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Sample records for mouse parotid acini

  1. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    SciTech Connect

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-10-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels.

  2. CCK activates RhoA and Rac1 differentially through Gα13 and Gαq in mouse pancreatic acini

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yan; Ji, Baoan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Williams, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to activate RhoA and Rac1, as well as reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and, thereby, modify acinar morphology and amylase secretion in mouse pancreatic acini. The aim of the present study was to determine which heterotrimeric G proteins activate RhoA and Rac1 upon CCK stimulation. Gα13, but not Gα12, was identified in mouse pancreatic acini by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Using specific assays for RhoA and Rac1 activation, we showed that only active Gα13 activated RhoA. By contrast, active Gα13 and Gαq, but not Gαs, slightly increased GTP-bound Rac1 levels. A greater increase in Rac1 activation was observed when active Gα13 and active Gαq were coexpressed. Gαi was not required for CCK-induced RhoA or Rac1 activation. The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of p115-Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p115-RGS), a specific inhibitor of Gα12/13-mediated signaling, abolished CCK-stimulated RhoA activation. By contrast, both RGS-2, an inhibitor of Gαq, and p115-RGS abolished CCK-induced Rac1 activation, which was PLC pathway-independent. Active Gαq and Gα13, but not Gαs, induced morphological changes and actin redistribution similar to 1 nM CCK. CCK-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization was inhibited by RGS-2, but not by p115-RGS, whereas CCK-induced amylase secretion was blocked by both inhibitors. Together, these findings indicate that, in mouse pancreatic acini, Gα13 links CCK stimulation to the activation of RhoA, whereas both Gα13 and Gαq link CCK stimulation to the activation of Rac1. CCK-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization is mainly mediated by Gαq. By contrast, Gα13 and Gαq signaling are required for CCK-induced amylase secretion. PMID:19940064

  3. Diminished agonist-stimulated inositol trisphosphate generation blocks stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic acini during diet-induced experimental pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, R.E.; Saluja, A.K.; Houlihan, M.J.; Steer, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    Young female mice fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet rapidly develop acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. We have observed that pancreatic acini prepared from these mice are unable to secrete amylase in response to addition of the cholinergic agonist carbachol, although they retain the ability to secrete amylase in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The CDE diet does not alter the binding characteristics (Kd or the maximal number of binding sites) for muscarinic cholinergic receptors as tested using the antagonist (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine nor the competition for this binding by carbachol. Addition of carbachol to acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet does not result in as marked an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels as that noted in control samples (evaluated using quin2 fluorescence). These observations indicate that the CDE diet interferes with stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic acini at a step subsequent to hormone-receptor binding and prior to Ca2+ release. This conclusion is confirmed by our finding that the hormone-stimulated generation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates (inositol trisphosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol monophosphate) from acini labeled with (/sup 3/H)myoinositol is markedly reduced in acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet. This reduction is not due to a decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. This communication represents the first report of a system in which a blockade of inositol phosphate generation can be related to a physiologic defect and pathologic lesion.

  4. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] was used to investigate if Ca2+-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca2+-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca2+] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca2+. Conditions were used to isolate K+ and Cl− conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K+ and Cl− currents. A localized reduction in [Ca2+] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca2+ chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K+ and Cl− currents. The K+ currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance “maxi-K” (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34–sensitive K+ currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca2+] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K+ or Cl− currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM. PMID:22291145

  5. Redistribution of Gαs in Mouse Salivary Glands Following β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Arthur R.; Elder, Kareen O.; Norris, Rachael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Signaling via β-adrenergic receptors activates heterotrimeric G-proteins, which dissociate into α and βγ subunits. In salivary glands, the α subunit of Gs stimulates adenylate cyclase, increasing cyclic AMP levels and promoting exocytosis. The goals of this study were to determine Gαs localization in salivary glands and whether it undergoes redistribution upon activation. Methods Mouse parotid and submandibular (SMG) glands were fixed with paraformaldehyde and prepared for immunofluorescence labeling with anti-Gαs. Results In unstimulated parotid and SMG acinar cells, Gαs was localized mainly to basolateral membranes. Some parotid acinar cells also exhibited cytoplasmic fluorescence. Isoproterenol (IPR) stimulation resulted in decreased membrane fluorescence and increased cytoplasmic fluorescence, which appeared relatively uniform by 30 min. Beginning about 2 hr after IPR, cytoplasmic fluorescence decreased and membrane fluorescence increased, approaching unstimulated levels in SMG acini by 4 hr. Some parotid acini exhibited cytoplasmic fluorescence up to 8 hr after IPR. The IPR-induced redistribution of Gαs was prevented (SMG) or reduced (parotid) by prior injection of propranolol. Striated duct cells of unstimulated mice exhibited general cytoplasmic fluorescence, which was unchanged after IPR. Conclusions Gαs is localized to basolateral membranes of unstimulated salivary acinar cells. Activation of Gαs causes its release from the cell membrane and movement into the cytoplasm. Reassociation of Gαs with the membrane begins about 2 hr after stimulation in the SMG, but complete reassociation takes several hours in the parotid gland. The presence of Gαs in striated duct cells suggests a role in signal transduction of secretion and/or electrolyte transport processes. PMID:25748393

  6. In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velásquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

  7. Morphometric differences between central vs. surface acini in A/J mice using high-resolution micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kizhakke Puliyakote, Abhilash S; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Newell, John D; Wang, Ge; Weibel, Ewald R; Hoffman, Eric A

    2016-07-01

    Through interior tomography, high-resolution microcomputed tomography (μCT) systems provide the ability to nondestructively assess the pulmonary acinus at micron and submicron resolutions. With the application of systematic uniform random sampling (SURS) principles applied to in situ fixed, intact, ex vivo lungs, we have sought to characterize morphometric differences in central vs. surface acini to better understand how well surface acini reflect global acinar geometry. Lungs from six mice (A/J strain, 15-20 wk of age) were perfusion fixed in situ and imaged using a multiresolution μCT system (Micro XCT 400, Zeiss). With the use of lower-resolution whole lung images, SURS methods were used for identification of central and surface foci for high-resolution imaging. Acinar morphometric metrics included diameters, lengths, and branching angles for each alveolar duct and total path lengths from entrance of the acinus to the terminal alveolar sacs. In addition, acinar volume, alveolar surface area, and surface area/volume ratios were assessed. A generation-based analysis demonstrated that central acini have significantly smaller branch diameters at each generation with no significant increase in branch lengths. In addition to larger-diameter alveolar ducts, surface acini had significantly increased numbers of branches and terminal alveolar sacs. The total path lengths from the acinar entrance to the terminal nodes were found to be higher in the case of surface acini. Volumes and surface areas of surface acini are greater than central acini, but there were no differences in surface/volume ratios. In conclusion, there are significant structural differences between surface and central acini in the A/J mouse. PMID:27174924

  8. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:26902981

  9. A new, rapid, method for preparation of dispersed pancreatic acini.

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzone, R; Halban, P A; Gjinovci, A; Trimble, E R

    1985-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of pancreatic acini is described. The method is simple and much more rapid than previously described techniques, the time required for preparation of pancreatic acini being 20 min from removal of the pancreas. Acini prepared with this method perform in a superior manner when stimulated by either caerulein or secretin. Thus this new technique would be ideal for use in binding and secretion studies. PMID:2581556

  10. Congenital parotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Natasha, Shiggaon

    2014-01-01

    Parotid fistula is a cause of great distress and embarrassment to the patient. Parotid fistula is most commonly a post-traumatic situation. Congenital parotid salivary fistulas are unusual entities that can arise from accessory parotid glands or even more infrequently, from normal parotid glands through an aberrant Stensen's duct. The treatment of fistulous tract is usually surgical and can be successfully excised after making a skin incision along the skin tension line around the fistula opening. This report describes a case of right accessory parotid gland fistula of a 4-year-old boy with discharge of pus from right cheek. Computed tomography (CT) fistulography and CT sialography demonstrated fistulous tract arising from accessory parotid gland. Both CT fistulography and CT sialography are very helpful in the diagnosis and surgical planning. In this case, superficial parotidectomy is the treatment of choice. A detailed history, clinical and functional examination, proper salivary gland investigations facilitates in correct diagnosis followed by immediate surgical intervention helps us to restore physical, psychological health of the child patient. PMID:25231049

  11. Modeling mechanical interactions between cancerous mammary acini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Liphardt, Jan; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-03-01

    The rules and mechanical forces governing cell motility and interactions with the extracellular matrix of a tissue are often critical for understanding the mechanisms by which breast cancer is able to spread through the breast tissue and eventually metastasize. Ex vivo experimentation has demonstrated the the formation of long collagen fibers through collagen gels between the cancerous mammary acini responsible for milk production, providing a fiber scaffolding along which cancer cells can disorganize. We present a minimal mechanical model that serves as a potential explanation for the formation of these collagen fibers and the resultant motion. Our working hypothesis is that cancerous cells induce this fiber formation by pulling on the gel and taking advantage of the specific mechanical properties of collagen. To model this system, we employ a new Eulerian, fixed grid simulation method to model the collagen as a nonlinear viscoelastic material subject to various forces coupled with a multi-agent model to describe individual cancer cells. We find that these phenomena can be explained two simple ideas: cells pull collagen radially inwards and move towards the tension gradient of the collagen gel, while being exposed to standard adhesive and collision forces.

  12. Evaluation of Parotid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; St John, Maie A

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis of a parotid lesion is broad, and the otolaryngologist must consider inflammatory, neoplastic, autoimmune, traumatic, infectious, or congenital causes. A comprehensive history and physical examination, in conjunction with judicious use of radiographic imaging (MRI, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine studies), laboratory studies, and pathologic analysis (fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, incisional biopsy), facilitates making an accurate diagnosis. This article reviews the key history and physical elements and adjunctive diagnostic tools available for working up parotid lesions. PMID:26902978

  13. Parotidectomy for Parotid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Shaha, Ashok R

    2016-04-01

    Parotidectomy for parotid cancer includes management of primary salivary cancer, metastatic cancer to lymph nodes, and direct extension from surrounding structures or cutaneous malignancies. Preoperative evaluation should provide surgeons with enough information to plan a sound operation and adequately counsel patients. Facial nerve sacrifice is sometimes required; but in preoperative functioning nerves, function should be preserved. Although nerve involvement predicts poor outcome, survival of around 50% has been reported for primary parotid malignancy. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a high-grade aggressive histology whereby local control for palliation with extended parotidectomy can be achieved; however, overall survival remains poor. PMID:26895698

  14. Botulinum Neurotoxin A for Parotid Enlargement in Cystic Fibrosis: The First Case Report.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Joseph; Habre, Samer; Nasr, Marwan; Hokayem, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease associated with exocrine gland dysfunction. Salivary gland involvement is a common finding. The literature on submaxillary gland involvement has failed to address the parotid gland and any specific treatment of salivary gland manifestations of CF. Treatment is mainly symptomatic, consisting of analgesics, gustatory stimulation, and massage. Salivary secretion has clearly been linked to parasympathetic and sympathetic signals through intracellular calcium release. CF alters salivary composition with increased calcium and phosphorus concentrations and causes histologic changes (duct enlargement, dilation of acini, and abnormal mucous plugs). This study investigated whether botulinum toxin injected into the parotid gland during an acute exacerbation of CF-associated salivary gland disease could alleviate pain and control future exacerbations. PMID:27131031

  15. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy. PMID:27400838

  16. Acetaldehyde inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.P.; Haiman, M.J.; Zylbert, B.A.; Billy, H.T.; Vesenka, G.D.; Geokas, M.C.

    1986-03-30

    Exposure of isolated dispersed pancreatic acini to increasing concentrations of ethanol (5 to 500 mM) or acetaldehyde (0.5 to 100 mM) produced a progressive inhibition of (3H)leucine incorporation into both cellular (those remaining in the cell) and secretory (those released into the medium) proteins. Whereas 500 mM ethanol caused 90-95% inhibition in the synthesis of cellular and secretory proteins, the concentration of acetaldehyde needed to produce a similar inhibition was found to be 50 mM. All subsequent experiments were performed with 12.5 mM acetaldehyde, a concentration that consistently inhibited acinar protein synthesis by about 50%. The acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of acinar protein synthesis was partially normalized when this metabolite was removed after 30 min during a 90-min incubation period. In the presence of acetaldehyde, the secretion of 3H-pulse-labeled proteins, but not amylase, trypsinogen, or chymotrypsinogen, was greatly depressed. Acetaldehyde also caused a marked reduction in (3H)uridine incorporation into acinar RNA. The entry of (3H)uridine, (3H)leucine, and (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into isolated acini was found to be slightly (15-25%) decreased by acetaldehyde. It is concluded that acetaldehyde exerts a direct toxic effect on isolated dispersed pancreatic acini as evidenced by diminution of both protein and RNA synthesis and decreased secretion of the newly synthesized proteins. This inhibitory effect of acetaldehyde could be partially reversed.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol breakdown in pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, S.J.; Peppin, J.F.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-03-01

    Recently the physiological relationship between the phospholipid effect and secretagogue-induced cellular function has begun to be understood. In this study, the authors investigated acute and chronic effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini. Five pairs of male Wistar rats were intragastrically infused for 30 days with high fat diet (25% total calories) plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose. After intoxication, isolated in HEPES media, followed by 30 min incubation with CCK-8 (0, 100, 300 or 600 pM) and ethanol (0 or 100 mM). Acinar lipids were extracted and counted for labeled PI. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into alcoholic acinar PI was reduced to 38.2% of that in controls. A percent maximal PI break down by CCK-8 was similar in the two groups (13-24% of basal). However, the magnitude of PI breakdown was markedly lower in alcoholic acini (482 vs 1081 dpm) due to the decreased PI synthesis rate. The presence of 100 mM ethanol in the media further inhibited the breakdown by 50% in this group. These results strongly indicate that chronic ethanol intoxication inhibits PI synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini, and that this inhibition can be potentiated by acute ethanol administration.

  18. Tuberculosis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Iserì, Mete; Aydìner, Omer; Celìk, Levent; Peker, Onder

    2005-04-01

    Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is very rare and clinically indistinguishable from a neoplasm. Thus the diagnosis of parotid gland involvement with tuberculosis has traditionally been made after surgical resection. We present a case which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology and managed medically. PMID:15949089

  19. Ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors are differentially distributed and expressed in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Wen, J; Bidasee, K R; Besch, H R; Wojcikiewicz, R J; Lee, B; Rubin, R P

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the cellular distribution of the ryanodine receptor/channel (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) subtypes in parotid acini. Using fluorescently labelled 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid glycyl-ryanodine (BODIPYtrade mark-ryanodine) and confocal microscopy, RyRs were localized primarily to the perinuclear region (basal pole) of the acinar cell. Ryanodine, Ruthenium Red, cAMP and cADP ribose (cADPR) competed with BODIPY-ryanodine, resulting in a reduction in the fluorescence signal. However, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] did not alter the binding of BODIPY-ryanodine. Using receptor-subtype-specific antisera, InsP3Rs (types I, II and III) were located predominantly in the apical pole of the parotid cell. The presence of these three subtypes was confirmed using reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Binding studies using a parotid cell-membrane fraction identified and characterized RyRs and InsP3Rs in terms of binding affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and confirmed that cADPR displaces ryanodine from its binding sites. Ruthenium Red and 8-Br-cADP-ribose blocked Ca2+ release in permeabilized acinar cells in response to cADPR and cAMP or forskolin, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was unaffected. The localization of the RyRs and InsP3Rs in discrete regions endow broad areas of the parotid cell with ligand-activated Ca2+ channels. The consequences of the dual activation of the RyRs and InsP3Rs by physiologically relevant stimuli such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are considered in relation to Ca2+ signalling in the parotid gland. PMID:10333498

  20. Parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Fred H.; Shannon, Ira L.

    1969-01-01

    Parotid fluid corticosteroids, substantially comprised of cortisol and cortisone, were previously demonstrated to rise to far greater levels 4 hr after administration of ACTH than they did in the third trimester of pregnancy, although the plasma total corticosteroid concentrations were similar in these two states. It was therefore suggested that only nonproteinbound corticosteroid gains access to parotid fluid. In the present study parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone and plasma dialyzable cortisol concentrations have been measured in normal men before and 2 hr after 40 U ACTH, and, in another group, before and after 10 days of diethystilbestrol (5 mg daily). Total plasma cortisol rose from a mean of 6.3 to 17.9 μg/100 ml after ACTH and from 14.6 to 39.4 mg/100 ml after the estrogen. However parotid fluid cortisol plus cortisone rose from 0.8 to 2.6 μg/100 ml after ACTH and to only 2.2 after estrogen. This rise resembled that of the plasma dialyzable cortisol (control 0.4, ACTH 1.8, estrogen 1.2 μg/100 ml) rather than the increase in total plasma cortisol which was over twice as high after estrogen as after ACTH. Thus parotid fluid corticosteroids seem to be a good measure of nonprotein-bound corticosteroid, the cortisol available to the cell. The total amount of cortisol plus cortisone excreted is approximately constant, independent of parotid fluid flow rate. Cortisone exceeds cortisol in parotid fluid in the basal state, but after ACTH the situation is reversed. PMID:4305375

  1. Effects of double ligation of Stensen's duct on the rabbit parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Maria, O M; Maria, S M; Redman, R S; Maria, A M; Saad El-Din, T A; Soussa, E F; Tran, S D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary gland duct ligation is an alternative to gland excision for treating sialorrhea or reducing salivary gland size prior to tumor excision. Duct ligation also is used as an approach to study salivary gland aging, regeneration, radiotherapy, sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Reports conflict about the contribution of each salivary cell population to gland size reduction after ductal ligation. Certain cell populations, especially acini, reportedly undergo atrophy, apoptosis and proliferation during reduction of gland size. Acini also have been reported to de-differentiate into ducts. These contradictory results have been attributed to different animal or salivary gland models, or to methods of ligation. We report here a bilateral double ligature technique for rabbit parotid glands with histologic observations at 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 days after ligation. A large battery of special stains and immunohistochemical procedures was employed to define the cell populations. Four stages with overlapping features were observed that led to progressive shutdown of gland activities: 1) marked atrophy of the acinar cells occurred by 14 days, 2) response to and removal of the secretory material trapped in the acinar and ductal lumens mainly between 30 and 60 days, 3) reduction in the number of parenchymal (mostly acinar) cells by apoptosis that occurred mainly between 14-30 days, and 4) maintenance of steady-state at 60 days with a low rate of fluid, protein, and glycoprotein secretion, which greatly decreased the number of leukocytes engaged in the removal of the luminal contents. The main post- ligation characteristics were dilation of ductal and acinar lumens, massive transient infiltration of mostly heterophils (rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes), acinar atrophy, and apoptosis of both acinar and ductal cells. Proliferation was uncommon except in the larger ducts. By 30 days, the distribution of myoepithelial cells had spread from exclusively investing the intercalated ducts

  2. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity. PMID:27167480

  3. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-08-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed.

  4. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy. PMID:24902412

  5. Efficient estimation of the total number of acini in adult rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Barré, Sébastien F.; Haberthür, David; Stampanoni, Marco; Schittny, Johannes C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas‐exchanging airways. An acinus is defined as the small tree of gas‐exchanging airways, which is fed by the most distal purely conducting airway. Until now a dissector of five consecutive sections or airway casts were used to count acini. We developed a faster method to estimate the number of acini in young adult rats. Right middle lung lobes were critical point dried or paraffin embedded after heavy metal staining and imaged by X‐ray micro‐CT or synchrotron radiation‐based X‐rays tomographic microscopy. The entrances of the acini were counted in three‐dimensional (3D) stacks of images by scrolling through them and using morphological criteria (airway wall thickness and appearance of alveoli). Segmentation stopper were placed at the acinar entrances for 3D visualizations of the conducting airways. We observed that acinar airways start at various generations and that one transitional bronchiole may serve more than one acinus. A mean of 5612 (±547) acini per lung and a mean airspace volume of 0.907 (±0.108) μL per acinus were estimated. In 60‐day‐old rats neither the number of acini nor the mean acinar volume did correlate with the body weight or the lung volume. PMID:24997068

  6. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  7. Penetrating Trauma to the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Matthias; Maier, Susanne; Maier, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Penetrating trauma to the parotid gland may present unique challenges especially when Stensen duct, neurovascular structures, and/or collateral organs are involved. Especially ballistic injuries caused by high-velocity projectiles or fragments of grenades and improvised explosive devices are often associated with massive tissue damage and a high risk of infections and other posttraumatic complications. Because penetrating parotid trauma is not very common, only limited information on the primary treatment of such injuries is available. This article gives a short overview about actual aspects on diagnosis and treatment strategies especially focusing on ballistic parotid injuries. PMID:26372712

  8. Mumps Presenting as a Parotid Abscess.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Seung; Oh, Jong Seok; Kwon, Sam Hyun; Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Yong Joo

    2016-05-01

    Parotid abscess is an uncommon condition in infants. It is frequently associated with prematurity, prolonged gavage feeding, and dehydration. Mumps is a viral disease caused by paramyxovirus. It frequently involves the parotid gland and is only rarely found in the pancreas, testis, or brain. The authors describe a rare case of a 10-month-old infant with mumps who developed the classical manifestations of unilateral acute parotitis progressing to formation of a parotid abscess that responded to 2 rounds of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27159869

  9. Parotid gland metastasis of a breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Perez-Fidalgo, J A; Chirivella, I; Laforga, J; Colio, J M; Blanes, M D; Baydal, R; Roselló, S; De-la-Morena, E; Lluch, A

    2007-04-01

    Parotid gland metastases from malignant tumors are extremely rare. A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with an early breast cancer with no expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Five years later the patient presented a tumour in parotid gland. After total parotidectomy, microscopic analysis of the gland demonstrated an invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) with positive expression of oestrogen receptor. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by complementary local radiotherapy. Diagnosis of a metastasic tumour in parotid gland poses a challenge. In our case an immunohistochemical study of oestrogen receptor was fundamental to establish a diagnosis. PMID:17462982

  10. Facial Nerve and Parotid Gland Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Amit; Larian, Babak; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of important anatomic and functional anatomy associated with the parotid gland and facial nerve for the practicing otolaryngologist, head and neck surgeon, facial plastic surgeon, and plastic surgeon. The discussion includes the important anatomic relationships and physiology related to the parotid gland and salivary production. A comprehensive description of the path of facial nerve, its branches, and important anatomic landmarks also are provided. PMID:27040583

  11. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  12. Histomorphological Study on Number of Acini of the Prostate Gland of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Zaman, U S; Choudhury, S; Ameen, S; Sultana, R; Tabassum, R; Nawshin, N; Azam, M S; Akhter, S M

    2016-04-01

    The prostate is made up of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands that are embedded in a framework of fibromuscular tissue and arranged in three concentric groups (mucosal, submucosal and main prostatic gland). The prostate consists of peripheral, central and transitional zone accounting for approximately 70%, 20% and 5% of the glandular substances. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects the transitional zone and carcinoma of the prostate affects the peripheral zone. The glandular tissue consists of numerous acini with frequent internal papillae. Follicular epithelium is variable but predominantly columnar and either single-layered or pseudostratified. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in number of acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (up to 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed following standard autopsy techniques. In the present study, total 60 slides were made for histological study from both central and peripheral zone of the prostate which were examined under low power objectives. The number of the acini of the prostate gland were counted and recorded. The mean number of the acini of the prostate gland was 16.45, 43.54 and 42.45 in Group A, B and C respectively in central zone and 30.08, 51.35 and 44.16 in Group A, B and C respectively in peripheral zone of the prostate. Variance analysis shows that mean differences were highly significant between Group A & B and Group C & A and non

  13. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis. PMID:25318444

  14. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini

    PubMed Central

    Gaiko-Shcherbak, Aljona; Fabris, Gloria; Dreissen, Georg; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Noetzel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa) experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN) without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function. PMID:26674091

  15. Temperature dependence of high-affinity CCK receptor binding and CCK internalization in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.A.; Bailey, A.C.; Roach, E. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1988-04-01

    {sup 125}I-labeled cholecystokinin (CCK) binding and internalization were studied as a function of temperatures in isolated rat pancreatic acini. At 37{degree}C, acini readily bound and degraded {sup 125}I-CCK. When labeled hormone binding was inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabeled CCK, competition-inhibition curves were biphasic, consistent with both high- (K{sub d}, 18 pM) and low-affinity (K{sub d}, 13 nM) binding sites. At 4{degree}C, acini bound only one-third as much {sup 125}I-CCK and degradation was essentially abolished. At 4{degree}C, CCK competition curves were consistent with a single class of low-affinity binding sites (K{sub d}, 19 nM). Internalization of {sup 125}I-CCK was evaluated by three washing procedures utilizing acid, base, and trypsin. All were shown to remove membrane-bound {sup 125}I-CCK, and this finding was validated for trypsin by electron microscope autotradiography. When internalization of {sup 125}I-CCK was evaluated as a function of the medium concentration of CCK, both high- and low-affinity components were observed. These results suggest that high-affinity CCK binding and CCK internalization are separate temperature-sensitive processes. Moreover, internalization is not uniquely associated with high-affinity binding.

  16. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  17. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-07-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  18. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  19. Facial Nerve Anomaly in a Patient With a Parotid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The branching pattern of the facial nerve varies among individuals. These variations increase the risk of facial nerve injury during parotid surgery. We report a new variation of the facial nerve and an unusual relationship with the retromandibular vein during parotid surgery. Clinicians should recognize this facial anomaly and the unusual relationship with the retromandibular vein to avoid injuring the facial nerve during parotid surgery. PMID:27149495

  20. Sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Debnath, S C; Adhyapok, A K

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which was located anteromedial to the masseter muscle and isolated from the main parotid gland. The calculus developed from this accessory gland, and the main gland was free of lithiasis and inflammation. To our knowledge, there is no reported case of 14 stones in an accessory parotid salivary gland. The calculus was removed through a standard incision without injury to the facial nerve or a salivary fistula. PMID:26048098

  1. Giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Ademar; da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias; Magrin, José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of all benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, involving more frequently the parotid gland. It is a benign tumor with a slow and continuous growth that without treatment can reach an enormous size. We present a case of a giant pleomorphic adenoma in a 78-year-old man with a history of more than 30 years of a growing lesion in the parotid gland. Clinical examination revealed a giant mass on the right side of the face, however without any sign of facial nerve damage. The tumor was completely resected by total parotidectomy and preservation of the facial nerve. Macroscopically, the tumor measured 28 cm and weighed 4.0 Kg. On the histological examination there was a predominance of epithelial and myoepithelial cells in a hyaline and myxoid stroma. It was not found any area of malignant transformation. In the post-operatory the aesthetic and functional results were excellent. PMID:18167483

  2. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398

  3. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Muthiah; Selvarajan, Sandhiya; Srinivasamurthy, Sureshkumar; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR) was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) causality assessment, Naranjo's and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as “certain”. This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo's algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig's severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used. PMID:25422569

  4. Post-traumatic Lipoma of the Parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Rehal, Satnam Singh; Alibhai, Mustansir; Perera, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Trauma with soft tissue haematoma formation and subsequent lymphatic effusion, fat necrosis and lipoma formation have been postulated as an aetiological pathway. We report a case of a post-traumatic lipoma of the parotid gland to add to the available literature on this uncommon pathology. PMID:27106616

  5. Two-year longitudinal study of parotid salivary flow rates in head and neck cancer patients receiving unilateral neck parotid-sparing radiotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Henson, B S; Eisbruch, A; D'Hondt, E; Ship, J A

    1999-05-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment for head and neck cancers, and frequently causes permanent salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. This 2-year longitudinal study evaluated unstimulated and stimulated parotid flow rates in 11 patients with head and neck cancers who received unilateral neck parotid-sparing RT. The results demonstrated that treated parotid glands had essentially no output up to 2 years post-RT. Alternatively, spared parotid flow rates were indistinguishable from pre-RT values at 1 and 2 years post-RT, and increased slightly over time. Total unstimulated and stimulated parotid flow rates 2 years after completion of RT were similar to pre-RT values, suggesting that spared parotid function may compensate for lost function from treated parotid glands. These results demonstrate that unilateral neck parotid-sparing techniques are effective in preserving contralateral parotid glands up to 2 years after the completion of RT. PMID:10621842

  6. Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Sedat; Demir, Mehmet Gökhan; Barışık, Nagehan Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Non Hodgkin lymphomas correspond to 25 % of all head and neck cancers. These rare tumors only include less than 5 % of malign tumors in parotid region. Differential diagnosis of these tumors cover many malign and benign tumors of the parotid gland. Definite diagnosis depends on sufficient tissue material of parotidectomy specimen. Treatment modality is surgical removal of the lesion with or without additional radiation and chemotherapy depending on the stage of the tumor. Prognosis is better than other forms of the B-cell lymphoma. We present a 54 year old woman who suffered from progressively and slowly growing mass on parotid region, without any inflammatory disease or chronic infection, diagnosed with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the parotid gland. Parotid gland was totally excised by superficial parotidectomy and there is no recurrence after 5 years postoperative period. PMID:27408468

  7. Rhinosporidiosis in the parotid duct: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Panda, Swagatika; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Padhiary, Subrat K; Sahoo, Sujit R; Srivastava, Gunjan

    2013-11-01

    Endemic to South India and Sri Lanka, Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by an agent of uncertain taxonomy: Rhinosporidium seeberi. Although it commonly manifests as a proliferative nasal lesion, many cases of Rhinosporidiosis have been reported where it has appeared as an extranasal lesion. The reported extranasal sites include the eye, ear, trachea, and parotid duct. However, the involvement of the parotid duct is quite rare, even among extranasal sites. The case presented is an adult female from the non-endemic zone of East India with a proliferative mass in the parotid duct. Although Rhinosporidiosis was not taken into consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis, eventual histopathological diagnosis confirmed Rhinosporidiosis. As this appears to be the second case of Rhinosporidiosis in the parotid duct in East India in 4 years, we encourage clinicians to be flexible in the differential diagnosis of proliferative growth in the parotid duct, even in those from non-endemic areas. PMID:23371913

  8. Role of pancreatic enzymes and their substrates in autodigestion of the pancreas. In vitro studies with isolated rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Nagai, H; Henrich, H; Wünsch, P H; Fischbach, W; Mössner, J

    1989-03-01

    Intrapancreatic activation of proteases is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Several authors have questioned, however, the central role of trypsin in autodigestion of the pancreas. To clarify the direct effects of pancreatic enzymes and other related factors on acinar cells, we used the model of isolated pancreatic acini. Acini were prepared from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Protein synthesis was measured by incubation of acini with [35S]methionine. Acini were resuspended thereafter in fresh buffer and further incubated for 30-90 min under various conditions [e.g., with pancreatic homogenates, ascites (from rats with pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate), pure pancreatic enzymes, and other factors]. The percentage of release of newly synthesized proteins into the culture medium was regarded as a biochemical parameter of cellular integrity. A morphologic score of cellular integrity was obtained via light microscopic evaluation of acini at the end of the various incubations by measuring the degree of cell lysis, loss of cell granules, ballooning, formation of vacuoles, and karyopyknosis. When normal [35S]methionine-labeled pancreatic acini were incubated with various factors, the percentage of release of labeled proteins into the medium was as follows: incubation with HEPES/Ringer's buffer, 1.8%; hemorrhagic pancreatic ascites, 3.8%; pancreatic homogenates, 2.0%; lipase, 1.8%; phospholipase A2, 3.0%; phospholipase A2 + lecithin, 3.2%; trypsin, 2.5%; 5% olive oil, 1.8%; ascites + olive oil, 78.3%; ascites + homogenized epididymal fat, 79.9%; lipase + olive oil, 32.0%; pancreatic homogenates + olive oil, 28.0%; diolein, 2.65%; and oleic acid, 62.9%. The cellular release of radiolabeled proteins showed an inverse correlation with cellular integrity as shown by light microscopy. We postulate that interstitial release of degradation products from triglycerides by lipase causes cellular disruption

  9. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. PMID:26912292

  10. Partial irradiation of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Kim, H M; Ten Haken, R K

    2001-07-01

    Recent efforts to reduce xerostomia associated with irradiation (RT) of head and neck cancer include the use of conformal and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to partly spare the major salivary glands, notably the parotid glands, from a high radiation dose while treating adequately all the targets at risk of disease. Knowledge of the dose-volume-response relationships in the salivary glands would determine treatment planning goals and facilitate optimization of the RT plans. Recent prospective studies of salivary flows following inhomogeneous irradiation of the parotid glands have utilized dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and various models to assess these relationships. These studies found that the mean dose to the gland is correlated with the reduction of the salivary output. This is consistent with a pure parallel architecture of the functional subunits (FSUs) of the salivary glands. The range of the mean doses, which have been found in these studies to cause significant salivary flow reduction is 26 to 39 Gy. PMID:11447580

  11. Effect of protein quality on /sup 14/C glucose utilization in isolated rat mammary acini

    SciTech Connect

    Masor, M.L.; Grundleger, M.L.; Jansen, G.R.

    1986-03-01

    Poor protein quality has a deleterious effect on lactation in rats. Dams consuming a 13% wheat gluten (WG) diet are unable to maintain litters. Glucose utilization in isolated mammary acini taken from dams at either day 20 of gestation (G20) or day 4 of lactation (L4) was examined in dams consuming 13% WG vs 13% casein-methionine (CM) diets from day of breeding. Dams consuming WG had significantly smaller inguinal-abdominal mammary glands than CM dams at both G20 and L4, and mammary glands of CM but not WG dams were larger at L4 than G20. Both average pup weight and pup daily gain were smaller in WG litters. Basal levels of /sup 14/C glucose oxidation (GO) and /sup 14/C glucose incorporation into lipid (GL) and lactose were examined. A large significant increase in GO and GL occurred in CM dams from G20 to L4 but not in WG dams. Both GO and GL were higher in CM dams on L4 but not at G20. The ratio of GO:GO+GL changed at parturition in CM but not WG dams. The normal changes in glucose utilization by mammary epithelial cells which occur at parturition were impaired by the WG diet.

  12. Muscarinic receptors and amylase secretion of rat pancreatic acini during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Morisset, J; Wood, J; Solomon, T E; Larose, L

    1987-08-01

    This study examines the effects of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis on the secretory response of rat pancreatic acini to carbamylcholine and concentration of acinar muscarinic receptors. Rats were injected subcutaneously every 8 hr with cerulein, 12 micrograms/kg, for two days. They were sacrificed 2 and 4 hr after the first injection, 4 hr after the second and third, and 8 hr after the sixth. By 2 hr after the first injection, carbamylcholine showed decreased potency for stimulating amylase release; decreased potency becomes maximal after the second injection. Four hours after the first injection, carbamylcholine also showed decreased efficacy for causing maximal amylase release. In the course of development of pancreatitis, progressive reductions in muscarinic receptor concentrations were evident from 4 hr after the second injection. Following the complete treatment (8 hr after the sixth injection), no alteration could be observed in the affinity or proportions of each agonist class of muscarinic receptors. These studies indicate that the pancreatic acinar cells still remain functional after acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis, although significant reductions in potency and efficacy of carbamylcholine to cause amylase release and reduced muscarinic receptor concentration occur. PMID:2440647

  13. Detachment-induced autophagy during anoikis and lumen formation in epithelial acini.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jayanta

    2008-04-01

    The individual units (called acini) comprising glandular epithelium possess a hollow lumen that is filled in early epithelial cancers. While investigating the generation of this hollow lumen using an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) epithelial cell culture model, we observed extensive autophagy in dying cells during lumen formation, and thus, proposed that excessive self-eating may promote cell death in the lumen. However, we now reassess this hypothesis. Because cells in the lumen die due to extracellular matrix (ECM) deprivation (anoikis), we tested if autophagy is regulated by ECM detachment. We discovered that detachment strongly induces autophagy in epithelial cells, even when apoptosis is inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of autophagy-related (ATG) genes inhibits detachment-induced autophagy, resulting in increased apoptosis and reduced clonogenic recovery following anoikis. Similarly, during 3D morphogenesis, ATG-depletion enhances luminal apoptosis and fails to elicit long-term luminal survival and filling, even when combined with apoptotic inhibition. Thus, autophagy promotes epithelial cell survival during anoikis. These results broach the possibility that autophagy contributes to the survival of tumor cells lacking appropriate matrix contact, either during early carcinoma formation or in the later stages of dissemination and metastasis. PMID:18196957

  14. Processing of receptor-bound somatostatin: internalization and degradation by pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1987-04-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for somatostatin on plasma membranes from pancreatic acinar cells. In the present study they attempted to characterize the fate of receptor-bound /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin. Internalization of somatostatin was rapid (reaching a plateau at 20% of the cell-associated specific radioactivity) and temperature dependent. To follow the processing of bound somatostatin, acini were incubated with /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin at 5/sup 0/C during 16 h then, after washing, incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min in fresh medium. Surface-bound somatostatin decreased rapidly, whereas radioactivity increased in the cell interior and the incubation medium. Intracellular and membrane-bound radioactivity was mainly intact /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin. Degradation occurred at the plasma membrane level and led to iodotyrosine production. After 15 min of incubation, 15% of the initially surface-bound /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 11/)somatostatin was compartmentalized within the cell, mainly in the microsomal fraction. After 30 min, a significant increase in radioactivity appeared in the nuclear fraction. These results indicate that the major part of somatostatin cellular degradation takes place at the plasma membrane level. Within the cell, somatostatin is routed to the nucleus via particular fractions sedimenting with microsomal vesicles.

  15. Cavernous hemangioma with large phlebolith of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Joo Chul; Kim, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Young Man; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2013-11-01

    Hemangiomas are vascular anomalies characterized by increased proliferation and turnover of endothelial cells. Hemangiomas of the parotid region are relatively uncommon in adult population, and there are a few reports of hemangioma with large phlebolith within the parotid gland. We herein report a case of it. Sialography may be a useful investigation method in the evaluation of radiopaque lesions localized intraglandularly in the parotid area to rule out the sialolith. Cavernous hemangioma with phleboliths should be included in the differential diagnosis of a swelling in the mandibular area. PMID:24220486

  16. [Hydatid cyst of the parotid gland: six cases].

    PubMed

    Oudidi, Abdellatif; Benmansour, Najib; El Alami, El Amine M N

    2006-10-01

    Primary hydatid cyst of the parotid gland is still an exceptional localization. The parotid gland is an uncommon site, even in our country, in which echinococcal disease is endemic. We report six cases of primary hydatid cyst of the parotid gland who presented with an isolated mass. The diagnosis was based on ultrasonography, which showed a parotid gland cystic mass. The echinococcal immunologic test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was positive in two cases. The surgical treatment consisted of total resection of the cyst, without rupture of the cystic wall and preserving the gland, in four cases and resection of the prominent dome in two cases. The diagnosis was confirmed on macroscopic examination of the resected pieces. In all cases, the postoperative course was uneventful. There was no recurrence at the 17-month follow-up. PMID:17049148

  17. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland. PMID:25441870

  18. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Sánchez, Gracia M; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J; Ruiz-Masera, Juan José; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco M; García de Marcos, José A; Calderón-Bohórquez, José M

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a term that refers to a reactive pseudoneoplastic disorder that can appear in different locations of the human body. The lung is the most frequently affected organ. The etiology is still unknown. It affects individuals of both sexes and of a wide range of ages. The diagnosis is still difficult and it is based on the histological examination of the lesions composed of four cell-types: histiocytes, myofibroblasts, plasma cells and lymphocytes. With regard to the treatment regimes there is no agreement. Treatment ranges from surgical excision to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or steroids. The purpose of this article is to report one case of inflammatory pseudotumor located in the parotid gland and to make a special point of the difficulty in arriving at a correct diagnosis in order to achieve the most adequate treatment. PMID:16056193

  19. Helical Tomotherapy for Parotid Gland Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Kyu; Rosen, Isaac I.; Gibbons, John P.; Fields, Robert S.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate helical tomotherapy (HT) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a postoperative treatment for parotid gland tumors. Methods and Materials: Helical tomotherapy plans were developed for 4 patients previously treated with segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) IMRT. A primary planning target volume (PTV64) and two secondary PTVs (PTV60, PTV54) were defined. The clinical goals from the SMLC plans were applied as closely as possible to the HT planning. The SMLC plans included bolus, whereas HT plans did not. Results: In general, the HT plans showed better target coverage and target dose homogeneity. The minimum doses to the desired coverage volume were greater, on average, in the HT plans for all the targets. Minimum PTV doses were larger, on average, in the HT plans by 4.6 Gy (p = 0.03), 4.8 Gy (p = 0.06), and 4.9 Gy (p = 0.06) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Maximum PTV doses were smaller, on average, by 2.9 Gy (p = 0.23), 3.2 Gy (p = 0.02), and 3.6 Gy (p = 0.03) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Average dose homogeneity index was statistically smaller in the HT plans, and conformity index was larger for PTV64 in 3 patients. Tumor control probabilities were higher for 3 of the 4 patients. Sparing of normal structures was comparable for the two techniques. There were no significant differences between the normal tissue complication probabilities for the HT and SMLC plans. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy treatment plans were comparable to or slightly better than SMLC plans. Helical tomotherapy is an effective alternative to SMLC IMRT for treatment of parotid tumors.

  20. Cavernous hemangioma of the parotid gland in adults

    PubMed Central

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Madrigal-Rubiales, Beatriz; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas account for 0.4-0.6% of all tumors of the parotid gland and most of them occur in children, nevertheless in adults hemangiomas are very rare. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a mass in the parotid right tail associated with fluctuating swelling episodes unrelated to meals and with a slowly progressive growth. The provisional diagnosis was a pleomorphic adenoma, so a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. During surgery, the macroscopic appearance makes suspect a vascular lesion. The histopathological result was a cavernous hemangioma. The classic clinical presentation of a parotid hemangioma is an intraglandular mass associated or not with skin lesions characterized by reddish macules and/or papules, and a vibration or pulsation when palpating the parotid region. In imaging tests, phleboliths could be observed which are very suggestive of a hemangioma or a vascular malformation. In the absence of these signs, the diagnosis could be difficult, particularly in an adult due to its low prevalence, with about 50 cases reported worldwide. However a hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors in adults. Key words:Cavernous hemangioma, parotid gland, superficial parotidectomy, pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25674332

  1. Cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways in the arachidonic acid-induced inflammatory response in pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; De Dios, I

    2015-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is generally associated with inflammation in different settings. We assess the molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response exerted by AA on pancreatic acini as an approach to acute pancreatitis (AP). Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor), TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and 15d-PGJ2 (PPARγ agonist) were used to ascertain the signaling pathways. In addition, we examine the effects of TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 on AP induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO). To carry out in vitro studies, acini were isolated from pancreas of control rats. Generation of PGE2 and TXB2, activation of pro-inflammatory pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT3) and overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin was found in AA-treated acini. In addition, AA up-regulated TLR4 and down-regulated PPARγ expression. Celecoxib prevented the up-regulation of CCL2 and P-selectin but did not show any effect on the AA-mediated changes in TLR4 and PPARγ expression. TAK-242, reduced the generation of AA metabolites and repressed both the cascade of pro-inflammatory events which led to CCL2 and P-selectin overexpression as well as the AA-induced PPARγ down-regulation. Thus, TLR4 acts as upstream activating pro-inflammatory and inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways. 15d-PGJ2 down-regulated TLR4 expression and hence prevented the synthesis of AA metabolites and the inflammatory response mediated by them. Reciprocal negative cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways is evidenced. In vivo experiments showed that TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 treatments reduced the inflammatory response in BPDO-induced AP. We conclude that through TLR4-dependent mechanisms, AA up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini, partly mediated by the generation of PGE2 and TXB2, which activated pro-inflammatory pathways, but also directly by down-regulating PPARγ expression with anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro and in vivo studies support the role of TLR4 in AP and the use of TLR4 inhibitors and

  2. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour.

    PubMed

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5-10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  3. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  4. High-frequency ultrasound in parotid gland disease.

    PubMed

    Onkar, Prashant Madhukar; Ratnaparkhi, Chetana; Mitra, Kajal

    2013-12-01

    Parotid gland is involved in many inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Many a times, it is difficult to ascertain the type of swelling by clinical examination. The anatomy and various abnormalities of the glands are very easily visualized by high-frequency ultrasound. Ultrasound can confirm the presence of the mass with sensitivity up to 100%. It can demonstrate whether a lesion is located in the parotid gland or outside. It can help in differentiating benign from malignant neoplasms and local staging of the mass in malignant lesions. In addition, ultrasound can identify those entities that may not need surgical intervention. The glands appear enlarged and show altered echopattern in acute inflammation and may be normal or reduce in size in chronic inflammation. Other pathologies that involve salivary glands are sialolithiasis and various benign and malignant neoplasms. Ultrasound many times suggests final diagnosis or supplies important differential diagnosis. In this article, the use of high-frequency ultrasound in parotid disease is discussed, and sonographic features of different parotid pathologies are reviewed with examples illustrated. High-frequency ultrasound is the first and many a times the only imaging investigation done for evaluation of parotid glands. PMID:24263755

  5. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei-Rong; Xu, Shou-Ping; Liu, Bo; Cao, Xiu-Tang; Ren, Gang; Du, Lei; Zhou, Fu-Gen; Feng, Lin-Chun; Qu, Bao-Lin; Xie, Chuan-Bin; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50) changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p < 0.05). The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning. PMID:26793717

  6. Oncocytoma of the Deep Lobe of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Popovski, Vladimir; Benedetti, Alberto; Monevska, Danica Popovik; Grcev, Aleksandar; Serafimovski, Predrag; Pecanovski, Ruse; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oncocytoma or oxyphilic adenoma is uncommon salivary gland tumour, occurs predominantly in the in patients older than 60 years of age. Clinically oncocytoma resemble other salivary tumours while histology is typically consisting of oncocytes with many hyperplastic mitochondria. It usually occurs in the parotid gland. Because the features of oncocytoma are similar to those of other benign and low-grade malignant salivary tumours, clinical diagnosis is often challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presents the pathologic and imaging findings of an oncocytoma arising in the deep lobe of the right parotid gland in a 74-year-old male. Oncocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of histological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). CONCLUSION: This case was unique because in the literature there are few articles about the rare presentation and deep lobe location of this type of parotid oncocytoma. PMID:27335603

  7. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  8. Role of perioperative antibiotic treatment in parotid gland surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shkedy, Yotam; Alkan, Uri; Roman, Benjamin R.; Hilly, Ohad; Feinmesser, Raphael; Bachar, Gideon; Mizrachi, Aviram

    2016-01-01

    Background The value of routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment in parotid gland surgery remains undetermined. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent parotidectomy at a university-affiliated tertiary care center between 1992 and 2009. Patients with insufficient data, specifically regarding postoperative complications and antibiotic administration were excluded from the study cohort. Results A total of 593 patients underwent parotidectomy during the study period. After exclusion, 464 patients were eligible for the study. Perioperative antibiotic treatment was given to 206 patients (45%). There was no difference in wound infection rates between patients who received perioperative antibiotic therapy and those who did not (p = .168). Multivariate analysis showed that female sex, neck dissection, and drain output >50 cc/24 hours were predictive of postoperative wound infection. Conclusion Routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment has no role in parotid gland surgery. Perioperative antibiotic treatment is recommended for patients undergoing extensive parotid gland surgery with neck dissection. PMID:26702565

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Chis, Octavian; Albu, Silviu

    2014-09-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) refers to spindle cell sarcomas arising from or separating in the direction of cells of the peripheral nerve sheath. The MPNST of the parotid gland is an extremely rare tumor, usually having a poor prognosis, and only a few cases been described in the literature. In this article, we report the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges related to a new case of MPNST of the parotid. Diagnosis was made based on clinical, imaging (computed tomography scan), histologic, and immunohistochemistry findings. Despite comprehensive treatment--complete surgical resection and radiotherapy--the tumor displayed a highly aggressive course. PMID:25153067

  10. Spontaneous cutaneous extrusion of a parotid gland sialolith.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly; Cheah, Tricia; Ha, Jennifer F

    2016-01-01

    Parotid gland sialolithiasis is an uncommon condition that can cause pain and recurrent infection in affected patients. Migration of a stone through a fistula is a rare but possible complication of untreated sialolithiasis. We present a case of parotid gland sialolithiasis in a 63-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of parotitis and facial pain, which resolved through spontaneous extrusion of the stone (11 mm) through a cutaneous fistula while awaiting surgery. Management is typically conservative or surgical, depending on the location and size of the stone, and the clinical presentation. PMID:27143163

  11. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    SciTech Connect

    Roesink, Judith M. . E-mail: J.M.Roesink@azu.nl; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function.

  12. Fistulectomy of the Parotid Fistula Secondary to Suppurative Parotitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Managutti, Anil; Tiwari, Saba; Prakasam, Michael; Puthanakar, Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    A parotid fistula is a communication between the skin and a parotid duct or gland through which saliva is discharged. The most common cause of the parotid fistula is trauma. The major causes of parotid trauma in a civilian practice are penetrating injury to the parotid gland from an assault weapon or injury due to shattered glass after a motor vehicle accident. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce a parotid fistula, and it will be difficult to manage successfully. In this article we have described diagnosis by fistulography, meticulous dissection, and complete excision of the fistulous tract with layered closure of the parotid fascia followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, use of anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition. PMID:25709371

  13. Temporal Evolution of Parotid Volume and Parotid Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Jen, Yee-Min; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Kao, Hung-Wen; Wang, Chih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To concurrently quantify the radiation-induced changes and temporal evolutions of parotid volume and parotid apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods A total of 11 NPC patients (9 men and 2 women; 48.7 ± 11.7 years, 22 parotid glands) were enrolled. Radiation dose, parotid sparing volume, severity of xerostomia, and radiation-to-MR interval (RMI) was recorded. MRI studies were acquired four times, including one before and three after radiotherapy. The parotid volume and the parotid ADC were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and MedCalc. Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The parotid volume was 26.2 ± 8.0 cm3 before radiotherapy. The parotid ADC was 0.8 ± 0.15 × 10−3 mm2/sec before radiotherapy. The parotid glands received a radiation dose of 28.7 ± 4.1 Gy and a PSV of 44.1 ± 12.6%. The parotid volume was significantly smaller at MR stage 1 and stage 2 as compared to pre-RT stage (P < .005). The volume reduction ratio was 31.2 ± 13.0%, 26.1 ± 13.5%, and 17.1 ± 16.6% at stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The parotid ADC was significantly higher at all post-RT stages as compared to pre-RT stage reciprocally (P < .005 at stage 1 and 2, P < .05 at stage 3). The ADC increase ratio was 35.7 ± 17.4%, 27.0 ± 12.8%, and 20.2 ± 16.6% at stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The parotid ADC was negatively correlated to the parotid volume (R = -0.509; P < .001). The parotid ADC was positively associated with the radiation dose significantly (R2 = 0.212; P = .0001) and was negatively associated with RMI significantly (R2 = 0.203; P = .00096) significantly. Multiple regression analysis further showed that the post-RT parotid ADC was related to the radiation dose and RMI significantly (R2 = 0

  14. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD{sub 50} (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD{sub 50}. Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  15. Parotid gland biopsy and /sup 67/Ga imaging correlation in systemic sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, S.D.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.; Bower, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    We correlated the results of parotid gland biopsy, chest roentgenograms, and gallium citrate scintigraphy in 24 patients evaluated for possible systemic sarcoidosis. Of 19 patients ultimately proven to have sarcoidosis, 11 (57.9 percent) had positive parotid gland biopsy. The yield of parotid gland biopsy in patients with abnormal gallium parotid activity was only marginally higher (64.7 percent). Abnormal parotid gland uptake of gallium citrate was seen in 17 of these 19 patients (89.5 percent) and was always associated with abnormal lung or perihilar activity. The parotid gland biopsy is a useful technique for obtaining the tissue diagnosis of sarcoidosis; however, gallium scintigraphy should not be performed to select patients as this will only marginally increase the biopsy yield.

  16. Simple tool for prediction of parotid gland sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gensheimer, Michael F.; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Cain, David; Quang, Tony S.

    2015-10-01

    Sparing one or both parotid glands is a key goal when planning head and neck cancer radiation treatment. If the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps one or both parotid glands substantially, it may not be possible to achieve adequate gland sparing. This finding results in physicians revising their PTV contours after an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan has been run and reduces workflow efficiency. We devised a simple formula for predicting mean parotid gland dose from the overlap of the parotid gland and isotropically expanded PTV contours. We tested the tool using 44 patients from 2 institutions and found agreement between predicted and actual parotid gland doses (mean absolute error = 5.3 Gy). This simple method could increase treatment planning efficiency by improving the chance that the first plan presented to the physician will have optimal parotid gland sparing.

  17. Facial Nerve Anomaly in a Patient With a Parotid Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-05-01

    The branching pattern of the facial nerve varies among individuals. These variations increase the risk of facial nerve injury during parotid surgery. We report a new variation of the facial nerve and an unusual relationship with the retromandibular vein during parotid surgery.Clinicians should recognize this facial anomaly and the unusual relationship with the retromandibular vein to avoid injuring the facial nerve during parotid surgery. PMID:27149495

  18. Parotid Tail Pleomorphic Adenoma Extending to the Parapharyngeal Space

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Kerem; Doğan, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old male with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for three months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review parapharyngeal space tumors are rare and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS. PMID:23524806

  19. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  20. A rare cytological diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Goyal, Vasudha; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Mahajan, Nidhi; Jain, Shyama

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the parotid gland is relatively rare and constitutes about 4-5% of extranodal lymphomas. The majority of them is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is B cell in nature. We report a case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the parotid gland in an elderly male. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the right parotid gland as high grade B-cell NHL and confirmed on histopathology as DLBCL. In correlation with the clinicoradiological findings, the case was diagnosed as primary parotid DLBCL. The case highlights the role of FNAC as a timely and useful diagnostic tool. PMID:27279690

  1. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Che-Wei; Chi, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Che; Chan, Leong-Perng; Kuo, Wen-Rei

    2006-01-01

    Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result. PMID:16740172

  2. Circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Chiarenza, A P; Sereno, R; Vermouth, N T

    1990-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase, E.C. 3.2.1.1. (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) in parotid gland of 25 day old rats was studied under different experimental conditions (fast, reversed photoperiod, constant light or darkness and treatment with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine). The rhythm of rats fasted or exposed for 7 days to constant darkness did not change. There were modifications in the rhythm of rats submitted to a reversed photoperiod and it disappeared in animals submitted to constant light or darkness for 15 days or treated with reserpine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The rhythm persisted, with minor changes in the acrophase, in parotids of rats kept during their gestation and post-natal life in constant light or darkness. Results suggest that the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland of young rats is endogenous, synchronized by the photoperiod, under autonomous nervous system control and maternal coordination. This model appears to be useful in the study of sympathetic nervous system control of target organs and circadian rhythms in general. PMID:2076161

  3. Satellite tumors surrounding primary pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Orita, Yorihisa; Hamaya, Kazuo; Miki, Kentaroh; Sugaya, Akiko; Hirai, Misato; Nakai, Kiyoko; Nose, Sohichiroh; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2010-05-01

    The occasional local recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) has generally been attributed to the vulnerability of the tumor capsule. Although some reports have also noted the presence of satellite tumors associated with PA recurrence, only few reports have focused on this issue. We paid special attention to the satellite lesions apart from the main tumors and discussed their frequency, origin, nature and the ways of treating them. A total of 108 specimens of primary parotid gland PA resected at the Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital from 1988 to 2008 were microscopically reviewed. Four (3.7%) patients displayed a main mass with satellite tumors in a single parotid gland. The immunohistochemical analysis of p53 and Ki-67 index showed no distinct difference between PAs with satellite tumors and those without. Satellite tumors surrounding the main mass of parotid PA is relatively rare. In most cases, such satellite tumors will arise from capsular perforation of the primary tumor cells. Preoperative evaluation to recognize the existence of satellite tumors would be important and capsular dissection should be discouraged. We could not find any evidence suggesting that primary PA with satellite tumors could be more biologically aggressive than those without. PMID:19898859

  4. Involvement of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate phosphorylation and translocation in cholecystokinin-induced amylase release in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Keitaro; Narita, Takanori; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2016-03-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone that induces exocytotic amylase release in pancreatic acinar cells. The activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the CCK-induced pancreatic amylase release. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is a ubiquitously expressed substrate of PKC. MARCKS has been implicated in membrane trafficking in several cell types. The phosphorylation of MARCKS by PKC results in the translocation of MARCKS from the membrane to the cytosol. Here, we studied the involvement of MARCKS in the CCK-induced amylase release in rat pancreatic acini. Employing Western blotting, we detected MARCKS protein in the rat pancreatic acini. CCK induced MARCKS phosphorylation. A PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin, inhibited the CCK-induced MARCKS phosphorylation and amylase release. In the translocation assay, we also observed CCK-induced PKC-δ activation. An immunohistochemistry study showed that CCK induced MARCKS translocation from the membrane to the cytosol. When acini were lysed by a detergent, Triton X-100, CCK partially induced displacement of the MARCKS from the GM1a-rich detergent-resistant membrane fractions (DRMs) in which Syntaxin2 is distributed. A MARCKS-related peptide inhibited the CCK-induced amylase release. These findings suggest that MARCKS phosphorylation by PKC-δ and then MARCKS translocation from the GM1a-rich DRMs to the cytosol are involved in the CCK-induced amylase release in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26744470

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion. PMID:26557697

  6. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    SciTech Connect

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S

    2001-08-08

    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.

  7. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase) were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway. PMID:25951179

  8. Multiple sources of 1,2-diacylglycerol in isolated rat pancreatic acini stimulated by cholecystokinin. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, T.; Williams, J.A. )

    1989-09-05

    Changes in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in isolated rat pancreatic acini in response to agonist stimulation were studied using a sensitive mass assay. When acini were stimulated by 10 nM COOH-terminal cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK8), the increase in DAG was biphasic, consisting of an early peak at 5 s and a second, larger, gradual increase that was maximal by 15 min. The basal level of DAG in acini was 1.04 nmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 1.24 nmol/mg of protein at 5 s and 2.76 nmol/mg of protein at 30 min. In comparison, the increase in DAG stimulated by 30 pM CCK8, a submaximal concentration for amylase release, was monophasic, increasing without an early peak but sustained to 60 min. Other Ca2+-mobilizing secretagogues such as carbamylcholine and bombesin increased DAG in acini, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide, which acts to increase cAMP, had no effect. Phorbol ester and Ca2+ ionophore also stimulated DAG production. Analysis of the mass level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1,4,5-IP3) showed that the generation of 1,4,5-IP3 stimulated by 10 nM CCK8 peaked at 5 s, a finding consistent with the early peak of DAG. The basal level was 4.7 pmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 144.6 pmol/mg of protein at 5 s by 10 nM CCK8. The levels of 1,4,5-IP3 then returned toward basal in contrast to the gradual and sustained increase of DAG. The dose dependencies of 1,4,5-IP3 and DAG formation at 5 s with respect to CCK8 were almost identical. This suggests that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis is a major source of the early increase in DAG but not of the sustained increase in DAG. Therefore, a possible contribution of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis to DAG formation was examined utilizing acini prelabeled with (3H)choline. CCK8 (1 nM) maximally increased (3H)choline metabolite release by 133% of control at 30 min.

  9. Influence of parotid-sparing radiotherapy on xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Malouf, J Gabriel; Aragon, Cecilia; Henson, Brad S; Eisbruch, Avraham; Ship, Jonathan A

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancers causes permanent salivary gland dysfunction (SGD) and xerostomia. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of parotid-sparing RT on salivary function. The aim of this was to characterize the relationship between radiation dosages to parotid glands, SGD, xerostomia, and impaired quality of life (QOL). Ninety-three patients received unilateral (n=38) and bilateral (n=44) neck RT with parotid-sparing techniques, or standard three-field technique RT (n=11). Unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva was collected pre-RT and 1 year post-RT. Assessment of QOL and xerostomia was conducted with three questionnaires. The results demonstrated that reduced radiation dosages to parotid glands were strongly associated with percentage of baseline parotid flow rates measured at 1 year post-RT. Unilateral and bilateral neck RT with parotid-sparing techniques were successful in preserving salivary output, compared to standard three beam RT techniques. Lower radiation dose to contralateral parotid glands was associated with greater percentage of baseline salivary flow rates at 1 year post-RT, fewer xerostomic complaints, and an enhanced QOL. PMID:12893079

  10. An intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors using Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Wen, Zhining; Li, Yi; Li, Longjiang; Xue, Lili

    2014-11-01

    The preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is difficult, but is important for their surgical management. In order to explore an intraoperative diagnostic method, Raman spectroscopy is applied to detect the normal parotid gland and tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In the 600-1800 cm-1 region of the Raman shift, there are numerous spectral differences between the parotid gland and tumors. Compared with Raman spectra of the normal parotid gland, the Raman spectra of parotid tumors show an increase of the peaks assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, but a decrease of the peaks related to lipids. Spectral differences also exist between the spectra of parotid tumors. Based on these differences, a remarkable classification and diagnosis of the parotid gland and tumors are carried out by support vector machine (SVM), with high accuracy (96.7~100%), sensitivity (93.3~100%) and specificity (96.7~100%). Raman spectroscopy combined with SVM has a great potential to aid the intraoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors and could provide an accurate and rapid diagnostic approach.

  11. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  12. The prognostic importance of parotid involvement by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Bruna Melhoranse; Barbosa, Maria Helena de Magalhães; Carneiro, Leonardo Hoehl; Hadj, Luzia Abrao El; Fernandes, Nurimar Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second-most common malignant cutaneous cancer, with 60% occurring in the head and neck region. Metastases are uncommon and imply a more conservative prognosis. This report describes a case of parotid-invasive, facial squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting the importance of its prognostic and therapeutic management. The patient is an 81-year-old female, exhibiting extensive tumoral lesions in the pre-auricular region, affecting the parotid parenchyma and implying the metastatic involvement of the intra-parotid lymph node. Parotid involvement caused by SCC in specificity tumors is discussed herein. Parotid invasion is currently recognized as an isolated variable. It affects survival rates and determines certain changes in case management, such as the broadening of resection areas and adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:27438204

  13. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  14. Surgeon-performed ultrasound and transfacial sialoendoscopy for complete parotid duct stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, William R; Chang, Jolie L; Eisele, David W

    2014-02-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with a 16-month history of right parotid swelling since undergoing a transoral sialolithotomy of the parotid duct. An ultrasound and a computed tomography scan showed a 6 cm-long dilated parotid duct without evidence of sialolithiasis or tumor mass. The complete Stensen's duct stenosis that was found was managed by a surgeon-performed ultrasound-guided transfacial needle catheterization of the dilated parotid duct, anterograde sialoendoscopy, recanalization of the duct, and stent placement. At 15 month follow-up, the patient reported no recurrent facial swelling or discomfort. Surgeon-performed ultrasound, combined with sialoendoscopy, can provide unique advantages for managing parotid duct stenosis and obstructive sialadenitis. PMID:24130099

  15. Reversible facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Hajiioannou, Jiannis K.; Florou, Vasiliki; Kousoulis, Panagiotis; Kretzas, Dimitris; Moshovakis, Eustratios

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A facial nerve palsy combined with parotid enlargement usually suggests malignancy. It is highly unusual for facial nerve palsy to result from a benign situation such as inflammation or infection of the gland. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a rare case of facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess. DISCUSSION A literature search retrieved thirty-two cases of facial nerve palsy due to benign parotid lesions since 1969. Only nine reported the presence of a parotid abscess. The etiology of paralysis remains unknown although certain factors such as the virulence of the offending organisms or perineuritis, have been suggested. Best diagnostic evaluation and management are discussed. CONCLUSION In clinical practice, exclusion of malignancy is mandatory, as it represents the most common cause of facial palsy in the presence of a parotid lump. PMID:24096025

  16. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland for treatment of a traumatic mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Hardie, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A 3 yr old spayed female mixed-breed German shepherd dog was presented with a right facial swelling that developed after fighting with another dog. A parotid salivary mucocele was diagnosed via physical examination, fine-needle aspirate, and sialography of the parotid and mandibular salivary glands. Surgical excision of the right parotid salivary gland and duct was performed along with drainage of the mucocele. Neither intraoperative nor postoperative complications occurred, and follow-up examination 4 mo later revealed no evidence of recurrence. Case outcome was considered excellent. Sialography was useful for confirming the parotid gland as the source of the mucocele. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland is technically challenging, but an effective treatment option for traumatic mucoceles in the dog. PMID:24659723

  17. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidan, Youssef H.; Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel; Johnstone, Peter A.; Terry, Colin; Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod; Yeh, Alex

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  18. CCK causes PKD1 activation in pancreatic acini by signaling through PKC-δ and PKC-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Tapia, Jose A.; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Mantey, Samuel A.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in cellular processes including protein secretion, proliferation and apoptosis. Studies suggest PKD1 is activated by various stimulants including gastrointestinal (GI) hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. However, little is known about the mechanisms of PKD1 activation in physiologic GI tissues. We explored PKD1 activation by GI hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors and the mediators involved in rat pancreatic acini. Only hormones/neurotransmitters activating phospholipase C caused PKD1 phosphorylation (S916, S744/748). CCK activated PKD1 and caused a time- and dose-dependant increase in serine phosphorylation by activation of high- and low-affinity CCKA receptor states. Inhibition of CCK-stimulated increases in phospholipase C, PKC activity or intracellular calcium decreased PKD1 S916 phosphorylation by 56%, 62% and 96%, respectively. PKC inhibitors GF109203X/Go6976/Go6983/PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate caused a 62/43/49/0% inhibition of PKD1 S916 phosphorylation and an 87/13/82/0% inhibition of PKD1 S744/748 phosphorylation. Expression of dominant negative PKC-δ, but not PKC-ε, or treatment with PKC-δ translocation inhibitor caused marked inhibition of PKD phosphorylation. Inhibition of Src/PI3K/MAPK/tyrosine phosphorylation had no effect. In unstimulated cells, PKD1 was mostly located in the cytoplasm. CCK stimulated translocation of total and phosphorylated PKD1 to the membrane. These results demonstrate that CCKA receptor activation leads to PKD activation by signaling through PKC-dependent and PKC-independent pathways. PMID:17306383

  19. Autoradiographic study of tritium-labeled misonidazole in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, L.M.; Nolan, J.

    1989-04-01

    The localization of tritiated misonidazole metabolites in a number of normal tissues in the mouse is reported from autoradiography. The labeled misonidazole was injected at 750 or 75 mg/kg body weight (Rel. Sp. Act. 74 and 740 MBq/mg respectively). The grain count ratio, parenchyma:stroma, for selected tissues was: liver (centrilobular zone) 13; meibomian gland (acini) 68, (duct) 116; esophagus (keratinized layer) 61; enamel organ 17. It is concluded that there are a number of tissues which will accumulate MISO metabolites although they may not all be hypoxic.

  20. Secretion of glucose in human parotid saliva after carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Borg, A; Birkhed, D

    1988-12-01

    The aims of the present investigation were, first, to follow the secretion of free glucose in parotid saliva in various subjects after a single oral intake of different carbohydrates, and second, to compare the salivary glucose concentration with the concentration in blood. Twenty healthy subjects, three women and 17 men, 20-35 yr of age, participated. They were asked not to eat or drink anything from 10 p.m. the night before the examination. 75 g of carbohydrate (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) dissolved in 300 ml water was ingested the next morning at 8 a.m. One experimental series with glucose was performed in triplicate in 10 of the subjects. Approximately 1.5 ml of citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after the intake. Salivary concentration of glucose was analyzed enzymatically. Most of the 0-min samples showed a variation in glucose concentration from 5 to 25 mumol/l. After the glucose, fructose, and sucrose intakes, the salivary glucose level increased about 2-4 times, especially in the 30-min samples. A large inter- as well as intra-individual variation was found both in the 0-min samples and in the samples collected after the different intakes. The correlation between the glucose concentration in saliva and blood was higher after than before the carbohydrate intakes. PMID:3206201

  1. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  2. Giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma in a Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akintububo, O B; Ogundipe, O K; Kaltungo, Z Y; Guduf, M I; Pindiga, U H; Abdullahi, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, accounting for up to 60% of all tumors of the salivary gland and 75-80% of all parotid tumors. It has a slow but progressive growth pattern and if untreated can become greatly enlarged in size. However, giant PA is uncommon. We report a case of giant parotid PA of more than 10 years duration in a 60-year-old male Nigerian. A 60-year-old male patient with 10-year history of painless, massive, and pedunculated swelling in the left side of lower face measuring 25 cm × 23 cm × 17 cm in dimension. Computerized tomographic scan and percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology returned a preliminary diagnosis of PA. Superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation via the transcervical approach was performed. The excised mass weighed 5.5 kg while the postoperative healing was satisfactory. Benign PAs may attain a giant size if left untreated. Socioeconomic problems are some of the reasons for late presentation. Adequate excision of the tumor sparing the facial nerve is possible but intraoperative and reactionary hemorrhage are likely complications. PMID:27538561

  3. Long-term results of combined approach in parotid sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Chatziavramidis, A; Iakovou, I; Constantinidis, J

    2015-11-01

    Combined sialendoscopic and transcutaneous approach in parotid sialolithiasis is a surgical option for large and impacted stones. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term results regarding postoperative stenosis, recurrent swellings and gland function. Prospective study in a tertiary referral center of patients with parotid sialolithiasis requiring combined approach. A total of 12 patients have been treated within a period of 3 years. Intraductal stents were placed in 9 of 12 cases. Scintigraphic evaluation of salivary glands and follow-up sialendoscopy performed 1 year postoperatively. In total, fourteen stones (two stones in two cases) were successfully removed along with two coexisted inflammatory polyps. Postoperative endoscopic evaluation revealed mild stenosis in 7 out of 12 cases without clinical significance as no recurrent swellings were reported. Scintigraphy showed normal gland function in 11 cases and mild hypofunction in 1 case with long-standing history of sialolithiasis. All patients were free of symptoms within the follow-up period of time (median follow-up 15.5 months). Combined approach is a safe, gland preserving and efficacious procedure in long term. The stenosis in the area of ductal surgical opening when present does not seem to be of clinical value. PMID:25388993

  4. Sialocele of Parotid Duct: Report of Case with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kantharaj, Yashoda Bhoomi Reddy; Nagaraju, Rakesh; Reddy, Sujatha Janardhan

    2016-01-01

    Parotid duct sialocele is a salivary cavity arising at the expense of parotid duct. Facial trauma is the most common cause of this rare condition. If left untreated, a sialocele may develop into a significantly large facial swelling. Fistula formation may occur, often draining extraorally. We report a case of Parotid duct sialocele that was assessed by sialography and ultrasonogarphy and was managed by placement of intraductal cannula for fifteen days till duct was found patent. We also discuss various treatment options of this condition in this case report. PMID:27042592

  5. Sialocele of Parotid Duct: Report of Case with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Ravleen; Kantharaj, Yashoda Bhoomi Reddy; Nagaraju, Rakesh; Reddy, Sujatha Janardhan

    2016-02-01

    Parotid duct sialocele is a salivary cavity arising at the expense of parotid duct. Facial trauma is the most common cause of this rare condition. If left untreated, a sialocele may develop into a significantly large facial swelling. Fistula formation may occur, often draining extraorally. We report a case of Parotid duct sialocele that was assessed by sialography and ultrasonogarphy and was managed by placement of intraductal cannula for fifteen days till duct was found patent. We also discuss various treatment options of this condition in this case report. PMID:27042592

  6. Diagnosing a parotid lump: fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy?

    PubMed

    Howlett, D C

    2006-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been widely adopted for the cytological diagnosis of parotid lumps. FNAC does have drawbacks, even under optimum conditions and may be associated with poor levels of diagnostic accuracy, particularly outside the specialized clinic environment. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) is a relatively recently described technique in the parotid gland which has been well tolerated and has demonstrated a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in several studies. This article discusses the merits and pitfalls of FNAC, together with the technique of USCB and also highlights the potential advantages benefit provided by USCB in parotid diagnosis. PMID:16585720

  7. Utility of (99m)Tc RBC Scintigraphy in Diagnosing Parotid Venous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rosan; Saad, Hannan; Srinivasan, Ashok; Brown, Richard K J

    2015-07-01

    Venous malformations of the parotid glands are uncommon and can be difficult to confirm on routine anatomical imaging alone because of overlap of imaging features with other more common parotid lesions. (99m)Tc RBC scans combined with SPECT/CT offer a noninvasive way to diagnose parotid venous malformations without the need for biopsy. Combined with anatomical findings of phleboliths (when present), the diagnosis can be reliably determined. We present a case where MRI and biopsy were inconclusive, but the SPECT/CT was used to confirm the suspicion of a benign venous malformation. PMID:26018710

  8. Treatment of Parotid Sialocele after Sustaining a Facial Injury. Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, John; Nolan, Patrick; Baker, Jason

    2016-03-01

    We are presenting the case of a patient who developed a parotid sialocele after sustaining a facial injury. The patient was treated by creating a controlled intraoral fistula that drained saliva into the oral cavity and led to resolution of the sialocele. Articles were reviewed for discussion of current treatment methods in managing parotid sialocele and fistula. The articles reported successful management of parotid sialocele and fistula using both nonsurgical and surgical methods. Treatment depends upon the location of the injury (ductal injury vs. parenchymal injury) and the time of treatment (delayed vs. immediate). PMID:27209715

  9. Effects of continuous light on rat parotid gland structure and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, A P; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Aoki, A; Bellavia, S L

    1989-01-01

    The effects of continuous light on ultrastructural organization and sympathetic secretory responses of the rat parotid gland are reported. After 50 days of continuous light exposure, the fine structure of the parotid gland exhibited features of enhanced secretory activity as judged by the striking development of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, the depletion of secretory granules and the increased turnover of secretory cells. The secretory responses of parotid gland to isoproterenol revealed that continuous light induced a 30% increase in amylase release. This secretory hyperactivity appears to be related to a postsynaptic supersensitivity of sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:2471423

  10. [Giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Kici, S; Peytral, C

    2001-10-01

    We report the case history of a 72-year-old patient who had a giant parotid adenoma that developed over 12 years. Worrisome clinical signs started to develop when the tumor had reached the size of 50 cm and a weight of 2.6 kg. Histology reported a benign tumor of the parotid gland. We discuss this case in relation to the to similar cases in the literature, highlighting clinical and histological difficulties encountered in patients with giant tumors of the parotid. PMID:11845042

  11. Use of a porcine dermal collagen graft (Permacol) in parotid surgery.

    PubMed

    Papadogeorgakis, Nikolaos; Petsinis, Vasilis; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mavrovouniotis, Nikolaos; Alexandridis, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    Our aim was to present the results of the use of porcine dermal collagen graft (Permacol) in the prevention of Frey's syndrome and face-contouring aesthetic deformities after operations on the parotid. We treated 19 patients with parotid tumours. After resection, a Permacol sheet was applied to the perimeter of the tissue deficit so that it was fully covered, and was sutured firmly. This technique produced satisfactory aesthetic results with good facial contouring in all patients. It also protected the exposed parotid nerve plexus, and none of the patients developed Frey's syndrome. Permacol produced good results in both postoperative facial contouring and prevention of Frey's syndrome. PMID:18963286

  12. Regulation of transgenes in three-dimensional cultures of primary mouse mammary cells demonstrates oncogene dependence and identifies cells that survive deinduction

    PubMed Central

    Jechlinger, Martin; Podsypanina, Katrina; Varmus, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The advent of targeted therapies for cancer has provoked interest in experimental models for the systematic study of oncogene dependence. To that end, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) culture system to analyze the responses of primary mouse mammary epithelial cells to the induction and deinduction of oncogenes. Mammary cells derived from normal virgin mice, or from tritransgenic mice (TetO-MYC;TetO-KrasG12D;MMTV-rtTA) in which MYC and mutant Kras can be regulated by doxycycline, develop from single cells into polarized acini. Lumen formation occurs without apparent apoptosis, and the hollow spheres of cells enlarge by division, with metaphase plates oriented perpendicularly to the apical surface. When MYC and KrasG12D are induced, the acini enlarge and form solid, depolarized spheres. Upon deinduction of MYC and KrasG12D the solid structures regress, leaving a repolarized monolayer of viable cells. These cells display a phenotype consistent with progenitors of mammary epithelium: They exclude Hoechst dye 33342, and reform acini in 3D cultures and repopulate mammary fat pads more efficiently than cells harvested from uninduced acini. Moreover, cells in the surviving spheres retain the ability to respond to reinduction and thus may represent the type of cells that give rise to recurrent tumors. PMID:19605689

  13. Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

  14. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324277

  15. Venolymphatic vascular malformation of the parotid gland extending into the parapharyngeal space: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Yasmeen; Dande, Madhura; Patel, Richa D; Gite, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Vascular malformations (VMs) are structural malformations of vascular development causing soft tissue abnormality with functional and esthetic impairment. They are named by their predominant vessel type as arterial, venous, lymphatic or mixed types. VMs of the parotid gland are extremely rare and constitute a distinct entity of parotid pathology that requires specific diagnostic tools and management. Till 2013, only fifty cases of VMs of the parotid have been described in the literature. We present a case of a venolymphatic malformation of the parotid gland extending into the parapharyngeal space in a 21-year-old male who presented with a swelling on the left side of the face extending into the neck. Diagnosis was suggested by ultrasonography and computed tomography scan and was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging examination. Complete surgical excision of the lesion was done with a favorable outcome. Diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology and immunohistochemical studies. PMID:27601828

  16. Reconstruction of complex defects of the parotid region using a lateral thoracic wall donor site.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Pedrazzoli, Marco; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Colletti, Giacomo; Colombo, Valeria; Frigerio, Alice; Autelitano, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Radical treatment of parotid neoplasms may lead to complex parotid defects that present functional and aesthetic reconstructive challenges. We report our experience using the lateral thoracic wall as a single donor site. Between 2003 and 2009, four patients with malignant tumours in the parotid gland underwent radical parotidectomy and simultaneous reconstruction using a perforator latissimus dorsi cutaneous free flap (de-epithelialized and entire skin paddle in two cases each). A thoracodorsal nerve graft was used in all cases to replace the intraglandular branches of the facial nerve. Costal grafts were used for mandibular reconstruction in two patients. All patients underwent postoperative physiotherapy. No donor-site complication occurred and all treatments achieved good aesthetic results. All patients recovered nearly complete symmetry at rest and partial facial mimetic function. The lateral thoracic wall is a good donor site for the reconstruction of complex parotid defects. PMID:23245945

  17. Parotid Gland Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Masumoto, Norio; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Teraoka, Kou; Suzuki, Takako; Kurihara, Terumasa; Abe, Satoko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke; Hoshi, Kazuei

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Parotid gland metastasis in breast cancer is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported between 1982 and 2010. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old female patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Although clinical staging was T1N3M1 (stage IV), the tumor experienced a complete response to chemotherapy. We therefore performed a mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, and continued administration of trastuzumab. However, 11 months later, the patient complained of a swelling in the left parotid gland. Histology following a partial parotidectomy revealed a parotid gland metastasis from the breast. CONCLUSION: Treatment with capecitabine in addition to trastuzumab, which is one of the strategies applied in HER2-positive breast cancer, was effective in our patient. Analysis of the 14 cases of parotid gland metastasis from the breast reported between 1982 and 2010 revealed that the metastasis may occur not by direct lymphatic but by hematogenous spread. PMID:22419903

  18. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  19. [Superficial angiomyxoma of the parotid region and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rosado Rodríguez, Pablo; de Vicente, Juan C; de Villalaín, Lucas; Blanco, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxoma (SA) is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm first described by Allen et al in 1988. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of superficial angiomyxoma located in the parotid region. We also stress the importance of distinguishing this entity from other lesions that may be involved in this location such as cutaneous neoplasms, parotid tumours or cysts. We emphasise the need to rule out the Carney complex, which has been associated with these tumours. PMID:21295761

  20. High-affinity cholecystokinin type A receptor/cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathways mediate Ca2+ oscillations via a positive feedback regulation by calmodulin kinase in pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Lankisch, T O; Nozu, F; Owyang, C; Tsunoda, Y

    1999-09-01

    In rat pancreatic acini, we previously demonstrated that depending on the agonist used, activation of cholecystokinin type A (CCKA) receptor (CCK-AR) results in the differential involvement of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), phospholipase Cbeta1 (PLCbeta1) and Src/protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) pathways. The high-affinity CCK-AR appears to be coupled to the Gbeta/cPLA2/arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in mediating Ca2+ oscillations. The low-affinity CCK-AR is coupled to both the Galphaq/11/PLCbeta1/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to evoke intracellular Ca2+ release and the Src/PTK pathway to mediate extracellular Ca2+ influx. The objectives of this study were to provide evidence that cPLA2 is present in pancreatic acini and to evaluate the possibility that its activation results in Ca2+ oscillations and amylase secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of Ca2+ oscillations mediated by the high-affinity CCK-AR. In rat pancreatic acini, immunoprecipitation studies using an anti-cPLA2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated a cPLA2 band at the location of 110 kDa. A selective inhibitor of cPLA2, AACOCF3 (100 microM), inhibited production of AA metabolites, Ca2+ oscillations and amylase secretion elicited by the high-affinity CCK-AR agonist, CCK-OPE (10-1000 nM). In addition, through the repetitive release of intracellular Ca2+, CCK-OPE enhanced phosphotransferase activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMK IV), which were inhibited by AACOCF3. The CaMK inhibitor, K252-a (1-3 microM), also abolished basal and CCK-OPE-stimulated CaMK IV activities. The CaM inhibitor, W-7 (100 microM), and K252-a inhibited Ca2+ oscillations and amylase secretion evoked by CCK-OPE without affecting the AA formation. Therefore, it appears that Ca2+ oscillations elicited by the high-affinity CCK-AR/Gbeta/cPLA2/AA pathway activate CaMK IV. Activated CaMK, in turn, regulates Ca2+ oscillations through a positive feedback mechanism to mediate pancreatic

  1. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  2. A skeleton-tree-based approach to acinar morphometric analysis using microcomputed tomography with comparison of acini in young and old C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kizhakke Puliyakote, Abhilash S; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Sen Sharma, Kriti; Wang, Ge; Hoffman, Eric A

    2016-06-15

    We seek to establish a method using interior tomographic techniques (Xradia MicroXCT-400) for acinar morphometric analysis using the pathway center lines from micro X-ray computed tomographic (Micro-CT) images as the road map. Through the application of these techniques, we present a method to extend the atlas of murine lungs to acinar levels and present a comparison between two age groups of the C57BL/6 strain. Lungs fixed via vascular perfusion were scanned using high-resolution Micro-CT protocols. Individual acini were segmented, and skeletonized paths to alveolar sacs from the entrance to the acinus were formed. Morphometric parameters, including branch lengths, diameters, and branching angles, were generated. Six mice each, at two age groups (∼20 and ∼90 wk of age), were studied. Additive Gaussian noise (0 mean and SD 1, 2, 5, and 10) was used to test the robustness of the analytical method. Noise-based variations were within ±6 μm for branch lengths and ±5 μm for diameters. At a noise level of 10, errors increased. Branch diameters were less susceptible to noise than lengths. There was >95% center line overlap across all noise levels. The measurements obtained using the center lines as a road map were not affected by added noise. Acini from younger mice had smaller branch diameters and lengths at all generations without significant differences in branching angles. The relative distribution of volume in the alveolar ducts was similar across both age groups. The method has been demonstrated to be repeatable and robust to image noise and provides a new, nondestructive technique to assess and compare acinar morphometry quantitatively. PMID:26940656

  3. A critical review of 20 years of parotid gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Andreas; Szyper, Michael; Mansour, Naglaa; Sonnenberg, Jan; Hofauer, Benedikt; Niedermeyer, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion PG surgery provides sufficient radicality with a minimum of functional loss. Patient's outcome is associated with the reliable estimation of the lesional entity/dignity. Diagnostic approaches are required to determine morphological aspects, avoid unnecessary surgery, and to reliable identify primary carcinomas/occult metastases. Objectives The pre-operative assessment of parotid gland (PG) lesions is of major clinical impact, whilst surgery remains the diagnostic/therapeutic mainstay. There are still controversies about the distribution of entities, clinical course, functional outcome, and survival. Methods In total, 1211 patients were retrospectively analyzed for disease-related data. Differences were analyzed using the Chi-square/Fisher exact/unpaired student's t-test; survival by Kaplan-Meier. Results There were 946 benign and 265 malignant tumours. In primary PG malignancy the disease-free/overall survival was 78/127 months. Metastases into the PG demonstrated a decreased survival (67 months). Extended surgery was associated with post-operative facial nerve alteration. Extracapsular dissection and superficial parotidectomy did not show differences in the facial palsy rate. PMID:26986955

  4. Biopsy of parotid masses: Review of current techniques.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sananda; Sinnott, Joseph D; Tekeli, Kemal M; Turner, Samuel S; Howlett, David C

    2016-05-28

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy (USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section (IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice. PMID:27247715

  5. Biopsy of parotid masses: Review of current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Sananda; Sinnott, Joseph D; Tekeli, Kemal M; Turner, Samuel S; Howlett, David C

    2016-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy (USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section (IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice. PMID:27247715

  6. Transmasseteric antero-parotid facelift approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Surgical approaches to the condylar fracture include intraoral, preauricular, submandibular, and retromandibular approaches. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. When a patient needs esthetic results and an intraoral approach is not feasible, the transmasseteric antero-parotid facelift approach is considered. This approach permits direct exposure and allow the surgeon to fixate the fractured unit tangentially. Tangential fixation is critical to osteosynthesis. Disadvantages of the transmasseteric antero-parotid facelift approach include damage to the facial nerve and a longer operation time. However, after the initial learning curve, facial nerve damage can be avoided and operation time may decrease. We report three cases of subcondylar fractures that were treated with a transmasseteric antero-parotid facelift approach. Among these, two cases had trivial complications that were easily overcome. Instead of dissecting through the parotid gland parenchyma, the transmasseteric antero-parotid facelift approach uses transmasseteric dissection and reduces facial nerve damage more than the retromandibular transparotid approach. The esthetic result is superior to that of other approaches. PMID:26131433

  7. Effects of restriction of sodium or administration of fludrocortisone on parotid salivary kallikrein in man.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, D; Proud, D; Lawton, W J; Yates, K N; Highet, P; Pisano, J J; Keiser, H R

    1982-07-01

    Urinary kallikrein is increased by restriction of dietary sodium and by administration of fludrocortisone, a sodium-retaining steroid. In order to determine whether salivary kallikrein responds similarly, we studied 16 normal volunteers after 1-week periods of daily intake of 9, 109, and 259 mEQ of sodium; 10 subjects were studied after addition of 0.6 mg/day fludrocortisone for a week to a regimen of 109 mEq/day sodium. During sodium restriction, parotid saliva had a significantly higher mean concentration of kallikrein ad potassium and a significantly lower concentration of sodium than during periods of intake of 109 or 259 mEq/day sodium. Sodium restriction also caused significantly higher urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone. Salivary amylase remained unchanged during the three sodium periods. Administration of fludrocortisone significantly increased the mean concentration of parotid kallikrein and excretion of urinary kallikrein in comparison with control levels, however the concentrations of parotid sodium and potassium did not change significantly. Four patients studied before and after removal of aldosterone-producing adenomas each showed decreased concentrations of parotid kallikrein and potassium and increased concentrations of parotid sodium after surgery. It is concluded that both salivary and urinary kallikrein increased in response to restriction of sodium and that these increases were mediated by levels of sodium-retaining steroid. Increased output of kallikrein in response to increased levels of sodium-retaining steroid may be a generalized response of organs that contain glandular kallikrein and can conserve sodium. PMID:6919568

  8. Renal clear cell carcinoma with thyroid and parotid metastases: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHI, JIA-LI; ZHOU, JIA-QING; LI, JI-PING

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports a rare case of a renal clear cell carcinoma with thyroid and parotid metastases. A 56-year-old female, with a painless, right preauricular mass present for 6 months was referred to Renji Hospital (Shanghai, China). Physical examination revealed a mass of 3×3 cm, which was smooth, firm, immobile and non-tender. There was no accompanying facial weakness. Parotid ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass within the right parotid gland, which was potentially a parotid mixed tumor. In July 2011, the patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. Pathology confirmed as right parotid clear cell carcinoma (metastasis). The patient's relevant medical history included a right radical nephrectomy for renal clear cell carcinoma (clinical stage III) in 2004. Additionally, in 2009, the patient underwent a resection of thyroid metastatic renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has previously been reported in English-language literature. The present study discusses a case report, and investigates the clinical features and treatment strategy. PMID:26622899

  9. Exocyst subunits are involved in isoproterenol-induced amylase release from rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi

    2012-04-01

    Exocytosis of secretory granules in parotid acinar cells requires multiple events: tethering, docking, priming, and fusion with a luminal plasma membrane. The exocyst complex, which is composed of eight subunits (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84) that are conserved in yeast and mammalian cells, is thought to participate in the exocytotic pathway. However, to date, no exocyst subunit has been identified in salivary glands. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of exocyst subunits in rat parotid acinar cells. The expression of mRNA for all eight exocyst subunits was detected in parotid acinar cells by RT-PCR, and Sec6 and Sec8 proteins were localized on the luminal plasma membrane. Sec6 interacted with Sec8 after 5 min of stimulation with isoproterenol. In addition, antibodies to-Sec6 and Sec8 inhibited isoproterenol-induced amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. These results suggest that an exocyst complex of eight subunits is required for amylase release from parotid acinar cells. PMID:22409218

  10. Parotid Sebaceous Carcinoma in Patient with Muir Torre Syndrome, Caused by MSH2 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Iyer Vishwas; Di Palma, Silvana; Smith, C E T; McCoombe, A

    2016-09-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland are extremely rare with only 29 cases reported so far. The development of parotid sebaceous carcinoma in association with mutation in the mismatch repair gene that causes Muir Torre Syndrome (MTS), a subset of Lynch Syndrome, is still unclear. This study describes such a case and reviews the literature to see if an association between parotid sebaceous carcinoma and multiple visceral malignancies seen in Lynch Syndrome has ever been described. MTS represents a small subset of the Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Carcinoma family, thought to be a subtype of Lynch Syndrome, where patients are prone to develop multiple visceral cancers involving gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract along with sebaceous and non-sebaceous tumours of the skin. MTS is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by Microsatellite Instability and defect in DNA mismatch repair protein. The germline mutation involves mostly hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes. In MTS the skin of the head and neck area with the periocular region in particular, is affected but sebaceous carcinomas of the parotid associated with visceral malignancies has not yet been reported in literature. Here we report an index case of sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland in a patient with MTS. PMID:26577210

  11. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Han Chunhui Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm{sup 3} by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications.

  12. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  13. Effect of low-level laser therapy on irradiated parotid glands—study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acauan, Monique Dossena; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutziling; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiotherapy-induced morphological changes and caspase-3 immunodetection in parotids of mice. Forty-one Swiss mice were divided into control, radiotherapy, 2- and 4-J laser groups. The experimental groups were exposed to ionizing radiation in a single session of 10 Gy. In the laser groups, a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 0.028 cm2, 3.57 W/cm2) was used on the region corresponding to the parotid glands, with 2-J energy (20 s, 71 J/cm2) or 4 J (40 s, 135 J/cm2) per point. LLLT was performed immediately before and 24 h after radiotherapy. One point was applied in each parotid gland. The animals were euthanized 48 h or 7 days after radiotherapy and parotid glands were dissected for morphological analysis and immunodetection of caspase-3. There was no significant difference between groups in the immunodetection of caspase-3, but the laser groups had a lower percentage compared to the radiotherapy group. LLLT promoted the preservation of acinar structure, reduced the occurrence of vacuolation, and stimulated parotid gland vascularization. Of the two LLLT protocols, the one using 4 J of energy showed better results.

  14. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflie, R. J.; Fernandez, L. Bustos; Perec, C. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Marzi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested. PMID:4852110

  15. Minimally-invasive surgery in the management of symptomatic parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Samani, Meera; Hills, Alexander James; Holden, Adam Matthew; Man, Chang-Bon; McGurk, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, large, symptomatic, parotid stones that were refractory to conservative treatment were usually managed by parotidectomy, with the attendant risk to the facial nerve. Microendoscopes have transformed the management of such stones. For large stones that are not amenable to retrieval with a basket the endoscope provides a new dimension to operative surgery. It can guide the surgeon on to the duct and stone without the need to remove the parotid gland. In 2005-2014, 111 consecutive patients underwent endoscopically-assisted operations for the removal of 132 parotid stones at Guy's Hospital. Removal was successful in all but three cases. Long-term follow up (mean (SD) 44 (30) months) was obtained by postal or online survey and telephone, and 92 patients (83%) said that they had no symptoms. Further endoscope-assisted surgery was required in four cases, with preservation of the gland in all patients. Sialocoeles developed postoperatively in 15% (n=17). Transient facial nerve weakness occurred in 4 cases (4%), and there was no case of permanent deficit. Endoscopically-assisted retrieval of parotid stones is a technique to preserve the gland that adds to the current minimally-invasive options for management of parotid calculi. PMID:26917539

  16. Surgical treatment outcomes of patients with bilateral warthin tumors in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the treatment outcomes of patients with bilateral Warthin tumors in the parotid gland according to surgical methods. The medical records of ten patients with bilateral Warthin tumors in the parotid gland who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients were included in the study and 13 parotidectomies were performed. Patients with bilateral Warthin tumors in the parotid gland were divided into three groups according to the surgical methods used to treat these individuals. In group 1, the patients were closely observed without undergoing contralateral parotidectomy after unilateral parotidectomy. In group 2, the patients underwent concurrent bilateral parotidectomies. In group 3, the patient underwent contralateral parotidectomy 2 months after unilateral parotidectomy was performed. The overall rate of transient facial nerve dysfunction was 31%. Our findings suggest that concurrent superficial parotidectomy may be an appropriate method for treating bilateral Warthin tumors in the parotid gland, at least for desired patients. The symptoms of this type of tumor and physical examination findings are frequently non-specific and present in the unilateral parotid gland. Therefore, a high degree of discernment is needed and imaging techniques are essential for the determining the correct pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:24533403

  17. The inhibition of bovine and rat parotid deoxyribonuclease I by skeletal muscle actin. A biochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Mannherz, H G; Kreuder, V; Koch, J; Dieckhoff, J; Drenckhahn, D

    1982-01-01

    Rat and bovine parotid gland and pancreas contain deoxyribonuclease I (DNAase I) activities in different amounts. The DNAase I activity in tissue homogenates of bovine and rat parotid gland can be inhibited by addition of monomeric actin, as with the enzyme of bovine pancreas. The isolated DNAase I species from bovine and rat parotid gland differ in their molecular weights and also in their affinities for monomeric actin, being lowest for rat parotid DNAase I (5 X 10(6)M(-1). Antibodies raised against rat and bovine parotid and bovine pancreatic DNAase I can be used to study the subcellular localization of DNAase I in these tissues by indirect immunofluorescence. DNAase I was found to be confined solely to the secretory granules of the tissue from which it was isolated. Images Fig. 3. PLATE 1 Fig. 7. PMID:6297457

  18. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  19. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  20. Alpha-amylase circadian rhythm of young rat parotid gland: an endogenous rhythm with maternal coordination.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Sereno, R; Vermouth, N T

    1992-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase, E.C. 3.2.1.1. alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) in the parotid glands of 25-day-old rats were studied under different experimental designs (fasting, reversed photoperiod, constant lighting conditions and treatment with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine). The rhythm of fasted rats did not change. There were modifications in the rhythm of rats submitted to a reversed photoperiod or treated with reserpine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The rhythm was present, with changes in the acrophase, in parotids of rats kept during their gestation and postnatal life in constant light or dark. Results suggest that the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland of young rats is endogenous, synchronized by the photoperiod, and with maternal coordination. PMID:1610312

  1. Ontogenesis of alpha-amylase in rat parotid gland during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, S L; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Rins, L; Aoki, A

    1981-01-01

    Changes in alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) of parotid gland were investigated during postnatal development of the rat. Modifications in amylase activity after birth allow the distinction of three stages which can be correlated with the morphologic development of the parotid gland. Significant sexual differences in the evolution of alpha-amylase activity were found. During the first stage (from birth to the 20th day) there is a higher increase in females, while males have a more pronounced increment in the second stage (from the 20th to the 30th day). By means of gel electrophoresis of parotid extracts, four molecular forms of amylase can be separated. The slowest migrating band (Form 1) is not detected at the initial stage. PMID:6164673

  2. Effect of sexual steroids upon ontogeny of alpha-amylase of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, S L; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Blanco, A

    1982-04-30

    The effect of gonadectomy (at the 10th day of life) and treatment with sexual steroids (during the first month) upon development of alpha-amylase activity in rat parotid gland has been studied. Alpha-amylase specific activity of parotid glands from 20-day-old orchidectomized rats and from 25-day-old ovariectomized animals was significantly higher than that of intact male and female rats of the same age respectively. Spayed males treated with testosterone (10 microgram/day on the 13th, 15th, and 17th day) and ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol (2.5 microgram/day from the 16th to the 22nd day) showed values of enzymic activity similar to those of normal animals. Results indicate that oestradiol and testosterone have an inhibitory effect upon the increase of alpha-amylase activity in parotid gland during a very defined period of development. PMID:6178953

  3. Ultrasonography-guided minimally invasive removal of parotid calculi: A prudent approach.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Uma; Nair, Sreejith; Mishra, Atul

    2016-02-01

    The trend in modern salivary calculi surgery is toward minimally invasive procedures because these benign conditions do not warrant open salivary gland surgery. Since ultrasonography is readily available, highly specific, noninvasive, and cost-effective, we have used an ultrasonography-guided technique for patients with parotid gland calculi, as both a diagnostic and a therapeutic tool for calculi removal, thus avoiding the morbidity of open surgery. We describe a case in which we used this novel technique for the peroral removal of multiple parotid calculi in a 29-year-old man. The use of ultrasonography in parotid calculi removal has been reported in the literature, but only infrequently. Our extensive search of the peer-reviewed English-language literature found no article reporting the technique that we describe here. PMID:26930334

  4. Swelling of bilateral parotid glands: An unusual symptom of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mengjie; Sheng, Qi; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an unusual disorder of unknown etiology with heterogeneous clinical behaviors and variable outcomes. It can involve one or more organs or systems, but to our best knowledge, parotid glands involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is extremely rare in English literature. Method: We report a 13-month-old girl who presented with bilateral parotid swelling as presenting symptom. She was misdiagnosed for 4 months, but final diagnosis was multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Result: After being treated for 18 months, the patient acquired complete remission and attained similar growth status to other healthy children. Conclusion: Langerhans cell histiocytosis may involve any organ; in patients with parotid enlargement, Langerhans cell histiocytosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnoses. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for histologic evaluation as soon as possible and even repeatedly if initial results are negative for Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:27489645

  5. Surgical Treatment of Rare Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis of the Deep Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Ohashi, Ryuji; Peng, Wei-Xia; Naito, Zenya; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We experienced a rare case of sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) arising in a parotid gland. A 33-year-old man who underwent unspecified surgery for a lesion in the left parotid gland 23 years ago presented with a lesion on the same site. Computed tomography scan revealed an encapsulated 3 × 2 cm lesion. Intraoperative findings showed that the tumor was embedded deep in the parotid gland. Marginal tumor excision was performed to preserve the facial nerve. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings led to the final diagnosis of SPA. The surgery was not associated with any other complications. To date, 28 months after surgery, recurrence has not been observed. The treatment protocol of SPA has not yet been established. To make plastic surgeons familiar with this disease, we describe this case, which was successfully treated without any complications.

  6. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses. PMID:26045798

  7. Sonoelastography – A Useful Adjunct for Parotid Gland Ultrasound Assessment in Patients Suffering from Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Ruchała, Marek; Stajgis, Marek; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Background Shear wave elastography (SWE) is widely used in breast, liver, prostate and thyroid evaluations. Elastography provides additional information if used to assess parotid gland pathology. We assessed parotid glands by means of SWE to compare the parenchyma properties in different types of inflammation. Material/Methods Prospective analysis included 78 consecutive patients with parotid gland pathology: sialolithiasis (33), Stensen’s duct stenosis (15), chronic inflammation (10), and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) (20) treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of PUMS. The primary predictor variable was type of parotid pathology, and secondary predictor variables were patient age and the duration and intensity of complaints. Ultrasound pictures were compared with elastography values of parotid parenchyma. Results Mean elasticity values for pSS (111 Kilopascals (kPa), Stensen’s duct stenosis (63 kPa), sialolithiasis (82 kPa), and chronic inflammation (77 kPa) were significantly higher than the mean value for healthy patients (24 kPa). Elasticity increased proportionally to the intensity of complaints: mild (51 kPa), moderate (78 kPa), and strong (90 kPa). Increased elasticity did not correspond with ultrasonographic pictures. In pSS the parenchyma was almost twice as stiff as in chronic inflammation (p=0.02), although subjective complaints were mostly mild or moderate, and the ultrasonographic picture did not present features of fibrosis. Conclusions Sonoelastography, by improving routine ultrasonographic assessment, might be a useful tool for parotid evaluations during the course of chronic inflammation. An extraordinarily high degree of stiffness was revealed in pSS despite lack of fibrosis by ultrasonography and moderate subjective complaints, suggesting that sonoelastography could be a valuable diagnostic tool. PMID:25398237

  8. Primary High-Grade Poorly Differentiated Angiosarcoma of an Intra-parotid Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Ducharne-Asuaje, Eugenia; Dorion, Dominique; Lamarre, Louis; Coindre, Jean Michel; Geha, Sameh

    2016-06-01

    Head and neck angiosarcoma is an infrequent malignant vascular tumor most commonly found in the skin and soft tissue of the head and neck. Most head and neck angiosarcomas are metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from other primitive location. We describe herein a case of primary high-grade poorly differentiated angiosarcoma arising in an intra-parotid lymph node, discuss the value of immunohistochemical stains for differential diagnosis, and review the literature concerning head and neck angiosarcoma. A 47-year-old man presented with a painless mass that had grown for a period of 6 months in the parotid area. The CT-scan revealed a left parotid lesion of 17 mm. Fine needle aspiration was considered suspicious for lymphoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma. A superficial parotidectomy was performed. On gross examination, the lesion was a well-defined, gray, homogeneous mass of 15 mm of diameter. Microscopic examination showed a normal parotid tissue and a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm in an intra-parotid lymph node. The tumor had a pseudo-alveolar pattern, with large pleomorphic epithelioid cells, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, large vesicular nuclei, and one or more prominent nucleoli. Atypical mitoses were seen. Neoplastic malignant cells stained positive for Vimentin, CD31, D2-40, factor VIII, ERG, and partially for CD34. A positron emission tomography scan was made to search for a primary neoplasia, but no other tumor was localized. The diagnosis of primary high-grade, poorly differentiated, intra-parotid lymph node angiosarcoma was established. PMID:25930154

  9. Low parotid saliva calmodulin in patients with taste and smell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Law, J S; Henkin, R I

    1986-08-01

    Parotid saliva calmodulin was found both in 32 normal volunteers and in 60 patients with taste and smell dysfunction; salivary calmodulin concentration was significantly lower in the patients than in the volunteers. There were no differences in salivary calmodulin concentration with respect to age, sex, or salivary flow rate in either normal volunteers or patients. When patients were categorized by diagnosis, calmodulin concentration was found to be decreased in all patient groups. The concentration of calmodulin in saliva was about 10 times that found in serum, suggesting that the parotid gland is a major source of this protein. PMID:3741698

  10. Parotid Gland Sparing With Helical Tomotherapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Voordeckers, Mia; Farrag, Ashraf; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the ability of helical tomotherapy to spare the function of the parotid glands in patients with head-and-neck cancer by analyzing dose-volume histograms, salivary gland scintigraphy, and quality of life assessment. Methods and Materials: Data from 76 consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy) at University Hospital Brussel were analyzed. During planning, priority was given to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: {>=}95% of the dose must be delivered to {>=}95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes (simultaneous integrated boost scheme). Objective scoring of salivary excretion was performed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Subjective scoring of salivary gland function was evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35 (H and N35). Results: Analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) showed excellent coverage of the PTV. The volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V95%) was 99.4 (range, 96.3-99.9). DVH analysis of parotid gland showed a median value of the mean parotid dose of 32.1 Gy (range, 17.5-70.3 Gy). The median parotid volume receiving a dose <26 Gy was 51.2%. Quality of life evaluation demonstrated an initial deterioration of almost all scales and items in QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35. Most items improved in time, and some reached baseline values 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: DVH analysis, scintigraphic evaluation of parotid function, and quality of life assessment of our patient group showed that helical tomotherapy makes it possible to preserve parotid gland function without compromising disease control. We recommend mean parotid doses of <34 Gy and doses <26 Gy to a maximum 47% of the parotid

  11. Two rare cases of rhinosporidiosis of parotid duct: Case reports and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Mounabati; Banushree, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infective disease caused by fungi, Rhinosporidium seeberi. It can occur universally, is endemic in India, Sri Lanka and in South Asia, mainly reported from Southern India and Sri Lanka. Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic disease classically involving nose and nasopharynx and presents as a localized polypoid mass. Rhinosporidiosis involving parotid duct is rare. We encountered two cases of rhinosporidiosis at extremely unusual extranasal site-parotid duct, presenting as a cyst without nasal manifestations, which was misdiagnosed clinically and on cytological examination. PMID:25593884

  12. Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid gland as the initial manifestation of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingcheng; Ngo, Raymond; Petersson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the right parotid gland as the index diagnosis of HIV infection. Histological examination of the excised parotid gland revealed a solid-cystic lymphoepithelial lesion with a non-keratinous squamous epithelium, which grew into the lymphoid component via anastomosing cords and islands. These anastomosing cords and islands contained variably abundant B cells, several subepithelial multinucleated histiocytes, salivary ducts infiltrated by small lymphocytes, and a dense lymphoid infiltrate containing lymphoid follicles with enlarged, irregular germinal centres. PMID:24452982

  13. A quantitative histological study of strain-dependent differences in the effects of irradiation on mouse lung during the intermediate and late phases

    SciTech Connect

    Sharplin, J.; Franko, A.J. )

    1989-07-01

    Strain differences in the intermediate and late phases of the radiation response of mouse lung were investigated histologically. The proportion of lung impairment in mice at 28 and 52 weeks postirradiation and in mice dying of respiratory insufficiency was assessed by scoring lung acini as nonfunctional due to lesions which obstructed airflow, or open and presumably functional. The nine strains tested were divided into three groups on the basis of the late fibrotic response. Group 1 mice, three C57 strains, developed extensive contracted fibrosis and usually showed enough damage to explain late deaths. Group 2, SWR, A, and BALB/c strains, developed foci of contracted fibrosis. Group 3, CBA and two C3H strains, did not form fibrotic scars. Mice in Groups 2 and 3 that died with no pleural effusions appeared to have insufficient late lung damage to account for respiratory distress. Problems with pulmonary blood flow were indicated by evidence of loss of fine vasculature and right ventricular hypertrophy. In nondistressed, late-stage mice in Groups 2 and 3, loss of capillary perfusion in lung parenchyma free of obvious lesions was demonstrated by infusion of colloidal carbon. In one strain, A, an estimate of the proportion of nonperfused lung was made on distressed late-stage mice. Almost 50% of lung acini were nonfunctional as a result of nonperfusion, and an additional 9% of acini were nonfunctional due to lesions obstructing ventilation. It is suggested that nonperfusion of apparently normal lung acini is a major factor in late-phase deaths in those mouse strains which show little or no fibrosis.

  14. An extremely rare case of metastatic retinoblastoma of parotids presenting as a massive swelling in a child

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelam; Pathak, Abhishek; Kapur, Bhupendra Nath; Dutta, Vibha

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a common childhood malignancy but bilateral Rb with metastasis to parotids is very uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral Rb metastasizing to parotids is very rare and this is the fifth such case reported in world literature till date in a 2-year-old male child who underwent exenteration of left eye for bilateral Rb and later developed recurrent metastasis to left parotid requiring parotidectomy. A year later he presented again with swelling left parotid region extending from occipital region reaching upto left anterior chest wall with intra-cranial extension on magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological examination of the parotid swelling and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis from Rb. He was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to local site and brain to which he responded well. Presently on regular follow up without any signs of locoregional and distal metastasis. Till date different types of primary parotid tumors have been reported in literature but a metastatic parotid tumor is extremely rare and therefore this case is being reported to highlight the extreme rarity, the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, the highly aggressive nature and overall dismal prognosis of this disease entity. PMID:27186527

  15. An extremely rare case of metastatic retinoblastoma of parotids presenting as a massive swelling in a child.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam; Pathak, Abhishek; Kapur, Bhupendra Nath; Dutta, Vibha

    2016-04-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a common childhood malignancy but bilateral Rb with metastasis to parotids is very uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral Rb metastasizing to parotids is very rare and this is the fifth such case reported in world literature till date in a 2-year-old male child who underwent exenteration of left eye for bilateral Rb and later developed recurrent metastasis to left parotid requiring parotidectomy. A year later he presented again with swelling left parotid region extending from occipital region reaching upto left anterior chest wall with intra-cranial extension on magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological examination of the parotid swelling and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis from Rb. He was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to local site and brain to which he responded well. Presently on regular follow up without any signs of locoregional and distal metastasis. Till date different types of primary parotid tumors have been reported in literature but a metastatic parotid tumor is extremely rare and therefore this case is being reported to highlight the extreme rarity, the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, the highly aggressive nature and overall dismal prognosis of this disease entity. PMID:27186527

  16. Is There a Role for PET/CT Parameters to Characterize Benign, Malignant, and Metastatic Parotid Tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karagulle; Magliocca, Kelly R.; Corey, Amanda; Galt, James R.; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Wadsworth, J. Trad; El-Deiry, Mark W.; Schuster, David M.; Saba, Nabil F.; Hudgins, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland, including metastatic lesions, is challenging with current imaging methods. Fluorine-18 FDG PET/CT is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides both anatomic and metabolic information. Semiquantitative data obtained from PET/CT, also known as PET/CT parameters, are maximum, mean, or peak standardized uptake values (SUVs); metabolic tumor volume; total lesion glycolysis; standardized added metabolic activity; and normalized standardized added metabolic activity. Our aim was to determine whether FDG PET/CT parameters can differentiate benign, malignant, and metastatic parotid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-four patients with parotid neoplasms underwent PET/CT before parotidectomy; maximum SUV, mean SUV, peak SUV, total lesion glycolysis, metabolic tumor volume, standardized added metabolic activity, and normalized standardized added metabolic activity were calculated on a dedicated workstation. Univariate analyses were performed. A ROC analysis was used to determine the ability of PET/CT parameters to predict pathologically proven benign, malignant, and metastatic parotid gland neoplasms. RESULTS Fourteen patients had a benign or malignant primary parotid tumor. Twenty had metastases to the parotid gland. When the specificity was set to at least 85% for each parameter to identify cut points, the corresponding sensitivities ranged from 15% to 40%. Assessment of benign versus malignant lesions of parotid tumors, as well as metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma versus other metastatic causes, revealed that none of the PET/CT parameters has enough power to differentiate among these groups. CONCLUSION PET/CT parameters, including total lesion glycolysis, metabolic tumor volume, standardized added metabolic activity, and normalized standardized added metabolic activity, are not able to differentiate benign from malignant parotid tumors, primary parotid tumors from metastasis, or metastasis

  17. The Shape of Parotid DVH Predicts the Entity of Gland Deformation During IMRT for Head and Neck Cancers.

    PubMed

    Broggi, S; Scalco, E; Fiorino, C; Belli, M L; Sanguineti, G; Ricchetti, F; Dell'Oca, I; Dinapoli, N; Valentini, V; Di Muzio, N; Cattaneo, G M; Rizzo, G

    2015-12-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of the registration between images taken during Radiotherapy is a measure of compression/expansion of the voxels within an organ. The Jacobian mean value was applied to investigate possible correlations between parotid deformation and anatomical, clinical and dosimetric parameters. Data of 84 patients were analyzed. Parotid deformation was evaluated through Jacobian maps of images taken at the start and at the end of the treatment. Several clinical, geometrical and dosimetric factors were considered. Correlation between Jacobian mean value and these parameters was assessed through Spearman's test. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed by considering as the end point the first quartile value of the Jacobian mean value. Parotid dose volume histograms were stratified according to gland deformation, assessing the most predictive dose-volume combination. At multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.02), overlap between tumor volume and parotid gland (p = 0.0006) and the parotid volume receiving more than 10 Gy (p = 0.02) were found as the best independent predictors, by considering Jacobian mean value parotids with Jacobian mean value fist quartile, the parotid volume receiving more than 10 Gy and 40 Gy were found as the most predictive dosimetric parameters. Parotid glands were divided in three different sub-groups (bad-, medium- and good dose volume histogram). The risk to have Jacobian means value lower than first quartile was 39.6% versus 19.6% versus 11.3% in these three groups. By including in the multivariate analysis this "dose volume grouping" parameter, age and bad dose volume histogram were found as the most predictive parameters for large shrinkage. The pattern of parotid deformation may be well predicted by some pre-treatment variables; a bad dose volume histogram seems the most important predictor

  18. Whole, submandibular, and parotid saliva-mediated aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, K; Habbick, B F; Tumber, S K

    1989-01-01

    The aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by submandibular, parotid, and whole saliva from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF subjects was investigated. There were significant differences (P less than 0.01) in aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid variants of P. aeruginosa by submandibular and whole saliva from CF patients and non-CF subjects. However, the differences in the parotid secretion were not as pronounced. Patients with CF who were colonized with P. aeruginosa demonstrated a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percent aggregation of the mucoid variants by the submandibular secretion and of both mucoid and nonmucoid variants by whole saliva, compared with corresponding secretions from patients with CF not colonized with this pathogen. The parotid saliva aggregation activity was not markedly different for the two groups with CF. From patients with CF, whole saliva demonstrated a higher percent P. aeruginosa aggregation than did the submandibular saliva. In non-CF subjects, however, the percent aggregation of P. aeruginosa by submandibular saliva was higher than that by whole saliva. Our results indicate that the sero-mucous products of the submandibular gland have a more significant role in P. aeruginosa aggregation than the serous secreting parotid cells and that the submandibular secretion is possibly responsible for the differences in oral colonization by this pathogen in subjects with and without CF. PMID:2494114

  19. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  20. Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: The Combined Michigan and Utrecht Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Houweling, Anette C.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the combined and updated results from the University of Michigan and University Medical Center Utrecht on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the parotid gland 1 year after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 prospectively analyzed patients with various HN malignancies were treated with conventional and intensity-modulated RT. Stimulated individual parotid gland flow rates were measured before RT and 1 year after RT using Lashley cups at both centers. A flow ratio <25% of pretreatment was defined as a complication. The data were fitted to the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Results: A total of 384 parotid glands (Michigan: 157; Utrecht: 227 glands) was available for analysis 1 year after RT. Combined NTCP analysis based on mean dose resulted in a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to 50% complication probability) of 39.9 Gy and m (steepness of the curve) of 0.40. The resulting NTCP curve had good qualitative agreement with the combined clinical data. Mean doses of 25-30 Gy were associated with 17-26% NTCP. Conclusions: A definite NTCP curve for parotid gland function 1 year after RT is presented, based on mean dose. No threshold dose was observed, and TD{sub 50} was equal to 40 Gy.

  1. Epidermal Cyst of Parotid Gland: A Rarity and a Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Anuradha; Nandakumar, Gautham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common skin lesions but they occur very rarely in the oral cavity, especially in the salivary glands. Very few cases have been reported in the literature and, here, we present one such rare case of epidermal cyst in the right parotid gland in a 62-year-old female patient. PMID:25628900

  2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the parotid gland: CT and MR imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, L; Wang, P; Yang, J; Yu, Q

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: As an uncommon neoplasm, parotid non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and non-MALT lymphomas. Both types of lymphoma vary in prognosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to explore CT and MRI characteristics of these two types of lymphoma. Methods: 61 cases of parotid NHL, 34 MALT and 27 non-MALT lymphomas with histopathological confirmation were examined with routine CT and MR scans prior to treatment, and retrospectively reviewed. Results: On CT and MRI, 34 MALT lymphomas presented with 11 solid and 23 solid-cystic forms, whereas 27 non-MALT lymphomas presented with 25 solid and 2 solid-cystic forms (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Parotid MALT lymphoma is characterized mainly by the solid-cystic form, whereas non-MALT lymphoma is characterized mainly by the solid form. The differences on CT and MRI can offer helpful information for differentiation of both types of parotid NHL. PMID:23975113

  3. Facial Paralysis Secondary to Extensive Perineural Spread of Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland Identified by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Achong, Dwight M; Zloty, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Brain MRI in an 82-year-old man with presumed Bell's palsy revealed a clinically unsuspected right parotid gland mass but no other acute findings. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Staging F-FDG PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid parotid mass, abnormal FDG uptake along the course of the facial nerve from mass to skull base, and multiple FDG-avid right level II neck lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. The PET/CT findings and prolonged clinical course suggest that diffuse perineural spread of tumor from a smoldering parotid neoplasm, and not idiopathic Bell's palsy, was responsible for the patient's facial paralysis. PMID:26825200

  4. Glioblastoma metastasis to parotid gland and neck lymph nodes: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most highly aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system. Extra-cranial metastases in GBM are rare. Here we present the case of a 26-year-old man with extra-cranial metastasis of a frontal lobe GBM to the parotid gland, cervical lymph nodes, and bones, with initial diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the parotid gland. FNAC is a reliable technique in the study of primary and secondary parotid gland neoplasms, allowing a presumptive diagnosis in difficult cases. We correlate the cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in this case and discuss previous literature reports. PMID:23637061

  5. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on rat pancreatic acini by N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding. Their relationship with calcium 45 efflux and amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Dehaye, J P; Winand, J; Poloczek, P; Christophe, J

    1984-01-10

    N-[3H]Methylscopolamine (NMS) binding, amylase secretion, and 45Ca efflux from dispersed rat pancreatic acini were investigated in parallel, in the presence or absence of 4 muscarinic agonists and 3 muscarinic antagonists. Scatchard analysis of [3H]NMS saturation isotherms gave a KD of 0.9 nM and an average binding capacity of 24,000 sites per cell. Binding competition curves with the antagonists atropine, dexetimide, and NMS gave KD values of 3.5, 3.5, and 0.5 nM, respectively. With the 3 full agonists oxotremorine, muscarine, and carbamylcholine, the receptor population could be divided into two classes of binding sites: a minor one (15%) with high affinity (KD = 20-35 nM) and a major one (85%) with low affinity (KD = 3-65 microM). There was a receptor reserve of about 50% with respect to carbamylcholine-stimulated amylase secretion. Further analysis of dose-effect curves suggests that low affinity binding sites were involved in the secretory response to muscarinic stimulation. Pilocarpine, like muscarinic antagonists, recognized all binding sites with the same affinity but acted as a partial agonist on amylase secretion and 45Ca efflux. PMID:6200472

  6. Growth Hormone Influence on the Morphology and Size of the Mouse Meibomian Gland

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Sullivan, David A.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth hormone (GH) plays a significant role in the regulation of the meibomian gland. To test our hypothesis, we examined the influence of GH on mouse meibomian gland structure. Methods. We studied four groups of mice, including (1) bovine (b) GH transgenic mice with excess GH; (2) GH receptor (R) antagonist (A) transgenic mice with decreased GH; (3) GHR knockout (−/−) mice with no GH activity; and (4) wild type (WT) control mice. After mouse sacrifice, eyelids were processed for morphological and image analyses. Results. Our results show striking structural changes in the GH-deficient animals. Many of the GHR−/− and GHA meibomian glands featured hyperkeratinized and thickened ducts, acini inserting into duct walls, and poorly differentiated acini. In contrast, the morphology of WT and bGH meibomian glands appeared similar. The sizes of meibomian glands of bGH mice were significantly larger and those of GHA and GHR−/− mice were significantly smaller than glands of WT mice. Conclusions. Our findings support our hypothesis that the GH/IGF-1 axis plays a significant role in the control of the meibomian gland. In addition, our data show that GH modulates the morphology and size of this tissue. PMID:26981277

  7. Growth Hormone Influence on the Morphology and Size of the Mouse Meibomian Gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Sullivan, David A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Kam, Wendy R; Ding, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth hormone (GH) plays a significant role in the regulation of the meibomian gland. To test our hypothesis, we examined the influence of GH on mouse meibomian gland structure. Methods. We studied four groups of mice, including (1) bovine (b) GH transgenic mice with excess GH; (2) GH receptor (R) antagonist (A) transgenic mice with decreased GH; (3) GHR knockout (-/-) mice with no GH activity; and (4) wild type (WT) control mice. After mouse sacrifice, eyelids were processed for morphological and image analyses. Results. Our results show striking structural changes in the GH-deficient animals. Many of the GHR-/- and GHA meibomian glands featured hyperkeratinized and thickened ducts, acini inserting into duct walls, and poorly differentiated acini. In contrast, the morphology of WT and bGH meibomian glands appeared similar. The sizes of meibomian glands of bGH mice were significantly larger and those of GHA and GHR-/- mice were significantly smaller than glands of WT mice. Conclusions. Our findings support our hypothesis that the GH/IGF-1 axis plays a significant role in the control of the meibomian gland. In addition, our data show that GH modulates the morphology and size of this tissue. PMID:26981277

  8. The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Idil Gunes; Ergun, Onur; Kurt, Aydin; Sahin, Mustafa; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Case Report Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Conclusions Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique. PMID:25386225

  9. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies a Regulatory Network in Parotid Acinar Cell Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Melissa A.; Venkatesh, Srirangapatnam G.; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Carenbauer, Anne L.; Perez, Sara M.; Andres, Sarah A.; Appana, Savitri; Brock, Guy N.; Wittliff, James L.; Darling, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor networks that drive parotid salivary gland progenitor cells to terminally differentiate, remain largely unknown and are vital to understanding the regeneration process. Methodology A systems biology approach was taken to measure mRNA and microRNA expression in vivo across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to specifically isolate acinar cell RNA at times spanning the month-long period of parotid differentiation. Results Clustering of microarray measurements suggests that expression occurs in four stages. mRNA expression patterns suggest a novel role for Pparg which is transiently increased during mid postnatal differentiation in concert with several target gene mRNAs. 79 microRNAs are significantly differentially expressed across time. Profiles of statistically significant changes of mRNA expression, combined with reciprocal correlations of microRNAs and their target mRNAs, suggest a putative network involving Klf4, a differentiation inhibiting transcription factor, which decreases as several targeting microRNAs increase late in differentiation. The network suggests a molecular switch (involving Prdm1, Sox11, Pax5, miR-200a, and miR-30a) progressively decreases repression of Xbp1 gene transcription, in concert with decreased translational repression by miR-214. The transcription factor Xbp1 mRNA is initially low, increases progressively, and may be maintained by a positive feedback loop with Atf6. Transfection studies show that Xbp1Mist1 promoter. In addition, Xbp1 and Mist1 each activate the parotid secretory protein (Psp) gene, which encodes an abundant salivary protein, and is a marker of terminal differentiation. Conclusion This study identifies novel expression patterns of Pparg, Klf4, and Sox11 during parotid acinar cell differentiation, as well as numerous differentially expressed microRNAs. Network analysis identifies a novel stemness arm, a

  10. Metachronous, Single Metastasis to the Parotid, from Primary Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kmeid, Michel; Kamar, François G.; Nasser, Selim; Moukarzel, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Background. The parotid gland is an unusual site for metastatic disease and when metastasis occurs, it commonly originates from head and neck primaries. Spread from distant infraclavicular sites such as the breast, into the parotid, is even more unusual with very few cases reported in the literature. Case Report. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman presenting for a rapidly enlarging right parotid mass. She had a history of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast and was disease-free in the past 6 years prior to her presentation. She was thereafter diagnosed as having a solitary parotid metastasis from breast origin. A total parotidectomy was done and she was referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion. Any parotid metastasis should be investigated, especially in patients with a prior history of cancer where the possibility of metastasis, even if improbable, should be kept in mind. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the first diagnostic procedure to be done and immunocytochemistry can provide valuable information even if it is not always needed for diagnosis. Superficial parotidectomy when feasible with adjuvant radiotherapy is the preferred approach for solitary metastasis of the parotid. The prognosis, however, remains poor regardless of the treatment modality used. PMID:26942028

  11. A quantitative assessment of volumetric and anatomic changes of the parotid gland during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using serial computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ajani, Abdallah A.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Orlina, Lawrence; Sakai, Osamu; Truong, Minh Tam

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the change in volume and movement of the parotid gland measured by serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A prospective study was performed on 13 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing dose-painted IMRT to 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. Serial computed tomography scans were performed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6 of radiotherapy (RT), and at 6 weeks post-RT. The parotid volume was contoured at each scan, and the movement of the medial and lateral borders was measured. The patient's body weight was recorded at each corresponding week during RT. Regression analyses were performed to ascertain the rate of change during treatment as a percent change per fraction in parotid volume and distance relative to baseline. The mean parotid volume decreased by 37.3% from baseline to week 6 of RT. The overall rate of change in parotid volume during RT was−1.30% per fraction (−1.67% and−0.91% per fraction in≥31 Gy and<31 Gy mean planned parotid dose groups, respectively, p = 0.0004). The movement of parotid borders was greater in the≥31 Gy mean parotid dose group compared with the<31 Gy group (0.22% per fraction and 0.14% per fraction for the lateral border and 0.19% per fraction and 0.06% per fraction for the medial border, respectively). The median change in body weight was−7.4% (range, 0.75% to−17.5%) during RT. A positive correlation was noted between change in body weight and parotid volume during the course of RT (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.66, p<0.01). Head and neck IMRT results in a volume loss of the parotid gland, which is related to the planned parotid dose, and the patient's weight loss during RT.

  12. A quantitative assessment of volumetric and anatomic changes of the parotid gland during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using serial computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Abdallah A; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Orlina, Lawrence; Sakai, Osamu; Truong, Minh Tam

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the change in volume and movement of the parotid gland measured by serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A prospective study was performed on 13 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing dose-painted IMRT to 69.96Gy in 33 fractions. Serial computed tomography scans were performed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6 of radiotherapy (RT), and at 6 weeks post-RT. The parotid volume was contoured at each scan, and the movement of the medial and lateral borders was measured. The patient's body weight was recorded at each corresponding week during RT. Regression analyses were performed to ascertain the rate of change during treatment as a percent change per fraction in parotid volume and distance relative to baseline. The mean parotid volume decreased by 37.3% from baseline to week 6 of RT. The overall rate of change in parotid volume during RT was-1.30% per fraction (-1.67% and-0.91% per fraction in≥31Gy and<31Gy mean planned parotid dose groups, respectively, p = 0.0004). The movement of parotid borders was greater in the≥31Gy mean parotid dose group compared with the<31Gy group (0.22% per fraction and 0.14% per fraction for the lateral border and 0.19% per fraction and 0.06% per fraction for the medial border, respectively). The median change in body weight was-7.4% (range, 0.75% to-17.5%) during RT. A positive correlation was noted between change in body weight and parotid volume during the course of RT (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.66, p<0.01). Head and neck IMRT results in a volume loss of the parotid gland, which is related to the planned parotid dose, and the patient's weight loss during RT. PMID:23558146

  13. Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

    1995-10-01

    The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora. PMID:8575539

  14. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the left parotid region: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHENXING; GE, YANENG; LI, LONGJIANG

    2016-01-01

    The formation of arteriovenous fistula beneath the parotid is relatively rare. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the first case of a 48-year-old man with a pulsatile mass on the left parotid region, which had been present for >3 years following penetrating wounds. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed a fistula between the left external carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The patient was successfully managed through surgical excision without embolization. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring was employed to prevent postoperative facial paralysis. The present study briefly reviewed the current literature, illustrating the pathophysiology, symptoms, imaging studies and treatment for arteriovenous fistula in the head and neck region. To conclude, arteriovenous fistula located near the facial nerve may be successfully managed by surgical treatment, without permanent facial paralysis. PMID:27123088

  15. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity. PMID:16505803

  16. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. PMID:26852271

  17. Treatment of a recurrent parotid fistula and sialocele by controlled internal fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khatun, S; Asaduzzaman, M; Huq, M Z; Sajedeen, M; Rahman, K M; Khatun, M H

    2015-04-01

    A 17 years old male patient presented with continuous flow of clear watery discharge from his right cheek for 14 years following trauma. He had previous history of two surgical interventions but result was not satisfactory. The diagnosis was parotid fistula & sialocele based on clinical examination & investigation. To repair this fistula we entered the sialocele cavity where saliva was accumulated between the superficial fascia & parotid fascia, then one end of feeding tube (5Fr) was placed at the bottom of the cavity and another end was fixed intra-orally to create a controlled fistula. After four weeks the feeding tube removed and a channel was made through which the salivary flow comes out, up to one year follow up resulting a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26007275

  18. Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome with Multiple Scalp Cylindromas and Bilateral Parotid Gland Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Peter; el-Azhary, Rokea

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old female presented with numerous soft tissue lesions of her scalp and bilateral preauricular region. Several of these have been biopsied or removed with a diagnosis of cylindromas. Cylindromas are benign tumors with a differentiation towards apocrine sweat glands that increase in number and size throughout life. Multiple scalp cylindromas may coalesce and cover the entire scalp, resulting in the “turban tumor.” These are often associated with the autosomal dominant Brooke-Spiegler syndrome with coexistent facial trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. There is a very rare association between cylindromas and basal cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, with only 17 reported cases. Ours is the first CT demonstration of both the scalp and parotid gland findings in this uncommon situation. PMID:22606564

  19. Radiotherapy in epithelial tumors of the parotid gland: Case presentation and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ravasz, L.A.; Terhaard, C.H.; Hordijk, G.J. )

    1990-07-01

    A group of 113 patients irradiated for parotid tumor was studied retrospectively. Sixty-two patients were irradiated after superficial parotidectomy or enucleation of a pleomorphic adenoma. None of them had a recurrence after 5-15 years. Sixteen patients were irradiated postoperatively after surgery for a recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma. Only one of them had developed a recurrent tumor. Thirty-five patients with a malignant parotid tumor were treated by irradiation, 22 after surgery and 13 after biopsy only. Patients with a low malignancy tumor (10/11) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (6/12) responded better than patients with a high malignancy carcinoma (2/12). A tumor larger than 4 cm, facial nerve palsy, lymph node metastasis, and inoperability indicate a poor prognosis. With high dose radiotherapy it is possible to treat inoperable tumors successfully. Adenoid cystic carcinomas can respond well to irradiation alone.43 references.

  20. Multi-atlas-based segmentation of the parotid glands of MR images in patients following head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Hongfu; Wang, Yuefeng; Liu, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth), resulting from radiation damage to the parotid glands, is one of the most common and distressing side effects of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Recent MRI studies have demonstrated that the volume reduction of parotid glands is an important indicator for radiation damage and xerostomia. In the clinic, parotid-volume evaluation is exclusively based on physicians' manual contours. However, manual contouring is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Here, we report a fully automated multi-atlas-based registration method for parotid-gland delineation in 3D head-and-neck MR images. The multi-atlas segmentation utilizes a hybrid deformable image registration to map the target subject to multiple patients' images, applies the transformation to the corresponding segmented parotid glands, and subsequently uses the multiple patient-specific pairs (head-and-neck MR image and transformed parotid-gland mask) to train support vector machine (SVM) to reach consensus to segment the parotid gland of the target subject. This segmentation algorithm was tested with head-and-neck MRIs of 5 patients following radiotherapy for the nasopharyngeal cancer. The average parotid-gland volume overlapped 85% between the automatic segmentations and the physicians' manual contours. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the feasibility of an automatic multi-atlas based segmentation algorithm to segment parotid glands in head-and-neck MR images.

  1. Castleman Disease of the Parotid Gland: A Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Faras, Fatemah; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Castleman disease is an extremely rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It affects the lymphatic chain in anybody region, although the commonest site is the mediastinum. The head and neck region is the second most common site; however, the salivary glands are rarely affected. We report a case of a 29-year-old Asian lady who presented with a 2-year history of an enlarging left parotid mass. Histopathology of the excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Castleman disease. PMID:26858850

  2. Evaluation of Parotid Gland Function following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok Ho; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Joo Young

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to determine the parotid gland tolerance dose levels following intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treating patients who suffered with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods From February 2003 through June 2004, 34 head and neck patients with 6 months of follow-up were evaluated for xerostomia after being treated by IMRT. Their median age was 59 years (range: 29~78). Xerostomia was assessed using a 4-question xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS) and a test for the salivary flow rates (unstimulated and stimulated: USFR and SSFR, respectively). The patients were also given a validated LENT SOMA scale (LSS) questionnaire. Evaluations were performed before IMRT and at 1, 3 and 6 months after IMRT. Results All 34 patients showed significant changes in the XQS, LSS and Salivary Flow rates (USFR and SSFR) after IMRT. No significant changes in the XQS or LSS were noted in 12 patients who received a total parotid mean dose of ≤3,100 cGy at 1, 3 and 6 months post-IMRT relative to the baseline values. However, for the 22 patients who received >3,100 cGy, significant increases in the XQS and LSS were observed. The USFR and SSFR from the parotid glands in 7 patients who received ≤2,750 cGy were significantly preserved at up to 6 months after IMRT. However, the USFR and SSFR in 27 patients who were treated with >2,750 cGy were significantly lower than the baseline values at all times after IMRT. Conclusion We suggest that the total parotid mean dose should be limited to ≤2,750 cGy to preserve the USFR and SSFR and so improve the subsequent quality of life. PMID:19771265

  3. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT. PMID:19068126

  4. [Swelling of the submandibular and parotid glands : A description of possible differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Hofauer, B; Chaker, A; Strenger, T; Bas, M; Mansour, N; Knopf, A

    2016-05-01

    Swelling of single or multiple major salivary glands can be caused by various local or systemic diseases. In differential diagnosis, congenital cystic or vascular malformations should be considered, as well as infectious or tumorous alterations. Salivary duct obstructions due to sialolithiasis or stenosis can cause salivary gland enlargement. Multiple systemic diseases can have manifestations in the parotid or submandibular glands. As therapy varies from cause to cause, knowledge of the different potential diagnoses is crucial. PMID:27160691

  5. Gunshot injuries to the parotid gland: Patterns of injury and primary management.

    PubMed

    Majid, Omer W

    2007-10-01

    We have treated 16 patients with gunshot injuries to the cheek, 10 of whom had damage to the parotid. There were nine men and one woman, mean age 40 (range 15-65). All injuries were high velocity, and eight had other injuries. We followed them up for a month; three patients required further operation, three had facial palsy, and one lost his hearing on that side. PMID:16678314

  6. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  7. Association between microtubules and Golgi vesicles isolated from rat parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Raymond, M N

    1990-01-01

    We report an isolation procedure of trans-Golgi vesicles (GVs) from rat parotid glands. Various organelle markers were used, particularly galactosyl transferase as a trans-Golgi marker, to test the purity of the GV fraction. A quantitative in vitro binding assay between microtubules and GVs is described. The vesicles were incubated with taxol-induced microtubules, layered between 50% and 43% sucrose cushions and subjected to centrifugation. Unlike free microtubules which were sedimented, the GV-bound microtubules co-migrated upward with GVs. Quantification of these bound microtubules was carried out by densitometric scanning of Coomassie blue-stained gels. The association between microtubules and GVs followed a saturation curve, with a plateau value of 20 micrograms of microtubule protein bound to 500 micrograms of GV fraction. The half-saturation of the GV sites was obtained with a microtubule concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Electron microscopy of negatively stained re-floated material showed numerous microtubule-vesicle complexes. Coating of microtubules with an excess of brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) abolished binding. In the absence of exogenous microtubules, we showed that the GV fraction was already interacting with a class of endogenous rat parotid microtubules. This class of colcemid and cold-stable microtubules represents 10-20% of the total tubulin content of the parotid cell. PMID:1983303

  8. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland with Four Morphological Features

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, David S; Alvarez, Ramiro; Gambó, Paula; Alastuey, María; Valero, Alberto; Torrecilla, Nerea; Roche, A. Belén; Simón, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma arising in salivary glands is a rare tumor, accounting for 2% to 5% of the primary neoplasms of the parotid gland. When these tumors are well-differentiated, the neoplasia has innocuous aspect, due to the similarity to normal parotid tissue. This makes the diagnosis difficult. Initially the malignancy of this tumor was uncertain; however, recent studies have declared it as malignant. The female / male ratio is 3:2. The nodule usually presents as solitary and well defined shape. Several authors have used different terms to describe histomorphological patterns of these tumors. Four descriptive categories (solid, microcystic, papillary-cystic and follicular) are useful for pathologists. Here we report a case of a 49 yr old man with a left parotid nodule of 5 cm. Parotidectomy was performed at the Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, in Zaragoza (Spain). The microscopy showed a tumor with acinic semblance, having the four morphologic patterns previously described. The morphological and immunohistochemical study was consistent with the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. PMID:27499783

  9. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  10. Acquired von Willebrand's disease associated with epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, Geoffrey Spencer; Porter, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report of a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease (AvWD) secondary to epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the parotid salivary gland. This patient presented to haematology following an abnormal bleeding episode with von Willebrand factor Ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) <5% and VWF:Ag 13%. He was diagnosed with AvWD. At the same time he was found to have a left parotid lump which was excised following a multidisciplinary team meeting. This was histologically reported as an EMC. Following excision, unusually this patient's AvWD did not resolve. Extensive investigation looking for other causes of the AvWD did not reveal any other potential cause; therefore, due to the similar timing of onset of both pathologies it is felt that the AvWD in this case is secondary to the EMC. This case report highlights the presentation, investigation and management of AvWD and parotid lumps as well as discussing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms for AvWD. PMID:25096657

  11. Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.

    PubMed

    Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

    2011-06-01

    Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

  12. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  13. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  14. The effect of dietary consistency and water content on the parotid glands of submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M

    2002-05-01

    The aim here was to estimate the significance of oral sensation and mastication on functional changes in the parotid glands of partially desalivated rats. Submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats were fed three diets of similar chemical composition but different physical presentations. Two were solid, either pellets or powder, and one was liquid. Water and food intakes were similar for both the duct-ligated rats and sham-operated control rats when they ate the pelleted or powdered-diet, though more food was wasted by the duct-ligated rats in the powdered-diet group than in the pelleted-diet group. No food was wasted in the rats fed the liquid-diet. Parotid gland weight and amylase activity were greatest with the submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats fed the powdered-diet and smallest with the duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats fed the liquid-diet. The amount of food wasted correlated positively with the parotid gland weight and parotid amylase activity of the rats. These findings support the view that it is the contact of dry food with the oral mucosa rather than the jaw movements involved in mastication that increases parotid gland weight and amylase activity in partial desalivated rats. PMID:12015217

  15. Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Donald M.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland.

  16. A comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, Eld's deer, red deer, Pere David's deer, European mouflon, African buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (CS), grass and roughage eaters (GR) and intermediate feeders (IM) were compared. The parotid acinar cells of the CS contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of the GR. The acinar cells of the latter were characterized by numerous mitochondria, folded plasma membranes and intercellular secretory canaliculi. The ultrastructure of the secretory granules varied in different species but their morphology was not related to feeding type. An unusual feature of the parotid acinar cells of all feeding types was the evidence of an apocrine-like mode of secretion. A typical morphological change of some parotid acinar cells was the compression of the nucleus by large vacuoles. No distinctive differences were found in the ultrastructure of the parotid gland of wild and captive ruminants. PMID:9090994

  17. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated our

  18. Two functionally distinct cholecystokinin receptors show different modes of action on Ca2+ mobilization and phospholipid hydrolysis in isolated rat pancreatic acini. Studies using a new cholecystokinin analog, JMV-180.

    PubMed

    Matozaki, T; Göke, B; Tsunoda, Y; Rodriguez, M; Martinez, J; Williams, J A

    1990-04-15

    A new hepatapeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, JMV-180 (Boc-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-2-phenylethylester), acts as an agonist at high affinity CCK receptors on rat pancreatic acini to stimulate amylase release but unlike cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) does not act on low affinity CCK receptors to inhibit amylase release (Galas, M. D., Lignon, M. F., Rodriguez, M., Mendre, C., Fulcrand, P., Laur, J., and Martinez, J. (1988) Am. J. Physiol. 254, G176-G188). To investigate the biochemical mechanisms initiated by CCK acting on each class of CCK receptor, the effects of JMV-180 and CCK8 on amylase release, Ca2+ mobilization, and phospholipid hydrolysis were studied in isolated rat pancreatic acini. When acini were loaded with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, amylase release stimulated by both JMV-180 and CCK8 was reduced. Measurement of 45Ca2+ efflux and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) by the fluorescence of fura-2-loaded acini in a stirred cuvette showed that JMV-180 induced a concentration-dependent increase but with a maximal response only two-thirds that induced by CCK8. When [Ca2+]i of individual fura-2-loaded acinar cells was measured by microspectrofluorometry, all concentrations of JMV-180 (1 nM-10 microM) induced repetitive transient [Ca2+]i spikes (Ca2+ oscillations). By contrast, stimulation with a high concentration of CCK8 (1 nM) caused a large increase in [CA2+]i followed by a small sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i. The measurement of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production by both [3H]inositol labeling and 1,4,5-IP3 radioreceptor assay showed that JMV-180 had only minimal effects at 10 microM in contrast to the large increase induced by high concentrations of CCK8 (more than 1 nM). JMV-180 blocked the effect of a high concentration of CCK8 on both [Ca2+]i and 1,4,5-IP3 productions but did not affect the response to carbamylcholine. JMV-180 caused a delayed monophasic stimulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) sustained to 60 min

  19. Diffuse Osteoradionecrosis of Temporal Bone as a Late Complication of Adjuvant Radiotherapy to Parotid Bed: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sisha Liz; Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagan, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Localized osteoradionecrosis of bony external auditory canal has been described as a late complication of external beam radiotherapy which is delivered to parotid bed after surgical resection of parotid malignancies. Diffuse osteoradionecrosis of temporal bone is rarely seen in such a setting and it is usually caused by resection of part of the bone for surgical clearance, followed by post-operative radiotherapy.This condition warrants aggressive treatment, in order to avoid potentially life threatening intracranial complications. In this report, we are presenting an uncommon case of extensive osteoradionecrosis which involved the entire temporal bone, in a patient who was treated for mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid twelve years ago, with total conservative parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:24995229

  20. Vascular malformation with phleboliths involving the parotid gland: A case report with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ho, Caleb; Judson, Benjamin L; Prasad, Manju L

    2015-01-01

    Phleboliths within the parotid gland are exceedingly rare. We report a case of a venous malformation with multiple phleboliths that involved the left parotid gland and extended into the extraparotid tissue in a 43-year-old woman. We also review 13 similar cases that have been reported since 1948, and we highlight the significance of distinguishing phleboliths from sialoliths because management of the two can be entirely different. Phleboliths in and around the salivary glands primarily affect the parotid and submandibular glands in adult women. Patients can present with recurrent, intermittent swelling that may be associated with food intake and hyposalivation. Any sialolithiasis located outside of its most common location in the submandibular glands must be investigated thoroughly before surgery. PMID:26535823

  1. A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of managing parotid and submandibular sialoliths using sialendoscopy assisted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jadu, Fatima M.; Jan, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To review the available techniques and procedures for management of parotid and submandibular sialoliths with special emphasis on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used combination of techniques; namely, sialendoscopy with conservative surgical removal of the stone. Methods: A systematic search of the English literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases were conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Articles between the years 2004 and 2013 were selected on the basis of preset inclusion criteria. Then, they were reviewed against a checklist to assess the evidence of efficacy of therapy or prevention and analyzed for pertinent data. Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of sialendoscopy combined with minor surgical removal of parotid and submandibular sialoliths ranges from 69-100%. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy combined with a minor surgical extraction of parotid and submandibular sialoliths is safe and efficacious. PMID:25316462

  2. Effect of clinical symptoms on the indication for selective neck dissection for N0 carcinomas of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Shimono, Mariko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a major prognostic factor in parotid carcinoma, however, the pre-operative diagnosis of occult nodal metastasis is difficult in clinical N0 (cN0) parotid cancer patients. In addition, the indication of neck dissection in T1-3 cN0 patients is controversial. The current study investigated 17 patients with clinical T1-3 cN0 parotid cancer, and analyzed the correlation between patient symptoms/findings and pathological N status/tumor histological grade. In the statistical analysis, pain was found to significantly correlate with neck metastasis. Furthermore, cN0-staged patients without pain exhibited no neck metastasis. However, no significant correlation was identified between patient symptoms or findings and histological grade. These results indicate the possibility that selective neck dissection can be omitted for T1-3 cN0-staged patients without pain. PMID:24959272

  3. Large Cohort Dose-Volume Response Analysis of Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: Intensity-Modulated Versus Conventional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Moerland, Marinus A.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To compare parotid gland dose-volume response relationships in a large cohort of patients treated with intensity-modulated (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and materials: A total of 221 patients (64 treated with IMRT, 157 with CRT) with various head-and-neck malignancies were prospectively evaluated. The distribution of tumor subsites in both groups was unbalanced. Stimulated parotid flow rates were measured before and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from computed tomography-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow ratio <25% of the pretreatment flow rate. The relative risk of complications was determined for IMRT vs. CRT and adjusted for the mean parotid gland dose using Poisson regression modeling. Results: One year after radiotherapy, NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT were comparable with a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to a 50% complication probability) of 38 and 40 Gy, respectively. Until 6 months after RT, corrected for mean dose, different complication probabilities existed for IMRT vs. CRT. The relative risk of a complication for IMRT vs. CRT after 6 weeks was 1.42 (95% CI 1.21-1.67), after 6 months 1.41 (95% CI; 1.12-1.77), and at 1 year 1.21 (95% CI 0.87-1.68), after correcting for mean dose. Conclusions: One year after radiotherapy, no difference existed in the mean dose-based NTCP curves for IMRT and CRT. Early after radiotherapy (up to 6 months) mean dose based (Lyman) models failed to fully describe the effects of radiotherapy on the parotid glands.

  4. Parotid Gland Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Is What You Plan What You Get?

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.; Wang He; Ang, Kian K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Rosenthal, David I.; Morrison, William H.; Asper, Joshua A.; Zhang Lifei; Tung Shihming; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the differences between planned and delivered parotid gland and target doses, and to assess the benefits of daily bone alignment for head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Eleven head and neck cancer patients received two CT scans per week with an in-room CT scanner over the course of their radiotherapy. The clinical IMRT plans, designed with 3-mm to 4-mm planning margins, were recalculated on the repeat CT images. The plans were aligned using the actual treatment isocenter marked with radiopaque markers (BB) and bone alignment to the cervical vertebrae to simulate image-guided setup. In-house deformable image registration software was used to map daily dose distributions to the original treatment plan and to calculate a cumulative delivered dose distribution for each patient. Results: Using conventional BB alignment led to increases in the parotid gland mean dose above the planned dose by 5 to 7 Gy in 45% of the patients (median, 3.0 Gy ipsilateral, p = 0.026; median, 1.0 Gy contralateral, p = 0.016). Use of bone alignment led to reductions relative to BB alignment in 91% of patients (median, 2 Gy; range, 0.3-8.3 Gy; 15 of 22 parotids improved). However, the parotid dose from bone alignment was still greater than planned (median, 1.0 Gy, p = 0.007). Neither approach affected tumor dose coverage. Conclusions: With conventional BB alignment, the parotid gland mean dose was significantly increased above the planned mean dose. Using daily bone alignment reduced the parotid dose compared with BB alignment in almost all patients. A 3- to 4-mm planning margin was adequate for tumor dose coverage.

  5. Comparison of EBT and EBT3 RadioChromic Film Usage in Parotid Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Khorshidi, F.; Ghorbani, M.; Mohamadian, N.; Davenport, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background EBT and EBT3 radioChromic films have been used in radiotherapy dosimetry for years. Objective The aim of the current study is to compare EBT and EBT3 radioChromic films in dosimetry of radiotherapy fields for treatment of parotid cancer. Methods Calibrations of EBT and EBT3 films were performed with identical setups using a 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens Primus linac. Skin dose was measured at different points in the right anterior oblique (RAO) and right posterior oblique (RPO) fields by EBT and EBT3 films on a RANDO phantom. Results While dosimetry was performed with the same conditions for the two film types for calibration and in phantom in parotid cancer radiotherapy, the measured net optical density (NOD) in EBT film was found to be higher than that from EBT3 film. The minimum difference between these two films under calibration conditions was about 2.9% (for 0.2 Gy) with a maximum difference of 35.5% (for 0.5 Gy). In the therapeutic fields of parotid cancer radiotherapy at different points, the measured dose from EBT film was higher than the EBT3 film. In these fields the minimum and maximum measured dose differences were 16.0% and 25.5%, respectively. Conclusion EBT film demonstrates higher NOD than EBT3 film. This effect may be related to the higher sensitivity of EBT film over EBT3 film. However, the obtained dose differences between these two films in low dose range can be due to the differences in fitting functions applied following the calibration process. PMID:27026949

  6. Differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumours: which magnetic resonance findings should be taken in account?

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, T; Botto, A; Sciandra, M; Gaudino, S; Danieli, L; Parrilla, C; Paludetti, G; Colosimo, C

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to define typical magnetic resonance (MRI) findings in malignant and benign parotid tumours. This study is based on retrospective evaluation of pre-surgical MRI of 94 patients with parotid gland tumours. Histology results were available for all tumours. There were 69 cases of benign (73%) and 25 cases of malignant (27%) tumours, including 44 pleomorphic adenomas, 18 Warthin's tumours, 7 various benign tumours, 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 13 various malignant tumours. The following MRI parameters were evaluated: shape, site, size, margins, signal intensity (SI) on T1w and T2w images, contrast enhancement, signal of cystic content, presence or absence of a capsule, perineural spread, extraglandular growth pattern and cervical adenopathy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the MRI findings most suggestive of malignancy, and to define the most typical MRI pattern of the most common histologies. Ill-defined margins (p < 0.001), adenopathies (p < 0.001) and infiltrative grown pattern (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive of malignancy. Typical findings of pleomorphic adenoma included hyperintensity on T2w images (p = 0.02), strong contrast enhancement (p < 0.001) and lobulated shape (p = 0.04). Typical findings of Warthin's tumour included hyperintense components on T1w images (p < 0.001), location in the parotid inferior process (p < 0.001) and mild or incomplete contrast enhancement (p = 0.01). SI on T1w and T2w images and contrast enhancement enables differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour. PMID:26824912

  7. Outcomes of Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Joel; Rihani, Jordan; Lin, Karen; Miller, Phillip J.; Roland, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their management can result in facial nerve paralysis. When the nerve deficit is not amenable to primary end-to-end repair or interpositional grafting, nerve transposition can be used to accomplish the goals of restoring facial tone, symmetry, and voluntary movement. The most widely used nerve transposition is the hypoglossal-facial nerve anastamosis, of which there are several technical variations. Previously we described a technique of single end-to-side anastamosis using intratemporal facial nerve mobilization and parotid release. This study further characterizes the results of this technique with a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up. The design of this study is a retrospective chart review and the setting is an academic tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis from proximal nerve injury at the cerebellopontine angle underwent facial-hypoglossal neurorraphy with parotid release. Outcomes were assessed using the Repaired Facial Nerve Recovery Scale, questionnaires, and patient photographs. Of the 21 patients, 18 were successfully reinnervated to a score of a B or C on the recovery scale, which equates to good oral and ocular sphincter closure with minimal mass movement. The mean duration of paralysis between injury and repair was 12.1 months (range 0 to 36 months) with a mean follow-up of 55 months. There were no cases of hemiglossal atrophy, paralysis, or subjective dysfunction. Direct facial-hypoglossal neurorrhaphy with parotid release achieved a functional reinnervation and good clinical outcome in the majority of patients, with minimal lingual morbidity. This technique is a viable option for facial reanimation and should be strongly considered as a surgical option for the paralyzed face. PMID:22451794

  8. Outcomes of Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Joel; Rihani, Jordan; Lin, Karen; Miller, Phillip J; Roland, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their management can result in facial nerve paralysis. When the nerve deficit is not amenable to primary end-to-end repair or interpositional grafting, nerve transposition can be used to accomplish the goals of restoring facial tone, symmetry, and voluntary movement. The most widely used nerve transposition is the hypoglossal-facial nerve anastamosis, of which there are several technical variations. Previously we described a technique of single end-to-side anastamosis using intratemporal facial nerve mobilization and parotid release. This study further characterizes the results of this technique with a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up. The design of this study is a retrospective chart review and the setting is an academic tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis from proximal nerve injury at the cerebellopontine angle underwent facial-hypoglossal neurorraphy with parotid release. Outcomes were assessed using the Repaired Facial Nerve Recovery Scale, questionnaires, and patient photographs. Of the 21 patients, 18 were successfully reinnervated to a score of a B or C on the recovery scale, which equates to good oral and ocular sphincter closure with minimal mass movement. The mean duration of paralysis between injury and repair was 12.1 months (range 0 to 36 months) with a mean follow-up of 55 months. There were no cases of hemiglossal atrophy, paralysis, or subjective dysfunction. Direct facial-hypoglossal neurorrhaphy with parotid release achieved a functional reinnervation and good clinical outcome in the majority of patients, with minimal lingual morbidity. This technique is a viable option for facial reanimation and should be strongly considered as a surgical option for the paralyzed face. PMID:22451794

  9. Colonic metastasis in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Jeba, Jenifer; Suryawanshi, Mayur; Gaikwad, Pranay; Backianathan, Selvamani

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid with late local recurrence and colonic metastasis. A 69-year-old man who had undergone right total conservative parotidectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy for intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma 10 years prior, presented with a recurrent swelling in the postoperative site and cardiac failure. On evaluation, he was found to have severe anaemia with positive stool occult blood. Colonoscopic evaluation revealed a globular submucosal bulge with erosion 40 cm from the anal verge, the biopsy of which was consistent with mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The presentation, diagnostic details and management of this rare case are discussed. PMID:26823365

  10. [Some particular aspects in cases of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Trandafirescu, Mioara-Florentina; Cotuţiu, C; Foia, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    Twenty three cases of parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma from Surgical Oro-Maxillo Facial Clinic of "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iaşi, have been evaluated. In order to reveal the particular microscopic aspects, several histological techniques have been used: HE, Van Gieson, PAS, Alcian Blue and Gordon Sweet. The microscopic evidences points out the variety of microscopic forms even within the same case, and also the prevalence of some particular forms such as myo-epithelial cell predominance, squamous metaplasia and cystic degeneration. Our observations, corroborated with the one from other research, support the hypothesis of an unique ectodermal cell origin for the lesion histogenesis. PMID:16607798

  11. Bilateral and multifocal Warthin's tumor of parotid gland: two case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, G; Ventucci, E; Antonucci, P; Costantino, V; Brunelli, G; Mariani, G; Saltarel, A; Lorè, B; Calabrese, L

    2014-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is the second most common benign neoplasm of the parotid. Most of cases are represented by a single localization, while only a small percentage of patients presents bilateral lesions or unilateral multifocal pattern. Warthin's tumor has an excellent prognosis due to the low rate of recurrence after surgical treatment. Malignant transformation occurs in less than 1% of cases. The aim of this article is to present two unusual cases of Warthin's tumor and an updated review of the latest scientific literature. PMID:25694798

  12. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, Fred K L; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G M; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in combination with destruction of acinar tissue. In this article the main techniques are described for taking labial and parotid salivary gland biopsies with respect to their advantages, postoperative complications, and usefulness for diagnostic procedures, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of treatment. PMID:27431350

  13. Parotid gland pathophysiology after mixed gamma and neutron irradiation of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Rice, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Electrolyte and protein concentrations were measured in parotid saliva samples obtained from patients receiving localized, fractionated, neutron and gamma irradiation for the treatment of cancer. Salivary sodium chloride concentration increased transiently but then usually decreased to preirradiation values after 2 weeks of therapy. There were concurrent decreases in salivary flow rate, pH, and bicarbonate concentration. The decreases in sodium chloride concentration and flow rate are inconsistent with a previously suggested, irradiation-induced ductal sodium resorption defect. The findings contribute toward understanding how salivary gland physiology is altered in irradiation injury.

  14. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley Reinsberg, Stefan; Hovan, Allan; Thomas, Steven; Wu, Jonn

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  15. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model. PMID:2879688

  16. Management of an unusual case of iatrogenic parotid sialocele using an infant feeding tube: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Nimbeni, Basavaraj S; Singh, Surendar Pal; Golai, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the parotid duct and parenchyma resulting in swelling in the cheek region commonly present in maxillofacial practice. Sialocele is a discrete collection of saliva in a subcutaneous cavity that can be iatrogenic, idiopathic or the result of post-traumatic injuries to the duct or parenchyma, presenting as a salivary pseudocyst or retention cyst. We present an unusual case of parotid sialocele following surgery for sialolithiasis which presented with progressive painless swelling in the preauricular region of 9 months duration. Treatment included surgical exploration under local anaesthesia and draining the cavity by keeping the opening patent using an infant feeding tube. PMID:25331148

  17. Transmasseteric anterior parotid approach for condylar fractures: experience of 129 cases.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vinod; Ramadorai, Ashok; Ravi, Poornima; Nirvikalpa, Natarajan

    2012-07-01

    We have evaluated the transmasseteric anterior parotid (TMAP) approach in the treatment of 163 condylar fractures in 129 patients. Ninety-five patients presented with unilateral, and 34 with bilateral, fractures. The inclusion criteria were patient's choice for open reduction and internal fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal derangement, and displaced bilateral condylar fractures with anterior open bite. Mean (SD) maximum interincisal opening after 3 months was 44(5)mm. There were no differences in lateral movements during the reviews 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Protrusive movement at the end of 3 months was 7(2)mm. All patients achieved functional occlusion identical to the pretraumatic occlusion and good reduction of the condyles. No patient developed temporary or permanent facial palsy, sialocele, salivary fistula, or Frey syndrome. The mean (SD) operating time was 46(11)min. The TMAP approach avoids the complications of incision of the parotid gland, minimises the risk of facial nerve palsy, and offers excellent access to the fractured condyle. PMID:21982159

  18. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XIE, SHULE; YANG, HONGYU; BREDELL, MARIUS; SHEN, SHIYUE; YANG, HUIJUN; JIN, LONG; ZHANG, SHANSHAN

    2015-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare and aggressive parotid malignancy that most commonly affects males in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Histopathology specimens obtained from SDC patients demonstrate a resemblance to ductal carcinoma of the breast. Therefore, to distinguish SDC from breast ductal carcinoma, several immunohistochemical markers exist that may enable surgeons to make an accurate diagnosis. In this study, the case of a 54-year-old male with salivary duct carcinoma of the right parotid gland is presented. The results of the present case study revealed that the SDC sample was positive for the expression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (Her-2), cytokeratin (CK) 8/CK 18, p63, high molecular weight CK and calponin, and negative for expression of the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Based on the result, an ipsilateral selective neck dissection followed by adjuvant post-operative radiation therapy was suitable at the primary treatment stage. At one year of follow-up, the patient was alive and free of recurrence. In advanced cases of SDC, treatment with anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab, is recommended. PMID:25435994

  19. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human mesenchymal stem cells of parotid gland origin

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing; Xu, Nuo; Meng, Cen; Wang, Bianhong; Yuan, Jinghong; Wang, Caiyun; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The technology to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent state allows the generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and autologous transplantation. Here we, for the first time, identified mesenchymal stem cells isolated from parotid gland (hPMSCs) as a suitable candidate for iPSC production. In the present study, hPMSCs were isolated from parotid gland specimens in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. The mesenchymal stem cell properties of cultured hPMSCs were confirmed by expression of surface markers and induced differentiation into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic cell lineages. hPMSCs were then reprogrammed to pluripotent cells by episomal vector-mediated transduction of reprogramming factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC, LIN28 and TP53 shRNA). The resulting hPMSC-iPSCs showed similar characteristics as human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with regard to morphology, pluripotent markers, global gene expression, and methylation status of pluripotent cell-specific genes OCT4 and NANOG. These hPMSC-iPSCs were able to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that hPMSCs could be an alternative cell source for generation of iPSCs and have the potential to be used in cell-based regenerative medicine. PMID:27158336

  20. Growth Factors Polymerized Within Fibrin Hydrogel Promote Amylase Production in Parotid Cells

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew D.; Nelson, Joel W.; Leigh, Noel J.; Duffey, Michael E.; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland cell differentiation has been a recurring challenge for researchers as primary salivary cells show a loss of phenotype in culture. Particularly, parotid cells show a marked decrease in amylase expression, the loss of tight junction organization and proper cell function. Previously, Matrigel has been used successfully as an extracellular matrix; however, it is not practical for in vivo applications as it is tumorigenic. An alternative method could rely on the use of fibrin hydrogel (FH), which has been used extensively in biomedical engineering applications ranging from cardiovascular tissue engineering to wound-healing experiments. Although several groups have examined the effects of a three-dimensional (3D) environment on salivary cell cultures, little is known about the effects of FH on salivary cell cultures. The current study developed a 3D cell culture model to support parotid gland cell differentiation using a combination of FH and growth factor-reduced Matrigel (GFR-MG). Furthermore, FH polymerized with a combination of EGF and IGF-1 induced formation of 3D spheroids capable of amylase expression and an agonist-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in salivary cells. These studies represent an initial step toward the construction of an artificial salivary gland to restore salivary gland dysfunction. This is necessary to reduce xerostomia in patients with compromised salivary function. PMID:23594102

  1. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal partial parotid gland volumes (30 Gy). Amifostine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250 mg per kg body weight, 25 minutes before irradiation. Saliva flow rates, gland weights, and the tissues of the individual lobes were investigated up to 1 year after treatment. Results: A clear protective effect of amifostine was found against loss of saliva flow, the altered appearance of gross morphology, loss of gland weight, and histopathologic changes for the 100% volume gland irradiations and for the 50% volume cranial irradiations but not for the 50% volume caudal irradiations. Conclusions: The protective ability of amifostine is strongly dependent on the irradiated glandular region and observed for later damage only. The major effect of the drug seems to be the prevention of volume effects caused by secondary damage that occurs in shielded parts of the gland. The results of the present study show that understanding of the anatomy and physiology of organs that are to be spared is necessary to ensure optimal preservation of function.

  2. Radioprotective effects of lycopene and curcumin during local irradiation of parotid glands in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Gómez-García, Francisco; García Carrillo, Nuria; Valle-Rodríguez, Ezkai; Xerafin, Ana; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Radiotherapy effectively treats cancers of the head and neck. We investigated the possible protective effects of lycopene and curcumin on the parotid glands of 40 female Sprague Dawley rats during irradiation. The study followed European Union regulations 86/609/EEC, 2010/63/EU for animal experimentation. The animals were divided into 4 groups: those treated with curcumin and radiation, those treated with lycopene and radiation, those treated with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and radiation, and those treated with radiation alone. All compounds were given intraperitoneally the day before irradiation. The total dose of radiation was 20Gy. Morphological and histopathological analyses showed less cell necrosis in the group treated with curcumin than in the other groups, but the difference was not significant. Analysis of structural damage to the parotid ducts and vacuolisation showed significant differences among all groups (p=0.023, p<0.01). Lycopene and curcumin given 24 hours before irradiation reduced the structural damage to the salivary glands. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26830066

  3. A case with tumor of left parotid gland and denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    MercuŢ, Veronica; Iorgulescu, Daniel; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Mărgăritescu, Claudiu; MercuŢ, Răzvan; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The article discuss the case of an edentulous patient presented to the dental clinic for pain and burning sensation of oral mucosa and diagnosed subsequently with oxyphilic adenoma. A 58-year-old patient, with maxillary edentulism, treated with complete denture, presented to the Clinic of Prosthetic Dentistry of the Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania, for pain of oral mucosa and bad stability of denture. The diagnosis of erythematous denture stomatitis as consequence of salivary flow reduction was establish after patient's clinical examination, and by unstimulated sialometry. Clinical exam suggested hyposalivation could be a consequence of a tumor situated at the level of the left parotid gland. The echography confirmed the diagnosis of left parotid gland tumor. The tumor was surgical removed and histopathological exam confirmed oxyphilic adenoma. Education of patient for wearing new denture while maintaining a strict oral hygiene and dealing with low salivary flow was the treatment for denture stomatitis. General dentist has an important role in finding and diagnosing patients with systemic diseases, especially salivary tumors. PMID:25826511

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  5. Cystic sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Squillaci, S; Marchione, R; Piccolomini, M

    2011-04-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma (SL) of the salivary glands is a very rare, benign tumour with distinct histopathologic characteristics and uncertain histogenesis. It is almost exclusively confined to the parotid gland where it occurs generally as a slowly growing mass in elderly patients. Several imaging techniques and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can be used for diagnosis, but definitive diagnosis is usually established only by histopathological examination. Such lesions are composed of a varying admixture of islands, duct-like structures and cysts covered with squamous or cuboid and columnar epithelium intermingled with a background of lymphoid stroma, sometimes with lymph follicles. Accurate diagnosis of SL is important since many salivary masses in adults are malignant. We report a case of cystic sebaceous lymphadenoma of the left parotid gland surgically resected in a 70-year-old woman. Fifteen months after surgery, the patient is well, with no evidence of recurrence. Differential diagnostic problems and histogenetic considerations are provided; a comprehensive review of the literature has also been performed. PMID:21797140

  6. Ontogeny of alpha-amylase circadian rhythms in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Bellavia, S L

    1986-01-01

    The content of alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1.) and total soluble proteins of parotid glands (from rats exposed to a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark), have been determined every 2 or 3 hr over 24 hr periods in 15, 25 and 90-day-old rats. In 35-, 45- and 72-day-old rats, determinations were performed only at 0100 and 1400 hr. The alpha-amylase and total soluble protein contents from 90-day-old rats show a circadian variation, with a maximum value at 2200 hr and a minimum at 1400 hr. Parotids from 15- and 25-day-old rats also show a circadian rhythm. The minimum value is recorded at 0100 hr and the maximum at 1400 hr. At day 35 and after, there is an inversion of the amylase rhythm. In immature rats, it appears that alpha-amylase and soluble protein are under the influence of another synchronizer, whose timing is independent of that imposed by mastication of solid food. PMID:2878787

  7. Great auricular nerve preservation in parotid surgery: rationale and long-term results insights.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Antonio; Citraro, Leonardo; Petrucci, Anna Grazia; Di Giovanni, Pamela; Di Mauro, Roberta; Giacomini, Pier Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Great auricular nerve (GAN) is frequently sacrificed during parotid surgery. GAN preservation during parotidectomy is advised to avoid complications such as sensitive disorders, but debate still exists. In this study, our experience is reported on the matter. From a cohort of 173 parotidectomies carried out in the period 2005-2010, we studied 60 patients: 20 patients in which we preserved only the posterior branch of GAN (group A), 20 patients in which we preserved also the lobular branch (group B) and 20 patients in which the main trunk of GAN was sectioned (group C); we evaluated tactile sensitivity in all the skin supplied by GAN at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Group B is the best in terms of loss and recovery of sensitivity after 1-year post-surgery, followed closely by group A, on the contrary group C confirmed to be the worst. Results suggest that saving as many branches of the GAN as possible during parotid surgery could be useful for reducing hypo-dysesthesia. Preserving posterior and lobular branches of the GAN, when possible, improves the sensitivity of the preauricular area with better quality of life for the patient. PMID:25381094

  8. Catecholamines levels and parotid secretion in children with chronic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Crespi, H; Armando, I; Tumilasci, O; Levin, G; Massimo, J; Barontini, M; Perec, C

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo state of both branches of the autonomic nervous system in children with chronic atopic dermatitis. In 15 patients, age 4 to 11, the following parameters were analyzed: (1) basal plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine; (2) poststimulation (standing and i.v. furosemide administration); (3) basal urinary excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vainillin mandelic acid; (4) 30 min postfurosemide administration; (5) parotid secretory response to intraoral 0.1 m citric acid: flow rate, saliva pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate, chlorides, inorganic phosphates, total protein, and amylase activity. No differences in plasma and urinary basal levels of the catecholamines were observed. In response to standing, plasma norepinephrine from atopic children showed a greater increase than that seen in normal healthy children. From the salivary factors studied, no differences were found in parotid flow-rate, bicarbonates, chlorides, and inorganic phosphates. Protein concentration as well as amylase activity were significantly decreased in children with atopic dermatitis. These findings suggest that in atopic dermatitis, the beta-sympathetic mediated responses are impaired; on the other hand, parasympathetic mediated responses remain preserved. PMID:7086169

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25-69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  10. The role of postoperative radiation therapy in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Eisele, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of postoperative radiation therapy on the clinical course of patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 63 patients were treated with definitive surgery for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Forty patients (63%) received postoperative radiation therapy to a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 45-71 Gy). Adenocarcinoma (29 patients), salivary duct carcinoma (16 patients), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (9 patients) were the most common malignant subtypes. Pathologic T -stage was: 16% T1, 33% T2, 32% T3, and 19% T4. Twenty-one patients (33%) had microscopically positive margins and 39 (62%) had perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2-96 months). Results: The use of postoperative therapy significantly improved 5-year local control from 49% to 75% (p = 0.005) and was associated with an improvement in survival among patients without evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01). A Cox proportional hazard model identified pathologic involvement of cervical lymph nodes as an independent predictor of overall survival. Overall survival was 16% for patients with pathologic N-positive disease compared with 67% for those whose lymph node status was negative or unknown (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Surgery followed by postoperative radiation should be considered the standard of care for patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  11. Medical Management for the Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection of the Parotid Gland: Avoiding Surgery May Be Possible

    PubMed Central

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Oughton, Matthew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is uncommon in the head and neck; therefore there is no clear consensus on treating these infections. Our objective was to report our experience with a unique case of NTM infection of the parotid in an immunocompetent patient, in order to determine appropriate management through our experience with this pathology. A 57-year-old man, known for numerous comorbid diseases, presented to our institution complaining of right parotid swelling and pain. A computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a multiloculated collection in the inferior portion of the right parotid gland, compatible with abscess formation. This abscess was drained by interventional radiology (IR) but required repeat drainage twice due to lack of initial improvement. He was treated with several antibiotics as culture results initially indicated Gram-positive bacilli and then Mycobacterium species, with final identification by a reference laboratory as Mycobacterium abscessus. Imipenem was initiated with amikacin and clarithromycin. His infection clinically and radiologically resolved after 5 months of antibiotherapy. In our case, the patient improved following intravenous antibiotic therapy. Our experience demonstrates that appropriate antibiotherapy can lead to resolution of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in the parotid without the risks associated with surgical intervention. PMID:27340407

  12. Histological characteristics following a long-term nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dengsheng; Qu, Xingmin; Tran, Simon D; Schmidt, Laura L; Qin, Lizheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Cui, Xiuyu; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the histological characteristics following a 2-year nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy. Using averages collected data from three time points at 6, 12, and 24 months following the induction of parotid gland atrophy, salivary nitrate levels of the nitrate-diet parotid-atrophied group (17.3±3.9 ng/µl) were close to those of the control group (19.6±5.1 ng/µl). Compared to the control group, the nitrate-diet group had significantly higher nitrate levels in blood (P < 0.05) and urine (P < 0.001). Histological and electron microscopy analyses showed no abnormalities in the organs of experimental or control animals. No significant differences on apoptosis rate were found in liver and kidney tissues between the standard- and nitrate-diet groups. Therefore, dietary nitrate supplementation could restore salivary nitrate levels. High-dose nitrate loading for 2 years had no observed systemic toxicity in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy. PMID:26261499

  13. [Subtotal parotidectomy for a parotid gland tumour in two players of wind instruments, with preservation of facial nerve function].

    PubMed

    Heeremans, E H; Mastboom, W J B

    2007-03-01

    Two professional musicians, a 55-year-old clarinet player and a 58-year-old trumpet player, presented to the surgical outpatient clinic with a Warthin's tumour and a pleomorphic adenoma in the deep lobe of the parotid gland, respectively. The several branches of the facial nerve form the virtual plane between the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland. Due to the localisation of this nerve, parotid surgery entails a significant risk of neurapraxia of the facial nerve branches. Before the operation, both patients were informed carefully about both the necessity and the risks of surgical excision of parotid tumours. Even slight damage to the facial nerve during parotidectomy could have severe implications for their careers. Both underwent subtotal parotidectomy. Postoperatively, there was clinically a temporary minor marginal branch dysfunction in one patient. Pre- and postoperative electromyography did not indicate asymmetrical function of the facial muscles. A few weeks after the operations, both musicians could resume playing; subtotal parotidectomy can apparently be safely performed in players of wind instruments. PMID:17373397

  14. Parotid area lymph node metastases from preliminarily diagnosed patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report on tumor characteristics and oncologic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Youping; Zong, Jingfeng; Qiu, Sufang; Bai, Penggang; Dai, Yitao; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Yunbin; Lin, Shaojun; Pan, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    The parotid area lymph node (PLN) is an uncommon site of metastasis originating from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with preliminarily diagnosed NPC with PLN metastases. Here we retrospectively reviewed Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 2221 patients with untreated nonmetastatic NPC who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Finally, 64 (2.9%) patients were identified with PLN metastases, of which, 34 received PLN-sparing IMRT and 30 received PLN-radical IMRT. We also found that 42.2% had N3 disease and 95.3% had stages III-IVb. PLN metastases on MRI were characterized by ipsilateral retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) or level II nodal extracapsular spread (ECS), ipsilateral giant cervical nodes, ipsilateral parapharyngeal extension, or solitary parotid metastasis. The 5-year overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, regional relapse-free survival, and parotid relapse-free survival rates were 70.4%, 64.3%, 76.7%, and 87.9%, respectively. Distant metastases were the main cause of treatment failure and death. Using PLN-sparing IMRT, sparing PLN with minimal axial diameter of <10 mm, could increase the risk of parotid recurrence. However, it was not an independent prognostic factor. N classification and concurrent-based chemotherapy were almost statistically significant for distant failure and death. Overall, we demonstrated that the PLN metastases might be derived from RLN or level II nodal ECS, giant cervical nodes in a retrograde fashion, or parapharyngeal extension. Sparing PLN of <10 mm by IMRT should consider the risk of parotid recurrence. Distant metastases remained the dominant treatment failure. Further effective systemic chemotherapy should be explored. PMID:26934439

  15. Parotid Gland Nodular Fasciitis: A Clinicopathologic Series of 12 Cases with a Review of 18 Cases from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tyler C; Bishop, Justin A; Thompson, Lester D R

    2015-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF), very uncommon in the parotid gland, is a benign myofibroblastic proliferation that may be mistaken for other neoplastic proliferations. The mass-like clinical presentation and histologic features result in frequent misclassification, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature. Cases within the files of the authors' institutions (retrospective) confined to the parotid gland were compared to cases reported in the English literature (Medline 1966-2014). The patients included five females and seven males, aged 11-70 years (mean 45.2 years). All patients presented with a mass lesion, present on average 1.9 months, without a documented history of trauma. The lesions were 0.7-5.2 cm (mean 2.2 cm). Seven patients had fine needle aspiration. The majority of the lesions were circumscribed (n = 9), composed of spindle-shaped to stellate myofibroblasts (MF) arranged in a storiform growth pattern, juxtaposed to hypocellular myxoid tissue-culture-like areas with extravasation of erythrocytes. Dense, keloid-like collagen (n = 7) and occasional giant cells were seen (n = 6). Mitotic figures (without atypical forms) were readily identifiable (mean 4/10 HPFs). By immunohistochemical staining, the MF were reactive with vimentin, actins, and calponin, while the histiocytes were reactive with CD68. All patients had surgical excision. One patient developed local recurrence (12 months later). All were alive and disease free at last follow-up, with a mean 133 months of follow-up. The principle differential diagnoses include fibrosarcoma, fibromatosis, pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, neurofibroma, schwannoma, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, fibrous histiocytoma and myxoma. NF of the parotid gland occurs in middle-aged patients who present with a mass (mean 2.2 cm) in the parotid gland of short duration (1.9 months). FNA misinterpretation frequently leads to excision. Separation from

  16. The impact of dose on parotid salivary recovery in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yun; Taylor, Jeremy . E-mail: jmgt@umich.edu; Haken, Randall K. ten; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: A common side effect experienced by head and neck cancer patients after radiation therapy (RT) is impairment of the parotid glands' ability to produce saliva. Our purpose is to investigate the relationship between radiation dose and saliva changes in the 2 years after treatment. Methods and Materials: The study population includes 142 patients treated with conformal or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Saliva flow rates from 266 parotid glands are measured before and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Measurements are collected separately from each gland under both stimulated and unstimulated conditions. Bayesian nonlinear hierarchical models were developed and fit to the data. Results: Parotids receiving higher radiation produce less saliva. The largest reduction is at 1-3 months after RT followed by gradual recovery. When mean doses are lower (e.g., <25 Gy), the model-predicted average stimulated saliva recovers to pretreatment levels at 12 months and exceeds it at 18 and 24 months. For higher doses (e.g., >30 Gy), the stimulated saliva does not return to original levels after 2 years. Without stimulation, at 24 months, the predicted saliva is 86% of pretreatment levels for 25 Gy and <31% for >40 Gy. We do not find evidence to support that the overproduction of stimulated saliva at 18 and 24 months after low dose in 1 parotid gland is the result of low saliva production from the other parotid gland. Conclusions: Saliva production is affected significantly by radiation, but with doses <25-30 Gy, recovery is substantial and returns to pretreatment levels 2 years after RT.

  17. Radiation-Induced Damage to Microstructure of Parotid Gland: Evaluation Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Tomoko; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Michimoto, Koichi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the radiation-induced damage to the microstructure of the parotid gland using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the parotid gland was performed before radiotherapy (RT) and during the RT period or {<=}3 weeks after RT completion for 12 head-and-neck cancer patients using a 1.5-T scanner with a microscopy coil. The maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was evaluated, and changes in the internal architecture of the gland were assessed both visually and quantitatively. Results: Magnetic resonance images were obtained at a median parotid gland dose of 36 Gy (range, 11-64). According to the quantitative analysis, the maximal cross-sectional area of the gland was reduced, the width of the main duct was narrowed, and the intensity ratio of the main duct lumen to background was significantly decreased after RT (p <.0001). According to the visual assessment, the width of the main duct tended to narrow and the contrast of the duct lumen tended to be decreased, but no significant differences were noted. The visibility of the duct branches was unclear in 10 patients (p = .039), and the septum became dense in 11 patients (p = .006) after RT. Conclusion: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of evaluating radiation-induced changes to the internal architecture of the parotid gland. Morphologic changes in the irradiated parotid gland were demonstrated during the RT course even when a relatively small dose was delivered to the gland.

  18. The Impact of Dose on Parotid Salivary Recovery in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A common side effect experienced by head and neck cancer patients after radiotherapy (RT) is impairment of the parotid glands’ ability to produce saliva. Our purpose is to investigate the relationship between radiation dose and saliva changes in the two years following treatment. Methods and Materials The study population includes 142 patients treated with conformal or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Saliva flow rates from 266 parotid glands are measured before and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment. Measurements are collected separately from each gland under both stimulated and unstimulated conditions. Bayesian nonlinear hierarchical models were developed and fit to the data. Results Parotids receiving higher radiation produce less saliva. The largest reduction is at 1–3 months after RT followed by gradual recovery. When mean doses are lower (e.g. <25Gy), the model-predicted average stimulated saliva recovers to pre-treatment levels at 12 months and exceeds it at 18 and 24 months. For higher doses (e.g. >30Gy), the stimulated saliva does not return to original levels after two years. Without stimulation, at 24 months, the predicted saliva is 86% of pre-treatment levels for 25Gy and <31% for >40Gy. We do not find evidence to support that the over-production of stimulated saliva at 18 and 24 months after low dose in one parotid gland is due to low saliva production from the other parotid gland. Conclusions Saliva production is impacted significantly by radiation, but with doses <25–30Gy, recovery is substantial and returns to pre-treatment levels two years after RT. PMID:17141973

  19. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended.

  20. Effect of glucagon on digestive enzyme synthesis, transport and secretion in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. Effect of glucagon on amylase secretion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release from functionally intact dissociated pancreatic acinar cells and acini was studied. 2. In dissociated rat pancreatic acinar cells, the rate of amylase secretion was increased by 70% with bethanechol (maximally effective concentration, 10(-4) M) and 125% with A23187 (10(-5) M), but the response to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was inconsistent. In dissociated cells from mouse pancreas, the increases amounted to 78% with bethanechol (10(-4) M), 134% with A23187 (10(-5) M) and 82% with CCK-PZ (maximally effective concentration, 0 . 01 u. ml.-1). Glucagon in concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M increased amylase secretion by 3, 26, 67 and 80%, whereas secretin (10(-8)--10(-5) M) increased amylase secretion by 8, 39, 88 and 138%. LDH release was increased with A23187 in concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. 3. CCK-PZ, bethanechol and A23187 used in maximal concentrations potentiated the effect of a submaximal dose of glucagon whereas secretin did not have an additive or a potentiating effect. 4. Pancreatic acini were approximately 3 times more responsive to secretagogues than cells. The dose--response curves to bethanechol, glucagon and CCK-PZ for increase in amylase secretion were similar. LDH release was not increased by these agents. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram ml.-1) which is known to disrupt the integrity of luminal membrane inhibited the amylase secretion stimulated by glucagon, bethanechol and CCK-PZ. 5. Glucagon inhibited incorporation of a mixture of fifteen 14C-labelled amino acids (algal profile, Schwarz Mann) into perchloric acid precipitable proteins in dissociated mouse pancreatic acini within 30 min. 6. In 'pulse-chase' experiments, glucagon decreased the specific activity of zymogen granules isolated by differential centrifugation, from pancreatic lobules (120 min) and increased the specific activity of radiolabelled proteins in the medium (60 and 120 min

  1. Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine Induces Prostate Epithelial Hyperplasia and Reactive Stroma in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Ressler, Steven J.; Rowley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in fibrotic and malignant diseases and is a key mediator of proliferative responses. Elevated IL-8 was recently correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelium and a myofibroblast reactive stroma. Thus, we sought to determine whether overexpressed IL-8 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), the functional murine homolog of IL-8, induce prostate epithelial hyperplasia and a reactive phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice that overexpress KC within prostate epithelia and xenograft models with engineered human cells that overexpress IL-8 were developed. Results Overexpression of KC in transgenic mice produced hyperplastic prostate epithelial acini associated with a periacinar reactive stroma. KC induced an altered epithelial/stroma proliferation index ratio, increased acini diameter, epithelial infolding, and expression of prototypical reactive stroma markers. Overexpression of IL-8 in normal human prostate epithelial xenografts correlated with elevated epithelial proliferation index and altered morphology. Elevated human prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation, nodule-like morphology and increased xenograft survival were observed in IL-8-overexpressing orthotopic xenografts. Conclusions Together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of IL-8/KC results in a prostate epithelial hyperplasia with an associated reactive stroma phenotype. The novel transgenic mouse and human xenograft models described here may be useful in dissecting key mechanisms of IL-8 induced prostate hyperplasia and reactive stroma. PMID:19021203

  2. Promotion of Streptococcus mutans glucose transport by human whole saliva and parotid fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1985-01-01

    Human saliva and parotid fluid have two effects on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans: a reduction in the overall rate of uptake, and the promotion of a biphasic mode of uptake. The former effect had been previously shown to result from lactoperoxidase-mediated inhibition of transport or metabolism or both. The objective of the present study was to uncover the basis of the second effect. Biphasic glucose uptake consisted of a rapid phase of low capacity and short duration (approximately 10 to 15 s) followed by a slower phase of high capacity and long duration (several minutes). The slow phase is typical of cells not exposed to the secretions (control cells). S. mutans BHT cells pretreated with as little as 10 microM glucose for 10 min at 37 degrees C, followed by its removal, subsequently exhibit biphasic glucose uptake typical of saliva- or parotid fluid-treated cells. Since pretreatment of the organism with glucose, whole saliva supernatant, or parotid fluid supported subsequent transport of the nonmetabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose, we concluded that pretreatments established a relatively stable pool of glycolytic intermediates (i.e., a phosphoenolpyruvate potential). Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of extracts from [14C]glucose-pretreated cells confirmed the presence of a stable pool of triose phosphates. Dialysis experiments indicated that high-molecular-weight substrates in the secretions were readily utilized by the organism to establish a phosphoenolpyruvate potential, especially when the lactoperoxidase system was rendered inactive. A survey of several carbohydrate constituents of salivary glycoproteins revealed that mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine, in addition to glucose, established phosphoenolpyruvate potentials in the organisms. Inactive substances included, among others, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid. In a survey of selected amino acids, arginine alone promoted 2-deoxyglucose accumulation by the organism

  3. Promotion of Streptococcus mutans glucose transport by human whole saliva and parotid fluid.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1985-04-01

    Human saliva and parotid fluid have two effects on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans: a reduction in the overall rate of uptake, and the promotion of a biphasic mode of uptake. The former effect had been previously shown to result from lactoperoxidase-mediated inhibition of transport or metabolism or both. The objective of the present study was to uncover the basis of the second effect. Biphasic glucose uptake consisted of a rapid phase of low capacity and short duration (approximately 10 to 15 s) followed by a slower phase of high capacity and long duration (several minutes). The slow phase is typical of cells not exposed to the secretions (control cells). S. mutans BHT cells pretreated with as little as 10 microM glucose for 10 min at 37 degrees C, followed by its removal, subsequently exhibit biphasic glucose uptake typical of saliva- or parotid fluid-treated cells. Since pretreatment of the organism with glucose, whole saliva supernatant, or parotid fluid supported subsequent transport of the nonmetabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose, we concluded that pretreatments established a relatively stable pool of glycolytic intermediates (i.e., a phosphoenolpyruvate potential). Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of extracts from [14C]glucose-pretreated cells confirmed the presence of a stable pool of triose phosphates. Dialysis experiments indicated that high-molecular-weight substrates in the secretions were readily utilized by the organism to establish a phosphoenolpyruvate potential, especially when the lactoperoxidase system was rendered inactive. A survey of several carbohydrate constituents of salivary glycoproteins revealed that mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine, in addition to glucose, established phosphoenolpyruvate potentials in the organisms. Inactive substances included, among others, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid. In a survey of selected amino acids, arginine alone promoted 2-deoxyglucose accumulation by the organism

  4. Intensity-Modulated vs. Conformal Radiotherapy of Parotid Gland Tumors: Potential Impact on Hearing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers-Kuijper, E. Schwarz, M.; Rasch, C.; Mijnheer, B.

    2007-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy of parotid gland tumors, little effort is made to avoid the auditory system or the oral cavity. Damage may occur when the ear is located inside the treatment field. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate an intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) class solution, and to compare this technique to a 3D conformal approach with respect to hearing loss. Twenty patients with parotid gland cancer were retrospectively planned with 2 different techniques using the original planning target volume (PTV). First, a conventional technique using a wedged beam pair was applied, yielding a dose distribution conformal to the shape of the PTV. Next, an IMRT technique using a fluence map optimization with predefined constraints was designed. A dose of 66 Gy in the PTV was given at the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measures (ICRU) dose prescription point. Dose-volume histograms of the PTV and organs at risk (OARs), such as auditory system, oral cavity, and spinal cord, were compared. The dose in the OARs was lower in the IMRT plans. The mean volume of the middle ear receiving a dose higher than 50 Gy decreased from 66.5% to 33.4%. The mean dose in the oral cavity decreased from 19.4 Gy to 16.6 Gy. The auditory system can be spared if the distance between the inner ear and the PTV is 0.6 cm or larger, and if the overlap between the middle ear and the PTV is smaller than 10%. The maximum dose in the spinal cord was below 40 Gy in all treatment plans. The mean volume of the PTV receiving less than 95% of the prescribed dose increased in the IMRT plan slightly from 3.3% to 4.3 % (p = 0.01). The mean volume receiving more than 107% increased from 0.9% to 2.5% (p = 0.02). It can be concluded that the auditory system, as well as the oral cavity, can be spared with IMRT, but at the cost of a slightly larger dose inhomogeneity in the PTV. The IMRT technique can therefore, in most cases, be recommended as the treatment

  5. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  6. Season related ultrastructural features of the parotid, submandibular and von Ebner's glands in hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Grandi, D

    1996-08-01

    The parotid, submandibular and the von Ebner's salivary glands of hibernating insectivorous bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Rhinolophus f. e. and Eptesicus serotinus) were studied by transmission electron microscopy and by histochemical methods during various seasons of the year. We report the seasonal ultrastructural changes that occur in the cytoplasmic organelles and the secretory granules of the serous and mucous cells and in the intercalated and striated ducts of the major glands. It previously has been hypothesized that the heterogeneity of the inclusions in the serous granules is closely related to the varying seasonal levels of proteinaceous and glycidic constituents. Lymphatic vessels are present only in the perivascular and periductal connective tissue. Morphofunctional and comparative studies seem to confirm a relationship between secretory activity and nutritional status as well as a likely involvement of the intercalated and striated ducts in determining the composition of the saliva. PMID:8874091

  7. Lipoma and liposarcoma of the parotid gland: high-resolution preoperative imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R; Noyek, A M; Chapnik, J S; Steinhardt, M; Luk, S C; Cooter, N

    1988-09-01

    Over the past 7 years, nine fatty tumors within the parotid gland have been managed (eight lipomas, one liposarcoma). High-resolution computed tomography examination was carried out in all cases; with correct preoperative diagnosis recorded each time. The computed tomography imaging characteristics of lipoma, liposarcoma, and the differential diagnosis from other fat density lesions, such as a fatty infiltration, appear quite specific. The liposarcoma and six of the lipomas were resected at formal parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Two patients with small intraglandular lipomas have elected to undergo long-term clinical and imaging observation. Our experience indicates that high-resolution, soft-tissue imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging permits consistent preoperative fatty tumor diagnosis. This imaging input facilitates rational treatment decision-making. PMID:3412095

  8. OK-432 injection therapy for cystadenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Ryoji; Iikuni, Fusako; Ikeda, Atsuo; Tomomatsu, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    OK-432 is an immunomodulator that has been reported to be efficacious as an injection therapy for cervical lymphomas and ranulas. We performed OK-432 injection therapy to treat a cystadenocarcinoma of the parotid gland in a 72-year-old man. The 50 × 46-mm tumor was located in the deep lobe of the gland. The tumor had compressed the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves, causing neurally mediated syncope, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dysarthria. A concentration of 5 KE/2 ml of OK-432 was injected. Within 2 months, the cyst had disappeared; no recurrence was apparent during 59 months of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report has described injection of OK-432 for malignant cystic disease. We describe the injection method, injection dose, and postinjection course in the hope that this information will prove useful for future applications against malignant cystic disease. PMID:27140021

  9. Effect of dietary copper on the copper content of urine, parotid saliva, and sweat in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Turnlund, J.R. )

    1989-02-09

    Eleven young men were confined to a metabolic research unit to study the effect of the level of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu metabolism. They were fed a constant diet containing the following three levels of dietary Cu: adequate Cu (1.68 mg/d) for 24 days (MP1), low Cu (0.785 mg/d) for 42 days (MP2), and high Cu (7.53 mg/d) for 24 days (MP3). Urine was collected throughout the study and Cu was determined in 6-day pools from the beginning of the study, the end of each MP, and the midpoint of MP2. Parotid saliva was collected near the end of each MP. Sweat was collected from the upper arm and ancillary area of three subjects for 2-day periods near the end of each MP. Urinary Cu averaged 0.34, 0.34 and 0.33 {mu}mol/d for MP 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.39 {mu}mol/d. Parotid saliva Cu averaged 13.4, 13.0, and 12.0 nmol/L for MP 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 6.9 to 17.8 nmol/L. Sweat Cu levels were very low and did not appear to be affected by dietary Cu. The limited data suggest that sweat losses would have little effect on Cu balance. Neither urinary nor salivary Cu was affected by dietary Cu or related to indices of Cu status (serum Cu, ceruloplasmin, or erythrocyte superoxide dismutase). Urinary and salivary Cu differed significantly among individuals. Results suggest that urinary, salivary, and sweat Cu do not play a role in regulating Cu retention or affect Cu status of humans.

  10. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Balanzá, Ricardo; Arrangoiz, Rodrigo; Cordera, Fernando; Muñoz, Manuel; Luque-de-León, Enrique; Moreno, Eduardo; Toledo, Carlos; González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) was first described in 2010 by Skálová et al. This entity shares morphologic and immunohistochemical features with the secretory carcinoma (SC) of the breast. MASC usually presents as an asymptomatic mass in the parotid gland and predominantly affects men. This tumor is considered a low-grade carcinoma but has the potential for high-grade transformation. We report one MASC case and a review of world literature. Case report A 66-year-old male patient presented because he noticed a mass of approximately 3 × 3 cm on the right pre-auricular region. Physical examination demonstrated a 3 × 3.5 cm, firm, fixed, non-tender mass in the right pre-auricular region. An MRI of the head and neck showed an ovoid heterogeneous lesion, dependent of the right parotid gland of 27 × 28 mm. We performed a superficial parotidectomy with identification and preservation of the facial nerve. The immunophenotype was positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK8/18, vimentin, S-100 protein, and mammoglobin. No further surgical interventions or adjuvant therapies were needed. The patient will have a close follow up. Conclusion The presence of t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation which results in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion or positive immunochemical studies for STAT5, mammoglobin and S100 protein, are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MASC. MASC treatment should mimic the management of other low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. The inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion could be used as treatment in the future. PMID:26496413

  11. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    PubMed

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945684

  12. Incorporating single-side sparing in models for predicting parotid dose sparing in head and neck IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Lulin Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yoo, David; Jiang, Yuliang; Ge, Yaorong

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Sparing of single-side parotid gland is a common practice in head-and-neck (HN) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. It is a special case of dose sparing tradeoff between different organs-at-risk. The authors describe an improved mathematical model for predicting achievable dose sparing in parotid glands in HN IMRT planning that incorporates single-side sparing considerations based on patient anatomy and learning from prior plan data. Methods: Among 68 HN cases analyzed retrospectively, 35 cases had physician prescribed single-side parotid sparing preferences. The single-side sparing model was trained with cases which had single-side sparing preferences, while the standard model was trained with the remainder of cases. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the best criterion that separates the two case groups using the physician's single-side sparing prescription as ground truth. The final predictive model (combined model) takes into account the single-side sparing by switching between the standard and single-side sparing models according to the single-side sparing criterion. The models were tested with 20 additional cases. The significance of the improvement of prediction accuracy by the combined model over the standard model was evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Using the ROC analysis, the best single-side sparing criterion is (1) the predicted median dose of one parotid is higher than 24 Gy; and (2) that of the other is higher than 7 Gy. This criterion gives a true positive rate of 0.82 and a false positive rate of 0.19, respectively. For the bilateral sparing cases, the combined and the standard models performed equally well, with the median of the prediction errors for parotid median dose being 0.34 Gy by both models (p = 0.81). For the single-side sparing cases, the standard model overestimates the median dose by 7.8 Gy on average, while the predictions by the combined

  13. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Borg Andersson, A; Birkhed, D; Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F; Matsson, L

    1998-10-01

    The concentration of glucose in parotid saliva was measured after glucose/food intake in two separate studies (A and B). In Study A, 10 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 10 subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy controls were included. Study B comprised 15 subjects with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, nine subjects with Type 2 diabetes on treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and 12 healthy controls. After a 10-h overnight fast, the participants in Study A were given a 75 g oral glucose load, while those in Study B received a standardized breakfast. Citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected up to two hours after the intake. Capillary blood and gingival exudate samples were also taken. On the basis of AUC values (area under the curve over baseline), the glucose concentration in parotid saliva increased significantly in individuals with IGT and Type 2 diabetes compared with controls in Study A and in diabetic patients on treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs compared with controls in Study B. No effect by the glucose/food intake on the glucose concentration in gingival exudate could be demonstrated in any of the studies. The correlation coefficient between the AUC values of glucose in saliva and blood, when all three groups were combined, was 0.38 in Study A and 0.52 in Study B. It is concluded that the concentration of glucose in parotid saliva is elevated at least 2 h after glucose/food intake in individuals with both IGT and manifest diabetes mellitus. PMID:9786322

  14. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Posttest Probability of Parotid Fine-Needle Aspiration: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C. Carrie; Jethwa, Ashok R.; Khariwala, Samir S.; Johnson, Jonas; Shin, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in distinguishing benign from malignant parotid disease. (2) To determine the anticipated posttest probability of malignancy and probability of non-diagnostic and indeterminate cytology with parotid FNA. Data Sources Independently corroborated computerized searches of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register were performed. These were supplemented with manual searches and input from content experts. Review Methods Inclusion/exclusion criteria specified diagnosis of parotid mass, intervention with both FNA and surgical excision, and enumeration of both cytologic and surgical histopathologic results. The primary outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and posttest probability of malignancy. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I2 statistic. Meta-analysis was performed via a 2-level mixed logistic regression model. Bayesian nomograms were plotted via pooled likelihood ratios. Results The systematic review yielded 70 criterion-meeting studies, 63 of which contained data that allowed for computation of numerical outcomes (n = 5647 patients; level 2a) and consideration of meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed in studies that were prospective, involved consecutive patients, described the FNA technique utilized, and used ultrasound guidance. The I2 point estimate was >70% for all analyses, except within prospectively obtained and ultrasound-guided results. Among the prospective subgroup, the pooled analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.882 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.509–0.982) and a specificity of 0.995 (95% CI, 0.960–0.999). The probabilities of nondiagnostic and indeterminate cytology were 0.053 (95% CI, 0.030–0.075) and 0.147 (95% CI, 0.106–0.188), respectively. Conclusion FNA has moderate sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating malignant from benign parotid lesions. Considerable heterogeneity is present among studies. PMID:26428476

  15. Texture-based and diffusion-weighted discrimination of parotid gland lesions on MR images at 3.0 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Holzer-Fruehwald, Laura; Nemec, Stefan F; Mueller-Mang, Christina; Weber, Michael; Mayerhoefer, Marius E

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based analysis of standard MRI sequences and diffusion-weighted imaging can help in the discrimination of parotid gland masses. The MR images of 38 patients with a biopsy- or surgery-proven parotid gland mass were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were examined on the same 3.0 Tesla MR unit, with one standard protocol. The ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of the tumors were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) covering the entire tumor. Texture-based analysis was performed with the texture analysis software MaZda (version 4.7), with ROI measurements covering the entire tumor in three slices. COC (co-occurrence matrix), RUN (run-length matrix), GRA (gradient), ARM (auto-regressive model), and WAV (wavelet transform) features were calculated for all ROIs. Three subsets of 10 texture features each were used for a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in combination with k nearest neighbor classification (k-NN). Using histology as a standard of reference, benign tumors, including subtypes, and malignant tumors were compared with regard to ADC and texture-based values, with a one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc t-tests. Significant differences were found in the mean ADC values between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas, as well as between Warthin tumors and benign lesions. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images contained the most relevant textural information for the discrimination between benign and malignant parotid masses, and also for the discrimination between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors. STIR images contained the least relevant texture features, particularly for the discrimination between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors. Texture analysis proved to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, as well as pleomorphic adenomas from Warthin tumors, based on standard T(1w) sequences (without and with contrast). Of all benign parotid masses, Warthin tumors had

  16. Arterial Spin Labeling Imaging for the Parotid Glands of Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kami, Yukiko N.; Sumi, Misa; Takagi, Yukinori; Sasaki, Miho; Uetani, Masataka; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by hypofunction of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The salivary function is largely dependent upon the blood supply in the glands. However, the diseased states of the gland perfusion are not well understood. The arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique allows noninvasive quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion without the need for contrast agent. Here, we prospectively compared the perfusion properties of the parotid glands between patients with SS and those with healthy glands using ASL MR imaging. We analyzed salivary blood flow (SBF) kinetics of 22 healthy parotid glands from 11 volunteers and 28 parotid glands from 14 SS patients using 3T pseudo-continuous ASL imaging. SBF was determined in resting state (base SBF) and at 3 sequential segments after gustatory stimulation. SBF kinetic profiles were characterized by base SBF level, increment ratio at the SBF peak, and the differences in segments where the peak appeared (SBF types). Base SBFs of the SS glands were significantly higher than those of healthy glands (59.2 ± 22.8 vs. 46.3 ± 9.0 mL/min/100 g, p = 0.01). SBF kinetic profiles of the SS glands also exhibited significantly later SBF peaks (p < 0.001) and higher SBF increment ratios (74 ± 49% vs. 47 ± 39%, p = 0.04) than the healthy glands. The best SBF criterion (= 51.2 mL/min/100 mg) differentiated between control subjects and SS patients with 71% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Taken together, these results showed that the SS parotid glands were mostly hyperemic and the SS gland responses to gustatory stimulation were stronger and more prolonged than those of the healthy glands. The ASL may be a promising technique for assessing the diseased salivary gland vascularization of SS patients. PMID:26959680

  17. SU-E-J-109: Evaluation of Deformable Accumulated Parotid Doses Using Different Registration Algorithms in Adaptive Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S; Liu, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated doses of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of

  18. Bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of the media in an adolescent in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mieliauskaite, Diana; Venalis, Algirdas; Graziene, Vida; Kirdaite, Gailute

    2007-07-01

    The elimination of censorship for the media in post-communist countries in transition has contributed to increases in the prevalence of several medical problems. Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the messages conveyed through the media, which influence their perceptions and behaviour. We describe a case of bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of self-prescribed diet in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl reported to our institution under suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome for medical advice. Two months ago she developed persistent bilateral parotid enlargement and a dry mouth. Her medical history revealed a weight loss due to "self-prescribed" reduce diet. Social questioning clarified high use of the media and influence on the body concept and self image. On extra oral examination, a diffuse parotid enlargement was seen bilaterally. The examination of the mouth showed a low moisture level of the intraoral mucosa. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was 2 ml in 15 min. Laboratory findings evidenced anemia (107 g/l). The serum albumin concentration indicated a reduced level (28 g/l). Search for antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB, -Sm, -RNP and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was negative. Evaluation for antibodies against hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and HIV rendered negative results. A histopathologic examination of labial salivary gland biopsy revealed a picture of sialoadenosis. From the above investigations, a diagnosis of sialoadenosis due to malnutrition was made. PMID:17198741

  19. Ultrasonic Nakagami-parameter characterization of parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy: A feasibility study of late toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yuefeng; Tridandapani, Srini; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The study aims to investigate whether Nakagami parameters—estimated from the statistical distribution of the backscattered ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals—could provide a means for quantitative characterization of parotid-gland injury resulting from head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted with 12 postradiotherapy patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Each participant underwent one ultrasound study in which ultrasound scans were performed in the longitudinal, i.e., vertical orientation on the bilateral parotids. For the 12 patients, the mean radiation dose to the parotid glands was 37.7 ± 9.5 Gy, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 ± 4.8 months. All enrolled patients experienced grade 1 or 2 late salivary-gland toxicity (RTOG/EORTC morbidity scale). The normal parotid glands served as the control group. The Nakagami-scaling and Nakagami-shape parameters were computed from the RF data to quantify radiation-induced parotid-gland changes. Results: Significant differences in Nakagami parameters were observed between the normal and postradiotherapy parotid glands. Compared with the control group, the Nakagami-scaling parameter of the postradiotherapy group decreased by 25.8% (p < 0.001), and the Nakagami-shape parameter decreased by 31.3% (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 for the Nakagami-scaling parameter and was 0.95 for the Nakagami-shape parameter, which further demonstrated the diagnostic efficiency of the Nakagami parameters. Conclusions: Nakagami parameters could be used to quantitatively measure parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy. Moreover, the clinical feasibility was demonstrated and this study provides meaningful preliminary data for future clinical investigation.

  20. Preserved salivary output and xerostomia-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients receiving parotid-sparing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Henson, B S; Inglehart, M R; Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancers causes salivary dysfunction and diminished xerostomia-related quality of life. We have demonstrated that three-dimensional treatment planning and conformational dose-delivery techniques can minimize RT doses to contralateral parotid glands while providing therapeutic doses to tumors. This study's purpose was to assess parotid salivary function up to 1 year post-RT in patients receiving bilateral neck parotid-sparing RT, and to determine if parotid preservation would significantly improve xerostomia-related quality of life. Unstimulated (UPFR) and stimulated (SPFR) parotid flow rates were collected from 20 head and neck cancer patients. All subjects completed a 15-item xerostomia-related quality of life scale (XeQoLS) prior to RT, at the completion of RT, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-RT. Salivary flow rates from spared and treated glands were significantly decreased at the completion of RT. After RT completion, spared UPFR and SPFR function increased and was not significantly different from baseline values. Output from treated glands remained statistically indistinguishable from zero throughout the post-RT period. Subjects had a significantly worse xerostomia-related quality of life at the completion of RT compared to baseline, and XeQoLS responses improved significantly 1 month post-RT. Responses at 1 year were markedly better than at the completion of RT, but still significantly worse than baseline. These findings suggest that despite parotid-sparing RT, salivary flow rates from treated and spared glands and xerostomia-related quality of life decrease at the completion of RT. However, with the use of parotid-sparing RT, contralateral glands are preserved at 1 year post-RT with a concomitant improvement in xerostomia-related quality of life. PMID:11120488

  1. Electrolyte composition of parotid saliva from sodium-replete red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1984-07-01

    Saliva was collected from the parotid salivary gland of anaesthetized sodium-replete red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) by catheterization of the parotid duct through its opening in the mouth. Salivary secretion was stimulated by ipsilateral intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine at varying rates to produce salivary flow rates ranging from 0.056 +/- 0.0042 (S.E. of mean) to 4.509 +/- 0.1136 ml min-1. The concentrations of sodium (142.2 +/- 1.93 to 157.0 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1), calcium (40.1 +/- 7.08 to 72.8 +/- 8.0 mumol l-1) and bicarbonate (68.6 +/- 3.48 to 143.3 +/- 0.67 mmol l-1) and the osmolality (270.1 +/- 2.98 to 291.7 +/- 2.10 mosmol kg-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate, whereas the concentrations of potassium (11.4 +/- 0.57 to 6.92 +/- 0.19 mmol l-1), magnesium (206.0 +/- 34.1 to 9.3 +/- 0.78 mumol l-1), hydrogen ion (17.0 +/- 1.89 to 6.82 +/- 0.49 nmol l-1), chloride (30.7 +/- 2.41 to 4.11 +/- 0.23 mmol l-1) and phosphate (47.6 +/- 2.65 to 14.9 +/- 0.81 mmol l-1) were negatively correlated with flow rate. The relationships between flow rate and concentration were curvilinear for all the inorganic solutes. The rates of secretion for each ion and for total solute were positively correlated with salivary flow rate. These regressions for sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen ion, bicarbonate and osmolality were always linear, with highly significant correlation coefficients and variance ratios, which indicated that the changes in concentration of these ions were related solely to flow rate and were not due to any other factor modifying glandular function. Spontaneous secretion was not observed during anaesthesia. PMID:6491590

  2. Dual modulation of chloride conductance by nucleotides in pancreatic and parotid zymogen granules.

    PubMed Central

    Thévenod, F; Gasser, K W; Hopfer, U

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of Cl- conductance by cytoplasmic nucleotides was investigated in pancreatic and parotid zymogen granules. Cl- conductance was assayed by measuring the rate of cation-ionophore-induced osmotic lysis of granules suspended in iso-osmotic salt solutions. Both inhibition and stimulation were observed, depending on the type and concentration of nucleotide. Under optimal conditions, the average inhibition measured in different preparations was 1.6-fold, whereas the average stimulation was 4.4-fold. ATP was inhibitory at 1-10 microM but stimulated Cl- conductance above 50 microM. Stimulation by ATP was more pronounced in granules with low endogenous Cl- conductance. The potency of nucleotides in terms of inhibition was ATP greater than adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[S]) greater than UTP much greater than or equal to CTP much greater than or equal to GTP much greater than or equal to guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) much greater than or equal to ITP. The potency with respect to stimulation had the following order: adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate (App[CH2]p) greater than ATP greater than guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). Adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (App[NH]p) was also stimulatory, and was more potent than ATP in the parotid granules, but less potent in the pancreatic granules. Aluminium fluoride stimulated Cl- conductance maximally at 15-30 microM-Al3+ and 10-15 mM-F. F was less effective at higher concentrations. Protein phosphorylation by kinases was apparently not involved, since the nucleotide effects (1) could be mimicked by non-hydrolysable analogues of ATP and GTP, (2) showed reversibility, and (3) were not abolished by the protein kinase inhibitors 1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7) or staurosporine. The data suggest the presence of at least two binding sites for nucleotides, whereby occupancy of one induces inhibition and occupancy of the other induces stimulation

  3. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Michael C.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Higgins, Kristin A.; Hawk, Thomas C.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  4. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation on Parotid Saliva Flow Rate in Relation to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Manu; M Raju, Srinivasa; S Mohan, Raviprakash; Tomar, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Treatment with salivary substitutes and stimulation of salivary flow by either mechanical or pharmacologic methods has side effects and only provides symptomatic relief but no long-lasting results. Purpose To assess the effectiveness of extraoral transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) as a mean of stimulating salivary function in healthy adult subjects; as well as to determine the gender and age-dependent changes in salivary flow rates of unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva. Materials and Method Hundred patients were divided into two groups; Group I aged 20-40 and Group II aged ≥ 60 years. The TENS electrode pads were externally placed on the skin overlying the parotid glands. Unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva was collected for 5 minutes each by using standardized collection techniques. Results Eighty seven of 100 subjects demonstrated increased salivary flow when stimulated via the TENS unit. Ten experienced no increase and 3 experienced a decrease. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.01872 ml/min in Group I and 0.0088 ml/min in Group II. The mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 0.03084 ml/min (SD= 0.01248) in Group I, and 0.01556 ml/min (SD 0.0101) in Group II. After stimulation, the amount of salivary flow increased significantly in both groups (p< 0.001). Statistical comparison of the two groups revealed them to be significantly different (p< 0.001), with Group I producing more saliva. Gender-wise, no statistically significant difference was seen among the subjects in Group I (p = 0.148), and those in Group II (p= 0.448). Out of 12 subjects with 0 baseline flows, 7 continued to have no flow. Five subjects observed side effects, although minimal and transient. Conclusion The TENS unit was effective in increasing parotid gland salivary flow in healthy subjects. There was age-related but no gender-related variability in parotid salivary flow rate. PMID:27602390

  5. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  6. Impact of the Intra- and Inter-observer Variability in the Delineation of Parotid Glands on the Dose Calculation During Head and Neck Helical Tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, T.; Gintowt, K.; Jodda, A.; Ryczkowski, A.; Bandyk, W.; Ba¸k, B.; Adamczyk, M.; Skorska, M.; Kazmierska, J.; Malicki, J.

    2015-01-01

    The intra- and inter-observer variability in delineation of the parotids on the kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) and mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) were examined to establish their impact on the dose calculation during adaptive head and neck helical tomotherapy (HT). Three observers delineated left and right parotids for ten randomly selected patients with oropharynx cancer treated on HT. The pre-treatment kVCT and the MVCT from the first fraction of irradiation were selected to delineation. The delineation procedure was repeated three times by each observer. The parotids were delineated according to the institutional protocol. The analyses included intra-observer reproducibility and inter-structure, -observer and -modality variability of the volume and dose. The differences between the left and right parotid outlines were not statistically significant (p > 0.3). The reproducibility of the delineation was confirmed for each observer on the kVCT (p > 0.2) and on the MVCT (p > 0.1). The inter-observer variability of the outlines was significant (p < 0.001) as well as the inter-modality variability (p < 0.006). The parotids delineated on the MVCT were 10% smaller than on the kVCT. The inter-observer variability of the parotids delineation did not affect the average dose (p = 0.096 on the kVCT and p = 0.176 on the MVCT). The dose calculated on the MVCT was higher by 3.3% than dose from the kVCT (p = 0.009). Usage of the institutional protocols for the parotids delineation reduces intra-observer variability and increases reproducibility of the outlines. These protocols do not eliminate delineation differences between the observers, but these differences are not clinically significant and do not affect average doses in the parotids. The volumes of the parotids delineated on the MVCT are smaller than on the kVCT, which affects the differences in the calculated doses. PMID:26269608

  7. Large carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Hara, Mariko; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Iino, Yukiko

    2013-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is one of the most common benign tumors of the parotid gland. PA usually grows slowly and is painless. Surgery is necessary for treating PA. Facial palsy, salivary fistula, and Frey syndrome have been reported as complications of tumor resection. PA can transform into a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) over time and as it enlarges. This report describes a case of a large CXPA that transformed from a PA that had developed over 17 years and caused withdrawal from social contact because fear of surgery made the patient refuse treatment. The tumor gradually enlarged without any pain for a decade, but rapid growth and bleeding began a year before admission. Postoperative facial function and local control of the tumor were excellent, but the patient required adjuvant chemotherapy for lung and mediastinum lymph node metastasis leading to dyspnea from tracheal stenosis. This case indicates the importance of adequate explanation and advice when choosing therapy for PA, especially given the risk of a PA transforming to a CXPA. PMID:24237779

  8. Targeted next generation sequencing of parotid gland cancer uncovers genetic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Inga; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Meinrath, Jeannine; Meyer, Moritz F.; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Drebber, Uta; Quaas, Alexander; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Büttner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancer represents a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors. Due to their low incidence and the existence of multiple morphologically defined subtypes, these tumors are still poorly understood with regard to their molecular pathogenesis and therapeutically relevant genetic alterations. Performing a systematic and comprehensive study covering 13 subtypes of salivary gland cancer, next generation sequencing was done on 84 tissue samples of parotid gland cancer using multiplex PCR for enrichment of cancer related gene loci covering hotspots of 46 cancer genes. Mutations were identified in 22 different genes. The most frequent alterations affected TP53, followed by RAS genes, PIK3CA, SMAD4 and members of the ERB family. HRAS mutations accounted for more than 90% of RAS mutations, occurring especially in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas. Additional mutations in PIK3CA also affected particularly epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas, occurring simultaneously with HRAS mutations in almost all cases, pointing to an unknown and therapeutically relevant molecular constellation. Interestingly, 14% of tumors revealed mutations in surface growth factor receptor genes including ALK, HER2, ERBB4, FGFR, cMET and RET, which might prove to be targetable by new therapeutic agents. 6% of tumors revealed mutations in SMAD4. In summary, our data provide novel insight into the fundamental molecular heterogeneity of salivary gland cancer, relevant in terms of tumor classification and the establishment of targeted therapeutic concepts. PMID:26053092

  9. Functional involvement of Noc2, a Rab27 effector, in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Yoshie, Sumio; Nashida, Tomoko; Shimomura, Hiromi; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-11-15

    Noc2 has recently been proposed to regulate exocytosis in both endocrine and exocrine cells; however, protein expression, subcellular localization and function of Noc2 in exocrine cells have never been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether Noc2, a Rab27 effector, is involved in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated amylase release from acinar cells. Rab27 was detected in the apical plasma membrane (APM) and secretory granule membrane (SGM) fractions, and was translocated to the APM after IPR stimulation for 5 min, but was detected at lower levels in the APM after 30 min. In contrast, although Noc2 was expressed in SGM bound to Rab27, Noc2 was not translocated to APM and the Noc2/Rab27 complex was disrupted after stimulation with IPR for short time. In addition, the anti-Noc2-Rab-binding-domain antibody inhibited IPR-stimulated amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized parotid acinar cells. Our results suggest that the Noc2/Rab27 complex is an important constituent of the early stages of IPR-stimulated amylase release. PMID:17067543

  10. Targeted next generation sequencing of parotid gland cancer uncovers genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Inga; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Meinrath, Jeannine; Meyer, Moritz F; Heukamp, Lukas C; Drebber, Uta; Quaas, Alexander; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Büttner, Reinhard; Odenthal, Margarete; Stenner, Markus

    2015-07-20

    Salivary gland cancer represents a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors. Due to their low incidence and the existence of multiple morphologically defined subtypes, these tumors are still poorly understood with regard to their molecular pathogenesis and therapeutically relevant genetic alterations.Performing a systematic and comprehensive study covering 13 subtypes of salivary gland cancer, next generation sequencing was done on 84 tissue samples of parotid gland cancer using multiplex PCR for enrichment of cancer related gene loci covering hotspots of 46 cancer genes.Mutations were identified in 22 different genes. The most frequent alterations affected TP53, followed by RAS genes, PIK3CA, SMAD4 and members of the ERB family. HRAS mutations accounted for more than 90% of RAS mutations, occurring especially in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas. Additional mutations in PIK3CA also affected particularly epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas and salivary duct carcinomas, occurring simultaneously with HRAS mutations in almost all cases, pointing to an unknown and therapeutically relevant molecular constellation. Interestingly, 14% of tumors revealed mutations in surface growth factor receptor genes including ALK, HER2, ERBB4, FGFR, cMET and RET, which might prove to be targetable by new therapeutic agents. 6% of tumors revealed mutations in SMAD4.In summary, our data provide novel insight into the fundamental molecular heterogeneity of salivary gland cancer, relevant in terms of tumor classification and the establishment of targeted therapeutic concepts. PMID:26053092

  11. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. PMID:27155802

  12. Effect of sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland on maternal co-ordination of the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland from young rats.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A; Vermouth, N T

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-five-day-old rats maintained in constant darkness since birth and born from mothers kept in the dark since the 14th day of pregnancy showed a circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase content in parotid glands, which may be explained by a mechanism of maternal co-ordination. Rats in the same conditions, except that their mothers had been submitted to bilateral excision of the superior cervical ganglia 30 days before mating, did not show diurnal variations of alpha-amylase activity in the parotid glands. When ganglionectomized mothers were treated with a daily dose of melatonin (1 mg/kg) from the 14th day of gestation up to the 10th day of lactation, their litters showed significant diurnal variations of amylase in the parotid glands, suggesting a role of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal-fetal and/or maternal-neonatal transfer of photoperiodic information. PMID:8141675

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of topical timolol maleate combined with oral propranolol treatment for parotid mixed infantile hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shuang; Xu, Da-Peng; Liu, Zi-Mei; Du, Yang; Wang, Xu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of topical timolol maleate combined with oral propranolol for parotid infantile hemangiomas. Between October 2012 and April 2014, propranolol was administered orally at a dose of 1.0–1.5 mg/kg/day to 22 infants with proliferating hemangiomas in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China). A small amount of 0.5% timolol maleate eye drop solution was topically applied with medical cotton swabs to the area of the lesion twice a day, every 12 h. The study group consisted of 9 males and 13 females, aged 2–9 months, with a median age of 4.7 months. The lesions were all located in the parotid region, and measured between 3.5×4×0.5 and 7×8×3 cm in volume. The planned duration of therapy was 6–8 months, or the two drugs were stopped when complete regression of the lesions was obtained. The therapeutic outcomes and safety were assessed by the change in the size and color of the tumor, and the presence of adverse effects throughout the course of treatment. The mean duration of therapy was 21.1 weeks and ranged from 3 to 8 months. Of the 22 patients, 16 demonstrated an excellent response, 6 showed a good response and 2 displayed a moderate response. No major collateral effects were observed. Overall, oral propranolol combined with topical timolol maleate may be used as the first-line therapeutic choice in the treatment of infantile parotid mixed hemangioma. PMID:27588127

  14. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  15. Synovial sarcoma involving the head: analysis of 36 cases with predilection to the parotid and temporal regions.

    PubMed

    Al-Daraji, Wael; Lasota, Jerzy; Foss, Robert; Miettinen, Markku

    2009-10-01

    Synovial sarcoma involving the head is rare, and data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of such tumors are scant. In this study, we examined 36 synovial sarcomas of the head excluding tumors in the oral cavity, sinonasal tract, submandibular area, neck, and intracranial space. There were 19 men and 17 women with a mean age of 35 years (range: 4 to 85 y). There was a marked predilection for the parotid (n=14) and temporal regions (n=9), and cheek (n=4). Other locations included mastoid area (n=2), infratemporal fossa (n=2), and one each from the supra-auricular scalp, maxillary, submaxillary, mandibular, and nasolabial regions. Histologically, 25 examples were of monophasic type, 10 were biphasic. Five of these cases contained a poorly differentiated Ewing sarcoma-like component and 1 was purely poorly differentiated. Histologically, 9 tumors involved skeletal muscle, 4 parotid gland (focally or in the interlobular septa), and 1 intertrabecular spaces of bone; the others involved subcutis or fascia and rarely skin. The tumor size ranged from 0.6 to 7.0 cm (median: 3.5 cm) and mitotic activity varied from <1 to 85 per 10 high-power fields (HPFs) (median, 6/10 HPFs). Keratin-positive tumor cells were detected in 19 of 19 monophasic and 1 of 1 of poorly differentiated tumors that were examined. SS18 gene rearrangement was confirmed in all 14 cases examined (3 biphasic and 11 monophasic tumors). Follow-up on 29 patients revealed that 11 were alive without disease from 2 to 31 years (median, 14 y). Ten patients died of disease 1 to 18 years after the diagnosis (median, 3 y); most of these patients had a tumor >5 cm and 6 of 10 had mitotic counts >10/10 HPFs. One patient died of an unrelated cause (metastatic melanoma) and 7 died of unknown causes. Four other patients had subsequent malignancies, including carcinomas of the breast, esophagus, rectum, and parotid gland. The latter was possibly radiation-induced, diagnosed 30 years after the synovial sarcoma

  16. Bilateral and multifocal Warthin’s tumor of parotid gland: two case reports and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    NICOLAI, G.; VENTUCCI, E.; ANTONUCCI, P.; COSTANTINO, V.; BRUNELLI, G.; MARIANI, G.; SALTAREL, A.; LORÈ, B.; CALABRESE, L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Warthin’s tumor is the second most common benign neoplasm of the parotid. Most of cases are represented by a single localization, while only a small percentage of patients presents bilateral lesions or unilateral multifocal pattern. Warthin’s tumor has an excellent prognosis due to the low rate of recurrence after surgical treatment. Malignant transformation occurs in less than 1% of cases. The aim of this article is to present two unusual cases of Warthin’s tumor and an updated review of the latest scientific literature. PMID:25694798

  17. Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of parotid gland: A rare extraskeletal presentation with diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ritika; Zaheer, Sufian; Mandal, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor (OC-GCT) has been rarely described in extraskeletal sites. The diagnosis primarily hinges on the detection of giant cells. However, these giant cells are also seen in many giant cell lesions, thus creating diagnostic confusion and dilemma. Here, we describe a rare case of a 24-year-old male with primary extraskeletal, OC-GCT presenting as a swelling in the right parotid region and highlight its cytological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics with diagnostic challenges. PMID:27601838

  18. Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of parotid gland: A rare extraskeletal presentation with diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritika; Zaheer, Sufian; Mandal, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor (OC-GCT) has been rarely described in extraskeletal sites. The diagnosis primarily hinges on the detection of giant cells. However, these giant cells are also seen in many giant cell lesions, thus creating diagnostic confusion and dilemma. Here, we describe a rare case of a 24-year-old male with primary extraskeletal, OC-GCT presenting as a swelling in the right parotid region and highlight its cytological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics with diagnostic challenges. PMID:27601838

  19. The effect of beta-sympathomimetic stimulation on parotid salivation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1989-01-01

    Salivation was stimulated by intracarotid isoprenaline infusion given alone or combined with acetylcholine. By itself, isoprenaline (0.12-1.2 nmol kg-1 min-1) stimulated flow rates of 0.037-0.233 ml min-1 (2.77-10.5 microliters/g gland per min). Salivary Na, Cl, PO4 and total solute concentrations were positively correlated with flow; K, Mg and urea were negatively correlated with flow; and Ca, H+, HCO3, protein and amylase activity were not correlated with flow. Relative to cholinergic saliva, isoprenaline-evoked saliva had higher levels of amylase activity, urea, protein, K, Mg, H+, PO4 and Cl but lower osmolality, Na, Ca and HCO3. At a steady flow (1 ml min-1), isoprenaline infusion (0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1) superimposed on a pre-existing acetylcholine infusion increased salivary amylase activity, protein, urea, K, Mg, Cl and PO4, reduced HCO3 and did not alter Na, Ca, H+ and osmolality. Superimposition of isoprenaline infusion (0.5 nmol kg-1 min-1) on a low-level acetylcholine infusion increased flow rate by 400-900%. Excretion rates of K, Mg, Cl and PO4 were higher and Ca lower than predicted for saliva secreted at equivalent flows during acetylcholine stimulation. Na, H+ and HCO3 were as predicted for the same flow rate under cholinergic stimulation. The simplest coherent interpretation of these data is that isoprenaline affects transport of protein and ions at the end organs, but has little effect on the resting transport characteristics of the striated and excretory ducts of the kangaroo parotid, in accord with the known nerve distribution of this gland. PMID:2480771

  20. Parotid gland volumetric changes during intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, A; Caivano, R; Metallo, V; Chiumento, C; Cozzolino, M; Califano, G; Clemente, S; Pedicini, P; Fusco, V

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate volumetric changes of parotid glands (PGs) during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck cancer patients. Methods During IMRT all patients underwent kilovolt cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans to verify the set-up positioning in a protocol study. On each CBCT scan, the PGs were retrospectively contoured and evaluated with a dose–volume histogram. Results From February to June 2011, 10 patients were enrolled. 140 CBCT scans were registered (280 PGs): for each patient, a median of 14 CBCT scans were performed (range 14–16). At the start of radiation, the average volume for ipsilateral PGs (iPGs) was 18.77 ml (range 12.9–31.2 ml), whereas for contralateral PGs (cPGs) it was 16.63 ml (range 8.3–28.7 ml). At the last CBCT scan, the average volume loss was 43.5% and 44.0% for the iPG and cPG, respectively. When we analysed the percentage of volume loss, we observed that the volume decreased by linear regression (r2=0.92 for iPG; r2=0.91 for cPG), with an average volume loss rate of 1.5% per day for both PGs. During the third week of treatment the volume of both PGs reduced by 24–30%. Conclusion Our data show that, during IMRT, the shrinkage of PGs should be taken into account. A replan could be indicated in the third week of radiotherapy. PMID:22573295

  1. Ontogenesis of the secretory immune system and innate defence factors in human parotid glands.

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, P S; Rognum, T O; Brandtzaeg, P

    1991-01-01

    Immunoglobulin-producing cells and epithelial expression of secretory component (SC), amylase, lysozyme (Ly) and lactoferrin (Lf) were studied by immunohistochemistry to obtain information about the development of mucosal immunity. Tissue specimens were obtained from 20 fetal and 40 postnatal parotid glands. (1) Fetal specimens. Occasional IgM- and IgA- but no IgD-, IgG- or IgE- producing cells were seen (ratios, IgM:IgA:IgD:IgG:IgE approximately 4:1:0:0:0). The IgAl subclass dominated (median 90%, range 50-95%) and these cells were mostly J-chain-positive (median 97%, range 94-98%). Only few IgA2-producing cells were seen (median 10%, range 5-50%) and they were also mostly J-chain-positive (median 99%, range 98-100%). Amylase, Ly and Lf were most prominent in early fetal life, while only small amounts of SC were present. (2) Postnatal specimens. Secretory component increased markedly along with a growing number of IgA- and IgD-producing cells (IgA:IgM:IgD:IgG:IgE approximately 4:2:1:1:0). The IgAl subclass remained predominant (median 65%, range 50-90%) although the proportion of IgA2-positive cells tended to be raised (median 35%, range 10-50%). Most IgAl (median 97%, range 67-100%) and IgA2 (median 94%, range 75-100%) cells were J-chain-positive. These features probably reflected local activation of the immune system in response to environmental factors. The amount of amylase, Ly and Lf decreased shortly after delivery, perhaps because the cellular stores were emptied by postnatal increase in secretory activity. Images Fig. 4 PMID:1934601

  2. [Optimisation and evaluation of the foetal dose during a radiotherapy of the right parotid].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, V; Graff, P; Noel, A; Beckendorf, V; Peiffert, D

    2008-09-01

    Purpose was to optimize and to estimate the dose delivered to the foetus during a postoperative irradiation of a 5-month twin pregnant woman presenting with adenocarcinoma of the right parotid. The treatment protocol aimed to deliver 66 Gy conformal radiation therapy on the tumour bed associated to a prophylactic irradiation of 50 Gy on the upper cervical nodes. A series of measurements allowed to estimate the delivered dose in the abdomen by the means of an ion chamber inserted in a water phantom placed side by side of an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom simulating the body of the patient from the head to the pelvis. An appropriate optimisation of the number and orientation of beams were performed in order to minimize the peripheral dose, which is mostly dependent of the total number of monitor unit per fraction: cervical nodes and tumour site included in the same fields, limitation of the irradiated volume, 6 MV X-ray beams rather than Cobalt beams. The measured doses at the upper, in the middle and at the lower part of the abdomen were 17.0, 11.0 and 11.9 mGy, respectively, for the entire treatment, representing 0.025, 0.016 and 0.017%, respectively of the prescribed dose. The actions conducted to optimise the treatment allowed to lower doses delivered to the foetus under the limits proposed by international recommendations (100 mGy). Thus, the treatment of the pregnant patient had been performed with a minimized risk for the foetus. PMID:18486513

  3. Monitoring Dosimetric Impact of Weight Loss With Kilovoltage (KV) Cone Beam CT (CBCT) During Parotid-Sparing IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Kean Fatt; Marchant, Tom; Moore, Chris; Webster, Gareth; Rowbottom, Carl; Penington, Hazel; Lee, Lip; Yap, Beng; Sykes, Andrew; Slevin, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Parotid-sparing head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce long-term xerostomia. However, patients frequently experience weight loss and tumor shrinkage during treatment. We evaluate the use of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for dose monitoring and examine if the dosimetric impact of such changes on the parotid and critical neural structures warrants replanning during treatment. Methods and materials: Ten patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were treated with contralateral parotid-sparing IMRT concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy. Mean doses of 65 Gy and 54 Gy were delivered to clinical target volume (CTV)1 and CTV2, respectively, in 30 daily fractions. CBCT was prospectively acquired weekly. Each CBCT was coregistered with the planned isocenter. The spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, larynx, and oral cavity were outlined on each CBCT. Dose distributions were recalculated on the CBCT after correcting the gray scale to provide accurate Hounsfield calibration, using the original IMRT plan configuration. Results: Planned contralateral parotid mean doses were not significantly different to those delivered during treatment (p > 0.1). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotids showed a mean reduction in volume of 29.7% and 28.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference between planned and delivered maximum dose to the brainstem (p = 0.6) or spinal cord (p = 0.2), mean dose to larynx (p = 0.5) and oral cavity (p = 0.8). End-of-treatment mean weight loss was 7.5 kg (8.8% of baseline weight). Despite a {>=}10% weight loss in 5 patients, there was no significant dosimetric change affecting the contralateral parotid and neural structures. Conclusions: Although patient weight loss and parotid volume shrinkage was observed, overall, there was no significant excess dose to the organs at risk. No replanning was felt necessary for this patient cohort, but a larger patient sample will be investigated

  4. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  5. Defective DNA methylation in salivary gland epithelial acini from patients with Sjögren's syndrome is associated with SSB gene expression, anti-SSB/LA detection, and lymphocyte infiltration.

    PubMed

    Konsta, O D; Le Dantec, C; Charras, A; Cornec, D; Kapsogeorgou, E K; Tzioufas, A G; Pers, J O; Renaudineau, Y

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is complex, in part due to DNA methylation abnormalities. This study was undertaken to evaluate the importance of global DNA methylation ((5m)C) as determined in minor salivary glands (MSG) from well characterized pSS patients. Twenty-two pSS patients and ten controls were selected, and MSG were stained with anti-(5m)C, anti-(5m)C/anti-cytokeratin (KRT)19, or with anti-SSB/La antibodies (Ab). The DNA methylation status at the SSB gene promoter P1 and P1' was evaluated by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE) coupled with PCR. The effect of the DNA demethylating drug 5 azacytidine (5-Aza) was tested in the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line. In pSS, the reduction of global DNA methylation ((5m)C) was associated with lymphocyte infiltration, the emergence of (5m)C(low) and KRT19(high) acini, and the detection of circulating anti-SSB/La Ab, but not with disease activity (ESSDAI). Next, treating HSG cells with 5-Aza was effective in inducing SSB expression. Finally in pSS patients positive for anti-SSB/La Ab, we further observed DNA demethylation at the SSB gene promoter P1 with consequent SSB overexpression at both the transcriptional and protein levels in salivary gland epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of pSS and to the emergence of anti-SSB/La Ab. PMID:26725749

  6. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  7. Corticosteroid irrigation of parotid gland for treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, M.; Eguchi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Takagi, Y.; Kawabe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the efficacy of corticosteroid irrigation of the parotid gland in relieving salivary flow deficiency in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.
METHODS—The parotid glands of 31 patients with primary (24) or secondary (seven) Sjögren's syndrome were irrigated either with saline solution followed by corticosteroid solution, or with saline solution alone. Salivary function was assessed by Saxon test.
RESULTS—Corticosteroid irrigation significantly increased the salivary flow rate in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (p< 0.0001), with clinical improvement detectable 3.7 (2.4) weeks (mean (SD)) after initial corticosteroid irrigation. The extent of improvement in salivary function was reciprocal to the clinical severity of the disease, with patients at the early stages obtaining 1.20 (0.57) g net increase in salivary flow rate, and patients at the most advanced stages obtaining 0.20 (0.47) g net increase. Repeated corticosteroid irrigations did not evoke corticosteroid refractoriness of the salivary gland; similar levels of net increase in salivary flow rate were observed after the second to fourth challenge of the corticosteroid in these patients. The sustained period was 8.4 (3.5) months (mean (SD)).
CONCLUSION—These findings suggest the clinical usefulness of corticosteroid irrigation therapy in relieving xerostomia in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

 Keywords: Sjögren's syndrome; xerostomia; corticosteroids PMID:9797551

  8. Retrospective analysis of a combined endoscopic and transcutaneous technique for the management of parotid salivary gland stones.

    PubMed

    Numminen, Jura; Sillanpää, Saara; Virtanen, Jussi; Sipilä, Markku; Rautiainen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Sialendoscopy is used in the diagnosis and treatment of various symptoms relating to the salivary gland, e.g. chronic swelling or obstruction and inflammation of the salivary duct. Small intraductal stones can be removed with various instruments during sialendoscopy, whereas larger ones can be fragmented with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or laser. However, 5-10% of the patients with parotid stones cannot be treated with these methods. In patients with large impacted stones or stones in a hilus area, a combined endoscopic and transcutaneous technique can be employed. The stone is approached endoscopically, a skin flap is raised over or a small incision is made through the illuminated area, and the stone is removed by an external route with minimal morbidity. This retrospective study analysed the cases of 8 patients treated using the combined technique, 6 of whom became symptom free. Superficial parotidectomy was performed in 1 patient. No complications were observed, and ductal stents were not used. The average diameter of the stones was 7.6 mm (range 7.0-10.2). The combined technique is recommended for the removal of large and impacted intraductal stones in the parotid gland. No major complications have been reported. PMID:25500629

  9. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: Long-term outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: achen@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Eisele, David W.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy in the management of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 34 patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland to a median dose of 5000 cGy (range, 4,500-6,000 cGy). Median age was 48 years (range, 24-72 years). Gross total resection at the time of surgery before radiation was achieved in 30 patients (88%), and histologic analysis demonstrated multifocal disease in 16 patients (47%). Radiation was delivered for a first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth local recurrence in 24%, 21%, 24%, 24%, 6%, and 3% of patients, respectively. Results: With a median follow-up of 17.4 years (range, 2.3-28.9 years), 2 patients had local recurrences at a median of 3.4 years after completion of radiation. The 20-year actuarial local control rate was 94%. One patient developed a second malignancy at approximately 14 years after completion of therapy. Conclusion: The use of postoperative radiation therapy leads to excellent long-term local control for the treatment of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma with acceptable late toxicity. Although the incidence of second malignancy was low in this population, continued follow-up is warranted.

  10. Quantification of Trade-Off Between Parotid Gland Sparing and Planning Target Volume Underdosages in Clinically Node-Negative Head-and-Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Wilhelmus de . E-mail: kruijf.de.w@bvi.nl; Heijmen, Ben; Levendag, Peter C.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the trade-off between parotid gland sparing and planning target volume (PTV) underdosages for head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A planning study was performed for 4 patients with either soft palate or tonsil tumors treated with external radiotherapy up to 46 Gy. The trade-off between underdosages in the PTV and sparing of the parotid glands was investigated by systematically varying the optimization objectives for the inverse planning. A new way of presenting dose-volume information allows easy detection of small PTV subvolumes with underdosages that cannot be assessed in conventional cumulative dose-volume histograms. A simple radiobiological model to estimate the control probability for an electively irradiated neck level was developed. Results: The average dose to the parotid glands can decrease by >10 Gy by allowing the PTV to be underdosed in such a way that the radiobiological model predicts a decrease in subclinical disease control probability of (typically) 1% to a few percent. Conclusion: The trade-off between parotid gland sparing and underdosages in the PTV has been quantified by the use of an alternative method to present dose-volume information and by the use of a radiobiological model to predict subclinical disease control probability.

  11. Sialendoscopy and sialendoscopically-assisted operations in the treatment of lithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands: our experience of 239 cases.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Tomasz; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Młodkowska, Anna; Szyfter, Witold

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of treatment of sialolithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands using sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted surgery. Between 2009-2013, 397 consecutive patients (mean (range) age 48 (18-76) years) were treated for obstructive diseases of the major salivary glands (sialolithiasis n=239, 175 submandibular and 64 parotid). In a total of 175 patients with 191 stones in the submandibular gland treated by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release, 149 patients (85%) were rendered free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=82, and sialendoscopy with operation n=67) Twenty patients (11%) had residual stones and 6 patients (4%) required excisionof the gland. Sixty-four patients had 71 stones removed from the parotid gland by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release and 43 (67%) were free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=25, and sialendoscopy with operation n=18). Twenty patients (31%) had residual stones and one (2%) required removal of the gland. In the group of patients whose stones were removed endoscopically, the effectiveness of sialendoscopy was 87% and 85%, respectively. We confirm that sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted removal is the current treatment of choice for stones in the submandibular and parotid glands. The indications for excision of the gland are becoming less common as first-line treatment, although it is still indispensable in some cases. PMID:27185233

  12. Reducing Xerostomia After Chemo-IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer: Beyond Sparing the Parotid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michael; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Vineberg, Karen; Cornwall, Craig; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether in addition to sparing parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemo-IMRT of head and neck cancer is affected by reducing doses to other salivary glands. Methods Prospective study: 78 patients with stages III/IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancers received chemo-IMRT aiming to spare the parts outside the targets of bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) (when contralateral level I was not a target). Pretherapy and periodically through 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaires (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia were recorded, and stimulated and unstimulated saliva measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. Mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary glands dysfunction. Regression models assessed XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors. Results Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score in univariate analysis included OC, PG, and SMG mean doses, as well as baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. OC, PG and SMG mean doses were moderately inter-correlated (r=0.47–0.55). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for PG and SMG doses, OC mean dose (p < 0.0001), time from RT (p < 0.0001), and stimulated PG saliva (p < 0.0025) were significant predictors for XQ scores, and OC mean dose and time for observer-graded xerostomia. While scatter plots showed no thresholds, OC mean doses <40 Gy and contralateral SMG mean <50 Gy were each associated with low patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia at almost all post-therapy time points. Conclusion PG, SMG and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia after chemo-IMRT, with OC doses remaining significant after adjusting for PG and SMG doses. These results support efforts to

  13. TH-E-BRF-09: Gaussian Mixture Model Analysis of Radiation-Induced Parotid-Gland Injury: An Ultrasound Study of Acute and Late Xerostomia in Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Yu, D; Beitler, J; Curran, W; Yang, X; Tridandapani, S; Bruner, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to parotid-gland injury, is a distressing side-effect in head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). This study's purpose is to develop a novel ultrasound technique to quantitatively evaluate post-RT parotid-gland injury. Methods: Recent ultrasound studies have shown that healthy parotid glands exhibit homogeneous echotexture, whereas post-RT parotid glands are often heterogeneous, with multiple hypoechoic (inflammation) or hyperechoic (fibrosis) regions. We propose to use a Gaussian mixture model to analyze the ultrasonic echo-histogram of the parotid glands. An IRB-approved clinical study was conducted: (1) control-group: 13 healthy-volunteers, served as the control; (2) acutetoxicity group − 20 patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 8.9 years, follow-up: 2.0±0.8 months); and (3) late-toxicity group − 18 patients (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.3 years, follow-up: 20.1±10.4 months). All patients experienced RTOG grade 1 or 2 salivary-gland toxicity. Each participant underwent an ultrasound scan (10 MHz) of the bilateral parotid glands. An echo-intensity histogram was derived for each parotid and a Gaussian mixture model was used to fit the histogram using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The quality of the fitting was evaluated with the R-squared value. Results: (1) Controlgroup: all parotid glands fitted well with one Gaussian component, with a mean intensity of 79.8±4.9 (R-squared>0.96). (2) Acute-toxicity group: 37 of the 40 post-RT parotid glands fitted well with two Gaussian components, with a mean intensity of 42.9±7.4, 73.3±12.2 (R-squared>0.95). (3) Latetoxicity group: 32 of the 36 post-RT parotid fitted well with 3 Gaussian components, with mean intensities of 49.7±7.6, 77.2±8.7, and 118.6±11.8 (R-squared>0.98). Conclusion: RT-associated parotid-gland injury is common in head-and-neck RT, but challenging to assess. This work has demonstrated that the Gaussian mixture model of the echo-histogram could quantify acute and late

  14. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands during the acute phase of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Doi, Kunio; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of EMC virus-induced sialodacryoadenitis in mice during the acute phase infection focusing on the activation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands. In the parotid gland, a few apoptotic acinar cells were detected at 2days post inoculation (DPI). The ratio of apoptotic acinar cells increased at 3 and 4DPI. On the other hand, in the exorbital lachrymal gland, apoptosis of acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly composed of mononuclear cells started at 3DPI, and prominent acinar cell damage developed at 4DPI. Viral RNA was detected at 3 and 4DPI in both glands and the expression level was higher in the exorbital lachrymal gland than in the parotid gland. The up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as Irf7, Pkr and Oas, was quickly induced at 2DPI in the parotid gland, and this probably contributed to suppress viral replication and to eliminate affected cells by apoptosis. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the expression levels of ISGs mRNAs were not elevated at 2DPI, suggesting no induction of an effective anti-viral response such as apoptosis at this time point. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the mRNA expression of IFN beta and IFN alpha (type I IFNs) was weak- to strong-positive at 1DPI, and became negative at 2DPI. The weak- to strong-positive expression of IFNs at 1DPI is likely related to the abrupt viral replication and pathological changes in the exorbital lachrymal gland through activating the negative feedback regulation that depressed the IFN signaling cascade at 2DPI. In conclusion, the present study showed the changes in factors involved in the activation of type I IFN signaling cascade in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands and their differences between the two glands during the acute phase of EMC virus infection in mice. PMID:27079771

  15. Assessment of Parotid Gland Dose Changes During Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy Using Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonik Langen, Katja M.; Lu Weiguo; Haimerl, Jason; Schnarr, Eric; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Shellenberger, Thomas D.; Manon, Rafael R.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze changes in parotid gland dose resulting from anatomic changes throughout a course of radiotherapy in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 10 head-and-neck cancer patients treated definitively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy on a helical tomotherapy unit. A total of 330 daily megavoltage computed tomography images were retrospectively processed through a deformable image registration algorithm to be registered to the planning kilovoltage computed tomography images. The process resulted in deformed parotid contours and voxel mappings for both daily and accumulated dose-volume histogram calculations. The daily and cumulative dose deviations from the original treatment plan were analyzed. Correlations between dosimetric variations and anatomic changes were investigated. Results: The daily parotid mean dose of the 10 patients differed from the plan dose by an average of 15%. At the end of the treatment, 3 of the 10 patients were estimated to have received a greater than 10% higher mean parotid dose than in the original plan (range, 13-42%), whereas the remaining 7 patients received doses that differed by less than 10% (range, -6-8%). The dose difference was correlated with a migration of the parotids toward the high-dose region. Conclusions: The use of deformable image registration techniques and daily megavoltage computed tomography imaging makes it possible to calculate daily and accumulated dose-volume histograms. Significant dose variations were observed as result of interfractional anatomic changes. These techniques enable the implementation of dose-adaptive radiotherapy.

  16. A Comparison of Dose-Response Models for the Parotid Gland in a Large Group of Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Houweling, Antonetta C.; Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Dijkema, Tim; Roesink, Judith M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: The dose-response relationship of the parotid gland has been described most frequently using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. However, various other normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models exist. We evaluated in a large group of patients the value of six NTCP models that describe the parotid gland dose response 1 year after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 patients with head-and-neck tumors were included in this prospective parotid gland dose-response study. The patients were treated with either conventional radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dose-volume histograms for the parotid glands were derived from three-dimensional dose calculations using computed tomography scans. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before and 1 year after radiotherapy. A threshold of 25% of the pretreatment flow rate was used to define a complication. The evaluated models included the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the mean dose model, the relative seriality model, the critical volume model, the parallel functional subunit model, and the dose-threshold model. The goodness of fit (GOF) was determined by the deviance and a Monte Carlo hypothesis test. Ranking of the models was based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results: None of the models was rejected based on the evaluation of the GOF. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model based on the AIC. The TD{sub 50} in these models was approximately 39 Gy. Conclusions: The mean dose model was preferred for describing the dose-response relationship of the parotid gland.

  17. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura L.; Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E.; Cornwall, Craig; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Mathew J.; Balter, James M.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were

  18. Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for the treatment of established facial paralysis following ablative surgery in the parotid region.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Ueda, Kazuki; Yamada, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for facial reanimation was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure for 45 patients with facial paralysis resulting from ablative surgery in the parotid region. This intervention differs from neurovascular free-muscle transfer for treatment of established facial paralysis resulting from conditions such as congenital dysfunction, unresolved Bell palsy, Hunt syndrome, or intracranial morbidity, with difficulties including selection of recipient vessels and nerves, and requirements for soft-tissue augmentation. This article describes the authors' operative procedure for neurovascular free-muscle transfer after ablative surgery in the parotid region. Gracilis muscle (n = 24) or latissimus dorsi muscle (n = 21) was used for transfer. With gracilis transfer, recipient vessels comprised the superficial temporal vessels in 12 patients and the facial vessels in 12. For latissimus dorsi transfer, recipient vessels comprised the facial vessels in 16 patients and the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid or internal jugular vein in four. Facial vessels on the contralateral side were used with interpositional graft of radial vessels in the remaining patient with latissimus dorsi transfer. Cross-face nerve grafting was performed before muscle transfer in 22 patients undergoing gracilis transfer. In the remaining two gracilis patients, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the primary recipient nerve. Dermal fat flap overlying the gracilis muscle was used for cheek augmentation in one patient. In the other 23 patients, only the gracilis muscle was used. With latissimus dorsi transfer, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the recipient nerve in three patients, and a cross-face nerve graft was selected as the recipient nerve in six. The contralateral facial nerve was selected as the recipient nerve in 12 patients, and a thoracodorsal nerve from the latissimus dorsi muscle segment was crossed through the upper lip

  19. Blockade of ATP binding site of P2 purinoceptors in rat parotid acinar cells by isothiocyanate compounds.

    PubMed

    Soltoff, S P; McMillian, M K; Talamo, B R; Cantley, L C

    1993-05-01

    Extracellular ATP activates a P2Z-type purinergic receptor (purinoceptor) in rat parotid acinar cells that increases the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration via the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through an ATP-sensitive cation channel (Soltoff et al., Am J Physiol 262: C934-C940, 1992). To learn more about the ATP binding site of the purinoceptor, we examined the effects of several stilbene isothiocyanate analogs of DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), which block the binding of [32P]ATP to intact parotid cells (McMillian et al., Biochem J 255:291-300, 1988) and blocked the activation of the P2Z purinoceptor. The ATP-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake was blocked by DIDS, H2DIDS (dihydro-DIDS; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), and SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), but not by DNDS (4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), a stilbene disulfonate compound lacking isothiocyanate (SCN-) groups, or by KSCN. The potency of the stilbene disulfonates was related to the number of isothiocyanate groups on each compound. Under the experimental conditions, the IC50 value of DIDS (approximately 35 microM), which has two SCN-groups, was much lower than that of SITS (approximately 125 microM), which has only one SCN-group. The inhibitory effects of DIDS appeared to be much more potent than those of SITS due to the kinetics of their binding to the purinoceptors. Eosin-5-isothiocyanate (EITC) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), non-stilbene isothiocyanate compounds with single SCN-groups, also blocked the response to ATP and were less potent than DIDS. Trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP), an ATP derivative that is not an effective agonist of the parotid P2Z receptor, blocked the covalent binding of DIDS to the plasma membrane, suggesting that ATP and DIDS bind to the same site. Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA), an anthraquinone-sulfonic acid derivative that is a noncovalent purinergic antagonist, also blocked

  20. Hybrid Intercalated Duct Lesion of the Parotid: Diagnostic Challenges of a Recently Described Entity with Fine Needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yingting; Pang, Yin Huei; Teh, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Intercalated duct lesions (IDL) of the salivary glands are recently described, and encompass both hyperplasia and benign neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. IDLs have been linked to various benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. We herein present a case of a 77 year old woman with an IDL of the parotid composed of both a hyperplastic and an adenomatous component and report, for the first time, the fine needle aspiration findings of such a lesion. This case illustrates the morphologic spectrum of an IDL, as well as challenges in rendering an accurate cytological and histologic diagnosis. The potential diagnostic pitfalls presented by the hybrid pattern of this lesion are also discussed. PMID:26477034

  1. Complicated coexisting pyogenic and tuberculous otitis media affecting the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas: report of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Brar, Tripti; Mrig, Sumit; Passey, J C; Agarwal, A K; Jain, Shayma

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery. PMID:23354894

  2. Bovine parotid secretory protein: structure, expression and relatedness to other BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein)-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T T; Hood, K; Oden, K; McCracken, J; Morris, C A

    2003-08-01

    Members of the family of BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein)-like proteins are as yet incompletely characterized, particularly in cattle, where full-length sequence information is available for only three of the 13 family members known from other species. Structural bioinformatic analyses incorporating bovine homologues of several members of the BPI-like protein family, including two forms of bovine parotid secretory protein (PSP), showed that this family is also present in cattle. Expression analyses of several members of the BPI-like protein family in cattle, including PSP (Bsp30), von Ebner's minor salivary gland protein (VEMSGP) and lung-specific X protein (LUNX), showed a restricted pattern of expression, consistent with earlier hypotheses that these proteins function in the innate immune response to bacteria. The possible role of bovine PSP in susceptibility to pasture bloat in cattle is discussed. PMID:12887305

  3. Rhinosporidiosis of Parotid Duct Presenting as Consecutive Bilateral Facial Swelling: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Santanu; Panja, Soumyajyoti; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Roy, Shreosee; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Sporadic cases of rhinosporidiosis has been reported from many countries but is endemic in Southern India (Madurai, Ramnad, Rajapalayam and Sivaganga), Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This disease commonly affects the mucous membrane of the nose or naso-pharynx and presents as a leafy, polypoidal mass. The reported extranasal sites include the oro-pharynx, eye, ear, larynx, trachea, bronchi, skin and genital mucosa. It may also become disseminated to present as a generalized form. In our case a 40-year-old female from rural West Bengal (Eastern India) presented with right sided facial swelling. Our provisional diagnosis was parotid duct cyst on the basis of careful history, scrupulous clinical examination and relevant investigations comprising CECT scan of face. Although Rhinosporidiosis was not taken into consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis, it was eventually diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination of surgical specimen. Two months later in follow-up, the same patient presented to us with left sided facial swelling. We managed the left facial swelling successfully with minimally invasive surgery and 100mg twice daily dapsone for 6 months. We present this case firstly because Rhinosporidiosis of parotid duct (stensen's duct) is a rare entity and secondly non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are also uncommon and represent only 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. Furthermore our case emphasizes that the clinicians should aware of this rare clinical entity specially in endemic areas, because minimally invasive techniques and medications might solve the problem while helping patients to avoid surgical excision. PMID:27134935

  4. Changes in the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) of proliferating rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Broverman, R L; Nguyen, K H; da Silveira, A; Brinkley, L L; Macauley, S P; Zeng, T; Yamamoto, H; Tarnuzzer, R W; Schultz, G S; Kerr, M; Humphreys-Beher, M G

    1998-07-01

    Tissue morphogenesis, development, and maintenance of function are mediated by signals generated through the composition of the extracellular matrix. The regulation of the composition of matrix is determined by enzymes specific for their degradation, the matrix metalloproteinases. Chronic injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol, result in a non-neoplastic hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the rat parotid gland. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases, as measured by gelatin zymography and enzymatic digestion of Azocoll substrates by gland lysates, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following 24 hrs of agonist treatment, and slowly recovered to control values by 6 days of treatment. Daily administration of the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor Galardin for 3 days in combination with isoproterenol resulted in enhanced gland hypertrophy compared with that produced by isoproterenol alone. Given alone, Galardin also caused hypertrophy. The relative abundance of mRNA for the extracellular matrix molecules, collagens I and III and fibronectin, declined rapidly following the initiation of beta-agonist treatment in vivo, while laminin B1 and B2 mRNA levels increased initially before declining below control levels. These changes in patterns of mRNA levels also were observed in the concentrations of glandular protein when Western dot blot analysis of collagens I and III and laminin, respectively, was used. The importance of laminin, in vivo, was demonstrated by coinjection of anti-laminin antibody along with isoproterenol, which resulted in the inhibition of beta-agonist-induced parotid gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These data suggest that modulation of the ECM is associated with isoproterenol-induced salivary gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia. It is likely that this modulation of the ECM takes place through transcriptional regulation of some ECM genes and regulation of matrix-degrading enzyme activity. PMID:9663435

  5. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  6. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  7. Systems analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis in salivary glands identifies shared pathways in human and a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Despite extensive studies to understand the disease process utilizing human and mouse models, the intersection between these species remains elusive. To address this gap, we utilized a novel systems biology approach to identify disease-related gene modules and signaling pathways that overlap between humans and mice. Methods Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 24 pSS and 16 non-pSS sicca patients and 25 controls. For mouse studies, salivary glands were harvested from C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice at various times during development of pSS-like disease. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix HG U133+2.0 arrays for human samples and with MOE430+2.0 arrays for mouse samples. The images were processed with Affymetrix software. Weighted-gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify disease-related and functional pathways. Results Nineteen co-expression modules were identified in human parotid tissue, of which four were significantly upregulated and three were downregulated in pSS patients compared with non-pSS sicca patients and controls. Notably, one of the human disease-related modules was highly preserved in the mouse model, and was enriched with genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Further comparison between these two species led to the identification of genes associated with leukocyte recruitment and germinal center formation. Conclusion Our systems biology analysis of genome-wide expression data from salivary gland tissue of pSS patients and from a pSS mouse model identified common dysregulated biological pathways and molecular targets underlying critical molecular alterations in pSS pathogenesis. PMID:23116360

  8. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  9. Evidence that zymogen granules do not function as an intracellular Ca2+ store for the generation of the Ca2+ signal in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Akihiro; Tanimura, Akihiko; Morita, Takao; Irie, Kazuharu; Yajima, Toshihiko; Tojyo, Yosuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules were obtained by inducing granule discharge with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol. To assess whether zymogen granules are involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) signalling as intracellular Ca(2+) stores, changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were studied with imaging microscopy in fura-2-loaded parotid acinar cells lacking zymogen granules. The increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by muscarinic receptor stimulation was initiated at the apical pole of the acinar cells, and rapidly spread as a Ca(2+) wave towards the basolateral region. The magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) response and the speed of the Ca(2+) wave were essentially similar to those in control acinar cells containing zymogen granules. Western blot analysis of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) was performed on zymogen granule membranes and microsomes using anti-IP(3)R antibodies. The immunoreactivity of all three IP(3)Rs was clearly observed in the microsomal preparations. Although a weak band of IP(3)R type-2 was detected in the zymogen granule membranes, this band probably resulted from contamination by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), because calnexin, a marker protein of the ER, was also detected in the same preparation. Furthermore, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis failed to provide evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in rat parotid acinar cells, whereas expression was clearly detectable in rat skeletal muscle, heart and brain. These results suggest that zymogen granules do not have a critical role in Ca(2+) signalling in rat parotid acinar cells. PMID:11903047

  10. Comparison of N-linked Glycoproteins in Human Whole Saliva, Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual Glandular Secretions Identified using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prasanna; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Pang, Eric; Yan, Weihong; Wong, David T; Loo, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Saliva is a body fluid that holds promise for use as a diagnostic fluid for detecting diseases. Salivary proteins are known to be heavily glycosylated and are known to play functional roles in the oral cavity. We identified N-linked glycoproteins in human whole saliva, as well as the N-glycoproteins in parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glandular fluids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed hydrazide chemistry to affinity enrich for N-linked glycoproteins and glycopeptides. PNGase F releases the N-peptides/proteins from the agarose-hydrazide resin, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the salivary N-glycoproteins. RESULTS: A total of 156 formerly N-glycosylated peptides representing 77 unique N-glycoproteins were identified in salivary fluids. The total number of N-glycoproteins identified in the individual fluids was: 62, 34, 44, and 53 in whole saliva, parotid fluid, submandibular fluid, and sublingual fluid, respectively. The majority of the N-glycoproteins were annotated as extracellular proteins (40%), and several of the N-glycoproteins were annotated as membrane proteins (14%). A number of glycoproteins were differentially found in submandibular and sublingual glandular secretions. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping the N-glycoproteome of parotid, submandibular, and sublingual saliva is important for a thorough understanding of biological processes occurring in the oral cavity and to realize the role of saliva in the overall health of human individuals. Moreover, identifying glycoproteins in saliva may also be valuable for future disease biomarker studies. PMID:21960768

  11. Osteoclast-Like Giant Cell Tumor of the Parotid Gland: Report of a Case Diagnosed on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology With Histological and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    PubMed

    Elhence, Poonam; Rao, Meenakshi; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, Amit; Khera, Pushpinder S; Bhattacharya, Shilajit

    2016-06-01

    Extraosseous giant cell tumors have been described in organs like larynx, thyroid, pancreas, heart, skin, lung, colon, kidney, and soft tissues (Wu et al., Oncol Lett 2013;6:829-832). Osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has been reported only rarely with the first description of primary giant cell tumour of the parotid gland (GCTPs) given in 1984 by Eusebi et al. (Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675). However, FNAC of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has not been well described, and only one case has been reported till date (Torabinezad et al., Acta Cytol. 2006;50:80-83). Two presentations have been observed in the form of either an isolated giant cell tumor (Eusebi et al., Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675) or tumor associated with a carcinomatous component (Yang et al., Korean J Pathol 2012;46:297-301; Pasricha et al., J Can Res Ther 2013;9:314-316). GCTPs are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with a malignant potential. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:548-551. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27079183

  12. Metabolic and secretory responses of parotid cells to cationic amino acids. Oxidation of the amino acids and interference with the oxidation of D-glucose or endogenous nutrients.

    PubMed

    Sener, A; Mourtada, A; Blachier, F; Malaisse, W J

    1990-09-01

    Cationic amino acids were recently found to stimulate amylase release from rat parotid cells. The possible relevance of their oxidative catabolism to such a secretory stimulation was investigated. D-Glucose, which was efficiently metabolized in parotid cells and which augmented O2 uptake above basal value, failed to affect basal or stimulated amylase release. L-Arginine, L-lysine and L-histidine failed to stimulate the oxidation of either exogenous D-[6-14C]glucose or endogenous nutrients in cells pre-labelled with [U-14C]palmitate or L-[U-14C]glutamine. The oxidation of L-[U-14C]arginine, L-[U-14C]ornithine, L-[U-14C]lysine and L-[U-14C]histidine, all tested at a 10 mM concentration, was much lower than that of D-[U-14C]glucose (5.6 mM). These findings argue against the view that the stimulation of amylase release by cationic amino acids would be related to their role as a source of energy in the parotid cells. PMID:1703792

  13. SU-E-J-111: The Contouring Error of the Parotids Based On the CT and MRI Images in Radiotherapy Planning for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Liu, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the variation of sketching the parotid for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent radiotherapy based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance(MR) images. Methods: 41 nasopharyngeal cancer patients were randomly selected. Each patient underwent MR and CT scanning. The Gross Tumor Volume and Organs at risk were contoured on both contrasted CT and T1-MR images. For each patient, one radiotherapist sketched the parotid on CT and MR images for 10 times, and 10 different radiotherapists were asked to sketching the parotid on CT and MR images only one time. The inter- and intra-observers volumes and outline variations were compared. Results: The volumes of parotid contoured by inter-observer on CT and MR images were 34.6±12.1cm{sup 3}(left),34.3±9.0cm{sup 3}(right) and 24.6±7.6cm{sup 3}(L),23.2±8.1cm{sup 3}(R); In the same way, for intra-observer on CT and MR images the volumes were 28.2±7.6cm{sup 3}(L),29.4±9.4cm{sup 3}(R) and 24.4±7.6cm{sup 3}(L),22.5±7.4cm{sup 3}(R), respectively. The variable ratios of volume on MR images were 4.7±0.7%(L),5.0±0.6%(R) for inter-observer and 2.3±0.4%(L),2.1±0.7%(R) for intra-observer. Similarly, The inter- and intra-observer ratios for contouring on CT images reached 18.0±4.8%(L),17.4±4.6%(R) and 6.3±1.5%(L),6.8±1.5%(R), respectively. Conclusion: Contouring the parotids on MR images was more accurate and reproducible than that on CT images.

  14. Parotid Glands Dose-Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Re-Planning in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura; Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E.; Cornwall, Craig; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Mathew; Balter, James; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiotherapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help decisions regarding adaptive re-planning (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials Prospective study: oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemo-irradiation underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with clinical set-up alignment based on C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results 36 parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands whose delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with post-treatment salivary outputs at almost all post-therapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions [on average, standard deviation (SD) 3.6 Gy] characterized the dose/effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident already at first fraction (r=0.92, p<0.0001) due to complex set-up deviations, e.g. rotations and neck articulations, uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions After daily translational set-up corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose/saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed already at first

  15. SU-E-J-275: Impact of the Intra and Inter Observer Variability in the Delineation of Parotid Glands On the Dose Calculation During Head and Neck Helical Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jodda, A; Piotrowski, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The intra- and inter-observer variability in delineation of the parotids on the kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) and mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) were examined to establish their impact on the dose calculation during adaptive head and neck helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three observers delineated left and right parotids for ten randomly selected patients with oropharynx cancer treated on HT. The pre-treatment kVCT and the MVCT from the first fraction of irradiation were selected to delineation. The delineation procedure was repeated three times by each observer. The parotids were delineated according to the institutional protocol. The analyses included intra-observer reproducibility and inter-structure, -observer and -modality variability of the volume and dose. Results: The differences between the left and right parotid outlines were not statistically significant (p>0.3). The reproducibility of the delineation was confirmed for each observer on the kVCT (p>0.2) and on the MVCT (p>0.1). The inter-observer variability of the outlines was significant (p<0.001) as well as the inter-modality variability (p<0.006). The parotids delineated on the MVCT were 10% smaller than on the kVCT. The inter-observer variability of the parotids delineation did not affect the average dose (p=0.096 on the kVCT and p=0.176 on the MVCT). The dose calculated on the MVCT was higher by 3.3% than dose from the kVCT (p=0.009). Conclusion: Usage of the institutional protocols for the parotids delineation reduces intra-observer variability and increases reproducibility of the outlines. These protocols do not eliminate delineation differences between the observers, but these differences are not clinically significant and do not affect average doses in the parotids. The volumes of the parotids delineated on the MVCT are smaller than on the kVCT, which affects the differences in the calculated doses.

  16. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Review of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cerrillo, Javier; Moreno García del Real, Carmen; Díez, Juan J.; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Pulido, Enrique Grande

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies from cells derived from the neural crest with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite the differences in the site of origin, nomenclature, biological behavior, and functional status, NETs share certain ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. NETs are relative rare tumors with an annual incidence of 5.76 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants and they usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or in the pulmonary system. Head and neck NETs are uncommon with limited information regarding frequency, most of them showing small cell carcinoma features. NETs that arise from the salivary glands are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their low frequency, it is imperative to accurately differentiate these tumors from the much more common squamous cell carcinomas and from metastasis from another primary tumor due to the completely different therapeutic approaches and prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and immunohistochemical staining and on an exhaustive work-up. Hereby, we report a case of a moderately differentiated NET of the parotid gland that was treated with a complete parotidectomy. We summarize the clues that led to the final diagnosis and major strategies that were employed to manage the patient. We also perform a comprehensive review of the scarce available literature on this topic. PMID:27610258

  17. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko . E-mail: yoshigaki.junko@nihon-u.ac.jp; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-05-26

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation.

  18. Isoelectric focusing of human parotid salivary proteins in hybrid carrier ampholyte-immobilized pH gradient polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Khoo, K S; Beeley, J A

    1990-06-01

    Isoelectric focusing of human salivary proteins with carrier ampholyte-isoelectric focusing systems requires prior desalting and concentration of samples, a procedure which is time-consuming and requires relatively large volumes of samples. By contrast, immobilized pH gradient gels are more tolerant to salt loads. Thus pretreatment of samples consists only of centrifugation prior to isoelectric focusing. If larger loads (greater than 50 micrograms) are required, the samples may be concentrated by lyophilization and reconstitution in a smaller volume of water or by dialysis against 30% w/v polyethylene glycol. Immobilized pH gradient polyacrylamide gels (incorporating a hybrid carrier ampholyte system) of two pH ranges (pH 4-9 and pH 3.5-5.0) have been used to separate the proteins in human parotid saliva. The effects of urea on focused patterns were studied; in pH 4-9 gels it gave improved resolution of protein bands, whereas in pH 3.5-5.0 gels it prevented protein precipitation. The salivary proteins were then visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 or a silver procedure. Using the latter, 25-30 well-resolved bands were formed on a pH 4-9 gel loaded with 20 micrograms of proteins. The method offers considerable advantages compared with carrier ampholyte-isoelectric focusing. PMID:1697536

  19. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Review of a Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sáez, Olga; Molina-Cerrillo, Javier; Moreno García Del Real, Carmen; Barberá Durban, Rafael; Díez, Juan J; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Pulido, Enrique Grande

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies from cells derived from the neural crest with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite the differences in the site of origin, nomenclature, biological behavior, and functional status, NETs share certain ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. NETs are relative rare tumors with an annual incidence of 5.76 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants and they usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or in the pulmonary system. Head and neck NETs are uncommon with limited information regarding frequency, most of them showing small cell carcinoma features. NETs that arise from the salivary glands are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their low frequency, it is imperative to accurately differentiate these tumors from the much more common squamous cell carcinomas and from metastasis from another primary tumor due to the completely different therapeutic approaches and prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and immunohistochemical staining and on an exhaustive work-up. Hereby, we report a case of a moderately differentiated NET of the parotid gland that was treated with a complete parotidectomy. We summarize the clues that led to the final diagnosis and major strategies that were employed to manage the patient. We also perform a comprehensive review of the scarce available literature on this topic. PMID:27610258

  20. Delayed cerebral radiation necrosis after neutron beam radiation of a parotid adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Christopher S; Gokozan, Hamza N; Otero, José J; Guiou, Michael; Elder, J Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) is a well described possible complication of radiation for treatment of intracranial pathology. However, CRN as sequelae of radiation to extracranial sites is rare. Neutron beam radiation is a highly potent form of radiotherapy that may be used to treat malignant tumors of the salivary glands. This report describes a patient who underwent neutron beam radiation for a parotid adenocarcinoma and who developed biopsy-confirmed temporal lobe radiation necrosis thirty months later. This represents the longest time interval described to date, from initial neutron radiation for extracranial pathology to development of CRN. Two other detailed case studies exist in the literature and are described in this report. These reports as well as our patient's case are reviewed, and additional recommendations are made to minimize the development of CRN after extracranial neutron beam radiation. Physicians should include the possible diagnosis of CRN in any patient with new neurologic signs or symptoms and a history of head and neck radiation that included planned fields extending to the base of the skull. Counseling of patients prior to neutron beam radiation should include potential neurologic complications associated with CRN and risks of treatment for CRN including neurosurgical intervention. PMID:25349750

  1. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  2. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  3. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  4. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 06: The influence of regional dose sensitivity on salivary loss and recovery in the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H; Thomas, S; Moiseenko, V; Hovan, A; Wu, J

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC 2010) survey of radiation dose-volume effects on salivary gland function has called for improved understanding of intragland dose sensitivity and the effectiveness of partial sparing in salivary glands. Regional dose susceptibility of sagittally- and coronally-sub-segmented parotid gland has been studied. Specifically, we examine whether individual consideration of sub-segments leads to improved prediction of xerostomia compared with whole parotid mean dose. Methods: Data from 102 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency were used in this study. Whole mouth stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline), three months, and one year after cessation of radiotherapy. Organ volumes were contoured using treatment planning CT images and sub-segmented into regional portions. Both non-parametric (local regression) and parametric (mean dose exponential fitting) methods were employed. A bootstrap technique was used for reliability estimation and cross-comparison. Results: Salivary loss is described well using non-parametric and mean dose models. Parametric fits suggest a significant distinction in dose response between medial-lateral and anterior-posterior aspects of the parotid (p<0.01). Least-squares and least-median squares estimates differ significantly (p<0.00001), indicating fits may be skewed by noise or outliers. Salivary recovery exhibits a weakly arched dose response: the highest recovery is seen at intermediate doses. Conclusions: Salivary function loss is strongly dose dependent. In contrast no useful dose dependence was observed for function recovery. Regional dose dependence was observed, but may have resulted from a bias in dose distributions.

  5. A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

    1980-01-01

    1. Parotid secretion has been studied by micropuncture in sodium-replete and sodium-deficient sheep. 2. The osmolality of unstimulated primary saliva was slightly higher than in plasma and fell following cholinergic nerve stimulation. In sodium-depleted animals the osmolality of final saliva was hypotonic and exhibited flow dependency, where as in sodium-replete animals it was always isotonic. 3. In sodium-replete sheep, the primary fluid sodium concentration was about 120-130 mmol l-1 but in final saliva it was about 167 mmol l-1 and showed little or no flow-dependency. In sodium-depleted sheep, the primary sodium concentration averaged only 82.2 mmol l-1 and it was concluded that sodium-depleted primary fluid contained some other unidentified solute that allowed it to remain approximately isotonic; in final saliva the unstimulated sodium concentration was about 40 mmol l-1 and it rose with increasing flow rate to a maximum of 114.9 mmol l-1. 4. The primary fluid potassium concentration in sodium-replete animals did not differ significantly from that seen in sodium-depleted animals and the values were uninfluenced by stimulation; the over-all mean value was 11.2 mmol l-1. In final saliva, in sodium-replete sheep, the potassium concentrations averaged 7.8 mmol l-1 but in sodium-depleted sheep the concentrations were between 5 and 10 times greater than in primary fluid. 5. It was calculated from the equilibrium pH that the primary bicarbonate concentration would have been about 35 mmol l-1. In final saliva, where bicarbonate was measured directly, the concentrations were much greater and increased with stimulation to about 115 mmol l-1. 6. The primary fluid phosphate and chloride concentrations were the same in both sodium-replete and sodium-depleted animals and were unchanged by stimulation; the mean concentration of phosphate was 1.30 mmol l-1 and of chloride, 53.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva the phosphate concentrations were little changed but the chloride

  6. Preoperative Diagnostic Strategy for Parotid Gland Tumors Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI and Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Scintigraphy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Koyasu, Sho; Shinohara, Shogo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hino, Megumu; Naito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of a parotid gland tumor is widely used but its sensitivity is low and non-diagnostic rate is relatively high. In contrast, core needle biopsy (CNB) has a higher sensitivity and lower rate of sampling errors but has a higher risk of injury to adjacent organs such as facial nerve than FNAC. Screening of patients with parotid gland tumors to identify cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Warthin tumor (WT) may allow CNB to be confined to patients without PA and WT. We established an algorithm for preoperative diagnosis and management of parotid gland tumor using diffusion-weighted MRI and 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. This algorithm was developed with the goal of maximal reduction of the number of patients in whom CNB is required. The purpose of the study is to validate our algorithm prospectively. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 71 cases who were newly diagnosed with parotid gland tumor and 53 cases were enrolled in the study. In the algorithm, PA (high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean≥1.5×10−3 mm2/s) and non-PA (low ADCmean<1.5×10−3 mm2/s) cases are first distinguished based on the ADCmean on diffusion-weighed MRI. Second, among suspected non-PA cases, WT and non-WT are distinguished using technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. CNB is then performed only in probable non-PA and non-WT cases. Results Although CNB was only required in 40% (21/53) of all cases, we made a preoperative histopathological diagnosis with an accuracy of 87% (46/53) and we correctly diagnosed whether a tumor was benign or malignant with an accuracy of 96% (51/53). Preoperative surgical planning had to be changed during surgery in only one case (2%) Conclusions Our algorithm is valuable in terms of clinical practice with highly potential for preoperative diagnosis and with less risk of CNB procedure. PMID:26849569

  7. Ultrasound-assisted nonviral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, P C; Trombetta, M; Passineau, M J

    2015-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial using Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system used in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial, and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted nonviral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10-Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 h and 1 week post treatment (1.62±0.48 ml and 1.87±0.45 ml) to preinjury levels (1.34±0.14 ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32±0.6 ml and 1.33±0.97 ml). UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model, and it is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  8. Ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, PC; Trombetta, M; Passineau, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial utilizing Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system utilized in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Findings Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 hours and one week post-treatment (1.62+/−0.48ml, 1.87+/−0.45ml) to pre-injury levels (1.34+/−0.14ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32+/−0.6ml, 1.33+/−0.97ml). Conclusions UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model and is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  9. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  10. A Method for Extracting Suspected Parotid Lesions in CT Images using Feature-based Segmentation and Active Contours based on Stationary Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Lin, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Automatic suspected lesion extraction is an important application in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). In this paper, we propose a method to automatically extract the suspected parotid regions for clinical evaluation in head and neck CT images. The suspected lesion tissues in low contrast tissue regions can be localized with feature-based segmentation (FBS) based on local texture features, and can be delineated with accuracy by modified active contour models (ACM). At first, stationary wavelet transform (SWT) is introduced. The derived wavelet coefficients are applied to derive the local features for FBS, and to generate enhanced energy maps for ACM computation. Geometric shape features (GSFs) are proposed to analyze each soft tissue region segmented by FBS; the regions with higher similarity GSFs with the lesions are extracted and the information is also applied as the initial conditions for fine delineation computation. Consequently, the suspected lesions can be automatically localized and accurately delineated for aiding clinical diagnosis. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing with the results outlined by clinical experts. The experiments on 20 pathological CT data sets show that the true-positive (TP) rate on recognizing parotid lesions is about 94%, and the dimension accuracy of delineation results can also approach over 93%.

  11. Patient- and therapy-related factors associated with the incidence of xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving parotid-sparing helical tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Lee, Hsiao-Yi; Wan Leung, Stephen; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chao, Pei-Ju

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of moderate to severe patient-reported xerostomia among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT) and identified patient- and therapy-related factors associated with acute and chronic xerostomia toxicity. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed using quality-of-life questionnaire datasets from 67 patients with NPC. For acute toxicity, the dosimetric factors of the mean doses to the ipsilateral submandibular gland (Dis) and the contralateral submandibular gland (Dcs) were selected as the first two significant predictors. For chronic toxicity, four predictive factors were selected: age, mean dose to the oral cavity (Doc), education, and T stage. The substantial sparing data can be used to avoid xerostomia toxicity. We suggest that the tolerance values corresponded to a 20% incidence of complications (TD20) for Dis = 39.0 Gy, Dcs = 38.4 Gy, and Doc = 32.5 Gy, respectively, when mean doses to the parotid glands met the QUANTEC 25 Gy sparing guidelines. To avoid patient-reported xerostomia toxicity, the mean doses to the parotid gland, submandibular gland, and oral cavity have to meet the sparing tolerance, although there is also a need to take inherent patient characteristics into consideration. PMID:26289304

  12. Reducing Xerostomia After Chemo-IMRT for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Beyond Sparing the Parotid Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Michael; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Vineberg, Karen; Cornwall, Craig; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To assess whether, in addition to sparing the parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemotherapy plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (chemo-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer is affected by reducing the dose to the other salivary glands. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 78 patients with Stage III-IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancer underwent chemo-IMRT, with the aim of sparing the parts of the bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) outside the target (when contralateral level I was not a target). Before therapy and periodically for 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia scores were recorded. Also, the stimulated and unstimulated saliva was measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. The mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary gland dysfunction. Regression models assessed the XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors. Results: Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score on univariate analysis included the OC, PG, and SMG mean doses and the baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. The OC, PG, and SMG mean doses were moderately intercorrelated (r = 0.47-0.55). On multivariate analyses, after adjusting for the PG and SMG doses, the OC mean dose (p < .0001), interval from RT (p < .0001), and stimulated PG saliva (p < .0025) were significant predictors of the XQ scores and the OC mean dose and time for observer-graded xerostomia. Although scatter plots showed no thresholds, an OC mean dose of <40 Gy and contralateral SMG mean dose of <50 Gy were each associated with low patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia at almost all post-therapy points. Conclusion: The PG, SMG, and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient

  13. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Improves Target Coverage and Parotid Gland Sparing When Delivering Total Mucosal Irradiation in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck of Unknown Primary Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bhide, Shreerang Clark, Catherine; Harrington, Kevin; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with occult primary site represents a controversial clinical problem. Conventional total mucosal irradiation (TMI) maximizes local control, but at the expense of xerostomia. IMRT has been shown to spare salivary tissue in head and cancer patients. This study has been performed to investigate the potential of IMRT to perform nodal and TMI and also allow parotid gland sparing in this patient group. Conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and IMRT plans were produced for six patients to treat the ipsilateral (involved) post-operative neck (PTV1) and the un-operated contralateral neck and mucosal axis (PTV2). Plans were produced with and without the inclusion of nasopharynx in the PTV2. The potential to improve target coverage and spare the parotid glands was investigated for the IMRT plans. There was no significant difference in the mean doses to the PTV1 using CRT and IMRT (59.7 and 60.0 respectively, p = 0.5). The maximum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were lower for the IMRT technique as compared to CRT (P = 0.008 and P < 0.0001), respectively, and the minimum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were significantly higher for IMRT as compared to CRT (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001), respectively, illustrating better dose homogeneity with IMRT. The mean dose to the parotid gland contralateral to PTV1 was significantly lower for IMRT (23.21 {+-} 0.7) as compared to CRT (50.5 {+-} 5.8) (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in parotid dose between plans with and without the inclusion of the nasopharynx. IMRT offers improved dose homogeneity in PTV1 and PTV2 and allows for parotid sparing.

  14. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  15. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  16. An unusual parotid gland in the tent-building bat, Uroderma bilobatum: possible correlation of interspecific ultrastructural differences with differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Nagato, T; Tandler, B; Phillips, C J

    1998-10-01

    The tent-building bat, Uroderma bilobatum, is a small, frugivorous phyllostomid bat with a broad neotropical distribution. Generally found in humid forest, this bat lives in small groups that create daytime "roosts" from large leaves of a variety of tropical plants. Fruit eating engenders a variety of ecological and physiological challenges for bats, some of which could require adaptive features in their salivary glands. The parotid salivary glands of Uroderma bilobatum were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by using methods that have become standard for field work. The parotid gland is extremely unusual in structure. Although the secretory endpieces still produce serous granules with a complex substructure, they are modified into quasi striated ducts. Their basal folds, which are extensive, occasionally harbor some vertically oriented mitochondria, imparting a resemblance to striated ducts. Other evidence for the endpiece origin of these parenchymal components is a well-developed system of intercellular canaliculi, structures that never occur in bona fide striated ducts. The long but sparse intercalated ducts consist of two types of cells, each of which elaborates a modest number of secretory granules of differing substructure. Striated ducts are of conventional morphology, except that a few dark cells shaped like wine glasses are present in their walls. The striated duct cells produce no secretory granules, but their apical cytoplasm may contain some small, empty vesicles. Capillaries lie in longitudinal grooves in the base of the duct cells, an arrangement that might enhance electrolyte exchange. Excretory ducts consist of simple cuboidal epithelium composed of cytologically unspecialized cells that sometimes includes a dark cell. It was concluded that salivary glands could have a major role in adapting species to acquire nutrients from marginal sources, such as tropical fruits, which have a low protein and sodium content. The unusual parotid acinar

  17. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  18. MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

  19. Alpha adrenergic drugs inhibit ( sup 3 H)-QNB binding to muscarinic receptors of rat heart, brain and parotid gland membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Filep, J.; Zelles, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic agonists and antagonists as clonidine, guanfacine, yohimbine, phenylephrine and prazosin inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-QNB binding to rat brain cortex muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR, M-1 subtype), heart (M-2 subtype) and parotid gland homogenate (M-3 subtype) in a dose-dependent competitive fashion. Ki values were between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}3} M. Hill coefficients were about 1. No correlation was found between mAChR inhibiting capacity of these drugs and their activity on alpha adrenergic receptors. In contrast, other transmitters, as dopamine, GABA, glutamic acid, histamine, serotonin, isoproterenol and platelet activating factor (PAF) did not affect the QNB binding.

  20. Establishing an accurate diagnosis of a parotid lump: evaluation of the current biopsy methods - fine needle aspiration cytology, ultrasound-guided core biopsy, and intraoperative frozen section.

    PubMed

    Howlett, D C; Skelton, E; Moody, A B

    2015-09-01

    The optimum technique for histological confirmation of the nature of a parotid mass remains controversial. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which has traditionally been used, is associated with high non-diagnostic and false negative rates, and ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy and frozen section have been explored as alternatives. US-guided core biopsy is more invasive than FNAC, but is safe, well-tolerated, and associated with improved diagnostic performance. Although frozen section offers better specificity than FNAC, it has a number of important drawbacks and cannot be considered as a primary diagnostic tool. US-guided core biopsy should be considered as the initial diagnostic technique of choice, and in units where the accuracy of FNAC is good it can be used when FNAC is equivocal or non-diagnostic. PMID:25886878

  1. Small clonal B-cell population in the bone marrow as a possible tool in the diagnosis of occult primary parotid lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Mónica; Saavedra, Carlos; Henao-Martínez, Andrés F

    2016-01-01

    Case Description: An 82-years old Hispanic woman with a past medical history significant for pulmonary thromboembolism on oral anticoagulation, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypertension developed a new onset thrombocytopenia. Clinical Findings: Small clonal B-cells populations (SCBP) also known as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis was found as part of the workup for an idiopathic thrombocytopenia and lead ultimately to the diagnosis of parotid primary follicular lymphoma coexisting with Warthin tumor involving the bone marrow in a small extent and oncocytic papilloma located in the maxillary sinus. Treatment and Outcome: Patient was treated with Rituximab monotherapy with improvement on her platelet count. Clinical relevance: Although it is unclear the role of this clonal cells, they may work as a possible diagnostic tool for occult lymphomas. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this possible association. PMID:27226666

  2. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic parameters from parotid and submandibular dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy and unstimulated sialometry in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dugonjić, Sanja; Stefanović, Dušan; Ethurović, Branka; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Ajdinović, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to validate eight scintigraphic salivary gland (SG) parameters, as diagnostic parameters in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We used the standardized stimulated dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy (DSGS) protocol and correlated this with the unstimulated whole sialometry (UWS) functions. The DSGS and UWS tests meeting the European and the USA diagnostic classification criteria for SS were applied in twenty patients and in ten normal controls. The DSGS tests were performed 60min after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of 370MBq of technetium-99m-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(-)4) and after per os stimulation with a 0.5g tablet of ascorbic acid administered 40min after the injection. Using time-activity curves, eight different parameters were calculated for each parotid gland (PG) and each submandibular salivary gland (SMG): a) time at maximum counts (Tmax), b) time at minimum counts (Tmin), c) maximum accumulation (MA), d) accumulation velocity (AV), e) maximum secretion (MS), f) maximum stimulated secretion (MSS), g) stimulated secretion velocity (SSV), and h) uptake ratio (UR). Values of UWS below 2.5mL/15min, were considered abnormal. All these parameters, as for the PG, showed significant abnormality in SS patients (P<0.001), especially of the secretion function. All SMG parameters also showed a significant abnormality (P<0.001), but especially of the accumulation function. There was a greater impairment of the above parameters in SMG than in PG in the SS patients. Sensitivity of the standardized DSGS was 100%, specificity 80%, negative prognostic value 100%, and positive prognostic value 91%. Sensitivity of UWS was 75%. In conclusion, this paper suggested that the best diagnostic parameters for the SS patients were those of: a) the maximum secretion, b) the maximum stimulated secretion for both the parotid and the submandibular glands, c) maximum accumulation and d) accumulation velocity of submandibular glands. The times at maximum and at minimum

  4. Combined endoscopic-transcutaneous surgery in parotid gland sialolithiasis and other ductal diseases: reporting medium- to long-term objective and patients' subjective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koch, M; Iro, H; Zenk, J

    2013-05-01

    Objective was to assess the medium to long-term results and patients' perceive of success after combined sialoendoscopic and transcutaneous access in salivary gland diseases. A retrospective analysis was performed in a tertiary referral centre. A total of 19 patients have been treated with a combined sialoendoscopic and transcutaneous access. The main indication was sialolithiasis in 89.5 % of cases (n = 17), in 2 of these cases simultaneous complications were treated. Other indications included treatment-resistant stenosis and traumatic transection of the parotid duct. Intraductal stents were placed in 52.6 % of the cases. Patients were evaluated by clinical investigation, ultrasound examination and by a questionnaire to assess patients perceive of success. As a result the treatment was successful in 89.5 % of all cases, and in 94.1 % of the patients with sialolithiasis. Parotidectomy was required in two patients, as reconstruction of the ductal system was not possible intraoperatively (sialolithiasis, n = 1) or was unsuccessful (stenosis, n = 1). Prerequisites for successful treatment were the endoscopic access to the pathology, the possibility to reconstruct the duct and recovery of gland function postoperatively. A mean follow-up time for successfully treated patients was 40.67 months. All patients were satisfied with the results and reported a significant reduction in symptoms and improvement of their perceived quality of life (p = 0.001 each). As conclusion the combined access is a valuable alternative treatment in patients with sialolithiasis. Additional indications may include treatment-resistant stenosis and injuries to the parotid duct. However, the indication in stenosis needs to be carefully weighed up. PMID:23224766

  5. The Mouse That Soared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  6. Mouse Phenome Database

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Stephen C.; Bult, Carol J.; Bogue, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; phenome.jax.org) was launched in 2001 as the data coordination center for the international Mouse Phenome Project. MPD integrates quantitative phenotype, gene expression and genotype data into a common annotated framework to facilitate query and analysis. MPD contains >3500 phenotype measurements or traits relevant to human health, including cancer, aging, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, infectious disease susceptibility, blood disorders, neurosensory disorders, drug addiction and toxicity. Since our 2012 NAR report, we have added >70 new data sets, including data from Collaborative Cross lines and Diversity Outbred mice. During this time we have completely revamped our homepage, improved search and navigational aspects of the MPD application, developed several web-enabled data analysis and visualization tools, annotated phenotype data to public ontologies, developed an ontology browser and released new single nucleotide polymorphism query functionality with much higher density coverage than before. Here, we summarize recent data acquisitions and describe our latest improvements. PMID:24243846

  7. Mouse phenome database.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Stephen C; Bult, Carol J; Bogue, Molly A

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; phenome.jax.org) was launched in 2001 as the data coordination center for the international Mouse Phenome Project. MPD integrates quantitative phenotype, gene expression and genotype data into a common annotated framework to facilitate query and analysis. MPD contains >3500 phenotype measurements or traits relevant to human health, including cancer, aging, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, infectious disease susceptibility, blood disorders, neurosensory disorders, drug addiction and toxicity. Since our 2012 NAR report, we have added >70 new data sets, including data from Collaborative Cross lines and Diversity Outbred mice. During this time we have completely revamped our homepage, improved search and navigational aspects of the MPD application, developed several web-enabled data analysis and visualization tools, annotated phenotype data to public ontologies, developed an ontology browser and released new single nucleotide polymorphism query functionality with much higher density coverage than before. Here, we summarize recent data acquisitions and describe our latest improvements. PMID:24243846

  8. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  9. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome presenting multiple concurrent cutaneous and parotid gland neoplasms: cytologic findings on fine-needle sample and description of a novel mutation of the CYLD gene.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Longo, Francesco; Perri, Francesco; Caponigro, Francesco; Schiavone, Concetta; Ionna, Franco; Maiello, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Claudia; Nasti, Sabina; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple dermal cylindromas and membranous basal cell adenoma of parotid gland in a 67-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) were examined by fine-needle cytology. Histology, immunochemistry, and CYLD germline mutation testing were also performed. Cytomorphology and immunochemistry of the two lesions showed basaloid neoplasms, remarkably similar, composed by proliferating epithelial cells of basal type accompanied by a smaller proportion of myoepithelial cells. CYLD gene showed a novel germline splice acceptor site mutation (c.2042-1G>C) with skipping of the entire exon 15. The occurrence of analogous tumors, dermal cylindromas, and membranous basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland, in the same patient may result from the action of a single gene on ontogenetically similar stem cells. Therefore, patients with BSS should be offered a genetic counselling for an early and correct diagnosis. PMID:25995191

  10. The Mouse Olfactory Peduncle

    PubMed Central

    Brunjes, Peter C; Kay, Rachel B; Arrivillaga, J. P

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3, 12 and 24 month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm3and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm3. Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar though smaller to those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of GABAergic neurons), though the relative numbers of each cell type differs between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in the rat. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed. PMID:21618219

  11. Long-term Outcomes and Quality of Life of 186 Patients With Primary Parotid Carcinoma Treated With Surgery and Radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Rooij, Peter van; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with primary parotid carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2010, 186 patients with parotid carcinoma were treated with parotidectomy with or without neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) was applied to high-risk, node-negative disease. End points were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), late toxicity, and QOL. Results: After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 4-172 months), the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for LRC, DFS, CSS, and OS were 89%, 83%, 80%, and 68%, respectively. Forty-five events were reported: 24 distant metastases (DM) and 21 locoregional failures (LRF). Event-free survival rates by histological types were 89%, 78%, 76%, 74%, and 70% for acinic cell, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. More LRF were reported in patients with squamous cell and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (21% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other histological types (p = 0.04) and more DM in patients with adenoid cystic and adenocarcinoma (20% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other types (p = 0.03). None of the high-risk node-negative patients who received ENI developed regional failure. On multivariate analysis, T stage, N stage, grade, and presence of perineural invasion and facial paralysis correlated significantly with DFS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 8%. QOL scores deteriorate during and shortly after treatment but returned in almost all scales to baseline scores within 6 months. Conclusions: Of the entire group, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent outcomes with minimal side effects and preservation of good QOL scores. However, in

  12. PKCαβγ- and PKCδ-dependent endocytosis of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B in salivary parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Clint; Baker, Olga J.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined membrane trafficking of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B variants of the electrogenic Na+-HCO3− cotransporter (NBCe1) encoded by the SLC4A4 gene, using confocal fluorescent microscopy in rat parotid acinar cells (ParC5 and ParC10). We showed that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged NBCe1-A and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1-B are colocalized with E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane (BLM) but not with the apical membrane marker zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). We inhibited constitutive recycling with monensin and W13 and detected that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B accumulated in vesicles marked with the early endosomal marker early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1), with a parallel loss from the BLM. We observed that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo massive carbachol (CCh)-stimulated redistribution from the BLM into early endosomes. We showed that internalization of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B was prevented by the general PKC inhibitor GF-109203X, the PKCαβγ-specific inhibitor Gö-6976, and the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin. We verified the involvement of PKCδ by blocking CCh-induced internalization of NBCe1-A-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in cells transfected with dominant-negative kinase-dead (Lys376Arg) PKCδ-GFP. Our data suggest that NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B undergo constitutive and CCh-stimulated endocytosis regulated by conventional PKCs (PKCαβγ) and by novel PKCδ in rat epithelial cells. To help develop a more complete model of the role of NBCe1 in parotid acinar cells we also investigated the initial phase of the secretory response to cholinergic agonist. In an Ussing chamber study we showed that inhibition of basolateral NBCe1 with 5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxy-2-thienylmethylene)-2-oxo-1H-indole-1-carboxamide (tenidap) significantly decreases an initial phase of luminal anion secretion measured as a transient short-circuit current (Isc) across ParC10 cell monolayers. Using trafficking and functional data we propose a model that describes a physiological role of

  13. Chandra Catches the `Mouse'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an x-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. This image, from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the x-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. G359.23-0.82 gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Chandler program.

  14. KRAS Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Rónán C.; Heyer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    KRAS is a potent oncogene and is mutated in about 30% of all human cancers. However, the biological context of KRAS-dependent oncogenesis is poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer provide invaluable tools to study the oncogenic process, and insights from KRAS-driven models have significantly increased our understanding of the genetic, cellular, and tissue contexts in which KRAS is competent for oncogenesis. Moreover, variation among tumors arising in mouse models can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying response or resistance to therapy in KRAS-dependent cancers. Hence, it is essential that models of KRAS-driven cancers accurately reflect the genetics of human tumors and recapitulate the complex tumor-stromal intercommunication that is manifest in human cancers. Here, we highlight the progress made in modeling KRAS-dependent cancers and the impact that these models have had on our understanding of cancer biology. In particular, the development of models that recapitulate the complex biology of human cancers enables translational insights into mechanisms of therapeutic intervention in KRAS-dependent cancers. PMID:21779503

  15. [Genetics of mouse-hole].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    The Oldfield mouse and the Deer mouse build very different burrows in nature and also in the laboratory. This behaviour is innate and, in a series of beautiful experiments making use of new generation sequencing for genetic mapping, the authors map the burrow architecture to a very small number of loci and demonstrate modular evolution of behaviour. PMID:23621941

  16. The mouse genome informatics and the mouse genome database

    SciTech Connect

    Maltais, L.J.; Blackburn, R.E.; Bradt, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is a centralized, comprehensive database of the mouse genome that includes genetic mapping data, comparative mapping data, gene descriptions, mutant phenotype descriptions, strains and allelic polymorphism data, inbred strain characteristics, physical mapping data, and molecular probes and clones data. Data in MGD are obtained from the published literature and by electronic transfer from laboratories working on large backcross panels of mice. MGD provides tools that enable the user to search the database, retrieve data, generate reports, analyze data, annotate records, and build genetic maps. The Encyclopedia of the Mouse Genome provides a graphic user interface to mouse genome data. It consists of software tools including: LinkMap, a graphic display of genetic linkage maps with the ability to magnify regions of high locus density: CytoMap, a graphic display of cytogenetic maps showing banded chromosomes with cytogenetic locations of genes and chromosomal aberrations; CATS, a catalog searching tool for text retrieval of mouse locus descriptions. These software tools provide access to the following data sets: Chromosome Committee Reports, MIT Genome Center data, GBASE reports, Mouse Locus Catalog (MLC), and Mouse Cytogenetic Mapping Data. The MGD is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web (WWW) and Gopher. In addition GBASE can be accessed via the Internet.

  17. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Qasem, Shadi; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2014-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location. PMID:25745294

  18. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  19. Preclinical mouse models of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Uluçkan, Özge; Segaliny, Aude; Botter, Sander; Santiago, Janice M; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common form of primary bone tumors with high prevalence in children. Survival rates of osteosarcoma are low, especially in the case of metastases. Mouse models of this disease have been very valuable in investigation of mechanisms of tumorigenesis, metastasis, as well as testing possible therapeutic options. In this chapter, we summarize currently available mouse models for osteosarcoma and provide detailed methodology for the isolation of cell lines from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), gene modification and tumor cell injection methods, as well as imaging techniques. PMID:25987985

  20. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and long term use. Potential Hazards: When the sensitivity for the input device is not appropriately set, ... provide adequate control. A mouse that has insufficient sensitivity may require large deviation of the wrist to ...

  1. Training pathologists in mouse pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Ward, J M; HogenEsch, H; Nikitin, A Yu; Treuting, P M; Macauley, J B; Schofield, P N

    2012-03-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology) primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today's research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through apprenticeships in formal programs, these are often heavily service related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short-term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889

  2. Mechanisms Underlying Activation of α1-Adrenergic Receptor-Induced Trafficking of AQP5 in Rat Parotid Acinar Cells under Isotonic or Hypotonic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bragiel, Aneta M.; Wang, Di; Pieczonka, Tomasz D.; Shono, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Defective cellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) to the apical plasma membrane (APM) in salivary glands is associated with the loss of salivary fluid secretion. To examine mechanisms of α1-adrenoceptor (AR)-induced trafficking of AQP5, immunoconfocal microscopy and Western blot analysis were used to analyze AQP5 localization in parotid tissues stimulated with phenylephrine under different osmolality. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM) was mediated via the α1A-AR subtype, but not the α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 was inhibited by ODQ and KT5823, inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO)-stimulated guanylcyclase (GC) and protein kinase (PK) G, respectively, indicating the involvement of the NO/ soluble (c) GC/PKG signaling pathway. Under isotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking was inhibited by La3+, implying the participation of store-operated Ca2+ channel. Under hypotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was higher than that under isotonic conditions. Under non-stimulated conditions, hypotonicity-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was inhibited by ruthenium red and La3+, suggesting the involvement of extracellular Ca2+ entry. Thus, α1A-AR activation induced the trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and LPM via the Ca2+/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/PKG signaling pathway, which is associated with store-operated Ca2+ entry. PMID:27367668

  3. Correlations between the clinical, histological and neurophysiological examinations in patients before and after parotid gland tumor surgery: verification of facial nerve transmission.

    PubMed

    Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Huber, Juliusz; Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Golusiński, Wojciech; Pieńkowski, Piotr; Golusiński, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    Parotid gland tumor surgery sometimes leads to facial nerve paralysis. Malignant more than benign tumors determine nerve function preoperatively, while postoperative observations based on clinical, histological and neurophysiological studies have not been reported in detail. The aims of this pilot study were evaluation and correlations of histological properties of tumor (its size and location) and clinical and neurophysiological assessment of facial nerve function pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months). Comparative studies included 17 patients with benign (n = 13) and malignant (n = 4) tumors. Clinical assessment was based on House-Brackmann scale (H-B), neurophysiological diagnostics included facial electroneurography [ENG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP)], mimetic muscle electromyography (EMG) and blink-reflex examinations (BR). Mainly grade I of H-B was recorded both pre- (n = 13) and post-operatively (n = 12) in patients with small (1.5-2.4 cm) benign tumors located in superficial lobes. Patients with medium size (2.5-3.4 cm) malignant tumors in both lobes were scored at grade I (n = 2) and III (n = 2) pre- and mainly VI (n = 4) post-operatively. CMAP amplitudes after stimulation of mandibular marginal branch were reduced at about 25 % in patients with benign tumors after surgery. In the cases of malignant tumors CMAPs were not recorded following stimulation of any branch. A similar trend was found for BR results. H-B and ENG results revealed positive correlations between the type of tumor and surgery with facial nerve function. Neurophysiological studies detected clinically silent facial nerve neuropathy of mandibular marginal branch in postoperative period. Needle EMG, ENG and BR examinations allow for the evaluation of face muscles reinnervation and facial nerve regeneration. PMID:24740733

  4. 10. international mouse genome conference

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  5. Mouse models of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Böck, Barbara C; Stein, Ulrike; Schmitt, Clemens A; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2014-09-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance Preclinical Comprehensive Cancer Center (PCCC; www.helmholtz-pccc.de) hosted the "1st International Kloster Seeon Meeting on Mouse Models of Human Cancer" in the Seeon monastery (Germany) from March 8 to 11, 2014. The meeting focused on the development and application of novel mouse models in tumor research and high-throughput technologies to overcome one of the most critical bottlenecks in translational bench-to-bedside tumor biology research. Moreover, the participants discussed basic molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance, which are the prerequisite for the development of novel treatment strategies and clinical applications in cancer therapy. PMID:25136075

  6. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) —

    Cancer.gov

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) comprises a group of major mouse genetics research institutions along with national funding organisations formed to address the challenge of developing an encyclopedia of mammalian gene function.

  7. Lipid Extraction from Mouse Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Daniel; Yang, Qin; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of feces composition is important for the study of energy metabolism, which comprises various measurements of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy wasting. The current protocol describes how to measure energy-dense lipids in mouse feces using a modification of the method proposed by Folch et al. (1957). PMID:27110587

  8. Rat spermatogenesis in mouse testis

    PubMed Central

    Clouthier, David E.; Avarbock, Mary R.; Maika, Shanna D.; Hammer, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, transplantation of mouse donor spermatogonial stem cells from a fertile testis to an infertile recipient mouse testis was described1,2. The donor cells established spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules of the host, and normal spermatozoa were produced. In the most successful transplants, the recipient mice were fertile and sired up to 80 per cent of progeny from donor cells2. Here we examine the feasibility of transplanting spermatogonial stem cells from other species to the mouse seminiferous tubule to generate spermatogenesis. Marked testis cells from transgenic rats were transplanted to the testes of immunodeficient mice, and in all of 10 recipient mice (in 19 of 20 testes), rat spermatogenesis occurred. Epididymides of eight mice were examined, and the three from mice with the longest transplants (≥110 days) contained rat spermatozoa with normal morphology. The generation of rat spermatogenesis in mouse testes suggests that spermatogonial stem cells of many species could be transplanted, and opens the possibility of xenogeneic spermatogenesis for other species. PMID:8632797

  9. Mouse models of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Ban, Joanne; Phillips, William D

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a muscle weakness disease characterized by autoantibodies that target components of the neuromuscular junction, impairing synaptic transmission. The most common form of myasthenia gravis involves antibodies that bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Many of the remaining cases are due to antibodies against muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Recently, autoantibodies against LRP4 (another component of the MuSK signaling complex in the postsynaptic membrane) were identified as the likely cause of myasthenia gravis in some patients. Fatiguing weakness is the common symptom in all forms of myasthenia gravis, but muscles of the body are differentially affected, for reasons that are not fully understood. Much of what we have learnt about the immunological and neurobiological aspects of the pathogenesis derives from mouse models. The most widely used mouse models involve either passive transfer of autoantibodies, or active immunization of the mouse with acetylcholine receptors or MuSK protein. These models can provide a robust replication of many of the features of the human disease. Depending upon the protocol, acute fatiguing weakness develops 2 - 14 days after the start of autoantibody injections (passive transfer) or might require repeated immunizations over several weeks (active models). Here we review mouse models of myasthenia gravis, including what they have contributed to current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and their current application to the testing of therapeutics. PMID:25777761

  10. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients. PMID:26063174

  11. Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest in the tissue in its natural state and environment. PMID:27547786

  12. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  13. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Beck, J A; Lloyd, S; Hafezparast, M; Lennon-Pierce, M; Eppig, J T; Festing, M F; Fisher, E M

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each other, particularly in the light of available DNA polymorphism data from microsatellite and other markers. We describe the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains, 90 years after the generation of the first inbred strain. Given the large collection of inbred strains available, and that published information on these strains is incomplete, we propose that all genealogical and genetic data on inbred strains be submitted to a common electronic database to ensure this valuable information resource is preserved and used efficiently. PMID:10615122

  14. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  15. Retinofugal Projections in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Studholme, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is increasingly a subject for visual system investigation, but there has been no comprehensive evaluation of this species’ visual projections. Here, projections were visualized and mapped following intraocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit. Tissue was processed using standard procedures applied to 30 Am free floating sections with diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. The mouse retina projects to approximately 46 brain regions, including 14 not previously described in this species. These include two amygdaloid nuclei, the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, several visual thalamic nuclei, the paranigral nucleus, several pretectal nuclei, and the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus. Dense retinal patches were also observed in a narrow portion of the ipsilateral intermediate layer of the superior colliculus. The superior fasciculus of the accessory optic tract, which innervates the medial terminal nucleus, was also determined to be a terminal zone throughout its length. The results are compared with previous descriptions of projections from mouse intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells, and with data from the hamster, Nile grass rat and laboratory rat. The retinal projection patterns are similar in all four species, although there are many differences with respect to the details. The specific visual functions of most retinorecipient areas are unknown, but there is substantial convergence of retinal projections onto regions concerned with olfaction and audition. PMID:24889098

  16. Mouse embryonic stem cells with a multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome for transchromosomic mouse generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Endo, Takeshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) has several advantages as a gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance of the exogenous genetic material and the ability to carry large and/or multiple gene inserts including their regulatory elements. Previously, a MAC containing multi-integration site (MI-MAC) was generated to facilitate transfer of multiple genes into desired cells. To generate transchromosomic (Tc) mice containing a MI-MAC with genes of interest, the desired genes were inserted into MI-MAC in CHO cells, and then the MI-MAC was transferred to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). However, the efficiency of MMCT from CHO to mES cells is very low (<10(-6)). In this study, we constructed mES cell lines containing a MI-MAC vector to directly insert a gene of interest into the MI-MAC in mES cells via a simple transfection method for Tc mouse generation. The recombination rate of the GFP gene at each attachment site (FRT, PhiC31attP, R4attP, TP901-1attP and Bxb1attP) on MI-MAC was greater than 50% in MI-MAC mES cells. Chimeric mice with high coat colour chimerism were generated from the MI-MAC mES cell lines and germline transmission from the chimera was observed. As an example for the generation of Tc mice with a desired gene by the MI-MAC mES approach, a Tc mouse strain ubiquitously expressing Emerald luciferase was efficiently established. Thus, the findings suggest that this new Tc strategy employing mES cells and a MI-MAC vector is efficient and useful for animal transgenesis. PMID:26055730

  17. [The identification of mouse cloned SFA DNA].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ning; Wu, Weng Qing; Ni, Zu Mei; Shi, Lu Ji

    2002-12-01

    For some basic investigation and the construction of artificial chromosomes, cloned centromeric DNAs identified on a firm ground are required. Thus, in the present work a preliminary screened clone of 13.5 kb DNA, 6# clone, form a mouse centromeric library contructed previously in our library was futher investigated by FISH and PCR. It was found that mouse 6# cloned SFA DNA, as shown by FISH is a fragment of mouse centromeric DNA. Evidence was also observed that 6# cloned SFA DNA consists of mouse minor satellite DNA and other DNA sequences. PMID:15346991

  18. Mouse mammary tumor biology: a short history.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Kenney, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    For over a century, mouse mammary tumor biology and the associated Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) have served as the foundation for experimental cancer research, in general, and, in particular, experimental breast cancer research. Spontaneous mouse mammary tumors were the basis for studies of the natural history of neoplasia, oncogenic viruses, host responses, endocrinology, and neoplastic progression. However, lacking formal proof of a human mammary tumor virus, the preeminence of the mouse model faded in the 1980s. Since the late 1980s, genetically engineered mice (GEM) have proven extremely useful for studying breast cancer and have become the animal model for human breast cancer. Hundreds of mouse models of human breast cancer have been developed since the first demonstration, in 1984, that the mouse mammary gland could be molecularly targeted and used to test the oncogenicity of candidate human genes. Now, very few scientists can avoid using a mouse model to test the biology of their favorite gene. The GEM have attracted a new generation of molecular and cellular biologists eager to apply their skills to these surrogates of the human disease. Newcomers often enter the field without an appreciation of the origins of mouse mammary tumor biology and the basis for many of the prevailing concepts. Our purpose in writing this short history of mouse mammary tumor biology is to provide a historical perspective for the benefit of the newcomers. If Einstein was correct in that "we stand on the shoulders of giants," the neophytes should meet their giants. PMID:17433908

  19. Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients. PMID:26922998

  20. Mouse models of congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Graw, J

    1999-06-01

    Mouse mutants affecting lens development are excellent models for corresponding human disorders. The mutant aphakia has been characterised by bilaterally aphakic eyes (Varnum and Stevens, J Hered 1968;59:147-50); the corresponding gene was mapped to chromosome 19 (Varnum and Stevens, Mouse News Lett 1975;53:35). Recent investigations in our laboratory refined the linkage of 0.6 cM proximal to the marker D19Mit10. Several candidate genes have been excluded (Chuk1, Fgf8, Lbp1, Npm3, Pax2, Pitx3). The Cat3 mutations are characterised by vacuolated lenses caused by alterations in the initial secondary lens fibre cell differentiation. Secondary malformations develop at the cornea and iris, but the retina remains unaffected. The mutation has been mapped to chromosome 10 close to the markers D10Mit41 and D10Mit95. Several candidate genes have been excluded (Dcn, Elk3, Ldc, Mell8, Tr2-11). The series of Cat2 mutations have been mapped close to the gamma-crystallin genes (Cryg; Löster et al., Genomics 1994;23:240-2). The Cat2nop mutation is characterised by a mutation in the third exon of Crygb leading to a truncated gamma B-crystallin and the termination of lens fibre cell differentiation. The Cat2 mutants are interesting models for human cataracts caused by mutations in the human CRYG genes at chromosome 2q32-35. PMID:10627821

  1. Mouse models for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F

    2013-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related cell death in human and the fifth in women worldwide. The incidence of HCC is increasing despite progress in identifying risk factors, understanding disease etiology and developing anti-viral strategies. Therapeutic options are limited and survival after diagnosis is poor. Therefore, better preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic tools are urgently needed, in particular given the increased contribution from systemic metabolic disease to HCC incidence worldwide. In the last three decades, technological advances have facilitated the generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to mimic the alterations frequently observed in human cancers or to conduct intervention studies and assess the relevance of candidate gene networks in tumor establishment, progression and maintenance. Because these studies allow molecular and cellular manipulations impossible to perform in patients, GEMMs have improved our understanding of this complex disease and represent a source of great potential for mechanism-based therapy development. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of HCC modeling in the mouse, highlighting successes, current challenges and future opportunities. PMID:23428636

  2. Angiogenesis in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, W; Lee, W; Georgakopoulos, D; Wagner, E

    2000-07-01

    When pulmonary arterial blood flow is obstructed in all mammals studied, there is a compensatory growth of the bronchial vasculature. This angiogenesis normally occurs through a proliferation of the systemic circulation to the intraparenchymal airways. It is an important pathophysiological process, not only in pulmonary vascular disease, but also in lung cancer, because the blood flow that supplies primary lung tumors arises from the systemic circulation. In the mouse, however, the systemic blood vessels that supply the trachea and mainstem bronchi do not penetrate into the intraparenchymal airways, as they do in all other larger species. In this study, we attempted to generate a new functional bronchial circulation in the mouse by permanently obstructing 40% of the pulmonary circulation. We quantified the systemic blood flow to the lung with fluorescent microspheres for 3 months after left pulmonary artery ligation. Results demonstrated that a substantial systemic blood flow to the lung that can eventually supply up to 15% of the normal pulmonary flow can be generated beginning 5-6 days after ligation. These new angiogenic vessels do not arise from the extraparenchymal bronchial circulation. Rather they enter the lung directly via a totally new vasculature that develops between the visceral and parietal pleuras, supplied by several intercostal arteries. This unique model of angiogenesis occurs in the absence of any hypoxic stimulus and mimics the vascular source of many lung tumors. PMID:10880380

  3. Mouse models of the laminopathies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Colin L. . E-mail: stewartc@ncifcrf.gov; Kozlov, Serguei; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G. . E-mail: sgyoung@mednet.ucla.edu

    2007-06-10

    The A and B type lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that comprise the bulk of the nuclear lamina, a thin proteinaceous structure underlying the inner nuclear membrane. The A type lamins are encoded by the lamin A gene (LMNA). Mutations in this gene have been linked to at least nine diseases, including the progeroid diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and atypical Werner's syndromes, striated muscle diseases including muscular dystrophies and dilated cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophies affecting adipose tissue deposition, diseases affecting skeletal development, and a peripheral neuropathy. To understand how different diseases arise from different mutations in the same gene, mouse lines carrying some of the same mutations found in the human diseases have been established. We, and others have generated mice with different mutations that result in progeria, muscular dystrophy, and dilated cardiomyopathy. To further our understanding of the functions of the lamins, we also created mice lacking lamin B1, as well as mice expressing only one of the A type lamins. These mouse lines are providing insights into the functions of the lamina and how changes to the lamina affect the mechanical integrity of the nucleus as well as signaling pathways that, when disrupted, may contribute to the disease.

  4. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  5. Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using an optical mouse to track the viscoelastic deformation of low-density polyethylene films that have a fixed attached load is presented. It is seen that using an optical mouse and with rudimentary experiment paraphernalia and arrangement, it is possible to get good measurements of viscoelastic deformation.

  6. Mouse models of DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miriam R; Sweasy, Joann B

    2012-12-01

    In 1956, Arthur Kornberg discovered the mechanism of the biological synthesis of DNA and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for this contribution, which included the isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Now there are 15 known DNA polymerases in mammalian cells that belong to four different families. These DNA polymerases function in many different cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and damage tolerance. Several biochemical and cell biological studies have provoked a further investigation of DNA polymerase function using mouse models in which polymerase genes have been altered using gene-targeting techniques. The phenotypes of mice harboring mutant alleles reveal the prominent role of DNA polymerases in embryogenesis, prevention of premature aging, and cancer suppression. PMID:23001998

  7. Subpopulations of mouse spleen lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mugraby, Lea; Gery, I.; Sulitzeanu, D.

    1974-01-01

    Fractionation on bovine serum albumin (BSA) continuous gradients or passage through anti-immunoglobulin-coated (RaMIg) columns were used to separate the populations of mouse spleen cells which react against mitogens specific for B (E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) or T cells (concanavalin A (Con A) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)). These manipulations could distinguish the subsets of T cells reacting toward PHA or Con A. Fractionation on BSA gradients yielded two fractions, one light and the other dense, with high reactivity toward Con A; the cells reactive to LPS were concentrated in a fraction located between these two fractions, whereas the response to PHA was distributed irregularly throughout the gradient, without any apparent correlation with the response against Con A. Lymphocytes eluted from the RaMIg columns did not react to LPS, showed increased reactivity to PHA and decreased response to Con A, as compared to the unfractionated cells. PMID:4605183

  8. Prion infection of mouse neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Ranjit K.; Young, Rebecca; Pitstick, Rose; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Carlson, George A.

    2006-01-01

    Only a few cell lines have been infected with prions, offering limited genetic diversity and sensitivity to several strains. Here we report that cultured neurospheres expressing cellular prion protein (PrPC) can be infected with prions. Neurosphere lines isolated from the brains of mice at embryonic day 13–15 grow as aggregates and contain CNS stem cells. We produced neurosphere cultures from FVB/NCr (FVB) mice, from transgenic (Tg) FVB mice that overexpress mouse PrP-A (Tg4053), and from congenic FVB mice with a targeted null mutation in the PrP gene (Prnp0/0) and incubated them with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory prion strain. While monitoring the levels of disease-causing PrP (PrPSc) at each passage, we observed a dramatic rise in PrPSc levels with time in the Tg4053 neurosphere cells, whereas the level of PrPSc decayed to undetectable levels in cell cultures lacking PrP. PrPSc levels in cultures from FVB mice initially declined but then increased with passage. Prions produced in culture were transmissible to mice and produced disease pathology. Intracellular aggregates of PrPSc were present in cells from infected cultures. The susceptibility of neurosphere cultures to prions mirrored that of the mice from which they were derived. Neurosphere lines from Tg4053 mice provide a sensitive in vitro bioassay for mouse prions; neurosphere lines from other Tg mice overexpressing PrP might be used to assay prions from other species, including humans. PMID:16495413

  9. Mouse model of intracerebellar haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tijjani Salihu, Abubakar; Muthuraju, Sangu; Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul; Ahmad, Farizan; Zulkifli Mustafa, Mohd; Jaafar, Hasnan; Idris, Zamzuri; Rahman Izaini Ghani, Abdul; Malin Abdullah, Jafri

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior and neuronal morphological changes in the perihaemorrhagic tissue of the mouse intracerebellar haemorrhage experimental model. Adult male Swiss albino mice were stereotactically infused with collagenase type VII (0.4U/μl of saline) unilaterally in to the cerebellum, following anaesthesia. Motor deficits were assessed using open field and composite score for evaluating the mouse model of cerebellar ataxia at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after collagenase infusion. The animals were sacrificed at the same time interval for evaluation of perihaematomal neuronal degeneration using haematoxylin and eosin staining and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium iodide assay. At the end of the study, it was found that infusion of 0.4U collagenase produces significant locomotor and ataxic deficit in the mice especially within the first week post surgery, and that this gradually improved within three weeks. Neuronal degeneration evident by cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear pyknosis was observed at the perihaematomal area after one day; especially at 3 and 7 days post haemorrhage. By 21 days, both the haematoma and degenerating neurons in the perihaematomal area were phagocytosed and the remaining neuronal cells around the scar tissue appeared normal. Moreover, Annexin-V/propidium iodide-positive cells were observed at the perihaematomal area at 3 and 7 days implying that the neurons likely die via apoptosis. It was concluded that a population of potentially salvageable neurons exist in the perihaematomal area after cerebellar haemorrhage throughout a wide time window that could be amenable to treatment. PMID:27327104

  10. Mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-chul; Berns, Anton

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease and a major therapeutic burden with poor survival rates. It is responsible for 30% of all cancer deaths. Lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking, although some subtypes are also seen in non-smokers. Tumors in the latter group are mostly adenocarcinomas with many carrying mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Survival statistics of lung cancer are grim because of its late detection and frequent local and distal metastases. Although DNA sequence information from tumors has revealed a number of frequently occurring mutations, affecting well-known tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, many of the driver mutations remain ill defined. This is likely due to the involvement of numerous rather infrequently occurring driver mutations that are difficult to distinguish from the very large number of passenger mutations detected in smoking-related lung cancers. Therefore, experimental model systems are indispensable to validate putative driver lesions and to gain insight into their mechanisms of action. Whereas a large fraction of these analyzes can be performed in cell cultures in vitro, in many cases the consequences of the mutations have to be assessed in the context of an intact organism, as this is the context in which the Mendelian selection process of the tumorigenic process took place and the advantages of particular mutations become apparent. Current mouse models for cancer are very suitable for this as they permit mimicking many of the salient features of human tumors. The capacity to swiftly re-engineer complex sets of lesions found in human tumors in mice enables us to assess the contribution of defined combinations of lesions to distinct tumor characteristics such as metastatic behavior and response to therapy. In this review we will describe mouse models of lung cancer and how they are used to better understand the disease and how they are exploited to develop better intervention strategies

  11. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  12. Partial structure of the mouse glucokinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura-Oka, Kazumi; Chu, Mei-Jin; Sullivan, M.; Oka, Kazuhiro

    1995-10-10

    A complementary DNA for glucokinase (GK) was cloned from mouse liver total RNA by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mouse liver cDNA library screening. Liver- and {beta}-cell-specific exons 1 were isolated by PCR using mouse and rat genomic DNAs. These clones were then used to screen a mouse genomic library; three genomic clones were isolated and characterized. The mouse GK gene spans over 20 kb, containing 11 exons including a liver- or {beta}-cell-specific exon 1, which encodes a tissue-specific 15-aa peptide at the N-terminus of the protein. Both types of GK contain 465 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of mouse {beta}-cell-specific GK showed 98 and 96% identity to the rat and human enzymes, respectively; the corresponding values are 98 and 95% respectively, for the liver-specific GK. Several transcription factor-binding consensus sequences are identified in the 5{prime} flanking region of the mouse GK gene. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Cancer gene discovery in mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Jenny; van der Weyden, Louise; Hubbard, Tim; Adams, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The elucidation of the human and mouse genome sequence and developments in high-throughput genome analysis, and in computational tools, have made it possible to profile entire cancer genomes. In parallel with these advances mouse models of cancer have evolved into a powerful tool for cancer gene discovery. Here we discuss the approaches that may be used for cancer gene identification in both human and mouse and discuss how a cross-species ‘oncogenomics’ approach to cancer gene discovery represents a powerful strategy for finding genes that drive tumourigenesis. PMID:19285540

  14. Augmented Computer Mouse Would Measure Applied Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed computer mouse measures force of contact applied by user. Adds another dimension to two-dimensional-position-measuring capability of conventional computer mouse; force measurement designated to represent any desired continuously variable function of time and position, such as control force, acceleration, velocity, or position along axis perpendicular to computer video display. Proposed mouse enhances sense of realism and intuition in interaction between operator and computer. Useful in such applications as three-dimensional computer graphics, computer games, and mathematical modeling of dynamics.

  15. The International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR): cataloging worldwide mouse and ES cell line resources.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Motenko, Howie; Richardson, Joel E; Richards-Smith, Beverly; Smith, Cynthia L

    2015-10-01

    The availability of and access to quality genetically defined, health-status known mouse resources is critical for biomedical research. By ensuring that mice used in research experiments are biologically, genetically, and health-status equivalent, we enable knowledge transfer, hypothesis building based on multiple data streams, and experimental reproducibility based on common mouse resources (reagents). Major repositories for mouse resources have developed over time and each has significant unique resources to offer. Here we (a) describe The International Mouse Strain Resource that offers users a combined catalog of worldwide mouse resources (live, cryopreserved, embryonic stem cells), with direct access to repository sites holding resources of interest and (b) discuss the commitment to nomenclature standards among resources that remain a challenge in unifying mouse resource catalogs. PMID:26373861

  16. Coordinate secretion of mouse alphafetoprotein, mouse albumin and rat albumin by mouse hepatoma-rat hepatoma hybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Cassio, D; Hassoux, R; Dupiers, M; Uriel, J; Weiss, M C

    1980-09-01

    Mouse heptoma cells that secrete large amounts of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin have been crossed with rat hepatoma cells that secret only albumin, and in relatively small amounts, to investigate the influence of each parental genome upon the expression of serum proteins. All of the ten independent hybrid clones examined produce mouse AFP and both mouse and rat albumin; none produces rat AFP. The absence of production of rat AFP by the hybrids suggests that different mechanisms are involved in the initiation and in the maintenance of expression of this function. The secretion of the three proteins by the hybrid cells is coordinate: Whatever the growth phase (exponential or stationary) and irrespective of the amounts produced over a wide range, the ratio secreted of mouse AFP to mouse albumin is near to one, and that of mouse albumin to rat albumin is near to five. In addition, even though the pattern of protein secretion during the growth cycle of hybrid cells is different from those of both parents, the products of both parental genomes conform to the new hybrid pattern. Finally, some hybrids secrete less of the proteins with increasing numbers of cell generations, yet all three continue to be secreted in coordinate fashion. Since the rates of secretion of serum proteins probably reflect their rates of synthesis, we conclude that coordinate secretion indicates coordinate synthesis, and may reflect coordinate transcription of the relevant genes. PMID:6158520

  17. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  18. Integration of Mouse Phenome Data Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, John M; Adams, Neils; Aidinis, Vassilis; Blake, Judith A; Bogue, Molly; Brown, Steve D M; Chesler, Elissa J; Davidson, Duncan; Duran, Christopher; Eppig, Janan T; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Greenaway, Simon; Angelis, Martin Hrabe de; Kollias, George; Leblanc, Sophie; Lee, Kirsty; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Masuya, Hiroshi; Melvin, David; Muller, Werner; Parkinson, Helen; Proctor, Glenn; Reuveni, Eli; Schofield, Paul; Shukla, Aadya; Smith, Cynthia; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Vasseur, Laurent; Wakana, Shigeharu; Walling, Alison; White, Jacqui; Wood, Joe; Zouberakis, Michalis

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the functions encoded in the mouse genome will be central to an understanding of the genetic basis of human disease. To achieve this it will be essential to be able to characterise the phenotypic consequences of variation and alterations in individual genes. Data on the phenotypes of mouse strains are currently held in a number of different forms (detailed descriptions of mouse lines, first line phenotyping data on novel mutations, data on the normal features of inbred lines, etc.) at many sites worldwide. For the most efficient use of these data sets, we have set in train a process to develop standards for the description of phenotypes (using ontologies), and file formats for the description of phenotyping protocols and phenotype data sets. This process is ongoing, and needs to be supported by the wider mouse genetics and phenotyping communities to succeed. We invite interested parties to contact us as we develop this process further.

  19. New mouse primary retinal degeneration (rd-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, B.; Hawes, N.L.; Roderick, T.H. ); Heckenlively, J.R. )

    1993-04-01

    A new mouse retinal degeneration that appears to be an excellent candidate for modeling human retinitis pigmentosa is reported. In this degeneration, called rd-3, differentiation proceeds postnatally through 2 weeks, and photoreceptor degeneration starts by 3 weeks. The rod photoreceptor loss is essentially complete by 5 weeks, whereas remnant cone cells are seen through 7 weeks. This is the only mouse homozygous retinal degeneration reported to date in which photoreceptors are initially normal. Crosses with known mouse retinal degenerations rd, Rds, nr, and pcd are negative for retinal degeneration in offspring, and linkage analysis places rd-3 on mouse chromosome 1 at 10 [+-]2.5 cM distal to Akp-1. Homology mapping suggests that the homologous human locus should be on chromosome 1q. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Sonne, Si Brask; Xia, Zhongkui; Qiu, Xinmin; Li, Xiaoping; Long, Hua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dongya; Liu, Chuan; Fang, Zhiwei; Chou, Joyce; Glanville, Jacob; Hao, Qin; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Licht, Tine Rask; Wu, Donghai; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Lan, Zhou; Tremaroli, Valentina; Dworzynski, Piotr; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Doré, Joël; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Lin, John C; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies. PMID:26414350

  1. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  2. Multimodal, multidimensional models of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy. PMID:17767578

  3. Clinicopathological and Targeted Exome Gene Features of a Patient with Metastatic Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland Harboring an ARID2 Nonsense Mutation and CDKN2A/B Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A.; Wong, Deborah J.; Palma-Diaz, Fernando; Shibuya, Terry Y.; Momand, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    We describe the presentation, treatment, clinical outcome, and targeted genome analysis of a metastatic salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). A 71-year-old male presented with a 3 cm right tail of a parotid lesion, first detected as a nodule by the patient seven months earlier. He had a right total parotidectomy with cranial nerve VII resection, right facial nerve resection and grafting, resection of the right conchal cartilage, and right modified radical neck dissection. The primary tumor revealed AciCC with two distinct areas: a well-differentiated component with glandular architecture and a dedifferentiated component with infiltrative growth pattern associated with prominent stromal response, necrosis, perineural invasion, and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor staging was pT4 N0 MX. Immunohistochemistry staining showed pankeratin (+), CD56 (−), and a Ki67 proliferation index of 15%. Upon microscopic inspection, 49 local lymph nodes resected during parotidectomy were negative for cancer cells. Targeted sequencing of the primary tumor revealed deletions of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, a nonsense mutation in ARID2, and single missense mutations of unknown significance in nine other genes. Despite postoperative localized radiation treatment, follow-up whole body PET/CT scan showed lung, soft tissue, bone, and liver metastases. The patient expired 9 months after resection of the primary tumor. PMID:26634163

  4. Spontaneous in vitro differentiation of a myoepithelial cell line (PA 16/23) from a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland is associated with reduced production of the autocrine growth factor interleukin 6.

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, O.; Bani, D.; Giudizi, M. G.; Biagiotti, R.; Almerigogna, F.; Toccafondi, G.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Romagnani, S.

    1994-01-01

    A myoepithelial cell line (PA 16/23) was derived from a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. PA 16/23 cells have light microscopic, immunophenotypical and ultrastructural features of immature myoepithelial cells, i.e. they are of fusiform or stellate shape and show keratin and actin cytofilaments located mainly in the perinuclear cytoplasm, desmosomes and tracts of basal lamina. The PA 16/23 cells grew actively and expressed mRNA for and produced interleukin 6 (IL-6) which was released into the culture medium. This cytokine, in turn, acted as an autocrine growth factor on the cells. PA 16/23 cells also expressed high-affinity IL-6 receptors. In these cells, both IL-6 production and proliferation could be modulated by exogenous stimulants, such as IL-6 itself, IL-1, IL-4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. From the 40th culture passage onwards, the PA 16/23 cells ceased to grow, either spontaneously or in response to exogenous stimulants. Moreover, they strongly reduced IL-6 production, and underwent morphological differentiation into more mature myoepithelial cells, with an increased amount and a different arrangement of the keratin and actin cytofilaments, which formed thick bundles in the peripheral cytoplasm. These findings suggest a role for IL-6 in modulating the proliferation and, possibly, the differentiation of the PA 16/23 cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8198972

  5. Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

    1994-01-01

    Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

  6. Mouse models of Inherited Cancer Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jahid, Sohail; Lipkin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of cancer have been instrumental in understanding the progression and therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes. The ability to alter the genome of individual mouse cell types in both constitutive and inducible approaches has led to many novel insights into their human disease counterparts. In this review, conventional, conditional and inducible knockout mouse models of inherited human cancer syndromes are presented and insights from the study of these models are highlighted. PMID:21075289

  7. Optical mouse acting as biospeckle sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Michel Melo; Nozela, Jose Roberto de Almeida; Chaves, Marcio Jose; Alves Braga, Roberto; Rabal, Hector Jorge

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose some experiments with the use of optical computer mouse, associated to low cost lasers that can be used to perform several measurements with applications in industry and in human health monitoring. The mouse was used to grab the movements produced by speckle pattern changes and to get information through the adaptation of its structure. We measured displacements in wood samples under strain, variations of the diameter of an artery due to heart beat and, through a hardware simulation, the movement of an eye, an experiment that could be of low cost help for communication to severely handicapped motor patients. Those measurements were done in spite of the fact that the CCD sensor of the mice is monolithically included into an integrated circuit so that the raw image cannot be accessed. If, as was the case with primitive optical mouse, that signal could be accessed, the quality and usefulness of the measurements could be significantly increased. As it was not possible, a webcam sensor was used for measuring the drying of paint, a standard phenomenon for testing biospeckle techniques, in order to prove the usefulness of the mouse design. The results showed that the use of the mouse associated to a laser pointer could be the way to get metrological information from many phenomena involving the whole field spatial displacement, as well as the use of the mouse as in its prime version allowed to get images of the speckle patterns and to analyze them.

  8. Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelli A.; Hayes, John M.; Wiggin, Timothy D.; Backus, Carey; Oh, Sang Su; Lentz, Stephen I.; Brosius, Frank; Feldman, Eva L.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a debilitating complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rodent models of DN do not fully replicate the pathology observed in human patients. We examined DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced [B6] and spontaneous type 1 diabetes [B6Ins2Akita] and spontaneous type 2 diabetes [B6-db/db, BKS-db/db]. DN was defined using the criteria of the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium (http://www.amdcc.org). Despite persistent hyperglycemia, the STZ-treated B6 and B6Ins2Akita mice were resistant to the development of DN. In contrast, DN developed in both type 2 diabetes models: the B6-db/db and BKS-db/db mice. The persistence of hyperglycemia and development of DN in the B6-db/db mice required an increased fat diet while the BKS-db/db mice developed severe DN and remained hyperglycemic on standard mouse chow. Our data support the hypothesis that genetic background and diet influence the development of DN and should be considered when developing new models of DN. PMID:17804249

  9. Ethical Considerations in Mouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Bernard; Gyger, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Mice count morally because they can be harmed. This raises a moral issue in animal experimentation. Three main ethical attitudes towards animals are reviewed here. The Kantian view denies moral value to animals because they lack reason. The second view, by Singer, considers animals as sentient creatures (i.e., able to suffer). Finally, Regan considers that animals are subjects of their own life; they are autonomous and therefore have moral rights. Singer is a reformist and allows animal experimentation under certain conditions. Regan is abolitionist, saying that animals have moral rights that cannot be negotiated. Current animal protection legislation strives to put in balance the human and animal interests to decide whether an animal experiment is morally justified or not. An ethical evaluation process is conducted based on the harm-benefit assessment of the experiment. The researcher has to implement the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) to minimize the harms to the animals and make sure that the outcomes are scientifically significant and that the quality of the science is high, in order to maximize benefits to humans and animals. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:155-167. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26068990

  10. Mouse Models for Filovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Bray, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The filoviruses marburg- and ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans and nonhuman primates. Because many cases have occurred in geographical areas lacking a medical research infrastructure, most studies of the pathogenesis of filoviral HF, and all efforts to develop drugs and vaccines, have been carried out in biocontainment laboratories in non-endemic countries, using nonhuman primates (NHPs), guinea pigs and mice as animal models. NHPs appear to closely mirror filoviral HF in humans (based on limited clinical data), but only small numbers may be used in carefully regulated experiments; much research is therefore done in rodents. Because of their availability in large numbers and the existence of a wealth of reagents for biochemical and immunological testing, mice have become the preferred small animal model for filovirus research. Since the first experiments following the initial 1967 marburgvirus outbreak, wild-type or mouse-adapted viruses have been tested in immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. In this paper, we review how these types of studies have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of filoviral disease, identify immune responses to infection and evaluate antiviral drugs and vaccines. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of murine models for filovirus research, and identify important questions for further study. PMID:23170168

  11. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F. )

    1990-04-15

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors {sup 55}FeCl3 and (2-{sup 14}C)glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated (2-14C)glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool.

  12. DevMouse, the mouse developmental methylome database and analysis tools

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Rangfei; Lv, Jie; He, Hongjuan; Yang, Lin; Huang, Zhijun; Su, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shihuan; Wu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during mouse development and plays crucial roles in embryogenesis, cell-lineage determination and genomic imprinting. Bisulfite sequencing enables profiling of mouse developmental methylomes on an unprecedented scale; however, integrating and mining these data are challenges for experimental biologists. Therefore, we developed DevMouse, which focuses on the efficient storage of DNA methylomes in temporal order and quantitative analysis of methylation dynamics during mouse development. The latest release of DevMouse incorporates 32 normalized and temporally ordered methylomes across 15 developmental stages and related genome information. A flexible query engine is developed for acquisition of methylation profiles for genes, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and genomic intervals of interest across selected developmental stages. To facilitate in-depth mining of these profiles, DevMouse offers online analysis tools for the quantification of methylation variation, identification of differentially methylated genes, hierarchical clustering, gene function annotation and enrichment. Moreover, a configurable MethyBrowser is provided to view the base-resolution methylomes under a genomic context. In brief, DevMouse hosts comprehensive mouse developmental methylome data and provides online tools to explore the relationships of DNA methylation and development. Database URL: http://www.devmouse.org/ PMID:24408217

  13. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse–human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human–Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene–phenotype–disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  14. DevMouse, the mouse developmental methylome database and analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Rangfei; Lv, Jie; He, Hongjuan; Yang, Lin; Huang, Zhijun; Su, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shihuan; Wu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during mouse development and plays crucial roles in embryogenesis, cell-lineage determination and genomic imprinting. Bisulfite sequencing enables profiling of mouse developmental methylomes on an unprecedented scale; however, integrating and mining these data are challenges for experimental biologists. Therefore, we developed DevMouse, which focuses on the efficient storage of DNA methylomes in temporal order and quantitative analysis of methylation dynamics during mouse development. The latest release of DevMouse incorporates 32 normalized and temporally ordered methylomes across 15 developmental stages and related genome information. A flexible query engine is developed for acquisition of methylation profiles for genes, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and genomic intervals of interest across selected developmental stages. To facilitate in-depth mining of these profiles, DevMouse offers online analysis tools for the quantification of methylation variation, identification of differentially methylated genes, hierarchical clustering, gene function annotation and enrichment. Moreover, a configurable MethyBrowser is provided to view the base-resolution methylomes under a genomic context. In brief, DevMouse hosts comprehensive mouse developmental methylome data and provides online tools to explore the relationships of DNA methylation and development. Database URL: http://www.devmouse.org/ PMID:24408217

  15. The morphology of the mouse masticatory musculature.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Hester; Jeffery, Nathan S; Cobb, Samuel N

    2013-07-01

    The mouse has been the dominant model organism in studies on the development, genetics and evolution of the mammalian skull and associated soft-tissue for decades. There is the potential to take advantage of this well studied model and the range of mutant, knockin and knockout organisms with diverse craniofacial phenotypes to investigate the functional significance of variation and the role of mechanical forces on the development of the integrated craniofacial skeleton and musculature by using computational mechanical modelling methods (e.g. finite element and multibody dynamic modelling). Currently, there are no detailed published data of the mouse masticatory musculature available. Here, using a combination of micro-dissection and non-invasive segmentation of iodine-enhanced micro-computed tomography, we document the anatomy, architecture and proportions of the mouse masticatory muscles. We report on the superficial masseter (muscle, tendon and pars reflecta), deep masseter, zygomaticomandibularis (anterior, posterior, infraorbital and tendinous parts), temporalis (lateral and medial parts), external and internal pterygoid muscles. Additionally, we report a lateral expansion of the attachment of the temporalis onto the zygomatic arch, which may play a role in stabilising this bone during downwards loading. The data presented in this paper now provide a detailed reference for phenotypic comparison in mouse models and allow the mouse to be used as a model organism in biomechanical and functional modelling and simulation studies of the craniofacial skeleton and particularly the masticatory system. PMID:23692055

  16. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  17. A Deformable Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents a deformable mouse atlas of the laboratory mouse anatomy. This atlas is fully articulated and can be positioned into arbitrary body poses. The atlas can also adapt body weight by changing body length and fat amount. Procedures A training set of 103 micro-CT images was used to construct the atlas. A cage-based deformation method was applied to realize the articulated pose change. The weight-related body deformation was learned from the training set using a linear regression method. A conditional Gaussian model and thin-plate spline mapping were used to deform the internal organs following the changes of pose and weight. Results The atlas was deformed into different body poses and weights, and the deformation results were more realistic compared to the results achieved with other mouse atlases. The organ weights of this atlas matched well with the measurements of real mouse organ weights. This atlas can also be converted into voxelized images with labeled organs, pseudo CT images and tetrahedral mesh for phantom studies. Conclusions With the unique ability of articulated pose and weight changes, the deformable laboratory mouse atlas can become a valuable tool for preclinical image analysis. PMID:25049072

  18. The morphology of the mouse masticatory musculature

    PubMed Central

    Baverstock, Hester; Jeffery, Nathan S; Cobb, Samuel N

    2013-01-01

    The mouse has been the dominant model organism in studies on the development, genetics and evolution of the mammalian skull and associated soft-tissue for decades. There is the potential to take advantage of this well studied model and the range of mutant, knockin and knockout organisms with diverse craniofacial phenotypes to investigate the functional significance of variation and the role of mechanical forces on the development of the integrated craniofacial skeleton and musculature by using computational mechanical modelling methods (e.g. finite element and multibody dynamic modelling). Currently, there are no detailed published data of the mouse masticatory musculature available. Here, using a combination of micro-dissection and non-invasive segmentation of iodine-enhanced micro-computed tomography, we document the anatomy, architecture and proportions of the mouse masticatory muscles. We report on the superficial masseter (muscle, tendon and pars reflecta), deep masseter, zygomaticomandibularis (anterior, posterior, infraorbital and tendinous parts), temporalis (lateral and medial parts), external and internal pterygoid muscles. Additionally, we report a lateral expansion of the attachment of the temporalis onto the zygomatic arch, which may play a role in stabilising this bone during downwards loading. The data presented in this paper now provide a detailed reference for phenotypic comparison in mouse models and allow the mouse to be used as a model organism in biomechanical and functional modelling and simulation studies of the craniofacial skeleton and particularly the masticatory system. PMID:23692055

  19. Transgenic Mouse Technology: Principles and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Rajendra; Larson, Melissa; Wang, Huizhen; McDermott, Jeff; Bronshteyn, Illya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of foreign DNA into the mouse germ line is considered a major technical advancement in the fields of developmental biology and genetics. This technology now referred to as transgenic mouse technology has revolutionized virtually all fields of biology and provided new genetic approaches to model many human diseases in a whole animal context. Several hundreds of transgenic lines with expression of foreign genes specifically targeted to desired organelles/cells/tissues have been characterized. Further, the ability to spatio-temporally inactivate or activate gene expression in vivo using the “Cre-lox” technology has recently emerged as a powerful approach to understand various developmental processes including those relevant to molecular endocrinology. In this chapter, we will discuss the principles of transgenic mouse technology, and describe detailed methodology standardized at our Institute. PMID:19763515

  20. OCT guided microinjections for mouse embryonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

    2013-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is gaining popularity as live imaging tool for embryonic research in animal models. Recently we have demonstrated that OCT can be used for live imaging of cultured early mouse embryos (E7.5-E10) as well as later stage mouse embryos in utero (E12.5 to the end of gestation). Targeted delivery of signaling molecules, drugs, and cells is a powerful approach to study normal and abnormal development, and image guidance is highly important for such manipulations. Here we demonstrate that OCT can be used to guide microinjections of gold nanoshell suspensions in live mouse embryos. This approach can potentially be used for variety of applications such as guided injections of contrast agents, signaling molecules, pharmacological agents, cell transplantation and extraction, as well as other image-guided micromanipulations. Our studies also reveal novel potential for gold nanoshells in embryonic research.

  1. Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Valerie F; Collins, James W; Habibzay, Maryam; Frankel, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively). Here we provide a detailed protocol for various applications of the model, including bacterial growth, site-directed mutagenesis, mouse inoculation (from cultured cells and after cohabitation), monitoring of bacterial colonization, tissue extraction and analysis, immune responses, probiotic treatment and microbiota analysis. The main protocol, from mouse infection to clearance and analysis of tissues and host responses, takes ∼5 weeks to complete. PMID:27606775

  2. Evaluation of atlas based mouse brain segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Jomier, Julien; Aylward, Stephen; Tyszka, Mike; Moy, Sheryl; Lauder, Jean; Styner, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Magentic Reasonance Imaging for mouse phenotype study is one of the important tools to understand human diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automatic pipeline for the process of morphometric mouse brain analysis. The method is based on atlas-based tissue and regional segmentation, which was originally developed for the human brain. To evaluate our method, we conduct a qualitative and quantitative validation study as well as compare of b-spline and fluid registration methods as components in the pipeline. The validation study includes visual inspection, shape and volumetric measurements and stability of the registration methods against various parameter settings in the processing pipeline. The result shows both fluid and b-spline registration methods work well in murine settings, but the fluid registration is more stable. Additionally, we evaluated our segmentation methods by comparing volume differences between Fmr1 FXS in FVB background vs C57BL/6J mouse strains.

  3. Measuring Pressure Volume Loops in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Townsend, DeWayne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causes and progression of heart disease presents a significant challenge to the biomedical community. The genetic flexibility of the mouse provides great potential to explore cardiac function at the molecular level. The mouse's small size does present some challenges in regards to performing detailed cardiac phenotyping. Miniaturization and other advancements in technology have made many methods of cardiac assessment possible in the mouse. Of these, the simultaneous collection of pressure and volume data provides a detailed picture of cardiac function that is not available through any other modality. Here a detailed procedure for the collection of pressure-volume loop data is described. Included is a discussion of the principles underlying the measurements and the potential sources of error. Anesthetic management and surgical approaches are discussed in great detail as they are both critical to obtaining high quality hemodynamic measurements. The principles of hemodynamic protocol development and relevant aspects of data analysis are also addressed. PMID:27166576

  4. Peripheral Neuropathy in Mouse Models of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Frizzi, Katie E; Guernsey, Lucie; Marquez, Alex; Ochoa, Joseline; Rodriguez, Maria; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of chronic diabetes that most commonly presents as a distal degenerative polyneuropathy with sensory loss. Around 20% to 30% of such patients may also experience neuropathic pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are uncertain, and therapeutic options are limited. Rodent models of diabetes have been used for more than 40 years to study neuropathy and evaluate potential therapies. For much of this period, streptozotocin-diabetic rats were the model of choice. The emergence of new technologies that allow relatively cheap and routine manipulations of the mouse genome has prompted increased use of mouse models of diabetes to study neuropathy. In this article, we describe the commonly used mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and provide protocols to phenotype the structural, functional, and behavioral indices of peripheral neuropathy, with a particular emphasis on assays pertinent to the human condition. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584552

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and computer-stimulated structural analyses of a heptapeptide sequence found around the N-glycosylation site of a proline-rich glycoprotein from human parotid saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, R E; Bhandary, K K; Tseng, C C; Bergey, E J; Levine, M J

    1987-01-01

    The proline-rich glycoprotein from human parotid saliva has a common heptapeptide sequence around four of six N-glycosylation sites (Maeda, N., H. S. Kim, E. A. Azen, and O. J. Smithies, 1985, J. Biol. Chem., 20:11123-11130). A synthetic model of the heptamer protein sequence, NH2-Q(1)-G(2)-G(3)-N(4)-Q(5)-S(6)-Q(7)-CONH2, was examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and the ECEPP/2-VAO4A (Empirical Conformation Energy Program for Peptides) energy minimization computer algorithm (Scheraga, H. A., 1982, Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange, 454; Powell, M. J. D., 1964, Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange, 60). The NMR spectrum was almost completely assigned in dimethylsulfoxide-d6 (DMSO), and the amide chemical shift temperature dependence, phi dihedral angles, and chi 1 rotamer populations elucidated. These data indicated that a significant population of the heptamer could exist as a type I beta-turn [4----1 between Q(5) and G(2)] and/or a type II' beta-turn [4----1 between (Q)5 and G(2) and/or a gamma-turn [3----1 between Q(5) and G(3)] with the amino acid chi 1 torsion angles weighted toward the gauche- conformation. Starting from these three possible conformations, the ECEPP/2-VAO4A rigid geometry energy minimization program was used to find the localized predominant in vacuo structures of this heptapeptide sequence. The type II' beta-turn conformation best fits the data based on internuclear hydrogen-bonding distances, minimum potential energy considerations, and the NMR parameters. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:3828456

  6. Mouse gastric mucin: cloning and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Shekels, L L; Lyftogt, C; Kieliszewski, M; Filie, J D; Kozak, C A; Ho, S B

    1995-01-01

    Mucins protect gastric epithelium by maintaining a favourable pH gradient and preventing autodigestion. The purpose of this study was to clone a mouse gastric mucin which would provide a foundation for analysis of mucin gene regulation. Mucin was purified from the glandular portion of gastric specimens and deglycosylated by HF solvolysis. Antibodies against native and deglycosylated mouse gastric mucin (MGM) were raised in chickens. Screening of a mouse stomach cDNA library with the anti-(deglycosylated MGM) antibody yielded partial clones containing a 48 bp tandem repeat and 768 bp of non-repetitive sequence. The 16-amino-acid tandem repeat has a consensus sequence of QTSSPNTGKTSTISTT with 25% serine and 38% threonine. The MGM tandem repeat sequence bears no similarity to previously identified mucins. The MGM non-repetitive region shares sequence similarity with human MUC5AC and, to a lesser extent, human MUC2 and rat intestinal mucin. Northern blot analysis reveals a polydisperse message beginning at 13.5 kb in mouse stomach with no expression in oesophagus, trachea, small intestine, large intestine, caecum, lung or kidney. Immunoreactivity of antibodies against deglycosylated MGM and against a synthetic MGM tandem repeat peptide was restricted to superficial mucous cells, antral glands and Brunner's glands in the pyloric-duodenal region. DNA analysis shows that MGM recognizes mouse and rat DNA but not hamster, rabbit or human DNA. The MGM gene maps to a site on mouse chromosome 7 homologous to the location of a human secretory mucin gene cluster on human chromosome 11p15. Due to sequence similarity and predominant expression in the stomach, the MGM gene may be considered a MUC5AC homologue and named Muc5ac. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7487932

  7. Sphingolipid metabolism in organotypic mouse keratinocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, K.C.; Swartzendruber, D.C.; Wertz, P.W.; Downing, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Ceramides are the dominant component of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid lamellae, which constitute the epidermal permeability barrier. Only pig and human epidermal ceramides have been extensively characterized and the structures of the ceramides of cultured keratinocytes have not been previously investigated. In the present studies, we have characterized the ceramides synthesized by organotypic lifted mouse keratinocyte cultures for the first time and compared them to the ceramides of intact mouse epidermis. Both mouse epidermis and cultures contained five ceramides, ceramide 1 being the least polar and ceramide 5 the most polar. Ceramide 1 was a group of acylceramides, i.e., very-long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides with an ester-linked nonhydroxy fatty acid. Ceramide 2 contained medium-length saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids. (In culture, the ceramide 2 band was split into two parts with the slightly more polar ceramide 2' containing short-chain saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids.) Ceramide 5 contained short-chain alpha-hydroxy fatty acids. The structures of ceramides 1, 2, and 5 were analagous to those of pig and human epidermis. Mouse epidermal ceramide 3 was quite unusual, containing beta-hydroxy fatty acids, a structure not previously identified among mammalian ceramides. In contrast, culture ceramide 3 was composed of omega-hydroxy fatty acids with a chain-length distribution similar to that of ceramide 1. Mouse ceramide 4 was composed of fatty acids with chromatographic mobility similar to hydroxy fatty acids but with different chemical reactivity; it remains only partially characterized. Culture ceramide 4 was present in quantities too small for analysis. All ceramides in mouse epidermis and cultures contained only sphingosine bases, whereas pig and human ceramides also contain phytosphingosine.

  8. Islet Insulin Secretion Measurements in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Alison; Shimomura, Kenju; Cox, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes detailed protocols for in vitro measurements of insulin function and secretion in isolated mouse islets for the analysis of glucose homeostasis. We specify a method of enzyme digestion and hand picking to isolate and release the greatest number of high quality islets from the pancreas of the mouse. We describe an effective method for generating dynamic measurements of insulin secretion using a perifusion assay including a detailed protocol for constructing a peristaltic pump and tubing assembly. In addition we describe an alternative and simple technique for measuring insulin secretion using static incubation of isolated islets. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584553

  9. Mouse Models of Uncomplicated and Fatal Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Brian W.; Pearman, Emily; Kim, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have demonstrated utility in delineating the mechanisms underlying many aspects of malaria immunology and physiology. The most common mouse models of malaria employ the rodent-specific parasite species Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi, which elicit distinct pathologies and immune responses and are used to model different manifestations of human disease. In vitro culture methods are not well developed for rodent Plasmodium parasites, which thus require in vivo maintenance. Moreover, physiologically relevant immunological processes are best studied in vivo. Here, we detail the processes of infecting mice with Plasmodium, maintaining the parasite in vivo, and monitoring parasite levels and health parameters throughout infection. PMID:26236758

  10. Phototransduction in mouse rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingbin; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-01-01

    Phototransduction is the process by which light triggers an electrical signal in a photoreceptor cell. Image-forming vision in vertebrates is mediated by two types of photoreceptors: the rods and the cones. In this review, we provide a summary of the success in which the mouse has served as a vertebrate model for studying rod phototransduction, with respect to both the activation and termination steps. Cones are still not as well-understood as rods partly because it is difficult to work with mouse cones due to their scarcity and fragility. The situation may change, however. PMID:17226052

  11. Mouse Genome Database: from sequence to phenotypes and disease models

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Richardson, Joel E.; Kadin, James A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD’s key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  12. Mouse Genome Database: From sequence to phenotypes and disease models.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Richardson, Joel E; Kadin, James A; Smith, Cynthia L; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here, we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD's key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  13. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic...

  14. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic...

  15. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic...

  16. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic...

  17. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic...

  18. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  19. Nanoscopy in a living mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Berning, Sebastian; Willig, Katrin I; Steffens, Heinz; Dibaj, Payam; Hell, Stefan W

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrated superresolution optical microscopy in a living higher animal. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy reveals neurons in the cerebral cortex of a mouse with <70-nanometer resolution. Dendritic spines and their subtle changes can be observed at their relevant scales over extended periods of time. PMID:22301313

  20. Translating Mouse Vocalizations: Prosody and Frequency Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Lahvis, Garet P.; Alleva, Enrico; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Mental illness can include impaired abilities to express emotions or respond to the emotions of others. Speech provides a mechanism for expressing emotions, by both what words are spoken and by the melody or intonation of speech (prosody). Through the perception of variations in prosody, an individual can detect changes in another's emotional state. Prosodic features of mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), indicated by changes in frequency and amplitude, also convey information. Dams retrieve pups that emit separation calls, females approach males emitting solicitous calls, and mice can become fearful of a cue associated with the vocalizations of a distressed conspecific. Since acoustic features of mouse USVs respond to drugs and genetic manipulations that influence reward circuits, USV analysis can be employed to examine how genes influence social motivation, affect regulation, and communication. The purpose of this review is to discuss how genetic and developmental factors influence aspects of the mouse vocal repertoire and how mice respond to the vocalizations of their conspecifics. To generate falsifiable hypotheses about the emotional content of particular calls, this review addresses USV analysis within the framework of affective neuroscience (e.g. measures of motivated behavior such as conditioned place preference tests, brain activity, and systemic physiology). Suggested future studies include employment of an expanded array of physiological and statistical approaches to identify the salient acoustic features of mouse vocalizations. We are particularly interested in rearing environments that incorporate sufficient spatial and temporal complexity to familiarize developing mice with a broader array of affective states. PMID:20497235

  1. Anisotropic Nature of Mouse Lung Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    MITZNER, WAYNE; FALLICA, JONATHAN; BISHAI, JOHN

    2015-01-01

    Lung parenchyma is normally considered to be isotropic, that is, its properties do not depend upon specific preferential directions. The assumption of isotropy is important for both modeling of lung mechanical properties and quantitative histologic measurements. This assumption, however, has not been previously examined at the microscopic level, in part because of the difficulty in large lungs of obtaining sufficient numbers of small samples of tissue while maintaining the spatial orientation. In the mouse, however, this difficulty is minimized. We evaluated the parenchymal isotropy in mouse lungs by quantifying the mean airspace chord lengths (Lm) from high-resolution histology of complete sections surrounded by an intact continuous visceral pleural membrane. We partitioned this lung into 5 isolated regions, defined by the distance from the visceral pleura. To further evaluate the isotropy, we also measured Lm in two orthogonal spatial directions with respect to the section orientation, and varied the sample line spacing from 3 to 280 μm. Results show a striking degree of parenchymal anisotropy in normal mouse lungs. The Lm was significantly greater when grid lines were parallel to the ventral–dorsal axis of the tissue. In addition the Lm was significantly smaller within 300 μm of the visceral pleura. Whether this anisotropy results from intrinsic structural factors or from nonuniform shrinkage during conventional tissue processing is uncertain, but it should be considered when interpreting quantitative morphometric measurements made in the mouse lung. PMID:18633711

  2. Immunohistochemistry of Paraffin Sections from Mouse Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Tepekoy, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an efficient technique to detect cellular localizations of the proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues. It allows specific proteins to be visualized by the interaction of antibodies with an enzyme-substrate-chromogen system. Here, we describe indirect immunohistochemistry method for paraffin-embedded mouse ovaries fixed with Bouin's Fixative. PMID:27557588

  3. Optical properties of the mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

  4. Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560

  5. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2009-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since "Dolly," the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories. PMID:19085136

  6. Having Fun with a Cordless Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    A cordless mouse with an added reed switch is used as a wireless data logger to record every time the wheel of a trolley completes a revolution. The limitations of the system in terms of maximum clicking rate and spatial resolution are considered and data obtained from the descent of a trolley down a ramp at various different angles is analysed in…

  7. Genetically engineered mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwak, I; Tsai, S Y; DeMayo, F J

    2004-01-01

    The lung is a complex organ consisting of numerous cell types that function to ensure sufficient gas exchange to oxygenate the blood. In order to accomplish this function, the lung must be exposed to the external environment and at the same time maintain a homeostatic balance between its function in gas exchange and the maintenance of inflammatory balance. During the past two decades, as molecular methodologies have evolved with the sequencing of entire genomes, the use of in vivo models to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary physiology and disease have increased. The mouse has emerged as a potent model to investigate pulmonary physiology due to the explosion in molecular methods that now allow for the developmental and tissue-specific regulation of gene transcription. Initial efforts to manipulate gene expression in the mouse genome resulted in the generation of transgenic mice characterized by the constitutive expression of a specific gene and knockout mice characterized by the ablation of a specific gene. The utility of these original mouse models was limited, in many cases, by phenotypes resulting in embryonic or neonatal lethality that prevented analysis of the impact of the genetic manipulation on pulmonary biology. Second-generation transgenic mouse models employ multiple strategies that can either activate or silence gene expression thereby providing extensive temporal and spatial control of the experimental parameters of gene expression. These highly regulated mouse models are intended to serve as a foundation for further investigation of the molecular basis of human disease such as tumorigenesis. This review describes the principles, progress, and application of systems that are currently employed in the conditional regulation of gene expression in the investigation of lung cancer. PMID:14977417

  8. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  9. Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the entire nerve architecture and content of the two main sensory neuropeptides in mouse cornea to determine if it is a good model with similarities to human corneal innervation. Methods Mice aged 1 to 24 weeks were used. The corneas were stained with neuronal-class βIII-tubulin, calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP) antibodies; whole-mount images were acquired to build an entire view of corneal innervation. To test the origin of CGRP and SP, trigeminal ganglia (TG) were processed for immunofluorescence. Relative corneal nerve fiber densities or neuron numbers were assessed by computer-assisted analysis. Results Between 1 and 3 weeks after birth, mouse cornea was mainly composed of a stromal nerve network. At 4 weeks, a whorl-like structure (or vortex) appeared that gradually became more defined. By 8 weeks, anatomy of corneal nerves had reached maturity. Epithelial bundles converged into the central area to form the vortex. The number and pattern of whorl-like structures were different. Subbasal nerve density and nerve terminals were greater in the center than the periphery. Nerve fibers and terminals that were CGRP-positive were more abundant than SP-positive nerves and terminals. In trigeminal ganglia, the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those positive for SP. Conclusions This is the first study to show a complete map of the entire corneal nerves and CGRP and SP sensory neuropeptide distribution in the mouse cornea. This finding shows mouse corneal innervation has many similarities to human cornea and makes the mouse an appropriate model to study pathologies involving corneal nerves. PMID:26906155

  10. Criteria for Validating Mouse Models of Psychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chadman, Kathryn K.; Yang, Mu; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of human diseases are in widespread use for biomedical research. Mouse models with a mutation in a single gene or multiple genes are excellent research tools for understanding the role of a specific gene in the etiology of a human genetic disease. Ideally, the mouse phenotypes will recapitulate the human phenotypes exactly. However, exact matches are rare, particularly in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. This article summarizes the current strategies for optimizing the validity of a mouse model of a human brain dysfunction. We address the common question raised by molecular geneticists and clinical researchers in psychiatry, “what is a ‘good enough’ mouse model”? PMID:18484083

  11. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    PubMed

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface. PMID:26092688

  12. MouseNet v2: a database of gene networks for studying the laboratory mouse and eight other model vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyojin; Shim, Hongseok; Kang, Byunghee; Yang, Sunmo; Shim, Jae Ho; Shin, Seung Yeon; Marcotte, Edward M.; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, is one of the most important animal tools in biomedical research. Functional characterization of the mouse genes, hence, has been a long-standing goal in mammalian and human genetics. Although large-scale knockout phenotyping is under progress by international collaborative efforts, a large portion of mouse genome is still poorly characterized for cellular functions and associations with disease phenotypes. A genome-scale functional network of mouse genes, MouseNet, was previously developed in context of MouseFunc competition, which allowed only limited input data for network inferences. Here, we present an improved mouse co-functional network, MouseNet v2 (available at http://www.inetbio.org/mousenet), which covers 17 714 genes (>88% of coding genome) with 788 080 links, along with a companion web server for network-assisted functional hypothesis generation. The network database has been substantially improved by large expansion of genomics data. For example, MouseNet v2 database contains 183 co-expression networks inferred from 8154 public microarray samples. We demonstrated that MouseNet v2 is predictive for mammalian phenotypes as well as human diseases, which suggests its usefulness in discovery of novel disease genes and dissection of disease pathways. Furthermore, MouseNet v2 database provides functional networks for eight other vertebrate models used in various research fields. PMID:26527726

  13. Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3\\3") or different ("3\\5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3\\5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

  14. The mouse cortico-striatal projectome.

    PubMed

    Hintiryan, Houri; Foster, Nicholas N; Bowman, Ian; Bay, Maxwell; Song, Monica Y; Gou, Lin; Yamashita, Seita; Bienkowski, Michael S; Zingg, Brian; Zhu, Muye; Yang, X William; Shih, Jean C; Toga, Arthur W; Dong, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Different cortical areas are organized into distinct intracortical subnetworks. The manner in which descending pathways from the entire cortex interact subcortically as a network remains unclear. We developed an open-access comprehensive mesoscale mouse cortico-striatal projectome: a detailed connectivity projection map from the entire cerebral cortex to the dorsal striatum or caudoputamen (CP) in rodents. On the basis of these projections, we used new computational neuroanatomical tools to identify 29 distinct functional striatal domains. Furthermore, we characterized different cortico-striatal networks and how they reconfigure across the rostral-caudal extent of the CP. The workflow was also applied to select cortico-striatal connections in two different mouse models of disconnection syndromes to demonstrate its utility for characterizing circuitry-specific connectopathies. Together, our results provide the structural basis for studying the functional diversity of the dorsal striatum and disruptions of cortico-basal ganglia networks across a broad range of disorders. PMID:27322419

  15. Spectral imaging of mouse calvaria undergoing craniosynstosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Wang, Wei; Ignelzi, Michael A., Jr.; Morris, Michael D.

    2003-07-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the skull bones at the sutures, is the second most common human birth defect that affects the face and skull. The top most flat bones that comprise the skull, or calvaria, are most often affected. We previously showed that treatment of mouse calvaria with FGF2-soaked beads leads to craniosynostosis. In this study we treated mouse calvaria with FGF2-soaked beads and then used Raman imaging to demonstrate the spatial distribution of apatitic mineral and matrix in the sutures. There was no difference between FGF2 treated and control calvaria in the type of mineral produced (a lightly carbonated apatite), however we did observe increased mineral deposition in FGF2 treated calvaria. Raman imaging has great promise to detect the earliest mineral and matrix changes that occur in craniosynostosis.

  16. Mouse JMJD4 is dispensable for embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunjin; Son, Dabin; Lee, Young Jae; Hong, Kwonho

    2016-07-01

    Jumonji C domain-containing demethylase 4 (JMJD4) is thought to help regulate mRNA translation, yet its precise in vivo role during mouse development has not been addressed. In the present study, we examined the contribution of this demethylase to embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation, and established a Jmjd4-knockout mouse to explore its role during embryonic development. Jmjd4 expression is diminished upon ESC differentiation, and becomes restricted to certain developing organs, such as the eyes and gut, in embryonic Day-11.5 embryos. Unexpectedly, Jmjd4-null ESCs exhibited normal colony morphology and maintained normal expression of pluripotent genes. Furthermore, Jmjd4-knockout embryos are born at a normal Mendelian ratio. Thus, JMJD4 is dispensable in murine development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 588-593, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27147518

  17. Isolation of Mouse Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Domínguez, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of any pancreatic islet isolation is obtaining pure, viable and functional pancreatic islets, either for in vitro or in vivo purposes. The islets of Langerhans are complex microorgans with the important role of regulating glucose homeostasis. Imbalances in glucose homeostasis lead to diabetes, which is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a "group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both" (American Diabetes Association 2011). Currently, the rising demand of human islets is provoking a shortage of this tissue, limiting research and clinical practice on this field. In this scenario, it is essential to investigate and improve islet isolation procedures in animal models, while keeping in mind the anatomical and functional differences between species. This chapter discusses the main aspects of mouse islet isolation research, highlighting the critical factors and shortcomings to take into account for the selection and/or optimization of a mouse islet isolation protocol. PMID:27586420

  18. Elemental profiles in Emory mouse lens

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, M.; Emanuel, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine the distribution of chloride, potassium, phosphorus and sulfur in the epithelial cells of the lenses obtained from 3 to 7 month old Emory mice and 7 month old cataract resistant strain of Emory mice. Rapidly frozen lenses were fractured in the frozen state and lyophilized. The anterior epithelial cells were analyzed from equator to equator. The results show that the epithelial cells of the 7 month old Emory mouse lens have considerably higher amounts of chloride, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus. Presence of increased amount of potassium in the epithelial cells is intriguing. The data obtained from these experiments show that the changes in the elemental levels of epithelial cells are similar to observed alteration found in the lens fiber mass of 7 month old Emory mouse.

  19. The laboratory mouse and wild immunology.

    PubMed

    Viney, M; Lazarou, L; Abolins, S

    2015-05-01

    The laboratory mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, has been the workhorse of the very successful laboratory study of mammalian immunology. These studies--discovering how the mammalian immune system can work--have allowed the development of the field of wild immunology that is seeking to understand how the immune responses of wild animals contributes to animals' fitness. Remarkably, there have hardly been any studies of the immunology of wild M. musculus domesticus (or of rats, another common laboratory model), but the general finding is that these wild animals are more immunologically responsive, compared with their laboratory domesticated comparators. This difference probably reflects the comparatively greater previous exposure to antigens of these wild-caught animals. There are now excellent prospects for laboratory mouse immunology to make major advances in the field of wild immunology. PMID:25303494

  20. Histomorphological Phenotyping of the Adult Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, Anna; Kannan, Meghna; Wagner, Christel; Yalcin, Binnaz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a series of standard operating procedures for morphological phenotyping of the mouse brain using basic histology. Many histological studies of the mouse brain use qualitative approaches based on what the human eye can detect. Consequently, some phenotypic information may be missed. Here we describe a quantitative approach for the assessment of brain morphology that is simple and robust. A total of 78 measurements are made throughout the brain at specific and well-defined regions, including the cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Experimental design and timeline considerations, including strain background effects, the importance of sectioning quality, measurement variability, and efforts to correct human errors are discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584555

  1. Having fun with a cordless mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-07-01

    A cordless mouse with an added reed switch is used as a wireless data logger to record every time the wheel of a trolley completes a revolution. The limitations of the system in terms of maximum clicking rate and spatial resolution are considered and data obtained from the descent of a trolley down a ramp at various different angles is analysed in different ways. The data is analysed to obtain initial accelerations (down the ramp) and subsequent decelerations (on the flat), as well as maximum velocities, and these results are used to compare the actual performance of the trolley (with friction) with the theoretical expectation. An agreement of better than 2% on the value of gravity is obtained. Encouraging agreement on frictional forces (and accelerations) is also obtained by considering the maximum kinetic energies reached at the bottom of the ramp. This paper includes the free provision of custom software to record the time history of the clicking of a mouse.

  2. Cytosolic Ca2+ and Ca2+-activated Cl− current dynamics: insights from two functionally distinct mouse exocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Giovannucci, David R; Bruce, Jason I. E; Straub, Stephen V; Arreola, Jorge; Sneyd, James; Shuttleworth, Trevor J; Yule, David I

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of Ca2+ release and Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in two related, but functionally distinct exocrine cells, were studied to gain insight into how the molecular specialization of Ca2+ signalling machinery are utilized to produce different physiological endpoints: in this case, fluid or exocytotic secretion. Digital imaging and patch-clamp methods were used to monitor the temporal and spatial properties of changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) and Cl− currents following the controlled photolytic release of caged-InsP3 or caged-Ca2+. In parotid and pancreatic acinar cells, changes in [Ca2+]c and activation of a Ca2+-activated Cl− current occurred with close temporal coincidence. In parotid, a rapid global Ca2+ signal was invariably induced, even with low-level photolytic release of threshold amounts of InsP3. In pancreas, threshold stimulation generated an apically delimited [Ca2+]c signal, while a stronger stimulus induced a global [Ca2+]c signal which exhibited characteristics of a propagating wave. InsP3 was more effective in parotid, where [Ca2+]c signals initiated with shorter latency and exhibited a faster time-to-peak than in pancreas. The increased potency of InsP3 in parotid probably results from a four-fold higher number of InsP3 receptors as measured by radiolabelled InsP3 binding and western blot analysis. The Ca2+ sensitivity of the Cl− channels in parotid and pancreas was determined from the [Ca2+]-current relationship measured during a dynamic ‘Ca2+ ramp’ produced by the continuous, low-level photolysis of caged-Ca2+. In addition to a greater number of InsP3 receptors, the Cl− current density of parotid acinar cells was more than four-fold greater than that of pancreatic cells. Whereas activation of the current was tightly coupled to increases in Ca2+ in both cell types, local Ca2+ clearance was found to contribute substantially to the deactivation of the current in parotid. These data reveal specializations of

  3. Localization of tropomyosin in mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, A O; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I

    1975-04-01

    Antiserum to chick skeletal muscle tropomyosin was used to localize tropomyosin in mouse embryo fibroblasts by the indirect fluorescein labeled antibody technique. Specific staining was observed cytoplasmic fibers, which extended out into the cell processes. The staining pattern in these cells is similar to that previously described by others for actin. This observation suggests that in fibroblasts tropomyosin, like actin, is localized in fibers in the cytoplasm. PMID:50726

  4. Heat Shock Memory in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanwei; Hartshorn, Cristina; Hartung, Odelya; Wangh, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the consequences of possible physiological stress to embryos caused by the in vitro fertilization procedures, we used as a model heat shock response in preimplantation mouse embryos. A heat shock “memory” was discovered that renders cleavage-stage embryos more responsive at the transcriptional level to secondary perturbation with very low doses of heat, even several cell cycles after the initial stress has occurred. PMID:20378108

  5. 18th International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Darla R Miller

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in “Mammalian Genome”, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

  6. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation. PMID:27504268

  7. Clinicopathological characterization of mouse models of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Blake; Soyer, H Peter; Walker, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of melanoma have proven invaluable in the delineation of key molecular events involved in disease progression in humans and provide potential preclinical models for therapeutic testing (Damsky and Bosenberg, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25(4):404-405, 2012; Walker et al., Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 24(6):1158-1176, 2011). Here we concentrate on the clinicopathological analysis of melanocytic tumors. PMID:25636472

  8. Isolation of the mouse homologue of BRCA1 and genetic mapping to mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.M.; Haugen-Strano, A.; Cochran, C.

    1995-10-10

    The BRCA1 gene is in large part responsible for hereditary human breast and ovarian cancer. Here we report the isolation of the murine Brca1 homologue cDNA clones. In addition, we identified genomic P1 clones that contain most, if not all, of the mouse Brca1 locus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the mouse and human coding regions are 75% identical at the nucleotide level while the predicted amino acid identity is only 58%. A DNA sequence variant in the Brcal locus was identified and used to map this gene on a (Mus m. musculus Czech II x C57BL/KsJ)F1 x C57BL/KsJ intersubspecific backcross to distal mouse chromosome 11. The mapping of this gene to a region highly syntenic with human chromosome 17, coupled with Southern and Northern analyses, confirms that we isolated the murine Brcal homologue rather than a related RING finger gene. The isolation of the mouse Brca1 homologue will facilitate the creation of mouse models for germline BRCA1 defects. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Mouse models for neural tube closure defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, D M; Harris, M J

    2000-04-12

    Neural tube closure defects (NTDs), in particular anencephaly and spina bifida, are common human birth defects (1 in 1000), their genetics is complex and their risk is reduced by periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation. There are > 60 mouse mutants and strains with NTDs, many reported within the past 2 years. Not only are NTD mutations at loci widely heterogeneous in function, but also most of the mutants demonstrate variable low penetrance and some show complex inheritance patterns (e.g. SELH/Bc, Abl / Arg, Mena / Profilin1 ). In most of these mouse models, the NTDs are exencephaly (equivalent to anencephaly) or spina bifida or both, reflecting failure of neural fold elevation in well defined, mechanistically distinct elevation zones. NTD risk is reduced in various models by different maternal nutrient supplements, including folic acid ( Pax3, Cart1, Cd mutants), inositol ( ct ) and methionine ( Axd ). Lack of de novo methylation in embryos ( Dnmt3b -null) leads to NTD risk, and we suggest a potential link between methylation and the observed female excess among cranial NTDs in several models. Some surprising NTD mutants ( Gadd45a, Terc, Trp53 ) suggest that genes with a basic mitotic function also have a function specific to neural fold elevation. The genes mutated in several mouse NTD models involve actin regulation ( Abl/Arg, Macs, Mena/Profilin1, Mlp, Shrm, Vcl ), support the postulated key role of actin in neural fold elevation, and may be a good candidate pathway to search for human NTD genes. PMID:10767323

  10. Characterization of the mouse thrombospondin 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsuji Shingu; Bornstein, P. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have characterized the exon/intron organization, complete 3[prime] untranslated region (3[prime]-UTR), and approximately 2.5 kb of the promoter/5[prime] flanking region of the mouse thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) gene. The sizes of exons and the pattern of interruption of the reading frame by introns are highly conserved in mouse TSP2 in comparison with mouse or human TSP1, a finding that suggests a close evolutionary relationship between the two genes. The TSP2 and TSP1 genes are also similar in that the 3[prime]-UTRs of both genes contain multiple TATT and ATTT(A) motifs that might function as mediators of mRNA stability. However, the sequences of the promoter regions in TSP1 and TSP2 are very different; in particular, the TSP2 gene lacks the serum response element and the NF-Y binding site that have been implicated in the serum response of the human TSP1 gene. The structure of the TSP2 gene is consistent with emerging evidence supporting the view that TSP1 and TSP2 perform overlapping but distinct functions. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhanquan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Junzhen; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng; Fan, Ruiwen

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the optimal passage number according to the biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes from different passages. Skin punch biopsies harvested from the dorsal region of 2-day old mice were used to establish melanocyte cultures. The cells from passage 4, 7, 10 and 13 were collected and evaluated for their melanogenic activity. Histochemical staining for tyrosinase (TYR) activity and immunostaining for the melanocyte specific markers including S-100 antigen, TYR, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase related protein 2 (TYRP2) and micropthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) confirmed purity and melanogenic capacity of melanocytes from different passages, with better melanogenic activity of passage 10 and 13 cells being observed. Treatment of passage 13 melanocytes with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed increased expression of MITF, TYR and TYRP2 mRNA. However, considering the TYR mRNA dramatically high expression which is the characteristics of melanoma cells, melanocytes from passage 10 was the optimal passage number for the further research. Our results demonstrate culture of pure populations of mouse melanocytes to at least 10 passages and illustrate the potential utility of passage 10 cells for studies of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of genes controlling pigmentation and coat color in mouse. PMID:26905193

  12. The Gut Microbiome in the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian; Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome (or microbiota) are an ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that outnumber the cells of the human body tenfold. These microorganisms are most abundant in the gut where they play an important role in health and disease. Alteration of the homeostasis of the gut microbiota can have beneficial or harmful consequences to health. There has recently been a major increase in studies on the association of the gut microbiome composition with disease phenotypes.The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an excellent mouse model to study spontaneous type 1 diabetes development. We, and others, have reported that gut bacteria are critical modulators for type 1 diabetes development in genetically susceptible NOD mice.Here we present our standard protocol for gut microbiome analysis in NOD mice that has been routinely implemented in our research laboratory. This incorporates the following steps: (1) Isolation of total DNA from gut bacteria from mouse fecal samples or intestinal contents; (2) bacterial DNA sequencing, and (3) basic data analysis. PMID:27032947

  13. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  14. A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M; Mortrud, Marty T; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Phillips, John W; Hohmann, John G; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Zeng, Hongkui

    2014-04-10

    Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

  15. Structure of mouse IP-10, a chemokine

    SciTech Connect

    Jabeen, Talat; Leonard, Philip; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2008-06-01

    The structure of mouse IP-10 shows a novel tetrameric association. Interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP-10) belongs to the CXC class of chemokines and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of various immune and inflammatory responses. It is also a potent angiostatic factor with antifibrotic properties. The biological activities of IP-10 are exerted by interactions with the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR3 expressed on Th1 lymphocytes. IP-10 thus forms an attractive target for structure-based rational drug design of anti-inflammatory molecules. The crystal structure of mouse IP-10 has been determined and reveals a novel tetrameric association. In the tetramer, two conventional CXC chemokine dimers are associated through their N-terminal regions to form a 12-stranded elongated β-sheet of ∼90 Å in length. This association differs significantly from the previously studied tetramers of human IP-10, platelet factor 4 and neutrophil-activating peptide-2. In addition, heparin- and receptor-binding residues were mapped on the surface of IP-10 tetramer. Two heparin-binding sites were observed on the surface and were present at the interface of each of the two β-sheet dimers. The structure supports the formation of higher order oligomers of IP-10, as observed in recent in vivo studies with mouse IP-10, which will have functional relevance.

  16. Orthotopic Hind Limb Transplantation in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furtmüller, Georg J; Oh, Byoungchol; Grahammer, Johanna; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Sucher, Robert; Fryer, Madeline L; Raimondi, Giorgio; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In vivo animal model systems, and in particular mouse models, have evolved into powerful and versatile scientific tools indispensable to basic and translational research in the field of transplantation medicine. A vast array of reagents is available exclusively in this setting, including mono- and polyclonal antibodies for both diagnostic and interventional applications. In addition, a vast number of genotyped, inbred, transgenic, and knock out strains allow detailed investigation of the individual contributions of humoral and cellular components to the complex interplay of an immune response and make the mouse the gold standard for immunological research. Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) delineates a novel field of transplantation using allografts to replace "like with like" in patients suffering traumatic or congenital tissue loss. This surgical methodological protocol shows the use of a non-suture cuff technique for super-microvascular anastomosis in an orthotopic mouse hind limb transplantation model. The model specifically allows for comparison between established paradigms in solid organ transplantation with a novel form of transplants consisting of various different tissue components. Uniquely, this model allows for the transplantation of a viable vascularized bone marrow compartment and niche that have the potential to exert a beneficial effect on the balance of immune acceptance and rejection. This technique provides a tool to investigate alloantigen recognition and allograft rejection and acceptance, as well as enables the pursuit of functional nerve regeneration studies to further advance this novel field of transplantation. PMID:26967527

  17. Mouse models for core binding factor leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chin, D W L; Watanabe-Okochi, N; Wang, C Q; Tergaonkar, V; Osato, M

    2015-10-01

    RUNX1 and CBFB are among the most frequently mutated genes in human leukemias. Genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations, copy number variations and point mutations have been widely reported to result in the malfunction of RUNX transcription factors. Leukemias arising from such alterations in RUNX family genes are collectively termed core binding factor (CBF) leukemias. Although adult CBF leukemias generally are considered a favorable risk group as compared with other forms of acute myeloid leukemia, the 5-year survival rate remains low. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanism for CBF leukemia is imperative to uncover novel treatment options. Over the years, retroviral transduction-transplantation assays and transgenic, knockin and knockout mouse models alone or in combination with mutagenesis have been used to study the roles of RUNX alterations in leukemogenesis. Although successful in inducing leukemia, the existing assays and models possess many inherent limitations. A CBF leukemia model which induces leukemia with complete penetrance and short latency would be ideal as a platform for drug discovery. Here, we summarize the currently available mouse models which have been utilized to study CBF leukemias, discuss the advantages and limitations of individual experimental systems, and propose suggestions for improvements of mouse models. PMID:26165235

  18. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This “Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse” system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent (tdTomato), and positron emission tomography (PET) (ttk) modalities. Transgenic colonies with different levels of tri-fusion reporter gene expression showed a linear correlation between all three-reporter proteins (R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs Fluc, R2=0.94 for Fluc vs TTK, R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs TTK) in vitro from tissue lysates and in vivo by optical and PET imaging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from this transgenics showed high level of reporter gene expression, which linearly correlated with the cell numbers (R2=0.99 for bioluminescence imaging (BLI)). Both BLI (R2=0.93) and micro-PET (R2=0.94) imaging of the subcutaneous implants of Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse derived MSCs in nude mice showed linear correlation with the cell numbers and across different imaging modalities (R2=0.97). Serial imaging of MSCs transplanted to mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) by intramyocardial injection exhibited significantly higher signals in MI heart at days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (p<0.01). MSCs transplanted to the ischemic hindlimb of nude mice showed significantly higher BLI and PET signals in the first 2 weeks that dropped by 4th week due to poor cell survival. However, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed that blood circulation in the ischemic limb was significantly improved in the MSCs transplantation group compared with the control group. In summary, this mouse can be used as a source of donor cells and organs in various research areas such as stem cell research

  19. Automated measurement of mouse apolipoprotein B: convenient screening tool for mouse models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Levine, D M; Williams, K J

    1997-04-01

    Although mice are commonly used for studies of atherosclerosis, investigators have had no convenient way to quantify apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major protein of atherogenic lipoproteins, in this model. We now report an automated immunoturbidimetric assay for mouse apo B with an NCCLS imprecision study CV < 5%. Added hemoglobin up to 50 g/L did not interfere with the assay, nor did one freeze-thaw cycle of serum samples. Assay linearity extends to apo B concentrations of 325 mg/L. We have used the assay to determine serum apo B concentrations under several atherogenic conditions, including the apo E "knock-out" genotype and treatment with a high-cholesterol diet. Our assay can be used to survey inbred mouse strains for variants in apo B concentrations or regulation. Moreover, the mouse can now be used as a convenient small-animal model to screen compounds that may lower apo B concentrations. PMID:9105271

  20. Identifying mouse models for skin cancer using the Mouse Tumor Biology Database.

    PubMed

    Begley, Dale A; Krupke, Debra M; Neuhauser, Steven B; Richardson, Joel E; Schofield, Paul N; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Sundberg, John P

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has generated an ever-increasing amount of data from a growing number of animal models of human cancers. Much of these data come from genetically engineered mouse models. Identifying appropriate models for skin cancer and related relevant genetic data sets from an expanding pool of widely disseminated data can be a daunting task. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) provides an electronic archive, search and analysis system that can be used to identify dermatological mouse models of cancer, retrieve model-specific data and analyse these data. In this report, we detail MTB's contents and capabilities, together with instructions on how to use MTB to search for skin-related tumor models and associated data. PMID:25040013

  1. Cellular Genes in the Mouse Regulate IN TRANS the Expression of Endogenous Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Traina-Dorge, Vicki L.; Carr, Jean K.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Elston, Robert C.; Taylor, Benjamin A.; Cohen, J. Craig

    1985-01-01

    The transcriptional activities of the eleven mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviruses endogenous to two sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains, BXD and BXH, were characterized. Comparison of the levels of virus-specific RNA quantitated in each strain showed no direct relationship between the presence of a particular endogenous provirus or with increasing numbers of proviruses. Association of specific genetic markers with the level of MMTV-specific RNA was examined by using multiple regression analysis. Several cellular loci as well as proviral loci were identified that were significantly associated with viral expression. Importantly, these cellular loci associated with MMTV expression segregated independently of viral sequences. PMID:2996982

  2. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  3. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Studying Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Takahito; Himuro, Hidetomo; Okada, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that is mediated by very complex mechanisms controlled by genetic, immune, and environmental factors. More than 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse strains have been established since 1993 for studying IBD. Although mouse models cannot fully reflect human IBD, they have provided significant contributions for not only understanding the mechanism, but also developing new therapeutic means for IBD. Indeed, 20 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models carry the susceptibility genes identified in human IBD, and the functions of some other IBD susceptibility genes have also been dissected out using mouse models. Cutting-edge technologies such as cell-specific and inducible knockout systems, which were recently employed to mouse IBD models, have further enhanced the ability of investigators to provide important and unexpected rationales for developing new therapeutic strategies for IBD. In this review article, we briefly introduce 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation. PMID:26387641

  4. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  5. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource. PMID:26223881

  6. Remyelination of demyelinated rat axons by transplanted mouse oligodendrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Crang, A.J.; Blakemore, W.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The injection of the gliotoxic agent ethidium bromide (EB) into spinal white matter produces a CNS lesion in which it is possible to investigate the ability of transplanted glial cells to reconstruct a glial environment around demyelinated axons. This study demonstrates that transplanted mouse glial cells can repopulate EB lesions in rats provided tissue rejection is controlled. In X-irradiated EB lesions in cyclosporin-A-treated rats, mouse oligodendrocytes remyelinated rat axons and, together with mouse astrocytes, re-established a CNS environment. When transplanted into nonirradiated EB lesions in nude rats, mouse glial cells modulated the normal host repair by Schwann cells to remyelination by oligodendrocytes. In both X-irradiated and non-irradiated EB lesions, transplanted mouse glial cells behaved similarly to isogenic rat glial cell transplants. These findings indicate that the cell-cell interactions involved in reconstruction of a glial environment are common to both mouse and rat.

  7. Imaging Mouse Development with Confocal Time-Lapse Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowotschin, Sonja; Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The gene expression, signaling, and cellular dynamics driving mouse embryo development have emerged through embryology and genetic studies. However, since mouse development is a temporally regulated three-dimensional process, any insight needs to be placed in this context of real-time visualization. Live imaging using genetically encoded fluorescent protein reporters is pushing the envelope of our understanding by uncovering unprecedented insights into mouse development and leading to the formulation of quantitative accurate models. PMID:20691876

  8. A Chemical Mutagenesis Screen Identifies Mouse Models with ERG Defects.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jeremy R; Samuels, Ivy S; Yu, Minzhong; Stone, Lisa; Hicks, Wanda; Shi, Lan Ying; Krebs, Mark P; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M; Peachey, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models provide important resources for many areas of vision research, pertaining to retinal development, retinal function and retinal disease. The Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) program uses chemical mutagenesis to generate new mouse models for vision research. In this chapter, we report the identification of mouse models for Grm1, Grk1 and Lrit3. Each of these is characterized by a primary defect in the electroretinogram. All are available without restriction to the research community. PMID:26427409

  9. Mouse Genome Editing using CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou

    2015-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much faster than the previously used techniques and more importantly multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  10. Neutron issues in the JANUS mouse program

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the JANUS program in the Biological and Medical Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has compiled a database on the response of both sexes of an F{sub 1} hybrid mouse, the B6CF{sub 1} (C57BL/6 x BALB/c), to external whole- body irradiation by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays and fission neutrons. Three basic patterns of exposure for both neutrons and {gamma}-rays have been investigated: single exposures, 24 equal once-weekly exposures, and 60 equal once-weekly exposures. All irradiations were terminated at predetermined total doses, with dose calculated in centigrays at the midline of the mouse. Three endpoints will be discussed in this paper: (1) life shortening, (2) a point estimate for cumulative mortality, and (3) the hazard function. Life shortening is used as an analysis endpoint because it summarizes, in a single index, the integrated effect of all injuries accumulated by an organism. Histopathological analyses of the mice used in the ANL studies have indicated that 85% of the deaths were caused by neoplasms. Connective tissue tumors were the dominant tumor in the B6CF{sub 1} mouse, with tumors of lymphoreticular origin accounting for approximately 80% of this class. The latter two endpoints will therefore be used to describe the life table experience of mice dying from the lymphoreticular class of tumors. Dose-response models will be applied to the three endpoints in order to describe the response function for neutron exposures, evaluate the effect of dose range and pattern of exposure on the response function for neutrons, and provide a set of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of the ANL database. 25 refs.

  11. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. PMID:26802512

  12. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. PMID:25913701

  13. Mouse Model of Coxiella burnetii Aerosolization.

    PubMed

    Melenotte, Cléa; Lepidi, Hubert; Nappez, Claude; Bechah, Yassina; Audoly, Gilles; Terras, Jérôme; Raoult, Didier; Brégeon, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii is mainly transmitted by aerosols and is responsible for multiple-organ lesions. Animal models have shown C. burnetii pathogenicity, but long-term outcomes still need to be clarified. We used a whole-body aerosol inhalation exposure system to mimic the natural route of infection in immunocompetent (BALB/c) and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. After an initial lung inoculum of 10(4) C. burnetii cells/lung, the outcome, serological response, hematological disorders, and deep organ lesions were described up to 3 months postinfection. C. burnetii-specific PCR, anti-C. burnetii immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting C. burnetii-specific 16S rRNA completed the detection of the bacterium in the tissues. In BALB/c mice, a thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia were first observed, prior to evidence of C. burnetii replication. In all SCID mouse organs, DNA copies increased to higher levels over time than in BALB/c ones. Clinical signs of discomfort appeared in SCID mice, so follow-up had to be shortened to 2 months in this group. At this stage, all animals presented bone, cervical, and heart lesions. The presence of C. burnetii could be attested in situ for all organs sampled using immunohistochemistry and FISH. This mouse model described C. burnetii Nine Mile strain spread using aerosolization in a way that corroborates the pathogenicity of Q fever described in humans and completes previously published data in mouse models. C. burnetii infection occurring after aerosolization in mice thus seems to be a useful tool to compare the pathogenicity of different strains of C. burnetii. PMID:27160294

  14. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks. PMID:27199881

  15. Serotonin regulates mouse cranial neural crest migration.

    PubMed Central

    Moiseiwitsch, J R; Lauder, J M

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic agents (uptake inhibitors, receptor ligands) cause significant craniofacial malformations in cultured mouse embryos suggesting that 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT) may be an important regulator of craniofacial development. To determine whether serotonergic regulation of cell migration might underly some of these effects, cranial neural crest (NC) explants from embryonic day 9 (E9) (plug day = E1) mouse embryos or dissociated mandibular mesenchyme cells (derived from NC) from E12 embryos were placed in a modified Boyden chamber to measure effects of serotonergic agents on cell migration. A dose-dependent effect of 5-HT on the migration of highly motile cranial NC cells was demonstrated, such that low concentrations of 5-HT stimulated migration, whereas this effect was progressively lost as the dose of 5-HT was increased. In contrast, most concentrations of 5-HT inhibited migration of less motile, mandibular mesenchyme cells. To investigate the possible involvement of specific 5-HT receptors in the stimulation of NC migration, several 5-HT subtype-selective antagonists were used to block the effects of the most stimulatory dose of 5-HT (0.01 microM). Only NAN-190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist) inhibited the effect of 5-HT, suggesting involvement of this receptor. Further evidence was obtained by using immunohistochemistry with 5-HT receptor antibodies, which revealed expression of the 5-HT1A receptor but not other subtypes by migrating NC cells in both embryos and cranial NC explants. These results suggest that by activating appropriate receptors 5-HT may regulate migration of cranial NC cells and their mesenchymal derivatives in the mouse embryo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7638165

  16. Optogenetic Control of Mouse Outer Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, Teresa; Chen, Fangyi; Porsov, Edward; Subhash, Hrebesh; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Bateschell, Michael; Wang, Lingyan; Brigande, John V; Jiang, Zhi-Gen; Mao, Tianyi; Nuttall, Alfred L

    2016-01-19

    Normal hearing in mammals depends on sound amplification by outer hair cells (OHCs) presumably by their somatic motility and force production. However, the role of OHC force production in cochlear amplification and frequency tuning are not yet fully understood. Currently, available OHC manipulation techniques for physiological or clinical studies are limited by their invasive nature, lack of precision, and poor temporal-spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, we explored an optogenetic approach based on channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR-2), a direct light-activated nonselective cation channel originally discovered in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Three approaches were compared: 1) adeno-associated virus-mediated in utero transfer of the ChR-2 gene into the developing murine otocyst, 2) expression of ChR-2(H134R) in an auditory cell line (HEI-OC1), and 3) expression of ChR-2 in the OHCs of a mouse line carrying a ChR-2 conditional allele. Whole cell recording showed that blue light (470 nm) elicited the typical nonselective cation current of ChR-2 with reversal potential around zero in both mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and generated depolarization in both cell types. In addition, pulsed light stimulation (10 Hz) elicited a 1:1 repetitive depolarization and ChR-2 currents in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells, respectively. The time constant of depolarization in OHCs, 1.45 ms, is 10 times faster than HEI-OC1 cells, which allowed light stimulation up to rates of 10/s to elicit corresponding membrane potential changes. Our study demonstrates that ChR-2 can successfully be expressed in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and that these present a typical light-sensitive current and depolarization. However, the amount of ChR-2 current induced in our in vivo experiments was insufficient to result in measurable cochlear effects. PMID:26789771

  17. Microinjection of Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Laurinda A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Marina; Ratzan, William J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    The mammalian oocyte develops within a complex of somatic cells known as a follicle, within which signals from the somatic cells regulate the oocyte, and signals from the oocyte regulate the somatic cells. Because isolation of the oocyte from the follicle disrupts these communication pathways, oocyte physiology is best studied within an intact follicle. Here we describe methods for quantitative microinjection of follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, thus allowing the introduction of signaling molecules as well as optical probes into the oocyte within its physiological environment.

  18. Centromere organization in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, P.; Mitchell, A.; Kipling, D.; Nicol, L.

    1993-12-31

    The kinetochore, located at the primary constriction or centromere in mammalian metaphase chromosomes, is the site of attachment of spindle microtubules to the mitotic chromosome, and is thus essential for correct chromosome movement and segregation at anaphase. Errors in organization of the kinetochore and/or centromere may therefore lead to non-disjunction and aneuploidy. The centromeres of most, if not all, mammalian chromosomes contain repetitive DNA sequences, which are observed at the cytogenetic level as heterochromatin. We have combined immunofluorescence with primed in situ hybridization (PRINS) techniques to study the organization of repetitive DNA families in relation to chromosomal proteins located at centromeres in both man and mouse species.

  19. A mouse model of in utero transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nijagal, Amar; Le, Tom; Wegorzewska, Marta; Mackenzie, Tippi C

    2011-01-01

    The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success. Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice and those with genetic diseases. The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, retroviral, and lentiviral vectors into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein. In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor

  20. Dielectrophoretic separation of mouse melanoma clones

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncu, Ahmet C.; Liu, Jie A.; Beebe, Stephen J.; Beskok, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is employed to differentiate clones of mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Five clones were tested on microelectrodes. At a specific excitation frequency, clone 1 showed a different DEP response than the other four. Growth rate, melanin content, recovery from cryopreservation, and in vitro invasive studies were performed. Clone 1 is shown to have significantly different melanin content and recovery rate from cryopreservation. This paper reports the ability of DEP to differentiate between two malignant cells of the same origin. Different DEP responses of the two clones could be linked to their melanin content. PMID:20697600