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Sample records for mouse peritoneal macrophages

  1. Effect of lectins on mouse peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, G; Porras, F; Fernández, L; Vázquez, L; Zenteno, E

    1994-11-01

    We studied the in vitro ability of lectin-treated murine peritoneal macrophages to attach and phagocytize particulate antigens. Glucose and mannose specific lectins such as Con-A and lentil lectin, as well as complex lactosamine residues specific lectins, such as Phaseolus vulgaris var. cacahuate and Phaseolus coccineus var. alubia, increased the macrophage phagocytic activity towards heterologous erythrocytes, whereas peanut agglutinin, a galactose-specific lectin, diminished the macrophage phagocytic activity. These results suggest that a galactose-N-acetyl-D galactosamine-containing structure could participate as negative modulator of the phagocytic activity. PMID:7851961

  2. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages. PMID:27095137

  3. On the response of mouse peritoneal macrophages to titanium dioxide pigments in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nuuja, I.J.; Arstila, A.U.

    1982-10-01

    Acid phosphatase activity and cell morphology were followed using mouse peritoneal macrophages as a toxicity test model in vitro. The cells were given titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and five titanium pigments with different coating materials in 100 ..mu..g/ml of culture medium. The cell reactions were studied from 1 to 17 days. Titanium particles inhibited the acid phosphatase activity of the cells compared to controls. In comparison to untreated cells the activity of this enzyme increased in most groups studied, being highest in the control cells (2-3.5 times) after 7 days. The titanium pigments did not cause the drastic alterations in these cells as seen with quartz and asbestos particles, but the titanium pigments were not harmless to the mouse peritoneal macrophages with the doses and culture times used.

  4. [Effects of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Peng, Yao-zong; Huang, Tao; Li, Ling; Mou, Shao-xia; Kou, Shu-ming; Li, Xue-gang

    2015-12-01

    This work was mainly studied the effects of the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and preliminarily discussed the regulating mechanisms. The effect of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the vitality of macrophages was measured by the MTT assay. The effect of alkaloids on the phagocytosis of macrophages was determined by neutral red trial and respiratory burst activity was tested by NBT. The expressions of respiratory-burst-associated genes influenced by alkaloids were detected by qRT-PCR. The conformation change of membrane protein in macrophages by the impact of alkaloids was studied by fluorospectro-photometer. Results showed that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could increase the phagocytosis of macrophages in different level and berberine had the best effect. Berberine, coptisine and palmatine had up-regulation effects on respiratory burst activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated by PMA and regulatory activity on the mRNA expression of PKC, p40phox or p47phox, whereas the epiberberine had no significant influence on respiratory burst. Moreover, alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could change the conformation of membrane protein and the berberine showed the strongest activity. The results suggested that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma might activate macrophages through changing the conformation of membrane protein of macrophages and then enhanced the phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of macrophages. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of alkaloids on the respiratory burst activity of macrophages may be also related to the expression level of PKC, p40phox and p47phox. PMID:27141680

  5. Hypoxia enhances lysosomal TNF-alpha degradation in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Nitza; Rahat, Michal A; Kinarty, Amalia; Weiss-Cerem, Lea; Pinchevski, Sigalit; Bitterman, Haim

    2008-07-01

    Infection, simulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a potent stimulator of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and hypoxia often synergizes with LPS to induce higher levels of the secreted cytokine. However, we show that in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages and in three mouse peritoneal macrophage cell lines (RAW 264.7, J774A.1, and PMJ-2R), hypoxia (O(2) < 0.3%) reduces the secretion of LPS-induced TNF-alpha (P < 0.01). In RAW 264.7 cells this reduction was not regulated transcriptionally as TNF-alpha mRNA levels remained unchanged. Rather, hypoxia and LPS reduced the intracellular levels of TNF-alpha by twofold (P < 0.01) by enhancing its degradation in the lysosomes and inhibiting its secretion via secretory lysosomes, as shown by confocal microscopy and verified by the use of the lysosome inhibitor Bafilomycin A1. In addition, although hypoxia did not change the accumulation of the soluble receptor TNF-RII, it increased its binding to the secreted TNF-alpha by twofold (P < 0.05). We suggest that these two posttranslational regulatory checkpoints coexist in hypoxia and may partially explain the reduced secretion and diminished biological activity of TNF-alpha in hypoxic peritoneal macrophages. PMID:18434619

  6. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Angelin, B

    1988-01-01

    The lipoprotein-mediated regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-(HMG-) CoA reductase in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages has been investigated. In contrast to what has been reported for other cells, HMG-CoA reductase activity is not suppressed by normal serum or by normal low density lipoproteins (LDL) from humans or dogs. Suppression of reductase activity occurred when cells were cultured in the presence of beta-migrating very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) or LDL from hypercholesterolaemic dogs, or LDL modified by acetoacetylation. Human beta-VLDL from an atypical type III hyperlipoproteinaemic patient was also effective, as was apolipoprotein (apo) E-containing high density lipoproteins (HDL) from cholesterol-fed dogs (apo-E HDLc). The results indicate that cholesterol biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages is regulated by lipoprotein cholesterol entering via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Normal LDL were not effective because of the poor binding and uptake of these lipoproteins by the apo-B, E (LDL) receptor. Only beta-VLDL, apo-E HDLc, and hypercholesterolaemic LDL were avidly taken up by this receptor and were able to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. Acetoacetylated LDL were internalized via the acetyl-LDL (scavenger) receptor. Thus, mouse macrophages differ from human fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in their physiological regulation of cholesterogenesis. PMID:3202831

  7. Impairment of the oxidative metabolism of mouse peritoneal macrophages by intracellular Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    Buchmüller-Rouiller, Y; Mauël, J

    1987-01-01

    When stimulated in vitro with macrophage-activating factor or lipopolysaccharide, mouse peritoneal macrophages acquire the capacity to develop a strong respiratory burst when they are triggered by membrane-active agents. The presence of intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania (L. enriettii, L. major) significantly inhibited such activity, as measured by chemiluminescence, reduction of cytochrome c and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, and hexose monophosphate shunt levels. On the contrary, inert intracellular particles such as latex beads strongly increased the macrophage respiratory burst, suggesting that the Leishmania-linked inhibition resulted from a specific parasite effect. Impairment of macrophage oxidative metabolism by intracellular Leishmania spp. was a function of the number of infecting microorganisms and was more pronounced in macrophages infected with living than with dead parasites. Moreover, the metabolic inhibition was less apparent in L. enriettii-infected macrophages that were exposed to both macrophage-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide, i.e., conditions leading to complete parasite destruction. The mechanisms of respiratory burst inhibition by intracellular Leishmania spp. are unclear, but these observations suggest that such effects may contribute significantly to intracellular survival of the microorganisms. PMID:3546131

  8. Inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage DNA synthesis by infection with the arenavirus Pichinde.

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, A M; Jahrling, P B; Merrill, P; Tobery, S

    1984-01-01

    Macrophage DNA synthesis and proliferation occur during the development of cell-mediated immunity and in the early nonspecific reaction to infection. Arenaviruses have a predilection for infection of cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and in this study we have examined the effect of the arenavirus Pichinde on macrophage DNA synthesis. We have found that infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages with Pichinde caused a profound dose-dependent inhibition of the DNA synthesis induced by macrophage growth factor-colony stimulating factor. At a multiplicity of inoculum of 5, there is a 75 to 95% inhibition of DNA synthesis. Viable virus is necessary for inhibition since Pichinde inactivated by heat or cobalt irradiation had no effect. Similarly, virus pretreated with an antiserum to Pichinde was without inhibitory effect. Inhibition was demonstrated by measuring DNA synthesis spectrofluorometrically as well as by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was not associated with any cytopathology. There was no evidence that the inhibition was due to soluble factors, such as prostaglandins or interferon, released by infected cells. These studies demonstrate, for the first time in vitro, a significant alteration in macrophage function caused by infection with an arenavirus. It is possible that inhibition of macrophage proliferation represents a mechanism by which some microorganisms interfere with host resistance. PMID:6690404

  9. Lysosomal glycosidases in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro with soluble and insoluble glycans.

    PubMed

    Bøgwald, J; Johnson, E; Hoffman, J; Seljelid, R

    1984-04-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with insoluble glycans in vitro release high amounts of acid hydrolases, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-D-glucuronidase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The most potent of the stimulatory glycans is a beta-1,3-D-glucan isolated from yeast cell walls. Up to 50% of total enzyme activity was found in the medium after stimulation with this glycan for three days. Agarose, another insoluble glycan containing an alternating sequence of the disaccharide beta-1,3-D-galactose-alpha-1,4-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose units was less potent. The soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan laminaran, which also contains small amounts of mannitol, was not able to induce release of acid glycosidases from macrophages. The release was independent of serum since macrophages cultured under serum-free conditions showed nearly the same pattern of enzyme activities, both in the cells and media. There was no increased release of the acid hydrolase alpha-D-mannosidase after stimulation with the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan for three days. The release of the lysosomal glycosidases was not due to cell death, since only small amounts of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were found in the culture media. Insoluble polystyrene latex particles were not able to stimulate mouse macrophages to release lysosomal glycosidases. Tritiated glycans (amylose, dextran, laminaran, the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, and agarose) and the p-nitrophenyl-glycopyranoside derivatives were used as substrates to investigate whether the macrophages contained or released glucanases capable of degrading alpha-1,4-D-glucans, alpha-1-6-D-glucans, beta-1,3-D-glucans, and agarose respectively. We conclude that the glycans were not degraded in macrophage cultures during the time period tested nor were the enzymes induced in macrophages by the glycans during in vitro culture for seven days. PMID:6584526

  10. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  11. Yeast mannans inhibit binding and phagocytosis of zymosan by mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, S S; Nelson, R S; Silverstein, S C

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effects of various mannans, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and sugar phosphates on the binding and phagocytosis of yeast cell walls (zymosan) by mouse peritoneal macrophages. A phosphonomannan (PO(4):mannose ratio = 1:8:6) from kloeckera brevis was the most potent inhibitor tested; it inhibited binding and phagocytosis by 50 percent at concentrations of approximately 3-5 mug/ml and 10 mug/ml, respectively. Removal of the phosphate from this mannan by mild acid and alkaline phosphatase treatment did not appreciably reduce its capacity to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis. The mannan from saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant LB301 inhibits phagocytosis by 50 percent at 0.3 mg/ml, and a neutral exocellular glucomannan from pichia pinus inhibited phagocytosis by 50 percent at 1 mg/ml. Cell wall mannans from wild type S. cervisiae X2180, its mnn2 mutant which contains mannan with predominantly 1(arrow)6- linked mannose residues, yeast exocellular mannans and O-phosphonomannans were less efficient inhibitors requiring concentrations of 1-5 mg/ml to achieve 50 percent reduction in phagocytosis. Horseradish peroxidase, which contains high-mannose type oligosaccharides, was also inhibitory. Mannan is a specific inhibitor of zymosan binding and phagocytosis. The binding and ingestion of zymosan but not of IgG- or complement-coated erythrocytes can be obliterated by plating macrophages on substrates coated with poly-L-lysin (PLL)-mannan. Zymosan uptake was completely abolished by trypsin treatment of the macrophages and reduced by 50-60 percent in the presence of 10 mM EGTA. Pretreatment of the macrophages with chloroquine inhibited zymosan binding and ingestion. These results support the proposal that the macrophage mannose/N-acetylglucosamine receptor (P. Stahl, J.S. Rodman, M.J. Miller, and P.H. Schlesinger, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1399-1403, mediates the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. PMID:6298248

  12. Intracellular replication of Leishmania tropica in mouse peritoneal macrophages: amastigote infection of resident cells and inflammatory exudate macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, A H; Hoover, D L; Nacy, C A

    1982-01-01

    C3HeB/FeJ peritoneal exudate cells elicited by a variety of sterile inflammatory agents were exposed to Leishmania tropica amastigotes in vitro. Cytochemical characterization of cells that contained intracellular parasites suggested that young, peroxidase-positive macrophages were more susceptible to infection by amastigotes than more mature cells. Replication of the parasite in these younger cells, however, was similar to that observed in resident peritoneal macrophages. PMID:7152674

  13. Antibody-dependent cytolysis of chicken erythrocytes by an in vitro-established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Demus, A

    1975-02-01

    An in vitro-established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages (IC-21) was tested for its ability to mediate the cytolysis of 51chromiun-labeled chicken erythrocytes. In the presence of specific antibody, but independently of complement, the macrophages phagocytized and lysed labeled erythrocytes. The phagocytic process proved to be functionally distinct from the cytolytic reaction as demonstrated by enhanced cytolysis in the presence of iodoacetate, an inhibitor of phagocytosis. This cell line, because of its effector activity in antibody-dependent cell-mediated immune reactions, will be useful in characterizing the mechanism(s) involved in macrophage-mediated cytolysis. PMID:1167563

  14. Toxicological interactions of silver nanoparticles and organochlorine pesticides in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Pelletier, Èmilien; Voigt, Carmen Lucia; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Filipak Neto, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology occupies a prominent space in economy and science due to the beneficial properties of nanomaterials. However, nanoparticles may pose risks to living organisms due to their adsorption and pro-oxidative properties. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as their combined effects on mouse peritoneal macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and exposed to three concentrations of AgNPs (groups: N1 = 30, N2 = 300 and N3 = 3000 ng.ml(-1)), two concentrations of OCPs (groups: P1 = 30 and P2 = 300 ng.ml(-1)) and the six possible combinations of these two contaminants for 24 h. AgNPs had irregular shape, Feret diameter of 8.7 ± 7.5 nm and zeta potential of -28.7 ± 3.9 mV in water and -10.7 ± 1.04 mV in culture medium. OCP mixtures and the lower concentrations of AgNPs had no detectable effects on cell parameters, but the highest AgNPs concentration showed high toxicity (trypan blue and MTT assays) resulting in morphological changes, increase of nitric oxide levels and phagocytic index. Foremost, the association of N3 and P2 led to distinct effects from those observed under single exposure. PMID:27001549

  15. Suppression of Mcl-1 induces apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yu; Wang, Xin-Min; Wang, Chan; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wu, Jiang-Dong; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Zhang, Le

    2016-04-01

    The effect of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) inhibition on apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated and the primary signaling pathway associated with the transcriptional regulation of Mcl-1 was identified. Real-time PCR and western blotting indicated that Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression are upregulated during infection with virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Xinjiang strains but not with attenuated M. tuberculosis strain H37Ra or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression were downregulated by specific inhibitors of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways (AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, respectively). The strongest inhibitor of Mcl-1 expression was PD98059, the MAPK inhibitor. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages is significantly higher in mice infected with M. tuberculosis and the rate of apoptosis is correlated with the virulence of the strain of M. tuberculosis. Apoptosis was found to be upregulated by AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, whereas inhibition of the MAPK pathway sensitized the infected macrophages to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that specific downregulation of Mcl-1 significantly increases apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages and that the MAPK signaling pathway is the primary mediator of Mcl-1 expression. PMID:26876933

  16. In vitro morphology, viability and cytokine secretion of uterine telocyte-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chi; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Su, Lei; Shen, Zong-Ji; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Telocytes (TCs), a distinct interstitial cell population, have been identified in the uterus, oviduct and placenta, with multiple proposed potential biological functions. Their unique structure allows them to form intercellular junctions with various immunocytes, both in normal and diseased tissues, suggesting a potential functional relationship with the local immune response. It has been hypothesized that through direct heterocellular junctions or indirect paracrine effects, TCs influence the activity of local immunocytes that are involved in the inflammatory process and in immune-mediated reproductive abnormalities. However, no reliable cytological evidence for this hypothesis is currently available. In this study, we cultured primary murine uterine TCs and collected TC conditioned media (TCM). Mouse peritoneal macrophages (pMACs) were co-cultured for 48 hrs with TCM or with DMEM/F12 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as negative and positive controls, respectively. Normal uterine TCs with a typical structure and a CD-34-positive/vimentin-positive/c-kit-negative immunophenotype were observed during culture. Morphologically, TCM-treated pMACs displayed an obvious activation/immunoresponse, in contrast to over-stimulation and cell death after LPS treatment and no sign of activation in the presence of DMEM/F12. Accordingly, a cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay indicated significant activation of pMACs by TCM and LPS compared to DMEM/F12, thus supporting the marked morphological differences among these groups of cells. Furthermore, within a panel of macrophage-derived cytokines/enzymes, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly elevated in TCM-treated pMACs; tumour necrosis factor α, IL1-R1, and IL-10 were slightly, but significantly, up-regulated; and no changes were observed for transforming growth factor-β1, IL-1β, IL-23α and IL-18. Our results indicate that TCs are not simply innocent bystanders but are rather functional players in

  17. Uptake of remnant like particles (RLP) in diabetic patients from mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tomono, S; Kawazu, S; Kato, N; Ono, T; Ishii, C; Ito, Y; Shimizu, M; Shimoyama, M; Nakano, T; Nakajima, K

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether the remnant like particles (RLP), separated from serum by an immunoaffinity gel mixture of anti-apo B-100 and apo A-I monoclonal antibodies, are relevant to the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis, the incorporation of RLP into mouse macrophages was studied using histochemical and biochemical techniques. Remnant lipoproteins such as RLP are reported to contain a large quantity of chyloniron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, especially in diabetic patients. The RLP separated from the sera of 32 diabetic patients were found to be predominantly taken up into macrophages harvested from mouse abdominal cavities by the staining method applying oil red O. Furthermore, using 14C-oleate to prove the uptake of lipoproteins by macrophages, the uptake of RLP-VLDL, a VLDL fraction of RLP by ultracentrifugation, was the next highest to that of the oxidized LDL, which suggests that RLP-VLDL is also aggressively taken up by macrophages. The degree of uptake of RLP-VLDL by macrophages was positively correlated with HbA1c of these diabetic patients (r = 0.556, p < 0.01), irrespective of the ways of the treatment of diabetes. In conclusion, RLP can contribute to the foaming of macrophages, which in turn may explain the acceleration of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. PMID:9222876

  18. Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myungwon; Ju, Jaehyun; Suh, Jae Soo; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Kwang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential fatty acid necessary for human health, and it protects against cardiovascular disease, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of omega-3-rich harp seal oil (HSO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) in peritoneal macrophages of mice. The culture supernatants of murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HSO, or HSO+LPS were harvested to assay IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) cytokines and NO. TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) levels, except IL-6, were lower in the culture supernatants of mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to LPS plus HSO than those of the groups exposed to LPS alone. These observations demonstrate that omega-3-rich harp seal oil downregulates the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40). These results suggest that HSO could be potentially used as a preventive agent or as an adjunct in anti-inflammatory therapy, if more research results were accumulated. PMID:26175994

  19. Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myungwon; Ju, Jaehyun; Suh, Jae Soo; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Kwang Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential fatty acid necessary for human health, and it protects against cardiovascular disease, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of omega-3-rich harp seal oil (HSO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) in peritoneal macrophages of mice. The culture supernatants of murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HSO, or HSO+LPS were harvested to assay IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) cytokines and NO. TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) levels, except IL-6, were lower in the culture supernatants of mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to LPS plus HSO than those of the groups exposed to LPS alone. These observations demonstrate that omega-3-rich harp seal oil downregulates the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40). These results suggest that HSO could be potentially used as a preventive agent or as an adjunct in anti-inflammatory therapy, if more research results were accumulated. PMID:26175994

  20. Hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoproteins induce triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gianturco, S H; Bradley, W A; Gotto, A M; Morrisett, J D; Peavy, D L

    1982-07-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may be responsible for the lipid accumulation in macrophages that can occur in hypertriglyceridemia. Chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, total and with flotation constant [S(f)] 100-400) from fasting hypertriglyceridemic subjects induced a massive accumulation of oil red O-positive inclusions in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages. Cell viability was not affected. The predominant lipid that accumulated in cells exposed to hypertriglyceridemic VLDL was triglyceride. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL stimulated the incorporation of [(14)C]oleate into cellular triglyceride up to ninefold in 16 h, but not into cholesteryl esters. Mass increase in cellular triglyceride was 38-fold. The stimulation of cellular triglyceride formation was dependent on time, temperature, and concentration of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL. By contrast, VLDL, low density, and high density lipoproteins from fasting normolipemic subjects had no significant effect on oleate incorporation into neutral lipids or on visible lipid accumulation.(125)I-Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (S(f) 100-400) were degraded by macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, with 50 and 100% saturation observed at 3 and 24 mug protein/ml (2.5 and 20 nM), respectively. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL inhibited the internalization and degradation of (125)I-hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (4 nM) by 50% at 3 nM. Cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL from cholesterol-fed rabbits gave 50% inhibition at 5 nM. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) inhibited by 10% at 5 nM and 40% at 47 nM. Acetyl LDL at 130 nM had no effect. We conclude that the massive triglyceride accumulation produced in macrophages by hypertriglyceridemic VLDL is a direct consequence of uptake via specific receptors that also recognize cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL and LDL but are distinct from the acetyl LDL receptor. Uptake of these triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by monocyte-macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of

  1. Eicosanoid production by mouse peritoneal macrophages during Toxoplasma gondii penetration: role of parasite and host cell phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Thardin, J F; M'Rini, C; Beraud, M; Vandaele, J; Frisach, M F; Bessieres, M H; Seguela, J P; Pipy, B

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by mouse resident peritoneal macrophages infected in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii was studied. Prelabeling of macrophages with [5,6,8,9,11,12,14,15-3H]arachidonic acid and challenge with tachyzoites for 15 min resulted in a high mobilization of free labeled arachidonic acid (178%) in the culture medium. The parasites also triggered the synthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (47%), prostaglandin E2 (44%), leukotrienes C4 and D4 (33%) and 5-, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (155%). The study indicated that during the intracellular development phase of the parasites, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (38%), prostaglandin E2 (31%) leukotrienes C4 and D4 (15%), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (43%), and free arachidonic acid (110%) were secreted into the culture medium. Pretreatment of tachyzoites with phospholipase A2 inhibitors (4-p-bromophenacyl bromide and quinacrine) and no calcium in the culture medium resulted in inhibition of tachyzoite penetration into the macrophages and a decrease of the arachidonic acid metabolism. The triggering of the arachidonic acid cascade by T. gondii was dependent on the active penetration of the parasites into the macrophages, whereas preincubation of the macrophages with phospholipase A2 inhibitors did not affect penetration or free arachidonic acid release, thereby supporting a role for parasite phospholipase in the penetration process and in arachidonic acid mobilization from macrophage membrane phospholipids. Moreover, treatment of macrophages with phospholipase A2 inhibitors decreased the activities of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, also suggesting an activation of host cell phospholipase A2 by the parasite. PMID:8454347

  2. Effects of opsonization and gamma interferon on growth of Brucella melitensis 16M in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eze, M O; Yuan, L; Crawford, R M; Paranavitana, C M; Hadfield, T L; Bhattacharjee, A K; Warren, R L; Hoover, D L

    2000-01-01

    Entry of opsonized pathogens into phagocytes may benefit or, paradoxically, harm the host. Opsonization may trigger antimicrobial mechanisms such as reactive oxygen or nitric oxide (NO) production but may also provide a safe haven for intracellular replication. Brucellae are natural intramacrophage pathogens of rodents, ruminants, dogs, marine mammals, and humans. We evaluated the role of opsonins in Brucella-macrophage interactions by challenging cultured murine peritoneal macrophages with Brucella melitensis 16M treated with complement- and/or antibody-rich serum. Mouse serum rich in antibody against Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (aLPS) and human complement-rich serum (HCS) each enhanced the macrophage uptake of brucellae. Combinations of suboptimal levels of aLPS (0. 01%) and HCS (2%) synergistically enhanced uptake. The intracellular fate of ingested bacteria was evaluated with an optimal concentration of gentamicin (2 microg/ml) to control extracellular growth but not kill intracellular bacteria. Bacteria opsonized with aLPS and/or HCS grew equally well inside macrophages in the absence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Macrophage activation with IFN-gamma inhibited replication of both opsonized and nonopsonized brucellae but was less effective in inhibiting replication of nonopsonized bacteria. IFN-gamma treatment of macrophages with opsonized or nonopsonized bacteria enhanced NO production, which was blocked by N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine (MMLA), an NO synthesis inhibitor. MMLA also partially blocked IFN-gamma-mediated bacterial growth inhibition. These studies suggest that primary murine macrophages have limited ability to control infection with B. melitensis, even when activated by IFN-gamma in the presence of highly opsonic concentrations of antibody and complement. Additional cellular immune responses, e.g., those mediated by cytotoxic T cells, may play more important roles in the control of murine brucellosis. PMID:10603396

  3. Rates of utilization of glucose, glutamine and oleate and formation of end-products by mouse peritoneal macrophages in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Newsholme, P; Newsholme, E A

    1989-01-01

    1. The metabolism of mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages was studied in culture for up to 96 h. 2. The rates of glycolysis, lactate formation and glutamine utilization were approximately linear with time for at least 80 h of culture. 3. The rates of glucose and glutamine utilization by cultured macrophages were approx. 500 and 90 nmol/h per mg of protein respectively. This rate of glucose utilization is at least 50% greater than that previously reported for macrophages during 60 min incubation in a shaking flask; and it is now increased by addition of glutamine to the culture medium. The rate of glutamine utilization in culture is similar to that previously reported for macrophages during 60 min incubation. The major end-product of glucose metabolism is lactate, and those of glutamine metabolism are CO2, glutamate, ammonia and alanine. 4. Oleate was utilized by these cells: 14C from [14C]oleate was incorporated into CO2 and cellular lipid. The highest rate of oleate utilization was observed when both glucose and glutamine were present in the culture medium. The presence of oleate in the culture medium did not affect the rates of utilization of either glucose or glutamine. Of the [14C]oleate incorporated into lipid, approx. 80% was incorporated into triacylglycerol and only 18% into phospholipid. 5. The turnover rate for the total ATP content of the macrophage in culture is about 10 times per minute: the value for the perfused isolated maximally working rat heart is 22. This indicates a high metabolic rate for macrophages, and consequently emphasizes the importance of the provision of fuels for their function in an immune response. PMID:2775207

  4. Adherence of Legionella pneumophila to guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, J774 mouse macrophages, and undifferentiated U937 human monocytes: role of Fc and complement receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, L K; Johnson, W

    1992-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a facultative intracellular pathogen of alveolar macrophages. Although previous studies have demonstrated that specific antibody facilitates uptake of L. pneumophila by phagocytic cells, the role of complement has been unclear. Thus, we have examined the relative contributions of Fc gamma- and complement receptor-mediated adherence to guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, U937 human monocytic cells, and J774 mouse macrophage cells. Opsonization of L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 2) with polyclonal immunoglobulin G promoted maximum adherence to guinea pig macrophages. In contrast, incubation in the presence of 20% fresh nonimmune human serum from a single donor did not promote adherence. The results obtained with U937 and J774 cells paralleled those obtained with guinea pig macrophages. In the absence of specific antibody, opsonization with guinea pig complement did not enhance adherence of the Philadelphia 1, Philadelphia 2, or Knoxville strain. However, when complement was added to heat-inactivated, specific antiserum, a fourfold increase in the number of adherent organisms was observed. Blocking studies utilizing membrane receptor-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that both Fc and complement receptors mediated adherence of organisms treated with complement in the presence of specific antibody. These results suggest that complement augments adherence of L. pneumophila only when acting in concert with specific antibody. PMID:1452353

  5. Immunomodulatory action of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis: stimulation of activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Stepanov, Vadim G; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2010-12-01

    Six monosulfated triterpene glycosides, frondoside A1 (1), okhotoside B1 (2), okhotoside A1-1 (3), frondoside A (4), okhotoside A2-1 (5) and cucumarioside A2-5 (6), isolated from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, stimulate spreading and lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages and ROS-formation in the macrophages. The highest macrophage spreading and stimulation of their lysosomal activity was induced by glycosides 1, 4 and 6. All glycosides similarly stimulate ROS formation in macrophages, but glycoside 2 caused minimal stimulation. PMID:21299111

  6. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Ja; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Hyun-Ji; Kang, JongWook; Lee, Beom Su; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found that alpha-pinene (α-pinene) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. α-Pinene is found in the oils of many coniferous trees and rosemary. We investigated the inhibitory effects of α-Pinene on inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using mouse peritoneal macrophages. α-Pinene significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). α-Pinene also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, the activations of MAPKs and NF-κB were attenuated by means of α-pinene treatment. These results indicate that α-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect and that it is a potential candidate as a new drug to treat various inflammatory diseases. PMID:26119957

  7. The toxic effects of indoor atmospheric fine particulate matter collected from allergic and non-allergic families in Wuhan on mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yan, Biao; Li, Jinquan; Guo, Junhui; Ma, Ping; Wu, Zhuo; Ling, ZhenHao; Guo, Hai; Hiroshi, Yoshino; Yanagi, U; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Shengwei; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and PM2.5-induced oxidative stress is now commonly known as a proposed mechanism of PM2.5-mediated toxicity. However, the association between allergic symptoms in children and exposure to PM2.5 has not been fully elucidated, particularly the role of PM2.5 on the indoor environment involved in allergy or non-allergy is unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore whether indoor PM2.5 from the homes of children with allergic symptoms had more increased risks of allergy than that of healthy ones and then compare the toxicity and inflammatory response of them. In this study, indoor PM2.5 was collected from the homes of schoolchildren with allergic symptoms and those of healthy ones respectively, and components of PM2.5 were analyzed. PM2.5-mediated oxidative damage and inflammatory response were further evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages based on its effects on the levels of reactive oxygen species accumulation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage or cytokine production. It seems that oxidative stress may contribute to PM2.5-induced toxicity, and PM2.5 from the allergic indoor environment produced more serious toxic effects and an inflammatory response on mouse peritoneal macrophages than that from a non-allergic indoor environment. PMID:26304222

  8. Amelioration of oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages by Hippophae salicifolia due to its proton (H+) donation capability: Ex vivo and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mainak; Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Das, Avratanu; Bala, Asis; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study evaluates the antioxidant effect of methanol extract of Hippophae salicifolia (MEHS) bark with special emphasis on its role on oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Material and Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was estimated by standard antioxidant assays whereas the antioxidant activity concluded the H+ donating capacity. Mouse erythrocytes’ hemolysis and peritoneal macrophages’ DNA damage were determined spectrophotometrically. In vivo antioxidant activity of MEHS was determined in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice by studying its effect on superoxide anion production in macrophages cells, superoxide dismutase in the cell lysate, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and reduces glutathione. Results: The extract showed good in vitro antioxidant activities whereas the inhibitory concentrations values ranged from 5.80 to 106.5 μg/ml. MEHS significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the oxidative DNA damage. It also attenuated the oxidative conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin and elevation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant in cells. Conclusion: The result indicates MEHS has good in vitro-in vivo antioxidant property as well as the protective effect on DNA and red blood cell may be due to its H+ donating property. PMID:27413349

  9. HUMAN ALVEOLAR AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES MEDIATE FUNGISTASIS INDEPENDENTLY OF L-ARGININE OXIDATION TO NITRITE OR NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human alveolar macrophages (HAM) from 28 normal volunteers were found to inhibit replication of Cryptoccous neoformans. onditions under which fungistasis occurred were different than those required for mouse peritoneal macrophage-mediated fungi stasis. nhibition of fungal replica...

  10. Effect of aflatoxins on rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, V; Costa, G B; Seminara, S

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Candida albicans, and superoxide production by rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, B2a, and M1 at several times and concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the intensity of a depressive effect for each mycotoxin. All aflatoxins used at very low concentrations had a depressive effect on the functions of macrophages. The biggest impairment of phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and spontaneous superoxide production was observed in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1 and M1. PMID:2176448

  11. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, T; Blumenstock, E; Kanegasaki, S

    1981-01-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria. Images PMID:6788707

  12. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins from the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, T.; Yokode, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Narumiya, S.; Kawai, C.

    1986-05-01

    Cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit induced marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. This WHHL rabbit, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, has severe hypercholesterolemia, cutaneous xanthomas, and fulminant atherosclerosis due to the deficiency of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, the VLDL from WHHL rabbit (WHHL-VLDL) stimulated cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate synthesis 124-fold more than did VLDL from the normal Japanese White rabbit (control-VLDL). The enhancement in cholesteryl ester synthesis and accumulation of WHHL-VLDL was due to the presence of a high affinity binding receptor site on the macrophage cell surface that mediated the uptake and lysosomal degradation of WHHL-VLDL. Competition studies showed that the uptake and degradation of /sup 125/I-WHHL-VLDL was inhibited by unlabeled excess WHHL-VLDL and beta-migrating VLDL (beta-VLDL), but not LDL. Furthermore, the degradation of WHHL-VLDL was not blocked by either fucoidin, polyinosinic acid, or polyguanylic acid, potent inhibitors of the acetylated (acetyl)-LDL binding site, or by acetyl-LDL. These results suggest that macrophages possess a high affinity receptor that recognizes the cholesterol-rich VLDL present in the plasma of the WHHL rabbit and that the receptor which mediates ingestion of WHHL-VLDL seems to be the same as that for beta-VLDL and leads to cholesteryl ester deposition within macrophages. Thus, the uptake of the cholesterol-rich VLDL from the WHHL rabbit by macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the WHHL rabbit.

  13. Esculin exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and regulated TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro through MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Xiumei; Mu, Qingli; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Esculin, a coumarinic derivative found in Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse-chestnut), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is designed to investigate the protective effects of esculin on various inflammation models in vivo and in vitro and to clarify the possible mechanism. Induced-animal models of inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mouse peritoneal macrophages were used to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of esculin. In present study, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy were attenuated by esculin. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant were reduced by esculin. Meanwhile, we found that esculin significantly inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro, which may involve the inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Esculin may be a promising preventive agent for inflammatory diseases in human. PMID:26391063

  14. Immunoregulation by macrophages II. Separation of mouse peritoneal macrophages having tumoricidal and bactericidal activities and those secreting PGE and interleukin I

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, K.E.; Cahill, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    Macrophage subpopulations having bactericidal or tumoricidal activities and secreting interleukin I (IL1) or prostaglandin E (PGE) were identified through primary or secondary infection with Salmonella enteritidis and separated by sedimentation velocity. Bactericidal activity was measured by (3H)-thymidine release from Listeria monocytogenes and tumoricidal activity by 51Cr-release from C-4 fibrosarcoma or P815 mastocytoma cells. Macrophages with bactericidal activity were distinguished from those with tumoricidal activity a) during secondary infection when cytolytic activity occurred only at days 1-4 post injection and bactericidal activity remained high throughout and b) after sedimentation velocity separation. Cytolysis was consistently greatest among adherent cells of low sedimentation velocity, whereas cells with bactericidal activity increased in size during the infection. Tumour cytostasis (inhibition and promotion of (3H)-thymidine uptake) differed from cytolysis in that the former was more prolonged during infection and was also detected among large cells. Secretion of immunoregulatory molecules PGE and IL1 occurred maximally among different macrophage subpopulations separated by sedimentation velocity and depending on the type of stimulus used in vitro. There was an inverse correlation between IL1 production and PGE production after stimulation with C3-zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The development of immunity during infection may therefore be dependent upon the relative proportions of effector and regulatory macrophage subpopulations and the selective effects of environmental stimuli on these functions.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  17. Protein kinase C α inhibition prevents peritoneal damage in a mouse model of chronic peritoneal exposure to high-glucose dialysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Balzer, Michael S; Rong, Song; Menne, Jan; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Dong, Lei; Gueler, Faikah; Jang, Mi-Sun; Xu, Gang; Timrott, Kai; Tkachuk, Sergey; Hiss, Marcus; Haller, Hermann; Shushakova, Nelli

    2016-06-01

    Chronic exposure to commercial glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids during peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal membrane damage leading to ultrafiltration failure. In this study the role of protein kinase C (PKC) α in peritoneal membrane damage was investigated in a mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. We used 2 different approaches: blockade of biological activity of PKCα by intraperitoneal application of the conventional PKC inhibitor Go6976 in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and PKCα-deficient mice on a 129/Sv genetic background. Daily administration of peritoneal dialysis fluid for 5 weeks induced peritoneal upregulation and activation of PKCα accompanied by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and macrophage and T cell infiltration, paralleled by reduced ultrafiltration capacity. All pathological changes were prevented by PKCα blockade or deficiency. Moreover, treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency resulted in strong reduction of proinflammatory, profibrotic, and proangiogenic mediators. In cell culture experiments, both treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency prevented peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced release of MCP-1 from mouse peritoneal mesothelial cells and ameliorated transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced MCP-1 release in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Thus, PKCα plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of peritoneal membrane dysfunction induced by peritoneal dialysis fluids, and we suggest that its therapeutic inhibition might be a valuable treatment option for peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27142955

  18. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:27421105

  19. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. volatile oil exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Fan, Te; Zhou, Ping; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

    2013-11-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) is a medicinal herb that generally used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating allergic inflammation. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the volatile oil from HC Thunb. on animal models of inflammation and the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema were significantly decreased by HC volatile oil. HC volatile oil showed pronounced inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and malondialdehyde production in the edematous exudates. In vitro exposure of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages to 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL of HC volatile oil significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to HC volatile oil had no effect on cell viability and systemic toxicity. Furthermore, HC volatile oil inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α by down-regulating LPS-stimulated iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression. Western blot analysis showed that HC volatile oil attenuated LPS-stimulated synthesis of iNOS and TNF-α protein in the macrophages, in parallel. These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of HC and clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:23280586

  20. β-(1→3)-Glucan of the Southern Bracket Mushroom, Ganoderma australe (Agaricomycetes), Stimulates Phagocytosis and Interleukin-6 Production in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Renan Henrique; do Amaral, Alex Evangelista; Menolli, Rafael Andrade; Ayala, Thais Soprani; de Cassia Garcia Simao, Rita; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixao; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Kadowaki, Marina Kimiko; da Conceicao Silva, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma australe was studied to determine the composition of the cell wall, and polysaccharide fraction SK5 was obtained after freeze-thawing an aqueous 5% potassium hydroxide extraction. The monosaccharide composition of the SK5 fraction revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed 81.3% glucose, and analyses by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed a β-glucan with glycosidic links of the (1→3)-β type and most likely 4-O substituted. In addition, the biological effect of the β-glucan from G. australe was evaluated via in vitro cell cultures of peritoneal macrophages isolated from Swiss mice. Biological assays were assessed for toxicity and cell activation, interleukin-6 cytokine concentrations, and the ability to stimulate phagocytic activity. There was an increase in interleukin-6 by approximately 111% with 1.0 µg/mL of polysaccharide, and phagocyte activity was increased in all concentrations examined, obtaining 52.3% with 0.25 µg/mL polysaccharide. The results indicate that a β-(1→3)-glucan isolated from G. australe can be classified as a biological response modifier. PMID:27481297

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-06-01

    This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719μg/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5μg/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219μg/g dry weight), morin (101±68μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42μg/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-γ+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

  2. Sepsis-Induced Potentiation of Peritoneal Macrophage Migration is mitigated by PD-1 Gene Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Alfred; Elphick, Gwendolyn F.; Kim, Ye Sul; Huang, Xin; Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Santos, Sadella C.; Shubin, Nicholas; Chen, Yaping; Reichner, Jonathan; Chung, Chun-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1’s effect on phagocyte function has not been extensively described. Here we report that experimental mouse sepsis, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), induced a marked increase in peritoneal macrophage random migration/ motility/ cell spread, but these changes were lost in the absence of PD-1. Alternatively, phagocytic activity was inversely affected. In vitro cell culture imaging studies, with the macrophage cell line J774, documented that blocking PD-1 with antibody led to aggregation of cytoskeletal proteins alphaactinin and F-actin. Further experiments looking at ex vivo peritoneal macrophages from mice illustrated that a similar pattern of alpha-actinin and F-actin was evident on cells from wild-type CLP mice but not PD-1 −/− CLP mouse cells. We also observed that fMLP-induced migration by J774 cells was markedly attenuated using PD-1 blocking antibodies, a non-selective phosphatase inhibitor and a selective Rap1 inhibitor. Finally, peritoneal macrophages derived from CLP as opposed to Sham mice demonstrated aspects of both cell surface co-localization with CD11b and internalization of PD-1 within vacuoles independent of CD11b staining. Together, we believe the data support a role for PD-1 in mediating aspects of innate macrophage immune dysfunction during sepsis, heretofore unappreciated. PMID:24247196

  3. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta on accumulation of inflammatory peritoneal macrophages in mice treated with pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Torre, D; Speranza, F; Pugliese, A; Tambini, R

    1990-01-01

    In this study we report that treatment with recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) (10 U per mouse, intraperitoneally) significantly increased the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with pertussis toxin (PT) (1 micrograms per mouse, intravenously). The administration of rIL-1 beta in a single intraperitoneal dose (10 U per mouse) 1 or 2 days before challenge with PT did not prevent the decrease in the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice. On the other hand, the simultaneous administration of rIL-1 beta and PT, as well as the administration of rIL-1 beta 24 h after injection of PT, significantly counteracted the inhibitory effect of PT on inflammatory peritoneal macrophages. PMID:2254036

  4. Effect of Kramecyne on the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Miranda, E.; Lemus-Bautista, J.; Pérez, S.; Pérez-Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Kramecyne is a new peroxide, it was isolated from Krameria cytisoides, methanol extract, and this plant was mostly found in North and South America. This compound showed potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, the mechanisms by which this compound exerts its anti-inflammatory effect are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of kramecyne on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that kramecyne inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6. During the inflammatory process, levels of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, kramecyne suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23573152

  5. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  6. Fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, V; Meera, R; Puvanakrishnan, R; Narayanan, P R

    1997-10-01

    Rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the fate of M. tuberculosis inside macrophages was monitored. Alteration in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) measured in terms of nitrite formed, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lysosomal enzymes such as acid phosphatase, cathepsin-D and beta-glucuronidase in macrophages following M. tuberculosis infection was also studied. Elevation in the levels of nitrite were observed from 72 h of M. tuberculosis infection. Irrespective of the time point, M. tuberculosis infected macrophages produced elevated levels of H2O2. Maximum increase in the level of acid phosphatase was observed from 72 h of M. tuberculosis infection, whereas maximum elevation in the level of beta-glucuronidase was observed 48 h after M. tuberculosis infection. However these microbicidal agents did not alter the intracellular viability of M. tuberculosis. PMID:9350049

  7. Transcriptional switching in macrophages associated with the peritoneal foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane E; Summers, Kim M; Gongora, Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Campbell, Julie H; Hume, David A; Rolfe, Barbara E

    2014-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that myeloid cells are the source of fibrotic tissue induced by foreign material implanted in the peritoneal cavity. This study utilised the MacGreen mouse, in which the Csf1r promoter directs myeloid-specific enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, to determine the temporal gene expression profile of myeloid subpopulations recruited to the peritoneal cavity to encapsulate implanted foreign material (cubes of boiled egg white). Cells with high EGFP expression (EGFP(hi)) were purified from exudate and encapsulating tissue at different times during the foreign body response, gene expression profiles determined using cDNA microarrays, and data clustered using the network analysis tool, Biolayout Express(3D). EGFP(hi) cells from all time points expressed high levels of Csf1r, Emr1 (encoding F4/80), Cd14 and Itgam (encoding Mac-1) providing internal validation of their myeloid nature. Exudate macrophages (days 4-7) expressed a large cluster of cell cycle genes; these were switched off in capsule cells. Early in capsule formation, Csf1r-EGFP(hi) cells expressed genes associated with tissue turnover, but later expressed both pro- and anti-inflammatory genes alongside a subset of mesenchyme-associated genes, a pattern of gene expression that adds weight to the concept of a continuum of macrophage phenotypes rather than distinct M1/M2 subsets. Moreover, rather than transdifferentiating to myofibroblasts, macrophages contributing to later stages of the peritoneal foreign body response warrant their own classification as 'fibroblastoid' macrophages. PMID:24638066

  8. Identification of mouse and human macrophages as a site of synthesis of hepatic lipase.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Herminia; Nong, Zengxuan; Freeman, Lita; Bensadoun, André; Peterson, Katherine; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia

    2002-05-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is synthesized by the liver and is also present in steroidogenic tissues. As both a lipolytic enzyme and a ligand that facilitates the cellular uptake of lipoproteins, HL plays a major role in lipoprotein metabolism and may modulate atherogenic risk. However, HL has not been directly implicated in lesion development. In the present study we demonstrate that HL is also synthesized by mouse and human macrophages. Northern analysis and real time RT-PCR showed that HL mRNA is present in mouse peritoneal macrophages, RAW-264.7, and IC-21 cells. The levels of HL mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages were approximately 10-30% that of mouse liver. HL protein was identified by Western blot analyses in human monocyte-derived macrophages, THP, RAW-264.7, and mouse peritoneal macrophages following fractionation by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography. These combined findings establish that HL is synthesized de novo by macrophages as well as liver, and raises the possibility that HL may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:11971936

  9. Interaction of bioactive glasses with peritoneal macrophages and monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, M; Hench, L; Cannas, M

    2002-04-01

    Macrophage activation was analyzed following exposure to pure, crystalline alpha-quartz powders, two bioactive gel-glass powders of different compositions, and a melt-derived glass, 45S5 Bioglass. The release of reactive oxygen metabolites (chemiluminescence test), modifications of cell morphology, the amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secreted, and the amount of TNFalpha mRNA expression were evaluated. The 45S5 Bioglass powders elicited the highest chemiluminescence response while the two solgel glasses had a lower response with less of an oxidative burst difference between them. Particulate bioactive glasses are actively ingested by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and only the 58S solgel glass had a moderate toxic effect on the macrophages. Macrophage cell morphology showed increased size and cell spreading, consistent with the high level of cytokine secretion induced by 45S5 Bioglass. The 45S5 Bioglass powders led to an increased release of TNFalpha and expression of TNFalpha mRNA relative to unstimulated and control treated monocytes. Bioactive glasses (and particularly 45S5 Bioglass) that in vivo induce rapid bone growth appear to activate an autocrine-like process in which the response evoked by the material (for example monocyte and macrophage activation with cytokine production) enhances subsequent interactions with cells in contact with the material. PMID:11835162

  10. A Role for Connexin43 in Macrophage Phagocytosis and Host Survival after Bacterial Peritoneal Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Gribar, Steven C.; Richardson, Ward; Kohler, Jeff W.; Hoffman, Rosemary A.; Branca, Maria F.; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The pathways that lead to the internalization of pathogens via phagocytosis remain incompletely understood. We now demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in the regulation of phagocytosis by macrophages and in the host response to bacterial infection of the peritoneal cavity. Primary and cultured macrophages were found to express Cx43, which localized to the phagosome upon the internalization of IgG-opsonized particles. The inhibition of Cx43 using small interfering RNA or by obtaining macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or knockout mice resulted in significantly impaired phagocytosis, while transfection of Cx43 into Fc-receptor expressing HeLa cells, which do not express endogenous Cx43, conferred the ability of these cells to undergo phagocytosis. Infection of macrophages with adenoviruses expressing wild-type Cx43 restored phagocytic ability in macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or deficient mice, while infection with viruses that expressed mutant Cx43 had no effect. In understanding the mechanisms involved, Cx43 was required for RhoA-dependent actin cup formation under adherent particles, and transfection with constitutively active RhoA restored a phagocytic phenotype after Cx43 inactivation. Remarkably, mortality was significantly increased in a mouse model of bacterial peritonitis after Cx43 inhibition and in Cx43 heterozygous mice compared with untreated and wild-type counterparts. These findings reveal a novel role for Cx43 in the regulation of phagocytosis and rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton, and they implicate Cx43 in the regulation of the host response to microbial infection. PMID:19050272

  11. Intra- and extracellular activities of dicloxacillin and linezolid against a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain with a small-colony-variant phenotype in an in vitro model of THP-1 macrophages and an in vivo mouse peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Anne; Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Hughes, Diarmaid; von Eiff, Christof; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-04-01

    The small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with difficult-to-treat infections, reduced antimicrobial susceptibility, and intracellular persistence. This study represents a detailed intra- and extracellular investigation of a clinical wild-type (WT) S. aureus strain and its counterpart with an SCV phenotype both in vitro and in vivo, using the THP-1 cell line model and the mouse peritonitis model, respectively. Bacteria of both phenotypes infected the mouse peritoneum intra- and extracellularly. The SCV phenotype was less virulent and showed distinct bacterial clearance, a reduced multiplication capacity, and a reduced internalization ability. However, some of the SCV-infected mice were still culture positive up to 96 h postinfection, and bacteria of this phenotype could spread to the mouse kidney and furthermore revert to the more virulent WT phenotype in both the mouse peritoneum and kidney. The SCV phenotype is therefore, despite reduced virulence, an important player in S. aureus pathogenesis. In the THP-1 cell line model, both dicloxacillin (DCX) and linezolid (LZD) reduced the intracellular inocula of bacteria of both phenotypes by approximately 1 to 1.5 log(10) in vitro, while DCX was considerably more effective against extracellular bacteria. In the mouse peritonitis model, DCX and LZD were also able to control both intra- and extracellular infections caused by either phenotype. Treatment with a single dose of DCX and LZD was, however, insufficient to clear the SCVs in the kidneys, and the risk of recurrent infection remained. This stresses the importance of an optimal dosing of the antibiotic when SCVs are present. PMID:21282430

  12. Estradiol Is a Critical Mediator of Macrophage-Nerve Cross Talk in Peritoneal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Erin; Temp, Julia; Esnal-Zufiurre, Arantza; Mechsner, Sylvia; Horne, Andrew W.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis occurs in approximately 10% of women and is associated with persistent pelvic pain. It is defined by the presence of endometrial tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the peritoneum. Peripheral neuroinflammation, a process characterized by the infiltration of nerve fibers and macrophages into lesions, plays a pivotal role in endometriosis-associated pain. Our objective was to determine the role of estradiol (E2) in regulating the interaction between macrophages and nerves in peritoneal endometriosis. By using human tissues and a mouse model of endometriosis, we demonstrate that macrophages in lesions recovered from women and mice are immunopositive for estrogen receptor β, with up to 20% being estrogen receptor α positive. In mice, treatment with E2 increased the number of macrophages in lesions as well as concentrations of mRNAs encoded by Csf1, Nt3, and the tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptor, TrkB. By using in vitro models, we determined that the treatment of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons with E2 increased mRNA concentrations of the chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 that stimulated migration of colony-stimulating factor 1–differentiated macrophages. Conversely, incubation of colony-stimulating factor 1 macrophages with E2 increased concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3, which stimulated neurite outgrowth from ganglia explants. In summary, we demonstrate a key role for E2 in stimulating macrophage-nerve interactions, providing novel evidence that endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent neuroinflammatory disorder. PMID:26073038

  13. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP. PMID:26529190

  14. Optimization on conditions of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposome by RSM and its effects on the peritoneal macrophages function.

    PubMed

    Bo, Ruonan; Ma, Xia; Feng, Yibo; Zhu, Qian; Huang, Yee; Liu, Zhenguang; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposome (LBPL) by response surface methodology (RSM) and to investigate the effect of LBPL activating function of peritoneal macrophages. LBPL was prepared using the reverse-phase evaporation method. The optimal preparation conditions of LBPL by RSM were as follows: the ratio of lipid to drug (w/w) of 25:1, the ultrasound time of 14 min and the ratio of soybean phospholipids to cholesterol (w/w) of 2.4:1. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of LBPL was 86.37±0.63%, which was close to the predicted value. These indicated that LBPL with high entrapping efficiency and small particle size could be prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method, which is applied easily. Furthermore, macrophages are the key players in the innate immune system. LBPL could effectively enhance peritoneal macrophages phagocytosis and resulted in inducing NO (nitric oxide) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25498628

  15. Vagal nerve stimulation blocks peritoneal macrophage inflammatory responsiveness after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Nicole E; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Costantini, Todd W; De Maio, Antonio; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

    2012-08-01

    Large surface area burn injuries lead to activation of the innate immune system, which can be blocked by parasympathetic inputs mediated by the vagus nerve. We hypothesized that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would alter the inflammatory response of peritoneal macrophages after severe burn injury. Male BALB/c mice underwent right cervical VNS before 30% total body surface area steam burn and were compared with animals subjected to burn alone. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested at several time points following injury and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in culture conditions. The inflammatory response of peritoneal macrophages was measured by analyzing changes in nuclear factor κB p65 phosphorylation using flow cytometry. We found that peritoneal macrophages isolated from mice subjected to burn injury were hyperresponsive to LPS challenge, suggesting burn-induced macrophage activation. We identified a protective role for VNS in blocking peritoneal macrophage activation. Analysis of the phosphorylation state of nuclear factor κB pathway mediator, p65 Rel A, revealed a VNS-mediated reduction in p65 phosphorylation levels after exposure to LPS compared with burn alone. In combination, these studies suggest VNS mediates the inflammatory response in peritoneal macrophages by affecting the set point of LPS responsiveness. PMID:22683732

  16. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72h functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.

  17. Ternatin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, inhibits thioglycolate-elicited rat peritoneal neutrophil accumulation and LPS-activated nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rao, V S N; Paiva, L A F; Souza, M F; Campos, A R; Ribeiro, R A; Brito, G A C; Teixeira, M J; Silveira, E R

    2003-09-01

    Ternatin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid from Egletes viscosa Less., was examined for its possible influence on thioglycolate-elicited neutrophil influx into the rat peritoneal cavity in vivo and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages ex vivo. The neutrophil influx induced by thioglycolate was found to be significantly lower in ternatin (25 and 50 mg/kg, s. c.) pre-treated rats with a similar magnitude of inhibition produced by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, s. c.), a known anti-inflammatory agent. Also, peritoneal macrophages from ternatin (25 mg/kg)-treated mice that were exposed to LPS demonstrated significantly less production of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that ternatin exerts its anti-inflammatory action, at least in part, through inhibition of neutrophil migration and modulation of macrophage function. PMID:14598213

  18. Expression of the Homeobox Gene HOXA9 in Ovarian Cancer Induces Peritoneal Macrophages to Acquire an M2 Tumor-Promoting Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Song Yi; Ladanyi, Andras; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24332016

  19. Host and Bacterial Factors Involved in the Innate Ability of Mouse Macrophages To Eliminate Internalized Unopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Terri S.; Havell, Edward A.; Horton, John R.; Orndorff, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to better understand genetic and cellular factors that influence innate immunity, we examined host and bacterial factors involved in the nonopsonic phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by mouse macrophages. Unelicited (resident) peritoneal macrophages from five different mouse strains, BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, C3H/HeJ, and C3H/HeN, were employed. Additional macrophage populations were obtained from CD-1 mice (bone marrow-derived macrophages). Also, for BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, peritoneal macrophages elicited with either thioglycolate or proteose peptone, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and macrophage-like cell lines derived from the two strains were employed. Two E. coli K-12 strains that differed specifically in their abilities to produce type 1 pili containing the adhesive protein FimH were examined. The parameters used to assess macrophage bacteriocidal activity were (i) the killing of internalized (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during the approximately 4-h assay and (ii) the initial rate at which internalized E. coli were eliminated. Data on these parameters allowed the following conclusions: (i) unelicited or proteose peptone-elicited peritoneal macrophages were significantly better at eliminating internalized bacteria than thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages, or macrophage cell lines; (ii) the host genetic background had no significant effect upon the ability of unelicited peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli (even though the mouse strains differ widely in their in vivo susceptibilities to bacterial infection); and (iii) the FimH phenotype had no significant effect upon E. coli survival once the bacterium was inside a macrophage. Additionally, there was no correlation between the bacteriocidal effectiveness of a macrophage population and the number of bacteria bound per macrophage. However, macrophage populations that were the least bacteriocidal tended to bind higher ratios of FimH+ to Fim

  20. CD36 and Proteoglycan-Mediated Pathways for (n-3) Fatty Acid–Enriched Triglyceride-Rich Particle Blood Clearance in Mouse Models In Vivo and in Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro1,2

    PubMed Central

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Carpentier, Yvon A.; Racine, Radjini; Murray, Faith M.; Seo, Toru; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Because the mechanisms of (n-3) fatty acid–enriched triglyceride-rich particle [(n-3)-TGRP] uptake are not well characterized, we questioned whether (n-3)-TGRP are removed via “nonclassical” pathways, e.g., pathways other than an LDL receptor and/or involving apolipoprotein E (apoE). Chylomicron-sized model (n-3)-TGRP labeled with [3H]cholesteryl ether were injected into wild-type (WT) and CD36 knockout (CD36−/−) mice at low, nonsaturating and high, saturating doses. Blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP was determined by calculating fractional catabolic rates. At saturating doses, blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP was slower in CD36−/− mice relative to WT mice, suggesting that in part CD36 contributes to (n-3)-TGRP uptake. To further examine the potential nonclassical clearance pathways, peritoneal-elicited macrophages from WT and CD36−/− mice were incubated with (n-3)-TGRP in the presence of apoE, lactoferrin, and/or sodium chlorate. Cellular (n-3)-TGRP uptake was measured to test the roles of apoE-mediated pathways and/or proteoglycans. ApoE-mediated pathways compensated in part for defective (n-3)-TGRP uptake in CD36−/− cells. Lactoferrin decreased (n-3)-TGRP uptake in the presence of apoE. Inhibition of cell proteoglycan synthesis by chlorate reduced (n-3)-TGRP uptake in both groups of macrophages, and chlorate effects were independent of apoE. We conclude that although CD36 is involved, it is not the primary contributor to the blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP. The removal of (n-3)-TGRP likely relies more on nonclassical pathways, such as proteoglycan-mediated pathways. PMID:18203888

  1. Beauveriolides, specific inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages, produced by Beauveria sp. FO-6979.

    PubMed

    Namatame, I; Tomoda, H; Si, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Masuma, R; Omura, S

    1999-01-01

    Beauveria sp. FO-6979, a soil isolate, was found to produce inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. A new compound beauveriolide III was isolated along with a known compound beauveriolide I from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Beauveriolides I and III caused a reduction in the number and size of cytosolic lipid droplets in macrophages at 10 microM without any cytotoxic effect on macrophages. PMID:10092189

  2. Enantioselective analysis of D- and L-amino acids from mouse macrophages using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shiro; Masuda, Yuki; Konishi, Morichika; Oikawa, Tadao

    2015-12-10

    The intrinsic D-amino acid profile of mouse macrophages extracted from the peritoneal cavity was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Six D-amino acids (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Leu, D-Gln and D-Lys) were detected in cell lysates of mouse macrophages. The content and the D/D+L ratio differed depending on the type of D-amino acid and were approximately 3.5-22 nmol/g cells, and approximately 1-20%, respectively. The D-amino acid composition of RAW 264.7 cells, which is a model macrophage cell line, was similar to that of the mouse macrophage. These results suggest that macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells with macrophage-like functions have a similar D-amino acid profile. PMID:25982753

  3. Expression and preliminary functional analysis of Siglec-F on mouse macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yin-he; Mao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-F is a mouse functional paralog of human Siglec-8 that induces apoptosis in human eosinophils, and therefore may be useful as the basis of treatments for a variety of disorders associated with eosinophil hyperactivity, such as asthma. The expression pattern and functions of this protein in various cell types remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Siglec-F on mouse macrophages by immunocytochemical staining, and also to investigate the effects of Siglec-F engagement by a Siglec-F antibody on phagocytic activity of macrophages. The results showed that Siglec-F expression was detected on mouse alveolar macrophages, but not on peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, Siglec-F engagement did not affect the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages in the resting state or in the activated state following stimulation by the proinflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Siglec-F expression on alveolar macrophages may be a result of adaptation. Macrophages actively regulate immune responses via production of cytokines. Therefore, further investigation of the effects of Siglec-F engagement on immune mediators or cytokines released by alveolar macrophages is required. PMID:22556177

  4. Electron microscopic study on the interaction between normal guinea pig peritoneal macrophages and Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, R A; Veltri, B J; Canonico, P G; Shirey, F G; Walker, J S

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscopic study was conducted to explore the interaction between normal guinea pig peritoneal macrophages and phase I and II Coxeilla burnetii previously treated with either normal or immune serum. A comparison was made on the efficiency of phagocytosis and subsequent killing of rickettsiae by macrophages. Both phases of rickettsiae previously treated with normal serum multiplied within phagosomes after phagocytosis with resultant destruction of macrophages. In contrast, suspending rickettsiae in immune serum rendered them more susceptible to phagocytosis and potentiated their destruction within macrophages. Images PMID:825466

  5. Differences in peroxidase localization of rabbit peritoneal macrophages after surface adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Bodel, P. T.; Nichols, B. A.; Bainton, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike resident peritoneal macrophages, which contain peroxidase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and perinuclear cisternae (PN), macrophages elicited into the rabbit peritoneal cavity by various stimulants lack the enzyme. Since we had previously found that such peroxidase reactivity rapidly appears in the RER and PN of blood monocytes after surface adherence in vitro, we wondered whether the enzyme could be similarly produced in elicited macrophages by adherence. Cells from peritoneal exudates (96 hours after endotoxin injection) were harvested, suspended in culture medium, and allowed to adhere to fibrin-coated or plastic surfaces. Following culture for various intervals, they were fixed, incubated for peroxidase, and examined by electron microscopy. We observed that these elicited cells, which initially contained no cytochemically detectable peroxidase, acquired peroxidatic activity in the RER and PN within 2 hours after adherence in culture. Thus macrophages, like blood monocytes, may rapidly acquire peroxidase reactivity as a consequence of plasma membrane: external surface interaction. In view of this finding, it would seem unwise to use peroxidase localization as the basis for advocating the existence of two separate lines of peritoneal macrophages, as has been proposed by previous investigators. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 PMID:645814

  6. Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Resident Peritoneal Macrophages by Listeria monocytogenes Involves Listeriolysin O and TLR2*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Shahid; Goldfine, Howard; Tucker, Dawn E.; Suram, Saritha; Lenz, Laurel L.; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Girotti, Milena; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Breuel, Kevin; Williams, David L.; Leslie, Christina C.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoid production by macrophages is an early response to microbial infection that promotes acute inflammation. The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes stimulates arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid production from resident mouse peritoneal macrophages through activation of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). The ability of wild type L. monocytogenes (WTLM) to stimulate arachidonic acid release is partially dependent on the virulence factor listeriolysin O; however, WTLM and L. monocytogenes lacking listeriolysin O (ΔhlyLM) induce similar levels of cyclooxygenase 2. Arachidonic acid release requires activation of MAPKs by WTLM and ΔhlyLM. The attenuated release of arachidonic acid that is observed in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM correlates with diminished MAPK activation. WTLM but not ΔhlyLM increases intracellular calcium, which is implicated in regulation of cPLA2α. Prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin I2, and leukotriene C4 are produced by cPLA2α+/+ but not cPLA2α−/− macrophages in response to WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production is significantly lower in cPLA2α+/+ than in cPLA2α−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Treatment of infected cPLA2α+/+ macrophages with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin increases TNFα production to the level produced by cPLA2α−/− macrophages implicating prostaglandins in TNFα down-regulation. Therefore activation of cPLA2α in macrophages may impact immune responses to L. monocytogenes. PMID:18083708

  7. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.M.B.D.; Seabra, S.H.; Vallim, D.C.; Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L.; Vommaro, R.C.; Domingues, R.M.C.P.

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  8. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. PMID:26629697

  9. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. II. Peritoneal macrophage function

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, G.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.

  10. IL-33 Priming Enhances Peritoneal Macrophage Activity in Response to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Vuvi G; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2014-08-01

    IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and plays a role in the host defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In this study, we investigated the function of IL-33 and its receptor in in vitro macrophage responses to Candida albicans. Our results demonstrate that pre-sensitization of isolated peritoneal macrophages with IL-33 enhanced their pro-inflammatory cytokine production and phagocytic activity in response to C. albicans. These macrophage activities were entirely dependent on the ST2-MyD88 signaling pathway. In addition, pre-sensitization with IL-33 also increased ROS production and the subsequent killing ability of macrophages following C. albicans challenge. These results indicate that IL-33 may increase anti-fungal activity against Candida through macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms. PMID:25177252

  11. Aging affects the responsiveness of rat peritoneal macrophages to GM-CSF and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Blagojević, Veljko; Ćuruvija, Ivana; Vujnović, Ivana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Vujić, Vesna; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages undergo significant functional alterations during aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes of rat macrophage functions and response to M1/M2 polarization signals with age. Therefore, resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from young (3-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) rats were tested for phagocytic capacity and ability to secrete inflammatory mediators following in vitro stimulation with LPS and GM-CSF, and IL-4, prototypic stimulators for classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, respectively. Aging increased the frequency of monocyte-derived (CCR7+ CD68+) and the most mature (CD163+ CD68+) macrophages within resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, respectively. The ability to phagocyte zymosan of none of these two cell subsets was affected by either LPS and GM-CSF or IL-4. The upregulated production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 and downregulated that of TGF-β was observed in response to LPS in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from rats of both ages. GM-CSF elevated production of IL-1β and IL-6 in resident macrophages from aged rats and in thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats. Unexpectedly, IL-4 augmented production of proinflammatory mediators, IL-1β and IL-6, in resident macrophages from aged rats. In both resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages aging decreased NO/urea ratio, whereas LPS but not GM-SCF, shifted this ratio toward NO in the macrophages from animals of both ages. Conversely, IL-4 reduced NO/urea ratio in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats only. In conclusion, our study showed that aging diminished GM-CSF-triggered polarization of elicited macrophages and caused paradoxical IL-4-driven polarization of resident macrophages toward proinflammatory M1 phenotype. This age-related deregulation of macrophage inflammatory mediator secretion and phagocytosis in response to M1/M2

  12. POLY(1):POLY(C)-ENHANCED ALVEOLAR AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGE PHAGOCYTOSIS: QUANTIFICATION BY A NEW METHOD UTILIZING FLUOROESCENT BEADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for quantifying nonspecific phagocytosis of alveolar and peritoneal macrophages in the same animal has been developed utilizing fluorescent polystyrene beads. When incorporated into inhalation studies, the technique can be used to determine whether the toxic effect of...

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of miR-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rebecca Elise; Conklin, Daniel J; Ryan, Lindsey; Keskey, Robert C; Ramjee, Vikram; Sepulveda, Ernesto A; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Cheadle, William G

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the role of microRNA-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis; microRNA-21 expression increases in peritoneal macrophages after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but is delayed until 48 hours after cecal ligation and puncture. MicroRNA-21-null mice and bone marrow-derived cell lines were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture or lipopolysaccharide, and survival, microRNA-21 levels, target messenger RNAs and proteins, and cytokines were assayed. Macrophages were also transfected with microRNA-21 mimics and antagomirs, and similar endpoints were measured. Survival in microRNA-21-null mice was significantly decreased after lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis but unchanged after cecal ligation and puncture compared with similarly treated wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and programmed cell death protein 4 levels were increased after lipopolysaccharide addition in peritoneal cells. Pelino1 and sprouty (SPRY) messenger RNAs were similarly increased early, whereas programmed cell death protein 4 messenger RNA was decreased after lipopolysaccharide, and all microR-21 target messenger RNAs were subsequently decreased by 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide. Transfection with mimics and antagomirs led to appropriate responses in microRNA-21 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Knockdown of microRNA-21 in bone marrow-derived cells showed increased tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased interleukin 10 in response to lipopolysaccharide. Target proteins were unaffected by knockdown as was extracellular signal-regulated kinase; however, the nuclear factor κB p65 subunit was increased after lipopolysaccharide in the microRNA-21 knockout cells. In contrast, there was little change in these parameters after cecal ligation and puncture induction between null and wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 is beneficial to survival in mice following lipopolysaccharide peritonitis. Overexpression of microRNA-21 decreased tumor necrosis factor

  14. Enhanced superoxide anion production in activated peritoneal macrophages from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) exposed to PACs

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, E.; Arkoosh, M.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    In fish, as in mammals, macrophages play a vital role in the destruction of infective organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if peritoneal macrophages (M{O}s) from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), a marine benthic fish, have an altered ability to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) after exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). ROIs are the principle product of M{O}s used to destroy engulfed organisms. Assay conditions, including the concentration of M{O}s, type of in vitro stimulant, tissue culture media, and incubation time were optimized to measure the production of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{minus}), the progenitor ROI, in English sole M{O}s. English sole were injected with an organic solvent extract of a PAH-contaminated sediment, equivalent to 20g sediment/kg fish, via their dorsal lymphatic sinus, and peritoneal M{O}s were harvested on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post injection. Activated peritoneal M{O}s from English sole injected with the sediment extract produced significantly more superoxide radicals after stimulation in vitro with either opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than the vehicle injected or control fish. Specifically, activated peritoneal M{O}s stimulated with PMA in vitro produced greater amounts (compared to controls) of O{sub 2}{minus} on days 7 and 14 after exposure, whereas the same cells stimulated with OZ showed heightened production only on day 7 after exposure. No differences in the basal amounts of O{sub 2}{minus} production from activated peritoneal M{O}s between the treatment groups were observed. This study shows that exposure of English sole to PACs altered production of O{sub 2}{minus} by macrophages, however, the consequence to the immunocompetence of exposed fish remains to be elucidated.

  15. In vitro Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative stress in mice murine peritoneal macrophages: a duration-dependent approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the free radical generation and status of the antioxidant enzymes in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro vancomycin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treatment with different time interval. Methods Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 5×106 CFU/mL VSSA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide generation, antioxidant enzyme status and components of glutathione cycle were analyzed. Results Superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide generation got peak at 3 h, indicating maximum free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during VSSA infection. Reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-s-transferase activity were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of VSSA infection. But the oxidized glutathione level was time dependently increased significantly (P<0.05) in murine peritoneal macrophages. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 3 h in vitro VSSA treatment had no significant difference. Conclusions From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro VSSA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant status and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25183101

  16. Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Peptidoglycan-Induced Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Nitric Oxide in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages: Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase, a Negative Regulator ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Kunal H.; Sodhi, Ajit; Chakraborty, Rituparna

    2011-01-01

    The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO) are important host defense mechanisms against pathogens in mononuclear phagocytes. The objectives of this study were to examine the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and transcription factors (nuclear factor-κB [NF-κB] and activating protein 1 [AP-1]) in peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced iNOS expression and NO production in macrophages. PGN is a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammatory responses both ex vivo and in vivo. PGN stimulates the activation of all three classes of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38mapk in macrophages, albeit with differential activation kinetics. Using a selective inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and JNK1/2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knocked-down macrophages, it was observed that PGN-induced iNOS and NO expression is significantly inhibited. This suggested that JNK MAPK plays an essential role in PGN-induced iNOS expression and NO production. In contrast, inhibition of the ERK pathway using PD98059 dose dependently enhanced PGN-induced iNOS expression and NO production. PGN-induced ERK activation was attenuated in ERK1/2 siRNA knocked-down macrophages; however, NO and iNOS expression were significantly enhanced. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that SP600125 inhibited PGN-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation, whereas inhibition of the ERK pathway enhanced NF-κB activation, but with no effect on AP-1. These results indicate that the JNK MAPK positively regulate PGN-induced iNOS and NO expression by activating NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors, whereas the ERK pathway plays a negative regulatory role via affecting NF-κB activity. PMID:21450974

  17. Macrophages are stimulated by muramyl dipeptide to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneal cavities of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Nakanishi, M; Kutsukake, H; Yagawa, K; Kusumoto, S; Shiba, T; Tanaka, A; Kotani, S

    1990-02-01

    N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) injected intraperitoneally significantly increased the number of cells entering the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs primed with liquid paraffin or thioglycollate. There was a close relationship between peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation and the uptake of glucosamine by macrophages in guinea pigs treated with a variety of bacterial cell surface components such as cell wall peptidoglycan subunits and bacterial or synthetic lipid A. The PMN accumulation was also facilitated by the intraperitoneal transfer of the peritoneal macrophages that had been stimulated by MDP in vitro. Furthermore, cell-free lavage fluids taken from the peritoneum of MDP-treated guinea pigs also initiated the influx of PMNs when introduced into the peritoneal cavities of liquid paraffin-pretreated guinea pigs. These results suggest that a soluble factor which attracts neutrophils is produced by MDP-treated macrophages. Partial characterization of the factor is described. PMID:2298491

  18. Dynasore, a Dynamin Inhibitor, Inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi Entry into Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Barrias, Emile S.; Reignault, Lissa C.; De Souza, Wanderley; Carvalho, Tecia M. U.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that, like some other intracellular pathogens, targets specific proteins of the host cell vesicular transport machinery, leading to a modulation of host cell processes that results in the generation of unique phagosomes. In mammalian cells, several molecules have been identified that selectively regulate the formation of endocytic transport vesicles and the fusion of such vesicles with appropriate acceptor membranes. Among these, the GTPase dynamin plays an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and it was recently found that dynamin can participate in a phagocytic process. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a compound called dynasore that has the ability to block the GTPase activity of dynamin. Dynasore acts as a potent inhibitor of endocytic pathways by blocking coated vesicle formation within seconds of its addition. Here, we investigated whether dynamin is involved in the entry process of T. cruzi in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells by using dynasore. In this aim, peritoneal macrophages and LLC-MK2 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of dynasore before interaction with trypomastigotes, amastigotes or epimastigotes. We observed that, in both cell lines, the parasite internalization was drastically diminished (by greater than 90% in LLC-MK2 cells and 70% in peritoneal macrophages) when we used 100 µM dynasore. The T. cruzi adhesion index, however, was unaffected in either cell line. Analyzing these interactions by scanning electron microscopy and comparing peritoneal macrophages to LLC-MK2 cells revealed differences in the stage at which cell entry was blocked. In LLC-MK2 cells, this blockade is observed earlier than it is in peritoneal macrophages. In LLC-MK2 cells, the parasites were only associated with cellular microvilli, whereas in peritoneal macrophages, trypomastigotes were not completely engulfed by a host cell plasma membrane. Conclusions/Significance Taken

  19. Biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance by cultured peritoneal exudate macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.S.; Hsu, S.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated changes in radiosensitivity of peritoneal exudate macrophage colony-forming cells (PE-CFC) when exudative peritoneal macrophages were cultured in vitro. The change in the shape of the dose-response curve of PE-CFC to ionizing irradiation was partly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the gas phase of the incubators. When cells were incubated in an environment containing 20% oxygen, the value of both Dq and D0 for PE-CFC increased. The dose-response curve of PE-CFC cultured for 3 days resembled that of alveolar macrophage colony-forming cells (AL-CFC). The changes in radiosensitivity were accompanied by an increase in the level of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, when they were cultured in a 6% oxygen environment, only the value of Dq increased. When alveolar macrophages were incubated in vitro, no significant change in the shape of the dose-response curve of AL-CFC was noted whether they were cultured in gas phase containing either 20 or 6% oxygen. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of PE-CFC changes when they are cultured in vitro. The increase in D0 appears to be related to the intracellular level of antioxidant enzymes.

  20. Specificity and inhibition of glucocorticoid-induced macrocortin secretion from rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The secretion of the phospholipase A2-inhibitor macrocortin and the binding of dexamethasone were studied in suspensions of rat peritoneal macrophages. Corticosteroid-induced macrocortin secretion was specific for glucocorticoids and did not occur in response to glucocorticoid antagonists or other steroids or in response to non-steroid macrophage activators (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine f-MLP), the calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide-E.-coli(LPS) ). The apparent potency of competition by secretory glucocorticoids for dexamethasone binding to the macrophage parallelled their ability to induce secretion, implying that these binding sites represent the receptors by which macrocortin secretion is initiated. Agents which interfere with microtubule assembly (colchicine, vinblastine and trimethylcolchicinic acid) and prostacyclin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhibit macrocortin secretion. Inhibition studies of glucocorticoid-induced macrocortin secretion also suggest dependence upon metabolic energy, a source of Ca2+ and proteolysis and glycosylation prior to secretion. PMID:6317116

  1. Decrease in free-radical production with age in rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, E; Conde, M; Machado, A; Sobrino, F; Santa Maria, C

    1995-01-01

    The respiratory-burst reaction has been studied in rat peritoneal macrophages of different ages (3, 12 and 24 months) using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to stimulate NADPH oxidase. Production of O2-. and H2O2 decreased with age (about 50 and 75% respectively); however, no difference in NADPH oxidase activity was found. NO. production was also reduced with age (40%). Furthermore, a progressive and significant decrease in the pentose phosphate flux was detected as a function of age in control and PMA-stimulated macrophages. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio decreased with age in control and PMA-stimulated macrophages. Glucose uptake was lower in middle-aged (12 months) and old (24 months) animals but no differences were found between these groups. PMID:8526870

  2. Involvement of proton-sensing TDAG8 in extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Masayuki; Tomura, Hideaki; Murata, Naoya; He, Xiao-dong; Sato, Koichi; Kimura, Takao; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Sasaki, Takehiko; Sato, Takashi; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Harada, Akihiro; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular acidification inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein production, which was associated with an inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA expression, in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The LPS-induced cytokine production was also inhibited by G(s) protein-coupled receptor agonists prostaglandin E(1) and isoproterenol. Among OGR1 family proton-sensing GTP-binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors, TDAG8, OGR1, and G2A are expressed in the cells. The inhibitory action by acidic pH on TNF-alpha production was significantly attenuated in macrophages from TDAG8(Tp/Tp) mice but not in those from OGR1(geo/geo) mice. Moreover, small interfering RNA specific to TDAG8, but not to G2A, clearly attenuated the acidification-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production. On the other hand, the down-regulation or deficiency of TDAG8 hardly affected prostaglandin E(1)- or isoproterenol-induced actions. LPS-induced IL-6 production was also inhibited by extracellular acidification in a manner that was sensitive to TDAG8 expression. The acidic pH-induced inhibitory action on the cytokine production was significantly reversed either by a small interfering RNA specific to G(s) proteins or by a protein kinase A (PKA)-specific inhibitor H89. Indeed, a PKA-specific cAMP derivative inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production. Moreover, acidification induced cAMP accumulation in a TDAG8-specific way. We conclude that TDAG8, at least partly, mediates the extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production through the G(s) protein/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in mouse macrophages. PMID:19234222

  3. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human peritoneal macrophages in response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed

    Buyalos, R P; Rutanen, E M; Tsui, E; Halme, J

    1991-08-01

    We examined the release in vitro of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes following incubation with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We obtained peritoneal macrophages from 22 women at laparoscopy and peripheral blood monocytes from four healthy women during both the midfollicular and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 C with 10(-2)-10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 or 10(4) ng/mL of bacterial endotoxin. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity was determined with a bioassay using an actinomycin D-sensitized WEHI-164 murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Twenty-four-hour incubation with TSST-1 resulted in a dose-dependent release of TNF-alpha by both peritoneal macrophages (maximal response 554 +/- 97 U of activity) and peripheral blood monocytes (maximal response 478 +/- 81 U of activity). We observed enhanced TNF-alpha release by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis, compared with those without endometriosis, at a concentration of 10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 (704 +/- 134 versus 354 +/- 103 U of activity; P less than .05). These data support the theory that the metabolic and physiologic derangements of perimenstrual toxic shock syndrome may be partially mediated by TNF-alpha released by peritoneal macrophages as a result of exposure to TSST-1. PMID:2067760

  4. Anti-inflammatory action of γ-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-12-01

    This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (γ)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). γ-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 μM than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 μM showed that γ-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), γ-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by γ irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, γ-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

  5. Immunocytochemical demonstration of feline infectious peritonitis virus within cerebrospinal fluid macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ives, Edward J; Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Cian, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    A 4-month-old female entire domestic shorthair cat presented with an acute onset of blindness, tetraparesis and subsequent generalised seizure activity. Haematology and serum biochemistry demonstrated a moderate, poorly regenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia with a low albumin:globulin ratio. Serology for feline coronavirus antibody was positive with an elevated alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Analysis of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated markedly elevated protein and a mixed, predominately neutrophilic pleocytosis. Immunocytochemistry for feline coronavirus was performed on the CSF, with positive staining observed inside macrophages. The cat was subsequently euthanased, and both histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. This is the first reported use of immunocytochemistry for detection of feline coronavirus within CSF macrophages. If this test proves highly specific, as for identification of feline coronavirus within tissue or effusion macrophages, it would be strongly supportive of an ante-mortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats with central nervous system involvement without the need for biopsy. PMID:23744728

  6. Phagocytic responses of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils are different in rats following prolonged exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Clílton K O; Prestes, Jonato; Donatto, Felipe F; Verlengia, Rozangela; Navalta, James W; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of exhausting long‐duration physical exercise (swimming) sessions of different durations and intensities on the number and phagocytic capacity of macrophages and neutrophils in sedentary rats. INTRODUCTION: Exercise intensity, duration and frequency are important factors in determining immune response to physical effort. Thus, the effects of exhausting long‐duration exercise are unclear. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups: an untreated group (macrophage study) and oyster glycogen‐treated rats (neutrophil study). In each group, the animals were subdivided into five groups (10 rats per group): unexercised controls, an unadapted low‐intensity exercise group, an unadapted moderate‐intensity exercise group, a preadapted low‐intensity exercise group and a preadapted moderate‐intensity exercise group. All exercises were performed to exhaustion, and preadaptation consisted of 5, 15, 30 and 45 min sessions. RESULTS: Macrophage study: the number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased (9.22 ± 1.78 × 106) after unadapted exercise but increased (21.50 ± 0.63 × 106) after preadapted low‐intensity exercise, with no changes in the moderate‐intensity exercise group. Phagocytic capacity, however, increased by more than 80% in all exercise groups (low/moderate, unadapted/preadapted). Neutrophil study: the number of peritoneal neutrophils significantly decreased after unadapted (29.20 ± 3.34 × 106) and preadapted (50.00 ± 3.53 × 106) low‐intensity exercise but increased after unadapted (127.60 ± 5.14 × 106) and preadapted (221.80 ± 14.85 × 106) moderate exercise. Neutrophil phagocytic capacity decreased by 63% after unadapted moderate exercise but increased by 90% after corresponding preadapted sessions, with no changes in the low‐intensity exercise groups. CONCLUSION: Neutrophils and macrophages of sedentary rats respond differently to exercise‐induced stress. Adaptation sessions reduce

  7. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is Involved in Ectopic Endometrial Tissue Growth and Peritoneal-Endometrial Tissue Interaction In Vivo: A Plausible Link to Endometriosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Rakhila, Halima; Girard, Karine; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Lemyre, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factorsrelevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis. PMID:25329068

  8. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  9. Endotoxin-induced enhancement of glucose influx into murine peritoneal macrophages via GLUT1.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, M; Shinomiya, H; Shimizu, Y; Ohishi, K; Utsumi, S

    1996-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is among the most injurious metabolic disorders caused by endotoxemia. In experimental endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in animals, a marked glucose consumption is observed in macrophage-rich organs. However, the direct effect of LPS on the uptake of glucose by macrophages has not been fully understood, and the present study was undertaken to shed light on this point. The consumption and uptake of glucose, as measured with 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, by murine peritoneal exudate macrophages in culture were accelerated two- to threefold by stimulation with 3 ng of LPS per ml. The rate of glucose uptake reached a plateau after 20 min of stimulation and remained at the maximum as long as LPS was present. Northern (RNA) blot analysis with cDNA probes for five known isoforms of glucose transporter (GLUT) revealed that the expression of GLUT by macrophages was restricted to the GLUT1 isoform during LPS stimulation and the amount of GLUT1 mRNA was increased by the stimulation. These results suggest that macrophage responses to LPS are supported by a rapid and sustained glucose influx via GLUT1 and that this is a participating factor in the development of systemic hypoglycemia when endotoxemia is prolonged. PMID:8557327

  10. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  11. Concanavalin A enhances phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by mice peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Wagner; Gaziri, Daniel Augusto; Gaziri, Luis Carlos Jabur; Felipe, Ionice

    2002-07-12

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that after administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of concanavalin A (Con-A) to mice, the proportion of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal exudate and their phagocytic and candidacidal activities should change with time. The number of neutrophils in the peritoneal exudate was greatly increased 6 h after administration of Con-A, and those cells were able to kill both intracellular and extracellular yeast and germ tube forms of Candida albicans. Addition of catalase to the culture medium reduced the killing of C. albicans, suggesting that the candidacidal activity depended on the myeloperoxidase system. The survival of mice pretreated with Con-A and submitted to an inoculum of C. albicans 6 h afterwards was twice higher than that of controls, which suggests that neutrophils were able to clear the experimental infection. One day after the treatment, the population of neutrophils in the exudate was about 45%, but after 2 days it was reduced to only 5% and the candidacidal activity was also reduced. After 4 days the exudate contained over 95% of macrophages, the candidacidal activity reached a maximum, and the phagocytosis mediated by both complement receptors and mannose receptors was increased. Uptake of FITC-mannose-BSA by macrophages was maximal on about the 4th day and was inhibited by mannan, suggesting that treatment with Con-A increased the activity of mannose receptors. These results support the hypothesis that activation of cellular immunity by Con-A occurred in two phases, one dominated by neutrophils, and the other by macrophages expressing increased activity of mannose receptors. PMID:12110482

  12. BMP4 is increased in the aortas of diabetic ApoE knockout mice and enhances uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein into peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background BMP4, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is upregulated in the aortas of diabetic db/db mice. However, little is known about its role in diabetic atherosclerosis. Therefore, we examined the roles of BMP4 in the formation of diabetic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice and in the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in peritoneal macrophages of wild-type mice. Methods To induce diabetes, ApoE KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin. Diabetic and non-diabetic ApoE KO mice were then fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Next, to investigate a role of BMP4 in the peritoneal macrophages, we examined the uptake of oxLDL in BMP4-treated macrophages. Results Diabetic ApoE KO mice showed accelerated progression of aortic plaques accompanied by increased luminal plaque area. Western blot analysis showed that BMP4 expression in the whole aorta was greatly increased in diabetic ApoE KO mice, than non-diabetic mice. Western blot analysis showed that the BMP4/SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway was strongly activated in the aorta from diabetic ApoE KO mice, compared with control ApoE KO mice. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that BMP4 was expressed in MOMA2-labeled macrophage in the aortic lesions of ApoE KO mice. BMP4 significantly increased the uptake of oxLDL into peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Conclusion We show that in the aorta of diabetic ApoE KO mice, BMP4 is increased and activates SMAD1/5/8. Our in vitro findings indicate that BMP4 enhances oxLDL uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages, suggesting BMP4 may be involved in aortic plaque formation in diabetic ApoE KO mice. Targeting BMP4 may offer a new strategy for inhibition of plaque progression and stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24107300

  13. Stimulation of the ceramide pathway partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, S A; Detore, G; McNally, R; Vogel, S N

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that lipolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates cells by mimicking the second-messenger function of ceramide, a lipid generated in the cell by the action of sphingomyelinase (SMase). To examine this possibility further, we compared the abilities of LPS, SMase, and/or ceramide analogs to induce cytokine secretion, modulate gene expression, and induce endotoxin tolerance in macrophages. SMase and LPS induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to comparable degrees; however, unlike LPS, SMase failed to stimulate detectable interferon activity. Cell-permeable analogs of ceramide induced the expression of many LPS-inducible genes; however, the expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) mRNAs was significantly lower than that induced by LPS. Both SMase-induced TNF-alpha secretion and LPS-induced TNF-alpha secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A. Macrophages preexposed in vitro to LPS to induce a well-characterized state of endotoxin tolerance secreted little or no TNF-alpha upon secondary challenge with either LPS or SMase, whereas macrophages preexposed to SMase secreted high levels of TNF-alpha upon secondary stimulation with LPS or SMase. Collectively, these results suggest that ceramide activates a subset of LPS-induced signaling pathways in murine peritoneal exudate macrophages. PMID:8757882

  14. Piperine metabolically regulates peritoneal resident macrophages to potentiate their functions against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hao; Xu, Li-Hui; Huang, Mei-Yun; Zha, Qing-Bing; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Hou, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Zi-Jian; Lin, Qiu-Ru; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-10-20

    Pepper, a daily-used seasoning for promoting appetite, is widely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases. Piperine is the major alkaloid in pepper and possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism for linking metabolic and medicinal activities of piperine remains unknown. Here we report that piperine robustly boosts mTORC1 activity by recruiting more system L1 amino acid transporter (SLC7A5/SLC3A2) to the cell membrane, thus promoting amino acid metabolism. Piperine-induced increase of mTORC1 activity in resident peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs) is correlated with enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α upon LPS stimulation. Such an enhancement of cytokine production could be abrogated by inhibitors of the mTOR signaling pathway, indicating mTOR's action in this process. Moreover, piperine treatment protected resident pMΦs from bacterium-induced apoptosis and disappearance, and increased their bacterial phagocytic ability. Consequently, piperine administration conferred mice resistance against bacterial infection and even sepsis. Our data highlight that piperine has the capacity to metabolically reprogram peritoneal resident macrophages to fortify their innate functions against bacterial infection. PMID:26439699

  15. Enhancement of carrier-mediated transport after immunologic activation of peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bonventre, P F; Straus, D; Baughn, R E; Imhoff, J

    1977-05-01

    Immunologically activated peritoneal macrophages from inbred mice and Hartley strain guinea pigs demonstrate a markedly greater than normal transport of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and L-leucine. The degree of nutrilite transport enhancement was greatest when animals were injected with the appropriate eliciting antigens before harvesting and also, if antigen was included in the tissue culture medium during the initial hours of in vitro culture. Enhanced hexose and amino acid uptake could also be achieved by exposure of macrophages from nonimmunized animals for 48 hr to supernatants of sensitized splenic lymphocyte cultures incubated with specific antigens. The animal systems in which this phenomenon was observed included CBA/J and C57BL/6J mice immunized with Staphylococcus aureus or sub-lethal doses of Listeria monocytogens, and the Hartley strain, albino guinea pig immunized with S. aureus or BCG. In all cases, immunization resulted in a state of delayed hypersensitivity as measured by skin testing or footpad swelling. Splenic cell supernatants contained lymphokines as detected by the presence of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), and by the supernatants' capacity to stimulate incorporation of 14C-glucosamine by macrophages in vitro. No increase of glucose or leucine transport by macrophages was observed in the absence of appropriate antigen stimulation in vivo or in vitro. We previously showed that a phagocytic stimulus results in a significant increase in hexose transport by normal macrophages; leucine transport by these same cells was unaltered after phagocytosis. In contrast, immunologically activated macrophages do not transport measurably more 2-deoxy-C-glucose after particle ingestion; activation or the phagocytic stimulus enhance 2-deoxy-C-glucose uptake to approximately the same extent. Analysis of nutrilite transport kinetics revealed that immunologic activation of macrophages increases the initial velocity (V1) and Vmax but does not change the Km values of

  16. Peritonitis

    MedlinePlus

    Acute abdomen ... of blood, body fluids, or pus in the abdomen ( intra-abdominal abscess ). Types of peritonitis are: Spontaneous ... The belly (abdomen) is very painful or tender. The pain may become worse when the belly is touched or when you ...

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora

  18. Candida albicans Quorum Sensing Molecules Stimulate Mouse Macrophage Migration

    PubMed Central

    Hargarten, Jessica C.; Moore, Tyler C.; Petro, Thomas M.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphic commensal fungus Candida albicans causes life-threatening disease via bloodstream and intra-abdominal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. To accomplish this, C. albicans white cells secrete a low-molecular-weight chemoattractive stimulant(s) of macrophages, a phagocyte that they are able to survive within and eventually escape from. C. albicans opaque cells do not secrete this chemoattractive stimulant(s). We report here a physiological mechanism that contributes to the differences in the interaction of C. albicans white and opaque cells with macrophages. E,E-Farnesol, which is secreted by white cells only, is a potent stimulator of macrophage chemokinesis, whose activity is enhanced by yeast cell wall components and aromatic alcohols. E,E-farnesol results in up to an 8.5-fold increase in macrophage migration in vitro and promotes a 3-fold increase in the peritoneal infiltration of macrophages in vivo. Therefore, modulation of farnesol secretion to stimulate host immune recognition by macrophages may help explain why this commensal is such a successful pathogen. PMID:26195556

  19. Candida albicans Quorum Sensing Molecules Stimulate Mouse Macrophage Migration.

    PubMed

    Hargarten, Jessica C; Moore, Tyler C; Petro, Thomas M; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Atkin, Audrey L

    2015-10-01

    The polymorphic commensal fungus Candida albicans causes life-threatening disease via bloodstream and intra-abdominal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. To accomplish this, C. albicans white cells secrete a low-molecular-weight chemoattractive stimulant(s) of macrophages, a phagocyte that they are able to survive within and eventually escape from. C. albicans opaque cells do not secrete this chemoattractive stimulant(s). We report here a physiological mechanism that contributes to the differences in the interaction of C. albicans white and opaque cells with macrophages. E,E-Farnesol, which is secreted by white cells only, is a potent stimulator of macrophage chemokinesis, whose activity is enhanced by yeast cell wall components and aromatic alcohols. E,E-farnesol results in up to an 8.5-fold increase in macrophage migration in vitro and promotes a 3-fold increase in the peritoneal infiltration of macrophages in vivo. Therefore, modulation of farnesol secretion to stimulate host immune recognition by macrophages may help explain why this commensal is such a successful pathogen. PMID:26195556

  20. Macrophage Isolation from the Mouse Small and Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Harusato, Akihito; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via their ability to orchestrate responses to the normal microbiota as well as pathogens. One of the most important steps in beginning to understand the functions of these cells is the ability to effectively isolate them from the complex intestinal environment. Here, we detail methodology for the isolation and phenotypic characterization of macrophages from the mouse small and large intestine. PMID:27246032

  1. Generation and Characterization of Mouse Regulatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Hill, Marcelo; Cuturi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, cell therapy has become a promising approach to therapeutically manipulate immune responses in autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation. Several types of lymphoid and myeloid cells origin have been generated in vitro and tested in animal models. Their efficacy to decrease pharmacological treatment has successfully been established. Macrophages play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. They represent an interesting cell population due to their high plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol to differentiate murine regulatory macrophages in vitro from bone marrow precursors. We also describe several methods to assess macrophage classical functions, as their bacterial killing capacity and antigen endocytosis and degradation. Importantly, regulatory macrophages also display suppressive characteristics, which are addressed by the study of their hypostimulatory T lymphocyte capacity and polyclonal T lymphocyte activation suppression. PMID:26530796

  2. Evidence that Resorption of Bone by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages Occurs in an Acidic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal loss in space, like any form of osteoporosis, reflects a relative imbalance of the activities of cells resorbing (degrading) or forming bone. Consequently, prevention of weightlessness induced bone loss may theoretically be accomplished by (1) stimulating bone formation or (2) inhibiting bone resorption. This approach, however, requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which cells form or degrade bone, information not yet at hand. An issue central to bone resorption is the pH at which resorption takes place. The pH dependent spectral shift of a fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) conjugated to bone matrix was used to determine the pH at the resorptive cell bone matrix interface. Devitalized rat bone was used as the substrate, and rat peritoneal macrophages were used as the bone resorbing cells. The results suggest that bone resorption is the result of generation of an acidic microenvironment at the cell matrix junction.

  3. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Bomford, Adrian; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Davies, Ted; Smith, Roger; Williams, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-γ made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-γ significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP. PMID:24371553

  4. Interaction of a mouse macrophage cell line with homologous erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singer, J A; Walker, W S; Morrison, M

    1982-06-01

    The interaction of the IC-21 murine macrophage cell line and homologous red blood cells (RBC) was assessed in the absence of exogenous opsonins. These results were used to evaluate this system as a potential model for macrophage-mediated clearance of old or damaged RBC. The binding and ingestion of density-separated and unseparated RBC by IC-21 cells were quantitated in assays that involved both 51Cr-labeled RBC and direct microscopy. The number of unseparated RBC that bound to IC-21 macrophages depended on the number of RBC added. Macrophages phagocytized an appreciable proportion of RBC within 3 hours with the ratio of RBC:macrophage of 10, a point at which the RBC-binding was not rate limiting. The mouse RBC were separated into dense- and less-dense fractions which are presumably enriched for old and young cells, respectively. When these RBC fractions were incubated with the IC-21 macrophage, significantly more of these dense cells were phagocytized. These results show that IC-21 macrophage cell line is a useful model for defining the processes whereby aged or damaged RBC are recognized and removed from circulation by macrophages. PMID:7120230

  5. Antibacterial Responses by Peritoneal Macrophages Are Enhanced Following Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Chun, Rene F.; Gales, Barbara; Zaritsky, Joshua J.; Leroy, Sandrine; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Boregaard, Niels; Rastogi, Anjay; Salusky, Isidro B.; Hewison, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who usually display low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), are at high risk of infection, notably those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We hypothesized that peritoneal macrophages from PD patients are an important target for vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity. Dialysate effluent fluid was obtained from 27 non-infected PD patients. Flow cytometry indicated that PD cells were mainly monocytic (37.9±17.7% cells CD14+/CD45+). Ex vivo analyses showed that PD cells treated with 25D (100 nM, 6 hrs) or 1,25D (5 nM, 6 hrs) induced mRNA for antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP) but conversely suppressed mRNA for hepcidin (HAMP). PD cells from patients with peritonitis (n = 3) showed higher baseline expression of CAMP (18-fold±9, p<0.05) and HAMP (64-fold±7) relative to cells from non-infected patients. In 12 non-infected PD patients, oral supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D2 (100,000 IU) increased serum levels of 25D from 18±8 to 41±15 ng/ml (p = 0.002). This had no significant effect on PD cell CD14/CD45 expression, but mRNA for HAMP was suppressed significantly (0.5-fold, p = 0.04). Adjustment for PD cell CD14/CD45 expression using a mixed linear statistical model also revealed increased expression of CAMP (mRNA in PD cells and protein in effluent) in vitamin D-supplemented patients. These data show for the first time that vitamin D supplementation in vitro and in vivo promotes innate immune responses that may enhance macrophage antibacterial responses in patients undergoing PD. This highlights a potentially important function for vitamin D in preventing infection-related complications in CKD. PMID:25549329

  6. Naloxone treatment prevents prenatal stress effects on peritoneal macrophage activity in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Evelise S M; Sakai, Monica; Carvalho-Freitas, Maria Isabel R; Palermo Neto, João

    2005-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of maternal stress (PS) and/or naloxone treatment on the activity of peritoneal macrophage in male and female Swiss mice offspring. Pregnant female rats received a daily footshock (0.2 mA) and/or a naloxone injection from gestational day 15 to 19. Experiments were performed on postnatal day 30 on male and female pups. The following results were obtained in male offspring: (1) PS decreased both the index and the percentage of phagocytosis, this decrement being reversed by naloxone treatment, and (2) naloxone alone decreased the percentage of phagocytosis. The following results were obtained in female offspring: (1) PS decreased spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced macrophage oxidative burst, this decrement being reversed by naloxone pretreatment, and (2) PS decreased both the index and percentage of the phagocytosis, this effect was prevented by naloxone treatment. These data are discussed focussing on a putative neuroimmune interaction involving opioidergic systems during the ontogeny of the central nervous and immune systems. PMID:16210866

  7. Transformation of mouse macrophages by simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Stone, L B; Takemoto, K K

    1970-11-01

    Studies were undertaken to prove that simian virus 40 (SV40) can transform the mouse macrophage, a cell type naturally restricted from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication. Balb/C macrophages infected with SV40 demonstrated T-antigen production and induced DNA synthesis simultaneously. In the absence of apparent division, these cells remained T antigen-positive for at least 45 days. SV40 could be rescued from nondividing, unaltered macrophages during the T antigen-producing period. Proliferating transformants appeared at an average of 66 days post-SV40 infection. Established cell lines were T antigen-positive and were negative for infectious virus, but yielded SV40 after fusion with African green monkey kidney cells. Their identity as transformed macrophages was substantiated by evaluation of cellular morphology, phagocytosis, acid phosphatase, beta(1c) synthesis, and aminoacridine incorporation. PMID:4320698

  8. Effects of β-endorphin on the production of reactive oxygen species, IL-1β, Tnf-Α, and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A; Nebogatikov, V O

    2016-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that β-endorphin stimulates the zymosan-induced secretion of reactive oxygen species and suppresses the spontaneous production of IL-1β and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo. PMID:27595832

  9. Endotoxin suppresses expression of apoprotein E by mouse macrophages in vivo and in culture: a biochemical and genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-09-10

    The synthesis and secretion of apo-E, a component of plasma lipoproteins, are suppressed in mouse macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) in culture or in vivo. Control mouse macrophages contained intracellular immunofluorescent apo-E, and apo-E represented about 10% of secreted protein. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, freshly lavaged macrophages neither contained intracellular apo-E nor secreted apo-E. The suppressive effects of LPS and apo-E synthesis in culture were selective, and secretion of many other major macrophage proteins was not affected. When then LPS-elicited macrosphages were cultured for 24-72 h in the absence of LPS, synthesis of apo-E was initiated. Treatment of bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages in culture with less than 1 ng of LPS/ml inhibited apo-E synthesis and secretion by 18 h of treatment. Although LPS stimulates prostaglandin E/sub 2/ synthesis, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ itself did not suppress apo-E synthesis. Macrophages from C3H/HeJ (Lps/sup d//Lps/sup d/) mice, which are resistant to LPS, were neither primed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production nor suppressed for apo-E synthesis in response to LPS in vivo (30 ..mu..g/mouse) or in culture (1..mu../ml), whereas macrophages from the co-isogenic C3H/HeN (Lps/sup n//Lps/sup n/) strain were induced for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ secretion and had suppressed synthesis of apo-E. Because apo-E serves as a recognition determinant for the receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins, the decreased synthesis of apo-E after LPS treatment may in part explain the hyperlipoproteinemia associated with endotoxins in vivo.

  10. Isolation of Mouse and Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cassetta, Luca; Noy, Roy; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Sugano, Gaël; Smith, Harriet; Wiechmann, Lisa; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of cells that support tumor progression and malignancy. It has been demonstrated that tumor cells can educate the immune system to promote a tumor-friendly environment. Among all these immune cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are well represented and their presence in mouse models has been shown to promote tumor progression and metastasis. These effects are through the stimulation of angiogenesis, enhancement of tumor cell invasion and intravasation, immunosuppression, and at the metastatic site tumor cell extravasation and growth. However, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Furthermore there is limited information on TAMs derived from human cancers. For this reason it is important to be able to extract TAMs from tumors in order to compare their phenotypes, functions, and transcriptomes with normal resident tissue macrophages. Isolation of these cells is challenging due to the lack of markers and standardized protocols. Here we show an optimized protocol for the efficient isolation and extraction of resident macrophages and TAMs from human and mouse tissues by using multicolor flow cytometry. These protocols allow for the extraction of thousands of macrophages in less than 5 h from tissues as small as half a gram. The isolated macrophages can then be used for both “omics” and in vitro studies. PMID:27325269

  11. Isolation of Mouse and Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Luca; Noy, Roy; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Sugano, Gaël; Smith, Harriet; Wiechmann, Lisa; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of cells that support tumor progression and malignancy. It has been demonstrated that tumor cells can educate the immune system to promote a tumor-friendly environment. Among all these immune cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are well represented and their presence in mouse models has been shown to promote tumor progression and metastasis. These effects are through the stimulation of angiogenesis, enhancement of tumor cell invasion and intravasation, immunosuppression, and at the metastatic site tumor cell extravasation and growth. However, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Furthermore there is limited information on TAMs derived from human cancers. For this reason it is important to be able to extract TAMs from tumors in order to compare their phenotypes, functions, and transcriptomes with normal resident tissue macrophages. Isolation of these cells is challenging due to the lack of markers and standardized protocols. Here we show an optimized protocol for the efficient isolation and extraction of resident macrophages and TAMs from human and mouse tissues by using multicolor flow cytometry. These protocols allow for the extraction of thousands of macrophages in less than 5 h from tissues as small as half a gram. The isolated macrophages can then be used for both "omics" and in vitro studies. PMID:27325269

  12. Alpha-D-galactosylation of surface fucoglycoconjugate(s) upon stimulation/activation of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Petryniak, J

    1992-04-01

    Murine resident macrophages express, on their surface, carbohydrate epitopes which undergo changes during their stimulation/activation as monitored by binding of 125I labelled Evonymus europaea and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B4 lectins. Treatment of the stimulated macrophages with coffee bean alpha-galactosidase abolished binding of the GS I-B4 isolectin and changed the binding pattern of the Evonymus lectin. The affinity (Ka) of Evonymus lectin for alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages decreased approximately 23-fold, from 1.25 x 10(8) M-1 to 5.5 x 10(6) M-1. Subsequent digestion of alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages with alpha-L-fucosidase from Trichomonas foetus, further reduced binding of Evonymus lectin. Resident macrophages showed the same pattern of Evonymus lectin binding, with the same affinity, as alpha-galactosidase-treated, stimulated macrophages. These results, together with a consideration of the carbohydrate binding specificity of the Evonymus lectin which, in the absence of alpha-D-galactosyl groups, requires alpha-L-fucosyl groups for binding, indicate the presence, on resident macrophages, of glycoconjugates with terminal alpha-L-fucosyl residues. It is also concluded that during macrophage stimulation/activation alpha-D-galactosyl residues are added to this glycoconjugate and that they form part of the receptor for Evonymus lectin. The same glycoconjugate(s) is/are also expressed on the activated macrophage IC-21 cell line which exhibits the same characteristics as that of stimulated peritoneal macrophages, i.e., it contains alpha-D-galactosyl end groups and is resistant to the action of trypsin. Both lectins were also specifically bound to Corynaebacterium parvum activated macrophages. PMID:1344714

  13. The mannose-sensitive hemagglutination pilus strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa shift peritoneal milky spot macrophages towards an M1 phenotype to dampen peritoneal dissemination.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Miao, Feng; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Xu, Ying-Ying; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Gao, Jian; Wu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xing-Yu; You, Yi; Xu, Hao; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2014-05-01

    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) of tumor cells is the most frequent pattern of gastric cancer recurrence and the leading cause of death. Peritoneal milky spots are deemed as the site of origin of gastric cancer PD wherein the main cellular components are macrophages. A vaccine derived from the mannose-sensitive hemagglutination pilus strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-MSHA) has exhibit strong immune modulatory properties. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether the PA-MSHA vaccine activated peritoneal milky spot macrophages (PMSM) in a manner that would attenuate PD. It was observed that PA-MSHA activated PMSM towards a classical activation phenotype via a toll-like receptor4/9-dependent mechanism, which increased interleukin-12 levels and promoted the expression of co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules like CD80, CD86, and MHC-II (P < 0.05). In addition, PA-MSHA-treated PMSM exhibited strong nonspecific antitumor effects in both contact-dependent and contact-independent modes of action (P < 0.05). In mice treated with PA-MSHA before inoculating gastric cancer cells, we noted alleviated PD toward the untreated mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that PA-MSHA can stimulate PMSM towards an M1 phenotype and that activated PMSM inhibit gastric cancer growth and PD both in vitro and in vivo. The results of the current study provide a mechanistic insight that is relevant to the potential application of PA-MSHA in the treatment of gastric cancer-mediated PD. PMID:24385384

  14. A Mouse Macrophage Lipidome*♦

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Edward A.; Deems, Raymond A.; Harkewicz, Richard; Quehenberger, Oswald; Brown, H. Alex; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Glass, Christopher K.; Hardiman, Gary; Reichart, Donna; Merrill, Alfred H.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Wang, Elaine; Murphy, Robert C.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Garrett, Teresa A.; Guan, Ziqiang; Ryan, Andrea C.; Russell, David W.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Thompson, Bonne M.; Shaw, Walter A.; Sud, Manish; Zhao, Yihua; Gupta, Shakti; Maurya, Mano R.; Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    We report the lipidomic response of the murine macrophage RAW cell line to Kdo2-lipid A, the active component of an inflammatory lipopolysaccharide functioning as a selective TLR4 agonist and compactin, a statin inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Analyses of lipid molecular species by dynamic quantitative mass spectrometry and concomitant transcriptomic measurements define the lipidome and demonstrate immediate responses in fatty acid metabolism represented by increases in eicosanoid synthesis and delayed responses characterized by sphingolipid and sterol biosynthesis. Lipid remodeling of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, and prenols also take place, indicating that activation of the innate immune system by inflammatory mediators leads to alterations in a majority of mammalian lipid categories, including unanticipated effects of a statin drug. Our studies provide a systems-level view of lipid metabolism and reveal significant connections between lipid and cell signaling and biochemical pathways that contribute to innate immune responses and to pharmacological perturbations. PMID:20923771

  15. Pathways of retinoid synthesis in mouse macrophages and bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Haixia; Hadwiger, Gayla; Fujiwara, Hideji; Welch, John S

    2016-06-01

    In vivo pathways of natural retinoid metabolism and elimination have not been well characterized in primary myeloid cells, even though retinoids and retinoid receptors have been strongly implicated in regulating myeloid maturation. With the use of a upstream activation sequence-GFP reporter transgene and retrovirally expressed Gal4-retinoic acid receptor α in primary mouse bone marrow cells, we identified 2 distinct enzymatic pathways used by mouse myeloid cells ex vivo to synthesize retinoic acid receptor α ligands from free vitamin A metabolites (retinyl acetate, retinol, and retinal). Bulk Kit(+) bone marrow progenitor cells use diethylaminobenzaldehyde-sensitive enzymes, whereas bone marrow-derived macrophages use diethylaminobenzaldehyde-insensitive enzymes to synthesize natural retinoic acid receptor α-activating retinoids (all-trans retinoic acid). Bone marrow-derived macrophages do not express the diethylaminobenzaldehyde-sensitive enzymes Aldh1a1, Aldh1a2, or Aldh1a3 but instead, express Aldh3b1, which we found is capable of diethylaminobenzaldehyde-insensitive synthesis of all trans-retinoic acid. However, under steady-state and stimulated conditions in vivo, diverse bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages showed no evidence of intracellular retinoic acid receptor α-activating retinoids, despite expression of these enzymes and a vitamin A-sufficient diet, suggesting that the enzymatic conversion of retinal is not the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of intracellular retinoic acid receptor α-activating retinoids in myeloid bone marrow cells and that retinoic acid receptor α remains in an unliganded configuration during adult hematopoiesis. PMID:26768478

  16. Enhancement of dengue virus type 2 replication in mouse macrophage cultures by bacterial cell walls, peptidoglycans, and a polymer of peptidoglycan subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, H; Hotta, S; Takada, H; Kotani, S; Tanaka, S; Ohki, M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of bacterial cell walls, peptidoglycans, and a water-soluble polymer of peptidoglycan subunits on dengue virus type 2 replication in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages were studied. Pretreatment of macrophage cultures with all of test cell walls isolated from seven bacterial species for 3 days significantly enhanced the virus production in the cultures. Peptidoglycans prepared from four of the above cell walls also exerted the virus production-enhancing effects in a similar manner as the walls. A water-soluble polymer of peptidoglycan subunits which was prepared by treatment of Staphylococcus epidermidis wall peptidoglycan with an interpeptide bridge-splitting enzyme (endopeptidase) also definitely enhanced the virus production in macrophage cultures, although its activity was weaker than that of the original wall and peptidoglycan. Macrophage cultures from athymic nude mice, when treated with cell walls and peptidoglycans of S. epidermidis and Lactobacillus plantarum for 3 days, also showed an increased ability to support dengue virus type 2 replication. The infectious center assay demonstrated that the virus replication enhancement by S. epidermidis cell wall and peptidoglycan was primarily due to an increase in the number of virus-infected cells. This finding did not seem to be in conflict with the observation that macrophages treated with the above cell wall or peptidoglycan phagocytized more latex particles than did untreated macrophages. The conclusions based on the above experiments are that the treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures with bacterial cell walls and their components increases the take of dengue virus type 2 by macrophages and thus raises the virus production in the macrophage cultures. PMID:6874066

  17. MEK1/2 inhibitors induce interleukin-5 expression in mouse macrophages and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoju; Cao, Xingyue; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Kang, Yanhua; Zhang, Wenwen; Yu, Miao; Ma, Chuanrui; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun; Chen, Yuanli

    2016-05-13

    Uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by macrophages facilitates the formation of foam cells, the prominent part of atherosclerotic lesions. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a cytokine regulating interactions between immune cells. It also activates the production of T15/EO6 IgM antibodies in B-1 cells, which can bind oxLDL thereby demonstrating anti-atherogenic properties. We previously reported that inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitors can reduce atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of MEK1/2 inhibitors on IL-5 production both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, MEK1/2 inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) substantially inhibited phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Associated with inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo, MEK1/2 inhibitors induced IL-5 protein expression in macrophages (RAW macrophages and peritoneal macrophages) and lymphocytes (EL-4 cells). In vivo, administration of mice with MEK1/2 inhibitors increased serum IL-5 levels, and IL-5 protein expression in mouse spleen and liver. At the mechanistic level, we determined that MEK1/2 inhibitors activated IL-5 mRNA expression and IL-5 promoter activity in the liver X receptor (LXR) dependent manner indicating the induction of IL-5 transcription. In addition, we determined that MEK1/2 inhibitors enhanced IL-5 protein stability. Taken together, our study demonstrates that MEK1/2 inhibitors induce IL-5 production which suggests another anti-atherogenic mechanism of MEK1/2 inhibitors. PMID:27045084

  18. MicroRNA-223 Induced Repolarization of Peritoneal Macrophages Using CD44 Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles for Anti-Inflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Krishnan, Swathi; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrophages repolarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype upon transfection with microRNA-223 (miR-223) duplexes and miR-223 expressing plasmid DNA encapsulated in CD44-targeting hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) (HA-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs). The HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs with spherical shape and an average diameter of 200 nm were efficiently internalized by J774A.1 alveolar and primary peritoneal macrophages and non-cytotoxic at HA-PEI concentration less than 200 μg/mL. Transfection of HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs in J774A.1 macrophages showed significantly higher miR-223 expression than that with HA-PEI/plasmid DNA expressing miR-223 (pDNA-miR-223). HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs mediated transfection increased miR-223 expression to 90 fold in primary peritoneal macrophages compared to untreated cells. The overexpression of miR-223 in both J774A.1 and peritoneal macrophages induced a phenotypic change from M1 to M2 state as indicated by a decrease in iNOS-2 (M1 marker) and an increase in Arg-1 (M2 marker) levels compared to those in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-stimulated macrophages (M1). The change in macrophage phenotype by HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs could suppress the inflammation in peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS as evidenced by a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, compared to LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages without treatment. The results demonstrated that miR-223-encapsulated HA-PEI NPs modulated macrophage polarity toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which has potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27148749

  19. Effect of immunochemotherapy with OK-432 and yeast cell wall on the activities of peritoneal macrophages of mice.

    PubMed

    Mashiba, H; Matsunaga, K; Gojobori, M

    1979-10-01

    The effect of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulants on the activities of macrophages in mice was studied. The number of macrophages and exudate cells in the peritoneal cavity increased 3 days after ip injection with mitomycin-C, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil together with OK-432 or yeast cell wall and decreased to normal level after 9 days, while the number of the cells remained decreased in mice receiving multi-drugs alone. Acid phosphatase activity of the macrophages of mice was elevated after the simultaneous injection of yeast cell wall and OK-432, and high activity was preserved in the macrophages of mice receiving yeast cell wall even after 9 days. Spreading of these cells was also enhanced. Macrophage activities examined by these assays were maximal in every respect 6 days after combination therapy. Cytostatic activity of the cells was strengthened after 6 days by combined use of OK-432 or yeast cell wall. Role of the activated macrophages in combination therapy was discussed. PMID:520759

  20. NFATc1 releases BCL6-dependent repression of CCR2 agonist expression in peritoneal macrophages from Saccharomyces cerevisiae infected mice.

    PubMed

    Busch, Rhoda; Murti, Krisna; Liu, Jiming; Patra, Amiya K; Muhammad, Khalid; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Lichtinger, Monika; Bonifer, Constanze; Wörtge, Simone; Waisman, Ari; Reifenberg, Kurt; Ellenrieder, Volker; Serfling, Edgar; Avots, Andris

    2016-03-01

    The link between the extensive usage of calcineurin (CN) inhibitors cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506) in transplantation medicine and the increasing rate of opportunistic infections within this segment of patients is alarming. Currently, how peritoneal infections are favored by these drugs, which impair the activity of several signaling pathways including the Ca(++) /CN/NFAT, Ca(++) /CN/cofilin, Ca(++) /CN/BAD, and NF-κB networks, is unknown. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection of peritoneal resident macrophages triggers the transient nuclear translocation of NFATc1β isoforms, resulting in a coordinated, CN-dependent induction of the Ccl2, Ccl7, and Ccl12 genes, all encoding CCR2 agonists. CN inhibitors block the CCR2-dependent recruitment of inflammatory monocytes (IM) to the peritoneal cavities of S. cerevisiae infected mice. In myeloid cells, NFATc1/β proteins represent the most prominent NFATc1 isoforms. NFATc1/β ablation leads to a decrease of CCR2 chemokines, impaired mobilization of IMs, and delayed clearance of infection. We show that, upon binding to a composite NFAT/BCL6 regulatory element within the Ccl2 promoter, NFATc1/β proteins release the BCL6-dependent repression of Ccl2 gene in macrophages. These findings suggest a novel CN-dependent cross-talk between NFAT and BCL6 transcription factors, which may affect the outcome of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26631626

  1. Miltefosine enhances phagocytosis but decreases nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Charlene Barreto; Alves, Erica Alessandra Rocha; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Urdapilleta, Ada Amalia Ayala; Kückelhaus, Carlos dos Santos; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada; Kückelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2012-05-01

    Miltefosine is an anticancer drug currently used to treat visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, also presents a broad-spectrum of fungicidal and antiamoebae activities. It acts on the metabolism of phospholipids and glycoproteins of the membrane of parasites. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of miltefosine (0.4 to 50.0 μg/mL) on the phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by macrophages of C57BL/6 mice to clarify the immunomodulatory effects of the drug on macrophages of C57BL/6, strain mice that is biased to Th1 response. Peritoneal macrophages were in vitro treated with miltefosine and phagocytosis of sensitized or nonsensitized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed. NO production was evaluated by Griess reaction. In the concentration of 1.6 μg/mL and 50.0 μg/mL, miltefosine increased phagocytosis of non-opsonized S. cerevisiae in 59.7% and 214.3%, respectively. For phagocytosis through opsonin receptors, miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) increased the phagocytic index in 208.6% (p=0.04, paired t test). Miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) decreased in 39.3% NO production by macrophages. However, treatment with miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) after infection of macrophages with Leishmania amazonensis increased NO production in 73.4% (p=0.01, Wilcoxon test). Our data showed that, besides the antimicrobial effect of miltefosine, the drug showed immunomodulatory effects on macrophages of C57BL/6 mice, improving phagocytosis and decreasing NO production, but was able to increase NO production when macrophages were previously infected with L. amazonensis. These results suggest that miltefosine may favor the better evolution of infectious diseases by improving the innate immune response of macrophages. PMID:22465961

  2. Effects of immunomodulatory drugs on TNF-α and IL-12 production by purified epidermal langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells constitute a special subset of immature dendritic cells localized in the epidermis that play a key role in the skin's immune response. The production of cytokines is a key event in both the initiation and the regulation of immune responses, and different drugs can be used to remove or modify their production by DC and, therefore, alter immune responses in a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of prednisone, thalidomide, cyclosporine A, and amitriptyline, drugs used in a variety of clinical conditions, on the production of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Findings All drugs inhibited TNF-α production by Langerhans cells after 36 hours of treatment at two different concentrations, while prednisone and thalidomide decreased IL-12 secretion significantly, amitriptyline caused a less pronounced reduction and cyclosporine A had no effect. Additionally, TNF-α and IL-12 production by macrophages decreased, but IL-10 levels were unchanged after all treatments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that these drugs modulate the immune response by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages, indicating that these cells are important targets for immunosuppression in various clinical settings. PMID:21276247

  3. Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by water-soluble extracts of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pine wood nematode.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroaki; Tai, Akihiro; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2006-01-01

    In our previous study, water-soluble extracts from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus), a pine wood nematode, were shown to enhance interleukin (IL)-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-induced polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro in mice and to increase serum levels of an antigen-nonspecific IgE in vivo. Here we examined whether the nematode extracts stimulate immunofunctions of murine peritoneal macrophages. In both resident and inflammatory macrophages, Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis was markedly activated by B. xylophilus extracts, while non-specific phagocytosis was not. The enhancement of specific phagocytosis was accompanied by an increase in the formation of IgG-Fcgamma receptor rosettes. B. xylophilus extracts also stimulated IL-1beta production in both types of macrophages, and enhanced NO production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory macrophages. These results indicate that the extracts of B. xylophilus contain an activating substance(s) for immunofunctions in macrophages, besides an enhancing factor for polyclonal IgE production. PMID:16428838

  4. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  5. Model for high-throughput screening of drug immunotoxicity--study of the anti-microbial G1 over peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Borroto, Esvieta; Peñuelas-Rivas, Claudia G; Vásquez-Chagoyán, Juan C; Castañedo, Nilo; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; García-Mera, Xerardo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-24

    Quantitative Structure-Activity (mt-QSAR) techniques may become an important tool for prediction of cytotoxicity and High-throughput Screening (HTS) of drugs to rationalize drug discovery process. In this work, we train and validate by the first time mt-QSAR model using TOPS-MODE approach to calculate drug molecular descriptors and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) function. This model correctly classifies 8258 out of 9000 (Accuracy = 91.76%) multiplexing assay endpoints of 7903 drugs (including both train and validation series). Each endpoint correspond to one out of 1418 assays, 36 molecular and cellular targets, 46 standard type measures, in two possible organisms (human and mouse). After that, we determined experimentally, by the first time, the values of EC50 = 21.58 μg/mL and Cytotoxicity = 23.6% for the anti-microbial/anti-parasite drug G1 over Balb/C mouse peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry. In addition, the model predicts for G1 only 7 positive endpoints out 1251 cytotoxicity assays (0.56% of probability of cytotoxicity in multiple assays). The results obtained complement the toxicological studies of this important drug. This work adds a new tool to the existing pool of few methods useful for multi-target HTS of ChEMBL and other libraries of compounds towards drug discovery. PMID:24445280

  6. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  7. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  8. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  9. Activation of mouse macrophages causes no change in expression and function of phorbol diesters' receptors, but is accompanied by alterations in the activity and kinetic parameters of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Berton, G; Cassatella, M; Cabrini, G; Rossi, F

    1985-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages activated in vivo by the injection of Corynebacterium parvum release larger amounts of superoxide anion (O2-) than macrophages from control mice when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The biochemical bases for this enhanced response of activated macrophages have been investigated by studying the expression and function of receptors for the stimulant, and the activity of the enzyme NADPH oxidase which is responsible for the production of O2- in leucocytes. Studies of binding of phorbol dibutyrate, an agent closely related to PMA, showed that the affinity constants (Kds) and the number of binding sites were the same in resident and activated peritoneal macrophages. The activity of the NADPH oxidase was, however, different in the two macrophage populations which differ in their capacity to release O2-. NADPH oxidase activity was studied in macrophage monolayers after lysis with deoxycholate. The main features of this activity were as follows: stimulation of macrophages with PMA or zymosan caused an increase in NADPH-dependent O2- production; NADPH oxidase activity in the lysates followed the same dose-response curve for different concentrations of PMA as O2- release by intact macrophages; O2- release by intact macrophages could be fully accounted for by NADPH-dependent O2- production by macrophage lysates; activity was strictly substrate-specific, in that NADH could not substitute for NADPH; after stimulation with PMA or zymosan, NADPH oxidase activity was higher in lysates of C. parvum-activated macrophages than in lysates of resident macrophages; NADPH oxidase activities of activated and resident macrophages differed markedly in their kinetic parameters. The NADPH oxidase of macrophages activated by C. parvum or trehalose dimycolate of mycobacterial origin displayed a five to seven times lower Km compared to the enzyme in resident macrophages. PMID:2981767

  10. Mouse macrophage innate immune response to chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. Findings We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-α4 and ISG56). TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems to be polarized to assist viral persistence through the control of apoptosis and IFN signalling. PMID:23253140

  11. Susceptibility of mouse macrophage J774 to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, María M B; Sánchez-García, F Javier; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Aguilar-Carmona, Israel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the J774 mouse macrophage cell line could be used as an in vitro model for dengue virus infection (DENV). After 3 days, infection in J774 cells was assessed by detecting dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NSP-1) production either by dot blot or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) of saponine-permeabilized J774 cells and then confirmed by RT-PCR (171 bp product, corresponding to the DENV-2 core). Based on the presence of NSP-1 in infected but not in non-infected cells by both IFA and dot blot, as well as the amplification of a 171-bp DENV-2-specific RT-PCR product exclusively in the infected cells, the J774 cell line was found to be permissive for dengue virus infection. As far as we know, this is the first report that the J774 mouse macrophage cell line is infected with dengue virus and, thus, that it can be used as an alternative in vitro model for dengue virus infection studies. This finding could help to further elucidate the mechanisms involved in dengue virus infection and pathogenesis. PMID:17356302

  12. Kinetics of tumour necrosis factor and prostaglandin production by murine resident peritoneal macrophages as affected by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hardard'ottir, I; Whelan, J; Kinsella, J E

    1992-01-01

    Cell-associated and secreted tumour necrosis factor (TNF), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were monitored at various times following in vitro stimulation of resident peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Macrophages were obtained from mice maintained on diets containing 1.5 wt% n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)+ 1.5 wt% n-6 fatty acids; 1.5 wt% n-6 fatty acids; or 3 wt% n-6 fatty acids, for 4 weeks. Cell-associated TNF increased transiently in the resident peritoneal macrophages from mice consuming all diets and decreased after TNF secretion had reached maximum and plateaued. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA contained more cell-associated TNF and secreted more TNF than macrophages from mice consuming diets containing n-6 fatty acids only, at all time-points studied. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA showed an earlier increase in cell-associated and secreted TNF compared with macrophages from mice consuming n-6 fatty acids only. Kinetics of maximum TNF production was not affected by the diets and dietary n-3 PUFA did not cause a prolonged increase in TNF secretion. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA produced less PG than macrophages from mice consuming the n-6 fatty acids only. PG secretion increased following appearance of cell-associated TNF but when PG had accumulated in the medium there was no further increase in TNF production. PMID:1398747

  13. The 94- to 97-kDa mouse macrophage membrane protein that recognizes oxidized low density lipoprotein and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes is identical to macrosialin, the mouse homologue of human CD68.

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, M P; Fischer, W; Witztum, J L; Sambrano, G R; Quehenberger, O; Steinberg, D

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a 94- to 97-kDa plasma membrane protein from mouse peritoneal macrophages that binds oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes. We have now identified that protein as macrosialin, a previously cloned macrophage-restricted membrane protein in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family (mouse homologue of human CD68). Early in the course of purification of the 94- to 97-kDa protein, a new OxLDL-binding band at 190-200 kDa appeared and copurified with the 94- to 97-kDa protein. The HPLC pattern of tryptic peptides from this higher molecular mass ligand-binding band closely matched that derived from the 94- to 97-kDa band. Specifically, the same three macrosialin-derived tryptic peptides (9, 9, and 15 residues) were present in the purified 94- to 97-kDa band and in the 190- to 200-kDa band and antisera raised against peptide sequences in macrosialin recognized both bands. An antiserum against macrosialin precipitated most of the 94- to 97-kDa OxLDL-binding material. We conclude that the binding of OxLDL to mouse macrophage membranes is in part attributable to macrosialin. Our previous studies show that OxLDL competes with oxidized red blood cells and with apoptotic thymocytes for binding to mouse peritoneal macrophages. Whether macrosialin plays a role in recognition of OxLDL and oxidatively damaged cells by intact macrophages remains uncertain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568176

  14. Eicosanoid production by peritoneal and splenic macrophages in mice depleted of bone marrow by /sup 89/Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Bautista, A.P.; Pennington, S.N.; Humes, J.L.; Volkman, A.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies showed that the prostaglandin-forming macrophages (M phi) induced in the spleens of CBA/J mice by intraperitoneal administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) could not be demonstrated following the depletion of bone marrow and blood monocytes with /sup 89/Sr. The present study compares prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and LTB4 release by splenic and resident peritoneal M phi in /sup 89/Sr-treated mice and /sup 88/Sr controls following in vivo CP and in vitro incubation with zymosan, calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol ester (PMA). Intraperitoneal administration of CP resulted in the appearance of PGE2- and LTB4-releasing M phi in the spleens of control but not /sup 89/Sr mice. The incorporation and quantitative distribution of 3H-arachidonic acid into membrane lipids, however, were comparable in test and control mice. Neither zymosan nor any of the other stimulatory agents was able to effect significant release of PGE2 in vitro. No release of LTC4 by splenic M phi was detectable under experimental or control conditions. In contrast, the capacity of resident peritoneal M phi to release PGE2, LTC4, and LTB4 was apparently unaffected by /sup 89/Sr-induced bone marrow and monocyte depletion with virtually no demonstrable elicitation. Resident peritoneal M phi removed after CP in such mice showed a dramatic decrease in PGE2 release when incubated in vitro with zymosan, A23187, or PMA. These results, taken with earlier findings, demonstrate characteristically different phenotypic expression of metabolism of certain eicosanoids by splenic M phi from the spleen and the peritoneal cavity and suggest in addition that the induction of PGE2-synthesizing M phi in the spleen by CP is dependent on either an immigrant cell originating in the bone marrow or a regulatory agent derived from a bone marrow cell.

  15. Iron limitation and the gamma interferon-mediated antihistoplasma state of murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, T E; Wu-Hsieh, B A; Howard, D H

    1991-01-01

    The zoopathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum requires iron for growth. Intracellular growth of the fungus within mouse peritoneal macrophages is inhibited by recombinant murine gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Such treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages induces a marked downshift in transferrin receptors. We tested whether the antihistoplasma effect of IFN-gamma-treated macrophages is the result of iron deprivation. Treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with the intracellular iron chelator deferoxamine inhibits the intracellular growth of H. capsulatum. Exposure of macrophages to holotransferrin antagonizes the effect of both recombinant murine IFN-gamma and deferoxamine treatments. These results suggest that iron restriction may be one of the bases for the IFN-gamma-induced antihistoplasma effect of mouse macrophages. PMID:1904840

  16. Output of peritoneal cells during peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, O; Al-Mondhiry, H; Rifaat, U N; Khalil, M A; Al-Rawi, A M

    1978-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis provides a good source for the collection of macrophages. Six patients with chronic renal failure undergoing peritoneal dialysis for the first time were studied, and maximum cell egress, mostly macrophages, occurred at 24-48 hours and diminished after 48 hours. PMID:670419

  17. A SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy network orchestrates the protective effects of trans-resveratrol in stressed peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen-Jun; Li, Yi-Fang; Liu, Fang-Lan; Deng, Jie; Wu, Yan-Ping; Yuan, Wei-Lin; Tsoi, Bun; Chen, Jun-Li; Wang, Qi; Cai, Shao-Hui; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Resveratrol gains a great interest for its strong antioxidant properties, while the molecular mechanisms underlie the beneficial effects on psychosocial stress remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol protected peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells from stress-induced decrease in the total cell count, phagocytic capability, reactive oxygen species generation, monodansylcadaverine and mitochondrial membrane potential in stressed mice. Resveratrol promoted stress-induced autophagy in both models. Modulation of autophagy by rapamycin or 3-methyladenine regulated the protective effect of resveratrol, suggesting a role of autophagy in the protective mechanisms of resveratrol. The comparison studies revealed that distinct mechanisms were implicated in the protective effect of resveratrol and other antioxidants (vitamin C and edaravone). Resveratrol promoted autophagy via upregulating SIRT3 expression and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Knockdown of SIRT3 resulted in decreased autophagy and abolished protective effect of resveratrol. SIRT1 was also involved in the protective mechanism of resveratrol, although its effect on autophagy was unnoticeable. Pharmacological manipulation of autophagy modulated the effects of resveratrol on SIRT3 and AMPK, revealing the engagement of a positive feedback loop. In sharp contrast, vitamin C and edaravone effectively protected macrophages from stress-induced cytotoxicity, accompanied by downregulated SIRT3 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, and decreased level of autophagy response. Taken together, we conclude that a SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy network orchestrates in the protective effect of resveratrol in macrophages. PMID:27021965

  18. Transforming growth factor beta 1 and gamma interferon provide opposing signals to lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, E H; Hao, S Y; Pace, J L; Parmely, M J

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are potent inducers of macrophage activation, leading to the production of a number of proinflammatory mediators. Although several cytokines that prime macrophages for enhanced LPS-triggered responses have been identified, far less is known regarding the role that cytokines play in down-regulating macrophage responses to LPS. This study was designed to determine the effects of recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1) on macrophage activation by LPS. Pretreatment of either mouse peritoneal macrophages or cells of the RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cell line with rTGF-beta 1 inhibited their ability to produce both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to LPS. These inhibitory effects were reversed by increasing the concentration of LPS or by priming cells with optimal concentrations of recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma). Pretreatment of cells with rTGF-beta 1 had only a modest inhibitory effect on the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA. By contrast, the expression of mRNA for the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is responsible for NO production in activated macrophages, was significantly inhibited by rTGF-beta 1 pretreatment. Thus, rTGF-beta 1-dependent suppression of macrophage TNF-alpha biosynthesis was manifest at a posttranscriptional level, whereas the inhibition of NO production correlated with a direct effect on iNOS gene expression. Importantly, both of these suppressive effects of rTGF-beta 1 were reversed by exposing the cells to priming concentrations of rIFN-gamma. As with NO production, immunocytochemical analysis of iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages revealed that rIFN-gamma and rTGF-beta 1 had antagonistic effects, with the former increasing, and the latter reducing, the number of iNOS-expressing cells induced by LPS. These data suggest that a balance between the priming effects of IFN-gamma and the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1 can

  19. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-α signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  20. Kinetics of phospholipase A2, arachidonic acid, and eicosanoid appearance in mouse zymosan peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Lundy, S R; Dowling, R L; Stevens, T M; Kerr, J S; Mackin, W M; Gans, K R

    1990-04-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into mice induces a peritonitis characterized by cellular influx, plasma leakage and the appearance of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We report that zymosan injection also stimulates the accumulation of AA, docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The amount of the unsaturated fatty acids (UnFA) varies both with the zymosan dose and time. Significantly increased levels of UnFA were first detected 15 min after zymosan injection. Maximal levels of the UnFA were reached 1 to 2 h post zymosan injection (AA: 725 +/- 29 ng/mouse, docosahexaenoic acid: 296 +/- 23 ng/mouse, linoleic acid: 4489 +/- 179 ng/mouse) and declined to saline control levels by 8 h. PLA2 activity was significantly increased 5 to 15 min after zymosan injection. Maximal levels of PLA2 activity occurred 15 to 30 min after zymosan injection (31.8 +/- 9.1 nmol phospholipid/mg protein/h) and then decreased by 30% through 24 h. Neither the appearance of UnFA nor PLA2 activity correlated with cellular influx, but both were coincident with plasma exudation at 5 to 15 min after zymosan. However, maximal exudation occurred 1 to 2 h post zymosan injection similar to that seen with the UnFA but not PLA2. These latter results suggest that a significant portion of the UnFA found in the peritoneal cavity of zymosan-injected mice originates from the plasma. PLA2 activity at the early time points (5 to 15 min) may also contribute to the levels of UnFA via hydrolysis of tissue and/or cellular phospholipids. PMID:2108209

  1. Different Effects of the Immunomodulatory Drug GMDP Immobilized onto Aminopropyl Modified and Unmodified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles upon Peritoneal Macrophages of Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Antsiferova, Yuliya; Sotnikova, Nataliya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs) and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs) for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1), was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24455738

  2. Different effects of the immunomodulatory drug GMDP immobilized onto aminopropyl modified and unmodified mesoporous silica nanoparticles upon peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Antsiferova, Yuliya; Sotnikova, Nataliya; Parfenyuk, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs) and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs) for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1), was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24455738

  3. In vitro immune toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptosis and immune cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia; Yang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are often detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, presenting potential threats to ecosystem and human health. PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, data on PBDE immunotoxicity are limited, and the toxicity mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both immune cell death and dysfunction can modulate the responses of the immune system. This study examined the toxic effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the immune system by using peritoneal macrophages as the model. The macrophages were exposed to PBDEs, and cell death was determined through flow cytometry and immunochemical blot. The results showed that after 24h of exposure, BDE-47 (>5 μM) and BDE-209 (>20 μM) induced cell apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and depleted glutathione. BDE-47 was more potent than BDE-209; the cytotoxic concentrations for BDE-47 and BDE-209 were determined to be 5 μM and 20 μM, respectively, during 24h of exposure. However, pretreatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) partially reversed the cytotoxic effects. Further gene expression analyses on Caspase-3,-8,-9, TNFR1, and Bax revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. More importantly, non-cytotoxic concentrations BDE-47 (<2 μM) and BDE-209 (<10 μM) could impair macrophage accessory cell function in a concentration-dependent manner, but no effects were observed on phagocytic responses. These revealed effects of PBDEs on macrophages may shed light on the toxicity mechanisms of PBDEs and suggest the necessity of evaluating cellular functionality during the risk assessment of PBDE immunotoxicity. PMID:25462306

  4. Involvement of proton-sensing receptor TDAG8 in the anti-inflammatory actions of dexamethasone in peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiao-dong; Tobo, Masayuki; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Komachi, Mayumi; Murata, Naoya; Takano, Mutsumi; Tomura, Hideaki; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucocorticoid (GC) induced the expression of proton-sensing TDAG8 in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC enhanced acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation and inhibition of TNF-{alpha} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement of the GC-induced actions was lost by TDAG8 deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC-induced anti-inflammatory actions are partly mediated by TDAG8 expression. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent glucocorticoid, increased the expression of T-cell death associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, which is associated with the enhancement of acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation, in peritoneal macrophages. We explored the role of increased TDAG8 expression in the anti-inflammatory actions of DEX. The treatment of macrophages with either DEX or acidic pH induced the cell death of macrophages; however, the cell death was not affected by TDAG8 deficiency. While DEX inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, an inflammatory cytokine, which was independent of TDAG8, at neutral pH, the glucocorticoid enhanced the acidic pH-induced inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} production in a manner dependent on TDAG8. In conclusion, the DEX-induced increase in TDAG8 expression is in part involved in the glucocorticoid-induced anti-inflammatory actions through the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production under the acidic pH environment. On the other hand, the role of TDAG8 in the DEX-induced cell death is questionable.

  5. Regulation of the surface expression of the platelet-activating factor receptor in IC-21 peritoneal macrophages. Effects of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Chao, W; Olson, M S

    1992-10-15

    The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of the receptor for platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; AGEPC) was examined in cultured IC-21 peritoneal macrophages. AGEPC binding to its receptors reached saturation within 20 min at 25 degrees C and was reversible. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of AGEPC receptors with a Bmax of approximately 170 fmol/mg cellular protein and a Kd of 0.25 nM. Preincubation of IC-21 cells with LPS (0.01-1,000 ng/ml) induced an increase in the surface expression of AGEPC receptors in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The maximal effect of LPS on the AGEPC receptor was observed between 5 and 8 h, with a typical increase between 150 and 200%. Scatchard analysis indicated that LPS treatment of IC-21 cells increased the number of AGEPC receptors on the cell surface without any apparent change in the affinity of the receptor for the ligand. The effect of LPS on the surface expression of the AGEPC receptor was nearly abolished by cycloheximide (0.1 mM) and by actinomycin D (3 microM), suggesting the involvement of enhanced receptor protein synthesis and mRNA production in this event. Moreover, LPS treatment increased the capability of the IC-21 cell to respond to AGEPC addition by elevating intracellular free Ca2+ without causing an increase in the basal level of intracellular Ca2+. The present study demonstrates that IC-21 peritoneal macrophages possess high affinity AGEPC receptors and provides the evidence that the number of functional AGEPC receptors on a cell can be increased significantly upon exposure to LPS. PMID:1328211

  6. Generation of a novel mouse model for the inducible depletion of macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gheryani, Nabeia; Coffelt, Seth B; Gartland, Alison; Rumney, Robin M H; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Lewis, Claire E; Tozer, Gillian M; Greaves, David R; Dear, T Neil; Miller, Gaynor

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play an essential role in tissue homeostasis, innate immunity, inflammation, and wound repair. Macrophages are also essential during development, severely limiting the use of mouse models in which these cells have been constitutively deleted. Consequently, we have developed a transgenic model of inducible macrophage depletion in which macrophage-specific induction of the cytotoxic diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) is achieved by administration of doxycycline. Induction of the DTA protein in transgenic animals resulted in a significant 50% reduction in CD68+ macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone over a period of 6 weeks. Pertinently, the macrophages remaining after doxycycline treatment were substantially smaller and are functionally impaired as shown by reduced inflammatory cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide. This inducible model of macrophage depletion can now be utilized to determine the role of macrophages in both development and animal models of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22927121

  7. Characterization of mouse peritoneal exudate and associated leukocyte adherence inhibitory activity after intraperitoneal injection of either Bordetella pertussis or Corynebacterium parvum vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T W; Pross, S H; Benjamin, W R

    1978-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Corynebacterium parvum are commonly used immunopotentiating agents. To explore the inflammatory environment induced by these agents, the peritoneal exudate response in mice following intraperitoneal injection of B. pertussis (PV) and C. parvum (CV) vaccines was investigated. The PV-induced exudate isolated by lavage was characterized by an early neutrophil influx followed by enhanced accumulation of mononuclear cells and fluid protein. The CV exudate was principally mononuclear in nature and displayed fewer numbers of cells and less fluid protein. Both vaccines also enhanced the leukocyte adherence inhibitory activity (LAIA) of peritoneal fluid as measured in vitro. The development of exudate LAIA was T lymphocyte independent. A similar LAIA was demonstrated in nonimmune mouse plasma and serum. Exudate fluid and serum LAIA were heat stable and trypsin sensitive. These studies suggest that significant differences exist in the composition of the local tissue environment following PV and CV injection and that exudate LAIA is serum derived. Further studies in this direction should result in a better understanding of the ways in which inflammatory cells and fluid substances affect lymphocyte-macrophage interaction subsequent to adjuvant administration. PMID:215552

  8. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-γ was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications. PMID:25857980

  9. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid induced suppression of phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress phagocytosis of heat killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in macrophage cultures. In order to determine the mechanisms by which this response occurs, this investigation was initiated to examine whether the suppression of phagocytosis is mediated by a steroid induced phagocytosis inhibitory protein (PIP). Furthermore, it is postulated that these suppressive effects may be associated with alterations in macrophage phospholipid metabolism. To assess the association between phospholipid metabolism and phagocytosis, control and 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone treated macrophages were exposed to the phospholipase inhibitor bromophenacylbromide. The enzyme inhibitor suppressed phagocytosis in a time and dose dependent manner. However, supplying dexamethasone treated cultures with arachidonate did not reverse the steroid induced suppression of phagocytosis, whether the arachidonate was supplied alone or together with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Control cells, prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonate, exhibited an increased percentage of the radiolabeled fatty acid in neutral lipids following phagocytosis, with a corresponding decrease in the percentage associated with phosphatidylcholine.

  10. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  11. Separate Fc-receptors for immunoglogulins IgG2a and IgG2b on an established cell line of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S

    1976-04-01

    The specificity of Fe-receptors on IC-21 cells, an established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages with antibody-dependent effector cell activity has been examined. Only IgG2a and IgG2b myeloma proteins bound readily to IC-21 Fc-receptors, the former in nonaggregated as well as aggregated form, the latter only as aggregated complexes. Thus, IgG2a bound in a manner characteristic of classically defined cytophilic antibody, whereas the binding of IgG2b appeared to be mediated by Fc-receptors for antigen-antibody complexes. Evidence is presented in support of the view that IC-21 macrophages possess separate and distinct Fc-receptor sites for these two immunoglobulins. PMID:1254971

  12. Intracellularly survived Staphylococcus aureus after phagocytosis are more virulent in inducing cytotoxicity in fresh murine peritoneal macrophages utilizing TLR-2 as a possible target.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus with high virulence potential is contributing to a current public health crisis in both hospital and community settings. TLR-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells is thought to be an important component of the host's immunity against S. aureus infection. However, response of S. aureus against modulation of host-derived ROS in absence of TLR-2 during acute staphylococcal infection is still remains unclear. Peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with either inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase in presence or absence of anti TLR-2 antibody and were infected with S. aureus strain AG-789. Bacteria were recovered after time dependent phagocytosis; intracellular killing, level and expression of SOD and catalase were measured. Phagocytosed bacteria from respective groups were further used for infection to fresh peritoneal macrophages as well as for in vivo infection. Levels of ROS, cytokine, lysozyme, antioxidant enzymes activity and TLR-2 expression were measured. Results revealed that more bacteria were escaped killing in SOD and catalase inhibitor pretreated TLR-2 neutralized macrophages, found to express more catalase and are antibiotic resistant. Infection of fresh macrophages with S. aureus, recovered from SOD and catalase inhibited TLR-2 neutralized macrophages induced lower ROS, lysozyme and cytokine production and caused increased bacterial count. Furthermore, bacterial antioxidants by modulating host-derived ROS could regulate the cell surface TLR-2 expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. So, in the early phase of infection, TLR-2 participates in the innate immune response and targeting bacterial antioxidants might be useful in the alleviation of Staphylococcus aureus infection. PMID:27270212

  13. A murine platelet-activating factor receptor gene: cloning, chromosomal localization and up-regulation of expression by lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal resident macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, S; Matsuda, Y; Nakamura, M; Waga, I; Kume, K; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    A murine gene encoding a platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was cloned. The gene was mapped to a region of the D2.2 band of chromosome 4 both by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by molecular linkage analysis. Northern blot analysis showed a high expression of the PAFR message in peritoneal macrophages. When C3H/HeN macrophages were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic lipid A, the PAFR gene expression was induced. Bacterial LPS, but not lipid A, induced the level of PAFR mRNA in LPS unresponsive C3H/HeJ macrophages. These induction patterns were parallel to those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Thus the PAFR in macrophages is important in LPS-induced pathologies. PMID:8670084

  14. Effect of triptolide on secretion of inflammatory cellular factors TNF-α and IL-8 in peritoneal macrophages of mice activated by lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Xiang-jun; Hu, Duan; Li, Zhan-fei; Liu, Kai-jun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has been carried out to look for safe and effective anti-inflammation drugs from traditional Chinese herbal medicine. As a powerful research technology of life science, molecular biology has entered many areas of traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) of peritoneal macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. METHODS: Peritoneal elicited macrophages were separated, purified and activated by LPS in mice, then cultured in vitro with triptolide at different concentrations. The activity of TNF-α and the level of IL-8 of cellular supernatants were determined by MTT colorimetric assay and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The activity of TNF-α in macrophages was significantly inhibited (P<0.01) by triptolide (10-1-101μg/ml) during 4-24 hours in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of IL-8 in macrophages was significantly inhibited (P<0.01) by triptolide (10-1-101μg/ml) in 12 hours in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Triptolide could inhibit the activity of TNF-α and the level of IL-8 in macrophages activated by LPS. PMID:25214945

  15. Contribution of complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 to carbohydrate-dependent uptake of oligomannose-coated liposomes by peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kuboki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Misao; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kojima, Naoya

    2008-11-01

    Peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) preferentially and rapidly take up oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) and subsequently mature to induce a Th-1 immune response following administration of OMLs into the peritoneal cavity. Here, we examine the contributions of complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 (CR3) to carbohydrate-dependent uptake of OMLs by PEMs. Effective uptake of OMLs into PEMs in vitro was observed only in the presence of peritoneal fluid (PF), and OMLs incubated with PF were incorporated by PEMs in vitro in the absence of PF. These phenomena were inhibited by methyl-alpha-mannoside, N-acetylglucosamine or EDTA, but not by galactose. Pull-down analysis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting of PF-treated OMLs indicated that the OMLs were opsonized with complement fragment iC3b. In vivo uptake of OMLs by PEMs was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against CR3, a receptor for iC3b, and OML uptake by PEMs in the peritoneal cavity was not observed in C3-deficient mice. Thus, our results indicate that OMLs are opsonized with iC3b in a mannose-dependent manner in the peritoneal cavity and then incorporated into PEMs via CR3. PMID:18694897

  16. Direct measurement of intracellular free Ca2+ in rat peritoneal macrophages: correlation with oxygen-radical production.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M B; Campbell, A K

    1983-01-01

    A novel method has been developed, based on osmotic lysis of intracellular pinocytotic vesicles, to introduce the Ca2+-activated photoprotein obelin into the cytoplasm of rat peritoneal macrophages. The change in osmolarity of the incubating medium necessary to induce lysis of the pinocytotic vesicles did not significantly affect the viability or responsiveness of the cells. The method enabled on average 3 fl of external medium to be introduced into each cell. Macrophages loaded with photoprotein had a resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration of 0.24 +/- 0.02 microM, calculated from the obelin consumption rate. The calcium ionophore, A23187, induced a prolonged rise in intracellular Ca2+ and also stimulated oxygen-radical production, monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, 1 microM, produced a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ which reached a plateau of 1.2 +/- 0.64 microM (n = 7) and declined with a half-time of approximately 40 sec. Unopsonized particles, latex beads (diameter = 1 micron), did not produce any detectable rise in intracellular Ca2+. Incorporation of a calcium chelator EGTA-ethylene-glycol-bis-(aminoethylether) tetra-acetate--into the cytoplasm abolished the transient intracellular Ca2+ rise induced by chemotactic peptide. Oxygen-radical production was also abolished. However, oxygen radical production induced by unopsonized particles was unaffected by intracellular EGTA. It was concluded that oxygen-radical production detected by chemiluminescence can be triggered by a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Chemotactic peptide induces oxygen-radical production by this mechanism. However, unopsonized particles induce oxygen-radical production by a mechanism independent of a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Images Figure 1 PMID:6414943

  17. Astragalus saponins Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ren, Tianjing; Zheng, Lucong; Chen, Hubiao; Ko, Joshua Kashun; Auyeung, Kathy Kawai

    2016-01-01

    Excessive nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced during the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. It has been demonstrated that anti-inflammation contributes Astragalus membranaceus saponins (AST)'s beneficial effects in combination of conventional anticancer drugs. However, the immunomodulating property of AST has not been well characterized. In this study, we found that AST suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced generation of NO without causing cytotoxicity in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7. The gene and protein overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text], evoked by LPS, was consistently down-regulated by AST. AST also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-[Formula: see text]B activation and the associated I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] degradation during LPS insult. Furthermore, AST induced growth inhibition in promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and T-lymphocyte leukemic Jurkat cells, but exerted no cytotoxic effects in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). It is known that the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU can suppress the immune system, which can be identified by a reduced white blood cell count and decreased hematocrit, while the combination of AST and 5-FU can reverse the above hematologic toxicities. To summarize, non-cytotoxic concentrations of AST suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the modulation of p38 MAPK signaling and the inhibition of NO and cytokine release. Importantly, AST can alleviate the hematologic side effects of current chemotherapeutic agents. These findings can facilitate the establishment of AST in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and inflammation-mediated tumor development. PMID:27109155

  18. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Pogranichniy, R; Lin, T-L

    2013-11-01

    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Immunohistochemical testing of biopsy specimens and postmortem examination are the standard diagnostic methods, although direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing to detect feline coronavirus in macrophages in effusion specimens has been reported to have 100% specificity and has been recommended as an antemortem confirmatory test. The aim of this study was to compare the results of DIF testing in antemortem feline effusions with postmortem results using field samples. Effusion specimens were collected antemortem from 17 cats and tested by DIF, followed by postmortem examination. Histopathological examination of specimens collected at postmortem confirmed FIP in 10/17 cases and ruled out FIP out in 7/17 cases. Antemortem DIF testing was positive in all 10 cases confirmed as FIP at postmortem examination. In the seven cats where FIP was ruled out at postmortem examination, DIF was negative in five cases and positive in the remaining two cases. The calculated sensitivity of DIF testing was 100% and the specificity was 71.4%. Duplicate effusion specimens from eight cats that were initially DIF positive were stored refrigerated (4 °C) or at room temperature (22-25 °C) and subjected to serial DIF testing to determine the duration of positive results. DIF-positive specimens stored at both temperatures retained their positive status for at least 2 days. PMID:24076123

  19. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  20. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  1. Spacious phagosome formation within mouse macrophages correlates with Salmonella serotype pathogenicity and host susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Alpuche-Aranda, C M; Berthiaume, E P; Mock, B; Swanson, J A; Miller, S I

    1995-01-01

    Light microscopic studies indicated a correlation between the virulence for mice of different Salmonella serotypes and the ability to form or maintain spacious phagosomes (SP) within mouse macrophages. Although Salmonella typhimurium induced membrane ruffling, macropinocytosis, and SP formation in macrophages from BALB/c mice, serotypes which are nonpathogenic for mice produced markedly fewer SP. SP formation correlated with both serotype survival within mouse macrophages and reported lethality for mice. Time-lapse video microscopy demonstrated that the human pathogen S. typhi induced generalized macropinocytosis and SP formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages, indicating a similar morphology for the initial phases of this host-pathogen interaction. In contrast to bone marrow-derived macrophages from BALB/c mice, macrophages from S. typhimurium-resistant outbred (CD-1) and inbred (CBA/HN) mice did not initiate generalized macropinocytosis after bacterial infection and formed markedly fewer SP. These deficiencies were not due to the Ihy resistance genotype of these mice, as macrophages from mice that were congenic except for the Ihy locus demonstrated equal SP formation in response to S. typhimurium. The observation that S. typhimurium-resistant CD-1 and CBA/HN mice are deficient in the ability to form and/or maintain SP indicates that a variable host component is important for SP formation and suggests that the ability to induce or form SP affects susceptibility to S. typhimurium. When serotypes nonpathogenic for mice were used to infect BALB/c macrophages, or when CD-1 or CBA/HN mouse macrophages were infected by S. typhimurium, some of the SP that formed shrank within seconds. This rapid shrinkage suggests that SP maintenance is also important for S. typhimurium survival within macrophages. These studies indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to SP formation and maintenance, which correlate with Salmonella intracellular survival and the

  2. Investigating the role of macrophages in tumor formation using a MaFIA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Clifford, A B; Elnaggar, A M; Robison, R A; O'Neill, K

    2013-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) interact with tumors in their development, growth and metastatic activities. Using a transgenic mouse model that allows for the selective depletion of macrophages we were able to access the macrophage's potential to facilitate metastasis. In the MaFIA (Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis) mouse, transgene-expressing cells of the myeloid lineage undergo death by apoptosis in the presence of the drug AP20187. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was fused to the suicide gene to allow identification of transgene-expressing cells. Tumor induction was accomplished by subdermal and intravenous injections of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Metastasis in mice with depleted macrophages was compared to metastasis in normal control mice. The lungs and kidneys were examined for metastatic cells. The macrophage-depleted groups showed significantly less metastasis (P>0.001) compared to the control groups. We theorize that macrophages may aid the metastatic process by fusing with melanoma cells. Using appropriate cell markers and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we were able to detect a small population of double-positive cells. We confirmed cell fusion by microscopic analysis, visualizing the cell's morphology by both immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The presence of double-positive cells suggests macrophage/cancer cell fusion could be a possible mechanism for metastasis. PMID:23722325

  3. How Mouse Macrophages Sense What Is Going On

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus; Pramod, Akula Bala; Croft, Michael; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Ting, Jenny P.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are central to both innate and adaptive immunity. With few exceptions, macrophages are the first cells that sense trouble and respond to disturbances in almost all tissues and organs. They sense their environment, inhibit or kill pathogens, take up apoptotic and necrotic cells, heal tissue damage, and present antigens to T cells. Although the origins (yolk sac versus monocyte-derived) and phenotypes (functions, gene expression profiles, surface markers) of macrophages vary between tissues, they have many receptors in common that are specific to one or a few molecular species. Here, we review the expression and function of almost 200 key macrophage receptors that help the macrophages sense what is going on, including pathogen-derived molecules, the state of the surrounding tissue cells, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, antibodies and immune complexes, altered self molecules, extracellular matrix components, and cytokines, including chemokines. PMID:27313577

  4. The peritoneal macrophage inflammatory profile in cirrhosis depends on the alcoholic or hepatitis C viral etiology and is related to ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of ascites in cirrhotic patients generally heralds a deterioration in their clinical status. A differential gene expression profile between alcohol- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis has been described from liver biopsies, especially those associated with innate immune responses. The aim of this work was to identify functional differences in the inflammatory profile of monocyte-derived macrophages from ascites in cirrhotic patients of different etiologies in an attempt to extrapolate studies from liver biopsies to immune cells in ascites. To this end 45 patients with cirrhosis and non-infected ascites, distributed according to disease etiology, HCV (n = 15) or alcohol (n = 30) were studied. Cytokines and the cell content in ascites were assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokines and ERK phosphorylation in peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages isolated and stimulated in vitro were also determined. Results A different pattern of leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity and differences in the primed status of macrophages in cirrhosis were observed depending on the viral or alcoholic etiology. Whereas no differences in peripheral blood cell subpopulations could be observed, T lymphocyte, monocyte and polymorphonuclear cell populations in ascites were more abundant in the HCV than the alcohol etiology. HCV-related cirrhosis etiology was associated with a decreased inflammatory profile in ascites compared with the alcoholic etiology. Higher levels of IL-10 and lower levels of IL-6 and IL-12 were observed in ascitic fluid from the HCV group. Isolated peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages maintained their primed status in vitro throughout the 24 h culture period. The level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was higher in ALC peritoneal macrophages at baseline than in HCV patients, although the addition of LPS induced a greater increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HCV than in ALC patients. Conclusions The

  5. Macrophage recruitment during limb development and wound healing in the embryonic and foetal mouse.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson-Woolley, J; Hughes, D; Gordon, S; Martin, P

    1994-05-01

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in the adult inflammatory response to wounding. They are directly responsible for cellular debridement and, by providing a source of growth factors and cytokines, they recruit other inflammatory and fibroblastic cells and influence cell proliferation and tissue remodelling. In this paper we investigate the role of macrophages in clearing areas of programmed cell death in the developing embryo and also their role in embryonic and foetal wound healing. Immunocytochemistry using the monocyte/macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody, F4/80, reveals a close association between areas of programmed cell death in the remodelling interdigital regions of the mouse footplate and of F4/80-positive cells, suggesting that monocyte-derived macrophages, and not locally recruited fibroblastic cells, as previously believed, are responsible for phagocytosing and clearing areas of interdigital apoptosis. Our studies of wound healing reveal that macrophages are not recruited to, and therefore cannot be playing an active role in the healing of, excisional wounds made in the mouse embryo at any stage up until E14.5. Beyond this transition stage we see a significant recruitment of macrophages within 12 hours of wounding. We find that macrophages can be attracted to wounds in earlier embryos if the wound results in significant cell death such as after burning. PMID:7929625

  6. Intracellular activity of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Anne; Hessler, Jonas H R; Skov, Robert L; Blom, Jens; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2009-05-01

    Antibiotic treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections is often problematic due to the slow response to therapy and the high frequency of infection recurrence. The intracellular persistence of staphylococci has been recognized and could offer a good explanation for these treatment difficulties. Knowledge of the interplay between intracellular antibiotic activity and the overall outcome of infection is therefore important. Several intracellular in vitro models have been developed, but few experimental animal models have been published. The mouse peritonitis/sepsis model was used as the basic in vivo model exploring a quantitative ex vivo extra- and intracellular differentiation assay. The intracellular presence of S. aureus was documented by electron microscopy. Five antibiotics, dicloxacillin, cefuroxime, gentamicin, azithromycin, and rifampin (rifampicin), were tested in the new in vivo model; and the model was able to distinguish between their extra- and intracellular effects. The intracellular effects of the five antibiotics could be ranked as follows as the mean change in the log(10) number of CFU/ml (Delta log(10) CFU/ml) between treated and untreated mice after 4 h of treatment: dicloxacillin (3.70 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > cefuroxime (3.56 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > rifampin (1.86 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > gentamicin (0.61 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > azithromycin (0.21 Delta log(10) CFU/ml). We could also show that the important factors during testing of intracellular activity in vivo are the size, number, and frequency of doses; the time of exposure; and the timing between the start of infection and treatment. A poor correlation between the intracellular accumulation of the antibiotics and the actual intracellular effect was found. This stresses the importance of performing experimental studies, like those with the new in vivo model described here, to measure actual intracellular activity instead of making predictions based on cellular pharmacokinetic and MICs. PMID

  7. Peritoneal "melanosis".

    PubMed

    Chang, Ea-sle; Bachul, Piotr; Szura, Mirosław; Szpor, Joanna; Okoń, Krzysztof; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2015-09-01

    A case of a23 year old female with peritoneal melanosis associated with adenocarcinoma of the rectum is reported. During laparoscopic anterior resection of the rectum, diffuse black pigmentations on the parietal peritoneum, greater omentum, mesenteric lymph nodes and ovaries were discovered. The histopathological findings revealed the presence of macrophages packed with black pigment. These results together with clinical data excluded metastatic melanoma and confirmed the diagnosis of the race condition called peritoneal melanosis. Due to the begin character of the lesions the laparoscopic treatment was continued. There were no remissions or progression of the reported in English literature and this is the second case of peritoneal melanosis that has been associated with adenocarcinoma of the large intestine. PMID:26619112

  8. The action of Clofazimine on the level of lysosomal enzymes of cultured macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Sarracent, J; Finlay, C M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal and calf alveolar macrophage cultures were exposed to various concentrations of Clofazimine, 3 (p-chloroanilino)-10-p-Chlorophenyl 2, 10-dihydro-2-isopropylimino, for 120 hr and an increase of four lysosomal enzymes were found with 0 . 3 micrograms/ml of the drug. In mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures, higher concentrations were toxic. Cycloheximide inhibited the lysosomal enzyme activity increase found. No change in enzymatic activity was observed when a lysosomal enriched granular fraction was incubated with various drug concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that Clofazimine at concentrations close to therapeutic serum levels induces de novo synthesis of lysosomal enzymes in macrophage cultures. PMID:7083642

  9. Increasing cytotoxic activity and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by peritoneal macrophages during the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M J; Hendriks, T; Huyben, C M; Tax, W J; van der Meer, J W; Goris, R J

    1996-10-01

    A major problem in the intensive care unit nowadays is the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a cumulative sequence of progressive deterioration of organ functions. While the pathogenic pathways of MODS remain to be elucidated, it is assumed that cells of the host defence system, especially the macrophages, are altered in their function. During the development of MODS it is assumed that macrophages are overactivated and that an exaggerated inflammatory response may contribute to its pathogenesis. In order to gain insight into the alterations of the functional status of the macrophage during the development of MODS, a series of macrophage functions was measured in the subsequent phases of zymosan induced generalized inflammation in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a single dose of zymosan intraperitoneally and groups of animals were killed after 2, 5, 8, and 12 days. Peritoneal macrophages were collected for in vitro assessment of the ADCC, the production of superoxide (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO), and complement mediated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus. A single intraperitoneal injection with zymosan resulted in a three-phase illness. During the third phase the animals developed MODS-like symptoms. Peritoneal cells from control animals produced very low to non-detectable amounts of O2- and NO, and the cytotoxic activity was also low. During the development of MODS, from day 7 onwards, the ability to produce O2- and NO2- became strongly elevated, as did the cytotoxic activity. These findings are in parallel with the development of MODS whereas the phagocytic and killing capacity remained essentially unaltered. The changes found could be detrimental for the organism, thus possibly contributing to the onset and development of MODS. PMID:8845029

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates the Cytotoxicity of Resveratrol in Transformed Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Achy-Brou, Christelle A Adiabouah; Billack, Blase

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene are natural products that are present in plants and have been incorporated into various dietary supplements. Numerous beneficial pharmacologic effects have been reported for these stilbenes; however, the mechanism by which these compounds exert a cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 macrophages has not been well characterized. We have previously described that resveratrol is toxic to these tumor-derived macrophages and that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces resveratrol toxicity via a mechanism that involves activation of toll like receptor 4. In the present work, we examined the cellular and molecular effects of resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene by determining cell viability and caspase 3 activity in control and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated with these stilbenes for 24 h. We found that LPS stimulation reduced the cytotoxicity of resveratrol but not of pterostilbene in these cells. When examined for effects on caspase 3 activation after a 24 h incubation, resveratrol and pterostilbene were each found to separately and significantly increase caspase 3 activity in these cells. LPS stimulation prevented caspase 3 activation by pterostilbene and reduced caspase 3 activation by resveratrol in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The data presented here indicate that LPS induces a phenotype switch in tumor-derived RAW 264.7 macrophages in which cells experiencing LPS in the presence of resveratrol or pterostilbene become less likely to activate the pro-apoptotic factor caspase 3. PMID:27277074

  11. Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response decreases mycobacterial survival in mouse MSCs by augmenting NO production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Yongjian; Xie, Heping; Li, Miao; Ming, Siqi; Li, Liyan; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Gong, Sitang; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular microbe, which escapes host immune attack during latent infection. Recent studies reveal that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a protective niche for MTB to maintain latency. However, the regulation of mycobacterial residency in MSCs in the infectious microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we found that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during MTB infection facilitated the clearance of bacilli residing in mouse MSCs. Higher inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in mouse MSCs under macrophage-mediated inflammatory circumstance. Blocking NO production in MSCs increased the survival of intracellular mycobacteria, indicating NO-mediated antimycobacterial activity. Moreover, both nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were involved in iNOS expression and NO production in inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β could trigger NO production in MSCs and exert anti-mycobacterial activity via NF-κB signaling pathway. Neutralization of interleukin-1β in macrophage-mediated inflammatory microenvironment dampened the ability of mouse MSCs to produce NO. Together, our findings demonstrated that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during mycobacterial infection promotes the clearance of bacilli in mouse MSCs by increasing NO production, which may provide a better understanding of latent MTB infection. PMID:27251437

  12. Structure elucidation of fungal beauveriolide III, a novel inhibitor of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Namatame, I; Tomoda, H; Tabata, N; Si, S; Omura, S

    1999-01-01

    The structure of fungal beauveriolide III, an inhibitor of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages, was elucidated to be cyclo-[(3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl- D-allo-isoleucyl] by spectral analyses and chemical degradation. PMID:10092190

  13. Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response decreases mycobacterial survival in mouse MSCs by augmenting NO production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Yongjian; Xie, Heping; Li, Miao; Ming, Siqi; Li, Liyan; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Gong, Sitang; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular microbe, which escapes host immune attack during latent infection. Recent studies reveal that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a protective niche for MTB to maintain latency. However, the regulation of mycobacterial residency in MSCs in the infectious microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we found that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during MTB infection facilitated the clearance of bacilli residing in mouse MSCs. Higher inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in mouse MSCs under macrophage-mediated inflammatory circumstance. Blocking NO production in MSCs increased the survival of intracellular mycobacteria, indicating NO-mediated antimycobacterial activity. Moreover, both nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were involved in iNOS expression and NO production in inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β could trigger NO production in MSCs and exert anti-mycobacterial activity via NF-κB signaling pathway. Neutralization of interleukin-1β in macrophage-mediated inflammatory microenvironment dampened the ability of mouse MSCs to produce NO. Together, our findings demonstrated that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during mycobacterial infection promotes the clearance of bacilli in mouse MSCs by increasing NO production, which may provide a better understanding of latent MTB infection. PMID:27251437

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase from Mouse Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiao-Wen; Cho, Hearn J.; Calaycay, Jimmy; Mumford, Richard A.; Swiderek, Kristine M.; Lee, Terry D.; Ding, Aihao; Troso, Tiffany; Nathan, Carl

    1992-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) conveys a variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission, and cytotoxicity. In some endothelial cells and neurons, a constitutive NO synthase is activated transiently by agonists that elevate intracellular calcium concentrations and promote the binding of calmodulin. In contrast, in macrophages, NO synthase activity appears slowly after exposure of the cells to cytokines and bacterial products, is sustained, and functions independently of calcium and calmodulin. A monospecific antibody was used to clone complementary DNA that encoded two isoforms of NO synthase from immunologically activated mouse macrophages. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to confirm most of the amino acid sequence. Macrophage NO synthase differs extensively from cerebellar NO synthase. The macrophage enzyme is immunologically induced at the transcriptional level and closely resembles the enzyme in cytokine-treated tumor cells and inflammatory neutrophils.

  15. Identification of anti-inflammatory constituents in Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum gentianoides extracts using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) is an herb widely used as supplement for mild to moderate depression. Our prior studies revealed synergistic anti-inflammatory activity associated with 4 bioactive compounds in a fraction of H. perforatum ethanol extract. Whether these 4 compounds also contributed to the ethanol extract activity was addressed in the research reported here. Despite the popularity of H. perforatum, other Hypericum species with different phytochemical profiles could have their anti-inflammatory potentials attributed to these or other compounds. In the current study, ethanol extracts of different Hypericum species were compared for their inhibitory effect on LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Among these extracts, those made from H. perforatum and H. gentianoides demonstrated stronger overall efficacy. LC-MS analysis indicated the 4 compounds in H. perforatum extract and pseudohypericin in all active fractions. The 4 compounds accounted for a significant part of the extract’s inhibitory activity on PGE2, NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 as well as peritoneal macrophages. Pseudohypericin was the most important contributor of the anti-inflammatory potential among the 4 compounds. The lipophilic fractions of H. gentianoides extract, which did not contain the previously identified active constituents, decreased PGE2 and NO potently. These fractions were rich in acylphloroglucinols, including uliginosin A that accounted for a proportion of the anti-inflammatory activity observed with the active fractions. Overall, the current study revealed a different group of major anti-inflammatory constituents in H. gentianoides, while showing that a previously identified 4 compounds combination was important for H. perforatum’s anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:21855951

  16. Combined influence of teichoic acids from Staphylococcus aureus and heterometallik Cu/Cd ethylenediamine complex on peritoneal macrophages and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, V V; Garmanchuk, L V; Senchylo, N V; Nikolaenko, T V; Dzhus, O I; Ostapchenko, L I; Khranovska, N M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teichoic acid (TA) from Staphylococcus aureus Wood 46 on tumor growth and metastasis of the experimental Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Intranasal administration of TA alone aggravated both tumor growth and metastasis, whereas combined administration of TA with a synthetic bimetallic (copper : cadmium) ethylene diamine complex PO244 resulted in pronounced antitumor and antimetastatic effects. The group of animals subjected to the combined treatment with TA and PO244 manifested the highest degree of lymphocyte infiltration into the tumor tissue, compared to the control group and those exposed to TA or PO244 alone. Moreover, the combined treatment negatively affected the adhesive properties of peritoneal macrophages in the LLC bearing mice. Co-cultivation of the isolated macrophages with primary LLC cultures revealed significant (p < 0.05) cytotoxic and cytostatic effects, detected as an increased level of apoptosis and a reduced fraction of replicating cells. PMID:25536823

  17. Pharmacodynamics of glycopeptides in the mouse peritonitis model of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J D; Fuursted, K; Raber, S; Espersen, F; Frimodt-Moller, N

    2000-05-01

    The emergence of resistance to various antibiotics in pneumococci leaves the glycopeptides as the only antibiotics against which pneumococci have no resistance mechanism. This situation has led to a renewed interest in the use of glycopeptides. It has not yet been possible to conclude which one or more of the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters are the most important and best predictors for the effects of treatment with glycopeptides in animal models or in humans. We used the mouse peritonitis model with immunocompetent mice and with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as infective organisms. A wide spectrum of different treatment regimens with vancomycin and teicoplanin was tested to study the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. In studies in which the single dose that protected 50% of lethally infected mice (ED(50)) was given as one dose or was divided into two doses, survival was significantly decreased when the dose was divided. The only statistically significant correlations between the percentage of survival of the mice after 6 days and each of the PK/PD parameters were for peak concentration (C(max))/MIC and S. aureus and for the free fraction of C(max) (C(max-free))/MIC and S. pneumoniae. For S. pneumoniae, the ED(50) for different dosing regimens increased with the number of doses given; e.g., the single-dose ED(50)s for vancomycin and teicoplanin were 0.65 and 0. 45 mg/kg, respectively, but the ED(50)s for dosing regimens with 2-h doses given for 48 h were 6.79 and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. In experiments with 39 different vancomycin dosing regimens and 40 different teicoplanin dosing regimens against S. pneumoniae, the different PK/PD parameters were analyzed using logistic regression. The C(max-free)/MIC was one of two parameters that best explained the effect for both drugs; for vancomycin, the other important parameter was the AUC/MIC, and for teicoplanin, the other parameter was the time the free fraction of the drug is

  18. Pharmacodynamics of Glycopeptides in the Mouse Peritonitis Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Fuursted, Kurt; Raber, Susan; Espersen, Frank; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to various antibiotics in pneumococci leaves the glycopeptides as the only antibiotics against which pneumococci have no resistance mechanism. This situation has led to a renewed interest in the use of glycopeptides. It has not yet been possible to conclude which one or more of the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters are the most important and best predictors for the effects of treatment with glycopeptides in animal models or in humans. We used the mouse peritonitis model with immunocompetent mice and with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as infective organisms. A wide spectrum of different treatment regimens with vancomycin and teicoplanin was tested to study the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. In studies in which the single dose that protected 50% of lethally infected mice (ED50) was given as one dose or was divided into two doses, survival was significantly decreased when the dose was divided. The only statistically significant correlations between the percentage of survival of the mice after 6 days and each of the PK/PD parameters were for peak concentration (Cmax)/MIC and S. aureus and for the free fraction of Cmax (Cmax-free)/MIC and S. pneumoniae. For S. pneumoniae, the ED50 for different dosing regimens increased with the number of doses given; e.g., the single-dose ED50s for vancomycin and teicoplanin were 0.65 and 0.45 mg/kg, respectively, but the ED50s for dosing regimens with 2-h doses given for 48 h were 6.79 and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. In experiments with 39 different vancomycin dosing regimens and 40 different teicoplanin dosing regimens against S. pneumoniae, the different PK/PD parameters were analyzed using logistic regression. The Cmax-free/MIC was one of two parameters that best explained the effect for both drugs; for vancomycin, the other important parameter was the AUC/MIC, and for teicoplanin, the other parameter was the time the free fraction of the drug is above the MIC

  19. Modulation of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Growth in Cultured Mouse Macrophages by Prostaglandins and Platelet Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lonardoni, M. V. C.; Barbieri, C. L.; Russo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The role of endogenously synthesized PAF and prostaglandins on the infection of mouse macrophages by Letsbmanta (L.) amazonensis was investigated, as well as the possible correlation between the effects of these inflammatory mediators with nitric oxide production. It was found that pretreatment of macrophages with 10−5 M of the PAF antagonists, BN-52021 or WEB-2086, increased macrophage infection by 17 and 59%, respectively. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 μg/ml), induced a significant inhibition which was reversed by addition of PGE (10-3 M) to the culture medium. These results suggested that the infection of macrophages by leisbmanla is inhibited by PAF and enhanced by prostaglandins and that these mediators are produced by macrophages during this infection. This was confirmed by addition of these mediators to the culture medium before infection; PAF (10−6, 10−9 and 10−12M) reduced significantly the infection whereas PGE2 (10−5 M) induced a marked enhancement. This effect of exogenous PAF on macrophage infection was reversed by the two PAF antagonists used in this study as well as by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, L-arginine methyl ester (100 mM). Taken together the data suggest that endogenous production of PAF and PGE2 exert opposing effects on Lesbmana–macrophage interaction and that nitric oxide may be involved in the augmented destruction of parasites induced by PAF. PMID:18472932

  20. Macrophage Depletion Attenuates Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Ductular Reaction in a Mouse Model of Chronic Cholangiopathies.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Verhulst, Stefaan; Syn, Wing-Kin; Lagaisse, Kimberly; van Hul, Noemi; Heindryckx, Femke; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Peeters, Liesbeth; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Leclercq, Isabelle A; Canbay, Ali; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cholangiopathies, such as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, are progressive disease entities, associated with periportal accumulation of inflammatory cells, encompassing monocytes and macrophages, peribiliary extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and ductular reaction (DR). This study aimed to elucidate the relevance of macrophages in the progression of chronic cholangiopathies through macrophage depletion in a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) mouse model. One group of mice received a single i.p. injection of Clodronate encapsulated liposomes (CLOLipo) at day 7 of a 14 day DDC treatment, while control animals were co-treated with PBSLipo instead. Mice were sacrificed after 7 or respectively 14 days of treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of macrophage recruitment (F4/80), ECM deposition (Sirius Red, Laminin) and DR (CK19). Macrophage depletion during a 14 day DDC treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of ECM deposition. Porto-lobular migration patterns of laminin-rich ECM and ductular structures were significantly attenuated and a progression of DR was effectively inhibited by macrophage depletion. CLOLipo co-treatment resulted in a confined DR to portal regions without amorphous cell clusters. This study suggests that therapeutic options selectively directed towards macrophages might represent a feasible treatment for chronic cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:27618307

  1. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. PMID:27328771

  2. In the Absence of Endogenous Gamma Interferon, Mice Acutely Infected with Neospora caninum Succumb to a Lethal Immune Response Characterized by Inactivation of Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Inoue, Noboru; Makala, Levi; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Otsuka, Haruki; Mikami, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    Following infection with Neospora caninum, BALB/c mice were shown to be resistant to an acute infection but developed a latent chronic infection. However, BALB/c background gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-deficient mice were sensitive to the acute infection. Since the immune response in IFN-γ-deficient mice is scantly known, we examined the function of macrophages, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, T-cell responses, and serum cytokine levels in the mice. All IFN-γ-deficient mice died within 9 days of infection with N. caninum, whereas those treated with exogenous IFN-γ lived longer. Although N. caninum invaded various organs in both types of mice at the early stage of infection, the parasite was not detected in the brains of resistant hosts until 21 days postinfection (dpi). Peritoneal macrophages from IFN-γ-deficient mice were activated by exogenous IFN-γ associated with inhibition of parasite growth and nitric oxide production as were those from BALB/c mice. IFN-γ-deficient mice failed to increase MHC class II expression on macrophages. Moreover, BALB/c mice induced T-cell proliferation while IFN-γ-deficient mice did not. However, in vivo treatment with exogenous IFN-γ induced up-regulated MHC class II expression in IFN-γ-deficient mice. BALB/c mice treated with an antibody to CD4 showed an increase in morbidity and mortality after parasite infection. In serum, significant levels of IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were detected in resistant hosts, whereas IL-10 was detected in IFN-γ-deficient mice. The levels of IL-12 in IFN-γ-deficient mice were higher than those in BALB/c mice at 7 dpi. The present study indicates that early IFN-γ production has a crucial role in the activation of peritoneal macrophages for the induction of protective immune responses against N. caninum. PMID:11427432

  3. Stimulation of IFN-γ production by garlic lectin in mouse spleen cells: involvement of IL-12 via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Karasaki, Yuji

    2011-02-15

    Several lectins, present in beans and edible plant products, have immuno-potentiating and anti-tumor activities. We here report the effects of garlic lectin purified from garlic bulbs on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the mouse. Garlic lectin induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in a bell-shaped time (24-60 h)- and concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/ml)-dependent manner. The maximal enhancement was observed at 36 h with 0.5 mg/ml of garlic lectin. The stimulatory effect of garlic lectin on IFN-γ production was completely inhibited by both actinomycin D and cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, and was associated with an increase in IFN-γ mRNA level. Garlic lectin also induced IL-12 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a concentration (0.25-1.0 mg/ml)- and bell-shaped time (3-24 h)-dependent manner. The lectin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in macrophages. Furthermore, specific pharmacological inhibitors of ERK kinase (U0126) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) also suppressed the production of IL-12 induced by garlic lectin. The present findings suggest that garlic lectin induces IL-12 production via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in mouse macrophages, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-γ production through an increase in IFN-γ mRNA in the spleen cells. PMID:20724126

  4. A defect in inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes in the osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages were activated by administration of an inflammatory lipid metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc), to wild type mice but not murine (microphthalmic) osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mutant mice. In vitro treatment of wild type mouse peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc efficiently activated macrophages whereas lyso-Pc-treatment of mi mutant mouse peritoneal cells resulted in no activation of macrophages. Generation of macrophage activating factor requires a precursor protein, serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and participation of lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes. Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes was found to be defective in mi mutant mice. PMID:8881764

  5. CpG ODN enhances uptake of bacteria by mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    UTAISINCHAROEN, P; KESPICHAYAWATTANA, W; ANUNTAGOOL, N; CHAISURIYA, P; PICHYANGKUL, S; KRIEG, A M; SIRISINHA, S

    2003-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG motif in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) or bacterial DNA is well recognized for its role in innate immunity, including enhancing production of NO and cytokines by macrophages. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of CpG ODN on the phagocytic uptake of bacteria by macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis of mouse macrophages (RAW 264·7) incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Burkholderia pseudomallei, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Escherichia coli showed that CpG ODN increased the uptake of these bacteria by mouse macrophages. The enhancement of bacterial uptake by CpG ODN was concentration-dependent. The increase of bacterial uptake by CpG ODN-activated macrophages shown above is consistent with the result of bacteria internalization study using a standard antibiotic protection assay. There was also an increase in the rate and degree of multi-nucleated giant cell formation, phenomena which have been shown previously to be unique when the cells were infected with B. pseudomallei. These observations may provide significant insights for future investigation into host cell–pathogen interaction. PMID:12653838

  6. Ginsenoside Rd alleviates mouse acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Kaixi; Jin, Chao; Ma, Pengfei; Ren, Qinyou; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a main component of the root of Panax ginseng, exhibits anti-inflammation functions and decreases infarct size in many injuries and ischemia diseases such as focal cerebral ischemia. M1 Macrophages are regarded as one of the key inflammatory cells having functions for disease progression. Methods To investigate the effect of GSRd on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and macrophage functional status, and their regulatory role on mouse polarized macrophages in vitro, GSRd (10–100 mg/kg) and vehicle were applied to mice 30 min before renal IRI modeling. Renal functions were reflected by blood serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level and histopathological examination. M1 polarized macrophages infiltration was identified by flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence staining with CD11b+, iNOS+/interleukin-12/tumor necrosis factor-α labeling. For the in vitro study, GSRd (10–100 μg/mL) and vehicle were added in the culture medium of M1 macrophages to assess their regulatory function on polarization phenotype. Results In vivo data showed a protective role of GSRd at 50 mg/kg on Day 3. Serum level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen significantly dropped compared with other groups. Reduced renal tissue damage and M1 macrophage infiltration showed on hematoxylin–eosin staining and flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining confirmed this improvement. With GSRd administration, in vitro cultured M1 macrophages secreted less inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, macrophage polarization-related pancake-like morphology gradually changed along with increasing concentration of GSRd in the medium. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that GSRd possess a protective function against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury via downregulating M1 macrophage polarization. PMID:27158241

  7. Early Interactions of Murine Macrophages with Francisella tularensis Map to Mouse Chromosome 19

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Avner; Hassan, Musa A.; Okan, Nihal A.; Sheffer, Michal; Camejo, Ana; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differences among individuals in susceptibility to infectious diseases can be modulated by host genetics. Much of the research in this field has aimed to identify loci within the host genome that are associated with these differences. In mice, A/J (AJ) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice show differential susceptibilities to various pathogens, including the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Because macrophages are the main initial target during F. tularensis infection, we explored early interactions of macrophages from these two mouse strains with F. tularensis as well as the genetic factors underlying these interactions. Our results indicate that bacterial interactions with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) during early stages of infection are different in the AJ and B6 strains. During these early stages, bacteria are more numerous in B6 than in AJ macrophages and display differences in trafficking and early transcriptional response within these macrophages. To determine the genetic basis for these differences, we infected BMDMs isolated from recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from reciprocal crosses between AJ and B6, and we followed early bacterial counts within these macrophages. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed a locus on chromosome 19 that is associated with early differences in bacterial counts in AJ versus B6 macrophages. QTL analysis of published data that measured the differential susceptibilities of the same RI mice to an in vivo challenge with F. tularensis confirmed the F. tularensis susceptibility QTL on chromosome 19. Overall, our results show that early interactions of macrophages with F. tularensis are dependent on the macrophage genetic background. PMID:26980837

  8. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando O; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; Ten Hacken, Nick H; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Hamann, Jörg; Greaves, David R; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-02-28

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4–activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues. Although mouse models are widely used for macrophage research, translation to the human can be problematic and the human macrophage system remains poorly described. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the transcriptome and proteome of human and murine macrophages under resting conditions (M0) and after IL-4 activation (M2). We provide a resource for tools enabling macrophage detection in human tissues by identifying a set of 87 macrophage-related genes. Furthermore, we extend current understanding of M2 activation in different species and identify Transglutaminase 2 as a conserved M2 marker that is highly expressed by human macrophages and monocytes in the prototypic Th2 pathology asthma. PMID:23293084

  9. Efficient replication of pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in a mouse macrophage cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Schellens, Ingrid MM; Bonville, Cynthia A; Martin, Brittany V; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2007-01-01

    Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumovirinae) is a natural respiratory pathogen of rodent species and an important new model for the study of severe viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia. However, despite high virus titers typically detected in infected mouse lung tissue in vivo, cell lines used routinely for virus propagation in vitro are not highly susceptible to PVM infection. We have evaluated several rodent and primate cell lines for susceptibility to PVM infection, and detected highest virus titers from infection of the mouse monocyte-macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Additionally, virus replication in RAW 264.7 cells induces the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines relevant to respiratory virus disease, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-β (IFN-β), macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β (MIP-1α and MIP-1β) and the functional homolog of human IL-8, mouse macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 (MIP-2). Identification and characterization of a rodent cell line that supports the replication of PVM and induces the synthesis of disease-related proinflammatory mediators will facilitate studies of molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis that will complement and expand on findings from mouse model systems. PMID:17547763

  10. Geniposide, from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, inhibits the inflammatory response in the primary mouse macrophages and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jinhua; Liu, Zhicheng; Liang, Dejie; Li, Fengyang; Li, Depeng; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Xichen; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2012-12-01

    Geniposide, a main iridoid glucoside component of gardenia fruit, has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of geniposide on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated primary mouse macrophages in vitro and LPS induced lung injury model in vivo. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. Further analysis was carried out in mTLR4 and mMD-2 co-transfected HEK293 cells. The results showed that geniposide markedly inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production both in vitro and in vivo. Geniposide blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, ERK and JNK in LPS stimulated primary mouse macrophages. Furthermore, geniposide inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS stimulated primary mouse macrophages and inhibited the LPS-induced IL-8 production in HEK293-mTLR4/MD-2 cells. In vivo study, it was also observed that geniposide attenuated lung histopathologic changes in the mouse models. These results suggest that geniposide exerts an anti-inflammatory property by down-regulating the expression of TLR4 up-regulated by LPS. Geniposide is highly effective in inhibiting acute lung injury and may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for acute lung injury treatment. PMID:22878137

  11. Effect of swainsonine on processing and turnover of two lysosomal glycoproteins from mouse peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tropea, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    No effect of the inhibitor on the relative rates of synthesis of the precursor form of either enzyme was observed with either (/sup 35/S)methionine or 2-(/sup 3/H)mannose as the labeled tracer. On the other hand, processing of ..beta..-galactosidase and ..beta..-glucuronidase was markedly altered by swainsonine as manifested by a number of differences in the processed forms. (1) The altered forms had slightly greater electrophoretic mobility than normal forms. (2) Endo-..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase H digestion decreased the molecular sizes of the altered forms much more than those of the normal forms. (3) On isoelectric separation of the charge isoforms of ..beta..-glucuronidase, the three most negatively charged forms of the normal processed enzyme were absent in the altered material. This difference was eliminated by neuraminidase treatment of the processed form. These findings are consistent with a blockage by swainsonine of the removal of the ..cap alpha..-1,3 and ..cap alpha..-1,6 linked mannose residues that occurs in normal processing.

  12. Immunostaining of macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Prashanthi; Fisher, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic mouse aorta consists of a heterogeneous population of cells, including macrophages, endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC), that play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. Identification of these vascular cells in the vessel wall is important to understanding their function in pathological conditions. Immunohistochemistry is an invaluable technique used to detect the presence of cells in different tissues. Here, we describe immunohistochemical techniques commonly used for the detection of the vascular cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta using cell specific markers. PMID:26445786

  13. Impact of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Ratios in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLr-/-) Mice on Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Elicited Peritoneal Macrophage Inflamm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with decreased risk of CVD. LDL receptor knockout mice were used to assess the effect of different omega-6:EPA+DHA ratios on atherosclerotic lesion formation and elicited peritoneal macrophage inflammatory response. Methods and R...

  14. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs. PMID:26786873

  15. Increased NHC Cells in the Peritoneal Cavity of Plasmacytoma Susceptible BALB/c Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Berenice; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Farfán-Morales, José Eduardo; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luis Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BALB/c strain mice are unique in that they develop murine plasmacytoma (MPC) as a consequence of the inflammation induced by pristane oil injection in the peritoneal cavity. In this work the Treg, Th17, B1, B2, and NHC lymphocyte populations from the peritoneal environment of BALB/c, the susceptible strain, and C57BL/6 mice, which do not develop MPC after oil treatment, were studied. Both oil-treated strains showed decreased levels of Th17 lymphocytes, no significant variation in Treg lymphocytes, and a drastic decrease of all B lymphocyte populations. However, only oil-induced BALB/c showed increased levels of natural helper cells (NHC) which could be important in the myeloma induction. PMID:26504358

  16. Increased NHC Cells in the Peritoneal Cavity of Plasmacytoma Susceptible BALB/c Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-González, Berenice; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Farfán-Morales, José Eduardo; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luis Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BALB/c strain mice are unique in that they develop murine plasmacytoma (MPC) as a consequence of the inflammation induced by pristane oil injection in the peritoneal cavity. In this work the Treg, Th17, B1, B2, and NHC lymphocyte populations from the peritoneal environment of BALB/c, the susceptible strain, and C57BL/6 mice, which do not develop MPC after oil treatment, were studied. Both oil-treated strains showed decreased levels of Th17 lymphocytes, no significant variation in Treg lymphocytes, and a drastic decrease of all B lymphocyte populations. However, only oil-induced BALB/c showed increased levels of natural helper cells (NHC) which could be important in the myeloma induction. PMID:26504358

  17. Deletion of scavenger receptor A gene in mice resulted in protection from septic shock and modulation of TLR4 signaling in isolated peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Robert; Cauvi, David M; Hawisher, Dennis; Song, Donghuan; Niño, Diego F; Coimbra, Raul; Bickler, Stephen; De Maio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor A (Sra), also known as macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1), is a surface glycoprotein preferentially present in macrophages that plays a primary role in innate immunity. Previous studies have shown that Sra is a modifier gene for the response to bacterial LPS in mice at the level of IL-10 production, in particular. In the present study, we found that Sra(−/−) mice are more resistant to septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture than wild-type C57BL/6 J (B6) mice. In addition, Sra(−/−) mice displayed initial elevated high density lipoprotein (HDL) circulating levels. Naïve peritoneal macrophages (PMϕs) were isolated from Sra(−/−) mice to understand the possible protective mechanism. Incubation of these cells with LPS was found to modulate TLR4 signaling, leading to a reduction in IL-10 and IL-6 mRNA levels, but not TNF-α expression, at low concentrations of LPS in comparison with PMϕs isolated from B6 mice. No differences were found in LPS binding between PMϕs derived from Sra(−/−) or B6 mice. The lack of Sra binding to LPS was confirmed after transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with the Sra gene. The contribution of Sra to the outcome of sepsis may be a combination of changes in TLR4 signaling pathway and elevated levels of HDL in circulation, but also LPS toxicity. PMID:22751446

  18. In vitro macrophage cytotoxicity of five calcium silicates.

    PubMed Central

    Skaug, V; Davies, R; Gylseth, B

    1984-01-01

    Five calcium silicate minerals (two naturally occurring and three synthetic compounds) with defined morphology and chemical composition were compared for their cytotoxic and lysosomal enzyme releasing effects on unstimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. One synthetic material, a fibrous tobermorite, was cytotoxic towards the cells, and two naturally occurring wollastonites induced selective release of beta-glucuronidase from the cells. Images PMID:6318798

  19. Enhancer Turnover Is Associated with a Divergent Transcriptional Response to Glucocorticoid in Mouse and Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Alasdair W; Young, Robert S; Hume, David A; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-01-15

    Phenotypic differences between individuals and species are controlled in part through differences in expression of a relatively conserved set of genes. Genes expressed in the immune system are subject to especially powerful selection. We have investigated the evolution of both gene expression and candidate enhancers in human and mouse macrophages exposed to glucocorticoid (GC), a regulator of innate immunity and an important therapeutic agent. Our analyses revealed a very limited overlap in the repertoire of genes responsive to GC in human and mouse macrophages. Peaks of inducible binding of the GC receptor (GR) detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq correlated with induction, but not repression, of target genes in both species, occurred at distal regulatory sites not promoters, and were strongly enriched for the consensus GR-binding motif. Turnover of GR binding between mice and humans was associated with gain and loss of the motif. There was no detectable signal of positive selection at species-specific GR binding sites, but clear evidence of purifying selection at the small number of conserved sites. We conclude that enhancer divergence underlies the difference in transcriptional activation after GC treatment between mouse and human macrophages. Only the shared inducible loci show evidence of selection, and therefore these loci may be important for the subset of responses to GC that is shared between species. PMID:26663721

  20. Regulation of retinoid mediated cholesterol efflux involves liver X receptor activation in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manna, Pulak R; Sennoune, Souad R; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Slominski, Andrzej T; Pruitt, Kevin

    2015-08-14

    Removal of cholesterol from macrophage-derived foam cells is a critical step to the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions. We have recently demonstrated the functional importance of retinoids in the regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that predominantly mediates the intramitochondrial transport of cholesterol in target tissues. In the present study, treatment of mouse macrophages with retinoids, particularly all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and 9-cis RA, resulted in increases in cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI (Apo-A1). Activation of the PKA pathway by a cAMP analog, (Bu)2cAMP, markedly augmented retinoid mediated cholesterol efflux. Macrophages overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase increased the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and concomitantly enhanced the efficacy of retinoic acid receptor and liver X receptor (LXR) ligands on StAR and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein levels. RAs elevated StAR promoter activity in macrophages, and an increase in StAR levels augmented cholesterol efflux to Apo-A1, suggesting retinoid-mediated efflux of cholesterol involves enhanced oxysterol production. Further studies revealed that retinoids activate the LXR regulated genes, sterol receptor-element binding protein-1c and ABCA1. These findings provide insights into the regulatory events in which retinoid signaling effectively enhances macrophage cholesterol efflux and indicate that retinoid therapy may have important implications in limiting and/or regressing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:26119689

  1. Extrathyroidal release of thyroid hormones from thyroglobulin by J774 mouse macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brix, K; Herzog, V

    1994-01-01

    Thyroglobulin appears in the circulation of vertebrates at species-specific concentrations. We have observed that the clearance of thyroglobulin from the circulation occurs in the liver by macrophages. Here we show that the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were released by incubation of mouse macrophages (J774) with thyroglobulin. Thyroid hormone release was a fast process, with an initial rate of approximately 20 pmol T4/mg per min and approximately 0.6 pmol T3/mg per min, indicating that macrophages preferentially release T4. The bulk of released thyroid hormones appeared after 5 min of incubation of macrophages with thyroglobulin, whereas degradation of the protein was detectable only after several hours. During internalization of thyroglobulin, endocytic vesicles and endosomes were reached at 5 min and lysosomes at 60 min. T4 release started extracellularly by secreted proteases and continued along the endocytic pathway of thyroglobulin, whereas T3 release occurred mainly intracellularly when thyroglobulin had reached the lysosomes. This shows that the release of both hormones occurred at distinct cellular sites. Our in vitro observations suggest that macrophages in situ represent an extrathyroidal source for thyroid hormones from circulating thyroglobulin. Images PMID:8163643

  2. Search for potent modulators of cytokine production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A A; Abidov, M T; Kovalevskaya, E O; Kalyuzhin, O V

    2004-09-01

    We compared the effects of Tamerit, Polyoxidony, and Licopid on spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The test preparations were equally potent in stimulating nonactivated cells. Licopid produced a costimulatory effect on macrophages primed with endotoxin. Tamerit in different doses suppressed cytokine production by cells. Polyoxidony in low doses activated, but in high doses suppressed this process. PMID:15665918

  3. Sulforaphane promotes immune responses in a WEHI‑3‑induced leukemia mouse model through enhanced phagocytosis of macrophages and natural killer cell activities in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Luen; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate, inducing cytotoxic effects in various human cancer cells, including leukemia cells through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the effect of SFN on the immune responses in a leukemia mouse model remains to be investigated. The present study investigated whether SFN has an effect on the immune responses in a WEHI‑3‑induced leukemia mouse model in vivo. Normal BALB/c mice were injected with WEHI‑3 cells to generate the leukemia mouse model, and were subsequently treated with placebo or SFN (0, 285, 570 and 1,140 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following treatment, all mice were weighted and blood samples were collected. In addition, liver and spleen samples were isolated to determine cell markers, phagocytosis and natural killer (NK) cell activities, and cell proliferation was examined using flow cytometry. The results indicated that SFN treatment had no significant effect on the spleen weight, however it decreased liver and body weight. Furthermore, SFN treatment increased the percentage levels of CD3 (T cells) and CD19 (B cell maker), however had no effect on the levels of CD11b (monocytes) or Mac‑3 (macrophages), compared with the WEHI‑3 control groups. The administration of SFN increased the phagocytosis of macrophages from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal cavity, and increased the activity of NK cells from splenocytes. Administration of SFN promoted T and B cell proliferation following stimulation with concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. PMID:27035756

  4. Isolation and partial characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from the fruit pulp of Spondias cytherea and its effect on peritoneal macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Iacomini, Marcello; Serrato, Rodrigo V; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Lopes, Luciana; Buchi, Dorly F; Gorin, Phillip A J

    2005-12-01

    The total carbohydrate content of the intact pulp of Spondias cytherea was 41%. Polysaccharides were obtained via hot aqueous extraction after defatting with organic solvents. The aqueous extract was treated with excess ethanol to form a precipitate, which was then solubilized in water. The material precipitated upon acidification when HCl was removed. The resulting supernatant fraction was submitted to freeze-thawing treatment yielding a soluble fraction (sFTS). This fraction had Ara, Rha, Gal and GalA in its structure as determined by GC-MS. 13C NMR analysis showed signals assigned to alpha-L-Araf, beta-D-Galp, alpha-D-GalpA and alpha-L-Rhap units, in addition to galacturonic acid units, which were present also as methyl ester. These results suggest a type I rhamnogalacturonan with arabinogalactan branches. Cell eliciting activity in a dose-depending pattern was observed in vitro on peritoneal macrophages treated with sFTS. PMID:16239076

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of sulfated polysaccharides of pine pollen on mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yue; Xing, Li; Sun, Mengmeng; Su, Fangchen

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the effects of sulfated polysaccharide (SPPM60-D) from masson pine pollen on [Ca(2+)]i and immune function of RAW264.7 macrophages. SPPM60-D was obtained by subjecting Masson pine pollen to boiling water and alcohol precipitation, 60% ethanol grading precipitation, Sephacryl S-400HR purification, and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method sulfation. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure the effect of SPPM60-D on relative activity and proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, and a fluorescence spectrophotometer was used to determine [Ca(2+)]i. Phagocytosis of neutral red was used to determine phagocytosis capacity. Adherence, scratch healing, and transwell assays were used to assess migration and adhesion abilities of macrophages. An enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) assay was used to assess the secretion of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. A dexamethasone (DEX) inhibition method was used to measure the recovery of RAW264.7 immune activity by SPPM60-D. SPPM60-D significantly increased relative activity, proliferation, and [Ca(2+)]i levels of mouse RAW264.7 cells. It also significantly enhanced the immune function of macrophages from normal and immune-suppressed mouse. The results showed that SPPM60-D mainly bound to TLR4 on macrophages. This activated the TLR4-PI3K-PLC-IP3R signaling pathway, leading to the opening of calcium release-activated calcium channels (CRAC), increasing [Ca(2+)]i and activating the macrophages, and thus improving immunity. PMID:27288698

  6. Phase-contrast zoom tomography reveals precise locations of macrophages in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Krenkel, Martin; Markus, Andrea; Bartels, Matthias; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We have performed x-ray phase-contrast tomography on mouse lung tissue. Using a divergent x-ray beam generated by nanoscale focusing, we used zoom tomography to produce three-dimensional reconstructions with selectable magnification, resolution, and field of view. Thus, macroscopic tissue samples extending over several mm can be studied in sub-cellular-level structural detail. The zoom capability and, in particular, the high dose efficiency are enabled by the near-perfect exit wavefront of an optimized x-ray waveguide channel. In combination with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms, challenging radiation-sensitive and low-contrast samples can be reconstructed with minimal artefacts. The dose efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the reconstruction of living macrophages both with and without phagocytized contrast agents. We also used zoom tomography to visualize barium-labelled macrophages in the context of morphological structures in asthmatic and healthy mouse lung tissue one day after intratracheal application. The three-dimensional reconstructions showed that the macrophages predominantly localized to the alveoli, but they were also found in bronchial walls, indicating that these cells might be able to migrate from the lumen of the bronchi through the epithelium. PMID:25966338

  7. Apigenin Induces the Apoptosis and Regulates MAPK Signaling Pathways in Mouse Macrophage ANA-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuexia; Shen, Weigan; Kong, Guimei; Lv, Houning; Tao, Wenhua; Bo, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Apigenin is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid that possesses antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there are few reports has been done on the ability of apigenin to induce apoptosis in macrophages. In this study, mouse macrophage ANA-1 cells were incubated with different concentrations of apigenin. The cell viability was determined by an MTT assay. The cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis were also analyzed using a TUNEL assay and a DNA ladder. The level of intracellular ROS was detected using a dichlorofluorescein -diacetate probe. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that apigenin decreased the viability of ANA-1 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apigenin increased the level of intracellular ROS, downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and upregulated the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in ANA-1 cells. Furthermore, apigenin downregulated the expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-JNK, upregulated the expression of phospho-p38 and had no significant effect on the expression of Bax, ERK, JNK and p38. The results suggested that apigenin induced cell apoptosis in mouse macrophage ANA-1 cells may via increasing intracellular ROS, regulating the MAPK pathway, and then inhibiting Bcl-2 expression. PMID:24646936

  8. Phase-contrast zoom tomography reveals precise locations of macrophages in mouse lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenkel, Martin; Markus, Andrea; Bartels, Matthias; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2015-05-01

    We have performed x-ray phase-contrast tomography on mouse lung tissue. Using a divergent x-ray beam generated by nanoscale focusing, we used zoom tomography to produce three-dimensional reconstructions with selectable magnification, resolution, and field of view. Thus, macroscopic tissue samples extending over several mm can be studied in sub-cellular-level structural detail. The zoom capability and, in particular, the high dose efficiency are enabled by the near-perfect exit wavefront of an optimized x-ray waveguide channel. In combination with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms, challenging radiation-sensitive and low-contrast samples can be reconstructed with minimal artefacts. The dose efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the reconstruction of living macrophages both with and without phagocytized contrast agents. We also used zoom tomography to visualize barium-labelled macrophages in the context of morphological structures in asthmatic and healthy mouse lung tissue one day after intratracheal application. The three-dimensional reconstructions showed that the macrophages predominantly localized to the alveoli, but they were also found in bronchial walls, indicating that these cells might be able to migrate from the lumen of the bronchi through the epithelium.

  9. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehr, D.J.; Marletta, M.A.

    1985-11-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H/He and LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H/HeJ strain with LPS injections up to 175 ..mu..g. Furthermore, thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H/He, but not from C3H/HeJ mice, produced nitrite (60%) and nitrate (40%) when cultured with LPS (10 ..mu..g/ml). T-lymphocyte addition/depletion experiments showed the presence of T cells enhanced this response. However, LPS did not cause nitrite or nitrate production in cultures of spleen lymphocytes from either strain. LPS-induced nitrate synthesis was also observed with nude mice and CBA/N mice, indicating that neither functional T lymphocytes nor LPS-responsive B lymphocytes were required for the response in vivo. This was consistent with the in vitro results showing macrophages alone were competent. Mycobacterium bovis infection of C3H/He and C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a large increase in nitrate production over the course of the infection for both strains, suggesting T-lymphocyte-mediated activation of macrophages as a potent stimulus for nitrate biosynthesis. The synthesis of nitrite is significant in that it can directly participate in the endogenous formation of nitrosamines and may also be involved in some aspect of the chemistry of cytotoxicity.

  10. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Stuehr, D J; Marletta, M A

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H/He and LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 micrograms of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H/HeJ strain with LPS injections up to 175 micrograms. Furthermore, thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H/He, but not from C3H/HeJ mice, produced nitrite (60%) and nitrate (40%) when cultured with LPS (10 micrograms/ml). T-lymphocyte addition/depletion experiments showed the presence of T cells enhanced this response. However, LPS did not cause nitrite or nitrate production in cultures of spleen lymphocytes from either strain. LPS-induced nitrate synthesis was also observed with nude mice and CBA/N mice, indicating that neither functional T lymphocytes nor LPS-responsive B lymphocytes were required for the response in vivo. This was consistent with the in vitro results showing macrophages alone were competent. Mycobacterium bovis infection of C3H/He and C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a large increase in nitrate production over the course of the infection for both strains, suggesting T-lymphocyte-mediated activation of macrophages as a potent stimulus for nitrate biosynthesis. The synthesis of nitrite is significant in that it can directly participate in the endogenous formation of nitrosamines and may also be involved in some aspect of the chemistry of cytotoxicity. PMID:3906650

  11. Activation of calcium-insensitive phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) by P2X(7) receptors in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    El Ouaaliti, M; Seil, M; Dehaye, J P

    2012-12-01

    Free fatty acid releases are triggered by PLA2 activation and are substrates for many enzymes such as cyclooxygenases. These reactions are responsible for the production of many prostaglandins implicated in the inflammation yet many purinergic receptors have been implicated in diseases characterised by chronic inflammation. The role of P2X receptors was evaluated in LPS-primed murine peritoneal macrophages which were labelled with either [(3)H]-oleic acid or [(3)H]-arachidonic acid. Ten μmolar thapsigargin and 1mM ATP stimulated the release of both unsaturated acids. ATP had no effect at 10 μM and ivermectin had no effect on the response to ATP. The response to ATP was inhibited by magnesium and was not observed with cells from P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The response to ATP was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium and was inhibited by arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone and bromoenol lactone but not by pyrrophenone. The release of the [(3)H]-fatty acids by ATP and thapsigargin was diminished by PD-98058, an inhibitor of MEK-1. It was concluded that in LPS-primed macrophages, P2X(7) receptors, not P2X(4) receptors, activated an iPLA(2) and promoted the release of unsaturated fatty acids secondary to the activation of a kinase. This response might contribute to the inflammation provoked by extracellular ATP. PMID:23041292

  12. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

    2014-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NFκB translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. PMID:24740524

  13. Transcriptional regulation of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL-3 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, C.S.; Vadas, M.A.; Cockerill, P.N.

    1995-07-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF and IL-3 are hemopoietic growth factors whose genes are closely linked in both humans and mice. In humans, the GM-CSF and IL-3 genes are regulated by a cyclosporin A-inhibitable enhancer located 3 kb upstream of the GM-CSF gene that is inducible by signals that mimic TCR activation. To search for a murine homologue of this enhancer we probed mouse genomic DNA and located a 400-bp element 2 kb upstream of the mouse GM-CSF gene that was 76% homologous with the human GM-CSF enhancer. Like the human GM-CSF enhancer, this element formed a cyclosporin A-inhibitable DNase I-hypersensitive site in the murine T cell line EL4 upon activation with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore. Transient transfection assays showed that this homologue of the human enhancer acted as an inducible enhancer of the thymidine kinase promoter, the mouse IL-3 promoter, and the human GM-CSF promoter. We observed, however, that the mouse GM-CSF promoter was significantly more active than the human GM-CSF promoter and found that it supported a level of activity equivalent to the combination of the human GM-CSF promoter and the human GM-CSF enhancer. Consequently, the activity of mouse GM-CSF promoter was not significantly elevated in the presence of the mouse GM-CSF enhancer. Because the mouse GM-CSF enhancer is considerably less active than its human homologue we suggest that the mouse GM-CSF gene has evolved with less dependence upon the upstream enhancer for its activation. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Effects of red clover extract on the activation and proliferation of mouse T lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Xiu-yan; Zeng, Yao-ying

    2008-10-01

    The study investigated the effects of red clover extract (RCE) on mouse T macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. The cell toxic effect of RCE was estimated by MTT assay. Multiple-fluorescence staining plus flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of RCE on CD69/CD25/CD71 expression of mouse T lymphocytes stimulated by Con A; CFDA-SE staining plus flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of RCE on proliferation of T lymphocytes activated by Con A; The effect of RCE on nitric oxide (NO) secretion of mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h was assayed by Griess reagent system. We found that RCE had potent anti-inflammatory effects on mice. RCE had little cell toxic effect on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages. RCE strongly inhibited the excessive production of inflammatory mediators (NO, CD69, CD25, CD71), in a dose-dependent manner, like cyclosporine A injection. RCE could inhibit proliferation of CD3+ T lymphocytes. These data suggested that RCE might exhibit anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation and proliferation of mouse lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages. PMID:19127865

  15. Intracellular survival of wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and macrophage-sensitive mutants in diverse populations of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Buchmeier, N A; Heffron, F

    1989-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium survives within macrophages and causes a fatal infection in susceptible strains of mice. A number of S. typhimurium mutants that contain Tn10 insertions in genes which are necessary for survival within the macrophage have been isolated. To demonstrate the importance of each gene in intracellular survival, the mutations were transduced into a smooth-strain background and the ability to survive intracellularly was assayed in five different populations of macrophages. The majority of the original macrophage-sensitive mutants retained the macrophage-sensitive phenotype in the smooth-strain background. The ability to survive or grow within macrophages varied with both the source of macrophages and the individual mutants. S. typhimurium grew best in the macrophage-like cell line J774, survived at moderate levels in splenic and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and was killed most efficiently in peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-sensitive mutants transduced into a smooth background were also less virulent than the parent, with a 50% lethal dose of 2 to 5 logs greater than that of the parental strain. These experiments demonstrate that survival of S. typhimurium within macrophages varies with the source of cells, with a distinct ability to survive in macrophages from mouse spleens, where S. typhimurium grows rapidly. These experiments also demonstrate the heterogeneity in intracellular survival among the various macrophage-sensitive mutants, which may reflect the relative importance of the individual mutated genes in survival within macrophages. PMID:2642463

  16. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qilin; An, Yarui; Tang, Linlin; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Hua; Bi, Wenji; Wang, Zhongchuan; Zhang, Wen

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the risk of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The biosensor was constructed by a three-step method. First, a poly-thionine (PTH) film was assembled on the surface of glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric electropolymerization of thionine, which serves as an electron transfer mediator (ETM). Second, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx), cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and electrode. Finally, the enzymes, GOx, cholesterol esterase (ChE), and ChOx, were covalently attached to the PTH layer through a chitosan (CH) linker. The PTH coupled with GNPs provides good selectivity, high sensitivity and little crosstalk for the dual enzymatic-biosensor. The developed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibiting a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level did not change obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was induced with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, which is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:22027130

  17. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Fernández, Luisa; Recio-Poveda, Lucía; Aristorena, Mikel; Lastres, Pedro; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; de las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Corbí, Ángel; Arthur, Helen M.; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Engfl/flLysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Engfl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients. PMID:27010826

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Suppressive Macrophages Through Phagocytosis in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Braza, Faouzi; Dirou, Stéphanie; Forest, Virginie; Sauzeau, Vincent; Hassoun, Dorian; Chesné, Julie; Cheminant-Muller, Marie-Aude; Sagan, Christine; Magnan, Antoine; Lemarchand, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) immunosuppressive functions make them attractive candidates for anti-inflammatory therapy in allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which they ensure therapeutic effects remain to be elucidated. In an acute mouse model of house dust mite (Der f)-induced asthma, one i.v. MSC injection was sufficient to normalize and stabilize lung function in Der f-sensitized mice as compared to control mice. MSC injection decreased in vivo airway responsiveness and decreased ex vivo carbachol-induced bronchial contraction, maintaining bronchial expression of the inhibitory type 2 muscarinic receptor. To evaluate in vivo MSC survival, MSCs were labeled with PKH26 fluorescent marker prior to i.v. injection, and 1 to 10 days later total lungs were digested to obtain single-cell suspensions. 91.5 ± 2.3% and 86.6 ± 6.3% of the recovered PKH26(+) lung cells expressed specific macrophage markers in control and Der f mice, respectively, suggesting that macrophages had phagocyted in vivo the injected MSCs. Interestingly, only PKH26(+) macrophages expressed M2 phenotype, while the innate PKH26(-) macrophages expressed M1 phenotype. Finally, the remaining 0.5% PKH26(+) MSCs expressed 10- to 100-fold more COX-2 than before injection, suggesting in vivo MSC phenotype modification. Together, the results of this study indicate that MSCs attenuate asthma by being phagocyted by lung macrophages, which in turn acquire a M2 suppressive phenotype. Stem Cells 2016;34:1836-1845. PMID:26891455

  19. ROCK inhibition impedes macrophage polarity and functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yianzhu; Tejpal, Neelam; You, Junping; Li, Xian C; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play an important role in immune responses including allograft rejection and they are one of the potential targets of anti-rejection therapies in organ transplantation. Macrophage alloreactivity relies on their phenotype/polarity, motility, phagocytosis and matrix degradation, which in turn depend on proper functioning of actin cytoskeleton and its regulators, the small GTPase RhoA and its downstream effector the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). Several laboratories showed that administration of ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 to the graft recipient inhibits chronic rejection or rodent cardiac allografts. Here we studied the effect of Y-27632 on mouse peritoneal macrophage structure, polarity and functions in in vitro assays. We show that Y-27632 inhibitor affects macrophage phenotype/polarity, phagocytosis, migration, and matrix degradation. These novel findings suggest that the impediment of macrophage structure and function via interference with the RhoA/ROCK pathway has a potential to be therapeutically effective in organ transplantation. PMID:26711331

  20. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr.

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Characterization of cellular response to thiol-modified gold surfaces implanted in mouse peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nygren, H; Kanagaraja, S; Braide, M; Eriksson, C; Lundström, I

    1999-05-01

    The early inflammatory reaction in vivo to three well defined surfaces-gold, gold coated with glutathione (GSH), and 3-mercapto-1, 2-propanediol (MG)-was assessed as manifested by the adherence and activation of inflammatory cells during implantation intraperitoneally in mice. Evaluation of cell adhesion and activation was done by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against cell differentiation antigens CD11b/CD18, CD74, and CD25 or by measurement by chemoluminescence of reactive oxygen radical species produced by adhering cells. Cell recruitment and activation was slow on the GSH-coated gold surfaces. These surfaces also had the highest percentage of adhering cells with an intact cell membrane. The MG-coated surfaces, on the other hand, rapidly recruited and activated cells and also caused cell membrane leakage to propidium iodide, suggesting cell membrane damage or cell death. The respiratory burst of adhering cells was stimulated by phorbol-myristate acetate on the GSH-coated surface but not on the MG-coated surface and by opsonized zymosan on the Mg-coated surface but only to a small degree on the GSH-coated surface. The respiratory burst following zymosan activation of cells adhering to the MG-coated surface was inhibited by treatment with 2. 3-diphosphoglycerate, a phospholipase D inhibitor. The presented data suggest that peritoneal leukocytes adhering to foreign materials may raise a respiratory burst response via a phospholipase D-dependent and protein kinase C-independent pathway. PMID:10397965

  2. Sorting nexin 10 acting as a novel regulator of macrophage polarization mediates inflammatory response in experimental mouse colitis

    PubMed Central

    You, Yan; Zhou, Chun; Li, Dong; Cao, Zhong-Lian; Shen, Weixing; Li, Wan-Zhen; Zhang, Sulin; Hu, Bin; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In response to changes in microenvironment, macrophages polarize into functionally distinct phenotypes, playing a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we investigated the effects of sorting nexin 10 (SNX10), a protein involved in endosomal trafficking and osteoclast maturation, on regulation of macrophage polarization and progression of mouse colitis. Our results revealed that SNX10 deficiency increased the population of M2-type monocytes/macrophages, and protected against colonic inflammation and pathological damage induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). By in vitro study, we showed that deficiency of SNX10 polarized macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) towards an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which partially reversed by SNX10 plasmid transfection. Adoptive transfer of SNX10−/− macrophages ameliorated colitis in WT mice. However, transfer of WT macrophages exacerbated colitis in SNX10−/− mice. Our data disclose a crucial role and novel function for SNX10 in macrophage polarization. Loss of SNX10 function may be a potential promising therapeutic strategy for IBD. PMID:26856241

  3. TIGIT negatively regulates inflammation by altering macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Lu, Pu-Han; Liu, Lei; Fang, Ze-Min; Duan, Wu; Liu, Zhe-Long; Wang, Cong-Yi; Zhou, Ping; Yu, Xue-Feng; He, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages function as an essential component of innate immune system, contributing to both the initiation and appropriate resolution of inflammation. The exposure of macrophages to the microbial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can strongly shift the balance between tissue homeostasis and inflammation in favor of causing systemic damage, in which macrophage M1 polarization play important roles. Strategies aiming at restoring the balance of macrophage polarization remain to be further explored. Herein, we have demonstrated that poliovirus receptor (PVR), the receptor of TIGIT, was dramatically upregulated on the surface of mouse peritoneal macrophages when exposed to LPS. TIGIT-Fc fusion protein not only inhibited the macrophage activation, but also skewed M1/M2 balance toward an anti-inflammatory profile, especially enhanced the secretion of IL-10. The activation of TIGIT/PVR pathway in macrophages correlated with increased nuclear translocation of c-Maf, which promotes IL-10 transcription. Treatment with fibroblasts stably secreting TIGIT-Fc fusion protein significantly reversed the lethal and sublethal endotoxic shock, which facilitated peritoneal macrophages to switch towards anti-inflammatory M2 cytokine profiles. These findings highlight a novel role of the TIGIT/PVR pathway in macrophage M2 polarization and suggest that TIGIT may have the potential to optimize the treatment of macrophage-involved inflammatory diseases. PMID:26307002

  4. Lycopene inhibits LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Yadav, Prem Narayan; Reyes, Marynell

    2007-01-01

    Lycopene is a fat-soluble red-orange carotenoid found primarily in tomatoes and tomato-derived products, including tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, and other dietary sources, including dried apricots, guava, watermelon, papaya, and pink grapefruit. In this study, we have demonstrated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Treatment with lycopene (10 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production (40% compared with the control). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that lycopene treatment decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. These results suggest that lycopene has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting iNOS proteins and mRNA expressions in mouse macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression were not affected by treatment with lycopene. PMID:17995901

  5. Effects of Bothrops asper snake venom on the expression of cyclooxygenases and production of prostaglandins by peritoneal leukocytes in vivo, and by isolated neutrophils and macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José María; Amaral, Rafaela Bacci; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the ability of Bothrops asper snake venom (BaV) to increase the production of prostaglandins PGE(2) and PGD(2) was assessed in a mouse model in vivo and in inflammatory cells in vitro. In addition, the expressions of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed. BaV induced an increment in the in vivo synthesis of PGE(2) and PGD(2), together with an enhanced expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1. However, enzymatic activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were increased. Incubation of isolated macrophages and neutrophils with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of BaV in vitro resulted in increased release of PGE(2) and PGD(2) by macrophages and PGE(2) by neutrophils, concomitantly with an increment in the expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1 by both cell types. Our results demonstrate the ability of BaV to promote the expression of COX-2 and to induce the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins. Macrophages and neutrophils may be important targets for this venom under in vivo situation. PMID:19155166

  6. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. PMID:26675351

  7. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2016-01-28

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. PMID:26675351

  8. Generation and Identification of GM-CSF Derived Alveolar-like Macrophages and Dendritic Cells From Mouse Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yifei; Arif, Arif A; Poon, Grace F T; Hardman, Blair; Dosanjh, Manisha; Johnson, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells found in tissues and lymphoid organs that play a key role in the defense against pathogens. However, they are difficult to isolate in sufficient numbers to study them in detail, therefore, in vitro models have been developed. In vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells are well-established and valuable methods for immunological studies. Here, a method for culturing and identifying both DCs and macrophages from a single culture of primary mouse bone marrow cells using the cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is described. This protocol is based on the established procedure first developed by Lutz et al. in 1999 for bone marrow-derived DCs. The culture is heterogeneous, and MHCII and fluoresceinated hyaluronan (FL-HA) are used to distinguish macrophages from immature and mature DCs. These GM-CSF derived macrophages provide a convenient source of in vitro derived macrophages that closely resemble alveolar macrophages in both phenotype and function. PMID:27404290

  9. Development of a cell system for siRNA screening of pathogen responses in human and mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Sun, Jing; Benet, Zachary L.; Wang, Ze; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; John, Sinu P.; Lin, Bin; Sung, Myong-Hee; Fraser, Iain D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response to pathogen infection, but few tools exist for systematic dissection of these responses using modern genome-wide perturbation methods. To develop an assay platform for high-throughput analysis of macrophage activation by pathogenic stimuli, we generated reporter systems in human and mouse macrophages with dynamic readouts for NF-κB and/or TNF-α responses. These reporter cells show responsiveness to a broad range of TLR ligands and to gram-negative bacterial infection. There are significant challenges to the use of RNAi in innate immune cells, including efficient small RNA delivery and non-specific immune responses to dsRNA. To permit the interrogation of the macrophage pathogen response pathways with RNAi, we employed the stably expressed reporter genes to develop efficient siRNA delivery protocols for maximal target gene silencing with minimal activation of the innate macrophage response to nucleic acids. We demonstrate the utility of these macrophage cell systems for siRNA screening of pathogen responses by targeting components of the human and mouse TLR pathways, and observe species-specific perturbation of signaling and cytokine responses. Our approach to reporter cell development and siRNA delivery optimization provides an experimental paradigm with significant potential for developing genetic screening platforms in mammalian cells. PMID:25831078

  10. Echinacea Species and Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simu...

  11. A defect in the inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Lindsay, D D; Naraparaju, V R; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1994-05-15

    Macrophages were activated by administration of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) or dodecylglycerol (DDG) to wild-type rats but not in osteopetrotic (op) mutant rats. In vitro treatment of wild-type rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG efficiently activated macrophages whereas treatment of op mutant rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG did not activate macrophages. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats requires participation of B lymphocytes and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of wild-type rat B lymphocytes can convert DBP to the macrophage-activating factor (MAF), whereas B lymphocytes of the op mutant rats were shown to be deficient in lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase. DBP is conserved among mammalian species. Treatment of human DBP (Gc1 protein) with commercial glycosidases yields an extremely high titrated MAF as assayed on mouse and rat macrophages. Because the enzymatically generated MAF (GcMAF) bypasses the role of lymphocytes in macrophage activation, the op mutant rat macrophages were efficiently activated by administration of a small quantity (100 pg/rat) of GcMAF. Likewise, in vitro treatment of op rat peritoneal cells with as little as 40 pg GcMAF/ml activated macrophages. PMID:8176226

  12. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon β (IFNβ) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  13. Effect of inhaled alpha-emitting nuclides on mouse alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.J.; Nicholls, L.; Morgan, A.; Moores, S.R. )

    1989-08-01

    The effects of inhaled alpha emitters on the free cell population of the mouse lung were investigated up to 100 days after exposure. Groups of mice inhaled aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, or {sup 241}Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} to give alveolar deposits resulting in lung-averaged cumulative absorbed doses of about 20 Gy by the end of the study. Initially, with {sup 238}Pu most of the activity was associated with relatively few pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), whereas with {sup 241}Am, all pulmonary alveolar macrophages were labeled and a substantial fraction was extracellular. The free cell population of the lung was sampled using bronchoalveolar lavage. The main parameters investigated were (a) the recovery and total numbers of free cells, including PAM, lymphocytes, and neutrophils; (b) the incidence of nuclear abnormalities in PAM (cells with more than one nucleus or with micronuclei); and (c) metabolic activation of PAM from measurements of their size and associated beta-glucuronidase activity. All three actinides produced depletions in total numbers of PAM, increased incidences of nuclear abnormalities, and metabolic activation of PAM, without a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. Americium-241, which is distributed relatively uniformly in PAM, produced the most marked changes in that population and {sup 238}Pu, which gave the most inhomogeneous distribution of activity, produced the least.

  14. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling networks inhibit mouse macrophage inflammatory responses by induction of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Caescu, Cristina I.; Guo, Xingyi; Tesfa, Lydia; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Verma, Amit; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage polarization between the M2 (repair, protumorigenic) and M1 (inflammatory) phenotypes is seen as a continuum of states. The detailed transcriptional events and signals downstream of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) that contributes to amplification of the M2 phenotype and suppression of the M1 phenotype are largely unknown. Macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling promotes cell motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Combining analysis of cellular systems for CSF-1R gain of function and loss of function with bioinformatic analysis of the macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated transcriptome, we uncovered microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a downstream molecular switch controlling macrophage activation and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB as CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated signaling nodes. We show that CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling suppresses the inflammatory phenotype, predominantly by induction of miR-21. Profiling of the miR-21–regulated messenger RNAs revealed that 80% of the CSF-1–regulated canonical miR-21 targets are proinflammatory molecules. Additionally, miR-21 positively regulates M2 marker expression. Moreover, miR-21 feeds back to positively regulate its own expression and to limit CSF-1R–mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory role of miRNA-21, intraperitoneal injection of mice with a miRNA-21 inhibitor increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and enhances the peritoneal monocyte/macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide. These results identify the CSF-1R–regulated miR-21 network that modulates macrophage polarization. PMID:25573988

  15. Coumarin or warfarin treatment of mice does not increase the microbicidal or tumoricidal capacities of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Filice, G. A.; Remington, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Benzopyrones have been shown to affect several functions of macrophages. We examined the effects of two benzopyrones, coumarin and warfarin, on the capacity of mouse macrophages to inhibit microorganisms and tumour target cells. Mice were treated with daily i.v. doses of either drug. Then the mice were challenged with lethal doses of Toxoplasma gondii or peritoneal macrophages from these mice were challenged in vitro with T. gondii or tumour target cells Survival of coumarin or warfarin-treated mice challenged with T. gondii was similar to that of control mice. Multiplication of T gondii and growth of tumour target cells were similar in preparations of macrophages from coumarin-treated, warfarin-treated, or control mice and were inhibited in preparations of activated macrophages from Corynebacterium parvum-treated mice that served as positive controls. Under our experimental conditions, benzopyrones did not activate mouse macrophages. PMID:7236495

  16. Effect of bone marrow depletion on prostaglandin E-producing suppressor macrophages in mouse spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Volkman, A.

    1985-12-01

    The i.p. injection of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) into CBA/J mice effected increases in macrophage colony-forming cells (M-CFC) when spleen cells were cultured with L cell culture filtrate as a source of colony-stimulating factor. Significant increases in phagocytic macrophages (M phi) with Fc receptors for IgG2a and IgG2b immune complexes were additionally noted among the spleen cells in these mice. These M phi effectively inhibited Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, probably reflecting a 10-fold increase above normal controls in prostaglandin E to 47 ng/3 X 10(6) spleen cells/ml. To determine whether the suppressor M phi are immediate derivatives of splenic M-CFC, we tried to induce suppressor M phi by the injection of CP into mice depleted of bone marrow M-CFC by the earlier administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89Sr. This procedure reduced M-CFC in the bone marrow to less than 1% of normal for more than 30 days. Monocytes in the blood fell to 5% of normal by day 10 and were 30% on day 30. Levels of resident peritoneal M phi showed relatively little change in this period. By contrast, splenic M-CFC increased to 20-fold higher than the cold 88Sr controls. CP-induced suppressor M phi activity, however, was sharply reduced in 89Sr marrow-depleted mice on day 10, despite the striking increase in M-CFC. There was a threefold increase in the number of phagocytic M phi binding IgG2a immune complexes, with no significant increase in IgG2b binding M phi. The kinetics of recovery of suppressor M phi activity showed that on days 20, 30, and 50 after 89Sr injection the activities reached 20%, 30%, and 70% of the cold control, respectively, and correlated with the recovery of significant levels of M-CFC in the bone marrow. Taken together, these observations suggest that splenic M-CFC are not an immediate source of PGE-suppressor M phi in vivo.

  17. 3AE8: monoclonal antibody defining inflammatory macrophages in three species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Yen, S E; Walker, W S

    1984-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb 3AE8) of the IgG1 isotype was prepared against rabbit splenocytes and was found by indirect immunofluorescence and direct binding assays to react, in the rabbit, primarily with oil-induced peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM phi). This MAb did not bind to rabbit T cells, B cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or resident alveolar or peritoneal M phi but it did bind to a subpopulation of rabbit splenocytes with surface characteristics of null cells. The antibody also recognized mouse and rat PEM phi as well as the murine M phi cell lines P388D1 and IC-21. Consistent with findings in the rabbit, it did not bind to M phi obtained from the peritoneal cavities of rats or mice. The addition of MAb 3AE8 to mouse PEM phi caused a marked enhancement in the phagocytic uptake of erythrocyte target cells sensitized with a mouse antierythrocyte antiserum. PMID:6480022

  18. Macrophage permissiveness for Legionella pneumophila growth modulated by iron.

    PubMed Central

    Gebran, S J; Newton, C; Yamamoto, Y; Widen, R; Klein, T W; Friedman, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the modulation of iron in two populations of macrophages which differ in susceptibility to Legionella pneumophila intracellular proliferation. Previously, we reported that thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages obtained from the inbred A/J mouse strain readily support the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila, while resident macrophages from the same strain do not. In this study, we show that A/J elicited macrophages exhibit markedly higher expression of transferrin receptor and intracellular iron content than A/J resident macrophages. Furthermore, apotransferrin and desferrioxamine inhibited the intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila in elicited macrophages, and this suppression was reversed by the additions of Fe-transferrin or ferric nitrilotriacetate. Fe-transferrin and ferric nitrilotriacetate did not further increase the intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila in thioglycolate-elicited macrophages. However, ferric citrate and ferric nitrilotriacetate stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the growth of L. pneumophila in resident macrophages. Furthermore, equimolar concentrations of desferrioxamine reversed the stimulatory effect of iron in these resident cells. These data provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that differences in susceptibility to L. pneumophila growth between permissive elicited macrophages and nonpermissive resident macrophages from the A/J mouse strain are due to intracellular availability of iron. PMID:8300214

  19. IL-33 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production from mouse macrophages by regulating lipopolysaccharide receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Espinassous, Quentin; Garcia-de-Paco, Elvira; Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Synguelakis, Monique; von Aulock, Sonja; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Kanellopoulos, Jean

    2009-07-15

    Bacterial LPS triggers monocytes and macrophages to produce several inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, once exposed to LPS, they become hyporesponsive to a subsequent endotoxin challenge. This phenomenon is defined as LPS desensitization or tolerance. Previous studies have identified some components of the biochemical pathways involved in negative modulation of LPS responses. In particular, it has been shown that the IL-1R-related protein ST2 could be implicated in LPS tolerance. The natural ligand of ST2 was recently identified as IL-33, a new member of the IL-1 family. In this study, we investigated whether IL-33 triggering of ST2 was able to induce LPS desensitization of mouse macrophages. We found that IL-33 actually enhances the LPS response of macrophages and does not induce LPS desensitization. We demonstrate that this IL-33 enhancing effect of LPS response is mediated by the ST2 receptor because it is not found in ST2 knockout mice. The biochemical consequences of IL-33 pretreatment of mouse macrophages were investigated. Our results show that IL-33 increases the expression of the LPS receptor components MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2) and TLR-4, the soluble form of CD14 and the MyD88 adaptor molecule. In addition, IL-33 pretreatment of macrophages enhances the cytokine response to TLR-2 but not to TLR-3 ligands. Thus, IL-33 treatment preferentially affects the MyD88-dependent pathway activated by the TLR. PMID:19553541

  20. Block of Death-Receptor Apoptosis Protects Mouse Cytomegalovirus from Macrophages and Is a Determinant of Virulence in Immunodeficient Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Ebermann, Linda; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Guzmán, Carlos A.; van Rooijen, Nico; Casalegno-Garduño, Rosaely; Koszinowski, Ulrich; Čičin-Šain, Luka

    2012-01-01

    The inhibition of death-receptor apoptosis is a conserved viral function. The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene M36 is a sequence and functional homologue of the human cytomegalovirus gene UL36, and it encodes an inhibitor of apoptosis that binds to caspase-8, blocks downstream signaling and thus contributes to viral fitness in macrophages and in vivo. Here we show a direct link between the inability of mutants lacking the M36 gene (ΔM36) to inhibit apoptosis, poor viral growth in macrophage cell cultures and viral in vivo fitness and virulence. ΔM36 grew poorly in RAG1 knockout mice and in RAG/IL-2-receptor common gamma chain double knockout mice (RAGγC−/−), but the depletion of macrophages in either mouse strain rescued the growth of ΔM36 to almost wild-type levels. This was consistent with the observation that activated macrophages were sufficient to impair ΔM36 growth in vitro. Namely, spiking fibroblast cell cultures with activated macrophages had a suppressive effect on ΔM36 growth, which could be reverted by z-VAD-fmk, a chemical apoptosis inhibitor. TNFα from activated macrophages synergized with IFNγ in target cells to inhibit ΔM36 growth. Hence, our data show that poor ΔM36 growth in macrophages does not reflect a defect in tropism, but rather a defect in the suppression of antiviral mediators secreted by macrophages. To the best of our knowledge, this shows for the first time an immune evasion mechanism that protects MCMV selectively from the antiviral activity of macrophages, and thus critically contributes to viral pathogenicity in the immunocompromised host devoid of the adaptive immune system. PMID:23271968

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of oroxylin A on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages induced with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; PARK, WANSU

    2016-01-01

    Oroxylin A (5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one; Baicalein 6-methyl ether) is an active flavonoid compound originally isolated from Scutellaria radix, which has been used to treat pulmonary infection in Korea, China, and Japan. Oroxylin A is known to possess dopamine reuptake inhibitor activity. However, the effects of oroxylin A on virus-induced macrophages has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of oroxylin A on double-stranded RNA-induced macrophages were examined. Production of nitric oxide (NO), various cytokines, as well as calcium release and the mRNA expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in dsRNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were evaluated. Oroxylin A restored the cell viability in PIC-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at concentrations of up to 50 µM. Additionally, oroxylin A significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte macrophage-CSF, leukemia inhibitory factor (IL-6 class cytokine), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as calcium release and the mRNA expression of STAT1 in PIC-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.05). Thus, the present results suggest that oroxylin A has anti-inflammatory properties, associated with its inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in PIC-induced macrophages via the calcium-STAT pathway. PMID:27347031

  2. Bacillus Calmette Guerin Induces Fibroblast Activation Both Directly and through Macrophages in a Mouse Bladder Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodillinsky, Catalina; Langle, Yanina; Guionet, Ariel; Góngora, Adrián; Baldi, Alberto; Sandes, Eduardo O.; Casabé, Alberto; Eiján, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. However, a failure in the initial response or relapse within the first five years of treatment has been observed in 20% of patients. We have previously observed that in vivo administration of an inhibitor of nitric oxide improved the response to BCG of bladder tumor bearing mice. It was described that this effect was due to a replacement of tumor tissue by collagen depots. The aim of the present work was to clarify the mechanism involved in this process. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that BCG induces NIH-3T3 fibroblast proliferation by activating the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and also differentiation determined by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression. In vivo, intratumoral inoculation of BCG also increased alpha-SMA and collagen expression. Oral administration of L-NAME enhanced the pro-fibrotic effect of BCG. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from MB49 tumor-bearing mice treated in vivo with combined treatment of BCG with L-NAME also enhanced fibroblast proliferation. We observed that FGF-2 is one of the factors released by BCG-activated macrophages that is able to induce fibroblast proliferation. The involvement of FGF-2 was evidenced using an anti-FGF2 antibody. At the same time, this macrophage population improved wound healing rate in normal mice and FGF-2 expression was also increased in these wounds. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that fibroblasts are targeted by BCG both directly and through activated macrophages in an immunotherapy context of a bladder murine model. We also described, for the first time, that FGF-2 is involved in a dialog between fibroblasts and macrophages induced after BCG treatment. The fact that L-NAME administration improves the BCG effect on fibroblasts, NO inhibition, might represent a new approach to add to the conventional BCG therapy. PMID:21042580

  3. NAC Attenuates LPS-Induced Toxicity in Aspirin-Sensitized Mouse Macrophages via Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Shafarin, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774.2 mouse macrophage cell line. Protection from LPS-induced toxicity by NAC was also studied. LPS alone markedly induced ROS production and oxidative stress in macrophage cells. When ASA was added to LPS-treated macrophages, the increase in oxidative stress was significantly higher than that with LPS alone. Similarly, alteration in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism was also observed in macrophages after treatment with LPS and ASA. The combination of LPS and ASA selectively altered the CYP 3A4, CYP 2E1 and CYP 1A1 catalytic activities. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes and ATP production were also inhibited by LPS-ASA treatment. Furthermore a higher apoptotic cell death was also observed in LPS-ASA treated macrophages. NAC pre-treatment showed protection against oxidative stress induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects are presumed, at least in part, to be associated with alterations in NF-κB/Nrf-2 mediated cell signaling. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to LPS when challenged with ASA and that NAC pre-treatment protects the macrophages from these deleterious effects. PMID:25075522

  4. Sperm-macrophage interaction in the mouse: a quantitative assay in vitro using 111indium oxine-labeled sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, D.L.; Weinberg, J.B.; Haney, A.F.

    1987-12-01

    The role of reproductive tract macrophages in contraception and reproductive failure has become widely recognized. However, in vitro analysis of sperm phagocytosis by macrophages has relied upon a semi-quantitative method of sperm counting that is of limited accuracy and reproducibility. We have developed an assay using murine sperm labeled with /sup 111/indium oxine, and results indicate the labeling to be rapid and efficient. Incorporation of /sup 111/indium into sperm increased the dose and sperm concentration and reached 90% maximal uptake after 15 min incubation, with maximal uptake occurring at 30 min. No decrease in sperm motility was noted with levels of oxine in excess of those required for significant labeling. Maximal labeling efficiency occurred in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% adult bovine serum (ABS) producing significantly less uptake. Label dissociation was detectable in PBS at room temperature, but at 37 degrees C in DMEM + 10% ABS, loss of label occurred at a rate of 23.5%/h. Addition of labeled sperm to murine macrophage monolayers under optimal conditions resulted in uptake of /sup 111/indium by macrophages, while free label was unincorporated. Results indicated assay specificity for macrophage-limited uptake, with insignificant label uptake by nonphagocytic murine fibroblasts and better sensitivity than sperm counting. Macrophages from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-infected mice resulted in a decrease in sperm uptake. Female macrophages showed greater capacity for sperm uptake than those of the male mouse. These initial studies demonstrated the utility of this model system in enhancing the understanding of sperm-macrophage interaction in the female reproductive tract.

  5. Blocking macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity alleviates mouse acute otitis media in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Min; Zheng, Qingyin; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weijun; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in mouse acute otitis media (AOM), we hypothesize that blocking MIF activity will relieve mouse AOM. A mouse AOM model was constructed by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the middle ear of C57BL/6 mice through the tympanic membrane (TM). MIF levels were measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and ELISA after LPS application. Normal or AOM mice were given PBS or ISO-1 (MIF antagonist) every day for 10 days and the hearing levels were determined by measuring auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold. After the ABR test finished, H&E staining was conducted and the inflammation was also measured by detecting interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels with RT-PCR and ELISA. TLR-4 expression was determined by western blotting and NF-κB activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Compared with the normal control, MIF levels in the middle ear of LPS-induced AOM mice were significant increased. The ABR results showed that mean ABR thresholds in ISO-1 treated AOM mice were significantly reduced compared with PBS treated AOM mice since day 7, indicating that ISO-1 treatment potentially improved the hearing levels of AOM mice. H&E staining showed that ISO-1 treatment could reduce the mucosal thickness of AOM mice. In ISO-1 treated mice, TLR-4 expression and levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and VEGF were significantly lower compared with PBS treated AOM mice. ISO-1 treatment also significantly inhibited NF-κB activation in AOM mice compared with PBS treated AOM mice. These results suggested that blocking the activity of MIF by ISO-1 could reduce the inflammation in AOM mice in which process TLR-4 and NF-κB were involved. The reduction in MIF activity is conducive to alleviate mouse AOM, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AOM. PMID:25108100

  6. MicroRNA-124 negatively regulates LPS-induced TNF-α production in mouse macrophages by decreasing protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Qin, Zhen; Li, Qi; Wan, Jing-jing; Cheng, Ming-he; Wang, Peng-yuan; Su, Ding-feng; Yu, Jian-guang; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-124 (miR-124) on production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse macrophages. Methods: Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was stimulated with LPS (100 ng/mL). The levels of miR-124 and TNF-α mRNA were evaluated using q-PCR. ELISA and Western blotting were used to detect TNF-α protein level in cell supernatants and cells, respectively. 3′-UTR luciferase reporter assays were used to analyze the targets of miR-124. For in vivo experiments, mice were injected with LPS (30 mg/kg, ip). Results: LPS stimulation significantly increased the mRNA level of miR-124 in RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro and mice in vivo. In RAW264.7 macrophages, knockdown of miR-124 with miR-124 inhibitor dose-dependently increased LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α protein and prolonged the half-life of TNF-α protein, but did not change TNF-α mRNA levels, whereas overexpression of miR-124 with miR-124 mimic produced the opposite effects. Furthermore, miR-124 was found to directly target two components of deubiquitinating enzymes: ubiquitin-specific proteases (USP) 2 and 14. Knockdown of USP2 or USP14 accelerated protein degradation of TNF-α, and abolished the effect of miR-124 on TNF-α protein stability. Conclusion: miR-124, targeting USP2 and USP14, negatively regulates LPS-induced TNF-α production in mouse macrophages, suggesting miR-124 as a new therapeutic target in inflammation-related diseases. PMID:27063215

  7. Stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibits calcium-dependent potassium-channels in mouse macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Rosati, C.; Hannaert, P.; Dausse, J.P.; Braquet, P.; Garay, R.

    1986-12-01

    K/sup +/ efflux in mouse macrophages exhibited a rate constant (k/sub k/) of 0.67 +/- 0.04 (h)/sup -1/. This was strongly stimulated by increasing concentrations of the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187 up to a maximal value of 4.01 +/- 0.25 (h)/sup -1/ with an IC/sub 50/ of 7.6 +/- 1.9 ..mu..M. Similar results were obtained with the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore ionomycin. Binding experiments with /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol revealed a high density of beta-adrenergic receptors with apparent dissociation constant of 2.03 +/- 0.06 nM. Isoproterenol at a concentration of 10/sup -6/ -10/sup -5/ M induced a two- to threefold stimulation of endogenous levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). A23187-stimulated K/sup +/ efflux was partially inhibited by (i) stimulation of adenylate cyclase with isoproterenol, forskolin or, PGE/sub 1/; (ii) exogenous cAMP; and (iii) inhibition of phosphodiesterase with MIX (1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine). Maximal inhibition of K/sup +/ efflux was obtained by simultaneous addition of isoproterenol and MIX. In dose-response curves, the isoproterenol-sensitive K/sup +/ efflux was half-maximally inhibited (IC/sub 50/) with 2-5 x 10/sup -10/ M of isoproterenol concentration. Propranolol was able to completely block the effect of isoproterenol, with an IC/sub 50/ of about 1-2 x 10/sup -7/ M. Isoproterenol and MIX did not inhibit A23187-stimulated K/sup +/ efflux in an incubation medium where NaCl was replaced by sucrose (or choline), suggesting the involvement of an Na/sup +/:Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange mechanism. The results show that stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors in mouse macrophages counter balances the opening of K/sup +/ channels induced by the calcium ionophore A23187. This likely reflects a decrease in cytoslic free calcium content via a cAMP-mediated stimulation of Na/sup +/:Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange.

  8. Substrate-dependent nitric oxide synthesis by secreted endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikuni; Ogawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined the role of aminopeptidases with reference to endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis employing murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-γ and LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages derived from ERAP1 knockout mouse. When NO synthesis was measured in the presence of peptides having N-terminal Arg, comparative NO synthesis was seen with that measured in the presence of Arg. In the presence of an aminopeptidase inhibitor amastatin, NO synthesis in activated RAW264.7 cells was significantly decreased. These results suggest that aminopeptidases are involved in the NO synthesis in activated RAW264.7 cells. Subsequently, significant reduction of NO synthesis was observed in ERAP1 knockdown cells compared with wild-type cells. This reduction was rescued by exogenously added ERAP1. Furthermore, when peritoneal macrophages prepared from ERAP1 knockout mouse were employed, reduction of NO synthesis in knockout mouse macrophages was also attributable to ERAP1. In the presence of amastatin, further reduction was observed in knockout mouse-derived macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that several aminopeptidases play important roles in the maximum synthesis of NO in activated macrophages in a substrate peptide-dependent manner and ERAP1 is one of the aminopeptidases involved in the NO synthesis. PMID:25577645

  9. Inhalation of ozone produces a decrease in superoxide anion radical production in mouse alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer-Powder, J.E.; Amoruso, M.A.; Czerniecki, B.; Witz, G.; Goldstein, B.D.

    1988-11-01

    The potentiation of fatal bacterial pneumonia in mice by prior inhalation of ozone occurs at levels of this oxidant pollutant that are frequently present in ambient air. A likely mechanism for this effect is an ozone-induced inhibition in the ability of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) to produce superoxide anion radical (O2-) demonstrated in the present study. A 25% decrease in PAM O2- production, as measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, occurred after exposure of Swiss-Webster mice to 0.11 ppm ozone for 3 h (p less than 0.05). After 1 ppm there was almost complete inhibition of O2- release. In contrast, the rat, which is highly resistant to the potentiation of bacterial infections by ozone, was less sensitive to inhibition of PAM O2- production, as measured by cytochrome c reduction (mouse IC50, 0.41 ppm; rat IC50, 3.0 ppm ozone for 3 h). The observed decrement in mouse PAM O2- production was not associated with any change in phagocytic ability, as measured by both latex bead ingestion and 51Cr-labeled sheep red blood cell ingestion. This decrease in O2- production in the presence of normal phagocytic activity is analogous to certain of the findings in the neutrophils of children with chronic granulomatous disease. A decrease in rat PAM membrane cytochrome b558 levels was observed after ozone exposure of 3 ppm for 3 h, preliminarily suggesting that the mechanism by which ozone interferes with PAM O2- production may be through interaction with this heme-containing electron carrier.

  10. Double immunofluorescent staining of rat macrophages in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue using two monoclonal mouse antibodies.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Raymond A; Isidro, Angel A; Cruz, Myrella L; Hernandez, Siomara; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2015-12-01

    The conventional approach of double immunostaining to visualize more than one protein in tissues or cells using antibodies from two different host species is not always feasible due to limitations with antibody availability. Previously reported methodologies for performing multiple immunostains on the same tissue or cells with antibodies originating from the same species are varied in their complexity, sensitivity, and approach to prevent unwanted interactions between antibodies. In the ever-expanding field of macrophage biology, much more is known about mouse and human macrophages than their rat counterparts. The limited availability of validated and well-characterized monoclonal antibodies from different species is one factor responsible for preventing advances in rat macrophage biology. Here we describe an immunostaining method for identifying and examining rat macrophages that is sufficiently sensitive for use in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and that uses only commercially available reagents and antibodies. This method can be used to help characterize both physiological and pathophysiological processes in rat macrophages and can be adapted for use with any two antibodies from the same species of origin as long as one of the antibodies is biotinylated. PMID:26403093