocytes. Intact immature cumulus-oocytes complexes (COC) obtained from a local abattoir or by ovum pick-up (OPU) were cocultured with and without abattoir-obtained DO at a COC:DO ratio of 1:5. After IVM, DO were removed and intact DO were either fertilized or observed by scanning electron microscopy. Blastocyst quality was evaluated using a TUNEL assay. The ZP pore size decreased after IVM in COC + DO coculture, regardless of their origin (OPU, 310.5 ± 92.5 vs. 428.9 ± 148.5 nm; abattoir, 317.5 ± 68.5 vs. 358.9 ± 128.5 nm; P < 0.05; mean values ± standard deviation). Moreover, the number of ZP pores in OPU COC + DO and COC + DO was greater than those in OPU COC and COC (control) groups (56 ± 4 and 55 ± 7 vs. 50 ± 6 and 42 ± 4; P < 0.05). The rate of blastocyst development in COC + DO and OPU COC + DO groups was greater those in control and OPU COC groups (36.6% and 55.5% vs. 28.1% and 40.0%; P < 0.05). Moreover, the total cell numbers of blastocysts in COC + DO group exceeded that of control (132.91 ± 30.90 vs. 115.44 ± 24.95; P < 0.05), with no significant between OPU COC + DO and OPU COC groups (139.31 ± 42.51 vs. 137.00 ± 61.34). In conclusion, in vitro embryo development competence and quality improved when oocytes were cocultured with DO. Furthermore, there more, but smaller, ZP pores. PMID:24084231

  19. Premature Ovarian Failure in Mice with Oocytes Lacking Core 1-Derived O-Glycans and Complex N-Glycans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) affects up to 1.4% of women under the age of 40 yr and less than 30% of cases have a known cause. Here we describe a new mouse model of POF resulting from oocyte-specific ablation of core 1-derived (mucin) O-glycans and complex and hybrid N-glycans. Females carrying floxed alleles of both the C1galt1 (T-syn) and Mgat1 glycosyltransferase genes and a ZP3Cre transgene, generate oocytes lacking complex O- and N-glycans following oocyte-specific deletion at the primary follicle stage. We previously showed that few double-mutant females are fertile, and those produce only a single small litter. Here we show that ovarian function declined rapidly in double-mutant females with less than 1% ovulating at 11 wk of age after superovulation with exogenous gonadotropins. Ovary weight was significantly decreased in double-mutant females by 3 months of age, consistent with a decrease in the number of developing follicles. FSH levels in double-mutant females were elevated at 3 months of age, and testosterone and inhibin A were decreased, showing that the loss of complex N- and O-glycans from oocyte glycoproteins affected hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal feedback loops. The absence of developing follicles, ovary dysfunction, reduced testosterone and inhibin A, and elevated FSH in double-mutant females lacking C1galt1 and Mgat1 in oocytes represents a new mouse model for the study of follicular POF. PMID:21239444

  20. Premature ovarian failure in mice with oocytes lacking core 1-derived O-glycans and complex N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Suzannah A; Stanley, Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) affects up to 1.4% of women under the age of 40 yr and less than 30% of cases have a known cause. Here we describe a new mouse model of POF resulting from oocyte-specific ablation of core 1-derived (mucin) O-glycans and complex and hybrid N-glycans. Females carrying floxed alleles of both the C1galt1 (T-syn) and Mgat1 glycosyltransferase genes and a ZP3Cre transgene, generate oocytes lacking complex O- and N-glycans following oocyte-specific deletion at the primary follicle stage. We previously showed that few double-mutant females are fertile, and those produce only a single small litter. Here we show that ovarian function declined rapidly in double-mutant females with less than 1% ovulating at 11 wk of age after superovulation with exogenous gonadotropins. Ovary weight was significantly decreased in double-mutant females by 3 months of age, consistent with a decrease in the number of developing follicles. FSH levels in double-mutant females were elevated at 3 months of age, and testosterone and inhibin A were decreased, showing that the loss of complex N- and O-glycans from oocyte glycoproteins affected hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal feedback loops. The absence of developing follicles, ovary dysfunction, reduced testosterone and inhibin A, and elevated FSH in double-mutant females lacking C1galt1 and Mgat1 in oocytes represents a new mouse model for the study of follicular POF. PMID:21239444

  1. Microtubule Actin Crosslinking Factor 1 Regulates the Balbiani Body and Animal-Vegetal Polarity of the Zebrafish Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tripti; Marlow, Florence L.; Ferriola, Deborah; Mackiewicz, Katarzyna; Dapprich, Johannes; Monos, Dimitri; Mullins, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Although of fundamental importance in developmental biology, the genetic basis for the symmetry breaking events that polarize the vertebrate oocyte and egg are largely unknown. In vertebrates, the first morphological asymmetry in the oocyte is the Balbiani body, a highly conserved, transient structure found in vertebrates and invertebrates including Drosophila, Xenopus, human, and mouse. We report the identification of the zebrafish magellan (mgn) mutant, which exhibits a novel enlarged Balbiani body phenotype and a disruption of oocyte polarity. To determine the molecular identity of the mgn gene, we positionally cloned the gene, employing a novel DNA capture method to target region-specific genomic DNA of 600 kb for massively parallel sequencing. Using this technique, we were able to enrich for the genomic region linked to our mutation within one week and then identify the mutation in mgn using massively parallel sequencing. This is one of the first successful uses of genomic DNA enrichment combined with massively parallel sequencing to determine the molecular identity of a gene associated with a mutant phenotype. We anticipate that the combination of these technologies will have wide applicability for the efficient identification of mutant genes in all organisms. We identified the mutation in mgn as a deletion in the coding sequence of the zebrafish microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (macf1) gene. macf1 is a member of the highly conserved spectraplakin family of cytoskeletal linker proteins, which play diverse roles in polarized cells such as neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. In mgn mutants, the oocyte nucleus is mislocalized; and the Balbiani body, localized mRNAs, and organelles are absent from the periphery of the oocyte, consistent with a function for macf1 in nuclear anchoring and cortical localization. These data provide the first evidence for a role for spectraplakins in polarization of the vertebrate oocyte and egg. PMID:20808893

  2. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is required for oocyte maturation and female fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D; Aydiner, Fulya; Sasson, Isaac; Ilbay, Orkan; Sakkas, Denny; Lowther, Katie M; Mehlmann, Lisa M; Seli, Emre

    2012-08-15

    Gene expression during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis up to zygotic genome activation requires translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. EPAB [embryonic poly(A)-binding protein] is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein during this period in Xenopus, mouse and human. In Xenopus oocytes, ePAB stabilizes maternal mRNAs and promotes their translation. To assess the role of EPAB in mammalian reproduction, we generated Epab-knockout mice. Although Epab(-/-) males and Epab(+/-) of both sexes were fertile, Epab(-/-) female mice were infertile, and could not generate embryos or mature oocytes in vivo or in vitro. Epab(-/-) oocytes failed to achieve translational activation of maternally-stored mRNAs upon stimulation of oocyte maturation, including Ccnb1 (cyclin B1) and Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) mRNAs. Microinjection of Epab mRNA into Epab(-/-) germinal vesicle stage oocytes did not rescue maturation, suggesting that EPAB is also required for earlier stages of oogenesis. In addition, late antral follicles in the ovaries of Epab(-/-) mice exhibited impaired cumulus expansion, and a 8-fold decrease in ovulation, associated with a significant down-regulation of mRNAs encoding the EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like growth factors Areg (amphiregulin), Ereg (epiregulin) and Btc (betacellulin), and their downstream regulators, Ptgs2 (prostaglandin synthase 2), Has2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and Tnfaip6 (tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein 6). The findings from the present study indicate that EPAB is necessary for oogenesis, folliculogenesis and female fertility in mice. PMID:22621333

  3. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is required for oocyte maturation and female fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D.; Aydiner, Fulya; Sasson, Isaac; Ilbay, Orkan; Sakkas, Denny; Lowther, Katie M.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.; Seli, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis up to zygotic genome activation requires translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. EPAB [embryonic poly(A)-binding protein] is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein during this period in Xenopus, mouse and human. In Xenopus oocytes, ePAB stabilizes maternal mRNAs and promotes their translation. To assess the role of EPAB in mammalian reproduction, we generated Epab-knockout mice. Although Epab−/− males and Epab+/− of both sexes were fertile, Epab−/− female mice were infertile, and could not generate embryos or mature oocytes in vivo or in vitro. Epab−/− oocytes failed to achieve translational activation of maternally-stored mRNAs upon stimulation of oocyte maturation, including Ccnb1 (cyclin B1) and Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) mRNAs. Microinjection of Epab mRNA into Epab−/− germinal vesicle stage oocytes did not rescue maturation, suggesting that EPAB is also required for earlier stages of oogenesis. In addition, late antral follicles in the ovaries of Epab−/− mice exhibited impaired cumulus expansion, and a 8-fold decrease in ovulation, associated with a significant down-regulation of mRNAs encoding the EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like growth factors Areg (amphiregulin), Ereg (epiregulin) and Btc (betacellulin), and their downstream regulators, Ptgs2 (prostaglandin synthase 2), Has2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and Tnfaip6 (tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein 6). The findings from the present study indicate that EPAB is necessary for oogenesis, folliculogenesis and female fertility in mice. PMID:22621333

  4. The adverse effect of obesity/high fat diet on oocyte quality and metabolism is not reversible with resumption of regular diet in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kasey A; Boudoures, Anna L; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Wang, Qiang; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which affects over one-third of reproductive-age women, has negative effects on reproduction and results in oocyte defects in both mice and humans. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine whether the adverse effects of an obesogenic diet, specifically abnormal oocyte spindle formation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid accumulation, can be reversed by return to normal weight and metabolic profile. Female C57BL6/J mice were placed on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 35.8% fat and 20.2% protein by nutritional content) or an isocaloric control diet (CD; 13% fat and 25% protein) for six weeks. All mice were then maintained on CD for eight weeks. We found that whereas metabolic parameters (weight, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol levels) of the HFD mice returned to normal after this “diet reversal” period, several oocyte defects were not reversible. Oocytes from the diet reversal mice demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of abnormal meiotic spindles than those from control mice. The HFD diet reversal GV oocytes also had lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower levels of ATP and citrate, and higher percentages of abnormal lipid accumulation and distribution and abnormally distributed mitochondria than oocytes from control mice. Thus, despite normalization of weight, glucose utilization, and cholesterol levels eight weeks after switching from a high fat to a regular chow, oocytes from diet reversal mice exhibited significantly higher rates of meiotic spindle, lipid, and mitochondrial defects than found in mice maintained on regular chow. These results suggest that the negative effects of an obesogenic diet on oocyte quality are not as reversible as the overall metabolic parameters. These data may provide better insight when counseling obese women regarding reproductive options and success. PMID:25775080

  5. Expression and functional activity of PACAP and its receptors on cumulus cells: effects on oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Barberi, Marzia; Di Paolo, Virginia; Latini, Stefania; Guglielmo, Maria Cristina; Cecconi, Sandra; Canipari, Rita

    2013-08-15

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1-R (PACAP type 1 receptor) are transiently expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) of mouse preovulatory follicles and affect several parameters associated with the ovulatory process. We investigated the expression of PACAP and its receptors in cumulus cells (CCs) after the LH surge and their role on cumulus expansion/apoptosis and oocyte maturation. PACAP and PAC1-R expression increased in CCs isolated at different times after treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Moreover, PACAP was able to reverse the inhibition of oocyte meiotic maturation caused by hypoxantine in cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) and efficiently promoted male pronuclear formation after fertilisation. PACAP was also able to induce cumulus expansion and prevent CC apoptosis. Our results demonstrated the induction of PACAP and its receptors in CCs by LH and EGF, suggesting that PACAP may play a significant role in the complex interactions of gonadotropin and growth factors during ovulation and fertilisation. PMID:23684890

  6. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) synthesis following microinjection of heterologous sperm and somatic cell nuclei into hamster oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Naish, S.J.; Perreault, S.D.; Zirkin, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in /sup 3/H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sham microinjection, or microinjected with hamster, mouse, rabbit, or fish sperm nuclei, or hamster hepatocyte nuclei. Within 6 hr of sham or nucleus microinjection, nuclei of each type underwent transformation into pronuclei and synthesized DNA. These results demonstrated that the hamster egg can access and utilize its own and each type of template provided, whether homologous or heterologous. However, pronuclei derived from hamster sperm nuclei were more likely to be synthesizing DNA at 6 hr than pronuclei derived from sperm nuclei of other species. The authors conclude that the mechanisms employed by the hamster oocyte to transform hamster sperm nuclei into pronuclei and to effect DNA synthesis in these nuclei are not specific for the hamster sperm nucleus. Nevertheless, these mechanisms apparently operate more efficiently when the hamster sperm nucleus, rather than a heterologous sperm nucleus, is present.

  7. Sex aneuploidy of unfertilized human oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.; Ward, D.C.; Jones, E.E.

    1994-09-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has recently achieved successful fertilization and pregnancy in human in vitro fertilization, particularly in cases of severe male factor infertility. One criticism of this novel clinical technique is that it bypasses the natural selection process of fertilization. We use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyze oocytes which fail to fertilize after ICSI in the Yale IVF Program. The purpose of this study is to determine whether failed fertilization after ICSI can be attributed to sex chromosome aneuploidy in the oocyte. Fertilization of oocytes is determined by the presence of two pronuclei on light microscopic examination (400X). Multi-probe FISH with DAPI (4,6,-diamino-2-phenyl-indole) counterstain is then performed to determine oocyte ploidy and the presence of decondensed sperm. Centromeric probes for X, Y and 17 are used simultaneously in each oocyte for in situ hybridization to oocyte chromatin. In all oocytes examined after ICSI to date, unfertilized oocytes have decondensed sperm DNA present confirming appropriate intracytoplasmic placement of the sperm. Preliminary results obtained from 31 oocytes have not identified any sex chromosome aneuploidies. The FISH technique used in post-ICSI oocytes is a model system for delineating genetic causes of failed fertilization in the human.

  8. The mammalian oocyte orchestrates the rate of ovarian follicular development

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, John J.; Wigglesworth, Karen; Pendola, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    The development of both the mammalian oocyte and the somatic cell compartments of the ovarian follicle is highly coordinated; this coordination ensures that the ovulated oocyte is ready to undergo fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis. Disruption of this synchrony results in oocyte developmental failure. Communication between the oocyte and companion somatic cells is essential for successful development of both follicular compartments. However, it was not previously known whether one cell type, either the somatic or the germ cell compartment, determines the overall rate of follicular development. To test the hypothesis that the oocyte orchestrates the rate of follicle development, mid-sized oocytes isolated from secondary follicles were transferred back to primordial follicles, the earliest stage of follicular development. This transfer doubled the rate of follicular development and the differentiation of follicular somatic cells. Oocyte development in these accelerated follicles appeared normal; recovered oocytes were competent to undergo fertilization and embryonic development. These results demonstrate that oocytes orchestrate and coordinate the development of mammalian ovarian follicles and that the rate of follicular development is based on a developmental program intrinsic to the oocyte. PMID:11867735

  9. Metabolism throughout follicle and oocyte development in mammals.

    PubMed

    Collado-Fernandez, Esther; Picton, Helen M; Dumollard, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic studies of mammalian embryos started with the development of in vitro culture systems more than 40 years ago. More recently, metabolic studies have begun to shed light on the requirements of growing oocytes/follicles from the earliest stages of folliculogenesis. While growing oocytes preferentially metabolise pyruvate over glucose, the somatic compartment of ovarian follicles is more glycolytic. The metabolic preferences of the oocyte are reflected in the early zygote, which becomes increasingly dependent on glycolytic energy production as development progresses to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, the intricate metabolic relationship between each oocyte and its somatic surroundings is critical for oocyte growth and developmental competence. Measurements of amino acid turnover in bovine oocytes indicate that glutamine, arginine and leucine are consistently depleted, while alanine is produced, showing similarities with amino acid turnover in preimplantation embryos. Amino acid profiling is a good predictor of embryo quality and might also turn out to be a predictor of oocyte developmental competence. Finally, recent studies have uncovered lipid metabolism in oocytes and early embryos, suggesting that endogenous fatty acids might be used for energy production. Together, metabolic studies have revealed the multiplicity of energetic substrates used by oocytes and early embryos, and suggest that the versatility of the metabolic pathways available for energy production is key for high developmental potential. Metabolic studies of early embryos are now being applied to follicle culture, and the goal of describing the metabolome of the growing oocyte in its follicle is now very attainable. PMID:23417402

  10. Ultrastructural observation of oocytes in six types of stony corals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the ultrastructure of the oocytes of 6 types of scleractinian corals was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed to improve our understanding of the organelles involved in coral oocyte formation. In all 6 stony coral species, the microvilli were tubular and directly grew from the surface of the oocyte membrane; yolk bodies, lipid granules, and cortical alveoli accounted for most of the volume inside the oocytes, suggesting that they are associated with energy storage and buoyancy. Clear differences were observed in the size of yolk bodies and lipid granules in the oocytes of the 6 stony coral species, which occupied approximately 55%-80% of the inner space of the oocytes. Galaxea fascicularis exhibited the largest lipid granule volume, but the oocytes contained only an average number of 12.45 lipid granules per unit area. Only Montipora incrassata oocytes contained symbiotic algae. The smallest size and proportion of lipid granules in M. incrassata oocytes may be attributed to the presence of symbiotic algae and large yolk bodies, which may help oocytes produce energy and function as a nutritional source. This study is crucial for improving the understanding of the basic biology of coral reproduction, and the ensuing datasets is critical for conservation-oriented studies seeking to cryopreserve corals during these times of dramatic global climate change. PMID:27265208

  11. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. IV. The effect of PMSG and oestradiol on the growth of the oocyte and follicle.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    Retarded follicular and oocyte nucleolar growth rates in ovaries of 1 month old congenitally athymic nude mice are restored by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). By contrast oestradiol-17beta depresses follicular growth rate in phenotypically normal (control) mice to levels found in nude littermates. Paradoxically, oestradiol-17beta stimulates nucleolar growth rate in control mice, but not nudes, to levels found in PMSG treated groups. These results are discussed in relation to the position of the thymus gland in the pituitary/ovarian axis and the mode of action gonadotrophin upon oocyte and follicular growth in the pre-puberal mouse ovary. PMID:933562

  12. Novel Ca2+ increases in the maturing oocytes of starfish during the germinal vesicle breakdown.

    PubMed

    Limatola, Nunzia; Chun, Jong T; Kyozuka, Keiichiro; Santella, Luigia

    2015-11-01

    It has been known that the intracellular Ca(2+) level transiently rises at the specific stages of mitosis such as the moment of nuclear envelope breakdown and at the metaphase-anaphase transition. Comparable intracellular Ca(2+) increases may also take place during meiosis, as was intermittently reported in mouse, Xenopus, and starfish oocytes. In a majority of starfish species, the maturing oocytes display an intracellular Ca(2+) increase within few minutes after the addition of the maturation hormone, 1-methyladenine (1-MA). Although starfish oocytes at meiosis also manifest a Ca(2+) increase at the time of polar body extrusion, a similar Ca(2+) increase has never been observed during the envelope breakdown of the nucleus (germinal vesicle, GV). Here, we report, for the first time, the existence of an additional Ca(2+) response in the maturing oocytes of Asterina pectinifera at the time of GV breakdown. In contrast to the immediate early Ca(2+) response to 1-MA, which is independent of external Ca(2+) and takes a form of intracellular Ca(2+) wave traveling three times as fast as that in the fertilized eggs, this late stage Ca(2+) response comprised a train of numerous spikes representing Ca(2+) influx. These Ca(2+) spikes coinciding with GV breakdown were mostly eliminated when the GV was removed from the oocytes prior to the addition of 1-MA, suggesting that the Ca(2+) spikes are rather a consequence of the GV breakdown. In support of the idea that these Ca(2+) spikes play a physiological role, the oocytes matured in calcium-free seawater had a higher rate of cleavage failure 2h after the fertilization in natural seawater. Specific inhibitors of L-type Ca(2+) channels, verapamil and diltiazem, severely suppressed the amplitude of the individual Ca(2+) spikes, but not their frequencies. On the other hand, latrunculin-A (LAT-A), which promotes net depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, had a dual effect on this late Ca(2+) response. When added immediately

  13. What does the cryopreserved oocyte look like? A fresh look at the characteristic oocyte features following cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-04-01

    In October 2012, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and, in March 2012, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), lifted the categorization of oocyte cryopreservation as being "experimental" and endorsed its entrance into the mainstream of assisted reproductive techniques. This change in policy, with the considerable advantages that oocytes offer over embryos for cryopreservation, has increased applications of oocyte cryopreservation in assisted reproduction techniques. A deep understanding of oocyte cryobiology, however, is lagging behind the forces propelling the clinical application of oocyte cryopreservation. We have drawn attention to this shortcoming by initiating a debate on whether a vitrified-warmed oocyte has the same characteristics as its fresh sibling. The answer to this question may explain why the oocyte cryopreservation success rate is as yet far from satisfactory and why cryopreserved oocytes should be treated differently from their fresh siblings. A fresh look at the characteristic features of oocytes after cryopreservation is the main scope of this review as a stimulus to further improvement of oocyte cryopreservation. PMID:26907599

  14. Vitrification of oocytes, embryos and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Mukaida, Tetsunori; Oka, Chikahiro

    2012-12-01

    In assisted reproductive technology, cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos has been significantly improved by refined slow-cooling and the new vitrification method. The slow-cooling method requires a programmed cryo-machine, and usually takes several hours. It is, however, difficult to eliminate injuries resulting from ice formation completely. Vitrification has become a reliable strategy because it is simple, can lead to high survival rates and viability, and has better clinical outcome. Vitrification transforms cells into an amorphous glassy state inside and outside the vitrified cell with ultra-rapid cooling and warming steps by plunging the oocytes and embryos into liquid nitrogen, instead of ice-crystal formation. Over the past decade, several advances in vitrification technologies have improved clinical efficiency and outcome. In this chapter, we focus on vitrification technologies for cryopreservation in human assisted reproductive technology. PMID:22940094

  15. Metaphase I arrest and spontaneous parthenogenetic activation of strain LTXBO oocytes: chimeric reaggregated ovaries establish primary lesion in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Eppig, J J; Wigglesworth, K; Hirao, Y

    2000-08-01

    Oocytes of strain LT mice, and related strains such as LTXBO, exhibit a high incidence of arrest in the progression of meiosis at metaphase I (MI) and in spontaneous parthenogenetic activation. Activation of these oocytes within the ovary leads to the formation of ovarian teratomas. In this study, the role of the oocyte's companion granulosa cells, the cumulus cells, was investigated using fully grown oocytes matured in vitro after isolation from LTXBO mice. Results showed that the role of cumulus cells in MI arrest is dichotomous. Cumulus cells temporarily helped to sustain MI arrest, but they also promoted a delayed progression to metaphase II. Cumulus cells also promoted parthenogenetic activation that occurred in association with the delayed progression to metaphase II. Next, the question of whether the lesion(s) promoting MI arrest and spontaneous activation is due to defects in the somatic cells or is intrinsic to the oocyte was addressed using chimeric reaggregated ovaries. An improved method for completely exchanging the germ cell and the somatic cell compartments of ovaries from newborn mice is described. These chimeric reaggregated ovaries, grafted beneath the renal capsule of SCID mice, allowed the complete development of LTXBO oocytes to occur in association with somatic cells from control (B6SJLF(1)) ovaries and development of control oocytes in association with LTXBO somatic cells. Oocyte growth and follicular development appeared generally normal in reaggregated ovaries. High incidences of MI arrest and spontaneous activation of LTXBO oocytes occurred regardless of the genotype of the somatic cells. Moreover, there was a low incidence of MI arrest and spontaneous activation of control oocytes, even though they underwent complete development and maturation associated with LTXBO somatic cells. It is concluded that the phenotypes of MI arrest and parthenogenetic activation in LTXBO oocytes are defects caused by lesions intrinsic to the oocyte

  16. In Vitro Maturation of Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes for Efficient Isolation of Oocytes from Outbred Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background The outbred (as with humans) deer mice have been a useful animal model of research on human behavior and biology including that of the reproductive system. One of the major challenges in using this species is that the yield of oocyte isolation via superovulation is dismal according to the literature to date less than ∼5 oocytes per animal can be obtained so far. Objective The goal of this study is to improve the yield of oocyte isolation from outbred deer mice close to that of most laboratory mice by in vitro maturation (IVM) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Methods Oocytes were isolated by both superovulation and IVM. For the latter, COCs were obtained by follicular puncture of antral follicles in both the surface and inner cortical layers of ovaries. Immature oocytes in the COCs were then cultured in vitro under optimized conditions to obtain metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Quality of the oocytes from IVM and superovulation was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. Results Less than ∼5 oocytes per animal could be isolated by superovulation only. However, we successfully obtained 20.3±2.9 oocytes per animal by IVM (16.0±2.5) and superovulation (4.3±1.3) in this study. Moreover, IVF and embryo development studies suggest that IVM oocytes have even better quality than that from superovulation The latter never developed to beyond 2-cell stage as usual while 9% of the former developed to 4-cells. Significance We have successfully established the protocol for isolating oocytes from deer mice with high yield by IVM. Moreover, this is the first ever success to develop in vitro fertilized deer mice oocytes beyond the 2-cell stage in vitro. Therefore, this study is of significance to the use of deer mice for reproductive biology research. PMID:23457518

  17. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  18. Micromechanical Analysis of the Hyaluronan-Rich Matrix Surrounding the Oocyte Reveals a Uniquely Soft and Elastic Composition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyue; Bonfiglio, Rita; Banerji, Suneale; Jackson, David G; Salustri, Antonietta; Richter, Ralf P

    2016-06-21

    The cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) matrix is an extended coat that forms around the oocyte a few hours before ovulation and plays vital roles in oocyte biology. Here, we analyzed the micromechanical response of mouse COC matrix by colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the COC matrix is elastic insofar as it does not flow and its original shape is restored after force release. At the same time, the COC matrix is extremely soft. Specifically, the most compliant parts of in vivo and in vitro expanded COC matrices yielded Young's modulus values of 0.5 ± 0.1 Pa and 1.6 ± 0.3 Pa, respectively, suggesting both high porosity and a large mesh size (≥100 nm). In addition, the elastic modulus increased progressively with indentation. Furthermore, using optical microscopy to correlate these mechanical properties with ultrastructure, we discovered that the COC is surrounded by a thick matrix shell that is essentially devoid of cumulus cells and is enhanced upon COC expansion in vivo. We propose that the pronounced nonlinear elastic behavior of the COC matrix is a consequence of structural heterogeneity and serves important functions in biological processes such as oocyte transport in the oviduct and sperm penetration. PMID:27332136

  19. Bidirectional communication between oocytes and follicle cells: ensuring oocyte developmental competence

    PubMed Central

    Kidder, Gerald M.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    Female fertility is determined to a large extent by the quality (developmental competence) of the oocyte as reflected in its ability to undergo meiosis, be fertilized, and give rise to a healthy embryo. Growth of the mammalian oocyte is coordinated with that of the follicle that encloses it by the actions of signals that pass in both directions between the germline and somatic components. This review summarizes what is known about the roles played by two different modes of intrafollicular signalling in oogenesis: paracrine factors activating receptors on the opposite cell type, and direct sharing of small molecules throughout the follicle via gap junction channels. Recent evidence indicates that these two modes of signalling interact to regulate oocyte growth and granulosa cell proliferation, and that defects in either can contribute to female infertility. PMID:20555408

  20. Mouse HORMAD1 is a meiosis i checkpoint protein that modulates DNA double- strand break repair during female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; McGuire, Megan M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    Oocytes in embryonic ovaries enter meiosis I and arrest in the diplonema stage. Perturbations in meiosis I, such as abnormal double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair, adversely affect oocyte survival. We previously discovered that HORMAD1 is a critical component of the synaptonemal complex but not essential for oocyte survival. No significant differences were observed in the number of primordial, primary, secondary, and developing follicles between wild-type and Hormad1(−/−)newborn, 8-day, and 80-day ovaries. Meiosis I progression in Hormad1(−/−) embryonic ovaries was normal through the zygotene stage and in oocytes arrested in diplonema; however, we did not visualize oocytes with completely synapsed chromosomes. We investigated effects of HORMAD1 deficiency on the kinetics of DNA DSB formation and repair in the mouse ovary. We irradiated Embryonic Day 16.5 wild-type and Hormad1(−/−) ovaries and monitored DSB repair using gammaH2AX, RAD51, and DMC1 immunofluorescence. Our results showed a significant drop in unrepaired DSBs in the irradiated Hormad1(−/−) zygotene oocytes as compared to the wild-type oocytes. Moreover, Hormad1 deficiency rescued Dmc1(−/−) oocytes. These results indicate that Hormad1 deficiency promotes DMC1-independent DSB repairs, which in turn helps asynaptic Hormad1(−/−) oocytes resist perinatal loss. PMID:23759310

  1. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes after ex vivo oocyte retrieval from gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lee, In Ho; Lim, Kyung Teak; Lee, Ki Heon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report a case series of in vitro matured (IVM) oocyte freezing in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery under time constraints as an option for fertility preservation (FP). Methods Case series report. University-based in vitro fertilization center. Six gynecologic cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo radical surgery the next day were referred for FP. The patients had endometrial (n=2), ovarian (n=3), and double primary endometrial and ovarian (n=1) cancer. Ex vivo retrieval of immature oocytes from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue was followed by mature oocyte freezing after IVM or embryo freezing with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Results A total of 53 oocytes were retrieved from five patients, with a mean of 10.6 oocytes per patient. After IVM, a total of 36 mature oocytes were obtained, demonstrating a 67.9% maturation rate. With regard to the ovarian cancer patients, seven IVM oocytes were frozen from patient 3, who had stage IC cancer, whereas one IVM oocyte was frozen from patient 4, who had stage IV cancer despite being of a similar age. With regard to the endometrial cancer patients, 15 IVM oocytes from patient 1 were frozen. Five embryos were frozen after the fertilization of IVM oocytes from patient 6. Conclusion Immature oocytes can be successfully retrieved ex vivo from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue before radical surgery. IVM oocyte freezing provides a possible FP option in patients with advanced-stage endometrial or ovarian cancer without the risk of cancer cell spillage or time delays. PMID:27358831

  2. TAF4b Regulates Oocyte-Specific Genes Essential for Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Grive, Kathryn J.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Baddoo, Melody; Schorl, Christoph; Golnoski, Kayla; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Brodsky, Alexander S.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    TAF4b is a gonadal-enriched subunit of the general transcription factor TFIID that is implicated in promoting healthy ovarian aging and female fertility in mice and humans. To further explore the potential mechanism of TAF4b in promoting ovarian follicle development, we analyzed global gene expression at multiple time points in the human fetal ovary. This computational analysis revealed coordinate expression of human TAF4B and critical regulators and effectors of meiosis I including SYCP3, YBX2, STAG3, and DAZL. To address the functional relevance of this analysis, we turned to the embryonic Taf4b-deficient mouse ovary where, for the first time, we demonstrate, severe deficits in prophase I progression as well as asynapsis in Taf4b-deficient oocytes. Accordingly, TAF4b occupies the proximal promoters of many essential meiosis and oogenesis regulators, including Stra8, Dazl, Figla, and Nobox, and is required for their proper expression. These data reveal a novel TAF4b function in regulating a meiotic gene expression program in early mouse oogenesis, and support the existence of a highly conserved TAF4b-dependent gene regulatory network promoting early oocyte development in both mice and women. PMID:27341508

  3. A Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor enhances ovarian follicle atresia and oocyte degeneration in female mice.

    PubMed

    Solano, S; Zepeda, N; Copitin, N; Fernandez, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2015-01-01

    The histopathological effects of Taenia crassiceps infection or T. crassiceps metacestode factor inoculation on the mouse ovary were determined using six female mice in three groups: infected mice, mice inoculated with the metacestode factor and control mice. The control group was subcutaneously inoculated with healthy peritoneal fluid. The infected group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 40 T. crassiceps metacestodes, and the metacestode factor group was subcutaneously inoculated with T. crassiceps metacestode factor (MF). Light and electron microscopy and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays revealed a significant increase in ovarian follicular atresia (predominantly in antral/preovulatory stages of development), oocyte degeneration (P< 0.05), and a decrease in the amount of corpus luteum in follicles of mice infected and inoculated with MF compared with the control group. Significant abnormalities of the granulosa cells and oocytes of the primordial, primary and secondary ovarian follicles occurred in both treated mouse groups (P< 0.05) compared with no degeneration in the control group. These pathological changes in female mice either infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes or inoculated with T. crassiceps MF may have consequences for ovulation and fertility. PMID:23962763

  4. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  5. Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac

    2004-12-15

    We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor Protects Porcine Oocytes against Aging and Improves the Developmental Potential of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Tereza; Smelcova, Miroslava; Petr, Jaroslav; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Sedmikova, Marketa; Nevoral, Jan; Dvorakova, Marketa; Vyskocilova, Alena; Weingartova, Ivona; Kucerova-Chrpova, Veronika; Chmelikova, Eva; Tumova, Lenka; Jilek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Porcine oocytes that have matured in in vitro conditions undergo the process of aging during prolonged cultivation, which is manifested by spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, lysis or fragmentation of aged oocytes. This study focused on the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the process of porcine oocyte aging. H2S is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced endogenously by the enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST). We demonstrated that H2S-producing enzymes are active in porcine oocytes and that a statistically significant decline in endogenous H2S production occurs during the first day of aging. Inhibition of these enzymes accelerates signs of aging in oocytes and significantly increases the ratio of fragmented oocytes. The presence of exogenous H2S from a donor (Na2S.9H2O) significantly suppressed the manifestations of aging, reversed the effects of inhibitors and resulted in the complete suppression of oocyte fragmentation. Cultivation of aging oocytes in the presence of H2S donor positively affected their subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation. Although no unambiguous effects of exogenous H2S on MPF and MAPK activities were detected and the intracellular mechanism underlying H2S activity remains unclear, our study clearly demonstrates the role of H2S in the regulation of porcine oocyte aging. PMID:25615598

  7. Bisphenol-A and human oocyte maturation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, Ronit; Combelles, Catherine M.H.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Correia, Katharine F.; Williams, Paige; Hauser, Russ; Racowsky, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) affect the maturation of human oocytes in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER There was a dose–response association of BPA exposure with altered human oocyte maturation in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is widespread exposure of the general population to BPA. BPA has been detected in the human follicular fluid. Animal studies have shown that BPA exposure is associated with maturation arrest and spindle abnormalities in maturing oocytes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A randomized trial, using 352 clinically discarded oocytes from 121 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The study population was drawn from patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles in our program at Brigham and Women's Hospital from March 2011 to April 2012. Oocytes from only one cycle for each patient were included in the study. Cycles with at least two germinal vesicle stage oocytes were included with random allocation of one oocyte to culture for 30 h without BPA and remaining sibling oocytes to medium-containing BPA (20, 200 ng/ml or 20 µg/ml). Oocytes were fixed and labeled for tubulin, actin and chromatin and examined with immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Oocytes were assessed for meiotic stage (n = 292), and those at metaphase II (MII, n = 175) were further classified according to their spindle configurations and patterns of chromosome alignment. McNemar's test was used to compare dichotomized maturation status. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation between oocytes from the same woman and for the spindle analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE As the BPA dose increased, there was a decrease in the percentage of oocytes that progressed to MII (P = 0.002) and increases in the percentage of oocytes that were degenerated (P = 0.01) or that had undergone spontaneous activation (P = 0.007). Among MII oocytes, as the BPA dose increased, there was a significant trend (by test for trend) for a

  8. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26rbw/+;Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries. PMID:22778414

  9. Interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes in a chemically defined medium: effect of denuded oocytes on cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, R; Somfai, T; Nakai, M; Bodó, S; Maes, D; Kikuchi, K; Van Soom, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) on the level of cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation during IVM of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in a chemically defined medium using a system that allows individual tracking of oocytes. Especially, the influence of oocyte-secreted factors was investigated by the aid of addition of denuded oocytes (DOs) as a possible approach to improve the IVM system. The basic maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium with addition of gonadotropins only during the first 20 hours of IVM. During IVM, COCs were kept fixed to the bottom of culture dish by adhesive Cell-Tak coating, which enabled individual tracking of COCs during IVM. Size changes in COCs during IVM were measured by digital image analysis. Cumulus expansion in a porcine oocyte medium of intact COCs increased in a typical manner until 20 hours and decreased in size subsequently until 48 hours of IVM (P < 0.05). Removal of oocytes from COCs by oocytectomy allowed the expansion of CCs to some extent, although their expansion ability was lower than that of COCs (P < 0.05). Addition of DOs (COCs to DOs ratio of 9:16) did not improve cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation rates of intact COCs (P > 0.05) but did enhance cumulus expansion of oocytectomized complexes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, removal of CCs before IVM increased oocyte maturation rates compared with COCs (52.3% and 32.9%, respectively) (P < 0.05) and a similar effect was observed in COCs when the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone was added to the IVM medium: carbenoxolone repressed the expansion of COCs at 20 hours of IVM. In conclusion, the porcine oocyte enhances cumulus expansion both by gap junctional communications and presumably by oocyte-secreted factor production. Nevertheless, the presence of oocytes is not a prerequisite for this process. In return, CCs maintain meiotic arrest in cumulus-enclosed oocytes during the initial culture

  10. Oocyte morphology from primordial to early tertiary follicles of yak.

    PubMed

    Yu, S J; Yong, Y H; Cui, Y

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the developmental morphology of yak oocytes from the primordial follicle to the tertiary follicle. Yak oocytes from resting primordial (n = 6), activated primordial (n = 12), primary (n = 9), secondary (n = 7) and early tertiary (n = 5) follicles were processed and analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The resting primordial follicular oocyte was characterized by relatively smooth surface on the oolemma, the accumulation of free and organelle-related smooth (SER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), round or oval mitochondria, and polyribosomes on the surface of the RER and throughout the ooplasm. The activated primordial follicular oocyte was dominated by numerous coated pits and coated vesicles on the oolemma, and round mitochondria. Up to the secondary follicular stage the oocyte displayed an increase in the number of microvilli, polyribosome, Golgi complexes and mitochondria with distinct cristae. During the secondary follicular stage, formation of the zona pellucida, development of a desmosome-like connection between the oocyte and the granulosa cells, formation of the cortical granules in the oocyte and elongated mitochondria in nearly all oocytes were seen. In the early tertiary follicular oocyte, the perivitelline space was present and a decrease in free SER and RER in the ooplasm occurred; finally, the nucleus migrated from an eccentric to a peripheral location. In conclusion, the growth of the yak oocyte is associated with the relocation and modulation of a number of cytoplasmic organelles as well as the development of oocyte-specific structures such as the zona pellucida, desmosome-like connection and cortical granules. PMID:20059745

  11. Chromatin remodeling in somatic cells injected into mature pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Miyano, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    We examined the involvement of histone H3 modifications in the chromosome condensation and decondensation of somatic cell nuclei injected into mature pig oocytes. Nuclei of pig granulosa cells were transferred into in vitro matured intact pig oocytes, and histone H3 phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation were examined by immunostaining with specific antibodies in relation to changes in chromosome morphology. In the condensed chromosomes of pig oocytes at metaphase II, histone H3 was phosphorylated at serine 10 (H3-S10) and serine 28 (H3-S28), and methylated at lysine 9 (H3-K9), but was not acetylated at lysine 9, 14 and 18 (H3-K9, H3-K14 and H3-K18). During the first 2 h after nuclear transfer, a series of events were observed in the somatic nuclei: nuclear membrane disassembly; chromosome condensation to form a metaphase-like configuration; an increase in histone H3 phosphorylation levels (H3-S10 and H3-S28). Next, pig oocytes injected with nuclei of somatic cells were electroactivated and the chromosome morphology of oocytes and somatic cells was examined along with histone modifications. Generally, chromosomes of the somatic cells showed a similar progression of cell cycle stage to that of oocytes, through anaphase II- and telophase II-like stages then formed pronucleus-like structures, although the morphology of the spindles differed from that of oocyte spindles. The chromosomes of somatic cells also showed changes in histone H3 dephosphorylation and reacetylation, similar to oocytes. In contrast, histone H3 methylation (H3-K9) of somatic cell nuclei did not show any significant change after injection and electroactivation of the oocytes. These results suggest that nuclear remodeling including histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation of injected somatic nuclei took place in the oocytes under regulation by the oocyte cytoplasm. PMID:16735543

  12. Cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Guan, M; Rawson, D M; Zhang, T

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish oocytes is challenging because these oocytes have low membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant and are highly chilling sensitive. Vitrification is considered to be a promising approach for their cryopreservation as it involves rapid freezing and thawing of the oocytes and therefore minimising the chilling injury. In the present study, vitrification properties and the toxicity of a range of vitrification solutions containing different concentrations of Me2SO, methanol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol were investigated. Two different base media and vitrification methods were compared. The effect of different post-thaw dilution solutions together with incubation periods on oocyte viability were also investigated. Stage III zebrafish oocytes were equilibrated in increasing concentrations of cryoprotectants for 30 min in 3 steps. Oocytes were thawed rapidly in a water bath and cryoprotectants were removed in 4 steps. Oocyte viability was assessed using trypan blue staining. The results showed that vitrification solutions V3 and V4 in KCl buffer had low toxicity and vitrified well. The survivals of oocytes after stepwise dilution using solutions containing permeable cryoprotectants were significant higher than those diluted in 0.5M glucose, and the use of CVA65 vitrification system improved oocyte survival when compared with plastic straws after 30 min at 22 degrees C post-thawing. Cryopreservation of zebrafish oocytes by vitrification is reported here for the first time, although oocyte survivals after cryopreservation assessed by trypan blue staining were relatively high shortly after thawing, they became swollen and translucent after incubation in KCl buffer. Further studies are needed to optimise the post-thaw culturing conditions. PMID:20919452

  13. Effect of lower than expected number of oocyte on the IVF results after oocyte-pickup

    PubMed Central

    Gonca, Süheyla; Gün, Ismet; Ovayolu, Ali; Şilfeler, Dilek; Sofuoğlu, Kenan; Özdamar, Özkan; Yilmaz, Ali; Tunali, Gülden

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a lower than expected number of oocyte after ≥14 mm follicle aspiration during OPU has any effect on pregnancy outcomes Methods: This is a retrospective study done between 2010 and 2013 at the IVF Unit of the Zeynep Kamil Women and Children Diseases Education and Research Hospital, dealing with the medical records of infertile patients who underwent IVF cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation with long agonist or fix antogonist protocol. The patients included into the study were those diagnosed with a primary infertility, aged between 23 and 39, at a BMI of 22-28 kg/m2 and having received the first or second IVF treatment. Male factor, presence of uterine anomaly, patients with serious endometriosis and patients with low ovarian reserve were all excluded from the study. Typically, oocyte pick-up was performed in all the patients 35.5 hours after the hCG implementation. Single or double embryo transfer was performed, where available. Patients were classified into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those with no difference between ≥14 mm aspirated follicle number and expected number of oocyte or with 1 missing number of oocyte at the most. Group 2 consisted of those with at least ≥2 missing number of oocyte between aspirated follicle number and expected number of oocyte. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Additionally, a Linear regression analysis was conducted between the total number of oocyte and pregnancy. Results: In total, 387 treatment cycles were included into the study. Group 1 consisted of 134 patients and Group 2 consisted of 252 patients. Antral follicle number (12.8 ± 4.3 and 14.5 ± 4.1, P = 0.0007), hCG day E2 value (1990.7 ± 1056.4 and 2515.2 ± 1332.7, P < 0.0001) and the the number of aspirated follicle during OPU (9.1 ± 4.4 and 13.7 ± 5.5, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in Group 2; whereas on the other

  14. Activation of bovine oocytes penetrated after germinal vesicle breakdown.

    PubMed

    Abeydeera, L R; Okuda, K; Niwa, K

    1994-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the ability of bovine oocytes, after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), to be activated by sperm penetration and the sequence of sperm nuclear transformation. Bovine oocytes cultured for 8 h in maturation medium (tissue culture medium TCM-199 containing 10% fetal calf serum) were inseminated in Brackett and Oliphant's medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (10 mg/ml), caffeine (5 mM) and heparin (10 micrograms/ml). When oocytes were transferred to the maturation medium 8 h after insemination and additionally cultured for 5-40 h at 39 degrees C in 5% CO2 in air, 71-76% of oocytes were penetrated and polyspermy (67-75%) was common. The proportions of penetrated oocytes that were activated significantly increased with the lapse of the additional culture time, reaching 88% and 87% by 25 and 40 h after additional culture, respectively. When compared with unpenetrated oocytes, significantly higher proportions of penetrated oocytes reached metaphase II or beyond 15 and 25 h after additional culture. After penetration, sperm nuclei were transformed into metaphase chromosomes and then to telophase chromosomes before the formation of male pronuclei. These results provide evidence that bovine oocytes acquire the ability to respond to sperm-mediated activation soon after GVBD. PMID:8665157

  15. Improved collection and developmental competence of immature macaque oocytes.

    PubMed

    VandeVoort, C A; Leibo, S P; Tarantal, A F

    2003-02-01

    Methods previously described to aspirate immature oocytes from ovaries of macaques result in approximately half the oocytes being stripped of cumulus cells. Here, we describe modifications of the needle aspiration assembly that yield much higher percentages of cumulus-intact oocytes when used with an ultrasound-guided method for oocyte recovery in monkeys. Sealing of the needle assembly appears to stabilize vacuum pressure at the needle tip and prevents air from entering the tubing. Reduction of the vacuum pressure from -100 to -20 kPa resulted in a significant decrease of denuded oocytes from over 50% to fewer than 10%. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of oocytes that developed into blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Reduction of the aspiration pressure below -20 kPa significantly reduced the total number of oocytes recovered. We concluded that these modifications represent the best compromise to collect the largest number of cumulus-intact oocyte complexes from macaques. PMID:12517374

  16. High-Pressure Freezing Electron Microscopy of Zebrafish Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, Palsamy; Riedel, Dietmar; Dosch, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Oogenesis is an essential cellular and developmental process to prepare the oocyte for propagation of a species after fertilization. Oocytes of oviparous animals are enormous cells endowed with many, big cellular compartments, which are interconnected through active intracellular transport. The dynamic transport pathways and the big organelles of the oocyte provide the opportunity to study cellular trafficking with outstanding resolution. Hence, oocytes were classically used to investigate cellular compartments. Though many novel regulators of vesicle trafficking have been discovered in yeast, tissue culture cells and invertebrates, recent forward genetic screens in invertebrate and vertebrate oocytes isolated novel control proteins specific to multicellular organisms. Zebrafish is a widely used vertebrate model to study cellular and developmental processes in an entire animal. The transparency of zebrafish embryos allows following cellular events during early development with in vivo imaging. Unfortunately, the active endocytosis of the oocyte also represents a drawback for imaging. The massive amounts of yolk globules prevent the penetration of light-beams and currently make in vivo microscopy a challenge. As a consequence, electron microscopy (EM) still provides the highest resolution to analyze the ultra-structural details of compartments and organelles and the mechanisms controlling many cellular pathways of the oocyte. Among different fixation approaches for EM, High Pressure Freezing (HPF) in combination with freeze substitution significantly improves the samples preservation closest to their natural status. Here, we describe the HPF with freeze substitution embedding method for analyzing cellular processes in zebrafish oocytes using electron microscopy. PMID:27557580

  17. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact during oogenesis and oocyte maturation and are present in a c-mos messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP). Both proteins also interact directly in vitro. XGef overexpression increases the level of CPEB phosphorylated early during oocyte maturation, and this directly correlates with increased Mos protein accumulation and acceleration of meiotic resumption. To exert this effect, XGef must retain guanine exchange activity and the interaction with CPEB. Overexpression of a guanine exchange deficient version of XGef, which interacts with CPEB, does not enhance early CPEB phosphorylation. Overexpression of a version of XGef that has significantly reduced interaction with CPEB, but retains guanine exchange activity, decreases early CPEB phosphorylation and delays oocyte maturation. Injection of XGef antibodies into oocytes blocks progesterone-induced oocyte maturation and early CPEB phosphorylation. These findings indicate that XGef is involved in early CPEB activation and implicate GTPase signaling in this process. PMID:15635100

  18. [The activation of bovine oocytes to parthenogenetic development by ethanol].

    PubMed

    Kuznietsova, I B; Kuznietsov, V Ie; Lukashenko, O O

    2000-01-01

    Dependence of parthenogenetic development ability of in vitro matured cow oocytes from their "aging" had been studied. It had been showed the possibility of parthenogenetic development of physiologically matured cow oocytes after inhibition of the first meiotic division and