Science.gov

Sample records for mouse phenotypic characterization

  1. Phenotypic and functional characterization of Bst+/− mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Riazifar, Hamidreza; Sun, Guoli; Wang, Xinjian; Rupp, Alan; Vemaraju, Shruti; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Lang, Richard A.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Hattar, Samer; Guan, Min-Xin; Huang, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The belly spot and tail (Bst+/−) mouse phenotype is caused by mutations of the ribosomal protein L24 (Rpl24). Among various phenotypes in Bst+/− mice, the most interesting are its retinal abnormalities, consisting of delayed closure of choroid fissures, decreased ganglion cells and subretinal vascularization. We further characterized the Bst+/− mouse and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms to assess the feasibility of using this strain as a model for stem cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. We found that, although RGCs are significantly reduced in retinal ganglion cell layer in Bst+/− mouse, melanopsin+ RGCs, also called ipRGCs, appear to be unchanged. Pupillary light reflex was completely absent in Bst+/− mice but they had a normal circadian rhythm. In order to examine the pathological abnormalities in Bst+/− mice, we performed electron microscopy in RGC and found that mitochondria morphology was deformed, having irregular borders and lacking cristae. The complex activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were significantly decreased. Finally, for subretinal vascularization, we also found that angiogenesis is delayed in Bst+/− associated with delayed hyaloid regression. Characterization of Bst+/− retina suggests that the Bst+/− mouse strain could be a useful murine model. It might be used to explore further the pathogenesis and strategy of treatment of retinal degenerative diseases by employing stem cell technology. PMID:26035379

  2. Spatial and phenotypic characterization of vascular remodeling in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinming; Taniuchi, Namiko; Jin, Enjing; Fujiwara, Masakazu; Zhang, Lei; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Naomi; Ohta, Ken; Kawanami, Oichi

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway wall remodeling in which vascular remodeling is thought to be a main contributor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known as a major regulator of angiogenesis and enhancer of vascular permeability. Here, we define the spatial nature of vascular remodeling and the role of VEGF and its receptors (Flt-1 and Flk-1) in the allergic response in mice (A/J) susceptible to the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness using morphometric and quantitative approaches. Increased vascularity, vasodilatation, and endothelial cell proliferation were found in the tracheal and bronchial walls in the early and late phases of asthma. Vascular changes were observed not only in small vessels but also in larger vessels. In contrast to normal control, lung tissue from the asthma model showed dual expression for CD31 and von Willebrand factor in the endothelial cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin in the mural cells of the vessels, suggesting a phenotypic and functional transformation. The mRNA levels of VEGF isoforms, VEGF(164) and VEGF(188), were significantly increased in the tracheal and lung tissue, respectively. In addition, the mRNA level of VEGF receptor Flk-1 was significantly increased in the trachea. These results establish the existence of vascular remodeling in the airways in a mouse model of allergic asthma and support a key role for the expression of unique VEGF isoform genes as mediators of structural changes. PMID:18334839

  3. Development and characterization of a mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell line that retains osteoblast genotype and phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-an; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Lynn; Mu, Yan-dong; Baker, Andrew; Donly, Kevin J.; Harris, Stephen E.; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines is a valuable tool for studying the effects of Bmp2 on osteoblast differentiation and its signaling pathways during skeletal metabolism. Due to relatively limited sources of primary osteoblasts, we have developed cell lines that serve as good surrogate models for the study of osteoblast cell differentiation and bone mineralization. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines. Primary mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts were transfected with pSV3-neo and clonally selected. These transfected cells were verified by PCR and immunohistochemistry. To determine the genotype and phenotype of the immortalized cells, cell morphology, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were analyzed. Also, expression of osteoblast-related gene markers including Runx2, Osx, ATF4, Dlx3, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, osteonectin, osteocalcin and osteopontin were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. These results showed that immortalized floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts had a higher proliferation rate but preserved their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we, for the first time, describe the development of immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines and present a useful model to study osteoblast biology mediated by BMP2 and its downstream signaling transduction pathways. PMID:21271257

  4. A diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (SLC26A2) mutant mouse: morphological and biochemical characterization of the resulting chondrodysplasia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Forlino, Antonella; Piazza, Rocco; Tiveron, Cecilia; Della Torre, Sara; Tatangelo, Laura; Bonafè, Luisa; Gualeni, Benedetta; Romano, Assunta; Pecora, Fabio; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Cetta, Giuseppe; Rossi, Antonio

    2005-03-15

    Mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST or SLC26A2) cause a family of recessively inherited chondrodysplasias including, in order of decreasing severity, achondrogenesis 1B, atelosteogenesis 2, diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) and recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The gene encodes a widely distributed sulfate/chloride antiporter of the cell membrane whose function is crucial for the uptake of inorganic sulfate, which is needed for proteoglycan sulfation. To provide new insights in the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to skeletal and connective tissue dysplasia and to obtain an in vivo model for therapeutic approaches to DTD, we generated a Dtdst knock-in mouse with a partial loss of function of the sulfate transporter. In addition, the intronic neomycine cassette in the mutant allele contributed to the hypomorphic phenotype by inducing abnormal splicing. Homozygous mutant mice were characterized by growth retardation, skeletal dysplasia and joint contractures, thereby recapitulating essential aspects of the DTD phenotype in man. The skeletal phenotype included reduced toluidine blue staining of cartilage, chondrocytes of irregular size, delay in the formation of the secondary ossification center and osteoporosis of long bones. Impaired sulfate uptake was demonstrated in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. In spite of the generalized nature of the sulfate uptake defect, significant proteoglycan undersulfation was detected only in cartilage. Chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis studies suggested that reduced proliferation and/or lack of terminal chondrocyte differentiation might contribute to reduced bone growth. The similarity with human DTD makes this mouse strain a useful model to explore pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of DTDST-related disorders. PMID:15703192

  5. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) —

    Cancer.gov

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) comprises a group of major mouse genetics research institutions along with national funding organisations formed to address the challenge of developing an encyclopedia of mammalian gene function.

  6. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  7. The spontaneous ataxic mouse mutant tippy is characterized by a novel Purkinje cell morphogenesis and degeneration phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Evelyn K.; Sekerková, Gabriella; Ohtsuki, Gen; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Chizhikov, Victor V.; Hansel, Christian; Mugnaini, Enrico; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first detailed analysis of the spontaneous neurological mouse mutant, tippy, uncovering its unique cerebellar phenotype. Homozygous tippy mutant mice are small, ataxic and die around weaning. Although the cerebellum shows grossly normal foliation, tippy mutants display a complex cerebellar Purkinje cell phenotype consisting of abnormal dendritic branching with immature spine features and patchy, non-apoptotic cell death that is associated with widespread dystrophy and degeneration of the Purkinje cell axons throughout the white matter, the cerebellar nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. Moderate anatomical abnormalities of climbing fiber innervation of tippy mutant Purkinje cells were not associated with changes in climbing fiber-EPSC amplitudes. However, decreased ESPC amplitudes were observed in response to parallel fiber stimulation and correlated well with anatomical evidence for patchy dark cell degeneration of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. The data suggest that the Purkinje neurons are a primary target of the tippy mutation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the Purkinje cell axonal pathology together with disruptions in the balance of climbing fiber and parallel fiber Purkinje cell input in the cerebellar cortex underlie the ataxic phenotype in these mice. The constellation of Purkinje cell dendritic malformation and degeneration phenotypes in tippy mutants is unique and has not been reported in any other neurologic mutant. Fine mapping of the tippy mutation to a 2.1MB region of distal chromosome 9, which does not encompass any gene previously implicated in cerebellar development or neuronal degeneration, confirms that the tippy mutation identifies novel biology and gene function. PMID:25626522

  8. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Maren R; Lloyd, K C Kent; Cline, Gary W; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-01

    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community's needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses. PMID:22940748

  9. Histomorphological Phenotyping of the Adult Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, Anna; Kannan, Meghna; Wagner, Christel; Yalcin, Binnaz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a series of standard operating procedures for morphological phenotyping of the mouse brain using basic histology. Many histological studies of the mouse brain use qualitative approaches based on what the human eye can detect. Consequently, some phenotypic information may be missed. Here we describe a quantitative approach for the assessment of brain morphology that is simple and robust. A total of 78 measurements are made throughout the brain at specific and well-defined regions, including the cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Experimental design and timeline considerations, including strain background effects, the importance of sectioning quality, measurement variability, and efforts to correct human errors are discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584555

  10. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  11. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of a mouse model of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy reveals severe muscular atrophy restricted to fast glycolytic fibres.

    PubMed

    Trollet, Capucine; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Venema, Andrea; Hargreaves, Iain P; Foster, Keith; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Negroni, Elisa; Hourde, Christophe; Baraibar, Martin A; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Davies, Janet E; Rubinsztein, David C; Heales, Simon J; Mouly, Vincent; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Raz, Vered; Dickson, George

    2010-06-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disorder characterized by ptosis, dysphagia and proximal limb weakness. Autosomal-dominant OPMD is caused by a short (GCG)(8-13) expansions within the first exon of the poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 gene (PABPN1), leading to an expanded polyalanine tract in the mutated protein. Expanded PABPN1 forms insoluble aggregates in the nuclei of skeletal muscle fibres. In order to gain insight into the different physiological processes affected in OPMD muscles, we have used a transgenic mouse model of OPMD (A17.1) and performed transcriptomic studies combined with a detailed phenotypic characterization of this model at three time points. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a massive gene deregulation in the A17.1 mice, among which we identified a significant deregulation of pathways associated with muscle atrophy. Using a mathematical model for progression, we have identified that one-third of the progressive genes were also associated with muscle atrophy. Functional and histological analysis of the skeletal muscle of this mouse model confirmed a severe and progressive muscular atrophy associated with a reduction in muscle strength. Moreover, muscle atrophy in the A17.1 mice was restricted to fast glycolytic fibres, containing a large number of intranuclear inclusions (INIs). The soleus muscle and, in particular, oxidative fibres were spared, even though they contained INIs albeit to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate a fibre-type specificity of muscle atrophy in this OPMD model. This study improves our understanding of the biological pathways modified in OPMD to identify potential biomarkers and new therapeutic targets. PMID:20207626

  12. Improved human disease candidate gene prioritization using mouse phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Xu, Huan; Aronow, Bruce J; Jegga, Anil G

    2007-01-01

    Background The majority of common diseases are multi-factorial and modified by genetically and mechanistically complex polygenic interactions and environmental factors. High-throughput genome-wide studies like linkage analysis and gene expression profiling, tend to be most useful for classification and characterization but do not provide sufficient information to identify or prioritize specific disease causal genes. Results Extending on an earlier hypothesis that the majority of genes that impact or cause disease share membership in any of several functional relationships we, for the first time, show the utility of mouse phenotype data in human disease gene prioritization. We study the effect of different data integration methods, and based on the validation studies, we show that our approach, ToppGene , outperforms two of the existing candidate gene prioritization methods, SUSPECTS and ENDEAVOUR. Conclusion The incorporation of phenotype information for mouse orthologs of human genes greatly improves the human disease candidate gene analysis and prioritization. PMID:17939863

  13. Phenotype profile of a genetic mouse model for Muenke syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Eiki; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Bartlett, Scott P.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Muenke syndrome mutation (FGFR3P250R), which was discovered 15 years ago, represents the single most common craniosynostosis mutation. Muenke syndrome is characterized by coronal suture synostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, subtle limb anomalies, and hearing loss. However, the spectrum of clinical presentation continues to expand. To better understand the pathophysiology of the Muenke syndrome, we present collective findings from several recent studies that have characterized a genetically equivalent mouse model for Muenke syndrome (FgfR3P244R) and compare them with human phenotypes. Conclusions FgfR3P244R mutant mice show premature fusion of facial sutures, premaxillary and/or zygomatic sutures, but rarely the coronal suture. The mice also lack the typical limb phenotype. On the other hand, the mutant mice display maxillary retrusion in association with a shortening of the anterior cranial base and a premature closure of intersphenoidal and spheno-occipital synchondroses, resembling human midface hypoplasia. In addition, sensorineural hearing loss is detected in all FgfR3P244R mutant mice as in the majority of Muenke syndrome patients. It is caused by a defect in the mechanism of cell fate determination in the organ of Corti. The mice also express phenotypes that have not been previously described in humans, such as reduced cortical bone thickness, hypoplastic trabecular bone, and defective temporomandibular joint structure. Therefore, the FgfR3P244R mouse provides an excellent opportunity to study disease mechanisms of some classical phenotypes of Muenke syndrome and to test novel therapeutic strategies. The mouse model can also be further explored to discover previously unreported yet potentially significant phenotypes of Muenke syndrome. PMID:22872265

  14. Using Mouse Models to Explore Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Ahmad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy 21 is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and involves multiple organs. Sequencing of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and subsequently of its orthologues on mouse chromosome 16 have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the complex relationship between various DS phenotypes and the extra copy of…

  15. Neuroanatomical Phenotypes In The Reeler Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Alexandra; Nicholls, Peter J.; Johnson, G. Allan; Wetsel, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The reeler mouse (Reln) has been proposed as a neurodevelopmental model for certain neurological and psychiatric conditions and has been studied by qualitative histochemistry and electron microscopy. Using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), we have quantitated for the first time the neuromorphology of Reln mice at a resolution of 21.5 μm. The neuroanatomical phenotypes of heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln mice were compared to those of wild type (WT) littermates using morphometry and texture analysis. The cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar phenotypes of the heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln mice were confirmed, and new features were revealed. The Relnrl/rl mice possessed a smaller brain, and both Relnrl/+ and Relnrl/rl mice had increased ventricles compared to WT controls. Shape differences were found between WT and Relnrl/rl brains, specifically in cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortex, certain regions of temporal and occipital lobes, as well as in the lateral ventricles and ventral hippocampus. These findings suggest that certain brain regions may be more severely impacted by the Reln mutation than others. Gadolinium-based active-staining demonstrated that layers of the hippocampus were disorganized in Relnrl/rl mice and differences in thickness of these layers were identified between WT and Relnrl/rl mice. The intensity distributions characteristic to the dorsal, middle, and ventral hippocampus were altered in the Relnrl/rl, especially in the ventral hippocampus. These differences were quantified using skewness and modeling the intensity distributions with a Gaussian mixture. Our results suggest that structural features of Relnrl/rl brain most closely phenocopy those of patients with Norman-Roberts lissencephaly. PMID:17185001

  16. Mouse Genome Database: from sequence to phenotypes and disease models

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Richardson, Joel E.; Kadin, James A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD’s key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  17. Mouse Genome Database: From sequence to phenotypes and disease models.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Richardson, Joel E; Kadin, James A; Smith, Cynthia L; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here, we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD's key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  18. Live four-dimensional optical coherence tomography reveals embryonic cardiac phenotype in mouse mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L., III; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-09-01

    Efficient phenotyping of developmental defects in model organisms is critical for understanding the genetic specification of normal development and congenital abnormalities in humans. We previously reported that optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with live embryo culture is a valuable tool for mouse embryo imaging and four-dimensional (4-D) cardiodynamic analysis; however, its capability for analysis of mouse mutants with cardiac phenotypes has not been previously explored. Here, we report 4-D (three-dimensional+time) OCT imaging and analysis of the embryonic heart in a Wdr19 mouse mutant, revealing a heart looping defect. Quantitative analysis of cardiac looping revealed a statistically significant difference between mutant and control embryos. Our results indicate that live 4-D OCT imaging provides a powerful phenotyping approach to characterize embryonic cardiac function in mouse models.

  19. Phenotypic and functional profiling of mouse intestinal antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Harusato, Akihito; Flannigan, Kyle L; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L

    2015-06-01

    The microbiota that populates the mammalian intestine consists of hundreds of trillions of bacteria that are separated from underlying immune cells by a single layer of epithelial cells. The intestinal immune system effectively tolerates components of the microbiota that provide benefit to the host while remaining poised to eliminate those that are harmful. Antigen presenting cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells, play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via their ability to orchestrate appropriate responses to the microbiota. Paramount to elucidating intestinal macrophage- and dendritic cell-mediated functions is the ability to effectively isolate and identify these cells from a complex cellular environment. In this review, we summarize methodology for the isolation and phenotypic characterization of macrophages and DCs from the mouse intestine and discuss how this may be useful for gaining insight into the mechanisms by which mucosal immune tolerance is maintained. PMID:25891794

  20. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Kazdoba, T. M.; Leach, P. T.; Crawley, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. PMID:26403076

  1. Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Autism.

    PubMed

    Ellegood, Jacob; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the consequences of the mutation on behavioral and biological phenotypes relevant to autism, mutations in many of the risk genes for autism spectrum disorder have been experimentally generated in mice. Here, we summarize behavioral outcomes and neuroanatomical abnormalities, with a focus on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of postmortem mouse brains. Results are described from multiple mouse models of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid syndromes, including the 15q11-13, 16p11.2, 22q11.2, Cntnap2, Engrailed2, Fragile X, Integrinβ3, MET, Neurexin1a, Neuroligin3, Reelin, Rett, Shank3, Slc6a4, tuberous sclerosis, and Williams syndrome models, and inbred strains with strong autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes, including BTBR and BALB. Concomitant behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities can strengthen the interpretation of results from a mouse model, and may elevate the usefulness of the model system for therapeutic discovery. PMID:26036957

  2. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad-based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics.

    PubMed

    Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Nicholson, George; Selloum, Mohammed; White, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Hugh; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Sorg, Tania; Wells, Sara; Fuchs, Helmut; Fray, Martin; Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Michael R; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; Fertak, Lahcen El; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl M J; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Edward; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Wattenhofer-Donze, Marie; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie; Holmes, Chris; Steel, Karen P; Herault, Yann; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-09-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-oriented platforms. We developed new statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no previous functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice, finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. New phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with previously unknown function, providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems. PMID:26214591

  3. Cat3vl and Cat3vao cataract mutations on mouse chromosome 10: phenotypic characterization, linkage studies and analysis of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Löster, J; Immervoll, T; Schmitt-John, T; Graw, J

    1997-12-01

    Cat3vl and Cat3vao are two allelic, dominant cataract mutations that arose independently in the F1 generation after gamma-irradiation of male mice. The cataracts are already present at birth. Examination of the eyes with a slit lamp revealed completely vacuolated lenses in Cat3vl mutants and anteriorly located opacity in Cat3vao mutants. The appearance of the opacities does not differ between the individuals or between heterozygotes and homozygotes. Penetrance of the mutations is complete. Viability and fertility of the mutants are normal except in the case of the Cat3vl homozygotes. Cat3vao was assigned to the distal part of mouse chromosome 10, 3.2 +/- 0.9 cM away from the visible marker Steel (SlgbH). Using polymorphic markers the following locus order was found: D10Mit230-(0.2 +/- 0.1 cM)-Cat3vao-(2.5 +/- 0.6 cM)-D10Mit70. No recombinants were found between Cat3vao and the markers D10Mit4l and D10Mit95 among 921 offspring. The results exclude allelism of Cat3vao with CatLop or To2, which also map to chromosome 10. Candidate genes were tested by examination of their expression in the eye of newborn mice and by analysis of cDNA sequences. So far, negative results have been obtained for the genes encoding the proteoglycans lumican and decorin, the nuclear orphan receptor Tr2-11 and the transcription factor Elk3. Based on syntenic homology of the Cat3 region to the human chromosome 12q, the Cat3 mutants are discussed as mouse models for cornea plana congenita in man. The recovery of the Cat3 mutations demonstrates the importance of the corresponding locus for proper eye development. PMID:9439574

  4. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sally L; Le, Dzung; Long, Jeffrey M; Sobieszczuk, Peter; Ma, Bo; Tian, Hua; Fang, Xiaoqun; Paulson, James C; Marth, Jamey D; Varki, Nissi

    2013-01-01

    The consortium for functional glycomics (CFG) was a large research initiative providing networking and resources for investigators studying the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins in health and disease. Starting in 2001, six scientific cores were established to generate data, materials and new technologies. By the end of funding in 2011, the mouse phenotype core (MPC) submitted data to a website from the phenotype screen of 36 mutant mouse strains deficient in a gene for either a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or glycosyltransferase (GT). Each mutant strain was allotted three months for analysis and screened by standard phenotype assays used in the fields of immunology, histology, hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, metabolism and behavior. Twenty of the deficient mouse strains had been studied in other laboratories, and additional tests were performed on these strains to confirm previous observations and discover new data. The CFG constructed 16 new homozygous mutant mouse strains and completed the initial phenotype screen of the majority of these new mutant strains. In total, >300 phenotype changes were observed, but considering the over 100 assays performed on each strain, most of the phenotypes were unchanged. Phenotype differences include abnormal testis morphology in GlcNAcT9- and Siglec-H-deficient mice and lethality in Pomgnt1-deficient mice. The numerous altered phenotypes discovered, along with the consideration of the significant findings of normality, will provide a platform for future characterization to understand the important roles of glycans and GBPs in the mechanisms of health and disease. PMID:23118208

  5. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).

    PubMed

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F; Stanley, E Richard

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/- and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/- mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/- mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/- mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches. Furthermore

  6. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP)

    PubMed Central

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A.; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/− and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/− mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/− mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/− mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches

  7. Mouse genetic and phenotypic resources for human genetics

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of model organisms to provide information on gene function has proved to be a powerful approach to our understanding of both human disease and fundamental mammalian biology. Large-scale community projects using mice, based on forward and reverse genetics, and now the pan-genomic phenotyping efforts of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), are generating resources on an unprecedented scale which will be extremely valuable to human genetics and medicine. We discuss the nature and availability of data, mice and ES cells from these large-scale programmes, the use of these resources to help prioritise and validate candidate genes in human genetic association studies, and how they can improve our understanding of the underlying pathobiology of human disease. PMID:22422677

  8. Understanding the behavioural phenotype of the precocial spiny mouse.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Daruwalla, Kerman; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W

    2014-12-15

    The use of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) in experimental research is steadily increasing, due to the precocial nature of this species and the similarities in endocrinology to the human. The characterisation of normal behavioural traits throughout development has not been comprehensively measured in the spiny mouse. Therefore the aim of this study was to behaviourally phenotype the spiny mouse, with the use of behavioural paradigms commonly used to assess behaviour in rat and mouse models of human behavioural disorders such as autism, attention-deficit disorder, and schizophrenia. Male and female spiny mice were assessed at 1-5, 10-15, 20-25, 40-45 and 80-85 days of age using the open field test, novel object recognition test, rotarod, elevated plus maze, a social interaction test, and prepulse inhibition. Exploratory activity, motor coordination, fear, anxiety and social behaviours could be accurately measured from 1 day of age. Open field exploration and motor coordination on a modified rotarod were precociously developed by 10-15 and 20-25 days of age, respectively, when they were equivalent to the performance of conventional adult mice. Learning and memory (assessed by the novel object recognition test), and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition) could be reliably determined only after 20-25 days of age, and performance on these tests differed significantly between male and female spiny mice, particularly in adulthood. This study characterises the behavioural traits of spiny mice and provides important information about critical periods of behavioural development throughout postnatal life. PMID:25157432

  9. Characterization of mouse IFT complex B.

    PubMed

    Follit, John A; Xu, Fenghui; Keady, Brian T; Pazour, Gregory J

    2009-08-01

    The primary cilium plays a key role in the development of mammals and in the maintenance of health. Primary cilia are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT). In this work, we characterize mouse IFT complex B by identifying all of the mammalian orthologues of complex B and B-associated proteins previously identified in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis and also identify a new component (IFT25/Hspb11) of complex B by database analysis. We tagged each of these proteins with the FLAG epitope and show that all except IFT172 and IFT20 localize to cilia and the peri-basal body or centrosomal region at the base of cilia. All of the proteins except IFT172 immunoprecipitate IFT88 indicating that they are co-assembled into a complex. IFT20 is the only complex B protein that localizes to the Golgi apparatus. However, overexpression of IFT54/Traf3ip1, the mouse orthologue of Dyf-11/Elipsa, displaces IFT20 from the Golgi apparatus. IFT54 does not localize to the Golgi complex nor does it interact with GMAP210, which is the protein that anchors IFT20 to the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that IFT54s effect on IFT20 is a dominant negative phenotype caused by its overexpression. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19253336

  10. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S. K.; Tibbits, Glen F.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  11. Phenotypic and pathologic evaluation of the myd mouse. A candidate model for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.D.; Rapisarda, D.; Bailey, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease of unknown pathogenesis which is characterized by weakness of the face and shoulder girdle. It is associated with a sensorineural hearing loss which may be subclinical. FSHD has been mapped to the distalmost portion of 4q35, although the gene has not yet been identified. Distal 4q has homology with a region of mouse chromosome 8 to which a mouse mutant, myodystrophy (myd), has been mapped. Muscle from homozygotes for the myd mutation appears dystrophic, showing degenerating and regenerating fibers, inflammatory infiltrates, central nuclei, and variation in fiber size. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials reveal a sensorineural hearing loss in myd homozygotes. Based on the homologous genetic map locations, and the phenotypic syndrome of dystrophic muscle with sensorineural hearing loss, we suggest that myd represents an animal model for the human disease FSHD. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Discovery and characterization of spontaneous mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kristina; Fairfield, Heather; Borgeia, Suhaib; Curtain, Michelle; Hassan, Mohamed G; Dionne, Louise; Yong Karst, Son; Coombs, Harold; Bronson, Roderick T; Reinholdt, Laura G; Bergstrom, David E; Donahue, Leah Rae; Cox, Timothy C; Murray, Stephen A

    2016-07-15

    Craniofacial abnormalities are among the most common features of human genetic syndromes and disorders. The etiology of these conditions is often complex, influenced by both genetic context and the environment. Frequently, craniofacial abnormalities present as part of a syndrome with clear comorbid phenotypes, providing additional insight into mechanisms of the causative gene or pathway. The mouse has been a key tool in our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of craniofacial development and disease, and can provide excellent models for human craniofacial abnormalities. While powerful genetic engineering tools in the mouse have contributed significantly our understanding of craniofacial development and dysmorphology, forward genetic approaches provide an unbiased means to identify new genes and pathways. Moreover, spontaneous mutations can occur on any number of genetic backgrounds, potentially revealing critical genes that require a specific genetic context. Here we report discovery and phenotyping of 43 craniofacial mouse models, derived primarily from a screen for spontaneous mutations in production colonies at the Jackson Laboratory. We identify the causative gene for 33 lines, including novel genes in pathways not previously connected to craniofacial development, and novel alleles of known genes that present with unique phenotypes. Together with our detailed characterization, this work provides a valuable gene discovery resource for the craniofacial community, and a rich source of mouse models for further investigation. PMID:26234751

  13. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P < 0.001) and CF mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype

  14. Single-Cell Electrical Phenotyping Enabling the Classification of Mouse Tumor Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Jiang, Mei; Chen, Deyong; Zhao, Xiaoting; Xue, Chengcheng; Hao, Rui; Yue, Wentao; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell electrical phenotyping (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cm) and cytoplasm conductivity (σp)) has long been regarded as potential label-free biophysical markers in tumor status evaluation. However, previous studies only reported the differentiation of tumor cell lines without classifying real tumor samples using cellular electrical properties. In this study, two types of mouse tumor models were constructed by injecting two types of tumor cell lines (A549 and H1299), respectively. Then tumor portions were retrieved for immunohistochemistry studies and single-cell electrical phenotyping based on home-developed microfluidic platforms. Immunohistochemistry results of tumor samples confirmed the adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma characteristics for A549 and H1299 based tumor samples, respectively. Meanwhile, cellular Cm and σp were characterized as 2.25 ± 0.50 μF/cm2 and 0.96 ± 0.20 S/m for A549 based tumor samples (ncell = 1336, Mouse I, II, III) and 1.76 ± 0.54 μF/cm2 and 1.35 ± 0.28 S/m for H1299 based tumor samples (ncell = 1442, Mouse IV, V, VI). Significant differences in Cm and σp were observed between these two types of tumor samples, validating the feasibility of using Cm and σp for mouse tumor classification. PMID:26766416

  15. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  16. Reporting phenotypes in mouse models when considering body size as a potential confounder.

    PubMed

    Oellrich, Anika; Meehan, Terrence F; Parkinson, Helen; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; White, Jacqueline K; Karp, Natasha A

    2016-01-01

    Genotype-phenotype studies aim to identify causative relationships between genes and phenotypes. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is a high throughput phenotyping program whose goal is to collect phenotype data for a knockout mouse strain of every protein coding gene. The scale of the project requires an automatic analysis pipeline to detect abnormal phenotypes, and disseminate the resulting gene-phenotype annotation data into public resources. A body weight phenotype is a common result of knockout studies. As body weight correlates with many other biological traits, this challenges the interpretation of related gene-phenotype associations. Co-correlation can lead to gene-phenotype associations that are potentially misleading. Here we use statistical modelling to account for body weight as a potential confounder to assess the impact. We find that there is a considerable impact on previously established gene-phenotype associations due to an increase in sensitivity as well as the confounding effect. We investigated the existing ontologies to represent this phenotypic information and we explored ways to ontologically represent the results of the influence of confounders on gene-phenotype associations. With the scale of data being disseminated within the high throughput programs and the range of downstream studies that utilise these data, it is critical to consider how we improve the quality of the disseminated data and provide a robust ontological representation. PMID:26865945

  17. Modeling Suggests TRPC3 Hydrogen Bonding and Not Phosphorylation Contributes to the Ataxia Phenotype of the Moonwalker Mouse

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A gain-of-function mutation (T635A) in the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3 results in abnormal channel gating and causes cerebellar ataxia in the dominant Moonwalker (Mwk) mouse mutant. However, the underlying molecular and structural mechanisms are unclear. Here, we used a combined approach of computational modeling and functional characterization of proposed TRPC3 mutants. Our findings support a mechanism by which the hydrogen bonding capability of threonine 635 plays a significant role in maintaining a stable, closed state channel. This capability is lost in the Mwk mutant, suggesting a structural basis for the disease-causing phenotype in the Mwk mouse. PMID:26112884

  18. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  19. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-aki K.; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (“Kibo”) on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides “space-based controls” by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  20. Expression of Caytaxin Protein in Cayman Ataxia Mouse Models Correlates with Phenotype Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Kristine M.; Nosavanh, LaGina M.; Kantheti, Prameela; Burmeister, Margit; Hortsch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Caytaxin is a highly-conserved protein, which is encoded by the Atcay/ATCAY gene. Mutations in Atcay/ATCAY have been identified as causative of cerebellar disorders such as the rare hereditary disease Cayman ataxia in humans, generalized dystonia in the dystonic (dt) rat, and marked motor defects in three ataxic mouse lines. While several lines of evidence suggest that Caytaxin plays a critical role in maintaining nervous system processes, the physiological function of Caytaxin has not been fully characterized. In the study presented here, we generated novel specific monoclonal antibodies against full-length Caytaxin to examine endogenous Caytaxin expression in wild type and Atcay mutant mouse lines. Caytaxin protein is absent from brain tissues in the two severely ataxic Atcayjit (jittery) and Atcayswd (sidewinder) mutant lines, and markedly decreased in the mildly ataxic/dystonic Atcayji-hes (hesitant) line, indicating a correlation between Caytaxin expression and disease severity. As the expression of wild type human Caytaxin in mutant sidewinder and jittery mice rescues the ataxic phenotype, Caytaxin’s physiological function appears to be conserved between the human and mouse orthologs. Across multiple species and in several neuronal cell lines Caytaxin is expressed as several protein isoforms, the two largest of which are caused by the usage of conserved methionine translation start sites. The work described in this manuscript presents an initial characterization of the Caytaxin protein and its expression in wild type and several mutant mouse models. Utilizing these animal models of human Cayman Ataxia will now allow an in-depth analysis to elucidate Caytaxin’s role in maintaining normal neuronal function. PMID:23226316

  1. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Mike; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; El Fertak, Lahcen; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl MJ; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Ed; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse ES cell knockout resource provides a basis for characterisation of relationships between gene and phenotype. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-orientated platforms. We developed novel statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no prior functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. Novel phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with unknown function providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems. PMID:26214591

  2. Molecular and phenotypic analysis of 25 recessive, homozygous-viable alleles at the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, Rosalynn J; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Woychik, Richard P; Russell, Liane B; Michaud, Edward J

    2002-01-01

    Agouti is a paracrine-acting, transient antagonist of melanocortin 1 receptors that specifies the subapical band of yellow on otherwise black hairs of the wild-type coat. To better understand both agouti structure/function and the germline damage caused by chemicals and radiation, an allelic series of 25 recessive, homozygous-viable agouti mutations generated in specific-locus tests were characterized. Visual inspection of fur, augmented by quantifiable chemical analysis of hair melanins, suggested four phenotypic categories (mild, moderate, umbrous-like, severe) for the 18 hypomorphs and a single category for the 7 amorphs (null). Molecular analysis indicated protein-coding alterations in 8 hypomorphs and 6 amorphs, with mild-moderate phenotypes correlating with signal peptide or basic domain mutations, and more devastating phenotypes resulting from C-terminal lesions. Ten hypomorphs and one null demonstrated wild-type coding potential, suggesting that they contain mutations elsewhere in the > or = 125-kb agouti locus that either reduce the level or alter the temporal/spatial distribution of agouti transcripts. Beyond the notable contributions to the field of mouse germ cell mutagenesis, analysis of this allelic series illustrates that complete abrogation of agouti function in vivo occurs most often through protein-coding lesions, whereas partial loss of function occurs slightly more frequently at the level of gene expression control. PMID:11861569

  3. Reproductive and metabolic phenotype of a mouse model of PCOS.

    PubMed

    van Houten, E Leonie A F; Kramer, Piet; McLuskey, Anke; Karels, Bas; Themmen, Axel P N; Visser, Jenny A

    2012-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women in their reproductive age, is characterized by both reproductive and metabolic features. Recent studies in human, nonhuman primates, and sheep suggest that hyperandrogenism plays an important role in the development of PCOS. We investigated whether chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure in mice reproduces both features of PCOS. Such a model would allow us to study the mechanism of association between the reproductive and metabolic features in transgenic mice. In this study, prepubertal female mice received a 90 d continuous release pellet containing the nonaromatizable androgen DHT or vehicle. At the end of the treatment period, DHT-treated mice were in continuous anestrous, their ovaries contained an increased number of atretic follicles, with the majority of atretic antral follicles having a cyst-like structure. Chronic DHT-exposed mice had significantly higher body weights (21%) than vehicle-treated mice. In addition, fat depots of DHT-treated mice displayed an increased number of enlarged adipocytes (P < 0.003). Leptin levels were elevated (P < 0.013), adiponectin levels were diminished (P < 0.001), and DHT-treated mice were glucose intolerant (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a mouse model of PCOS has been developed showing reproductive and metabolic characteristics associated with PCOS in women. PMID:22334715

  4. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Petrashevskaya, Natalia; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2016-01-15

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/- mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2-4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6-14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS. PMID:26566724

  5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit extensive developmental and phenotypic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Prabhat K.; Sassi, Slim; Lan, Lan; Au, Patrick; Halvorsen, Stefan C.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.; Seed, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of embryonic fibroblasts from GFP reporter mice indicates that the fibroblast cell type harbors a large collection of developmentally and phenotypically heterogeneous subtypes. Some of these cells exhibit multipotency, whereas others do not. Multiparameter flow cytometry analysis shows that a large number of distinct populations of fibroblast-like cells can be found in cultures initiated from different embryonic organs, and cells sorted according to their surface phenotype typically retain their characteristics on continued propagation in culture. Similarly, surface phenotypes of individual cloned fibroblast-like cells exhibit significant variation. The fibroblast cell class appears to contain a very large number of denumerable subtypes. PMID:26699463

  6. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit extensive developmental and phenotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Prabhat K; Sassi, Slim; Lan, Lan; Au, Patrick; Halvorsen, Stefan C; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K; Seed, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of embryonic fibroblasts from GFP reporter mice indicates that the fibroblast cell type harbors a large collection of developmentally and phenotypically heterogeneous subtypes. Some of these cells exhibit multipotency, whereas others do not. Multiparameter flow cytometry analysis shows that a large number of distinct populations of fibroblast-like cells can be found in cultures initiated from different embryonic organs, and cells sorted according to their surface phenotype typically retain their characteristics on continued propagation in culture. Similarly, surface phenotypes of individual cloned fibroblast-like cells exhibit significant variation. The fibroblast cell class appears to contain a very large number of denumerable subtypes. PMID:26699463

  7. Towards high-throughput mouse embryonic phenotyping: a novel approach to classifying ventricular septal defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xi; Xie, Zhongliu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Kitamoto, Asanobu

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC, www.mousephenotype.org) is to study all the over 23,000 genes in the mouse by knocking them out one-by-one for comparative analysis. Large amounts of knockout mouse lines have been raised, leading to a strong demand for high-throughput phenotyping technologies. Traditional means via time-consuming histological examination is clearly unsuitable in this scenario. Biomedical imaging technologies such as CT and MRI therefore have started being used to develop more efficient phenotyping approaches. Existing work however primarily rests on volumetric analytics over anatomical structures to detect anomaly, yet this type of methods generally fail when features are subtle such as ventricular septal defects (VSD) in the heart, and meanwhile phenotypic assessment normally requires expert manual labor. This study proposes, to the best of our knowledge, the first automatic VSD diagnostic system for mouse embryos. Our algorithm starts with the creation of an atlas using wild-type mouse images, followed by registration of knockouts to the atlas to perform atlas-based segmentation on the heart and then ventricles, after which ventricle segmentation is further refined using a region growing technique. VSD classification is completed by checking the existence of an overlap between left and right ventricles. Our approach has been validated on a database of 14 mouse embryo images, and achieved an overall accuracy of 90.9%, with sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%.

  8. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J.; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A.; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

  9. Integrating Mouse Anatomy and Pathology Ontologies into a Phenotyping Database: Tools for Data Capture and Training

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Sundberg, Beth A.; Schofield, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Mouse Disease Information System (MoDIS) is a data capture system for pathology data from laboratory mice designed to support phenotyping studies. The system integrates the mouse anatomy (MA) and mouse pathology (MPATH) ontologies into a Microsoft Access database facilitating the coding of organ, tissue, and disease process to recognized semantic standards. Grading of disease severity provides scores for all lesions that can then be used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses and haplotype association gene mapping. Direct linkage to the Pathbase on line database provides reference definitions for disease terms and access to photomicrographic images of similar diagnoses in other mutant mice. MoDIS is an open source and freely available program (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME; http://research.jax.org/faculty/sundberg/index.html). This provides a valuable tool for setting up a mouse pathology phenotyping program. PMID:18797968

  10. Weak Epistasis Generally Stabilizes Phenotypes in a Mouse Intercross

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Anna L.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Churchill, Gary A.; Carter, Gregory W.

    2016-01-01

    The extent and strength of epistasis is commonly unresolved in genetic studies, and observed epistasis is often difficult to interpret in terms of biological consequences or overall genetic architecture. We investigated the prevalence and consequences of epistasis by analyzing four body composition phenotypes—body weight, body fat percentage, femoral density, and femoral circumference—in a large F2 intercross of B6-lit/lit and C3.B6-lit/lit mice. We used Combined Analysis of Pleiotropy and Epistasis (CAPE) to examine interactions for the four phenotypes simultaneously, which revealed an extensive directed network of genetic loci interacting with each other, circulating IGF1, and sex to influence these phenotypes. The majority of epistatic interactions had small effects relative to additive effects of individual loci, and tended to stabilize phenotypes towards the mean of the population rather than extremes. Interactive effects of two alleles inherited from one parental strain commonly resulted in phenotypes closer to the population mean than the additive effects from the two loci, and often much closer to the mean than either single-locus model. Alternatively, combinations of alleles inherited from different parent strains contribute to more extreme phenotypes not observed in either parental strain. This class of phenotype-stabilizing interactions has effects that are close to additive and are thus difficult to detect except in very large intercrosses. Nevertheless, we found these interactions to be useful in generating hypotheses for functional relationships between genetic loci. Our findings suggest that while epistasis is often weak and unlikely to account for a large proportion of heritable variance, even small-effect genetic interactions can facilitate hypotheses of underlying biology in well-powered studies. PMID:26828925

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we also show that the modulation of vocalizations by maternal cues (maternal potentiation paradigm) – originally identified and investigated in rats - can be measured in C57Bl/6 mouse pups with appropriate modifications of the rat protocol and can likely be applied to mouse behavioral phenotyping. In addition we suggest that a detailed qualitative evaluation of neonatal calls together with analysis of adult mouse vocalization patterns in both sexes in social settings, may lead to a greater understanding of the communication value of vocalizations in mice. Importantly, both neonatal and adult USV altered patterns can be determined during the behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of human neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, starting from those in which deficits in communication are a primary symptom. PMID:18771687

  12. Lethal phenotype in conditional late-onset arginase 1 deficiency in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Jennifer; Hu, Chuhong; Bhargava, Ragini; Park, Hana; Tai, Denise; Byrne, James A.; Marescau, Bart; De Deyn, Peter P.; Schlichting, Lisa; Grody, Wayne W.; Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Lipshutz, Gerald S.

    2013-01-01

    Human arginase deficiency is characterized by hyperargininemia and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, which lead to neurological impairment with spasticity, loss of ambulation, seizures, and severe mental and growth retardation; uncommonly, patients suffer early death from this disorder. In a murine targeted knockout model, onset of the phenotypic abnormality is heralded by weight loss at around day 15, and death occurs typically by postnatal day 17 with hyperargininemia and markedly elevated ammonia. This discrepancy between the more attenuated juvenile-onset human disease and the lethal neonatal murine model has remained suboptimal for studying and developing therapy for the more common presentation of argianse deficiency. These investigations aimed to address this issue by creating an adult conditional knockout mouse to determine whether later onset of arginase deficiency also resulted in lethality. Animal survival and ammonia levels, body weight, circulating amino acids, and tissue arginase levels were examined as outcome parameters after widespread Cre-recombinase activation in a conditional knockout model of arginase 1 deficiency. One hundred percent of adult female and 70 percent of adult male mice died an average of 21.0 and 21.6 days, respectively, after the initiation of tamoxifen administration. Animals demonstrated elevated circulating ammonia and arginine at the onset of phenotypic abnormalities. In addition, brain and liver amino acids demonstrated abnormalities. These studies demonstrate that (a) the absence of arginase in adult animals results in a disease profile (leading to death) similar to that of the targeted knockout and (b) the phenotypic abnormalities seen in the juvenile-onset model are not exclusive to the age of the animal but instead to the biochemistry of the disorder. This adult model will be useful for developing gene- and cell-based therapies for this disorder that will not limited by by the small animal size of neonatal therapy

  13. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S.; Fields, Natasha R.; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A.; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P.; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization. PMID:26353862

  14. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  15. Chemotherapy of WAP-T mouse mammary carcinomas aggravates tumor phenotype and enhances tumor cell dissemination.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, Katharina; Wegwitz, Florian; Lenfert, Eva; Maenz, Claudia; Deppert, Wolfgang; Alves, Frauke

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of the standard chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/5-fluorouracil (CAF) on tumor growth, dissemination and recurrence after orthotopic implantation of murine G-2 cells were analyzed in the syngeneic immunocompetent whey acidic protein-T mouse model (Wegwitz et al., PLoS One 2010; 5:e12103; Schulze-Garg et al., Oncogene 2000; 19:1028-37). Single-dose CAF treatment reduced tumor size significantly, but was not able to eradicate all tumor cells, as recurrent tumor growth was observed 4 weeks after CAF treatment. Nine days after CAF treatment, residual tumors showed features of regressive alterations and were composed of mesenchymal-like tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells and some tumor-associated fibroblasts with an intense deposition of collagen. Recurrent tumors were characterized by coagulative necrosis and less tumor cell differentiation compared with untreated tumors, suggesting a more aggressive tumor phenotype. In support, tumor cell dissemination was strongly enhanced in mice that had developed recurrent tumors in comparison with untreated controls, although only few disseminated tumor cells could be detected in various organs 9 days after CAF application. In vitro experiments revealed that CAF treatment of G-2 cells eliminates the vast majority of epithelial tumor cells, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype survive. These results together with the in vivo findings suggest that tumor cells that underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and/or exhibit stem-cell-like properties are difficult to eliminate using one round of CAF chemotherapy. The model system described here provides a valuable tool for the characterization of the effects of chemotherapeutic regimens on recurrent tumor growth and on tumor cell dissemination, thereby enabling the development and preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies to target mammary carcinomas. PMID:25449528

  16. If the skull fits: magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for combined analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Marissa C.; Roman, Brian B.; Henkelman, R. Mark; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain and skull develop concurrently in a coordinated manner, consistently producing a brain and skull that fit tightly together. It is common that abnormalities in one are associated with related abnormalities in the other. However, this is not always the case. A complete characterization of the relationship between brain and skull phenotypes is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause them to be coordinated or divergent and to provide perspective on the potential diagnostic or prognostic significance of brain and skull phenotypes. We demonstrate the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse. Co-registration of brain and skull images allows comparison of the relationship between phenotypes in the brain and those in the skull. We observe a close fit between the brain and skull of two genetic mouse models that both show abnormal brain and skull phenotypes. Application of these three-dimensional image analyses in a broader range of mouse mutants will provide a map of the relationships between brain and skull phenotypes generally and allow characterization of patterns of similarities and differences. PMID:22947655

  17. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  18. Combining Human Disease Genetics and Mouse Model Phenotypes towards Drug Repositioning for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Cai, Xiaoshu; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatments. Here, we present a novel drug repositioning approach to predict new drugs for PD leveraging both disease genetics and large amounts of mouse model phenotypes. First, we identified PD-specific mouse phenotypes using well-studied human disease genes. Then we searched all FDA-approved drugs for candidates that share similar mouse phenotype profiles with PD. We demonstrated the validity of our approach using drugs that have been approved for PD: 10 approved PD drugs were ranked within top 10% among 1197 candidates. In predicting novel PD drugs, our approach achieved a mean average precision of 0.24, which is significantly higher (pmouse phenotype data. Comparison of gene expression profiles between PD and top-ranked drug candidates indicates that quetiapine has the potential to treat PD. PMID:26958284

  19. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3 762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  20. Optical coherence tomography for live phenotypic analysis of embryonic ocular structures in mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Sudheendran, Narendran; Overbeek, Paul A.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-08-01

    Mouse models of ocular diseases provide a powerful resource for exploration of molecular regulation of eye development and pre-clinical studies. Availability of a live high-resolution imaging method for mouse embryonic eyes would significantly enhance longitudinal analyses and high-throughput morphological screening. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used for live embryonic ocular imaging throughout gestation. At all studied stages, the whole eye is within the imaging distance of the system and there is a good optical contrast between the structures. We also performed OCT eye imaging in the embryonic retinoblastoma mouse model Pax6-SV40 T-antigen, which spontaneously forms lens and retinal lesions, and demonstrate that OCT allows us to clearly differentiate between the mutant and wild type phenotypes. These results demonstrate that OCTin utero imaging is a potentially useful tool to study embryonic ocular diseases in mouse models.

  1. Lack of prolidase causes a bone phenotype both in human and in mouse.

    PubMed

    Besio, Roberta; Maruelli, Silvia; Gioia, Roberta; Villa, Isabella; Grabowski, Peter; Gallagher, Orla; Bishop, Nicholas J; Foster, Sarah; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Colombo, Raffaella; Diaz, Josè Luis Dapena; Moore-Barton, Haether; Deshpande, Charu; Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Tokatli, Aysegul; Kwiek, Bartlomiej; Kasapkara, Cigdem Seher; Adisen, Esra Ozsoy; Gurer, Mehmet Ali; Di Rocco, Maja; Phang, James M; Gunn, Teresa M; Tenni, Ruggero; Rossi, Antonio; Forlino, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    The degradation of the main fibrillar collagens, collagens I and II, is a crucial process for skeletal development. The most abundant dipeptides generated from the catabolism of collagens contain proline and hydroxyproline. In humans, prolidase is the only enzyme able to hydrolyze dipeptides containing these amino acids at their C-terminal end, thus being a key player in collagen synthesis and turnover. Mutations in the prolidase gene cause prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare recessive disorder. Here we describe 12 PD patients, 9 of whom were molecularly characterized in this study. Following a retrospective analysis of all of them a skeletal phenotype associated with short stature, hypertelorism, nose abnormalities, microcephaly, osteopenia and genu valgum, independent of both the type of mutation and the presence of the mutant protein was identified. In order to understand the molecular basis of the bone phenotype associated with PD, we analyzed a recently identified mouse model for the disease, the dark-like (dal) mutant. The dal/dal mice showed a short snout, they were smaller than controls, their femurs were significantly shorter and pQCT and μCT analyses of long bones revealed compromised bone properties at the cortical and at the trabecular level in both male and female animals. The differences were more pronounce at 1 month being the most parameters normalized by 2 months of age. A delay in the formation of the second ossification center was evident at postnatal day 10. Our work reveals that reduced bone growth was due to impaired chondrocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis rate in the proliferative zone associated with reduced hyperthrophic zone height. These data suggest that lack of prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme involved in the final stage of protein catabolism, is required for normal skeletogenesis especially at early age when the requirement for collagen synthesis and degradation is the highest. PMID:25460580

  2. Phenotyping sensory nerve endings in vitro in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Hein, Alexander; Hager, Ulrich; Kaczmarek, Jan Stefan; Turnquist, Brian P; Clapham, David E; Reeh, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    This protocol details methods to identify and record from cutaneous primary afferent axons in an isolated mammalian skin–saphenous nerve preparation. The method is based on extracellular recordings of propagated action potentials from single-fiber receptive fields. Cutaneous nerve endings show graded sensitivities to various stimulus modalities that are quantified by adequate and controlled stimulation of the superfused skin with heat, cold, touch, constant punctate pressure or chemicals. Responses recorded from single-fibers are comparable with those obtained in previous in vivo experiments on the same species. We describe the components and the setting-up of the basic equipment of a skin–nerve recording station (few days), the preparation of the skin and the adherent saphenous nerve in the mouse (15–45 min) and the isolation and recording of neurons (approximately 1–3 h per recording). In addition, stimulation techniques, protocols to achieve single-fiber recordings, issues of data acquisition and action potential discrimination are discussed in detail. PMID:19180088

  3. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, Jennifer M; Heiss, Valerie J; Maurya, Santosh K; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Periasamy, Muthu; LaFountain, Richard A; Wilson, Jacob M; Simonetti, Orlando P; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT). Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J) to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover) observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J) and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/-) models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or the effects of

  4. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, Jennifer M.; Heiss, Valerie J.; Maurya, Santosh K.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Periasamy, Muthu; LaFountain, Richard A.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT). Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J) to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover) observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J) and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/-) models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or the effects of

  5. Allele, phenotype and disease data at Mouse Genome Informatics: improving access and analysis.

    PubMed

    Bello, Susan M; Smith, Cynthia L; Eppig, Janan T

    2015-08-01

    A core part of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource is the collection of mouse mutations and the annotation phenotypes and diseases displayed by mice carrying these mutations. These data are integrated with the rest of data in MGI and exported to numerous other resources. The use of mouse phenotype data to drive translational research into human disease has expanded rapidly with the improvements in sequencing technology. MGI has implemented many improvements in allele and phenotype data annotation, search, and display to facilitate access to these data through multiple avenues. For example, the description of alleles has been modified to include more detailed categories of allele attributes. This allows improved discrimination between mutation types. Further, connections have been created between mutations involving multiple genes and each of the genes overlapping the mutation. This allows users to readily find all mutations affecting a gene and see all genes affected by a mutation. In a similar manner, the genes expressed by transgenic or knock-in alleles are now connected to these alleles. The advanced search forms and public reports have been updated to take advantage of these improvements. These search forms and reports are used by an expanding number of researchers to identify novel human disease genes and mouse models of human disease. PMID:26162703

  6. Phenotype-based identification of mouse chromosome instability mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Naoko; Hartford, Suzanne A; Duffy, Ted; Wilson, Lawriston A; Schimenti, Kerry J; Schimenti, John C

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that defects in DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair can cause chromosome instability, which may result in cancer. To identify novel DSB repair genes in mice, we performed a phenotype-driven mutagenesis screen for chromosome instability mutants using a flow cytometric peripheral blood micronucleus assay. Micronucleus levels were used as a quantitative indicator of chromosome damage in vivo. Among offspring derived from males mutagenized with the germline mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), we identified a recessive mutation conferring elevated levels of spontaneous and radiation- or mitomycin C-induced micronuclei. This mutation, named chaos1 (chromosome aberration occurring spontaneously 1), was genetically mapped to a 1.3-Mb interval on chromosome 16 containing Polq, encoding DNA polymerase theta. We identified a nonconservative mutation in the ENU-derived allele, making it a strong candidate for chaos1. POLQ is homologous to Drosophila MUS308, which is essential for normal DNA interstrand crosslink repair and is unique in that it contains both a helicase and a DNA polymerase domain. While cancer susceptibility of chaos1 mutant mice is still under investigation, these data provide a practical paradigm for using a forward genetic approach to discover new potential cancer susceptibility genes using the surrogate biomarker of chromosome instability as a screen. PMID:12663541

  7. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  8. Characterization of the mouse thrombospondin 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsuji Shingu; Bornstein, P. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have characterized the exon/intron organization, complete 3[prime] untranslated region (3[prime]-UTR), and approximately 2.5 kb of the promoter/5[prime] flanking region of the mouse thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) gene. The sizes of exons and the pattern of interruption of the reading frame by introns are highly conserved in mouse TSP2 in comparison with mouse or human TSP1, a finding that suggests a close evolutionary relationship between the two genes. The TSP2 and TSP1 genes are also similar in that the 3[prime]-UTRs of both genes contain multiple TATT and ATTT(A) motifs that might function as mediators of mRNA stability. However, the sequences of the promoter regions in TSP1 and TSP2 are very different; in particular, the TSP2 gene lacks the serum response element and the NF-Y binding site that have been implicated in the serum response of the human TSP1 gene. The structure of the TSP2 gene is consistent with emerging evidence supporting the view that TSP1 and TSP2 perform overlapping but distinct functions. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. High-throughput mouse phenotyping using non-rigid registration and robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Intensive international efforts are underway towards phenotyping the mouse genome, by knocking out each of its ≍25,000 genes one-by-one for comparative study. With vast amounts of data to analyze, the traditional method using time-consuming histological examination is clearly impractical, leading to an overwhelming demand for some high-throughput phenotyping framework, especially with the employment of biomedical image informatics to efficiently identify phenotypes concerning morphological abnormality. Existing work has either excessively relied on volumetric analytics which is insensitive to phenotypes associated with no severe volume variations, or tailored for specific defects and thus fails to serve a general phenotyping purpose. Furthermore, the prevailing requirement of an atlas for image segmentation in contrast to its limited availability further complicates the issue in practice. In this paper we propose a high-throughput general-purpose phenotyping framework that is able to efficiently perform batch-wise anomaly detection without prior knowledge of the phenotype and the need for atlas-based segmentation. Anomaly detection is centered on the combined use of group-wise non-rigid image registration and robust principal component analysis (RPCA) for feature extraction and decomposition.

  10. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. PMID:26675351

  11. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2016-01-28

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. PMID:26675351

  12. Immortalized Mouse Floxed Bmp2 Dental Papilla Mesenchymal Cell Lines Preserve Odontoblastic Phenotype and Respond to BMP2

    PubMed Central

    WU, LI-AN; FENG, JUNSHENG; WANG, LYNN; MU, YAN-DONG; BAKER, ANDREW; DONLY, KEVIN J; GLUHAK-HEINRICH, JELICA; HARRIS, STEPHEN E; MACDOUGALL, MARY; CHEN, SHUO

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for odontogensis and dentin mineralization. Generation of floxed Bmp2 dental mesenchymal cell lines is a valuable application for studying the effects of Bmp2 on dental mesenchymal cell differentiation and its signaling pathways during dentinogenesis. Limitation of the primary culture of dental mesenchymal cells has led to the development of cell lines that serve as good surrogate models for the study of dental mesenchymal cell differentiation into odontoblasts and mineralization. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal cell lines, which were isolated from 1st mouse mandibular molars at postnatal day 1 and immortalized with pSV40 and clonally selected. These transfected cell lines were characterized by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization nodule formation. One of these immortalized cell lines, iBmp2-dp, displayed a higher proliferation rate, but retained the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to primary cells as determined by expression of tooth-specific markers as well as demonstrated the ability to differentiate and form mineralized nodules. In addition, iBmp2-dp cells were inducible and responded to BMP2 stimulation. Thus, we for the first time described the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchyma cell line that might be used for studying the mechanisms of dental cell differentiation and dentin mineralization mediated by Bmp2 and other growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:20458728

  13. [Phenotype characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates].

    PubMed

    Huérfano, Sandra; Cepero, Maria Caridad; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2003-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is caused by the three varieties of C. neoformans with physiological and virulence differences, some of which have been studied to determine biological aspects of this microorganism. The phenotypical aspects of environmental isolates from varieties grubii and gattii were evaluated to establish differences associated with their life cycle and virulence. To this end, 28 and 31 strains of C. neoformans serotypes A (var. grubii) and C (var. gattii) were studied. The microscopic and macroscopic morphology on Sabouraud agar and soils, growth rate at 37 degrees C, production of 22 extracellular enzymes, haploid fructification, mating type, killer toxin sensitivity patterns and virulence in BALB/c mice were evaluated. No differences were observed between the two varieties regarding microscopic and macroscopic morphology or growth at 37 degrees C (p > 0.05). However, a decrease in the cellular and capsular sizes of yeast in soil, as compared to Sabouraud, was observed (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher enzimatic activity of proteases, phospholipases, phenoloxidase and beta-glucosidase was observed in var. grubii isolates as compared to var. gattii (p < 0.05). In both varieties, structures related with haploid fruitification were observed and all isolates were mating type alpha. Killer toxin sensitivity patterns of the isolates of var. grubii were I and II; in contrast, in var. gattii, seven different patterns were found: I, V, IX-XIII. In the animal model we found that 12 of 22 (54.5%) isolates of var. grubii caused the death of the mice during the observation period, while none of the 14 var. gattii isolates caused it. The decrease in capsular and cellular sizes of the yeast in soil and the frequency of mating type alpha with structures related to haploid fructification suggest an important mechanism of production of infectious particles in nature. Additionally, greater enzimatic activity of var. grubii can be associated with the virulence in the animal model

  14. Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

  15. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans. PMID:24814483

  16. Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated mouse thymic lobes. Kinetics and phenotype of progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Spangrude, G.J.; Scollay, R. )

    1990-12-01

    To define cell populations which participate in the very early stages of T cell development in the mouse thymus, we enriched hematopoietic stem cells from mouse bone marrow and injected them into thymic lobes of irradiated Ly-5 congenic recipients. The progeny of the stem cells were identified and their phenotypes were determined by two-color flow cytometry for the expression of various cell surface differentiation Ag during the course of their subsequent intrathymic development. The majority of the differentiation which occurred in the first 10 days after intrathymic cell transfer was myeloid in nature; hence, this study demonstrates that the irradiated thymus is not strictly selective for T cell development. Further, the maximum rate of T cell development was observed after intrathymic injection of 200 stem cells. Donor-derived cells which did not express Ag characteristic of the myeloid lineage could be detected and their phenotypes could be determined by flow cytometry as early as 7 days after intrathymic injection. At this time, the cells were still very similar phenotypically to the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Exceptions to this were the expression of stem cell Ag 2 and a decrease in the level of MHC class I Ag expression. After 9 days, the donor-derived cells expressed high levels of the Thy-1 Ag and proceeded to change in cell surface phenotype as differentiation continued. These cell phenotypes are described for the time frame ending 18 days after injection, when most donor-derived cells were phenotypically small CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive) thymocytes.

  17. Novel BAC mouse model of Huntington’s disease with 225 CAG repeats exhibits an early widespread and stable degenerative phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Bichell, Terry Jo; Soares, Barbara D.; Loth, Meredith K.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Alikhan, Fatima S.; Hua, Kegang; Coughlin, Jennifer M.; Holt, Hunter K.; Jetter, Christopher S.; Mori, Susumu; Pomper, Martin G.; Osmand, Alexander P.; Guilarte, Tomás R.; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unusually large CAG repeat expansions (>60) in exon one of Huntingtin (HTT) are invariably associated with a juvenile-onset form of Huntington’s disease (HD), characterized by a more extensive and rapidly progressing neuropathology than the more prevalent adult-onset form. However, existing mouse models of HD that express the full-length Htt gene with CAG repeat lengths associated with juvenile HD (ranging between ~75 to ~150 repeats in published models) exhibit selective neurodegenerative phenotypes more consistent with adult-onset HD. OBJECTIVE To determine if a very large CAG repeat (>200) in full-length Htt elicits neurodegenerative phenotypes consistent with juvenile HD. METHODS Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, we generated mice expressing full-length mouse Htt with ~225 CAG repeats under control of the mouse Htt promoter. Mice were characterized using behavioral, neuropathological, biochemical and brain imaging methods. RESULTS BAC-225Q mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with a subset of features seen in juvenile-onset HD: very early motor behavior abnormalities, reduced body weight, widespread and progressive increase in Htt aggregates, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Early striatal pathology was observed, including reactive gliosis and loss of dopamine receptors, prior to detectable volume loss. HD-related blood markers of impaired energy metabolism and systemic inflammation were also increased. Aside from an age-dependent progression of diffuse nuclear aggregates at 6 months of age to abundant neuropil aggregates at 12 months of age, other pathological and motor phenotypes showed little to no progression. CONCLUSIONS The HD phenotypes present in animals 3 to 12 months of age make the BAC-225Q mice a unique and stable model of full-length mutant Htt associated phenotypes, including body weight loss, behavioral impairment and HD-like neurodegenerative phenotypes characteristic of juvenile-onset HD and/or late-stage adult

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of a Diversity Panel of Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the USDA, ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) we have phenotypically characterized more than 2,000 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for which data are publically available on the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http://www.ar...

  19. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26553608

  20. Characterization of a Spontaneous Retinal Neovascular Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Eiichi; Sweigard, Harry; Husain, Deeba; Olivares, Ana M.; Chang, Bo; Smith, Kaylee E.; Birsner, Amy E.; D’Amato, Robert J.; Michaud, Norman A.; Han, Yinan; Vavvas, Demetrios G.; Miller, Joan W.; Haider, Neena B.; Connor, Kip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision loss due to vascular disease of the retina is a leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) is a subgroup of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), whereby abnormal blood vessels develop in the retina leading to debilitating vision loss and eventual blindness. The novel mouse strain, neoretinal vascularization 2 (NRV2), shows spontaneous fundus changes associated with abnormal neovascularization. The purpose of this study is to characterize the induction of pathologic angiogenesis in this mouse model. Methods The NRV2 mice were examined from postnatal day 12 (p12) to 3 months. The phenotypic changes within the retina were evaluated by fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis. The pathological neovascularization was imaged by confocal microscopy and reconstructed using three-dimensional image analysis software. Results We found that NRV2 mice develop multifocal retinal depigmentation in the posterior fundus. Depigmented lesions developed vascular leakage observed by fluorescein angiography. The spontaneous angiogenesis arose from the retinal vascular plexus at postnatal day (p)15 and extended toward retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). By three months of age, histological analysis revealed encapsulation of the neovascular lesion by the RPE in the photoreceptor cell layer and subretinal space. Conclusions The NRV2 mouse strain develops early neovascular lesions within the retina, which grow downward towards the RPE beginning at p15. This retinal neovascularization model mimics early stages of human retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and will likely be a useful in elucidating targeted therapeutics for patients with ocular neovascular disease. PMID:25188381

  1. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  2. Phenotypical Analysis of Atypical PKCs In Vivo Function Display a Compensatory System at Mouse Embryonic Day 7.5

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Sebastian; Braun, Ursula; Roos, Norbert; Li, Shaohua; Lüdtke, Timo H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The atypical protein kinases C (PKC) isoforms ι/λ and ζ play crucial roles in many cellular processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Possible redundancy between the two isoforms has always been an issue since most biochemical tools do not differentiate between the two proteins. Thus, much effort has been made during the last decades to characterize the functions of aPKCs using gene targeting approaches and depletion studies. However, little is known about the specific roles of each isoform in mouse development. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the importance of PKCι in mouse development we designed PKCι deletion mutants using the gene targeting approach. We show that the deletion of PKCι, results in a reduced size of the amniotic cavity at E7.5 and impaired growth of the embryo at E8.5 with subsequent absorption of the embryo. Our data also indicate an impaired localization of ZO-1 and disorganized structure of the epithelial tissue in the embryo. Importantly, using electron microscopy, embryoid body formation and immunofluorescence analysis, we found, that in the absence of PKCι, tight junctions and apico-basal polarity were still established. Finally, our study points to a non-redundant PKCι function at E9.5, since expression of PKCζ is able to rescue the E7.5 phenotype, but could not prevent embryonic lethality at a later time-point (E9.5). Conclusion Our data show that PKCι is crucial for mouse embryogenesis but is dispensable for the establishment of polarity and tight junction formation. We present a compensatory function of PKCζ at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKCι function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKCζ at E9.5. PMID:23690951

  3. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  4. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1. PMID:24248751

  5. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate. PMID:26519470

  6. Electroretinographic genotype-phenotype correlations for mouse and man at the dmd/DMD locus

    SciTech Connect

    Millers, D.M.; Weleber, R.G.; Woodward, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    Reduced or absent b-waves in the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) patients led to the identification of dystrophin in human retina and the proposal that it plays a role in retinal electrophysiology. Study of a large group of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy males to determine their ocular characteristics indicated that there were position-specific effects of deletions, with 3{prime} defects associated with severe electroretinographic changes, whereas some 5{prime} patients demonstrated less severe, or even normal, ERGs. We studied the mdx mouse, a model with X-linked muscular dystrophy and defective full-length dystrophin, which failed to show any ERG abnormalities. Given the presence of alternate isoforms of dystrophin in retina, and the 5{prime} deletion DMD/BMD patients with normal ERGs, we studied mouse models with differing dystrophin mutations (mdx{sup Cv3}, mdx{sup Cv5}) to determine the usefulness of alternate strains as models for the visual effects of dystropin. Abnormal ERGs similar to those seen in DMD/BMS patients exist in the mdx{sup Cv3} strain of muscular dystrophy mice. Normal ERGs were found the mdx{sup Cv5} strain. The mutations in the mdx and mdx{sup Cv5} mice have been mapped to the 5{prime} end of the dmd gene, while the mutation in the mdx{sup Cv3} mouse is in the 3{prime} end. Thus, there are position effects of the gene defect on the ERG phenotype that are conserved in the mouse. Such genotype-phenotype correlations may reflect differential expression of shorter isoforms of dystrophin.

  7. Outstanding Phenotypic Differences in the Profile of Amyloid-β between Tg2576 and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Allué, José Antonio; Sarasa, Leticia; Izco, María; Pérez-Grijalba, Virginia; Fandos, Noelia; Pascual-Lucas, María; Ogueta, Samuel; Pesini, Pedro; Sarasa, Manuel

    2016-05-30

    APPswe/PS1dE9 and Tg2576 are very common transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), used in many laboratories as tools to research the mechanistic process leading to the disease. In order to augment our knowledge about the amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms present in both transgenic mouse models, we have developed two chromatographic methods, one acidic and the other basic, for the characterization of the Aβ species produced in the brains of the two transgenic mouse models. After immunoprecipitation and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, 10 species of Aβ, surprisingly all of human origin, were detected in the brain of Tg2576 mouse, whereas 39 species, of both murine and human origin, were detected in the brain of the APP/PS1 mouse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the identification of such a high number of Aβ species in the brain of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse, whereas, in contrast, a much lower number of Aβ species were identified in the Tg2576 mouse. Therefore, this study brings to light a relevant phenotypic difference between these two popular mice models of AD. PMID:27258422

  8. Lifetime development of behavioural phenotype in the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With each trajectory taken during the ontogeny of an individual, the number of optional behavioural phenotypes that can be expressed across its life span is reduced. The initial range of phenotypic plasticity is largely determined by the genetic material/composition of the gametes whereas interacting with the given environment shapes individuals to adapt to/cope with specific demands. In mammalian species, the phenotype is shaped as the foetus grows, depending on the environment in the uterus, which in turn depends on the outer environment the mother experiences during pregnancy. After birth, a complex interaction between innate constitution and environmental conditions shapes individual lifetime trajectories, bringing about a wide range of diversity among individual subjects. In laboratory mice inbreeding has been systematically induced in order to reduce the genetic variability between experimental subjects. In addition, within most laboratories conducting behavioural phenotyping with mice, breeding and housing conditions are highly standardised. Despite such standardisation efforts a considerable amount of variability persists in the behaviour of mice. There is good evidence that phenotypic variation is not merely random but might involve individual specific behavioural patterns consistent over time. In order to understand the mechanisms and the possible adaptive value of the maintenance of individuality we review the emergence of behavioural phenotypes over the course of the life of (laboratory) mice. We present a literature review summarizing developmental stages of behavioural development of mice along with three illustrative case studies. We conclude that the accumulation of environmental differences and experiences lead to a “mouse individuality” that becomes increasingly stable over the lifetime. PMID:26816516

  9. Null mutations in human and mouse orthologs frequently result in different phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2008-01-01

    One-to-one orthologous genes of relatively closely related species are widely assumed to have similar functions and cause similar phenotypes when deleted from the genome. Although this assumption is the foundation of comparative genomics and the basis for the use of model organisms to study human biology and disease, its validity is known only from anecdotes rather than from systematic examination. Comparing documented phenotypes of null mutations in humans and mice, we find that >20% of human essential genes have nonessential mouse orthologs. These changes of gene essentiality appear to be associated with adaptive evolution at the protein-sequence, but not gene-expression, level. Proteins localized to the vacuole, a cellular compartment for waste management, are highly enriched among essentiality-changing genes. It is probable that the evolution of the prolonged life history in humans required enhanced waste management for proper cellular function until the time of reproduction, which rendered these vacuole proteins essential and generated selective pressures for their improvement. If our gene sample represents the entire genome, our results would mean frequent changes of phenotypic effects of one-to-one orthologous genes even between relatively closely related species, a possibility that should be considered in comparative genomic studies and in making cross-species inferences of gene function and phenotypic effect. PMID:18458337

  10. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  11. The Role of Zic Genes in Inner Ear Development in the Mouse: Exploring Mutant Mouse Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chervenak, Andrew P.; Bank, Lisa M.; Thomsen, Nicole; Glanville-Jones, Hannah C; Skibo, Jonathan; Millen, Kathleen J.; Arkell, Ruth M.; Barald, Kate F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Murine Zic genes (Zic1-5) are expressed in the dorsal hindbrain and in periotic mesenchyme (POM) adjacent to the developing inner ear. Zic genes are involved in developmental signaling pathways in many organ systems, including the ear, although their exact roles haven't been fully elucidated. This report examines the role of Zic1, Zic2, and Zic4 during inner ear development in mouse mutants in which these Zic genes are affected Results Zic1/Zic4 double mutants don't exhibit any apparent defects in inner ear morphology. By contrast, inner ears from Zic2kd/kd and Zic2Ku/Ku mutants have severe but variable morphological defects in endolymphatic duct/sac and semicircular canal formation and in cochlear extension in the inner ear. Analysis of otocyst patterning in the Zic2Ku/Ku mutants by in situ hybridization showed changes in the expression patterns of Gbx2 and Pax2. Conclusions The experiments provide the first genetic evidence that the Zic genes are required for morphogenesis of the inner ear. Zic2 loss-of-function doesn't prevent initial otocyst patterning but leads to molecular abnormalities concomitant with morphogenesis of the endolymphatic duct. Functional hearing deficits often accompany inner ear dysmorphologies, making Zic2 a novel candidate gene for ongoing efforts to identify the genetic basis of human hearing loss. PMID:25178196

  12. Microbiome Heterogeneity Characterizing Intestinal Tissue and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrea D; Kirsch, Richard; Milgrom, Raquel; Stempak, Joanne M; Kabakchiev, Boyko; Silverberg, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with differential abundance of numerous organisms when compared to healthy controls (HCs); however, few studies have investigated variability in the microbiome across intestinal locations and how this variability might be related to disease location and phenotype. In this study, we have analyzed the microbiome of a large cohort of individuals recruited at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Biopsies were taken from subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and HC, and also individuals having undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for treatment of ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis. Microbial 16S rRNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We observed a great deal of variability in the microbiome characterizing different sampling locations. Samples from pouch and afferent limb were comparable in microbial composition. When comparing sigmoid and terminal ileum samples, more differences were observed. The greatest number of differentially abundant microbes was observed when comparing either pouch or afferent limb samples to sigmoid or terminal ileum. Despite these differences, we were able to observe modest microbial variability between inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes and HCs, even when controlling for sampling location and additional experimental factors. Most detected associations were observed between HCs and Crohn's disease, with decreases in specific genera in the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae characterizing tissue samples from individuals with Crohn's disease. This study highlights important considerations when analyzing the composition of the microbiome and also provides useful insight into differences in the microbiome characterizing these seemingly related phenotypes. PMID:26954709

  13. 15q13.3 homozygous knockout mouse model display epilepsy-, autism- and schizophrenia-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Forsingdal, A; Fejgin, K; Nielsen, V; Werge, T; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is caused by a 1.5-MB hemizygous microdeletion located on 15q13.3 affecting seven genes: FAN1; MTMR10; TRPM1; miR-211; KLF13; OTUD7A; and CHRNA7. The 15q13.3 microdeletion increases the risk of intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, though the clinical profile varies considerably. Two mouse models of this syndrome, with hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region in the murine genome, have recently been shown to recapitulate a number of the behavioral and physiological deficits that characterize the human condition. Still, little is known of the underlying biological mechanisms. Eleven human cases with homozygous deletion of the 15q13.3 region have been reported, all with severe functional and physiological impairments. We therefore hypothesized that a 15q13.3 homozygous knockout would confer more pronounced behavioral and physiological deficits in mice than the 15q13.3 hemizygous deletion. Here we report the characterization of a 15q13.3 knockout mouse. We observed marked deficits including altered seizure susceptibility, autistic behavior-related phenotypes, and auditory sensory processing. Several of these deficits, albeit less pronounced, were also found in the 15q13.3 hemizygous littermates indicating a gene-dosage dependency. Our findings strongly indicate that studies of the hemi- and homozygous 15q13.3 mouse strains will facilitate understanding of the biological mechanisms of severe mental disorders. PMID:27459725

  14. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  15. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  16. Structural and Functional Concepts in Current Mouse Phenotyping and Archiving Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kollmus, Heike; Post, Rainer; Brielmeier, Markus; Fernández, Julia; Fuchs, Helmut; McKerlie, Colin; Montoliu, Lluis; Otaegui, Pedro J; Rebelo, Manuel; Riedesel, Hermann; Ruberte, Jesús; Sedlacek, Radislav; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Schughart, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Collecting and analyzing available information on the building plans, concepts, and workflow from existing animal facilities is an essential prerequisite for most centers that are planning and designing the construction of a new animal experimental research unit. Here, we have collected and analyzed such information in the context of the European project Infrafrontier, which aims to develop a common European infrastructure for high-throughput systemic phenotyping, archiving, and dissemination of mouse models. A team of experts visited 9 research facilities and 3 commercial breeders in Europe, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. During the visits, detailed data of each facility were collected and subsequently represented in standardized floor plans and descriptive tables. These data showed that because the local needs of scientists and their projects, property issues, and national and regional laws require very specific solutions, a common strategy for the construction of such facilities does not exist. However, several basic concepts were apparent that can be described by standardized floor plans showing the principle functional units and their interconnection. Here, we provide detailed information of how individual facilities addressed their specific needs by using different concepts of connecting the principle units. Our analysis likely will be valuable to research centers that are planning to design new mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities. PMID:23043807

  17. Structural and functional concepts in current mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities.

    PubMed

    Kollmus, Heike; Post, Rainer; Brielmeier, Markus; Fernández, Julia; Fuchs, Helmut; McKerlie, Colin; Montoliu, Lluis; Otaegui, Pedro J; Rebelo, Manuel; Riedesel, Hermann; Ruberte, Jesús; Sedlacek, Radislav; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Schughart, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Collecting and analyzing available information on the building plans, concepts, and workflow from existing animal facilities is an essential prerequisite for most centers that are planning and designing the construction of a new animal experimental research unit. Here, we have collected and analyzed such information in the context of the European project Infrafrontier, which aims to develop a common European infrastructure for high-throughput systemic phenotyping, archiving, and dissemination of mouse models. A team of experts visited 9 research facilities and 3 commercial breeders in Europe, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. During the visits, detailed data of each facility were collected and subsequently represented in standardized floor plans and descriptive tables. These data showed that because the local needs of scientists and their projects, property issues, and national and regional laws require very specific solutions, a common strategy for the construction of such facilities does not exist. However, several basic concepts were apparent that can be described by standardized floor plans showing the principle functional units and their interconnection. Here, we provide detailed information of how individual facilities addressed their specific needs by using different concepts of connecting the principle units. Our analysis likely will be valuable to research centers that are planning to design new mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities. PMID:23043807

  18. IL-33 induces a hypo-responsive phenotype in human and mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mi-Yeon; Smrž, Daniel; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Ito, Tomonobu; Iwaki, Shoko; Kang, Jeong-Han; Andrade, Marcus V.; Hilderbrand, Susana C.; Brown, Jared M.; Beaven, Michael A.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY IL-33 is elevated in afflicted tissues of patients with mast cell-dependent chronic allergic diseases. Based on its acute effects on mouse mast cells (MCs), IL-33 is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease through MC activation. However, the manifestations of prolonged IL-33 exposure on human MC function, which best reflect the conditions associated with chronic allergic disease, are unknown. We now find that long-term exposure of human and mouse MCs to IL-33 results in a substantial reduction of MC activation in response to antigen. This reduction required >72 h exposure to IL-33 for onset and 1–2 wk for reversion following IL-33 removal. This hypo-responsive phenotype was determined to be a consequence of MyD88-dependent attenuation of signaling processes necessary for MC activation including antigen-mediated calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal reorganization; potentially as a consequence of down-regulation of the expression of PLCγ1 and Hck. These findings suggest that IL-33 may play a protective, rather than a causative role in MC activation under chronic conditions and, furthermore, reveal regulated plasticity in the MC activation phenotype. The ability to down-regulate MC activation in this manner may provide alternative approaches for treatment of MC-driven disease. PMID:23248261

  19. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Bay, Lene; Cirera, Susanna; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Jens; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background A pig phenotype characterized by juvenile hairlessness, thin skin and age dependent lung emphysema has been discovered in a Danish pig herd. The trait shows autosomal co-dominant inheritance with all three genotypes distinguishable. Since the phenotype shows resemblance to the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice, the two genes encoding the two subunits of integrin αvβ6, i.e. ITGB6 and ITGAV, were considered candidate genes for this trait. Results The mutated pig phenotype is characterized by hairlessness until puberty, thin skin with few hair follicles and absence of musculi arrectores pili, and at puberty or later localized areas of emphysema are seen in the lungs. Comparative mapping predicted that the porcine ITGB6 andITGAV orthologs map to SSC15. In an experimental family (n = 113), showing segregation of the trait, the candidate region was confirmed by linkage analysis with four microsatellite markers. Mapping of the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV in the IMpRH radiation hybrid panel confirmed the comparative mapping information. Sequencing of the ITGB6 and ITGAV coding sequences from affected and normal pigs revealed no evidence of a causative mutation, but alternative splicing of the ITGB6 pre-mRNA was detected. For both ITGB6 and ITGAV quantitative PCR revealed no significant difference in the expression levels in normal and affected animals. In a western blot, ITGB6 was detected in lung protein samples of all three genotypes. This result was supported by flow cytometric analyses which showed comparable reactions of kidney cells from affected and normal pigs with an integrin αvβ6 monoclonal antibody. Also, immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue with an integrin β6 antibody showed immunoreaction in both normal and affected pigs. Conclusion A phenotype resembling the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice has been characterized in the pig. The candidate region on SSC15 has been confirmed by linkage analysis but molecular

  20. Genetic characterization of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM).

    PubMed

    Higuchi, K

    1997-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains are unique and appropriate models for genetic studies on aging because the SAMP strains have an "accelerated senescence" phenotype for which the SAMR strains are controls, and each SAMP strain has a strain-specific age-associated disorder. Furthermore, because they have gone through sufficient generations of sister-brother mating, they can be considered inbred strains, which can be analyzed genetically. There are now 11 SAMP strains and 3 SAMR strains descended from the progenitor litters. Analysis with the Gompertz function shows that the SAMP strains have the same initial mortality rate (IMR) as the SAMR strains but a shorter mortality rate doubling time (MRDT), presumably due to genes that accelerated the rate of senescence in the SAMP strains. This accelerated senescence may also occur in cultured fibroblast-like cells. We performed molecular genetic characterization of all the SAM strains to acquire a base of genetic information from which we could develop hypotheses on the mechanism of development of SAM strains and genetic factors that contribute to accelerated senescence. PMID:9088910

  1. Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of β-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-β-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-β-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-β-TMEGFP and E122K-β-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-β-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant β-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related β-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

  2. Mouse model for molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B recapitulates the phenotype observed in molybdenum cofactor deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubiczka-Smorag, Joanna; Santamaria-Araujo, Jose Angel; Metz, Imke; Kumar, Avadh; Hakroush, Samy; Brueck, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Guenter; Burfeind, Peter; Reiss, Jochen; Smorag, Lukasz

    2016-07-01

    Molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) deficiency is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder, mainly caused by mutations in MOCS1 (MoCo deficiency type A) or MOCS2 (MoCo deficiency type B) genes; the absence of active MoCo results in a deficiency in all MoCo-dependent enzymes. Patients with MoCo deficiency present with neonatal seizures, feeding difficulties, severe developmental delay, brain atrophy and early childhood death. Although substitution therapy with cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) has been successfully used in both Mocs1 knockout mice and in patients with MoCo deficiency type A, there is currently no Mocs2 knockout mouse and no curative therapy for patients with MoCo deficiency type B. Therefore, we generated and characterized a Mocs2-null mouse model of MoCo deficiency type B. Expression analyses of Mocs2 revealed a ubiquitous expression pattern; however, at the cellular level, specific cells show prominent Mocs2 expression, e.g., neuronal cells in cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated that Mocs2 knockout mice failed to thrive and died within 11 days after birth. None of the tested MoCo-dependent enzymes were active in Mocs2-deficient mice, leading to elevated concentrations of purines, such as hypoxanthine and xanthine, and non-detectable levels of uric acid in the serum and urine. Moreover, elevated concentrations of S-sulfocysteine were measured in the serum and urine. Increased levels of xanthine resulted in bladder and kidney stone formation, whereas increased concentrations of toxic sulfite triggered neuronal apoptosis. In conclusion, Mocs2-deficient mice recapitulate the severe phenotype observed in humans and can now serve as a model for preclinical therapeutic approaches for MoCo deficiency type B. PMID:27138983

  3. Augmentation of phenotype in a transgenic Parkinson mouse heterozygous for a Gaucher mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yien-Ming; Giasson, Benoit I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of the protein α-synuclein (SNCA) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease is strongly supported by the facts that (i) missense and copy number mutations in the SNCA gene can cause inherited Parkinson’s disease; and (ii) Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson’s disease are largely composed of aggregated SNCA. Unaffected heterozygous carriers of Gaucher disease mutations have an increased risk for Parkinson’s disease. As mutations in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) are known to interfere with lysosomal protein degradation, GBA heterozygotes may demonstrate reduced lysosomal SNCA degradation, leading to increased steady-state SNCA levels and promoting its aggregation. We have created mouse models to investigate the interaction between GBA mutations and synucleinopathies. We investigated the rate of SNCA degradation in cultured primary cortical neurons from mice expressing wild-type mouse SNCA, wild-type human SNCA, or mutant A53T SNCA, in a background of either wild-type Gba or heterozygosity for the L444P GBA mutation associated with Gaucher disease. We also tested the effect of this Gaucher mutation on motor and enteric nervous system function in these transgenic animals. We found that human SNCA is stable, with a half-life of 61 h, and that the A53T mutation did not significantly affect its half-life. Heterozygosity for a naturally occurring Gaucher mutation, L444P, reduced GBA activity by 40%, reduced SNCA degradation and triggered accumulation of the protein in culture. This mutation also resulted in the exacerbation of motor and gastrointestinal deficits found in the A53T mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. This study demonstrates that heterozygosity for a Gaucher disease-associated mutation in Gba interferes with SNCA degradation and contributes to its accumulation, and exacerbates the phenotype in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25351739

  4. Pheno-Pub: a total support system for the publication of mouse phenotypic data on the web.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Motegi, Hiromi; Kozawa, Yasuyo; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an open-source database system named "Pheno-Pub" to support a series of data-handling and publication tasks, including statistical analyses, data review, and web site construction, for mouse phenotyping experiments. This system is composed of three applications. "Mou-Stat" provides semiautomatic statistical analyses for a batch of phenotypic data, including a variety of conditions for group comparisons (e.g., different scales of measurement parameters). "Genotype Viewer" and "Strain Viewer" provide representation of genotype-driven and measurement parameter-driven views of phenotypic data; they highlight significant differences in genotypes and between strains, respectively. Direct links from the Strain Viewer web site to the Genotype Viewer web site provide flexible navigation in the exploration of phenotypic data. With these publication tools, phenotypic data can be made available on the Internet by simple operations. This system is expandable for a wide range of uses in phenotypic comparative analyses, including comparisons among different genotypes and strains and comparisons among groups exposed to different environmental conditions. Finally, Pheno-Pub provides advanced usability for both producers of experimental data and consumers of phenotypic information. Therefore, Pheno-Pub contributes significantly to the publication of data in various fields of phenotyping research and to broad data sharing, thereby promoting the understanding of the functions of the entire mouse genome. PMID:24220852

  5. Corticotropin-releasing Factor Changes the Phenotype and Function of Dendritic Cells in Mouse Mesenteric Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Li; Lu, Zhang; Xiaoteng, Wang; Yue, Hu; Bin, Lu; Lina, Meng; Zhe, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Dendritic cells (DCs) are a significant contributor to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders; however, the effects of Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on intestinal DCs are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of CRF in alterations of intestinal dendritic cell phenotype and function. Methods Mouse mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells (MLNDCs) were obtained using magnetic bead sorting. Surface expression of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) and CRF-R2 was determined by double-labeling immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and MLNDCs were subsequently exposed to CRF in the presence or absence of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 antagonists. Expression of surface molecules (MHC-I and MHC-II) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) was determined by flow cytometric and western blot analyses, and the T cell stimulatory capacity of MLNDCs was evaluated by mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results Immunofluorescent staining and quatitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that both the CRF receptors (CRF-R1 and CRF-2) are expressed on the surface of MLNDCs. Exposure to CRF increased the expression of MHC-II on MLNDCs as well as their capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation. MLNDCs treated with CRF-R1 antagonist exhibited a phenotype characterized by a less activated state and reduced surface expression of MHC-II, and consequently showed reduced capacity to stimulate T cells. In contrast, treatment of MLNDCs with CRF-R2 antagonist yielded an opposite result. Conclusions CRF can alter the phenotype and function of intestinal DCs through direct action on CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and activation of the CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 pathways yields opposing outcomes. PMID:26424042

  6. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  7. Mapping pathological phenotypes in a mouse model of CDKL5 disorder.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Elena; Zhan, Yang; Mattucci, Camilla; Castroflorio, Enrico; Calcagno, Eleonora; Fuchs, Claudia; Lonetti, Giuseppina; Silingardi, Davide; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Farley, Dominika; Ciani, Elisabetta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Giustetto, Maurizio; Gross, Cornelius T

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) cause early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, a neurodevelopmental disorder with similarities to Rett Syndrome. Here we describe the physiological, molecular, and behavioral phenotyping of a Cdkl5 conditional knockout mouse model of CDKL5 disorder. Behavioral analysis of constitutive Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed key features of the human disorder, including limb clasping, hypoactivity, and abnormal eye tracking. Anatomical, physiological, and molecular analysis of the knockout uncovered potential pathological substrates of the disorder, including reduced dendritic arborization of cortical neurons, abnormal electroencephalograph (EEG) responses to convulsant treatment, decreased visual evoked responses (VEPs), and alterations in the Akt/rpS6 signaling pathway. Selective knockout of Cdkl5 in excitatory and inhibitory forebrain neurons allowed us to map the behavioral features of the disorder to separable cell-types. These findings identify physiological and molecular deficits in specific forebrain neuron populations as possible pathological substrates in CDKL5 disorder. PMID:24838000

  8. Biochemical and behavioural phenotyping of a mouse model for GAMT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Torremans, An; Marescau, Bart; Possemiers, Ilse; Van Dam, Debby; D'Hooge, Rudi; Isbrandt, Dirk; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2005-04-15

    Deficiency of guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) is the first described creatine (CT) deficiency syndrome in man, biochemically characterized by accumulation of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and depletion of CT. Patients exhibit severe developmental and muscular problems. We created a mouse model for GAMT deficiency, which exerts biochemical changes comparable with those found in human GAMT-deficient subjects. CT and creatinine (CTN) levels are significantly decreased and GAA is increased in knockout (KO) mice. In patients, other guanidino compounds (GCs) appear to be altered as well, which may also contribute to the symptomatology. Extensive evaluation of GCs levels in the GAMT mouse model was therefore considered appropriate. Concentrations of 13 GCs in plasma, 24-h urine, brain and muscle of GAMT mice were measured. We also report on the detailed behavioural characterization of this model for GAMT deficiency. Besides an increase of GAA and a decrease of CT and CTN in plasma, 24-h urine, brain and muscle of KO mice, we observed a significant increase of other GCs in brain and muscle that was sometimes reflected in plasma and/or urine. KO mice displayed mild cognitive impairment. In general, it could be concluded that the GAMT mouse model is very useful for biochemical research of GAMT deficiency, but shows only a mild cognitive deficit. PMID:15792821

  9. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  10. Clinicopathological characterization of mouse models of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Blake; Soyer, H Peter; Walker, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of melanoma have proven invaluable in the delineation of key molecular events involved in disease progression in humans and provide potential preclinical models for therapeutic testing (Damsky and Bosenberg, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25(4):404-405, 2012; Walker et al., Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 24(6):1158-1176, 2011). Here we concentrate on the clinicopathological analysis of melanocytic tumors. PMID:25636472

  11. Characterizing root response phenotypes by neural network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hatzig, Sarah V.; Schiessl, Sarah; Stahl, Andreas; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2015-01-01

    Roots play an immediate role as the interface for water acquisition. To improve sustainability in low-water environments, breeders of major crops must therefore pay closer attention to advantageous root phenotypes; however, the complexity of root architecture in response to stress can be difficult to quantify. Here, the Sholl method, an established technique from neurobiology used for the characterization of neural network anatomy, was adapted to more adequately describe root responses to osmotic stress. This method was used to investigate the influence of in vitro osmotic stress on early root architecture and distribution in drought-resistant and -susceptible genotypes of winter oilseed rape. Interactive changes in root architecture can be easily captured by individual intersection profiles generated by Sholl analysis. Validation using manual measurements confirmed that the number of lateral roots decreased, while mean lateral root length was enhanced, under osmotic stress conditions. Both genotypes reacted to osmotic stress with a shift in their intersection patterns measured with Sholl analysis. Changes in interactive root architecture and distribution under stress were more pronounced in the drought-resistant genotype, indicating that these changes may contribute to drought resistance under mild osmotic stress conditions. The Sholl methodology is presented as a promising tool for selection of cultivars with advantageous root phenotypes under osmotic stress conditions. PMID:26019255

  12. Characterizing root response phenotypes by neural network analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzig, Sarah V; Schiessl, Sarah; Stahl, Andreas; Snowdon, Rod J

    2015-09-01

    Roots play an immediate role as the interface for water acquisition. To improve sustainability in low-water environments, breeders of major crops must therefore pay closer attention to advantageous root phenotypes; however, the complexity of root architecture in response to stress can be difficult to quantify. Here, the Sholl method, an established technique from neurobiology used for the characterization of neural network anatomy, was adapted to more adequately describe root responses to osmotic stress. This method was used to investigate the influence of in vitro osmotic stress on early root architecture and distribution in drought-resistant and -susceptible genotypes of winter oilseed rape. Interactive changes in root architecture can be easily captured by individual intersection profiles generated by Sholl analysis. Validation using manual measurements confirmed that the number of lateral roots decreased, while mean lateral root length was enhanced, under osmotic stress conditions. Both genotypes reacted to osmotic stress with a shift in their intersection patterns measured with Sholl analysis. Changes in interactive root architecture and distribution under stress were more pronounced in the drought-resistant genotype, indicating that these changes may contribute to drought resistance under mild osmotic stress conditions. The Sholl methodology is presented as a promising tool for selection of cultivars with advantageous root phenotypes under osmotic stress conditions. PMID:26019255

  13. Genomic characterization of phenotypic variants of beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; Carbonaro, D; Duffus, J E

    1990-10-01

    Full-length infectious DNA clones were constructed for four distinct phenotypic variants of beet curly top virus (BCTV). Southern hybridization assays indicated that each cloned BCTV genome shared sequence homology with pBCT-028, a full-length infectious DNA clone of a California isolate of BCTV previously characterized by others. Restriction endonuclease maps of the cloned BCTV genomes were distinct from one another. Infectivity assays determined that plasmids containing tandem repeats of BCTV genomes were generally more infectious than excised linear DNA inserts. Progeny virus, derived from plants inoculated with cloned DNAs, differed in their ability to infect sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., and the severity of symptoms produced in B. vulgaris and other experimental hosts. PMID:2230726

  14. Rett syndrome like phenotypes in the R255X Mecp2 mutant mouse are rescued by MECP2 transgene

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Meagan R.; Herrera, José A.; Buffington, Shelly A.; Kochukov, Mikhail Y.; Merritt, Jonathan K.; Fisher, Amanda R.; Schanen, N. Carolyn; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that is usually caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding Protein 2 (MECP2). Four of the eight common disease causing mutations in MECP2 are nonsense mutations and are responsible for over 35% of all cases of RTT. A strategy to overcome disease-causing nonsense mutations is treatment with nonsense mutation suppressing drugs that allow expression of full-length proteins from mutated genes with premature in-frame stop codons. To determine if this strategy is useful in RTT, we characterized a new mouse model containing a knock-in nonsense mutation (p.R255X) in the Mecp2 locus (Mecp2R255X). To determine whether the truncated gene product acts as a dominant negative allele and if RTT-like phenotypes could be rescued by expression of wild-type protein, we genetically introduced an extra copy of MECP2 via an MECP2 transgene. The addition of MECP2 transgene to Mecp2R255X mice abolished the phenotypic abnormalities and resulted in near complete rescue. Expression of MECP2 transgene Mecp2R255X allele also rescued mTORC1 signaling abnormalities discovered in mice with loss of function and overexpression of Mecp2. Finally, we treated Mecp2R255X embryonic fibroblasts with the nonsense mutation suppressing drug gentamicin and we were able to induce expression of full-length MeCP2 from the mutant p.R255X allele. These data provide proof of concept that the p.R255X mutation of MECP2 is amenable to the nonsense suppression therapeutic strategy and provide guidelines for the extent of rescue that can be expected by re-expressing MeCP2 protein. PMID:25634563

  15. Rett syndrome like phenotypes in the R255X Mecp2 mutant mouse are rescued by MECP2 transgene.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Meagan R; Herrera, José A; Buffington, Shelly A; Kochukov, Mikhail Y; Merritt, Jonathan K; Fisher, Amanda R; Schanen, N Carolyn; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2015-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that is usually caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding Protein 2 (MECP2). Four of the eight common disease causing mutations in MECP2 are nonsense mutations and are responsible for over 35% of all cases of RTT. A strategy to overcome disease-causing nonsense mutations is treatment with nonsense mutation suppressing drugs that allow expression of full-length proteins from mutated genes with premature in-frame stop codons. To determine if this strategy is useful in RTT, we characterized a new mouse model containing a knock-in nonsense mutation (p.R255X) in the Mecp2 locus (Mecp2(R255X)). To determine whether the truncated gene product acts as a dominant negative allele and if RTT-like phenotypes could be rescued by expression of wild-type protein, we genetically introduced an extra copy of MECP2 via an MECP2 transgene. The addition of MECP2 transgene to Mecp2(R255X) mice abolished the phenotypic abnormalities and resulted in near complete rescue. Expression of MECP2 transgene Mecp2(R255X) allele also rescued mTORC1 signaling abnormalities discovered in mice with loss of function and overexpression of Mecp2. Finally, we treated Mecp2(R255X) embryonic fibroblasts with the nonsense mutation suppressing drug gentamicin and we were able to induce expression of full-length MeCP2 from the mutant p.R255X allele. These data provide proof of concept that the p.R255X mutation of MECP2 is amenable to the nonsense suppression therapeutic strategy and provide guidelines for the extent of rescue that can be expected by re-expressing MeCP2 protein. PMID:25634563

  16. Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Marguerite; Norcross, Maxine; Whittle, Nigel; Feyder, Michael; D’Hanis, Wolfgang; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared to C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain’s four different genetic lineages (Parental, Steel, Teratoma, Contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ, and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. Based on these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response, nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e., five × higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may be reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process. PMID:19674120

  17. Phenotypic and expression analysis of a novel spontaneous myosin VI null mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Eiji; Okumura, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masashi; Yoshimoto, Sachi; Yamaguchi, Junya; Seki, Yuta; Wada, Kenta; Yokohama, Michinari; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Tokano, Hisashi; Ishii, Rie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Kitamura, Ken; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    In humans, hearing is a major factor in quality of life. Mouse models are important tools for the discovery of genes responsible for genetic hearing loss, often enabling analysis of the processes that regulate the onset of deafness in humans. Thus far, at least 400 deafness mutants have been discovered in laboratory mouse populations and used in the study of deafness. Here we report the discovery of a new spontaneous recessive Rinshoken shaker/waltzer (rsv) mutant derived from our in-house C57BL/6J stock, which exhibits circling and/or head-tossing behaviour and complete lack of auditory brain response to any sound pressure. The hearing and balance phenotypes are associated with structural defects, in particular, disorganisation and fusion of stereocilia in the inner ear hair cells. Two sets of intersubspecific N(2) mice were generated for the positional cloning of the rsv mutation. The mutant locus was mapped to a 4.8-Mb region of chromosome 9, which contains myosin VI (Myo6), a gene responsible for deafness in humans and Snell's waltzer mutation in mice. The rsv mutant showed reduced expressions of Myo6 mRNA and MYO6 protein in the inner ear. Moreover, no immunoreactivity was observed in the cochlear and vestibular hair cells in the rsv mutant mice. We sequenced the genomic region (30,154 bp) of Myo6, including all coding exons, a non-coding exon, UTRs and the Myo6 promoter; however, no mutation was discovered in these regions. We therefore speculate that loss of MYO6 expression might cause shaker/waltzer behaviour and deafness in the rsv mutant; also, loss of MYO6 expression might be the result of mutations in an unidentified regulatory region(s) of the gene. PMID:20224170

  18. Predominance of the metastatic phenotype in hybrids formed by fusion of mouse and human melanoma clones.

    PubMed

    van Golen, K L; Risin, S; Staroselsky, A; Berger, D; Tainsky, M A; Pathak, S; Price, J E

    1996-03-01

    The fusion of mouse and human melanoma cells that were tumorigenic but had different metastatic capabilities resulted in hybrids that were metastatic when injected intravenously or subcutaneously into nude mice, regardless of whether it was the mouse or the human melanoma clone that was metastatic. The H7 hybrid line, formed by fusing murine nonmetastatic K1735 C19 cells with human metastatic A375 C15 cells retained high metastatic potential over more than 50 sub-culture passages, suggesting that the dominant metastatic phenotype in these hybrid cells was stable. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), human chromosome 17 was consistently identified as the predominant human chromosome in the majority of H7 cells tested between passages 20 and 60. Western blot analysis showed that the hybrid cells expressed human nm23 protein, indicating that at least one gene on the human chromosome 17 was functional. Immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation showed that the metastatic A375 C15 and H7 cells expressed p53 protein, but that the nonmetastatic K1735 C19 melanoma cells did not. Sequencing the human p53 gene in A375 C15N and H7 showed mutations in exon 7. Using a bioassay technique, we showed that K1735 C19 cells can spread from subcutaneous tumors to the lungs of nude mice yet fail to form metastases. With the addition of human chromosome 17 from A375 C15 cells, which carries a mutant p53 gene, the cells readily formed lung metastases. In this melanoma hybrid, a mutant p53 gene appears to confer a survival advantage on cells arrested in the lungs of nude mice and thus contributes to the growth of metastatic cells. PMID:8605733

  19. Phenotype-Genotype Correlations in Mouse Models of Amelogenesis Imperfecta Caused by Amelx and Enam Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Coxon, Thomas Liam; Brook, Alan Henry; Barron, Martin John; Smith, Richard Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in human and in mouse orthologous genes Amelx and Enam result in a diverse range of enamel defects. In this study we aimed to investigate the phenotype-genotype correlation between the mutants and the wild-type controls in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta using novel measurement approaches. Ten hemi-mandibles and incisors were dissected from each group of AmelxWT, AmelxX/Y64H, AmelxY/Y64H, AmelxY64H/Y64H, and EnamWT, EnamRgsc395 heterozygous and EnamRgsc395 homozygous mice. Their macro-morphology, colour and micro-topography were assessed using bespoke 2D and 3D image analysis systems and customized colour and whiteness algorithms. The novel methods identified significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the Amelx groups for mandible and incisor size and enamel colour and between the Enam groups for incisor size and enamel colour. The AmelxWT mice had the largest mandibles and incisors, followed in descending order of size by the AmelxX/Y64H, AmelxY/Y64H and AmelxY64H/Y64H mice. Within the Enam groups the EnamWT incisors were largest and the EnamRgsc395 heterozygous mice were smallest. The effect on tooth morphology was also reflected by the severity of the enamel defects in the colour and whiteness assessment. Amelogenin affected mandible morphology and incisor enamel formation, while enamelin only affected incisors, supporting the multifunctional role of amelogenin. The enamelin mutation was associated with earlier forming enamel defects. The study supported the critical involvement of amelogenin and enamelin in enamel mineralization. PMID:22759786

  20. Identification of Genes and Networks Driving Cardiovascular and Metabolic Phenotypes in a Mouse F2 Intercross

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Jonathan M. J.; Zhong, Hua; Molony, Cliona; MacNeil, Doug; Guhathakurta, Debraj; Zhang, Bin; Mudgett, John; Small, Kersten; El Fertak, Lahcen; Guimond, Alain; Selloum, Mohammed; Zhao, Wenqing; Champy, Marie France; Monassier, Laurent; Vogt, Tom; Cully, Doris; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6J x A/J F2 (B6AF2) cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans. PMID:21179467

  1. The Y141C knockin mutation in RDS leads to complex phenotypes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Michael W; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific gene peripherin-2 (PRPH-2, also known as retinal degeneration slow/RDS) cause incurable retinal degeneration with a high degree of phenotypic variability. Patient phenotypes range from retinitis pigmentosa to various forms of macular and pattern dystrophy. Macular and pattern dystrophy in particular are associated with complex, poorly understood disease mechanisms, as severe vision loss is often associated both with defects in the photoreceptors, as well as the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Since there is currently no satisfactory model to study pattern dystrophy disease mechanisms, we generated a knockin mouse model expressing an RDS pattern dystrophy mutation, Y141C. Y141C mice exhibited clinical signs similar to those in patients including late-onset fundus abnormalities characteristic of RPE and choroidal defects and electroretinogram defects. Ultrastructural examination indicated that disc formation was initiated by the Y141C protein, but proper sizing and alignment of discs required wild-type RDS. The biochemical mechanism underlying these abnormalities was tied to defects in the normal process of RDS oligomerization which is required for proper RDS function. Y141C-RDS formed strikingly abnormal disulfide-linked complexes which were localized to the outer segment (OS) where they impaired the formation of proper OS structure. These data support a model of pattern dystrophy wherein a primary molecular defect occurring in all photoreceptors leads to secondary sequellae in adjacent tissues, an outcome which leads to macular vision loss. An understanding of the role of RDS in the interplay between these tissues significantly enhances our understanding of RDS-associated pathobiology and our ability to design rational treatment strategies. PMID:25001182

  2. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27233823

  3. Characterizing the musical phenotype in individuals with Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Daniel J; Cole, Kristen; Chiles, Michael; Lai, Zona; Lincoln, Alan; Bellugi, Ursula

    2004-12-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, is characterized by peaks and valleys in mental function: substantial impairments in cognitive domains such as reasoning, arithmetic ability, and spatial cognition, alongside relatively preserved skills in social domains, face processing, language, and music. We report the results of a comprehensive survey on musical behaviors and background administered to the largest sample of individuals with WS to date (n = 118, mean age = 20.4), and compare the results to those obtained from a control group of typically developing normal individuals (n = 118, mean age = 20.9) and two groups of individuals with other neurodevelopmental genetic disorders, Autism (n = 30, mean age = 18.2) and Down Syndrome (n = 40, mean age = 17.2). Individuals with WS were found to be rated higher in musical accomplishment, engagement, and interest than either of the comparison groups, and equivalent on most measures to the control group. Compared to all other groups including the controls, the WS individuals displayed greater emotional responses to music, manifested interest in music at an earlier age, and spent more hours per week listening to music. In addition, the effects of music listening (whether positive or negative) tended to last longer in the WS group. A factor analysis extracted seven principal components that characterize the musical phenotype in our sample, and discriminant function analysis of those factors was able to successfully predict group membership for the majority of cases. We discuss the neurobiological implications of these findings. PMID:15621847

  4. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of the species Acinetobacter venetianus.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Orlandini, Valerio; La Torre, Laura; Bosi, Emanuele; Negroni, Andrea; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio; Decorosi, Francesca; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that can produce serious environmental problems and whose removal is highly demanding in terms of human and technological resources. The potential use of microbes as bioremediation agents is one of the most promising fields in this area. Members of the species Acinetobacter venetianus have been previously characterized for their capability to degrade n-alkanes and thus may represent interesting model systems to implement this process. Although a preliminary experimental characterization of the overall hydrocarbon degradation capability has been performed for five of them, to date, the genetic/genomic features underlying such molecular processes have not been identified. Here we have integrated genomic and phenotypic information for six A. venetianus strains, i.e. VE-C3, RAG-1(T), LUH 13518, LUH 7437, LUH 5627 and LUH 8758. Besides providing a thorough description of the A. venetianus species, these data were exploited to infer the genetic features (presence/absence patterns of genes) and the short-term evolutionary events possibly responsible for the variability in n-alkane degradation efficiency of these strains, including the mechanisms of interaction with the fuel droplet and the subsequent catabolism of this pollutant. PMID:26902269

  5. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of the species Acinetobacter venetianus

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Orlandini, Valerio; La Torre, Laura; Bosi, Emanuele; Negroni, Andrea; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio; Decorosi, Francesca; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that can produce serious environmental problems and whose removal is highly demanding in terms of human and technological resources. The potential use of microbes as bioremediation agents is one of the most promising fields in this area. Members of the species Acinetobacter venetianus have been previously characterized for their capability to degrade n-alkanes and thus may represent interesting model systems to implement this process. Although a preliminary experimental characterization of the overall hydrocarbon degradation capability has been performed for five of them, to date, the genetic/genomic features underlying such molecular processes have not been identified. Here we have integrated genomic and phenotypic information for six A. venetianus strains, i.e. VE-C3, RAG-1T, LUH 13518, LUH 7437, LUH 5627 and LUH 8758. Besides providing a thorough description of the A. venetianus species, these data were exploited to infer the genetic features (presence/absence patterns of genes) and the short-term evolutionary events possibly responsible for the variability in n-alkane degradation efficiency of these strains, including the mechanisms of interaction with the fuel droplet and the subsequent catabolism of this pollutant. PMID:26902269

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  7. The hairless gene of the mouse: relationship of phenotypic effects with expression profile and genotype.

    PubMed

    Cachón-González, M B; San-José, I; Cano, A; Vega, J A; García, N; Freeman, T; Schimmang, T; Stoye, J P

    1999-10-01

    Various mutations of the hairless (hr) gene of mice result in hair loss and other integument defects. To examine the role of the hr gene in mouse development, the expression profile of hr has been determined by in situ hybridisation and correlated to the nature of genetic changes and morphological abnormalities in different mutant animals. Four variant alleles have been characterised at the molecular level. hr/hr mice produce reduced, but significant, levels of hr mRNA whereas other alleles contain mutations which would be expected to preclude the synthesis of functional product, demonstrating a correlation between allelic variation at the hr locus and phenotypic severity. hr expression was shown to be widespread and temporally regulated. It was identified in novel tissues such as cartilage, developing tooth, inner ear, retina, and colon as well as in skin and brain. Analysis of mice homozygous for the rhino allele of hairless revealed that, although no morphological defects were detectable in many tissues normally expressing hr, previously undescribed abnormalities were present in several tissues including inner ear, retina, and colon. These findings indicate that the hairless gene product plays a wider role in development than previously suspected. Dev Dyn 1999;216:113-126. PMID:10536052

  8. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance. PMID:19320048

  9. Developmental phenotype of a membrane only estrogen receptor alpha (MOER) mouse.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Ali; Razandi, Mahnaz; Kim, Jin K; O'Mahony, Fiona; Lee, Eva Yhp; Luderer, Ulrike; Levin, Ellis R

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta exist as nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane cellular pools in a wide variety of organs. The relative contributions of each ERalpha pool to in vivo phenotypes resulting from estrogen signaling have not been determined. To address this, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing only a functional E domain of ERalpha at the plasma membrane (MOER). Cells isolated from many organs showed membrane only localized E domain of ERalpha and no other receptor pools. Liver cells from MOER and wild type mice responded to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with comparable activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, not seen in cells from ERalphaKO mice. Mating the MOER female mice with proven male wild type breeders produced no pregnancies because the uterus and vagina of the MOER female mice were extremely atrophic. Ovaries of MOER and homozygous Strasbourg ERalphaKO mice showed multiple hemorrhagic cysts and no corpus luteum, and the mammary gland development in both MOER and ERalphaKO mice was rudimentary. Despite elevated serum E2 levels, serum LH was not suppressed, and prolactin levels were low in MOER mice. MOER and Strasbourg female mice showed plentiful abdominal visceral and other depots of fat and increased body weight compared to wild type mice despite comparable food consumption. These results provide strong evidence that the normal development and adult functions of important organs in female mice requires nuclear ERalpha and is not rescued by membrane ERalpha domain expression alone. PMID:19054762

  10. Sodium butyrate ameliorates histone hypoacetylation and neurodegenerative phenotypes in a mouse model for DRPLA.

    PubMed

    Ying, Mingyao; Xu, Rener; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Huaxing; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Tian

    2006-05-01

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine expansion within the Atrophin-1 protein. To study the mechanism of this disease and to test potential therapeutic methods, we established Atro-118Q transgenic mice, which express in neurons a mutant human Atrophin-1 protein that contains an expanded stretch of 118 glutamines. Consistent with the results from previous studies on transgenic mice that expressed mutant Atrophin-1 with 65 glutamines, Atro-118Q mice exhibited several neurodegenerative phenotypes that are commonly seen in DRPLA patients, including ataxia, tremors, and other motor defects. Overexpression of wild-type human Atrophin-1 could not rescue the motor and survival defects in Atro-118Q mice, indicating that the mutant protein with polyglutamine expansion does not simply function in a dominant negative manner. Biochemical analysis of Atro-118Q mice revealed hypoacetylation of histone H3 in brain tissues and thus suggested that global gene repression is an underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration in this mouse model. We further show that intraperitoneal administration of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, ameliorated the histone acetylation defects, significantly improved motor performance, and extended the average life span of Atro-118Q mice. These results support the hypothesis that transcription deregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of polyglutamine expansion diseases and suggest that reversion of transcription repression with small molecules such as sodium butyrate is a feasible approach to treating DRPLA symptoms. PMID:16407196

  11. A novel Caspr mutation causes the shambling mouse phenotype by disrupting axoglial interactions of myelinated nerves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-yang; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Okabe, Erina; Chishima, Yûko; Kanou, Yasuhiko; Murase, Shiori; Mizumura, Kazue; Inaba, Mie; Komatsu, Yukio; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Peles, Elior; Oda, Sen-ichi; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2009-11-01

    The neurological mouse mutation shambling (shm) exhibits ataxia and hindlimb paresis. Positional cloning of shm showed that it encodes contactin-associated protein (Caspr), which is required for formation of the paranodal junction in myelinated nerves. The shm mutation is a TT insertion in the Caspr gene that results in a frame shift and a premature stop codon at the COOH-terminus. The truncated Caspr protein that is generated lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Here, we found that the nodal/paranodal axoplasm of shm mice lack paranodal junctions and contain large mitochondria and abnormal accumulations of cytoplasmic organelles that indicate altered axonal transport. Immunohistochemical analysis of mutant mice showed reduced expression of Caspr, contactin, and neurofascin 155, which are thought to form a protein complex in the paranodal region; protein 4.1B, however, was normally distributed. The mutant mice had aberrant localization of voltage-gated ion channels on the axolemma of nodal/paranodal regions. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated that the velocity of saltatory conduction was reduced in sciatic nerves and that the visual response was attenuated in the primary visual cortex. These abnormalities likely contribute to the neurological phenotype of the mutant mice. PMID:19816196

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  14. Culture and Phenotypic Characterization of a Wolbachia pipientis Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar, Florence; La Scola, Bernard; Inokuma, Hisashi; Dumler, J. Stephen; Taylor, Mark J.; Raoult, Didier

    2003-01-01

    The recent isolation of Wolbachia pipientis in the continuous cell line Aa23, established from eggs of a strain of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, allowed us to perform extensive characterization of the isolate. Bacterial growth could be obtained in C6/36, another A. albopictus cell line, at 28°C and in a human embryonic lung fibroblast monolayer at 28 and 37°C, confirming that its host cell range is broader than was initially thought. The bacteria were best visualized by Diff-Quik and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. Proteins from 213 to 18 kDa with two major protein bands of 65 and 25 kDa were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By Western blotting with specific polyclonal mouse and rabbit antisera, dominant immunoreactive antigens were found at approximately 100, 80, and 30 kDa. The genome size was calculated to be 1,790 ± 17 kb by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of W. pipientis was determined by gene walking. Its position in the phylogenetic tree constructed with gltA confirmed that found in a phylogenetic tree constructed with 16S rRNA genes and that it belongs in the α subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and that it is closely related to but independent from the genera Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia. PMID:14662922

  15. Generation and characterization of a novel multidrug resistance protein 2 humanized mouse line.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; Balimane, Praveen; Hayward, Michael D; Buechel, Sandra; Kauselmann, Gunther; Wolf, C Roland

    2012-11-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 is predominantly expressed in liver, intestine, and kidney, where it plays an important role in the excretion of a range of drugs and their metabolites or endogenous compounds into bile, feces, and urine. Mrp knockout [Mrp2(-/-)] mice have been used recently to study the role of MRP2 in drug disposition. Here, we describe the first generation and initial characterization of a mouse line humanized for MRP2 (huMRP2), which is nulled for the mouse Mrp2 gene and expresses the human transporter in the organs and cell types where MRP2 is normally expressed. Analysis of the mRNA expression for selected cytochrome P450 and transporter genes revealed no major changes in huMRP2 mice compared with wild-type controls. We show that human MRP2 is able to compensate functionally for the loss of the mouse transporter as demonstrated by comparable bilirubin levels in the humanized mice and wild-type controls, in contrast to the hyperbilirubinemia phenotype that is observed in MRP2(-/-) mice. The huMRP2 mouse provides a model to study the role of the human transporter in drug disposition and in assessing the in vivo consequences of inhibiting this transporter by compounds interacting with human MRP2. PMID:22917771

  16. Characterization of a mouse model of headache.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongyue; Ren, Lynn; Qiu, Chang-Shen; Liu, Ping; Peterson, Jonathan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Cao, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Migraine and other primary headache disorders affect a large population and cause debilitating pain. Establishing animal models that display behavioral correlates of long-lasting and ongoing headache, the most common and disabling symptom of migraine, is vital for the elucidation of disease mechanisms and identification of drug targets. We have developed a mouse model of headache, using dural application of capsaicin along with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (IScap) to simulate the induction of a headache episode. This elicited intermittent head-directed wiping and scratching as well as the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Interestingly, dural application of IScap preferentially induced FOS protein expression in the excitatory but not inhibitory cervical/medullary dorsal horn neurons. The duration of IScap-induced behavior and the number of FOS-positive neurons correlated positively in individual mice; both were reduced to the control level by the pretreatment of antimigraine drug sumatriptan. Dural application of CGRP(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, also effectively blocked IScap-induced behavior, which suggests that the release of endogenous CGRP in the dura is necessary for IScap-induced nociception. These data suggest that dural IScap-induced nocifensive behavior in mice may be mechanistically related to the ongoing headache in humans. In addition, dural application of IScap increased resting time in female mice. Taken together, we present the first detailed study using dural application of IScap in mice. This headache model can be applied to genetically modified mice to facilitate research on the mechanisms and therapeutic targets for migraine headache. PMID:27058678

  17. Does 3D Phenotyping Yield Substantial Insights in the Genetics of the Mouse Mandible Shape?

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Nicolas; Maga, A. Murat

    2016-01-01

    We describe the application of high-resolution 3D microcomputed tomography, together with 3D landmarks and geometric morphometrics, to validate and further improve previous quantitative genetic studies that reported QTL responsible for variation in the mandible shape of laboratory mice using a new backcross between C57BL/6J and A/J inbred strains. Despite the increasing availability of 3D imaging techniques, artificial flattening of the mandible by 2D imaging techniques seems at first an acceptable compromise for large-scale phenotyping protocols, thanks to an abundance of low-cost digital imaging systems such as microscopes or digital cameras. We evaluated the gain of information from considering explicitly this additional third dimension, and also from capturing variation on the bone surface where no precise anatomical landmark can be marked. Multivariate QTL mapping conducted with different landmark configurations (2D vs. 3D; manual vs. semilandmarks) broadly agreed with the findings of previous studies. Significantly more QTL (23) were identified and more precisely mapped when the mandible shape was captured with a large set of semilandmarks coupled with manual landmarks. It appears that finer phenotypic characterization of the mandibular shape with 3D landmarks, along with higher density genotyping, yields better insights into the genetic architecture of mandibular development. Most of the main variation is, nonetheless, preferentially embedded in the natural 2D plane of the hemi-mandible, reinforcing the results of earlier influential investigations. PMID:26921296

  18. Characterization of an alcohol addiction-prone phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Radwanska, Kasia; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2012-05-01

    Human studies indicate that high impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety predispose individuals to alcohol abuse. Unclear, however, is whether the same phenotypes can be observed in laboratory animals prone to uncontrolled alcohol drinking. To characterize a novelty-seeking trait, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsivity and the motivation for natural rewards in mice, numerous tests were performed in the automated IntelliCage learning system. The same mice then had extended access to alcohol for 70 days, followed by the evaluation of addiction-like behaviors, including (1) the motivation for alcohol in a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement; (2) persistent and compulsive alcohol seeking and taking during signaled 'no alcohol' periods and (3) when subjected to punishment; and (4) the intensity of relapse after alcohol withdrawal. Our data suggest that high levels of anxiety-related traits (i.e. low novelty seeking, low resistance to punishment and a high level of compulsive behaviors) and high impulsivity predict addiction-like alcohol drinking in mice. Future studies are, however, warranted to create a valid model of alcohol addiction in mice in the IntelliCage system. PMID:22017485

  19. Phenotypical characterization of regulatory T cells in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Perea, A L; Arcia, E D; Rueda, C M; Velilla, P A

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) constitute a fascinating subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells due to their ability to limit the immune response against self and non-self antigens. Murine models and antibodies directed against surface and intracellular molecules have allowed elucidation of the mechanisms that govern their development and function. However, these markers used to their classification lack of specificity, as they can be expressed by activated T cells. Similarly, there are slight differences between animal models, in steady state and pathological conditions, anatomical localization and strategy of analysis by flow cytometry. Here, we revised the most common markers utilized for Treg typification by flow cytometry such as CD25, forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) and CD127, along with our data obtained in different body compartments of humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, we revised and determined the expression of other molecules important for the phenotypical characterization of Treg cells. We draw attention to the drawbacks of those markers used in chronic states of inflammation. However, until a specific marker for the identification of Tregs is discovered, the best combination of markers will depend upon the tissue or the degree of inflammation from which Tregs derive. PMID:27124481

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features. Here, we comprehensively characterize the recently identified claudin-low tumor subtype. Methods The clinical, pathological and biological features of claudin-low tumors were compared to the other tumor subtypes using an updated human tumor database and multiple independent data sets. These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models. Results Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features. Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation. They also have a response rate to standard preoperative chemotherapy that is intermediate between that of basal-like and luminal tumors. Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype. Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell. Conclusions These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines. PMID:20813035

  1. Characterization of the metastatic phenotype of a panel of established osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ling; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Zhu, Jack; Briggs, Joseph W.; Halsey, Charles; Hong, Ellen S.; Burkett, Sandra S.; Morrow, James J.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Osborne, Tanasa; Li, Samuel Q.; Luu, Hue H.; Meltzer, Paul; Khanna, Chand

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in pediatric patients. Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The rarity of this disease coupled with the challenges of drug development for metastatic cancers have slowed the delivery of improvements in long-term outcomes for these patients. In this study, we collected 18 OS cell lines, confirmed their expression of bone markers and complex karyotypes, and characterized their in vivo tumorgenicity and metastatic potential. Since prior reports included conflicting descriptions of the metastatic and in vivo phenotypes of these models, there was a need for a comparative assessment of metastatic phenotypes using identical procedures in the hands of a single investigative group. We expect that this single characterization will accelerate the study of this metastatic cancer. Using these models we evaluated the expression of six previously reported metastasis-related OS genes. Ezrin was the only gene consistently differentially expressed in all the pairs of high/low metatstatic OS cells. We then used a subtractive gene expression approach of the high and low human metastatic cells to identify novel genes that may be involved in OS metastasis. PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A) was identified as one of the genes more highly expressed in the high metastatic compared to low metastatic cells. Knocking down PHLDA1 with siRNA or shRNA resulted in down regulation of the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Reducing the expression of PHLDA1 also delayed OS metastasis progression in mouse xenograft models. PMID:26320182

  2. Characterization of the metastatic phenotype of a panel of established osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Zhu, Jack; Briggs, Joseph W; Halsey, Charles; Hong, Ellen S; Burkett, Sandra S; Morrow, James; Lizardo, Michael M; Osborne, Tanasa; Li, Samuel Q; Luu, Hue H; Meltzer, Paul; Khanna, Chand

    2015-10-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in pediatric patients. Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The rarity of this disease coupled with the challenges of drug development for metastatic cancers have slowed the delivery of improvements in long-term outcomes for these patients. In this study, we collected 18 OS cell lines, confirmed their expression of bone markers and complex karyotypes, and characterized their in vivo tumorgenicity and metastatic potential. Since prior reports included conflicting descriptions of the metastatic and in vivo phenotypes of these models, there was a need for a comparative assessment of metastatic phenotypes using identical procedures in the hands of a single investigative group. We expect that this single characterization will accelerate the study of this metastatic cancer. Using these models we evaluated the expression of six previously reported metastasis-related OS genes. Ezrin was the only gene consistently differentially expressed in all the pairs of high/low metastatic OS cells. We then used a subtractive gene expression approach of the high and low human metastatic cells to identify novel genes that may be involved in OS metastasis. PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A) was identified as one of the genes more highly expressed in the high metastatic compared to low metastatic cells. Knocking down PHLDA1 with siRNA or shRNA resulted in down regulation of the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Reducing the expression of PHLDA1 also delayed OS metastasis progression in mouse xenograft models. PMID:26320182

  3. Deoxynucleoside stress exacerbates the phenotype of a mouse model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Garone, Caterina; Barca, Emanuele; Mojahed, Hamed; Gutierrez, Purification; Pizzorno, Giuseppe; Tanji, Kurenai; Arias-Mendoza, Fernando; Quinzii, Caterina M.

    2014-01-01

    stress of exogenous pyrimidine nucleosides enhances the mitochondrial phenotype of our knockout mice. Our mouse studies provide insights into the pathogenic role of thymidine and deoxyuridine imbalance in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy and an excellent model to study new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24727567

  4. Deoxynucleoside stress exacerbates the phenotype of a mouse model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Garone, Caterina; Barca, Emanuele; Mojahed, Hamed; Gutierrez, Purification; Pizzorno, Giuseppe; Tanji, Kurenai; Arias-Mendoza, Fernando; Quinzii, Caterina M; Hirano, Michio

    2014-05-01

    stress of exogenous pyrimidine nucleosides enhances the mitochondrial phenotype of our knockout mice. Our mouse studies provide insights into the pathogenic role of thymidine and deoxyuridine imbalance in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy and an excellent model to study new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24727567

  5. Ginsenoside Rd alleviates mouse acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Kaixi; Jin, Chao; Ma, Pengfei; Ren, Qinyou; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a main component of the root of Panax ginseng, exhibits anti-inflammation functions and decreases infarct size in many injuries and ischemia diseases such as focal cerebral ischemia. M1 Macrophages are regarded as one of the key inflammatory cells having functions for disease progression. Methods To investigate the effect of GSRd on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and macrophage functional status, and their regulatory role on mouse polarized macrophages in vitro, GSRd (10–100 mg/kg) and vehicle were applied to mice 30 min before renal IRI modeling. Renal functions were reflected by blood serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level and histopathological examination. M1 polarized macrophages infiltration was identified by flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence staining with CD11b+, iNOS+/interleukin-12/tumor necrosis factor-α labeling. For the in vitro study, GSRd (10–100 μg/mL) and vehicle were added in the culture medium of M1 macrophages to assess their regulatory function on polarization phenotype. Results In vivo data showed a protective role of GSRd at 50 mg/kg on Day 3. Serum level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen significantly dropped compared with other groups. Reduced renal tissue damage and M1 macrophage infiltration showed on hematoxylin–eosin staining and flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining confirmed this improvement. With GSRd administration, in vitro cultured M1 macrophages secreted less inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, macrophage polarization-related pancake-like morphology gradually changed along with increasing concentration of GSRd in the medium. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that GSRd possess a protective function against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury via downregulating M1 macrophage polarization. PMID:27158241

  6. Biochemical, molecular and behavioral phenotypes of Rab3A mutations in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yang, S.; Farias, M.; Kapfhamer, D.; Tobias, J.; Grant, G.; Abel, T.; Bućan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ras-associated binding (Rab) protein 3A is a neuronal guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein that binds synaptic vesicles and regulates synaptic transmission. A mouse mutant, earlybird (Ebd), with a point mutation in the GTP-binding domain of Rab3A (D77G), exhibits anomalies in circadian behavior and homeostatic response to sleep loss. Here, we show that the D77G substitution in the Ebd allele causes reduced GTP and GDP binding, whereas GTPase activity remains intact, leading to reduced protein levels of both Rab3A and rabphilin3A. Expression profiling of the cortex and hippocampus of Ebd and Rab3a-deficient mice revealed subtle differences between wild-type and mutant mice. Although mice were backcrossed for three generations to a C57BL/6J background, the most robust changes at the transcriptional level between Rab3a−/− and Rab3a+/+ mice were represented by genes from the 129/Sv-derived chromosomal region surrounding the Rab3a gene. These results showed that differences in genetic background have a stronger effect on gene expression than the mutations in the Rab3a gene. In behavioral tests, the Ebd/Ebd mice showed a more pronounced mutant phenotype than the null mice; Ebd/Ebd have reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated zero-maze test, reduced response to stress in the forced swim test and a deficit in cued fear conditioning (FC), whereas Rab3a−/− showed only a deficit in cued FC. Our data implicate Rab3A in learning and memory as well as in the regulation of emotion. A combination of forward and reverse genetics has provided multiple alleles of the Rab3a gene; our studies illustrate the power and complexities of the parallel analysis of these alleles at the biochemical, molecular and behavioral levels. PMID:16734774

  7. Digastric Muscle Phenotypes of the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is frequently associated with complex difficulties in oromotor development, feeding, and swallowing. However, the muscle phenotypes underlying these deficits are unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS has significantly altered myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform profiles of the muscles involved in feeding and swallowing, as well as reductions in the speed of these movements during behavioral assays. SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were used to assess MyHC isoform expression in pertinent muscles, and functional feeding and swallowing performance were quantified through videofluoroscopy and mastication assays. We found that both the anterior digastric (ADG) and posterior digastric (PDG) muscles in 11-day old and 5–6 week old Ts65Dn groups showed significantly lower MyHC 2b protein levels than in age-matched euploid control groups. In videofluoroscopic and videotape assays used to quantify swallowing and mastication performance, 5–6 week old Ts65Dn and euploid controls showed similar swallow rates, inter-swallow intervals, and mastication rates. In analysis of adults, 10–11 week old Ts65Dn mice revealed significantly less MyHC 2b mRNA expression in the posterior digastric, but not the anterior digastric muscle as compared with euploid controls. Analysis of MyHC 2b protein levels across an adult age range (10–53 weeks of age) revealed lower levels of MyHC 2b protein in the PDG of Ts65Dn than in euploids, but similar levels of MyHC 2b in the ADG. Cumulatively, these results indicate biochemical differences in some, but not all, muscles involved in swallowing and jaw movement in Ts65Dn mice that manifest early in post-natal development, and persist into adulthood. These findings suggest potential utility of this model for future investigations of the mechanisms of oromotor difficulties associated with Down syndrome. PMID:27336944

  8. Ethnic and Mouse Strain Differences in Central Corneal Thickness and Association with Pigmentation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dimasi, David P.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Kagame, Kenneth; Ruvama, Sam; Tindyebwa, Ludovica; Llamas, Bastien; Kirk, Kirsty A.; Mitchell, Paul; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2011-01-01

    The cornea is a transparent structure that permits the refraction of light into the eye. Evidence from a range of studies indicates that central corneal thickness (CCT) is strongly genetically determined. Support for a genetic component comes from data showing significant variation in CCT between different human ethnic groups. Interestingly, these studies also appear to show that skin pigmentation may influence CCT. To validate these observations, we undertook the first analysis of CCT in an oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and Ugandan cohort, populations with distinct skin pigmentation phenotypes. There was a significant difference in the mean CCT of the OCA, Ugandan and Australian-Caucasian cohorts (Ugandan: 517.3±37 µm; Caucasian: 539.7±32.8 µm, OCA: 563.3±37.2 µm; p<0.001). A meta-analysis of 53 studies investigating the CCT of different ethnic groups was then performed and demonstrated that darker skin pigmentation is associated with a thinner CCT (p<0.001). To further verify these observations, we measured CCT in 13 different inbred mouse strains and found a significant difference between the albino and pigmented strains (p = 0.008). Specific mutations within the melanin synthesis pathway were then investigated in mice for an association with CCT. Significant differences between mutant and wild type strains were seen with the nonagouti (p<0.001), myosin VA (p<0.001), tyrosinase (p = 0.025) and tyrosinase related protein (p = 0.001) genes. These findings provide support for our hypothesis that pigmentation is associated with CCT and identifies pigment-related genes as candidates for developmental determination of a non-pigmented structure. PMID:21853026

  9. The transneuronal spread phenotype of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the mouse hind footpad.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J P; Madigan, T C; Peterson, G M

    1997-01-01

    The mouse hind footpad inoculation model has served as a standard laboratory system for the study of the neuropathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The temporal and spatial distribution of viral antigen, known as the transneuronal spread phenotype, has not previously been described; nor is it understood why mice develop paralysis in an infection that involves sensory nerves. The HSV-as-transneuronal-tracer experimental paradigm was used to define the transneuronal spread of HSV-1 in this model. A new decalcification technique and standard immunocytochemical staining of HSV-1 antigens enabled a detailed analysis of the time-space distribution of HSV-1 in the intact spinal column. Mice were examined on days 3, 4, 5, and 6 postinoculation (p.i.) of a lethal dose of wild-type HSV-1 strain 17 syn+. Viral antigen was traced retrograde into first-order neurons in dorsal root ganglia on day 3 p.i., to the dorsal spinal roots on days 4 and 5 p.i., and to second- and third-order neurons within sensory regions of the spinal cord on days 5 and 6 p.i. HSV-1 antigen distribution was localized to the somatotopic representation of the footpad dermatome within the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Antigen was found in the spinal cord gray and white matter sensory neuronal circuits of nociception (the spinothalamic tract) and proprioception (the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and gracile fasciculus). Within the brain stems and brains of three paralyzed animals examined late in infection (days 5 and 6 p.i.), HSV antigen was restricted to the nucleus subcoeruleus region bilaterally. Since motor neurons were not directly involved, we postulate that hindlimb paralysis may have resulted from intense involvement of the posterior column (gracile fasciculus) in the thoracolumbar spinal cord, a region known to contain the corticospinal tract in rodents. PMID:9032380

  10. Digastric Muscle Phenotypes of the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glass, Tiffany J; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is frequently associated with complex difficulties in oromotor development, feeding, and swallowing. However, the muscle phenotypes underlying these deficits are unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS has significantly altered myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform profiles of the muscles involved in feeding and swallowing, as well as reductions in the speed of these movements during behavioral assays. SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were used to assess MyHC isoform expression in pertinent muscles, and functional feeding and swallowing performance were quantified through videofluoroscopy and mastication assays. We found that both the anterior digastric (ADG) and posterior digastric (PDG) muscles in 11-day old and 5-6 week old Ts65Dn groups showed significantly lower MyHC 2b protein levels than in age-matched euploid control groups. In videofluoroscopic and videotape assays used to quantify swallowing and mastication performance, 5-6 week old Ts65Dn and euploid controls showed similar swallow rates, inter-swallow intervals, and mastication rates. In analysis of adults, 10-11 week old Ts65Dn mice revealed significantly less MyHC 2b mRNA expression in the posterior digastric, but not the anterior digastric muscle as compared with euploid controls. Analysis of MyHC 2b protein levels across an adult age range (10-53 weeks of age) revealed lower levels of MyHC 2b protein in the PDG of Ts65Dn than in euploids, but similar levels of MyHC 2b in the ADG. Cumulatively, these results indicate biochemical differences in some, but not all, muscles involved in swallowing and jaw movement in Ts65Dn mice that manifest early in post-natal development, and persist into adulthood. These findings suggest potential utility of this model for future investigations of the mechanisms of oromotor difficulties associated with Down syndrome. PMID:27336944

  11. Behavioral Characterization of Mouse Models of Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F.; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  12. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    PubMed

    Capoccia, Sara; Maccarinelli, Federica; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  13. Neuroanatomical Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, J.P.; Steadman, P.E.; Genç, C.; Provenzano, F; Kushner, S.A.; Henkelman, R.M.; Karayiorgou, M.; Gogos, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent deletions at the 22q11.2 locus have been established as a strong genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletions have a range of well-defined volumetric abnormalities in a number of critical brain structures. A mouse model of the 22q11.2 deletion (Df(16)A+/−) has previously been utilized to characterize disease-associated abnormalities on synaptic, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. We performed a high-resolution MRI analysis of mutant mice compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Our analysis revealed a striking similarity in the specific volumetric changes of Df(16)A+/− mice compared with human 22q11.2 deletion carriers, including in cortico-cerebellar, cortico-striatal, and cortico-limbic circuits. In addition, higher resolution compared with neuroimaging in human subjects allowed detection of previously unknown subtle local differences. The cerebellar findings in Df(16)A+/− mice are particularly instructive as they are localized to specific areas within both the deep cerebellar nuclei and the cerebellar cortex. Our study indicates that the Df(16)A+/− mouse model recapitulates most of the hallmark neuroanatomical changes observed in 22q11.2 deletion carriers. Our findings will help guide the design and interpretation of additional complementary studies and thereby advance our understanding of the abnormal brain development underlying the emergence of 22q11.2 deletion-associated psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. PMID:23999526

  14. Characterization of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyal D.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Kennel, Allison; Mutch, P. Jane; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Hanks, Camille E.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.; Toufexis, Megan D.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Rodriguez, Carina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS. Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures. Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics. Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach. PMID:25314221

  15. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of ruminal tannin-tolerant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K E; Thonney, M L; Woolston, T K; Zinder, S H; Pell, A N

    1998-10-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

  16. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ruminal Tannin-Tolerant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karen E.; Thonney, Michael L.; Woolston, Tina K.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Pell, Alice N.

    1998-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

  17. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  18. Deletion of atrophy enhancing genes fails to ameliorate the phenotype in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Chitra C.; McGovern, Vicki L.; Wise, Dawnne O.; Glass, David J.; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease causing degeneration of lower motor neurons and muscle atrophy. One therapeutic avenue for SMA is targeting signaling pathways in muscle to ameliorate atrophy. Muscle Atrophy F-box, MAFbx, and Muscle RING Finger 1, MuRF1, are muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases upregulated in skeletal and cardiac muscle during atrophy. Homozygous knock-out of MAFbx or MuRF1 causes muscle sparing in adult mice subjected to atrophy by denervation. We wished to determine whether blockage of the major muscle atrophy pathways by deletion of MAFbx or MuRF1 in a mouse model of SMA would improve the phenotype. Deletion of MAFbx in the Δ7 SMA mouse model had no effect on the weight and the survival of the mice while deletion of MuRF1 was deleterious. MAFbx−/−–SMA mice showed a significant alteration in fiber size distribution tending towards larger fibers. In skeletal and cardiac tissue MAFbx and MuRF1 transcripts were upregulated whereas MuRF2 and MuRF3 levels were unchanged in Δ7 SMA mice. We conclude that deletion of the muscle ubiquitin ligases does not improve the phenotype of a Δ7 SMA mouse. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that the beneficial effect of HDAC inhibitors is mediated through inhibition of MAFbx and MuRF1. PMID:24656734

  19. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Hyperglycemia and Retinal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Rakoczy, Elizabeth P.; Rahman, Ireni S. Ali; Binz, Nicolette; Li, Cai-Rui; Vagaja, Nermina N.; de Pinho, Marisa; Lai, Chooi-May

    2010-01-01

    One of the limitations of research into diabetic retinopathy is the lack of suitable animal models. To study how the two important factors—hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial growth factor—interact in diabetic retinopathy, the Akimba mouse (Ins2AkitaVEGF+/−) was generated by crossing the Akita mouse (Ins2Akita) with the Kimba mouse (VEGF+/+). C57Bl/6 and the parental and Akimba mouse lines were characterized by biometric measurements, histology, immunohistochemistry, and Spectralis Heidelberg retinal angiography and optical coherence tomography. The Akimba line not only retained the characteristics of the parental strains, such as developing hyperglycemia and retinal neovascularization, but developed higher blood glucose levels at a younger age and had worse kidney-body weight ratios than the Akita line. With aging, the Akimba line demonstrated enhanced photoreceptor cell loss, thinning of the retina, and more severe retinal vascular pathology, including more severe capillary nonperfusion, vessel constriction, beading, neovascularization, fibroses, and edema, compared with the Kimba line. The vascular changes were associated with major histocompatibility complex class II+ cellular staining throughout the retina. Together, these observations suggest that hyperglycemia resulted in higher prevalences of edema and exacerbated the vascular endothelial growth factor-driven neovascular and retinal changes in the Akimba line. Thus, the Akimba line could become a useful model for studying the interplay between hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial growth factor and for testing treatment strategies for potentially blinding complications, such as edema. PMID:20829433

  20. Automatic classification framework for ventricular septal defects: a pilot study on high-throughput mouse embryo cardiac phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhongliu; Liang, Xi; Guo, Liucheng; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gillies, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    Intensive international efforts are underway toward phenotyping the entire mouse genome by modifying all its [Formula: see text] genes one-by-one for comparative studies. A workload of this scale has triggered numerous studies harnessing image informatics for the identification of morphological defects. However, existing work in this line primarily rests on abnormality detection via structural volumetrics between wild-type and gene-modified mice, which generally fails when the pathology involves no severe volume changes, such as ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in the heart. Furthermore, in embryo cardiac phenotyping, the lack of relevant work in embryonic heart segmentation, the limited availability of public atlases, and the general requirement of manual labor for the actual phenotype classification after abnormality detection, along with other limitations, have collectively restricted existing practices from meeting the high-throughput demands. This study proposes, to the best of our knowledge, the first fully automatic VSD classification framework in mouse embryo imaging. Our approach leverages a combination of atlas-based segmentation and snake evolution techniques to derive the segmentation of heart ventricles, where VSD classification is achieved by checking whether the left and right ventricles border or overlap with each other. A pilot study has validated our approach at a proof-of-concept level and achieved a classification accuracy of 100% through a series of empirical experiments on a database of 15 images. PMID:26835488

  1. Tumor and reproductive traits are linked by RNA metabolism genes in the mouse ovary: a transcriptome-phenotype association analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between reproductive life history and incidence of ovarian tumors is well known. Periods of reduced ovulations may confer protection against ovarian cancer. Using phenotypic data available for mouse, a possible association between the ovarian transcriptome, reproductive records and spontaneous ovarian tumor rates was investigated in four mouse inbred strains. NIA15k-DNA microarrays were employed to obtain expression profiles of BalbC, C57BL6, FVB and SWR adult ovaries. Results Linear regression analysis with multiple-test control (adjusted p ≤ 0.05) resulted in ovarian tumor frequency (OTF) and number of litters (NL) as the top-correlated among five tested phenotypes. Moreover, nearly one-hundred genes were coincident between these two traits and were decomposed in 76 OTF(–) NL(+) and 20 OTF(+) NL(–) genes, where the plus/minus signs indicate the direction of correlation. Enriched functional categories were RNA-binding/mRNA-processing and protein folding in the OTF(–) NL(+) and the OTF(+) NL(–) subsets, respectively. In contrast, no associations were detected between OTF and litter size (LS), the latter a measure of ovulation events in a single estrous cycle. Conclusion Literature text-mining pointed to post-transcriptional control of ovarian processes including oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis and angiogenesis as possible causal relationships of observed tumor and reproductive phenotypes. We speculate that repetitive cycling instead of repetitive ovulations represent the actual link between ovarian tumorigenesis and reproductive records. PMID:21210965

  2. Comprehensive Behavioral Phenotyping of Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome: Activation of β1-Adrenergic Receptor by Xamoterol as a Potential Cognitive Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Bader, Patrick L.; Tun, Christine; Encarnacion, Angelo; Kleschevnikov, Alexander; Belichenko, Pavel; Saw, Nay; Priestley, Matthew; Tsien, Richard W; Mobley, William C; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down Syndrome display cognitive deficits which is mediated by imbalance in noradrenergic

  3. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, SongTing; Hoogaars, Willem M H; de Gorter, David J J; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Lin, Herbert Y; Hong, Charles C; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ten Dijke, Peter; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2011-02-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis. The progressive pathology of DMD can be explained by an insufficient regenerative response resulting in fibrosis and adipose tissue formation. BMPs are known to inhibit myogenic differentiation and in a previous study we found an increased expression of a BMP family member BMP4 in DMD myoblasts. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether inhibition of BMP signaling could be beneficial for myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration processes in a DMD context. All tested BMP inhibitors, Noggin, dorsomorphin and LDN-193189, were able to accelerate and enhance myogenic differentiation. However, dorsomorphin repressed both BMP and TGFβ signaling and was found to be toxic to primary myoblast cell cultures. In contrast, Noggin was found to be a potent and selective BMP inhibitor and was therefore tested in vivo in a DMD mouse model. Local adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Noggin in muscle resulted in an increased expression of the myogenic regulatory genes Myog and Myod1 and improved muscle histology. In conclusion, our results suggest that repression of BMP signaling may constitute an attractive adjunctive therapy for DMD patients. PMID:20940052

  4. Phenotypic characterization of Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Sadza, M; Madsen, M; Hill, F W; Pawandiwa, A

    1994-02-01

    The phenotypic characteristics of 60 Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida sensu stricto, from disease syndromes in different host species were studied. A number of representative strains were also serotyped. Consistent results were obtained in the tests for; catalase, oxidase, urease, indole, acid in glucose, inositol, salicin and sucrose. There was no obvious relationship between serotype, host or disease and the pattern of utilization of certain substrates by an isolate. This has been discussed in the context of recent proposals to reclassify Pasteurella and P. multocida on genotypic and phenotypic studies. It is suggested that notwithstanding the relevance of genetic studies in circumscribing P. multocida, the phenotype and disease significance of the taxon should not be ignored. A case of bronchitis in a dog which was simultaneously colonized by three different strains of Pasteurella is described. Also septicaemic pasteurellosis in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is reported and for the first time prevalence of various serotypes in pasteurellosis of animals in Zimbabwe. PMID:8160349

  5. Importing, caring, breeding, genotyping, and phenotyping a genetic mouse in a Chinese university.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S T; Wu, Q H; Liu, B; Xie, Z L; Wu, X; Shang, S J; Zhang, X Y; Kang, X J; Liu, L N; Zhu, F P; Wang, Y S; Hu, M Q; Xu, H D; Zhou, L; Liu, B; Chai, Z Y; Zhang, Q F; Liu, W; Teng, S S; Wang, C H; Guo, N; Dou, H Q; Zuo, P L; Zheng, L H; Zhang, C X; Zhu, D S; Wang, L; Wang, S R; Zhou, Z

    2014-07-01

    The genetic manipulation of the laboratory mouse has been well developed and generated more and more mouse lines for biomedical research. To advance our science exploration, it is necessary to share genetically modified mouse lines with collaborators between institutions, even in different countries. The transfer process is complicated. Significant paperwork and coordination are required, concerning animal welfare, intellectual property rights, colony health status, and biohazard. Here, we provide a practical example of importing a transgenic mice line, Dynamin 1 knockout mice, from Yale University in the USA to Perking University in China for studying cell secretion. This example including the length of time that required for paper work, mice quarantine at the receiving institution, and expansion of the mouse line for experiments. The procedure described in this paper for delivery live transgenic mice from USA to China may serve a simple reference for transferring mouse lines between other countries too. PMID:24385195

  6. A transgenic mouse model of metastatic carcinoma involving transdifferentiation of a gastric epithelial lineage progenitor to a neuroendocrine phenotype.

    PubMed

    Syder, Andrew J; Karam, Sherif M; Mills, Jason C; Ippolito, Joseph E; Ansari, Habib R; Farook, Vidya; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2004-03-30

    Human neuroendocrine cancers (NECs) arise in various endoderm-derived epithelia, have diverse morphologic features, exhibit a wide range of growth phenotypes, and generally have obscure cellular origins and ill-defined molecular mediators of initiation and progression. We describe a transgenic mouse model of metastatic gastric cancer initiated by expressing simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 TAg), under control of regulatory elements from the mouse Atp4b gene, in the progenitors of acid-producing parietal cells. Parietal cells normally do not express endocrine or neural features, and Atp4b-Cre bitransgenic mice with a Cre reporter confirmed that the Atp4b regulatory elements are not active in gastric enteroendocrine cells. GeneChip analyses were performed on laser capture microdissected SV40 TAg-expressing cells in preinvasive foci and invasive tumors. Genes that distinguish invasive from preinvasive cells were then hierarchically clustered with DNA microarray datasets obtained from human lung and gastric cancers. The results, combined with immunohistochemical and electron microscopy studies of Apt4b-SV40 TAg stomachs, revealed that progression to invasion was associated with transdifferentiation of parietal cell progenitors to a neuroendocrine phenotype, and that invasive cells shared molecular features with NECs arising in the human pulmonary epithelium, including transcription factors that normally regulate differentiation of various endocrine lineages and maintain neural progenitors in an undifferentiated state. The 399 mouse genes identified as regulated during acquisition of an invasive phenotype and concomitant neuroendocrine transdifferentiation, plus their human orthologs associated with lung NECs, provide a foundation for molecular classification of NECs arising in other tissues and for genetic tests of the molecular mechanisms underlying NEC pathogenesis. PMID:15070742

  7. Characterization of a Novel Ghrelin Cell Reporter Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Ichiro; Nakano, Yoshihide; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A.; Lee, Charlotte E.; Perello, Mario; Anderson, Jason G.; Coppari, Roberto; Xiao, Guanghua; Lowell, Bradford B.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that influences many physiological processes and behaviors, such as food intake, insulin and growth hormone release, and a coordinated response to chronic stress. However, little is known about the molecular pathways governing ghrelin release and ghrelin cell function. To better study ghrelin cell physiology, we have generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) under the control of the mouse ghrelin promoter. hrGFP expression was especially abundant in the gastric oxyntic mucosa, in a pattern mirroring that of ghrelin immunoreactivity and ghrelin mRNA. hrGFP expression also was observed in the duodenum, but not in the brain, pancreatic islet, or testis. In addition, we used fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to collect and partially characterize highly enriched populations of gastric ghrelin cells. We suggest that these novel ghrelin-hrGFP transgenic mice will serve as useful tools to better understand ghrelin cell physiology. PMID:19361544

  8. Reciprocal mouse and human limb phenotypes caused by gain- and loss-of-function mutations affecting Lmbr1.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R M; Marker, P C; Roessler, E; Dutra, A; Schimenti, J C; Muenke, M; Kingsley, D M

    2001-01-01

    The major locus for dominant preaxial polydactyly in humans has been mapped to 7q36. In mice the dominant Hemimelic extra toes (Hx) and Hammertoe (Hm) mutations map to a homologous chromosomal region and cause similar limb defects. The Lmbr1 gene is entirely within the small critical intervals recently defined for both the mouse and human mutations and is misexpressed at the exact time that the mouse Hx phenotype becomes apparent during limb development. This result suggests that Lmbr1 may underlie preaxial polydactyly in both mice and humans. We have used deletion chromosomes to demonstrate that the dominant mouse and human limb defects arise from gain-of-function mutations and not from haploinsufficiency. Furthermore, we created a loss-of-function mutation in the mouse Lmbr1 gene that causes digit number reduction (oligodactyly) on its own and in trans to a deletion chromosome. The loss of digits that we observed in mice with reduced Lmbr1 activity is in contrast to the gain of digits observed in Hx mice and human polydactyly patients. Our results suggest that the Lmbr1 gene is required for limb formation and that reciprocal changes in levels of Lmbr1 activity can lead to either increases or decreases in the number of digits in the vertebrate limb. PMID:11606546

  9. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; Morbin, Michela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Marchet, Silvia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Sibon, Ody; Moggio, Maurizio; d’Amati, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2−/−) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2−/− mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:24316510

  10. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; Morbin, Michela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Marchet, Silvia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Sibon, Ody; Moggio, Maurizio; d'Amati, Giulia; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2(-/-)) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2(-/-) mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:24316510

  11. Outstanding Phenotypic Differences in the Profile of Amyloid-β between Tg2576 and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Allué, José Antonio; Sarasa, Leticia; Izco, María; Pérez-Grijalba, Virginia; Fandos, Noelia; Pascual-Lucas, María; Ogueta, Samuel; Pesini, Pedro; Sarasa, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    APPswe/PS1dE9 and Tg2576 are very common transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), used in many laboratories as tools to research the mechanistic process leading to the disease. In order to augment our knowledge about the amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms present in both transgenic mouse models, we have developed two chromatographic methods, one acidic and the other basic, for the characterization of the Aβ species produced in the brains of the two transgenic mouse models. After immunoprecipitation and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, 10 species of Aβ, surprisingly all of human origin, were detected in the brain of Tg2576 mouse, whereas 39 species, of both murine and human origin, were detected in the brain of the APP/PS1 mouse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the identification of such a high number of Aβ species in the brain of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse, whereas, in contrast, a much lower number of Aβ species were identified in the Tg2576 mouse. Therefore, this study brings to light a relevant phenotypic difference between these two popular mice models of AD. PMID:27258422

  12. Phenotypic characterization of biodiversity in wild Helianthus annuus from Argentina and North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Helianthus annuus populations naturalized in central Argentina have spread since their introduction from the center of origin in North America. Phenotypic characterization based on 45 morphological and phenological descriptors of nine populations from different geographic regions of Argentina a...

  13. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  14. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

    2015-07-01

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with 'invisible' phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall. PMID:25873661

  15. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at ncrr.pnl.gov web site of the NCRR proteomic center (ncrr.pnl.gov).

  16. Androgen deprivation induces phenotypic plasticity and promotes resistance to molecular targeted therapy in a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    De Velasco, Marco A; Tanaka, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Yuji; Koike, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Kazuto; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-09-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a complex multistep process involving different cellular and biochemical changes brought on by genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes lead to the activation or overexpression of key survival pathways that also serve as potential therapeutic targets. Despite promising preclinical results, molecular targeted therapies aimed at such signaling pathways have so far been dismal. In the present study, we used a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer to show that plasticity in castration-resistant tumors promotes therapeutic escape. Unlike castration-naïve tumors which depend on androgen receptor and PI3K/AKT signal activation for growth and survival, castration-resistant tumors undergo phenotypic plasticity leading to increased intratumoral heterogeneity. These tumors attain highly heterogeneous phenotypes that are characterized by cancer cells relying on alternate signal transduction pathways for growth and survival, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, and losing their dependence on PI3K signaling. These features thus enabled castration-resistant tumors to become insensitive to the therapeutic effects of PI3K/AKT targeted therapy. Overall, our findings provide evidence that androgen deprivation drives phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer cells and implicate it as a crucial contributor to therapeutic resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Therefore, incorporating intratumoral heterogeneity in a dynamic tumor model as a part of preclinical efficacy determination could improve prediction for response and provide better rationale for the development of more effective therapies. PMID:24986896

  17. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S.; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  18. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-02-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  19. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python)

    PubMed Central

    Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value. PMID:27200191

  20. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python).

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value. PMID:27200191

  1. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice.

    PubMed

    Thon, R; Vondeling, H; Lassen, J; Hansen, A K; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2009-07-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed. The results were extracted using content analysis by theme. The investigation confirmed that few animals were systematically phenotyped and an observational approach was found to be widespread. The primary interest of the interviewees was phenotyping for impaired animal welfare. The concept of phenotyping was widely understood and perceived as a scientific advantage. The comprehensiveness of the protocols and the resources required for phenotyping were seen as problematic. All participants addressed this issue, be it regarding lack of time, money or expertise. Also, among the negative statements were worries about the capability of the available protocols to produce the information needed by the individual scientist. Phenotyping was predicted to become much more widespread in the future and its success was expected to depend on the development of reliable, fast and inexpensive methods. The study identified different aims of phenotyping and the suitability of the published protocols for these purposes was discussed. The contradiction between the limited use of characterization and its advantages was also discussed and proposals for the improvement of future phenotyping strategies are formulated. PMID:19237456

  2. The fetal brain transcriptome and neonatal behavioral phenotype in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Ferres, Millie A; Graham, Leah C; Wick, Heather C; Miczek, Klaus A; Slonim, Donna K; Bianchi, Diana W

    2015-09-01

    Human fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate abnormal brain growth and reduced neurogenesis. Despite the prenatal onset of the phenotype, most therapeutic trials have been conducted in adults. Here, we present evidence for fetal brain molecular and neonatal behavioral alterations in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome. Embryonic day 15.5 brain hemisphere RNA from Ts1Cje embryos (n = 5) and wild type littermates (n = 5) was processed and hybridized to mouse gene 1.0 ST arrays. Bioinformatic analyses were implemented to identify differential gene and pathway regulation during Ts1Cje fetal brain development. In separate experiments, the Fox scale, ultrasonic vocalization and homing tests were used to investigate behavioral deficits in Ts1Cje pups (n = 29) versus WT littermates (n = 64) at postnatal days 3-21. Ts1Cje fetal brains displayed more differentially regulated genes (n = 71) than adult (n = 31) when compared to their age-matched euploid brains. Ts1Cje embryonic brains showed up-regulation of cell cycle markers and down-regulation of the solute-carrier amino acid transporters. Several cellular processes were dysregulated at both stages, including apoptosis, inflammation, Jak/Stat signaling, G-protein signaling, and oxidoreductase activity. In addition, early behavioral deficits in surface righting, cliff aversion, negative geotaxis, forelimb grasp, ultrasonic vocalization, and the homing tests were observed. The Ts1Cje mouse model exhibits abnormal gene expression during fetal brain development, and significant neonatal behavioral deficits in the pre-weaning period. In combination with human studies, this suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype manifests prenatally and provides a rationale for prenatal therapy to improve perinatal brain development and postnatal neurocognition. PMID:25975229

  3. A Phenotype-Driven Approach to Generate Mouse Models with Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations Causing Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, Johanna H K; Baines, Holly L; Bratic, Ana; Simard, Marie-Lune; Freyer, Christoph; Mourier, Arnaud; Stamp, Craig; Filograna, Roberta; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Greaves, Laura C; Stewart, James B

    2016-09-13

    Mutations of mtDNA are an important cause of human disease, but few animal models exist. Because mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected, the development of mice with pathogenic mtDNA mutations has been challenging, and the main strategy has therefore been to introduce mutations found in cell lines into mouse embryos. Here, we describe a phenotype-driven strategy that is based on detecting clonal expansion of pathogenic mtDNA mutations in colonic crypts of founder mice derived from heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice. As proof of concept, we report the generation of a mouse line transmitting a heteroplasmic pathogenic mutation in the alanine tRNA gene of mtDNA displaying typical characteristics of classic mitochondrial disease. In summary, we describe a straightforward and technically simple strategy based on mouse breeding and histology to generate animal models of mtDNA-mutation disease, which will be of great importance for studies of disease pathophysiology and preclinical treatment trials. PMID:27626666

  4. Purification and characterization of mouse kidney beta-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Lin, C W; Orcutt, M L; Fishman, W H

    1975-06-25

    Beta-Glucuronidase has been purified from mouse kidneys previously induced by gonadotrophin to a specific enzyme activity 15 times higher than the non-induced kidney. The purification procedure includes ultrasonication to solubilize the enzyme, acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations, gel filtration in Sephadex G-200, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. The resulting product has a specific activity of 284,000 Fishman units/mg of protein, representing a 1,090-fold purification and is 17,000-fold higher than the level in the non-induced kidney. The purified beta-glucuronidase is apparently homogeneous by criteria of gel filtration, sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, and immunodiffusion. Characterization of the purified enzyme showed that it is identical with the lysosomal isoenzymic from electrophoretically, has subunit molecular weight of 74,000 (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis) and oligomer molecular weight of 300,000. The purified enzyme is stable at high temperature (up to 55 degrees) and at wide range of pH (from 4 to 11). It has a pH optimum for its activity at 4.7 and a Km of 1.18 times 10- minus 4 M. The purification and characterization of this enzyme from mouse kidney will have significance in the understanding of the molecular nature of the isoenzymes of beta-glucuronidase and will be useful in future studies on the mechanism of intracellular transport and distribution of this hydrolase. PMID:237911

  5. Isolation, culture and characterization of primary mouse RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Garland, Donita L; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-07-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools for the study of ocular diseases. Alterations in the morphology and function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are common features shared by many ocular disorders. We report a detailed protocol to collect, seed, culture and characterize RPE cells from mice. We describe a reproducible method that we previously developed to collect and culture murine RPE cells on Transwells as functional polarized monolayers. The collection of RPE cells takes ∼3 h, and the cultures mimic in vivo RPE cell features within 1 week. This protocol also describes methods to characterize the cells on Transwells within 1-2 weeks by transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively), immunostaining of vibratome sections and flat mounts, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance. The RPE cell cultures are suitable to study the biology of the RPE from wild-type and genetically modified strains of mice between the ages of 10 d and 12 months. The RPE cells can also be manipulated to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the RPE pathology in the numerous mouse models of ocular disorders. Furthermore, modeling the RPE pathology in vitro represents a new approach to testing drugs that will help accelerate the development of therapies for vision-threatening disorders such as macular degeneration (MD). PMID:27281648

  6. Tissue transglutaminase overexpression does not modify the disease phenotype of the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Kneynsberg, Andrew; Tucholski, Janusz; Perry, Giselle; van Groen, Thomas; Detloff, Peter J.; Lesort, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a devastating autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine in the huntingtin protein. Determining the contribution of specific factors to the pathogenesis of HD should provide rational targets for therapeutic intervention. One suggested contributor is the type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), a multifunctional calcium dependent enzyme. A role for TG2 in HD has been suggested because a polypeptide-bound glutamine is a rate-limiting factor for a TG2-catalyzed reaction, and TG2 can cross-link mutant huntingtin in vitro. Further, TG2 is up regulated in brain areas affected in HD. The objective of this study was to further examine the contribution of TG2 as a potential modifier of HD pathogenesis and its validity as a therapeutic target in HD. In particular our goal was to determine whether an increase in TG2 level, as documented in human HD brains, modulates the well-characterized phenotype of the R6/2 HD mouse model. To accomplish this objective a genetic cross was performed between R6/2 mice and an established transgenic mouse line that constitutively expresses human TG2 (hTG2) under control of the prion promoter. Constitutive expression of hTG2 did not affect the onset and progression of the behavioral and neuropathological HD phenotype of R6/2 mice. We found no alterations in body weight changes, rotarod performances, grip strength, overall activity, and no significant effect on the neuropathological features of R6/2 mice. Overall the results of this study suggest that an increase in hTG2 expression does not significantly modify the pathology of HD. PMID:22698685

  7. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J

    2007-06-01

    Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of foodborne Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus is the main thermophilic spore former involved in flat sour spoilage of canned foods. Three typing methods were tested and applied to differentiate strains at intra-species level: panC sequence analysis, REP-PCR and M13-PCR. panC gene was highly conserved within the studied strains, suggesting a low intra-specific diversity. This was supported by REP-PCR primary assays and M13-PCR results. M13-PCR profile analysis succeeded in differentiating six closely related groups (at 79% threshold similarity) among 127 strains from a range of spoiled canned food products and from different canneries. Phenotypic traits were investigated among 20 selected strains representing groups and origins. Ranges of growth under different temperatures (from 40 °C to 70 °C), pH (from 5.0 to 6.5), NaCl concentrations (from 1 to 5%) and sporulation conditions poorly differed between strains, but wet heat resistance of spores showed a 20-fold variation between strains. Furthermore, in this study, strains that belonged to the same M13-PCR genetic group did not share phenotypic characteristics or common origin. The work emphasizes a low diversity within the G. stearothermophilus species but data from this study may contribute to a better control of G. stearothermophilus spoilage in canned food. PMID:25481066

  9. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression within Balb/C and C57black/6 mouse locus coeruleus. I. Topological organization and phenotypic plasticity of the enzyme-containing cell population.

    PubMed

    Ginovart, N; Marcel, D; Bezin, L; Garcia, C; Gagne, C; Pujol, J F; Weissmann, D

    1996-05-20

    Tyrosine hydroxylase phenotype expression was investigated in the catecholaminergic population of the locus coeruleus neurons of two pure inbred mouse strains, Balb/C and C57Black/6. Therefore, we have characterized the precise organization of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing perikarya population, in control animals and following RU24722 treatment, which is known to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression. Serial coronal sections were selected along the caudo-rostral extent of the structure and were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. Three days after the treatment, an increase in the number of cells which expressed tyrosine hydroxylase was observed all along the locus coeruleus in the Balb/C strain only. This increase equalized the catecholaminergic neuron populations of the two strains. In the caudal subdivision of the structure, these newly detected perikarya were intermingled with the perikarya which expressed tyrosine hydroxylase in control conditions. In the rostral half, the additional immunoreactive perikarya enlarged the mean coerulean space, defined as the area delimited by the tyrosine hydroxylase-containing perikarya. These results demonstrate a plasticity of the tyrosine hydroxylase phenotype expression, topologically organized and specific to the Balb/C strain. PMID:8793080

  10. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the multidrug resistance phenotype in murine macrophage-like J774.2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, L S; Greenberger, L M; Hsu, S I; Yang, C P; Cohen, D; Piekarz, R L; Castillo, G; Han, E K; Yu, L J; Horwitz, S B

    1992-01-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in malignant tumors is a major obstacle to the treatment of many cancers. MDR sublines have been derived from the J774.2 mouse macrophage-like cell line and utilized to characterize the phenotype at the biochemical and genetic level. Two isoforms of the drug resistance-associated P-glycoprotein are present and distinguishable both electrophoretically and pharmacologically. Genetic analysis has revealed the presence of a three-member gene family; expression of two of these genes, mdr1a and mdr1b, is associated with MDR whereas the expression of the third, mdr2, is not. Studies of these three genes have revealed similarities and differences in the manner in which they are regulated at the transcriptional level, and have suggested that post-transcriptional effects may also be important. PMID:1346495

  11. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of hyperpigmented group B Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Agnese; Ruppen, Corinne; Hemphill, Andrew; Spellerberg, Barbara; Sendi, Parham

    2014-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes invasive infections in neonates, older adults and patients with comorbidities. β-hemolysin/cytolysin is an important GBS virulence factor. It is encoded by the cyl operon and confers GBS hemolytic activity. Isolates displaying hyperpigmentation are typically hyperhemolytic. Comparison of clonally identical isolates displaying different levels of pigmentation has shown transcriptional dysregulation due to mutations in components of the control of the virulence S/R (CovS/R) regulatory system. In addition, hyperpigmented isolates show decreased CAMP factor and decreased capsule thickness. In analogy to findings in group A Streptococcus, a pivotal role of CovS/R has been proposed in the host-pathogen interaction of invasive GBS infection. However, corresponding investigations on multiple clinical GBS isolates have not been performed. We prospectively collected hyperpigmented isolates found in a diagnostic laboratory and performed phenotypic, molecular and transcriptional analyses. In the period from 2008 to 2012, we found 10 isolates obtained from 10 patients. The isolates reflected both invasive pathogens and colonizers. In three cases, clonally identical but phenotypically different variants were also found. Hence, the analyses included 13 isolates. No capsular serotype was found to be significantly more frequent. Bacterial pigments were analyzed via spectrophotometry and for their hemolytic activity. Data obtained for typical absorbance spectra peaks correlated significantly with hemolytic activity. Molecular analysis of the cyl operon showed that it was conserved in all isolates. The covR sequence displayed mutations in five isolates; in one isolate, the CovR binding site to cylX was abrogated. Our results on clinical isolates support previous findings on CovR-deficient isogenic mutants, but suggest that - at least in some clinical isolates - for β-hemolysin/cytolysin and CAMP factor production, other molecular pathways may be

  12. Phenotypic characterization of food waste degrading Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Saraiva Lopes da; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pereira, Pablo Tavares; Roseiro, José Carlos Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A phenotypic characterization of seventeen Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic thermophilic bioreactors of a food waste processing company was carried out, using fatty acid and enzymatic activity profiles. It was observed that each species possessed a typical fatty acid and enzymatic production profile. Bacillus licheniformis strains exhibited the most significant enzyme production. Numerical analyses (principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses) revealed that Bacillus licheniformis strains were homogeneous regarding their fatty acid profiles whilst B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains showed some phenotypic differences. However, enzymatic activities numerical analyses indicated that these three Bacillus species were more homogeneous regarding this phenotypic characteristic. PMID:16463317

  13. Characterization of skeletal muscle in the synemin knock-out mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Muriel, Joaquin; Lovering, Richard M.; Lund, Linda; Bond, Meredith; Bloch, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Diseases linked to intermediate filament (IF) proteins are associated with defects in the organization of the contractile apparatus of skeletal and cardiac muscle and its links to costameres, which connect the sarcomeres to the cell membrane. Synemin is a large IF protein that associates with dystrobrevin, vinculin, and talin at costameres of the cell membrane of striated muscle, as well as with α-actinin and desmin at the Z disks. Synemin can be expressed in either 210 kDa α- or 180 kDa β- alternatively spliced forms. We generated mice null for synemin by homologous recombination to study synemin's function in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle in the knock out (syn KO) mouse does not make synemin mRNA or protein. Preliminary characterization of the syn KO mouse suggests that it has a mild skeletal muscle phenotype. The organization of costameres appears to be normal. Treadmill running uphill test results was not significantly affected when compared to controls at any age. More notably, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane are different in the syn KO, though they are less affected than by the absence of desmin or dystrophin. These results suggest that the viscoelastic properties of the cell membrane-costamere-myofibril complex are significantly influenced by synemin.

  14. Endocrine parameters and phenotypes of the growth hormone receptor gene disrupted (GHR-/-) mouse.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana; Kopchick, John J

    2011-06-01

    Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR-/-) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR-/- mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

  15. [Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1].

    PubMed

    Giono-Cerezo, S; Rodríguez Angeles, M G; Gutiérrez-Cogco, L; Valdespino-Gómez, J L

    1994-01-01

    We made 52180 tests for isolation and identification of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from rectal swabs and reference strains. We isolated 17.6% V. cholerae O1 strains in 1991, 43.5% in 1992 and 38.9% in 1993. The main serovar in 1991 was Inaba, whereas in 1993 a similar percentage was serovar Ogawa. The phenotype of V. cholerae strains was determined by hemolysis test, Voges-Proskauer test, polymyxin B resistance and phages 4 and 5 resistance. All of the mexican strains were El Tor. There were 2.9-0.75% hemolytic strains from 1991 to 1993, but they were negative when the test was made in tube with human erythrocytes. The resistotypes were performed in 24526 selected strains by Kirby-Bauer method and MIC tests. All of the strains were sensitive, except more than 100 strains isolated in Veracruz that were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline. Detection of cholera toxin was made by ELISA and on culture of Vero and CHO cells. All the V. cholerae O1 strains were toxigenic. The genotype was determined by PCR and ribotyping. The PCR amplified one 564 pb fragment on V. cholerae O1. The ribotypes of mexican strains were 5 and 6a. PMID:7701133

  16. Morphologic and phenotypic analysis of an outcross line of blotchy mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ranga, V.; Grahn, D.; Journey, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Blotchy is an X-linked recessive mutation at the Mottled locus in the mouse. The affected blotchy male (Blo/Y) mouse from an inbred genetic background demonstrates morphologic and physiologic abnormalities consistent with emphysema in adult life. Breeding of Blo/Y mice has been difficult because the inbred Blo/Y males are sterile. We report the successful development of a line of outbred Blo/Y male and Blo/Blo female mice by the controlled outcross mating of the inbred heterozygous Blo/ + female with the Argonne hybrid B6CF/sub 1/ male mouse. The subsequent outcross Blo/Y progeny breed vigorously with outcrossed Blo/ + female. The lungs of the outbred Blo/Blo female and inbred Blo/Y male mice demonstrate mild to moderate panacinar emphysema with a significant decrease in internal surface area (p < 0.005) and an increase in mean linear intercept (p < 0.005). In contrast, the lungs of the outbred Blo/Y is structurally normal. Despite the absence of emphysema-like changes in the outbred Blo/Y males, there were penotypic features that suggest inherited abnormalities in connective tissue proteins including (1) high incidence of aortitis leading to premature death from aneurysmal rupture, and (2) significant decrease in the morphometrically determined parenchymal elastic fiber length in the lung (p < 0.01). The outbred blotchy strain may be a useful experimental animal model in determining the pathogenesis of emphysema. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  17. Data on in vivo phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by interstitial GDNF signals in mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Aya; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2016-09-01

    This article contains the data related to the research article "in vivo dynamics of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by GDNF signals using a bead transplantation assay" (Uchida et al., 2016) [1]. A novel transplantation assay of growth factor-soaked beads into the mammalian testicular interstitium was developed, in order to examine the effects of various soluble factors on in vivo dynamics of the spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Here we provide the image data of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in mouse seminiferous tubules near the beads soaked in GDNF (glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor), one of the SSC niche factors. The data provide various phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia induced by bead-derived GDNF signals, which are useful to understand the active state of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vivo. PMID:27547806

  18. Mouse lysozyme M gene: isolation, characterization, and expression studies.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, M; Mangelsdorf, I; Wedel, A; Renkawitz, R

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized both cDNA and genomic DNA of the mouse lysozyme M gene. Derivation of the amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequences revealed six positions in the carboxyl terminus that differ from partial sequences previously published. The differential detection of specific mRNAs from the closely related lysozyme M and P genes has revealed different but overlapping tissue specificities of expression. The M gene is expressed weakly in myeloblasts, moderately in immature macrophages, and strongly in both mature macrophages and macrophage-rich tissues, while high levels of P transcripts are present only in small intestine. Sites of protein accumulation, rather than gene expression, have been identified by comparative quantitation of mRNA and enzyme levels. Images PMID:3413093

  19. Phenotypic characterization of fifteen commercial and Rootstock Avocado varieties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present paper was to characterize 15 avocado varieties to increase the information available for this fruit. Fifteen avocado varieties from the United States Department of agriculture Germplasm Repository System, Miami, FL: Aycock, Brooks, Cellon's Hawaii Seedling, Collins, Coll...

  20. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L.; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). PMID:26025364

  1. Beneficial Renal and Pancreatic Phenotypes in a Mouse Deficient in FXYD2 Regulatory Subunit of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Arystarkhova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental role of Na,K-ATPase in eukaryotic cells calls for complex and efficient regulation of its activity. Besides alterations in gene expression and trafficking, kinetic properties of the pump are modulated by reversible association with single span membrane proteins, the FXYDs. Seven members of the family are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, affecting pump kinetics in all possible permutations. This mini-review focuses on functional properties of FXYD2 studied in transfected cells, and on noteworthy and unexpected phenotypes discovered in a Fxyd2−∕− mouse. FXYD2, the gamma subunit, reduces activity of Na,K-ATPase either by decreasing affinity for Na+, or reducing Vmax. FXYD2 mRNA splicing and editing provide another layer for regulation of Na,K-ATPase. In kidney of knockouts, there was elevated activity for Na,K-ATPase and for NCC and NKCC2 apical sodium transporters. That should lead to sodium retention and hypertension, however, the mice were in sodium balance and normotensive. Adult Fxyd2−∕− mice also exhibited a mild pancreatic phenotype with enhanced glucose tolerance, elevation of circulating insulin, but no insulin resistance. There was an increase in beta cell proliferation and beta cell mass that correlated with activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. The Fxyd2−∕− mice are thus in a highly desirable state: the animals are resistant to Na+ retention, and showed improved glucose control, i.e., they display favorable metabolic adaptations to protect against development of salt-sensitive hypertension and diabetes. Investigation of the mechanisms of these adaptations in the mouse has the potential to unveil a novel therapeutic FXYD2-dependent strategy. PMID:27014088

  2. Establishing Biomechanical Mechanisms in Mouse Models: Practical Guidelines for Systematically Evaluating Phenotypic Changes in the Diaphyses of Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J; Silva, Matthew J; Vashishth, Deepak; Guo, X Edward; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH

    2016-01-01

    Mice are widely used in studies of skeletal biology, and assessment of their bones by mechanical testing is a critical step when evaluating the functional effects of an experimental perturbation. For example, a gene knockout may target a pathway important in bone formation and result in a “low bone mass” phenotype. But how well does the skeleton bear functional loads; eg, how much do bones deform during loading and how resistant are bones to fracture? By systematic evaluation of bone morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties, investigators can establish the “biomechanical mechanisms” whereby an experimental perturbation alters whole-bone mechanical function. The goal of this review is to clarify these biomechanical mechanisms and to make recommendations for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in mouse bones, with a focus on long-bone diaphyses and cortical bone. Further, minimum reportable standards for testing conditions and outcome variables are suggested that will improve the comparison of data across studies. Basic biomechanical principles are reviewed, followed by a description of the cross-sectional morphological properties that best inform the net cellular effects of a given experimental perturbation and are most relevant to biomechanical function. Although morphology is critical, whole-bone mechanical properties can only be determined accurately by a mechanical test. The functional importance of stiffness, maximum load, postyield displacement, and work-to-fracture are reviewed. Because bone and body size are often strongly related, strategies to adjust whole-bone properties for body mass are detailed. Finally, a comprehensive framework is presented using real data, and several examples from the literature are reviewed to illustrate how to synthesize morphological, tissue-level, and whole-bone mechanical properties of mouse long bones. PMID:25917136

  3. Reversible Behavioral Phenotypes in a Conditional Mouse Model of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Julio A.; Pino, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation are hallmark features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We have previously shown in mice that inducible overexpression of a cytoplasmically localized form of TDP-43 (TDP-43-ΔNLS) in forebrain neurons evokes neuropathological changes that recapitulate several features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Detailed behavioral phenotyping could provide further validation for its usage as a model for FTD. In the present study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate motor, cognitive, and social phenotypes in this model. We found that transgene (Tg) induction by doxycycline removal at weaning led to motor abnormalities including hyperlocomotion in the open field test, impaired coordination and balance in the rotarod test, and increased spasticity as shown by a clasping phenotype. Cognitive assessment demonstrated impaired recognition and spatial memory, measured by novel object recognition and Y-maze tests. Remarkably, TDP-43-ΔNLS mice displayed deficits in social behavior, mimicking a key aspect of FTD. To determine whether these symptoms were reversible, we suppressed Tg expression for 14 d in 1.5-month-old mice showing an established behavioral phenotype but modest neurodegeneration and found that motor and cognitive deficits were ameliorated; however, social performance remained altered. When Tg expression was suppressed in 6.5-month-old mice showing overt neurodegeneration, motor deficits were irreversible. These results indicate that TDP-43-ΔNLS mice display several core behavioral features of FTD with motor neuron disease, possibly due to functional changes in surviving neurons, and might serve as a valuable tool to unveil the underlying mechanisms of this and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25392493

  4. Otospheres derived from neonatal mouse cochleae retain the progenitor cell phenotype after ex vivo expansions.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiang-Xin; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Hiroe; Nishimura, Koji; Ito, Juichi

    2013-02-01

    Because of their limited regenerative potential, cochlear hair cell loss is one of the major causes of permanent hearing loss in mammals. However, recent studies have shown that postnatal cochlear epithelia retain the progenitor cells that form otospheres. Otospheres are capable of self-renewing and differentiating into inner ear cell lineages, thereby suggesting a promising source for hair cell regeneration. We investigated retention of the progenitor cell phenotype in otospheres after ex vivo expansion, which is crucial for transplantation approaches. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical analyses showed that otospheres derived from neonatal mice retained expression of stem and cochlear cell markers. After in vitro differentiation, otosphere-consisting cells differentiated into hair cell phenotypes after ex vivo expansion. However, the capacity of otospheres for self-renewal weakened with subsequent generations of ex vivo expansion. Our results indicate that ex vivo expanded-otospheres are useful experimental tools for studying hair cell regeneration in transplantation approaches and that the mechanisms for retention of the progenitor cell phenotype in otospheres should be investigated. PMID:23238450

  5. Targeted deletion of Vglut2 expression in the embryonal telencephalon promotes an anxiolytic phenotype of the adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nordenankar, Karin; Bergfors, Assar

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a natural emotion experienced by all individuals. However, when anxiety becomes excessive, it contributes to the substantial group of anxiety disorders that affect one in three people and thus are among the most common psychiatric disorders. Anxiolysis, the reduction of anxiety, is mediated via several large groups of therapeutical compounds, but the relief is often only temporary, and increased knowledge of the neurobiology underlying anxiety is needed in order to improve future therapies. Aim We previously demonstrated that mice lacking forebrain expression of the Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) from adolescence showed a strong anxiolytic behaviour as adults. In the current study, we wished to analyse if removal of Vglut2 expression already from mid-gestation of the mouse embryo would give rise to similar anxiolysis in the adult mouse. Methods We produced transgenic mice lacking Vglut2 from mid-gestation and analysed their affective behaviour, including anxiety, when they had reached adulthood. Results The transgenic mice lacking Vglut2 expression from mid-gestation showed certain signs of anxiolytic behaviour, but this phenotype was not as prominent as when Vglut2 was removed during adolescence. Conclusion Our results suggest that both embryonal and adolescent forebrain expression of Vglut2 normally contributes to balancing the level of anxiety. As the neurobiological basis for anxiety is similar across species, our results in mice may help improve the current understanding of the neurocircuitry of anxiety, and hence anxiolysis, also in humans. PMID:25857802

  6. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated LARGE Gene Therapy Rescues the Muscular Dystrophic Phenotype in Mouse Models of Dystroglycanopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; He, Yonglin; Wang, Kejian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Shengle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dystroglycanopathies are a group of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) often caused by mutations in genes encoding glycosyltransferases that lead to hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) and reduce its extracellular matrix-binding activity. Overexpressing LARGE (formerly known as like-glycosyltransferase) generates an extracellular matrix-binding carbohydrate epitope in cells with CMD-causing mutations in not only LARGE but also other glycosyltransferases, including POMT1, POMGnT1, and fukutin, creating the possibilities of a one-for-all gene therapy. To determine the feasibility of LARGE gene therapy, a serotype 9 adeno-associated viral vector for overexpressing LARGE (AAV9-LARGE) was injected intracardially into newborns of two mouse models of CMD: the natural LARGE mutant Largemyd mice and protein O-mannose N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1) knockout mice. AAV9-LARGE virus treatment yielded partial restoration of α-DG glycosylation and ligand-binding activity. The muscular dystrophy phenotype in skeletal muscles was ameliorated as revealed by significantly reduced fibrosis, necrosis, and numbers of centrally located nuclei with improved motor function. These results indicate that LARGE overexpression in vivo by AAV9-mediated gene therapy is effective at restoring functional glycosylation of α-DG and rescuing the muscular dystrophy phenotype in deficiency of not only LARGE but also POMGnT1, providing evidence that in vivo LARGE gene therapy may be broadly useful in dystroglycanopathies. PMID:23379513

  7. Adeno-associated viral-mediated LARGE gene therapy rescues the muscular dystrophic phenotype in mouse models of dystroglycanopathy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; He, Yonglin; Wang, Kejian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Shengle; Hu, Huaiyu

    2013-03-01

    Dystroglycanopathies are a group of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) often caused by mutations in genes encoding glycosyltransferases that lead to hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) and reduce its extracellular matrix-binding activity. Overexpressing LARGE (formerly known as like-glycosyltransferase) generates an extracellular matrix-binding carbohydrate epitope in cells with CMD-causing mutations in not only LARGE but also other glycosyltransferases, including POMT1, POMGnT1, and fukutin, creating the possibilities of a one-for-all gene therapy. To determine the feasibility of LARGE gene therapy, a serotype 9 adeno-associated viral vector for overexpressing LARGE (AAV9-LARGE) was injected intracardially into newborns of two mouse models of CMD: the natural LARGE mutant Large(myd) mice and protein O-mannose N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1) knockout mice. AAV9-LARGE virus treatment yielded partial restoration of α-DG glycosylation and ligand-binding activity. The muscular dystrophy phenotype in skeletal muscles was ameliorated as revealed by significantly reduced fibrosis, necrosis, and numbers of centrally located nuclei with improved motor function. These results indicate that LARGE overexpression in vivo by AAV9-mediated gene therapy is effective at restoring functional glycosylation of α-DG and rescuing the muscular dystrophy phenotype in deficiency of not only LARGE but also POMGnT1, providing evidence that in vivo LARGE gene therapy may be broadly useful in dystroglycanopathies. PMID:23379513

  8. Ultra-high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy and high throughput cardiovascular phenotyping in a large scale mouse mutagenesis screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Francis, Richard; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kim, Andy; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is ideally suited for phenotyping fetal mice for congenital heart disease (CHD), as imaging can be carried out noninvasively to provide both hemodynamic and structural information essential for CHD diagnosis. Using the UBM (Vevo 2100; 40Hz) in conjunction with the clinical ultrasound system (Acuson Sequioa C512; 15Hz), we developed a two-step screening protocol to scan thousands fetuses derived from ENU mutagenized pedigrees. A wide spectrum of CHD was detected by the UBM, which were subsequently confirmed with follow-up necropsy and histopathology examination with episcopic fluorescence image capture. CHD observed included outflow anomalies, left/right heart obstructive lesions, septal/valvular defects and cardiac situs anomalies. Meanwhile, various extracardiac defects were found, such as polydactyly, craniofacial defects, exencephaly, omphalocele-cleft palate, most of which were associated with cardiac defects. Our analyses showed the UBM was better at assessing cardiac structure and blood flow profiles, while conventional ultrasound allowed higher throughput low-resolution screening. Our study showed the integration of conventional clinical ultrasound imaging with the UBM for fetal mouse cardiovascular phenotyping can maximize the detection and recovery of CHD mutants.

  9. In vivo administration of the frog skin peptide frenatin 2.1S induces immunostimulatory phenotypes of mouse mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Jelena M; Radosavljevic, Gordana D; Jovanovic, Ivan P; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N; Conlon, J Michael; Lukic, Miodrag L

    2015-09-01

    Host-defense peptides secreted by epithelial cells exhibit cytotoxic and immunoregulatory effects in order to protect the organism against invading microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides derived from frog skin display both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive actions as demonstrated by in vitro cytokine production by macrophages. Frenatin 2.1S, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog, Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae), enhances the in vitro production of pro-inflammatory IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-23 by mouse peritoneal cells. In order to test whether the immunostimulatory action of frenatin 2.1S may be reproduced in vivo, effects of intraperitoneal injections of this peptide on mononuclear cells in the peritoneum and spleen were determined 24h after administration. The data indicate that frenatin 2.1S enhances the activation state and homing capacity of Th1 type lymphocytes and NKT cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as evaluated by increased expression of early activation marker CD69 among T and NKT cells and chemokine receptor CXCR3 among T cells. Frenatin 2.1S significantly increases the percentage of (F4/80(+)CD11c(+)CD206(+)) pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and enhances the expression of MHC class II molecules on F4/80(+)CD11c(+) macrophages in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Additionally, injection of frenatin 2.1S, in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide, increases the percentage of peritoneal B cells of the (CD19(+)CD11b(+)CD5(+)) B1a phenotype thus contributing to an inflammatory milieu. We suggest that the immunostimulatory effect of frenatin 2.1S may have therapeutic relevance in disease states, such as certain types of cancer, in which an enhanced inflammatory response may be beneficial. PMID:25861850

  10. Accumulated myeloid-derived suppressor cells demonstrate distinct phenotypes and functions in two non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tsunashima, Hiromichi; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Moritoki, Yuki; Hara, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the steady state of hepatic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and the lipid accumulation and inflammation-related changes in these cells, we analyzed the presence and functions of hepatic MDSCs in the following two non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) model; MSG was subcutaneously injected into neonatal male C57BL/6J mice that were fed with normal diet up to 18 weeks of age. Methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) model; 16-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with an MCD for 2 weeks. Those hepatic MDSCs were evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemically. Results Both MSG and MCD mice exhibited greater numbers of hepatic lipid droplets than 18-week-old male control mice. Hepatocellular ballooning was obvious in MSG, whereas inflammatory cell infiltration were apparent in MCD mice. CD11b, CD115, and Gr-1-positive hepatic MDSCs were increased in both models but higher in MCD mice, and demonstrated higher expression of an M2 macrophage marker CD206 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) in MSG compared to MCD mice. Degree of reactive oxygen species production was evaluated using the DCFDA MFI values, which were significantly elevated in hepatic MDSCs from MCD mice. MSG mouse livers demonstrated Gr-1 positive cell accumulation around lipid droplets, mimicking crown-like structures in adipose tissues. In contrast, hepatic Gr-1 positive cells were primarily located in inflammatory cell aggregates in MCD mice. Conclusions These results suggest that hepatic fatty changes promote MDSC accumulation, and inflammatory changes induce phenotypic and functional alteration in hepatic MDSCs in NASH mouse models. PMID:26605278

  11. Pathogenic tau species drive a psychosis-like phenotype in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Koppel, J; Jimenez, H; Azose, M; D'Abramo, C; Acker, C; Buthorn, J; Greenwald, B S; Lewis, J; Lesser, M; Liu, Z; Davies, P

    2014-12-15

    Psychotic Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) is a rapidly progressive variant of AD associated with an increased burden of frontal tau pathology that affects up to 50% of those with AD, and is observed more commonly in females. To date, there are no safe and effective medication interventions with an indication for treatment in this condition, and there has been only very limited exploration of potential animal models for pre-clinical drug development. Pathogenic tau is over represented in the frontal cortex in AD+P, especially in females. In order to develop a candidate animal model of AD+P, we employed a tau mouse model with a heavy burden of frontal tau pathology, the rTg(tauP301L)4510 mouse, hereafter termed rTg4510. We explored deficits of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI), a model of psychosis in rodents, and the correlation between pathogenic phospho-tau species associated with AD+P and PPI deficits in female mice. We found that female rTg4510 mice exhibit increasing PPI deficits relative to littermate controls from 4.5 to 5.5 months of age, and that these deficits are driven by insoluble fractions of the phospho-tau species pSer396/404, pSer202, and pThr231 found to be associated with human AD+P. This preliminary data suggests the utility of the rTg4510 mouse as a candidate disease model of human female AD+P. Further work expanded to include both genders and other behavioral outcome measures relevant to AD+P is necessary. PMID:25151619

  12. Phenotype-dependent alteration of pathways and networks reveals a pure synergistic mechanism for compounds treating mouse cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-qian; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ying-ying; Yu, Ya-nan; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Zhi-li; Wu, Hong-li; Li, Hai-xia; Dang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shan-shan; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies have showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) and jasminoidin (JA) effectively reduce cerebral infarct volume in mice. In this study we explored the pure synergistic mechanism of these compounds in treatment of mouse cerebral ischemia, which was defined as synergistic actions specific for phenotype variations after excluding interference from ineffective compounds. Methods: Mice with focal cerebral ischemia were treated with UA, JA or a combination JA and UA (JU). Concha margaritifera (CM) was taken as ineffective compound. Cerebral infarct volume of the mice was determined, and the hippocampi were taken for microarray analysis. Particular signaling pathways and biological functions were enriched based on differentially expressed genes, and corresponding networks were constructed through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In phenotype analysis, UA, JA, and JU significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume with JU being superior to UA or JA alone, while CM was ineffective. As a result, 4 pathways enriched in CM were excluded. Core pathways in the phenotype-positive groups (UA or JA) were involved in neuronal homeostasis and neuropathology. JU-contributing pathways included all UA-contributing and the majority (71.7%) of JA-contributing pathways, and 10 new core pathways whose effects included inflammatory immunity, apoptosis and nervous system development. The functions of JU group included all functions of JA group, the majority (93.1%) of UA-contributing functions, and 3 new core functions, which focused on physiological system development and function. Conclusion: The pure synergism between UA and JA underlies 10 new core pathways and 3 new core functions, which are involved in inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and nervous system development. PMID:25960134

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements, phenotypic variation and modularity: a case study from a contact zone between house mouse Robertsonian races in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Colangelo, Paolo; Meyer, Axel; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2016-03-01

    The Western European house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, is well-known for the high frequency of Robertsonian fusions that have rapidly produced more than 50 karyotipic races, making it an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of chromosomal speciation. The mouse mandible is one of the traits studied most intensively to investigate the effect of Robertsonian fusions on phenotypic variation within and between populations. This complex bone structure has also been widely used to study the level of integration between different morphogenetic units. Here, with the aim of testing the effect of different karyotypic assets on the morphology of the mouse mandible and on its level of modularity, we performed morphometric analyses of mice from a contact area between two highly metacentric races in Central Italy. We found no difference in size, while the mandible shape was found to be different between the two Robertsonian races, even after accounting for the genetic relationships among individuals and geographic proximity. Our results support the existence of two modules that indicate a certain degree of evolutionary independence, but no difference in the strength of modularity between chromosomal races. Moreover, the ascending ramus showed more pronounced interpopulation/race phenotypic differences than the alveolar region, an effect that could be associated to their different polygenic architecture. This study suggests that chromosomal rearrangements play a role in the house mouse phenotypic divergence, and that the two modules of the mouse mandible are differentially affected by environmental factors and genetic makeup. PMID:26855768

  14. Fitness and Phenotypic Characterization of Miltefosine-Resistant Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kimbra G.; Vacchina, Paola; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Wadsworth, Mariha; McDowell, Mary Ann; Morales, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease with several clinical manifestations. Leishmania major is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is largely characterized by ulcerative lesions appearing on the skin. Current treatments of leishmaniasis include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B, however, the toxic side effects of these drugs and difficulty with distribution makes these options less than ideal. Miltefosine (MIL) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis. Originally developed for cancer chemotherapy, the mechanism of action of MIL in Leishmania spp. is largely unknown. While treatment with MIL has proven effective, higher tolerance to the drug has been observed, and resistance is easily developed in an in vitro environment. Utilizing stepwise selection we generated MIL-resistant cultures of L. major and characterized the fitness of MIL-resistant L. major. Resistant parasites proliferate at a comparable rate to the wild-type (WT) and exhibit similar apoptotic responses. As expected, MIL-resistant parasites demonstrate decreased susceptibility to MIL, which reduces after the drug is withdrawn from culture. Our data demonstrate metacyclogenesis is elevated in MIL-resistant L. major, albeit these parasites display attenuated in vitro and in vivo virulence and standard survival rates in the natural sandfly vector, indicating that development of experimental resistance to miltefosine does not lead to an increased competitive fitness in L. major. PMID:26230675

  15. Presence of rd8 mutation does not alter the ocular phenotype of late-onset retinal degeneration mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Bhubanananda; Alapati, Akhila; Suk, John; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Jablonski, Monica M.; Ayyagari, Radha

    2015-01-01

    -type and Ctrp5+/− mice with the rd8 mutation (Wtrd8/rd8 and Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8, respectively) revealed an integrated retinal architecture with well-defined outer segments/inner segments (OS/IS), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and inner nuclear layer (INL). The presence of pseudorosette structures reported in the rd8 mice between the ONL and the INL in the ventral quadrant of the retina was not observed in all genotypes studied. Further, the external limiting membrane was continuous in the Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8 and Wtrd8/rd8 mice. Evaluation of the retinal phenotype revealed that the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mice developed characteristic L-ORD pathology including age-dependent accumulation of AF spots, development of sub-retinal, sub-RPE, and basal laminar deposits, and Bruch’s membrane abnormalities at older age, while these changes were not observed in the age-matched littermate WTwt/wt mice. Conclusions The Wtrd8/rd8 and Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8 mice raised on C57BL/6J did not develop early onset retinal changes that are characteristic of the rd8 phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that manifestation of rd8-associated pathology depends on the genetic background. The retinal pathology observed in mice with the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt genotype is consistent with the L-ORD phenotype observed in patients and with the phenotype we described previously. The lack of rd8-associated retinal pathology in the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mouse model raised on the C57BL/6J background and the development of the L-ORD phenotype in these mice in the presence and absence of the rd8 mutation suggests that the pathology observed in the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mice is primarily associated with the S163R mutation in the Ctrp5 gene. PMID:25814825

  16. Lithium prevents parkinsonian behavioral and striatal phenotypes in an aged parkin mutant transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Christopher A; Dewey, Colleen M; Chinta, Shankar J; Rane, Anand; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Batir, Sean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Andersen, Julie K

    2014-12-01

    Lithium has long been used as a treatment for the psychiatric disease bipolar disorder. However, previous studies suggest that lithium provides neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The exact mechanism by which lithium exerts these effects still remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose lithium treatment in an aged mouse model expressing a parkin mutation within dopaminergic neurons. We found that low-dose lithium treatment prevented motor impairment as demonstrated by the open field test, pole test, and rearing behavior. Furthermore, lithium prevented dopaminergic striatal degeneration in parkin animals. We also found that parkin-induced striatal astrogliosis and microglial activation were prevented by lithium treatment. Our results further corroborate the use of this parkin mutant transgenic mouse line as a model for PD for testing novel therapeutics. The findings of the present study also provide further validation that lithium could be re-purposed as a therapy for PD and suggest that anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to its neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:25452026

  17. The organoid-initiating cells in mouse pancreas and liver are phenotypically and functionally similar

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Craig; Tarlow, Branden; Wang, Yuhan; Canaday, Pamela S; Haft, Annelise; Schug, Jonathan; Streeter, Philip R; Finegold, Milton J; Shenje, Lincoln T; Kaestner, Klaus H; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic Lgr5 expression has been associated with organoid-forming epithelial progenitor populations but the identity of the organoid-initiating epithelial cell subpopulation has remained elusive. Injury causes the emergence of an Lgr5+ organoid-forming epithelial progenitor population in the adult mouse liver and pancreas. Here, we define the origin of organoid-initiating cells from mouse pancreas and liver prior to Lgr5 activation. This clonogenic population was defined as MIC1-1C3+/CD133+/CD26− in both tissues and the frequency of organoid initiation within this population was approximately 5% in each case. The transcriptomes of these populations overlapped extensively and showed enrichment of epithelial progenitor-associated regulatory genes such as Sox9 and FoxJ1. Surprisingly, pancreatic organoid cells also had the capacity to generate hepatocyte-like cells upon transplantation to Fah-/- mice, indicating a differentiation capacity similar to hepatic organoids. Although spontaneous endocrine differentiation of pancreatic progenitors was not observed in culture, adenoviral delivery of fate-specifying factors Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA induced insulin expression without glucagon or somatostatin. Pancreatic organoid cultures therefore preserve many key attributes of progenitor cells while allowing unlimited expansion, facilitating the study of fate determination. PMID:25151611

  18. Opa1 Overexpression Ameliorates the Phenotype of Two Mitochondrial Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Civiletto, Gabriele; Varanita, Tatiana; Cerutti, Raffaele; Gorletta, Tatiana; Barbaro, Serena; Marchet, Silvia; Lamperti, Costanza; Viscomi, Carlo; Scorrano, Luca; Zeviani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Increased levels of the mitochondria-shaping protein Opa1 improve respiratory chain efficiency and protect from tissue damage, suggesting that it could be an attractive target to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that Opa1 overexpression ameliorates two mouse models of defective mitochondrial bioenergetics. The offspring from crosses of a constitutive knockout for the structural complex I component Ndufs4 (Ndufs4−/−), and of a muscle-specific conditional knockout for the complex IV assembly factor Cox15 (Cox15sm/sm), with Opa1 transgenic (Opa1tg) mice showed improved motor skills and respiratory chain activities compared to the naive, non-Opa1-overexpressing, models. While the amelioration was modest in Ndufs4−/−::Opa1tg mice, correction of cristae ultrastructure and mitochondrial respiration, improvement of motor performance and prolongation of lifespan were remarkable in Cox15sm/sm::Opa1tg mice. Mechanistically, respiratory chain supercomplexes were increased in Cox15sm/sm::Opa1tg mice, and residual monomeric complex IV was stabilized. In conclusion, cristae shape amelioration by controlled Opa1 overexpression improves two mouse models of mitochondrial disease. PMID:26039449

  19. The organoid-initiating cells in mouse pancreas and liver are phenotypically and functionally similar.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Craig; Tarlow, Branden; Wang, Yuhan; Canaday, Pamela S; Haft, Annelise; Schug, Jonathan; Streeter, Philip R; Finegold, Milton J; Shenje, Lincoln T; Kaestner, Klaus H; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Pancreatic Lgr5 expression has been associated with organoid-forming epithelial progenitor populations but the identity of the organoid-initiating epithelial cell subpopulation has remained elusive. Injury causes the emergence of an Lgr5(+) organoid-forming epithelial progenitor population in the adult mouse liver and pancreas. Here, we define the origin of organoid-initiating cells from mouse pancreas and liver prior to Lgr5 activation. This clonogenic population was defined as MIC1-1C3(+)/CD133(+)/CD26(-) in both tissues and the frequency of organoid initiation within this population was approximately 5% in each case. The transcriptomes of these populations overlapped extensively and showed enrichment of epithelial progenitor-associated regulatory genes such as Sox9 and FoxJ1. Surprisingly, pancreatic organoid cells also had the capacity to generate hepatocyte-like cells upon transplantation to Fah(-/-) mice, indicating a differentiation capacity similar to hepatic organoids. Although spontaneous endocrine differentiation of pancreatic progenitors was not observed in culture, adenoviral delivery of fate-specifying factors Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA induced insulin expression without glucagon or somatostatin. Pancreatic organoid cultures therefore preserve many key attributes of progenitor cells while allowing unlimited expansion, facilitating the study of fate determination. PMID:25151611

  20. Relationship between obesity phenotypes and genetic determinants in a mouse model for juvenile obesity.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Schäfer, Nadine; Hesse, Claudia; Heise, Sebastian; Neuschl, Christina; Wagener, Asja; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2013-09-16

    Obesity, a state of imbalance between lean mass and fat mass, is important for the etiology of diseases affected by the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although genome-wide association studies have repeatedly associated genes with obesity and body weight, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the muscle and adipose tissues remain unknown. Using 351 mice (at 10 wk of age) of an intercross population between Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) and C57BL/6NCrl (B6N) mice, we examined the causal relationships between genetic variations and multiple traits: body lean mass and fat mass, adipokines, and bone mineral density. Furthermore, evidence from structural equation modeling suggests causality among these traits. In the BFMI model, juvenile obesity affects lean mass and impairs bone mineral density via adipokines secreted from the white adipose tissues. While previous studies have indicated that lean mass has a causative effect on adiposity, in the Berlin Fat Mouse model that has been selected for juvenile obesity (at 9 wk of age) for >90 generations, however, the causality is switched from fat mass to lean mass. In addition, linkage studies and statistical modeling have indicated that quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 5 and 6 affect both lean mass and fat mass. These lines of evidence indicate that the muscle and adipose tissues interact with one another and the interaction is modulated by genetic variations that are shaped by selections. Experimental examinations are necessary to verify the biological role of the inferred causalities. PMID:23922126

  1. Interleukin-1 receptors in mouse brain: Characterization and neuronal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, T.; Tracey, D.E.; Mitchell, W.M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-12-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a variety of effects in brain, including induction of fever, alteration of slow wave sleep, and alteration of neuroendocrine activity. To examine the potential sites of action of IL-1 in brain, we used iodine-125-labeled recombinant human interleukin-1 (( 125I)IL-1) to identify and characterize IL-1 receptors in crude membrane preparations of mouse (C57BL/6) hippocampus and to study the distribution of IL-1-binding sites in brain using autoradiography. In preliminary homogenate binding and autoradiographic studies, (125I)IL-1 alpha showed significantly higher specific binding than (125I)IL-1 beta. Thus, (125I)IL-1 alpha was used in all subsequent assays. The binding of (125I)IL-1 alpha was linear over a broad range of membrane protein concentrations, saturable, reversible, and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant value of 114 +/- 35 pM and a maximum number of binding sites of 2.5 +/- 0.4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, recombinant human IL-1 alpha, recombinant human IL-1 beta, and a weak IL-1 beta analog. IL-1 beta +, inhibited (125I)IL-1 alpha binding to mouse hippocampus in parallel with their relative bioactivities in the T-cell comitogenesis assay, with inhibitory binding affinity constants of 55 +/- 18, 76 +/- 20, and 2940 +/- 742 pM, respectively; rat/human CRF and human tumor necrosis factor showed no effect on (125I)IL-1 alpha binding. Autoradiographic localization studies revealed very low densities of (125I)IL-1 alpha-binding sites throughout the brain, with highest densities present in the molecular and granular layers of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the choroid plexus. Quinolinic acid lesion studies demonstrated that the (125I)IL-1 alpha-binding sites in the hippocampus were localized to intrinsic neurons.

  2. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Holtfreter, Silva; Radcliff, Fiona J; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Fraser, John D; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ) which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization. PMID:24023720

  3. Partial characterization of specific cantharidin binding sites in mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, M.J.; Pessah, I.N.; Matsuzawa, M.; Casida, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The mode of action of cantharidin, the natural vesicant of blister beetles, is examined by radioligand binding studies with mouse tissues. (3H)Cantharidin undergoes specific and saturable binding with the liver cytosol, which is characterized as follows: Kd and Bmax values of 30 nM and 1.8 pmol/mg of protein, respectively; linearity with respect to protein concentration; pH optimum of 6.5 to 7.5; association and dissociation half-times of 20 min and 12 hr, respectively; and 50% inhibition by Mg2+ at 70 microM, Ca2+ at 224 microM, pyrophosphate at 27 microM, and nucleotide triphosphates at 52-81 microM. The binding site undergoes a loss of activity at 45 degrees or higher. The toxicological relevance of this specific (3H)cantharidin binding site of mouse liver cytosol is established in three ways. First, the potency of 15 active cantharidin analogs for inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding is correlated with their acute toxicity to mice (r = 0.829). Second, 26 related compounds that are inactive in inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding are also of little or no toxicity to mice. Finally, the binding of (3H) cantharidin to liver cytosol from mice poisoned with increasing amounts of unlabeled cantharidin is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. (3H)Cantharidin also specifically binds to cytosol fractions of blood, brain, heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, skin, spleen, and stomach. The characteristics of the specific binding site in brain are very similar to those determined in liver with respect to Kd, Bmax, association/dissociation kinetics, and sensitivity to inhibitors. It therefore appears that the toxicity of cantharidin and related oxabicycloheptanes, including the herbicide endothal, is attributable to binding at a specific site in liver and possibly other tissues.

  4. Adrenal and Ovarian Phenotype of a Tissue-Specific Urocortin 2-Overexpressing Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Spyroglou, Ariadni; Riester, Anna; Mueller-Peltzer, Katharina; Lu, Ailing; Rohde, Juliane; Hantel, Constanze; Kuehne, Claudia; Kulle, Alexandra; Riepe, Felix; Deussing, Jan M; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Urocortin 2 (UCN2) is a neuropeptide of the CRH family, involved in homeostatic mechanisms, the stress response, and control of anxiety. To elucidate the effects of UCN2 on steroidogenesis, we developed a mouse model that allows a Cre recombinase-determined conditional overexpression of UCN2 (UCN2-COE). In these mice SF1-Cre-driven overexpression of UCN2 was restricted to the adrenal glands, gonads, and parts of the hypothalamus. UCN2-COE animals of both sexes revealed significantly higher plasma UCN2 levels and significantly higher UCN2 expression levels in the adrenals and ovaries. In contrast, the baseline expression of UCN2 was already high in the testes of control mice with no further increase achievable in UCN2-COE animals. Adrenal steroidogenesis of UCN2-COE animals was investigated under baseline conditions, upon an ACTH stimulation test, and following a restraint stress test. A tendency toward lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes was detectable in UCN2-COE animals of both sexes with slight differences between males and females. A similar reduction in the expression levels of the final steps of ovarian steroidogenesis, accompanied by reduced plasma estradiol levels, was observed in female UCN2-COE animals. Thus, adrenal UCN2 overexpression resulted in down-regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis, suggesting a reduction in the stress response in the mouse (stress coping behavior). Similarly, UCN2 overexpression in the ovaries caused a decrease in steroidogenesis and reduction of follicles that had undergone ovulation. Nevertheless, this finding was not associated with reduced fertility. PMID:25942073

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of isogenic doubled haploid exotic introgression lines in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the genotypic and phenotypic variation for cell wall digestibility (CWD) and other agronomic traits of 50 backcross 1 generation doubled haploids (BC1DH) lines developed from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project. These lines consisted of 31 exotic, unadapted maize race...

  6. Enhanced detection and comprehensive in situ phenotypic characterization of circulating and disseminated heteroploid epithelial and glioma tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daisy Dandan; Li, Linda; Lin, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    Conventional strategy of anti-EpCAM capture and immunostaining of cytokeratins (CKs) to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by highly heterogeneous and dynamic expression or absence of EpCAM and/or CKs in CTCs. In this study, a novel integrated cellular and molecular approach of subtraction enrichment (SE) and immunostaining-FISH (iFISH) was successfully developed. Both large or small size CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in various biofluid samples including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cancer patients and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) mouse models were efficiently enriched and comprehensively identified and characterized by SE-iFISH. Non-hematopoietic CTCs with heteroploid chromosome 8 were detected in 87–92% of lung, esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Characterization of CTCs performed by CK18-iFISH showed that CK18, the dual epithelial marker and tumor biomarker, was strong positive in only 14% of lung and 24% of esophageal CTCs, respectively. Unlike conventional methodologies restricted only to the large and/or both EpCAM and CK positive CTCs, SE-iFISH enables efficient enrichment and performing in situ phenotypic and karyotypic identification and characterization of the highly heterogeneous CTC subtypes classified by both chromosome ploidy and the expression of various tumor biomarkers. Each CTC subtype may possess distinct clinical significance relative to tumor metastasis, relapse, therapeutic drug sensitivity or resistance, etc. PMID:26267323

  7. Selection and phenotypic characterization of nonhemagglutinating mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Chandad, F; Mayrand, D; Grenier, D; Hinode, D; Mouton, C

    1996-01-01

    To further investigate the relationship between fimbriae and the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2 of Porphyromonas gingivalis, three spontaneous mutants of the type strain ATCC 33277 were selected by a hemadsorption procedure. They were characterized for hemagglutination, trypsin-like and lectin-binding activities, and hydrophobicity and for the presence of fimbriae. The presence of the 42-kDa (the fimbrilin subunit) and the 43- and 49-kDa (the HA-Ag2 components) polypeptides was investigated by immunoblotting using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed to fimbriae and to the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2. Cells from two of the three mutants (M1 and M2) exhibited no or little hemagglutination activity and very low trypsin-like activity and did not show the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides. Abnormal fimbriation in M1 was deduced from the following observations of cells grown for 18 h: absence of the 42-kDa polypeptide and of a 14-kDa polypeptide and no fimbriae visible on electron micrographs. While the cells of mutant M2, irrespective of the age of the culture, were found to lack the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides and hemagglutination activity, the supernatants of cultures grown for 72 h had high hemagglutination and trypsin-like activities and revealed the presence of the 42-, 43-, and 49-kDa polypeptides. This suggests that M2 may be missing some molecules which anchor the components to the cell surface. Mutant M3 showed levels of activities similar to those of the parental strain but lacked the 43-kDa polypeptide. Other pleiotropic effects observed for the mutants included loss of dark pigmentation and lower hydrophobicity. The data from this study fuel an emerging consensus whereby fimbriation, hemagglutination, and proteolytic activities, as well as other functions in P. gingivalis, are intricate. PMID:8641806

  8. Characterizing major depression phenotypes by presence and type of psychomotor disturbance in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, which has prompted investigation of intermediate MDD phenotypes based on specific key symptoms. Presence and type of psychomotor disturbance may be an important psychopathologic feature that differentiates clinically distinct forms of juvenile MDD. This study examined the phenotypic status of three putative MDD phenotypes in a community sample of 941 youths: (1) agitated depression (MDD with psychomotor agitation), (2) retarded depression (MDD with psychomotor retardation), and (3) agitated-retarded depression (MDD with psychomotor agitation and retardation within an episode). Hasler et al.'s [2004: Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1765-1781] criteria of specificity (degree of association with relevant symptoms and conditions related to the disease of interest versus other psychiatric conditions), stability (degree of stability over time), and heritability (degree of familial aggregation with relevant conditions) were used to evaluate the phenotypic significance of these subtypes. Results were suggestive that agitated depression was a relatively specific phenotypic syndrome characterized by irritability, arousal, physical complaints, and vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence; low stability across depressive episodes; and low heritability. Agitated-retarded depression was relatively specific and characterized by increased severity, recurrence, vegetative symptoms, suicidal ideation, social impairment, endogeneity, and vulnerability to anxiety disorders and bulimia; low stability across episodes; and modest heritability. Although retarded depression was associated with some specific distinguishing characteristics, most associations were explained by the increased severity of this phenotype. Retarded depression evidenced little stability or heritability. These findings offer partial support of the phenotypic status of agitated and agitated-retarded depression in youths. PMID:17385727

  9. Characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3+ leukocytes as putative equivalents of mouse CD8alpha+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Lionel Franz; Salio, Mariolina; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Craciun, Ligia; Chen, Ji-Li; Keller, Anna M; Joffre, Olivier; Zelenay, Santiago; Nye, Emma; Le Moine, Alain; Faure, Florence; Donckier, Vincent; Sancho, David; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Bonnet, Dominique; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2010-06-01

    In mouse, a subset of dendritic cells (DCs) known as CD8alpha+ DCs has emerged as an important player in the regulation of T cell responses and a promising target in vaccination strategies. However, translation into clinical protocols has been hampered by the failure to identify CD8alpha+ DCs in humans. Here, we characterize a population of human DCs that expresses DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) and high levels of BDCA3 and resembles mouse CD8alpha+ DCs in phenotype and function. We describe the presence of such cells in the spleens of humans and humanized mice and report on a protocol to generate them in vitro. Like mouse CD8alpha+ DCs, human DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs express Necl2, CD207, BATF3, IRF8, and TLR3, but not CD11b, IRF4, TLR7, or (unlike CD8alpha+ DCs) TLR9. DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs respond to poly I:C and agonists of TLR8, but not of TLR7, and produce interleukin (IL)-12 when given innate and T cell-derived signals. Notably, DNGR-1+ BDCA3+ DCs from in vitro cultures efficiently internalize material from dead cells and can cross-present exogenous antigens to CD8+ T cells upon treatment with poly I:C. The characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs and the ability to grow them in vitro opens the door for exploiting this subset in immunotherapy. PMID:20479117

  10. Characterization of Kidney and Skeleton Phenotypes of Mice Double Heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2.

    PubMed

    Motojima, Masaru; Tanimoto, Sho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kume, Tsutomu; Abe, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Foxc1 and Foxc2 play key roles in mouse development. Foxc1 mutant mice develop duplex kidneys with double ureters, and lack calvarial and sternal bones. Foxc2 null mice have been reported to have glomerular abnormalities in the kidney and axial skeletal anomalies. Expression patterns of Foxc1 and Foxc2 overlap extensively and are believed to have interactive roles. However, cooperative roles of these factors in glomerular and skeletal development are unknown. Therefore, we examined the kidneys and skeleton of mice that were double heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Double heterozygotes were generated by mating single heterozygotes for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Newborn double heterozygous mice showed many anomalies in the kidney and urinary tract resembling Foxc1 phenotypes, including duplex kidneys, double ureters, hydronephrosis and mega-ureter. Some mice had hydronephrosis alone. In addition to these macroscopic anomalies, some mice had abnormal glomeruli and disorganized glomerular capillaries observed in Foxc2 phenotypes. Interestingly, these mice also showed glomerular cysts not observed in the single-gene knockout of either Foxc1 or Foxc2 but observed in conditional knockout of Foxc2 in the kidney. Serial section analysis revealed that all cystic glomeruli were connected to proximal tubules, precluding the possibility of atubular glomeruli resulting in cyst formation. Dorsally opened vertebral arches and malformations of sternal bones in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc1 null mice. Absent or split vertebral bodies in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc2 null mice, whilst hydrocephalus noted in the Foxc1 phenotype was not observed. Thus, Foxc1 and Foxc2 have a role in kidney and axial skeleton development. These transcription factors might interact in the regulation of the embryogenesis of these organs. PMID:27193493

  11. TMEM132D, a new candidate for anxiety phenotypes: evidence from human and mouse studies.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, A; Czibere, L; Roeske, D; Lucae, S; Unschuld, P G; Ripke, S; Specht, M; Kohli, M A; Kloiber, S; Ising, M; Heck, A; Pfister, H; Zimmermann, P; Lieb, R; Pütz, B; Uhr, M; Weber, P; Deussing, J M; Gonik, M; Bunck, M; Kebler, M S; Frank, E; Hohoff, C; Domschke, K; Krakowitzky, P; Maier, W; Bandelow, B; Jacob, C; Deckert, J; Schreiber, S; Strohmaier, J; Nöthen, M; Cichon, S; Rietschel, M; Bettecken, T; Keck, M E; Landgraf, R; Müller-Myhsok, B; Holsboer, F; Binder, E B

    2011-06-01

    The lifetime prevalence of panic disorder (PD) is up to 4% worldwide and there is substantial evidence that genetic factors contribute to the development of PD. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TMEM132D, identified in a whole-genome association study (GWAS), were found to be associated with PD in three independent samples, with a two-SNP haplotype associated in each of three samples in the same direction, and with a P-value of 1.2e-7 in the combined sample (909 cases and 915 controls). Independent SNPs in this gene were also associated with the severity of anxiety symptoms in patients affected by PD or panic attacks as well as in patients suffering from unipolar depression. Risk genotypes for PD were associated with higher TMEM132D mRNA expression levels in the frontal cortex. In parallel, using a mouse model of extremes in trait anxiety, we could further show that anxiety-related behavior was positively correlated with Tmem132d mRNA expression in the anterior cingulate cortex, central to the processing of anxiety/fear-related stimuli, and that in this animal model a Tmem132d SNP is associated with anxiety-related behavior in an F2 panel. TMEM132D may thus be an important new candidate gene for PD as well as more generally for anxiety-related behavior. PMID:20368705

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1(tg) mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1tg mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  14. Dry-contact microelectrode membranes for wireless detection of electrical phenotypes in neonatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Cao, Hung; Beebe, Tyler; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chang, Honglong; Scremin, Oscar; Lien, Ching-Ling; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of aberrant electrical rhythms during heart injury and repair requires prolonged data acquisition. We hereby developed a wearable microelectrode membrane that could be adherent to the chest of neonatal mice for in situ wireless recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The novel dry-contact membrane with a meshed parylene-C pad adjacent to the microelectrodes and the expandable meandrous strips allowed for varying size of the neonates. The performance was evaluated at the system level; specifically, the ECG signals (μV) acquired from the microelectrodes underwent two-stage amplification, band-pass filtering, and optical data transmission by an infrared Light Emitting Diode (LED) to the data-receiving unit. The circuitry was prototyped on a printed circuit board (PCB), consuming less than 300 μW, and was completely powered by an inductive coupling link. Distinct P waves, QRS complexes, and T waves of ECG signals were demonstrated from the non-pharmacologically sedated neonates at ~600 beats per minutes. Thus, we demonstrate the feasibility of both real-time and wireless monitoring cardiac rhythms in a neonatal mouse (17-20 mm and <1 g) via dry-contact microelectrode membrane; thus, providing a basis for diagnosing aberrant electrical conduction in animal models of cardiac injury and repair. PMID:25749638

  15. In vitro Functional Characterization of Mouse Colorectal Afferent Endings

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Gebhart, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    This video demonstrates in detail an in vitro single-fiber electrophysiological recording protocol using a mouse colorectum-nerve preparation. The approach allows unbiased identification and functional characterization of individual colorectal afferents. Extracellular recordings of propagated action potentials (APs) that originate from one or a few afferent (i.e., single-fiber) receptive fields (RFs) in the colorectum are made from teased nerve fiber fascicles. The colorectum is removed with either the pelvic (PN) or lumbar splanchnic (LSN) nerve attached and opened longitudinally. The tissue is placed in a recording chamber, pinned flat and perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution. Focal electrical stimulation is used to locate the colorectal afferent endings, which are further tested by three distinct mechanical stimuli (blunt probing, mucosal stroking and circumferential stretch) to functionally categorize the afferents into five mechanosensitive classes. Endings responding to none of these mechanical stimuli are categorized as mechanically-insensitive afferents (MIAs). Both mechanosensitive and MIAs can be assessed for sensitization (i.e., enhanced response, reduced threshold, and/or acquisition of mechanosensitivity) by localized exposure of RFs to chemicals (e.g., inflammatory soup (IS), capsaicin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)). We describe the equipment and colorectum–nerve recording preparation, harvest of colorectum with attached PN or LSN, identification of RFs in the colorectum, single-fiber recording from nerve fascicles, and localized application of chemicals to the RF. In addition, challenges of the preparation and application of standardized mechanical stimulation are also discussed. PMID:25651300

  16. Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Evan Lee; Balla, Cristina; Franchino, Hannabeth; Melman, Yonathan

    2013-01-01

    The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+ dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24084584

  17. Glut1 deficiency (G1D): Epilepsy and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of the most common human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M.; Heilig, Charles W.; Pascual, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body

  18. Prolonged treatment with pimelic o-aminobenzamide HDAC inhibitors ameliorates the disease phenotype of a Friedreich ataxia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Barnes, Glenn; Jones, Steve; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Pook, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, leading to epigenetic changes and heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing that result in a frataxin protein deficit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including pimelic o-aminobenzamide compounds 106, 109 and 136, have previously been shown to reverse FXN gene silencing in short-term studies of FRDA patient cells and a knock-in mouse model, but the functional consequences of such therapeutic intervention have thus far not been described. We have now investigated the long-term therapeutic effects of 106, 109 and 136 in our GAA repeat expansion mutation-containing YG8R FRDA mouse model. We show that there is no overt toxicity up to 5 months of treatment and there is amelioration of the FRDA-like disease phenotype. Thus, while the neurological deficits of this model are mild, 109 and 106 both produced an improvement of motor coordination, whereas 109 and 136 produced increased locomotor activity. All three compounds increased global histone H3 and H4 acetylation of brain tissue, but only 109 significantly increased acetylation of specific histone residues at the FXN locus. Effects on FXN mRNA expression in CNS tissues were modest, but 109 significantly increased frataxin protein expression in brain tissue. 109 also produced significant increases in brain aconitase enzyme activity, together with reduction of neuronal pathology of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Overall, these results support further assessment of HDAC inhibitors for treatment of Friedreich ataxia. PMID:21397024

  19. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-06-15

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

  20. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

  1. Dissection of a QTL Hotspot on Mouse Distal Chromosome 1 that Modulates Neurobehavioral Phenotypes and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mozhui, Khyobeni; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Schikorski, Thomas; Wang, Xusheng; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkably diverse set of traits maps to a region on mouse distal chromosome 1 (Chr 1) that corresponds to human Chr 1q21–q23. This region is highly enriched in quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control neural and behavioral phenotypes, including motor behavior, escape latency, emotionality, seizure susceptibility (Szs1), and responses to ethanol, caffeine, pentobarbital, and haloperidol. This region also controls the expression of a remarkably large number of genes, including genes that are associated with some of the classical traits that map to distal Chr 1 (e.g., seizure susceptibility). Here, we ask whether this QTL-rich region on Chr 1 (Qrr1) consists of a single master locus or a mixture of linked, but functionally unrelated, QTLs. To answer this question and to evaluate candidate genes, we generated and analyzed several gene expression, haplotype, and sequence datasets. We exploited six complementary mouse crosses, and combed through 18 expression datasets to determine class membership of genes modulated by Qrr1. Qrr1 can be broadly divided into a proximal part (Qrr1p) and a distal part (Qrr1d), each associated with the expression of distinct subsets of genes. Qrr1d controls RNA metabolism and protein synthesis, including the expression of ∼20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Qrr1d contains a tRNA cluster, and this is a functionally pertinent candidate for the tRNA synthetases. Rgs7 and Fmn2 are other strong candidates in Qrr1d. FMN2 protein has pronounced expression in neurons, including in the dendrites, and deletion of Fmn2 had a strong effect on the expression of few genes modulated by Qrr1d. Our analysis revealed a highly complex gene expression regulatory interval in Qrr1, composed of multiple loci modulating the expression of functionally cognate sets of genes. PMID:19008955

  2. Thermal conditions experienced during differentiation affect metabolic and contractile phenotypes of mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Little, Alex G; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Central pathways regulate metabolic responses to cold in endotherms to maintain relatively stable internal core body temperatures. However, peripheral muscles routinely experience temperatures lower than core body temperature, so that it would be advantageous for peripheral tissues to respond to temperature changes independently from core body temperature regulation. Early developmental conditions can influence offspring phenotypes, and here we tested whether developing muscle can compensate locally for the effects of cold exposure independently from central regulation. Muscle myotubes originate from undifferentiated myoblasts that are laid down during embryogenesis. We show that in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12), cold exposure (32°C) increased myoblast metabolic flux compared with 37°C control conditions. Importantly, myotubes that differentiated at 32°C compensated for the thermodynamic effects of low temperature by increasing metabolic rates, ATP production, and glycolytic flux. Myotube responses were also modulated by the temperatures experienced by "parent" myoblasts. Myotubes that differentiated under cold exposure increased activity of the AMP-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK), which may mediate metabolic changes in response cold exposure. Moreover, cold exposure shifted myosin heavy chains from slow to fast, presumably to overcome slower contractile speeds resulting from low temperatures. Adjusting thermal sensitivities locally in peripheral tissues complements central thermoregulation and permits animals to maintain function in cold environments. Muscle also plays a major metabolic role in adults, so that developmental responses to cold are likely to influence energy expenditure later in life. PMID:27385733

  3. Identification of phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous mouse mucosal-associated invariant T cells using MR1 tetramers.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Azad; Koay, Hui Fern; Enders, Anselm; Clanchy, Rhiannon; Eckle, Sidonia B G; Meehan, Bronwyn; Chen, Zhenjun; Whittle, Belinda; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P; Goodnow, Chris C; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; Uldrich, Adam P; Pellicci, Daniel G; Godfrey, Dale I

    2015-06-29

    Studies on the biology of mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) in mice have been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. Using MR1-antigen (Ag) tetramers that specifically bind to the MR1-restricted MAIT T cell receptors (TCRs), we demonstrate that MAIT cells are detectable in a broad range of tissues in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. These cells include CD4(-)CD8(-), CD4(-)CD8(+), and CD4(+)CD8(-) subsets, and their frequency varies in a tissue- and strain-specific manner. Mouse MAIT cells have a CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) memory phenotype and produce high levels of IL-17A, whereas other cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF, are produced at low to moderate levels. Consistent with high IL-17A production, most MAIT cells express high levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), whereas RORγt(lo) MAIT cells predominantly express T-bet and produce IFN-γ. Most MAIT cells express the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor, and their development is largely PLZF dependent. These observations contrast with previous reports that MAIT cells from Vα19 TCR transgenic mice are PLZF(-) and express a naive CD44(lo) phenotype. Accordingly, MAIT cells from normal mice more closely resemble human MAIT cells than previously appreciated, and this provides the foundation for further investigations of these cells in health and disease. PMID:26101265

  4. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis. PMID:25852474

  5. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis. PMID:25852474

  6. The phenotype of a knockout mouse identifies flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Malagon, Sandra G.; Melidoni, Anna N.; Hernandez, Diana; Omar, Bilal A.; Houseman, Lyndsey; Veeravalli, Sunil; Scott, Flora; Varshavi, Dorsa; Everett, Jeremy; Tsuchiya, Yugo; Timms, John F.; Phillips, Ian R.; Shephard, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the production and metabolic phenotype of a mouse line in which the Fmo5 gene is disrupted. In comparison with wild-type (WT) mice, Fmo5−/− mice exhibit a lean phenotype, which is age-related, becoming apparent after 20 weeks of age. Despite greater food intake, Fmo5−/− mice weigh less, store less fat in white adipose tissue (WAT), have lower plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations and enhanced whole-body energy expenditure, due mostly to increased resting energy expenditure, with no increase in physical activity. An increase in respiratory exchange ratio during the dark phase, the period in which the mice are active, indicates a switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation. In comparison with WT mice, the rate of fatty acid oxidation in Fmo5−/− mice is higher in WAT, which would contribute to depletion of lipid stores in this tissue, and lower in skeletal muscle. Five proteins were down regulated in the liver of Fmo5−/− mice: aldolase B, ketohexokinase and cytosolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) are involved in glucose or fructose metabolism and GPD1 also in production of glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of triglyceride biosynthesis; HMG-CoA synthase 1 is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis; and malic enzyme 1 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, in the process producing NADPH for use in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Down regulation of these proteins provides a potential explanation for the reduced fat deposits and lower plasma cholesterol characteristic of Fmo5−/− mice. Our results indicate that disruption of the Fmo5 gene slows metabolic ageing via pleiotropic effects. PMID:26049045

  7. Excessive nest building is a unique behavioural phenotype in the deer mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous condition characterised by time-consuming intrusive thoughts and/or compulsions. Irrespective of the symptom type diagnosed, the severity of OCD is characterised by heterogeneity in symptom presentation that complicates diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneity of symptoms would be invaluable in an animal model. Nest building behaviour forms part of the normal behavioural repertoire of rodents and demonstrates profound between-species differences. However, it has been proposed that within-species differences in nest building behaviour (i.e. aberrant vs. normal nest building) may resemble obsessive-compulsive-like symptoms. In an attempt to investigate whether other obsessive-compulsive-like behaviours are present in an animal model of OCD, or if aberrant nest building behaviour may represent a unique obsessive-compulsive phenotype in such a model, the current study assessed nest building behaviour in high (H, viz obsessive-compulsive) and non (N, viz normal) stereotypical deer mice. Subsequently, 12 N and H animals, respectively, were provided with an excess of cotton wool daily for one week prior to and following four weeks of high-dose oral escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day). Data from the current investigation demonstrate daily nesting activity to be highly variable in deer mice, with stereotypy and nest building being independent behaviours. However, we identified unique aberrant large nest building behaviour in 30% of animals from both cohorts that was attenuated by escitalopram to pre-treatment nesting scores of the larger group. In summary, behavioural and drug-treatment evidence confirms that deer mouse behaviour does indeed resemble symptom heterogeneity related to OCD, and as such expands its face and predictive validity for the disorder. PMID:27154874

  8. Improvement of the Rett Syndrome Phenotype in a Mecp2 Mouse Model Upon Treatment with Levodopa and a Dopa-Decarboxylase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment. PMID:24917201

  9. Improvement of the Rett syndrome phenotype in a MeCP2 mouse model upon treatment with levodopa and a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-11-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment. PMID:24917201

  10. Igf2 ligand dependency of Pten(+/-) developmental and tumour phenotypes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Church, D N; Phillips, B R; Stuckey, D J; Barnes, D J; Buffa, F M; Manek, S; Clarke, K; Harris, A L; Carter, E J; Hassan, A B

    2012-08-01

    The tumour suppressor PTEN is a key negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt pathway, and is frequently either reduced or lost in human tumours. Murine genetic studies have confirmed that reduction of Pten promotes tumourigenesis in multiple organs, and demonstrated dependency of tumour development on the activation of downstream components such as Akt. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) act via IGF1R to activate the PI3K-Akt pathway, and are commonly upregulated in cancer. A context-dependent interplay between IGFs and PTEN exists in normal tissue and tumours; increased IGF2 ligand supply induces Pten expression creating an autoregulatory negative feedback loop, whereas complete loss of PTEN may either cooperate with IGF overexpression in tumour promotion, or result in desensitisation to IGF ligand. However, it remains unknown whether neoplasia associated with Pten loss is dependent on upstream IGF ligand supply in vivo. We evaluated this by generation of Pten(+/-) mice with differing allelic dosage of Igf2, an imprinted gene encoding the potent embryonic and tumour growth factor Igf2. We show that biallelic Igf2 supply potentiates a previously unreported Pten(+/-) placental phenotype and results in strain-dependent cardiac hyperplasia and neonatal lethality. Importantly, we also show that the effects of Pten loss in vivo are modified by Igf2 supply, as lack of Igf2 results in extended survival and delayed tumour development while biallelic supply is associated with reduced lifespan and accelerated neoplasia in females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduction of PTEN protein to heterozygote levels in human MCF7 cells is associated with increased proliferation in response to IGF2, and does not result in desensitisation to IGF2 signalling. These data indicate that the effects of Pten loss at heterozygote levels commonly observed in human tumours are modified by Igf2 ligand, and emphasise the importance of the evaluation of upstream pathways in tumours with Pten loss

  11. p53 suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1+/− embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically. PMID:25197075

  12. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Ohba, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  13. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  14. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  15. Evolutionary Conservation and Network Structure Characterize Genes of Phenotypic Relevance for Mitosis in Human

    PubMed Central

    del Sol, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The impact of gene silencing on cellular phenotypes is difficult to establish due to the complexity of interactions in the associated biological processes and pathways. A recent genome-wide RNA knock-down study both identified and phenotypically characterized a set of important genes for the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Here, we combine a molecular interaction network analysis, based on physical and functional protein interactions, in conjunction with evolutionary information, to elucidate the common biological and topological properties of these key genes. Our results show that these genes tend to be conserved with their corresponding protein interactions across several species and are key constituents of the evolutionary conserved molecular interaction network. Moreover, a group of bistable network motifs is found to be conserved within this network, which are likely to influence the network stability and therefore the robustness of cellular functioning. They form a cluster, which displays functional homogeneity and is significantly enriched in genes phenotypically relevant for mitosis. Additional results reveal a relationship between specific cellular processes and the phenotypic outcomes induced by gene silencing. This study introduces new ideas regarding the relationship between genotype and phenotype in the context of the cell cycle. We show that the analysis of molecular interaction networks can result in the identification of genes relevant to cellular processes, which is a promising avenue for future research. PMID:22577488

  16. Isolation and Molecular Profiling of Primary Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells: Comparison of Phenotypes from Healthy and Glaucomatous Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Djenderedjian, Levon; Stiemke, Andrew B.; Steinle, Jena J.; Jablonski, Monica M.; Morales-Tirado, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of functional retinal ganglion cells (RGC) is an element of retinal degeneration that is poorly understood. This is in part due to the lack of a reliable and validated protocol for the isolation of primary RGCs. Here we optimize a feasible, reproducible, standardized flow cytometry-based protocol for the isolation and enrichment of homogeneous RGC with the Thy1.2hiCD48negCD15negCD57neg surface phenotype. A three-step validation process was performed by: (1) genomic profiling of 25-genes associated with retinal cells; (2) intracellular labeling of homogeneous sorted cells for the intracellular RGC-markers SNCG, brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A (BRN3A), TUJ1, and RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS); and (3) by applying the methodology on RGC from a mouse model with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve damage. Use of primary RGC cultures will allow for future careful assessment of important cell specific pathways in RGC to provide mechanistic insights into the declining of visual acuity in aged populations and those suffering from retinal neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27242509

  17. Ablation of RIC8A function in mouse neurons leads to a severe neuromuscular phenotype and postnatal death.

    PubMed

    Ruisu, Katrin; Kask, Keiu; Meier, Riho; Saare, Merly; Raid, Raivo; Veraksitš, Alar; Karis, Alar; Tõnissoo, Tambet; Pooga, Margus

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor required for the intracellular regulation of G protein signalling. RIC8 activates different Gα subunits via non-canonical pathway, thereby amplifying and prolonging the G protein mediated signal. In order to circumvent the embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RIC8A and to study its role in the nervous system, we constructed Ric8a conditional knockout mice using Cre/loxP technology. Introduction of a synapsin I promoter driven Cre transgenic mouse strain (SynCre) into the floxed Ric8a (Ric8a (F/F) ) background ablated RIC8A function in most differentiated neuron populations. Mutant SynCre (+/-) Ric8 (lacZ/F) mice were born at expected Mendelian ratio, but they died in early postnatal age (P4-P6). The mutants exhibited major developmental defects, like growth retardation and muscular weakness, impaired coordination and balance, muscular spasms and abnormal heart beat. Histological analysis revealed that the deficiency of RIC8A in neurons caused skeletal muscle atrophy and heart muscle hypoplasia, in addition, the sinoatrial node was misplaced and its size reduced. However, we did not observe gross morphological changes in brains of SynCre (+/-) Ric8a (lacZ/F) mutants. Our results demonstrate that in mice the activity of RIC8A in neurons is essential for survival and its deficiency causes a severe neuromuscular phenotype. PMID:23977396

  18. Skeletal phenotype of the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mouse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Garry A; Callon, Karen E; Watson, Maureen; Costa, Jessica L; Ding, Yaoyao; Dickinson, Michelle; Wang, Yu; Naot, Dorit; Reid, Ian R; Cornish, Jillian

    2011-08-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of the adipocyte, regulates appetite and reproductive function through its hypothalamic receptors. The leptin receptor is present in osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and previously we have shown leptin to be an anabolic bone factor in vitro, stimulating osteoblast proliferation and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Leptin increases bone mass and reduces bone fragility when administered peripherally but also can indirectly reduce bone mass when administered into the central nervous system. However, data from animal models deficient in either leptin (ob/ob) or its receptor (db/db) remain contradictory. We compared the bone phenotype of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) and wild-type mice using micro-computed tomographic (µCT) analysis of the proximal tibias and vertebrae. In the tibia, db/db mice had reduced percent trabecular bone volume (13.0 ± 1.62% in wild-type versus 6.01 ± 0.601% in db/db mice, p = .002) and cortical bone volume (411 ± 21.5 µm(3) versus 316 ± 3.53 µm(3), p = .0014), trabecular thickness (48.4 ± 001.07 µm versus 45.1 ± 0.929 µm, p = .041) and trabecular number (2.68 ± 0.319 mm(-1) versus 1.34 ± 0.148 mm(-1), p = .0034). In the fifth lumbar vertebral body, the trabecular thickness and cortical thickness were decreased in the db/db versus wild-type mice (0.053 ± 0.0011 mm versus 0.047 ± 0.0013 mm, p = .0002 and 0.062 ± 0.00054 mm versus 0.056 ± 0.0009 mm, p = .0001), respectively, whereas the trabecular and cortical percent bone volume and trabecular number did not reach significance. The total (endosteal and periosteal) cortical perimeter (12.2 ± 0.19 mm versus 13.2 ± 0.30 mm, p = .01) was increased. The serum osteocalcin levels were reduced in the db/db mice, suggesting that bone formation rates are decreased. The material properties of db/db femurs were determined by three-point bending and nanoindentation, showing decreased bone strength (13.3 ± 0.280 N versus 7.99 ± 0.984 N, p =

  19. Mouse models of mantle cell lymphoma, complex changes in gene expression and phenotype of engrafted MCL cells: implications for preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Klanova, Magdalena; Soukup, Tomas; Jaksa, Radek; Molinsky, Jan; Lateckova, Lucie; Maswabi, Bokang C L; Prukova, Dana; Brezinova, Jana; Michalova, Kyra; Vockova, Petra; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Kulvait, Vojtech; Zivny, Jan; Vokurka, Martin; Necas, Emanuel; Trneny, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with poor prognosis. Animal models of MCL are scarce. We established and characterized various in vivo models of metastatic human MCL by tail vein injection of either primary cells isolated from patients with MCL or established MCL cell lines (Jeko-1, Mino, Rec-1, Hbl-2, and Granta-519) into immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice. MCL infiltration was assessed with immunohistochemistry (tissues) and flow cytometry (peripheral blood). Engraftment of primary MCL cells was observed in 7 out of 12 patient samples. The pattern of engraftment of primary MCL cells varied from isolated involvement of the spleen to multiorgan infiltration. On the other hand, tumor engraftment was achieved in all five MCL cell lines used and lymphoma involvement of murine bone marrow, spleen, liver, and brain was observed. Overall survival of xenografted mice ranged from 22 ± 1 to 54 ± 3 days depending on the cell line used. Subsequently, we compared the gene expression profile (GEP) and phenotype of the engrafted MCL cells compared with the original in vitro growing cell lines (controls). We demonstrated that engrafted MCL cells displayed complex changes of GEP, protein expression, and sensitivity to cytotoxic agents when compared with controls. We further demonstrated that our MCL mouse models could be used to test the therapeutic activity of systemic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, or angiogenesis inhibitors. The characterization of MCL murine models is likely to aid in improving our knowledge in the disease biology and to assist scientists in the preclinical and clinical development of novel agents in relapsed/refractory MCL patients. PMID:24862967

  20. Variable phenotypic expressivity in inbred retinal degeneration mouse lines: A comparative study of C3H/HeOu and FVB/N rd1 mice

    PubMed Central

    van Wyk, Michiel; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in optogenetics and gene therapy have led to promising new treatment strategies for blindness caused by retinal photoreceptor loss. Preclinical studies often rely on the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1 or Pde6brd1) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mouse model. The rd1 founder mutation is present in more than 100 actively used mouse lines. Since secondary genetic traits are well-known to modify the phenotypic progression of photoreceptor degeneration in animal models and human patients with RP, negligence of the genetic background in the rd1 mouse model is unwarranted. Moreover, the success of various potential therapies, including optogenetic gene therapy and prosthetic implants, depends on the progress of retinal degeneration, which might differ between rd1 mice. To examine the prospect of phenotypic expressivity in the rd1 mouse model, we compared the progress of retinal degeneration in two common rd1 lines, C3H/HeOu and FVB/N. Methods We followed retinal degeneration over 24 weeks in FVB/N, C3H/HeOu, and congenic Pde6b+ seeing mouse lines, using a range of experimental techniques including extracellular recordings from retinal ganglion cells, PCR quantification of cone opsin and Pde6b transcripts, in vivo flash electroretinogram (ERG), and behavioral optokinetic reflex (OKR) recordings. Results We demonstrated a substantial difference in the speed of retinal degeneration and accompanying loss of visual function between the two rd1 lines. Photoreceptor degeneration and loss of vision were faster with an earlier onset in the FVB/N mice compared to C3H/HeOu mice, whereas the performance of the Pde6b+ mice did not differ significantly in any of the tests. By postnatal week 4, the FVB/N mice expressed significantly less cone opsin and Pde6b mRNA and had neither ERG nor OKR responses. At 12 weeks of age, the retinal ganglion cells of the FVB/N mice had lost all light responses. In contrast, 4-week-old C3H/HeOu mice still had ERG and OKR responses, and we

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source. PMID:26743347

  2. Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

  3. CHIP overexpression reduces mutant androgen receptor protein and ameliorates phenotypes of the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Waza, Masahiro; Tokui, Keisuke; Katsuno, Masahisa; Minamiyama, Makoto; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Doyu, Manabu; Sobue, Gen

    2007-05-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the androgen receptor (AR). The pathologic features of SBMA are motor neuron loss in the spinal cord and brainstem and diffuse nuclear accumulation and nuclear inclusions of the mutant AR in the residual motor neurons and certain visceral organs. Many components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and molecular chaperones are also sequestered in the inclusions, suggesting that they may be actively engaged in an attempt to degrade or refold the mutant AR. C terminus of Hsc70 (heat shock cognate protein 70)-interacting protein (CHIP), a U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to interact with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) or Hsp70 and ubiquitylates unfolded proteins trapped by molecular chaperones and degrades them. Here, we demonstrate that transient overexpression of CHIP in a neuronal cell model reduces the monomeric mutant AR more effectively than it does the wild type, suggesting that the mutant AR is more sensitive to CHIP than is the wild type. High expression of CHIP in an SBMA transgenic mouse model also ameliorated motor symptoms and inhibited neuronal nuclear accumulation of the mutant AR. When CHIP was overexpressed in transgenic SBMA mice, mutant AR was also preferentially degraded over wild-type AR. These findings suggest that CHIP overexpression ameliorates SBMA phenotypes in mice by reducing nuclear-localized mutant AR via enhanced mutant AR degradation. Thus, CHIP overexpression would provide a potential therapeutic avenue for SBMA. PMID:17494697

  4. Human and murine dermis contain dendritic cells. Isolation by means of a novel method and phenotypical and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, A; Heine, M; Schuler, G; Romani, N

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) comprise a system of cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs that are specialized to present antigens and to initiate primary T cell responses. The Langerhans cell of the epidermis is used as a prototype for studies of DC in the skin. We have characterized a population of DC in human dermis, one of the first examples of these cells in nonlymphoid organs other than epidermis. To identify their distinct functions and phenotype, we relied upon the preparation of enriched populations that emigrate from organ explants of dermis. The dermal cells have the following key features of mature DC: (a) sheet-like processes, or veils, that are constantly moving; (b) very high levels of surface MHC products; (c) absence of markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelium; (d) substantial expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules such as CD11/CD18, CD54 (ICAM-1), B7/BB1, CD40; and (e) powerful stimulatory function for resting T cells. Dermal DC are fully comparable to epidermis-derived DC, except for the lack of Birbeck granules, lower levels of CD1a, and higher levels of CD36. DC were also detected in explants of mouse dermis. We conclude that cutaneous DC include both epidermal and dermal components, and suggest that other human nonlymphoid tissues may also serve as sources of typical immunostimulatory DC. Images PMID:8254016

  5. Phenotypic & genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus isolates from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Praharaj, Ira; Sujatha, S.; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens and emergence of resistance to many of the antimicrobials used for Gram-positive organisms has made the management of infections due to Enterococcus species difficult. Resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics, especially vancomycin is of special concern. This study was undertaken to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) isolates obtained from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Methods: Susceptibility testing was performed for Enterococcus isolates collected over a period of one year (November 2008-October 2009). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined for the isolates by the agar dilution method. Genotypic characterization of VRE isolates was done by performing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the various vancomycin resistance genes. Results: Of the 367 isolates of Enterococcus species isolated, 32 were found to be resistant to vancomycin after MIC testing. VanA was the commonest phenotype of vancomycin resistance and the commonest genotype was vanA. Among the other important findings of the study was the presence of heterogeneity in isolates of VRE with the vanA gene cluster with regards to resistance to teicoplanin and the coexistence of vanA and vanC1 gene clusters in an isolate of E. gallinarum which conferred high level glycopeptide resistance to the isolate. Interpretation & conclusions: Enterococcus species have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in our patients with a capacity to cause a variety of infections. The vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus isolates was 8.7 per cent in our study which was high compared to other Indian studies. VanA was the commonest phenotype of glycopeptide resistance and vanA was the commonest vancomycin resistance gene. The study also demonstrates phenotypic as well as genotypic

  6. The Lipid Phenotype of Breast Cancer Cells Characterized by Raman Microspectroscopy: Towards a Stratification of Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Codina, Naiara; Rao, Satish; Petrov, Dmitri; Sierra, Angels

    2012-01-01

    Although molecular classification brings interesting insights into breast cancer taxonomy, its implementation in daily clinical care is questionable because of its expense and the information supplied in a single sample allocation is not sufficiently reliable. New approaches, based on a panel of small molecules derived from the global or targeted analysis of metabolic profiles of cells, have found a correlation between activation of de novo lipogenesis and poorer prognosis and shorter disease-free survival for many tumors. We hypothesized that the lipid content of breast cancer cells might be a useful indirect measure of a variety of functions coupled to breast cancer progression. Raman microspectroscopy was used to characterize metabolism of breast cancer cells with different degrees of malignancy. Raman spectra from MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, MCF7 and MCF10A cells were acquired with an InVia Raman microscope (Renishaw) with a backscattered configuration. We used Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analyses to assess the different profiling of the lipid composition of breast cancer cells. Characteristic bands related to lipid content were found at 3014, 2935, 2890 and 2845 cm−1, and related to lipid and protein content at 2940 cm−1. A classificatory model was generated which segregated metastatic cells and non-metastatic cells without basal-like phenotype with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 82.1%. Moreover, expression of SREBP-1c and ABCA1 genes validated the assignation of the lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells. Indeed, changes in fatty acid unsaturation were related with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Raman microspectroscopy is a promising technique for characterizing and classifying the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells on the basis of their lipid profiling. The algorithm for the discrimination of metastatic ability is a first step towards stratifying breast cancer

  7. Characterization of Bovine NANOG5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Jeong; Park, Hwan Hee; Linh, Tran Thi Thuy; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181) bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181) promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells. PMID:26580439

  8. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae: comparison of phenotypic characterization methods

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Hasan; ul-Haq, Ikram; Mahmood, Saqib; Zafar, Aizza; Mohsin Javed, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae is a serious threat to the patients. This manuscript shows the comparison of phenotypic characterization methods used for ESBL K. pneumoniae and frequency distribution of these isolates in various clinical samples. Methodology: Eleven different types of pathological samples collected on various time intervals were analyzed. K. pneumoniae were identified with API 20E system (bioMerieux) and initial screening of ESBL K. pneumoniae was performed using the ceftazidime antimicrobial disc. Double-disc synergy test (DDST) and CLSI confirmatory test were compared for the phenotypic detection of ESBL K. pneumoniae. Results: A total number of 214 ESBL producing K. pneumoniae were isolated from various clinical samples. Frequency distribution of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae was found to be highest among blood 117 (54.7%) and urine 46 (21.5%) samples. Data regarding the use of various interventions among these patients showed most common presence of intravenous line 209 (97.7%) and urinary catheters 46 (21.5%). Comparison of DDST and CLSI confirmatory test showed that the DDST detected 145 (67.8%) isolates while 213 (99.5%) ESBL K. pneumoniae were characterized by CLSI confirmatory test. Conclusion: The use of CLSI confirmatory test is very efficient in the early detection of ESBL K. pneumoniae especially when the facilities for molecular characterization are not available. PMID:24353625

  9. The mouse plasma PAF acetylhydrolase: I. Characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Tsaoussis, V; Vakirtzi-Lemonias, C

    1994-05-01

    Mouse plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) has an apparent Km of 7.4 microM and a Vmax of 21.6 nmol/min per mg protein. Comparison with values reported for the human and the rat enzymes shows at least a 5-fold higher Vmax and similar enzyme-substrate affinity. Although lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and one component of the PAF-AH share similar masses and lipoprotein association, they are distinct enzymes. Similarly, PAF-AH is distinct from the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the lysophospholipase of mouse plasma. A series of PAF structural analogs showed either competitive inhibition or a mixed type of inhibition of PAF-AH. Mouse plasma PAF-AH is highly sensitive to 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and is activated by deoxycholate. SDS-PAGE showed that two distinct proteins with molecular masses of 46 and 63 kDa contribute to the PAF-AH activity. The HDL-VHDL lipoprotein associated PAF-AH is precipitated to an extent of about 60% by phosphotungstate-MgCl2 and Tween 20 only partially solubilises the precipitated enzyme under conditions which can precipitate and solubilise the human enzyme. PMID:7921789

  10. Molecular cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of ring chromosome 13 in three unrelated patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah-Bouhjar, Inesse B.; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Gmidène, Abir; Labalme, Audrey; Soyah, Najla; Sanlaville, Damien; Saad, Ali; Elghezal, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    We report on the cytogenetic and molecular investigations of constitutional de-novo ring chromosome 13s in three unrelated patients for better understanding and delineation of the phenotypic variability characterizing this genomic rearrangement. The patient’s karyotypes were as follows: 46,XY,r(13)(p11q34) dn for patients 1 and 2 and 46,XY,r(13)(p11q14) dn for patient 3, as a result of the deletion in the telomeric regions of chromosome 13. The patients were, therefore, monosomic for the segment 13q34 → 13qter; in addition, for patient 3, the deletion was larger, encompassing the segment 13q14 → 13qter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed these rearrangement and array CGH technique showed the loss of at least 2.9 Mb on the short arm and 4.7 Mb on the long arm of the chromosome 13 in patient 2. Ring chromosome 13 (r(13)) is associated with several phenotypic features like intellectual disability, marked short stature, brain and heart defects, microcephaly and genital malformations in males, including undescended testes and hypospadias. However, the hearing loss and speech delay that were found in our three patients have rarely been reported with ring chromosome 13. Although little is known about its etiology, there is interesting evidence for a genetic cause for the ring chromosome 13. We thus performed a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to ascertain the contribution of ring chromosome 13 to the clinical features of our three cases.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of influenza virus mutants selected with the sialidase fusion protein DAS181

    PubMed Central

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen B.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Hedlund, Maria; Jensen, Kellie A.; Aschenbrenner, Laura M.; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses (IFVs) frequently achieve resistance to antiviral drugs, necessitating the development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action. DAS181 (Fludase®), a sialidase fusion protein, may have a reduced potential for generating drug resistance due to its novel host-targeting mechanism of action. Methods IFV strains B/Maryland/1/59 and A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) were subjected to >30 passages under increasing selective pressure with DAS181. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates were characterized in vitro and in mice. Results Despite extensive passaging, DAS181-selected viruses exhibited a very low level of resistance to DAS181, which ranged between 3- and 18-fold increase in EC50. DAS181-selected viruses displayed an attenuated phenotype in vitro, as exhibited by slower growth, smaller plaque size and increased particle to pfu ratios relative to wild-type virus. Further, the DAS181 resistance phenotype was unstable and was substantially reversed over time upon DAS181 withdrawal. In mice, the DAS181-selected viruses exhibited no greater virulence than their wild-type counterparts. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of DAS181-selected viruses revealed mutations in the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) molecules and also changes in HA and NA function. Conclusions Results indicate that resistance to DAS181 is minimal and unstable. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates exhibit reduced fitness in vitro, likely due to altered HA and NA functions. PMID:21097900

  12. Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

  13. Characterizing the in vitro biofilm phenotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Van Kerckhoven, Marian; Hotterbeekx, An; Lanckacker, Ellen; Moons, Pieter; Lammens, Christine; Kerstens, Monique; Ieven, Margareta; Delputte, Peter; Jorens, Philippe G; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Goossens, Herman; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S. epidermidis from CVCs in four different in vitro biofilm models, covering differences in material type (glass versus polymer) and nutrient presentation (static versus continuous flow). A good correlation in phenotype was obtained between glass and polymeric surfaces independent of nutrient flow, with 85% correspondence under static growth conditions and 80% under dynamic conditions. A 80% correspondence between static and dynamic conditions on polymeric surfaces could be demonstrated as well. Incubation time had a significant influence on the biofilm phenotype with only 55% correspondence between the dynamic models at different incubation times (48h versus 17h). Screening for the presence of biofilm-related genes only revealed that ica A was correlated with biofilm formation under static but not under dynamic conditions. In conclusion, this study highlights that a high level of standardization is necessary to interpret and compare results of different in vitro biofilm models. PMID:27196636

  14. Characterization of broadly pleiotropic phenotypes caused by an hfq insertion mutation in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Tsui, H C; Leung, H C; Winkler, M E

    1994-07-01

    The region immediately downstream from the miaA tRNA modification gene at 94.8 min contains the hfq gene and the hflA region, which are important in the bacteriophage Q beta and lambda life cycles. The roles of these genes in bacteria remain largely unknown. We report here the characterization of two chromosomal hfq insertion mutations. An omega (omega) cassette insertion near the end of hfq resulted in phenotypes only slightly different from the parent, although transcript mapping demonstrated that the insertion was completely polar on hflX expression. In contrast, an equally polar omega cassette insertion near the beginning of hfq caused pronounced pleiotropic phenotypes, including decreased growth rates and yields, decreased negative supercoiling of plasmids in stationary phase, increased cell size, osmosensitivity, increased oxidation of carbon sources, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light, and suppression of bgl activation by hns mutations. hfq::omega mutant phenotypes were distinct from those caused by omega insertions early in the miaA tRNA modification gene. On the other hand, both hfq insertions interfered with lambda phage plaque formation, probably by means of polarity at the hflA region. Together, these results show that hfq function plays a fundamental role in Escherichia coli physiology and that hfq and the hflA-region are in the amiB-mutL-miaA-hfq-hflX superoperon. PMID:7984093

  15. Drosophila TDP-43 dysfunction in glia and muscle cells cause cytological and behavioural phenotypes that characterize ALS and FTLD

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Danielle C.; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Lazarou, Luke; Greenstein, Max; Simoes, Fabio A.; Di Domenico, Angelique; Solomon, Daniel A.; Lowe, Simon; Alsubaie, Rawan; Cheng, Daryl; Buckley, Stephen; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Hirth, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear clearance of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Studies in Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse demonstrate that the neuronal dysfunction of TDP-43 is causally related to disease formation. However, TDP-43 aggregates are also observed in glia and muscle cells, which are equally affected in ALS and FTLD; yet, it is unclear whether glia- or muscle-specific dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis. Here, we show that similar to its human homologue, Drosophila TDP-43, Tar DNA-binding protein homologue (TBPH), is expressed in glia and muscle cells. Muscle-specific knockdown of TBPH causes age-related motor abnormalities, whereas muscle-specific gain of function leads to sarcoplasmic aggregates and nuclear TBPH depletion, which is accompanied by behavioural deficits and premature lethality. TBPH dysfunction in glia cells causes age-related motor deficits and premature lethality. In addition, both loss and gain of Drosophila TDP-43 alter mRNA expression levels of the glutamate transporters Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both loss and gain of TDP-43 function in muscle and glial cells can lead to cytological and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila that also characterize ALS and FTLD and identify the glutamate transporters EAAT1/2 as potential direct targets of TDP-43 function. These findings suggest that together with neuronal pathology, glial- and muscle-specific TDP-43 dysfunction may directly contribute to the aetiology and progression of TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD. PMID:23727833

  16. Drosophila TDP-43 dysfunction in glia and muscle cells cause cytological and behavioural phenotypes that characterize ALS and FTLD.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Danielle C; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Lazarou, Luke; Greenstein, Max; Simoes, Fabio A; Di Domenico, Angelique; Solomon, Daniel A; Lowe, Simon; Alsubaie, Rawan; Cheng, Daryl; Buckley, Stephen; Humphrey, Dickon M; Shaw, Christopher E; Hirth, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear clearance of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Studies in Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse demonstrate that the neuronal dysfunction of TDP-43 is causally related to disease formation. However, TDP-43 aggregates are also observed in glia and muscle cells, which are equally affected in ALS and FTLD; yet, it is unclear whether glia- or muscle-specific dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis. Here, we show that similar to its human homologue, Drosophila TDP-43, Tar DNA-binding protein homologue (TBPH), is expressed in glia and muscle cells. Muscle-specific knockdown of TBPH causes age-related motor abnormalities, whereas muscle-specific gain of function leads to sarcoplasmic aggregates and nuclear TBPH depletion, which is accompanied by behavioural deficits and premature lethality. TBPH dysfunction in glia cells causes age-related motor deficits and premature lethality. In addition, both loss and gain of Drosophila TDP-43 alter mRNA expression levels of the glutamate transporters Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both loss and gain of TDP-43 function in muscle and glial cells can lead to cytological and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila that also characterize ALS and FTLD and identify the glutamate transporters EAAT1/2 as potential direct targets of TDP-43 function. These findings suggest that together with neuronal pathology, glial- and muscle-specific TDP-43 dysfunction may directly contribute to the aetiology and progression of TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD. PMID:23727833

  17. In vivo knockdown of intersectin-1s alters endothelial cell phenotype and causes microvascular remodeling in the mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Bardita, Cristina; Predescu, Dan; Justice, Matthew J; Petrache, Irina; Predescu, Sanda

    2013-01-01

    Intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) is a general endocytic protein involved in regulating lung vascular permeability and endothelial cells (ECs) survival, via MEK/Erk1/2(MAPK) signaling. To investigate the in vivo effects of ITSN-1s deficiency and the resulting ECs apoptosis on pulmonary vasculature and lung homeostasis, we used an ITSN-1s knocked-down (KD(ITSN)) mouse generated by repeated delivery of a specific siRNA targeting ITSN-1 gene (siRNA(ITSN)). Biochemical and histological analyses as well as electron microscopy (EM) revealed that acute KD(ITSN) [3-days (3d) post-siRNA(ITSN) treatment] inhibited Erk1/2(MAPK) pro-survival signaling, causing significant ECs apoptosis and lung injury; at 10d of KD(ITSN), caspase-3 activation was at peak, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive ECs showed 3.4-fold increase, the mean linear intercept (MLI) showed 48 % augment and pulmonary microvessel density as revealed by aquaporin-1 staining (AQP-1) decreased by 30 %, all compared to controls; pulmonary function was altered. Concomitantly, expression of several growth factors known to activate Erk1/2(MAPK) and suppress Bad pro-apoptotic activity increased. KD(ITSN) altered Smads activity, downstream of the transforming growth factor beta-receptor-1 (TβR1), as shown by subcellular fractionation and immunoblot analyses. Moreover, 24d post-siRNA(ITSN), surviving ECs became hyper-proliferative and apoptotic-resistant against ITSN-1s deficiency, as demonstrated by EM imaging, 5-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and Bad-Ser(112/155) phosphorylation, respectively, leading to increased microvessel density and repair of the injured lungs, as well as matrix deposition. In sum, ECs endocytic dysfunction and apoptotic death caused by KD(ITSN) contribute to the initial lung injury and microvascular loss, followed by endothelial phenotypic changes and microvascular remodeling in the remaining murine pulmonary microvascular bed. PMID:23054079

  18. Expression Atlas of the Deubiquitinating Enzymes in the Adult Mouse Retina, Their Evolutionary Diversification and Phenotypic Roles

    PubMed Central

    Esquerdo, Mariona; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Garanto, Alejandro; Toulis, Vasileios; Garcia-Monclús, Sílvia; Millo, Erica; López-Iniesta, Ma José; Abad-Morales, Víctor; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Marfany, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a relevant cell regulatory mechanism to determine protein fate and function. Most data has focused on the role of ubiquitin as a tag molecule to target substrates to proteasome degradation, and on its impact in the control of cell cycle, protein homeostasis and cancer. Only recently, systematic assays have pointed to the relevance of the ubiquitin pathway in the development and differentiation of tissues and organs, and its implication in hereditary diseases. Moreover, although the activity and composition of ubiquitin ligases has been largely addressed, the role of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in specific tissues, such as the retina, remains mainly unknown. In this work, we undertook a systematic analysis of the transcriptional levels of DUB genes in the adult mouse retina by RT-qPCR and analyzed the expression pattern by in situ hybridization and fluorescent immunohistochemistry, thus providing a unique spatial reference map of retinal DUB expression. We also performed a systematic phylogenetic analysis to understand the origin and the presence/absence of DUB genes in the genomes of diverse animal taxa that represent most of the known animal diversity. The expression landscape obtained supports the potential subfunctionalization of paralogs in those families that expanded in vertebrates. Overall, our results constitute a reference framework for further characterization of the DUB roles in the retina and suggest new candidates for inherited retinal disorders. PMID:26934049

  19. Phenotype of cardiomyopathy in cardiac-specific heat shock protein B8 K141N transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Sanbe, Atsushi; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Abe, Tsutomu; Tezuka, Yu; Okada, Mizuki; Aoki, Sayuri; Tsumura, Hideki; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanonaka, Kouichi; Nishigori, Hideo; Tanoue, Akito

    2013-03-29

    A K141N missense mutation in heat shock protein (HSP) B8, which belongs to the small HSP family, causes distal hereditary motor neuropathy, which is characterized by the formation of inclusion bodies in cells. Although the HSPB8 gene causes hereditary motor neuropathy, obvious expression of HSPB8 is also observed in other tissues, such as the heart. The effects of a single mutation in HSPB8 upon the heart were analyzed using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Expression of HSPB8 K141N by adenoviral infection resulted in increased HSPB8-positive aggregates around nuclei, whereas no aggregates were observed in myocytes expressing wild-type HSPB8. HSPB8-positive aggresomes contained amyloid oligomer intermediates that were detected by a specific anti-oligomer antibody (A11). Expression of HSPB8 K141N induced slight cellular toxicity. Recombinant HSPB8 K141N protein showed reactivity against the anti-oligomer antibody, and reactivity of the mutant HSPB8 protein was much higher than that of wild-type HSPB8 protein. To extend our in vitro study, cardiac-specific HSPB8 K141N transgenic (TG) mice were generated. Echocardiography revealed that the HSPB8 K141N TG mice exhibited mild hypertrophy and apical fibrosis as well as slightly reduced cardiac function, although no phenotype was detected in wild-type HSPB8 TG mice. A single point mutation of HSPB8, such as K141N, can cause cardiac disease. PMID:23389032

  20. Three deaf mice: mouse models for TECTA-based human hereditary deafness reveal domain-specific structural phenotypes in the tectorial membrane

    PubMed Central

    Legan, P. Kevin; Goodyear, Richard J.; Morín, Matías; Mencia, Angeles; Pollard, Hilary; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Korchagina, Julia; Modamio-Hoybjor, Silvia; Mayo, Fernando; Moreno, Felipe; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel-Angel; Richardson, Guy P.

    2014-01-01

    Tecta is a modular, non-collagenous protein of the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular matrix of the cochlea essential for normal hearing. Missense mutations in Tecta cause dominant forms of non-syndromic deafness and a genotype–phenotype correlation has been reported in humans, with mutations in different Tecta domains causing mid- or high-frequency hearing impairments that are either stable or progressive. Three mutant mice were created as models for human Tecta mutations; the TectaL1820F,G1824D/+ mouse for zona pellucida (ZP) domain mutations causing stable mid-frequency hearing loss in a Belgian family, the TectaC1837G/+ mouse for a ZP-domain mutation underlying progressive mid-frequency hearing loss in a Spanish family and the TectaC1619S/+ mouse for a zonadhesin-like (ZA) domain mutation responsible for progressive, high-frequency hearing loss in a French family. Mutations in the ZP and ZA domains generate distinctly different changes in the structure of the TM. Auditory brainstem response thresholds in the 8–40 kHz range are elevated by 30–40 dB in the ZP-domain mutants, whilst those in the ZA-domain mutant are elevated by 20–30 dB. The phenotypes are stable and no evidence has been found for a progressive deterioration in TM structure or auditory function. Despite elevated auditory thresholds, the Tecta mutant mice all exhibit an enhanced tendency to have audiogenic seizures in response to white noise stimuli at low sound pressure levels (≤84 dB SPL), revealing a previously unrecognised consequence of Tecta mutations. These results, together with those from previous studies, establish an allelic series for Tecta unequivocally demonstrating an association between genotype and phenotype. PMID:24363064

  1. Phenotypic characterization of thymic prelymphoma cells of B10 mice treated with split-dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, M.; Kubo, E.; Kamisaku, H.; Sado, T. )

    1990-02-01

    Using an intrathymic injection assay on B10 Thy-1 congenic mice, it was demonstrated that thymic prelymphoma cells first developed within the thymuses from 4 to 8 days after split-dose irradiation and were detected in more than 63% of the test donor thymuses when examined at 21 and 31 days after irradiation. Moreover, some mice (25%) at 2 mo after split-dose irradiation had already developed thymic lymphomas in their thymuses. To characterize these thymic prelymphoma cells, the thymocytes from B10 Thy-1.1 mice 1 mo after irradiation were stained with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAb and were sorted into four subpopulations. These fractionated cells were injected into the recipient thymuses to examine which subpopulation contained thymic prelymphoma cells. The results indicated that thymic prelymphoma cells existed mainly in CD4- CD8- and CD4- CD8+ thymocyte subpopulations and also in CD4+ CD8+ subpopulation. T cell lymphomas derived from CD4- CD8- prelymphoma cells had mainly CD4- CD8- or CD4- CD8+ phenotypes. T cell lymphomas developed from CD4- CD8+ prelymphoma cells mainly expressed CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8+ phenotype. T cell lymphomas originating from CD4+ CD8+ prelymphoma cells were mainly CD4+ CD8+ but some CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8- cells were also present. These thymic prelymphoma cells were further characterized phenotypically in relation to their expression of the marker defined by the mAb against J11d marker and TL-2 (thymus-leukemia) Ag, which is not expressed on normal thymocytes of B10.Thy-1.2 or B10.Thy-1.1 strain, but appears on the thymocytes of lymphomagenic irradiated mice. The results indicated that the prelymphoma cells existed in J11d+, TL-2+ cells.

  2. Further characterization of protein kinase C in mouse mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Ishizaka, T.

    1986-03-01

    Bridging of cell-bound IgE antibody molecules on colony stimulating factor dependent mouse mast cell line (PT-18) cells by multivalent antigen induces the mobilization and uptake of Ca/sup 2 +/ monitored by Quin-2 and the production of diacylglycerol. Exposure of the sensitized cells to antigen also induces a substantial increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the plasma membrane (340 units to 1375 units: 1 unit = 1 pmol of /sup 32/P incorporated into Histone H-1/min/10/sup 7/ cells), within 30 seconds. There is also an increase in /sup 3/H phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (/sup 3/H-PDB) binding which parallels the increase in PKC activity both in kinetics and antigen dose dependency. Determination of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for PKC revealed no difference between the cytosolic and membranous forms of PKC. Partial purification of PKC from the membrane of sensitized mast cells which had been labeled with /sup 32/P and stimulated with DNP-HSA revealed a protein of 80-84,000 molecular weight, which migrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis just above an authentic standard of PKC purified from rat brain. Treatment of the PKC from mouse mast cell membrane with alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of phosphorylating activity and bindability of /sup 3/H-PDB. In conclusion, the authors speculate that activation of mouse mast cells by cross-linking IgE results in the phosphorylation of a silent-pool of PKC converting it from an inactive state to an activated form.

  3. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis. PMID:26100241

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Malassezia japonica isolated from psoriasis vulgaris patients.

    PubMed

    Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia species, which are skin colonizers, are being debated as to their pathogenic role in various cutaneous diseases. Species identification of Malassezia is important as particular species have been implicated in or associated with specific diseases. Malassezia japonica, a relatively newly described species, has not been completely characterized owing to the rarity of its isolation. In the present study we describe phenotypic and molecular characterization of six M. japonica strains isolated from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. In contrast to the physiological and biochemical properties of the M. japonica type strain, CBS9348, all our isolates assimilated Tween 20 and showed positive β-glucosidase activity, and the Cremophor EL utilization test was negative. However, the sequences of the D1/D2 region of rDNA, ITS2 and IGS1 regions of all our isolates clustered with the type strain of M. japonica. PMID:25587082

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

  7. Phenotypic characterization of nanshi oral liquid alters metabolic signatures during disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aihua; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaohang; Sun, Hui; Nan, Yang; Zou, Shiyu; Ma, Chung Wah; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the phenotypic characterization of Nanshi Oral Liquid (NOL) alters metabolic signatures of the ‘Kidney Yang Deficiency syndrome’ (KYDS). Urine metabolites were profiled by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-HDMS. The significantly changed metabolites such as xanthurenic acid, 4,8-dihydroxyquinoline, 3-methyldioxyindole, 4,6-dihydroxyquinoline, kynurenic acid, hippuric acid, taurine, tyramine, and 3-metanephrine, had been identified, and were related to the disturbance in tyrosine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism and lysine degradation, which were helpful to further understanding the KYDS and intervention mechanism of NOL. The biochemical result showed that NOL can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by KYDS. Metabolomics results indicated the significantly changed metabolites were found to be reasonable in explaining the action mechanism of NOL. Interestingly, the effectiveness of NOL against KYDS was proved using the established metabolomics method and regulated the biomarkers as well as adjusted the metabolic disorder pathways. NOL had potentially pharmacological effect through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to normal state. This work showed that the metabolomics method was a powerful approach for studying the phenotypic characterization of disease’s syndrome during disease prevention and its intervention mechanism. PMID:26785698

  8. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  9. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  10. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  11. A Non Leaky Artemis-Deficient Mouse that Accurately Models the Human SCID Phenotype Including Resistance to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zheng; Dunn, Elizabeth; Singh, Kanal; Khan, Imran S.; Yannone, Steven M.; Cowan, Morton J.

    2009-01-01

    Two Artemis-deficient (mArt-/-) mouse models, independently generated on 129/SvJ backgrounds have the expected T-B-NK+SCID phenotype. However, they fail to mimic the human disease due to CD4+ T-cell leakiness. Moreover, immune reconstitution in these leaky mouse models following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is more easily achieved than that seen in Artemis-deficient humans. To develop a more clinically relevant animal model we backcrossed the mArt-/- mutation onto the C57Bl/6 (B6) background (99.9%) resulting in virtually no CD4+ T-cell leakiness compared to 129/SvJ mArt-/- mice (0.3±0.25% vs 19.5±15.1%, p<0.001). The non-leaky mouse was also uniquely resistant to engraftment using allogeneic mismatched HSC, comparable to what is seen with human Artemis deficiency. The genetic background also influenced Artemis-associated radiation sensitivity with differing degrees of x-ray hypersensitivity evident in 129/SvJ and B6 backgrounds with both the mArt-/- and mArt-/+ genotypes. Our results indicate that immunogenic and DNA repair phenotypes associated with Artemis deficiency are significantly altered by genetic background, which has important implications for SCID diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the B6 mArt-/- mouse is a more accurate model for the human disease, and a more appropriate system for studying human Artemis-deficiency and for developing improved transplant and gene therapy regimens for the treatment of SCID children. PMID:19135937

  12. Intra- and extracellular activities of dicloxacillin and linezolid against a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain with a small-colony-variant phenotype in an in vitro model of THP-1 macrophages and an in vivo mouse peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Anne; Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Hughes, Diarmaid; von Eiff, Christof; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-04-01

    The small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with difficult-to-treat infections, reduced antimicrobial susceptibility, and intracellular persistence. This study represents a detailed intra- and extracellular investigation of a clinical wild-type (WT) S. aureus strain and its counterpart with an SCV phenotype both in vitro and in vivo, using the THP-1 cell line model and the mouse peritonitis model, respectively. Bacteria of both phenotypes infected the mouse peritoneum intra- and extracellularly. The SCV phenotype was less virulent and showed distinct bacterial clearance, a reduced multiplication capacity, and a reduced internalization ability. However, some of the SCV-infected mice were still culture positive up to 96 h postinfection, and bacteria of this phenotype could spread to the mouse kidney and furthermore revert to the more virulent WT phenotype in both the mouse peritoneum and kidney. The SCV phenotype is therefore, despite reduced virulence, an important player in S. aureus pathogenesis. In the THP-1 cell line model, both dicloxacillin (DCX) and linezolid (LZD) reduced the intracellular inocula of bacteria of both phenotypes by approximately 1 to 1.5 log(10) in vitro, while DCX was considerably more effective against extracellular bacteria. In the mouse peritonitis model, DCX and LZD were also able to control both intra- and extracellular infections caused by either phenotype. Treatment with a single dose of DCX and LZD was, however, insufficient to clear the SCVs in the kidneys, and the risk of recurrent infection remained. This stresses the importance of an optimal dosing of the antibiotic when SCVs are present. PMID:21282430

  13. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Li-An; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  14. Generation and characterization of a transgenic mouse with a functional human TSPY.

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Skawran, B; Dechend, F; Nayernia, K; Meinhardt, A; Nanda, I; Schmid, M; Engel, W; Schmidtke, J

    2003-09-01

    To generate an animal model that is suitable for the analysis of regulation and expression of human testis-specific protein, Y-encoded TSPY, a transgenic mouse line, TgTSPY9, harboring a complete structural human TSPY gene was generated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern analyses show that approximately 50 copies of the human TSPY transgene are integrated at a single chromosomal site that maps to the distal long arm of the Y chromosome. The transgene is correctly transcribed and spliced according to the human pattern and is mainly expressed in testicular tissue, with spermatogonia and early primary spermatocytes (leptotene and zygotene) as expressing germ cells. TSPY transgenic mice are phenotypically normal, and spermatogenesis is neither impaired nor enhanced by the human transgene. The present study shows that a human TSPY gene integrated into the mouse genome follows the human expression pattern although murine tspy had lost its function in rodent evolution millions of years ago. PMID:12773407

  15. Functional Characterization of Three Mouse Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Dan; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhong-Li; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary relationship and functional correlation between human formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) and their mouse counterparts remain incompletely understood. We examined three members of the mouse formyl peptide receptor subfamily (mFprs) and found that they differ in agonist preference and cellular distributions. When stably expressed in transfected rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, mFpr1 was readily activated by N-formylated peptides derived from Listeria monocytogenes (fMIVTLF), Staphylococcus aureus (fMIFL), and mitochondria (fMMYALF). In contrast, the Escherichia coli–derived fMLF was 1000-fold less potent. The aforementioned peptides were much less efficacious at mFpr2, which responded better to the synthetic hexapeptide WKYMVm, the synthetic agonists Quin-C1 (a substituted quinazolinone), and compound 43 (a nitrosylated pyrazolone derivative). Saturation binding assays showed that mFpr1 and mFpr2 were expressed at similar levels on the cell surface, although their affinity for N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-Ile-Ile-Lys-fluorescein isothiocyanate varied by more than 1000-fold [dissociation constant (Kd) values of 2.8 nM for mFpr1 and 4.8 μM for mFpr2]). Contrary to these receptors, mFpr-rs1 responded poorly to all the previously mentioned peptides that were tested. Fluorescent microscopy revealed an intracellular distribution pattern of mFpr-rs1. On the basis of these results, we conclude that mFpr1 is an ortholog of human FPR1 with certain pharmacologic properties of human FPR2/ALX, whereas mFpr2 has much lower affinity for formyl peptides. The intracellular distribution of mFpr-rs1 suggests an evolutionary correlation with human FPR3. PMID:23160941

  16. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Aerococcus viridans Associated with Subclinical Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Liu, Yongxia; Ali, Tariq; Ferreri, Miro; Gao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Jinhua; Su, Jingliang; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a wide spread bacterium in the environment and clinically this organism is associated with different diseases in animals and humans. However, the geno- and phenotypic characterization of A. viridans associated with bovine mastitis has not yet been reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of A. viridans isolates using three different molecular methods including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) along with biochemical tests, including antimicrobial susceptibility test. In total, 60 A. viridans strains were cultured from dairy herds presenting with subclinical mastitis. The results of biochemical tests revealed that most of the isolates (75.0%) were accurately identified by API Rapid 20 Strep system and the majority of A. viridans strains (96.7%) were found to be catalase negative, while two (3.3%) isolates were weakly positive. All isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, followed by streptomycin (96.7%), tetracycline (65.0%) and clindamycin (56.7%) by minimum inhibition concentration-determining broth microdilution technique. As compared to the sequence of 16S rRNA gene, both PFGE and RAPD showed their capacities to discriminate the intra-species diversity of A. viridans. Furthermore, most of the isolates obtained from the same herd or region belonged to the same major RAPD group, which indicated that RAPD is an appropriate assay for tracking the origins of isolates and epidemiological studies of A. viridans. This is a novel approach to use three molecular techniques and to compare their efficiency regarding the genetic diversity of A. viridans. The data suggest that A. viridans associated with subclinical mastitis has a considerable phenotypic and genotypic diversity. PMID:25919289

  17. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Aerococcus viridans Associated with Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tariq; Ferreri, Miro; Gao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Jinhua; Su, Jingliang; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a wide spread bacterium in the environment and clinically this organism is associated with different diseases in animals and humans. However, the geno- and phenotypic characterization of A. viridans associated with bovine mastitis has not yet been reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of A. viridans isolates using three different molecular methods including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) along with biochemical tests, including antimicrobial susceptibility test. In total, 60 A. viridans strains were cultured from dairy herds presenting with subclinical mastitis. The results of biochemical tests revealed that most of the isolates (75.0%) were accurately identified by API Rapid 20 Strep system and the majority of A. viridans strains (96.7%) were found to be catalase negative, while two (3.3%) isolates were weakly positive. All isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, followed by streptomycin (96.7%), tetracycline (65.0%) and clindamycin (56.7%) by minimum inhibition concentration-determining broth microdilution technique. As compared to the sequence of 16S rRNA gene, both PFGE and RAPD showed their capacities to discriminate the intra-species diversity of A. viridans. Furthermore, most of the isolates obtained from the same herd or region belonged to the same major RAPD group, which indicated that RAPD is an appropriate assay for tracking the origins of isolates and epidemiological studies of A. viridans. This is a novel approach to use three molecular techniques and to compare their efficiency regarding the genetic diversity of A. viridans. The data suggest that A. viridans associated with subclinical mastitis has a considerable phenotypic and genotypic diversity. PMID:25919289

  18. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken interleukin 18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which are specific for chicken interleukin 18 (chIL18) were produced and characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and neutralization assays. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chIL18 identified a ...

  19. Development and Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Chicken CD83

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to develop and characterize mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chicken CD83 (chCD83), a membrane-bound glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that is primarily expressed on mature dendritic cells (DCs). A recombinant chCD83/IgG4 fusion protein con...

  20. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D. A.; Li, J.

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian mAspAT (mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase) is recently reported to have KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of KYNA (kynurenic acid) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen oxo acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and 14 of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor-binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate-binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our results provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  1. Otoferlin Deficiency in Zebrafish Results in Defects in Balance and Hearing: Rescue of the Balance and Hearing Phenotype with Full-Length and Truncated Forms of Mouse Otoferlin

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Paroma; Padmanarayana, Murugesh; Abdullah, Nazish; Holman, Chelsea L.; LaDu, Jane; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells convert mechanical motion into chemical signals. Otoferlin, a six-C2 domain transmembrane protein linked to deafness in humans, is hypothesized to play a role in exocytosis at hair cell ribbon synapses. To date, however, otoferlin has been studied almost exclusively in mouse models, and no rescue experiments have been reported. Here we describe the phenotype associated with morpholino-induced otoferlin knockdown in zebrafish and report the results of rescue experiments conducted with full-length and truncated forms of otoferlin. We found that expression of otoferlin occurs early in development and is restricted to hair cells and the midbrain. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed localization to both apical and basolateral regions of hair cells. Knockdown of otoferlin resulted in hearing and balance defects, as well as locomotion deficiencies. Further, otoferlin morphants had uninflated swim bladders. Rescue experiments conducted with mouse otoferlin restored hearing, balance, and inflation of the swim bladder. Remarkably, truncated forms of otoferlin retaining the C-terminal C2F domain also rescued the otoferlin knockdown phenotype, while the individual N-terminal C2A domain did not. We conclude that otoferlin plays an evolutionarily conserved role in vertebrate hearing and that truncated forms of otoferlin can rescue hearing and balance. PMID:25582200

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vagococcus fluvialis, including strains isolated from human sources.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, L M; Carvalho, M G; Merquior, V L; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Facklam, R R

    1997-01-01

    This study presents phenotypic and genotypic data for seven isolates of Vagococcus fluvialis, including four strains recovered from human clinical sources, one strain isolated from an environmental source, and two strains isolated from pigs. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, most isolates were initially classified as "unidentified enterococci," because they resembled atypical arginine-negative enterococcal species. All seven strains as well as the type strain of V. fluvialis reacted with the AccuProbe Enterococcus genetic probe. The seven isolates had virtually indistinguishable whole-cell protein profiles that were similar to that of the V. fluvialis type strain and distinct from those of Enterococcus and Lactococcus species. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments confirmed that the strains were V. fluvialis. They were 71% or more related to the V. fluvialis type strain under optimum and stringent conditions, with 2.5% or less divergence within related sequences. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin and were resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin. Strain-to-strain variation was observed in relation to susceptibilities to 18 other antimicrobial agents. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with SmaI. Distinctive PFGE patterns were generated, suggesting the nonclonal nature of V. fluvialis strains. Although the number of strains was small, this report provides molecular characterization of V. fluvialis and the first evidence of a possible connection of this species with human infections. PMID:9350732

  3. Ultrastructural and phenotypic characterization of CABA I, a new human ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Dolo, V; Ginestra, A; Violini, S; Miotti, S; Festuccia, C; Miceli, D; Migliavacca, M; Rinaudo, C; Romano, F M; Brisdelli, F; Canevari, S; Pavan, A; Vittorelli, M L

    1997-01-01

    We have established an ovarian cancer cell line (CABA I) from ascitic fluid obtained from a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary prior to drug treatment. The epithelial origin of the cell line was confirmed by morphology and by immunofluorescence analysis using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a very irregular membrane surface and a clear cytoplasm rich in electron-lucent vesicles. CABA I cells grow rapidly in culture (doubling time 18 h) in an anchorage-independent manner. Exogenously added beta-estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatments did not influence cell growth rate. FACS analysis to determine the phenotypic profile of tumor-associated antigen, membrane receptor, and adhesion molecule expression indicated that the cell line was positive for different members of the c-erbB family, for alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin receptors, and intensively positive for HLA class I antigens and the folate receptor. Molecular characterization revealed no mutations for c-myc and c-k-ras genes, but did detect an exon 5 mutation in the p53 gene. CABA I cells grew poorly as heterotransplants in nude mice, and tumors showed long latency periods. Because early (15-20) and late (55-60) passage cells maintain the same growth and phenotypic characteristics, the CABA I cell line might provide a good in vitro model system to investigate the cellular and molecular events involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:9220498

  4. Characterization of Virulence-Related Phenotypes in Candida Species of the CUG Clade.

    PubMed

    Priest, Shelby J; Lorenz, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    Candida species cause a variety of mucosal and invasive infections and are, collectively, the most important human fungal pathogens in the developed world. The majority of these infections result from a few related species within the "CUG clade," so named because they use a nonstandard translation for that codon. Some members of the CUG clade, such as Candida albicans, present significant clinical problems, whereas others, such as Candida (Meyerozyma) guilliermondii, are uncommon in patients. The differences in incidence rates are imperfectly correlated with virulence in animal models of infection, but comparative analyses that might provide an explanation for why some species are effective pathogens and others are not have been rare or incomplete. To better understand the phenotypic basis for these differences, we characterized eight CUG clade species--C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, M. guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Lodderomyces elongisporus--for host-relevant phenotypes, including nutrient utilization, stress tolerance, morphogenesis, interactions with phagocytes, and biofilm formation. Two species deviated from expectations based on animal studies and human incidence. C. dubliniensis was quite robust, grouping in nearly all assays with the most virulent species, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, whereas C. parapsilosis was substantially less fit than might be expected from its clinical importance. These findings confirm the utility of in vitro measures of virulence and provide insight into the evolution of virulence in the CUG clade. PMID:26150417

  5. Characterization of Virulence-Related Phenotypes in Candida Species of the CUG Clade

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species cause a variety of mucosal and invasive infections and are, collectively, the most important human fungal pathogens in the developed world. The majority of these infections result from a few related species within the “CUG clade,” so named because they use a nonstandard translation for that codon. Some members of the CUG clade, such as Candida albicans, present significant clinical problems, whereas others, such as Candida (Meyerozyma) guilliermondii, are uncommon in patients. The differences in incidence rates are imperfectly correlated with virulence in animal models of infection, but comparative analyses that might provide an explanation for why some species are effective pathogens and others are not have been rare or incomplete. To better understand the phenotypic basis for these differences, we characterized eight CUG clade species—C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, M. guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Lodderomyces elongisporus—for host-relevant phenotypes, including nutrient utilization, stress tolerance, morphogenesis, interactions with phagocytes, and biofilm formation. Two species deviated from expectations based on animal studies and human incidence. C. dubliniensis was quite robust, grouping in nearly all assays with the most virulent species, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, whereas C. parapsilosis was substantially less fit than might be expected from its clinical importance. These findings confirm the utility of in vitro measures of virulence and provide insight into the evolution of virulence in the CUG clade. PMID:26150417

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus resistant to aciclovir.

    PubMed

    Harris, Wendy; Collins, Peter; Fenton, Rob J; Snowden, Wendy; Sowa, Mike; Darby, Graham

    2003-06-01

    A panel of 10 clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) deficient in the expression of thymidine kinase (TK) and phenotypically resistant to aciclovir was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed a variety of mutations in TK (nucleotide substitutions, insertions and deletions), most of which resulted in truncated TK polypeptides. In line with previous reports, the most common mutation was a single G insertion in the 'G-string' motif. One HSV-1 isolate and two HSV-2 isolates appeared to encode full-length polypeptides and, in each case, an amino acid substitution likely to be responsible for the phenotype was identified. Pathogenicity was determined using a zosteriform model of HSV infection in BALB/c mice. The majority of isolates appeared to show impaired growth at the inoculation site compared with wild-type virus. They also showed poor replication in the peripheral nervous system and little evidence of zosteriform spread. One exception was isolate 4, which had a double G insertion in the G-string but, nevertheless, exhibited zosteriform spread. These studies confirmed that TK-deficient viruses display a range of neurovirulence with respect to latency and zosteriform spread. These results are discussed in the light of previous experience with TK-deficient viruses. PMID:12771406

  7. The first patient with tandem duplication of 6q14q16: Molecular and phenotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sanmann, Jennifer N; Casas, Kari A; Bevilacqua, Jen; Bishay, Danielle L; Clark, Tanner; Van Dyke, A Zephyr; Leiferman, Patricia Crotwell; Reddi, Honey V; Starr, Lois J

    2016-09-01

    Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 6 have been previously reported in a limited number of patients; however, most reported duplications encompass regions of chromosome 6 distal to band q21. Duplications restricted to the proximal portion of 6q are rare. We report an 8-year-old male with a 16.4 megabase (Mb) tandem duplication of chromosome 6q14.1q16.1 (chr6:78950191-95395865; hg19) who exhibited dysmorphic facial features, seizures, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, sensorineural hearing loss, and immune deficiency. This patient refines and potentially expands the current, poorly-characterized phenotype associated with duplication of this proximal 6q region. We recommend a low threshold for a hearing evaluation beyond newborn screening and for pursuing an immune work-up in patients with similar 6q duplications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27338032

  8. Immunostimulatory early phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages does not predict tumor growth outcome in an HLA-DR mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Riabov, Vladimir; Kim, David; Chhina, Surmeet; Alexander, Richard B; Klyushnenkova, Elena N

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were shown to support the progression of many solid tumors. However, anti-tumor properties of TAM were also reported in several types of cancer. Here, we investigated the phenotype and functions of TAM in two transgenic mouse models of prostate cancer that display striking differences in tumor growth outcome. Mice expressing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a self-antigen specifically in prostate (PSAtg mice) rejected PSA-expressing transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tumors. However, the introduction of HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b) transgene presenting PSA-derived peptides in a MHC class II-restricted manner exacerbated the growth of TRAMP-PSA tumors in DR2bxPSA F 1 mice. Despite the difference in tumor growth outcome, tumors in both strains were equally and intensively infiltrated by macrophages on the first week after tumor challenge. TAM exhibited mixed M1/M2 polarization and simultaneously produced pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IL1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL10) cytokines. TAM from both mouse strains demonstrated antigen-presenting potential and pronounced immunostimulatory activity. Moreover, they equally induced apoptosis of tumor cells. In vivo depletion of macrophages in DR2bxPSA F 1 but not PSAtg mice aggravated tumor growth suggesting that macrophages more strongly contribute to anti-tumor immunity when specific presentation of PSA to CD4+ T cells is possible. In summary, we conclude that in the early stages of tumor progression, the phenotype and functional properties of TAM did not predict tumor growth outcome in two transgenic prostate cancer models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that during the initial stage of prostate cancer development, TAM have the potential to activate T cell immunity and mediate anti-tumor effects. PMID:25893810

  9. Characterizing protein interactions employing a genome-wide siRNA cellular phenotyping screen.

    PubMed

    Suratanee, Apichat; Schaefer, Martin H; Betts, Matthew J; Soons, Zita; Mannsperger, Heiko; Harder, Nathalie; Oswald, Marcus; Gipp, Markus; Ramminger, Ellen; Marcus, Guillermo; Männer, Reinhard; Rohr, Karl; Wanker, Erich; Russell, Robert B; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Characterizing the activating and inhibiting effect of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is fundamental to gain insight into the complex signaling system of a human cell. A plethora of methods has been suggested to infer PPI from data on a large scale, but none of them is able to characterize the effect of this interaction. Here, we present a novel computational development that employs mitotic phenotypes of a genome-wide RNAi knockdown screen and enables identifying the activating and inhibiting effects of PPIs. Exemplarily, we applied our technique to a knockdown screen of HeLa cells cultivated at standard conditions. Using a machine learning approach, we obtained high accuracy (82% AUC of the receiver operating characteristics) by cross-validation using 6,870 known activating and inhibiting PPIs as gold standard. We predicted de novo unknown activating and inhibiting effects for 1,954 PPIs in HeLa cells covering the ten major signaling pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and made these predictions publicly available in a database. We finally demonstrate that the predicted effects can be used to cluster knockdown genes of similar biological processes in coherent subgroups. The characterization of the activating or inhibiting effect of individual PPIs opens up new perspectives for the interpretation of large datasets of PPIs and thus considerably increases the value of PPIs as an integrated resource for studying the detailed function of signaling pathways of the cellular system of interest. PMID:25255318

  10. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto; Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina; Thellung, Stefano; Daga, Antonio; Cilli, Michele; Ferrari, Angelo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-04-15

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-{alpha} and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor Black

  11. Reduced Tissue Levels of Noradrenaline Are Associated with Behavioral Phenotypes of the TgCRND8 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Beverly M; Yang, Jimao; Hajderi, Enid; Brown, Mary E; Michalski, Bernadeta; McLaurin, JoAnne; Fahnestock, Margaret; Mount, Howard T J

    2012-01-01

    Noradrenergic cell loss is well documented in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have measured the tissue levels of catecholamines in an amyloid precursor protein-transgenic ‘TgCRND8' mouse model of AD and found reductions in noradrenaline (NA) within hippocampus, temporoparietal and frontal cortices, and cerebellum. An age-related increase in cortical NA levels was observed in non-Tg controls, but not in TgCRND8 mice. In contrast, NA levels declined with aging in the TgCRND8 hippocampus. Dopamine levels were unaffected. Reductions in the tissue content of NA were found to coincide with altered expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and to precede the onset of object memory impairment and behavioral despair. To test whether these phenotypes might be associated with diminished NA, we treated mice with dexefaroxan, an antagonist of presynaptic inhibitory α2-adrenoceptors on noradrenergic and cholinergic terminals. Mice 12 weeks of age were infused systemically for 28 days with dexefaroxan or rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor. Both dexefaroxan and rivastigmine improved TgCRND8 behavioral phenotypes and increased BDNF mRNA expression without affecting amyloid-β peptide levels. Our results highlight the importance of noradrenergic depletion in AD-like phenotypes of TgCRND8 mice. PMID:22491352

  12. Phenotypic characterization of xpr, a global regulator of extracellular virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, M. S.; Hart, M. E.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We recently described a Tn551 insertion in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus S6C that resulted in drastically reduced expression of extracellular lipase (M. S. Smeltzer, S. R. Gill, and J. J. Iandolo, J. Bacteriol. 174:4000-4006, 1992). The insertion was localized to a chromosomal site (designated omega 1058) distinct from the lipase structural gene (geh) and the accessory gene regulator (agr), both of which were structurally intact in the lipase-negative (Lip-) mutants. In this report, we describe a phenotypic comparison between strains S6C, a hyperproducer of enterotoxin B; KSI9051, a derivative of S6C carrying the Tn551 insertion at omega 1058; ISP546, an 8325-4 strain that carries a Tn551 insertion in the agr locus; and ISP479C, the parent strain of ISP546 cured of the Tn551 delivery plasmid pI258repA36. Compared with their respective parent strains, ISP546 and KSI9051 produced greatly reduced amounts of lipase, alpha-toxin, delta-toxin, protease, and nuclease. KSI9051 also produced reduced amounts of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Coagulase production was increased in ISP546 but not in KSI9051. Using a mouse model, we also demonstrated that ISP546 and KSI9051 were far less virulent than ISP479C and S6C. We have designated the genetic element defined by the Tn551 insertion at omega 1058 xpr to denote its role as a regulator of extracellular protein synthesis. We conclude that xpr and agr are similar and possibly interactive regulatory genes that play an important role in pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease.

  13. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to the pipette solution changed the activity of the 48 pS K+ channel. 3. Intracellular acidification with sodium propionate (20 mM) diminished activity of the 48 pS channel, whereas channel open probability was increased by cytosolic alkalization with 20 mM NH4Cl. 4. BaCl2 (5 mM), TEA (10 mM) or apamin (1 microM) added to the bath solution had no obvious effect on the kinetics of the 48 pS channel. Similarly, glibenclamide and diazoxide failed to influence the channel activity. 5. When extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential. PMID:7623283

  14. Mouse matriptase-2: identification, characterization and comparative mRNA expression analysis with mouse hepsin in adult and embryonic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, John D; Campagnolo, Luisa; Goodarzi, Goodarz; Truong, Tony N; Stuhlmann, Heidi; Quigley, James P

    2003-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of mouse matriptase-2 (m-matriptase-2), an 811-amino-acid protein composed of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning domain, two CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains, three LDLR (low-density-lipoprotein receptor class A) domains and a C-terminal serine-protease domain. All m-matriptase-2 protein domain boundaries corresponded with intron/exon junctions of the encoding gene, which spans approx. 29 kb and comprises 18 exons. Matriptase-2 is highly conserved in human, mouse and rat, with the rat matriptase-2 gene ( r-maltriptase-2 ) predicted to encode transmembrane and soluble isoforms. Western-blot analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 migrates close to its theoretical molecular mass of 91 kDa, and immunofluorescence analysis was consistent with the proposed surface membrane localization of this protein. Reverse-transcription PCR and in-situ -hybridization analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 expression overlaps with the distribution of mouse hepsin (m-hepsin, a cell-surface serine protease identified in hepatoma cells) in adult tissues and during embryonic development. In adult tissues both are expressed at highest levels in liver, kidney and uterus. During embryogenesis m-matriptase-2 expression peaked between days 12.5 and 15.5. m-hepsin expression was biphasic, with peaks at day 7.5 to 8.5 and again between days 12.5 and 15.5. In situ hybridization of embryonic tissues indicated abundant expression of both m-matriptase-2 and m-hepsin in the developing liver and at lower levels in developing pharyngo-tympanic tubes. While m-hepsin was detected in the residual embryonic yolk sac and with lower intensity in lung, heart, gastrointestinal tract, developing kidney tubules and epithelium of the oral cavity, m-matriptase-2 was absent in these tissues, but strongly expressed within the nasal cavity by olfactory epithelial

  15. Molecular characterization of the mouse In(10)17Rk inversion and identification of a novel muscle-specific gene at the proximal breakpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Chada, Kiran

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements provide an important resource for molecular characterization of mutations in the mouse. In(10)17Rk mice contain a paracentric inversion of approximately 50 Mb on chromosome 10. Homozygous In(10)17Rk mice exhibit a pygmy phenotype, suggesting that the distal inversion breakpoint is within the pygmy locus. The pygmy mutation, originally isolated in 1944, is an autosomal recessive trait causing a dwarf phenotype in homozygous mice and has been mapped to the distal region of chromosome 10. The pygmy phenotype has subsequently been shown to result from disruption of the Hmgi-c gene. To identify the In(10)17Rk distal inversion breakpoint, In(10)17Rk DNA was subjected to RFLP analysis with single copy sequences derived from the wild-type pygmy locus. This analysis localized the In(10)17Rk distal inversion breakpoint to intron 3 of Hmgi-c and further study determined that a fusion transcript between novel 5' sequence and exons 4 and 5 of Hmgi-c is created. We employed 5' RACE to isolate the 5' end of the fusion transcript and this sequence was localized to the proximal end of chromosome 10 between markers Cni-rs2 and Mtap7. Northern blot analysis of individual tissues of wild-type mice determined that the gene at the In(10)17Rk proximal inversion breakpoint is a novel muscle-specific gene and its disruption does not lead to a readily observable phenotype. PMID:11805063

  16. Characterization of Lactobacillus from Algerian Goat'S Milk Based on Phenotypic, 16S rDNA Sequencing and their Technological Properties.

    PubMed

    Marroki, Ahmed; Zúñiga, Manuel; Kihal, Mabrouk; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen strains of Lactobacillus isolated from goat's milk from farms in north-west of Algeria were characterized. Isolates were identified by phenotypic, physiological and genotypic methods and some of their important technological properties were studied. Phenotypic characterization was carried out by studying physiological, morphological characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation patterns using API 50 CHL system. Isolates were also characterized by partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Results obtained with phenotypic methods were correlated with the genotypic characterization and 13 isolates were identified as L. plantarum, two isolates as L. rhamnosus and one isolate as L. fermentum. Three isolates identified as L. plantarum by phenotypic characterization were found to be L. pentosus by the genotypic method. A large diversity in technological properties (acid production in skim milk, exopolysaccharide production, aminopeptidase activity, antibacterial activity and antibiotic susceptibility) was observed. Based on these results, two strains of L. plantarum (LbMS16 and LbMS21) and one strain of L. rhamnosus (LbMF25) have been tentatively selected for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of artisanal fermented dairy products in Algeria. PMID:24031617

  17. Characterization of a novel mouse model with genetic deletion of CD177.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Klesney-Tait, Julia; Keck, Kathy; Parlet, Corey; Borcherding, Nicholas; Kolb, Ryan; Li, Wei; Tygrett, Lorraine; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Olivier, Alicia; Chen, Songhai; Liu, Guang-Hui; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Weizhou

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils play an essential role in the innate immune response to infection. Neutrophils migrate from the vasculature into the tissue in response to infection. Recently, a neutrophil cell surface receptor, CD177, was shown to help mediate neutrophil migration across the endothelium through interactions with PECAM1. We examined a publicly available gene array dataset of CD177 expression from human neutrophils following pulmonary endotoxin instillation. Among all 22,214 genes examined, CD177 mRNA was the most upregulated following endotoxin exposure. The high level of CD177 expression is also maintained in airspace neutrophils, suggesting a potential involvement of CD177 in neutrophil infiltration under infectious diseases. To determine the role of CD177 in neutrophils in vivo, we constructed a CD177-genetic knockout mouse model. The mice with homozygous deletion of CD177 have no discernible phenotype and no significant change in immune cells, other than decreased neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. We examined the role of CD177 in neutrophil accumulation using a skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus. CD177 deletion reduced neutrophil counts in inflammatory skin caused by S. aureus. Mechanistically we found that CD177 deletion in mouse neutrophils has no significant impact in CXCL1/KC- or fMLP-induced migration, but led to significant cell death. Herein we established a novel genetic mouse model to study the role of CD177 and found that CD177 plays an important role in neutrophils. PMID:25359465

  18. Phenotypical characterization of the rat striatal neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moine, C; Normand, E; Bloch, B

    1991-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed in rat brain sections from normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats in order to map and identify the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene in the striatum and the substantia nigra. Procedures of combined in situ hybridization, allowing the simultaneous detection of two mRNAs in the same section or in adjacent sections, were used to characterize the phenotypes of the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene. D1 receptor mRNA was found in neurons all over the caudate-putamen, the accumbens nucleus, and the olfactory tubercle but not in the substantia nigra. In the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus, most of the neurons containing D1 receptor mRNA were characterized as medium-sized substance P neurons and distinct from those containing D2 receptor mRNA. Nevertheless, 15-20% of the substance P neurons did not contain D1 receptor mRNA. The neurons containing preproenkephalin A mRNA did not contain D1 receptor mRNA but contained D2 receptor mRNA. A small number of cholinergic and somatostatinergic neurons exhibited a weak reaction for D1 receptor mRNA. These results demonstrate that dopamine acts on efferent striatal neurons through expression of distinct receptors--namely, D1 and D2 in separate cell populations (substance P and preproenkephalin A neurons, respectively)--and can also act on nonprojecting neurons through D1 receptor expression. Images PMID:1827915

  19. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Rhizobium gallicum phage vB_RglS_P106B.

    PubMed

    Halmillawewa, Anupama P; Restrepo-Córdoba, Marcela; Yost, Christopher K; Hynes, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The phage P106B (vB_RglS_P106B) is a Siphoviridae phage with a narrow spectrum of infectivity, which has been isolated from soils with a history of pea cultivation. The trapping host of P106B is an indigenous strain of Rhizobium gallicum (SO14B-4) isolated from soils associated with Vicia cracca. Phenotypic characterization of the phage revealed that P106B has an approximate burst size of 21 p.f.u. per infected cell with 60 min and 100 min eclipse and latent periods, respectively. Phage P106B was unable to transduce under the conditions tested. The genome of P106B is 56 024 bp in length with a mean DNA G+C content of 47.9 %. The complete genome sequence contains 95 putative ORFs and a single tRNA gene coding for leucine with the anticodon TTA. Putative functions could only be assigned to 22 of the predicted ORFs while a significant number of ORFs (47) shared no sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The remaining 26 putative protein-coding genes exhibited a sequence resemblance to other hypothetical proteins. No lysogeny-related genes were found in the P106B genome. PMID:25627439

  20. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuling; Huang, Yihua; Wang, Qinhu; Wen, Qujiang; Jia, Jinbu; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Guiyan; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica emerges as a model for exploring the molecular basis and evolution of recognition and host defense. Phenotypic variation and genetic analysis is essential to dissect the underlying mechanisms in plant–oomycete interaction. In this study, the reaction phenotypes of 28 A. thaliana accessions to P. parasitica strain Pp016 were examined using detached leaf infection assay. The results showed the presence of four distinct groups based on host response and disease development. Of all the accessions examined, Zurich (Zu-1) is highly resistant to P. parasitica. Microscopic characterization showed that rapid and severe hypersensitive response at the primary infection epidermal cells is associated with disease resistance. Furthermore, Zu-1 is resistant to a set of 20 diverse P. parasitica strains, which were collected from different host plants and exhibited differential specificities on a set of tobacco cultivars. However, Zu-1 is susceptible to P. parasitica when the root is inoculated, suggesting differential expression of associated resistance genes in the root and foliar tissues. Genetic analysis by crossing Zu-1 and the susceptible accession Landsberg (Ler) showed that the resistance in Zu-1 to P. parasitica is semi-dominant, as shown by infection assays of F1 progenies, and is likely conferred by a single locus, defined as RPPA1Zu-1 (for Resistance to P. parasitica 1), as shown by analysis of F2 segregating populations. By employing specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) strategy to identify molecular markers potentially linked to the locus, the strongest associated region was determined to be located between 7.1 and 11.2 Mb in chromosome IV. The future cloning of RPPA1Zu-1 locus will facilitate improved understanding of plant broad-spectrum disease resistance to oomycete pathogens. PMID:26074940

  1. Phenotypic, Ultra-Structural, and Functional Characterization of Bovine Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Janet J.; Ochoa, Amanda S.; Bishop, Elizabeth; Barlow, John W.; Golde, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c−. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC), and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle. PMID:25295753

  2. Phenotypic, genotypic, and functional characterization of normal and acute myeloid leukemia-derived marrow endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Russell J; Azadniv, Mitra; Guo, Naxin; Acklin, Joshua; Lacagnina, Kimberly; Coppage, Myra; Liesveld, Jane L

    2016-05-01

    In addition to participation in homing, egress, and transmigration of hematopoietic cells, marrow endothelium also contributes to cell proliferation and survival. Endothelial cells from multiple vascular beds are able to prevent spontaneous or therapy-induced apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blasts. Marrow-derived endothelial cells from leukemia patients have not been well-characterized, and in this work, endothelial cells were purified from marrow aspirates from normal subjects or from newly diagnosed AML patients to compare these cells phenotypically and functionally. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these cells express CD31, Tie-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), supporting endothelial origin. They take up acetyl low-density lipoprotein and are able to form tubular structures. Culture of AML cells with endothelial cells from both normal and AML subjects supported adhesion, transmigration, and leukemia colony-forming unit outgrowth. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed 130 genes significantly up- or downregulated in AML-derived endothelial cells as compared with those derived from normal marrow. The genes differentially expressed (p < 0.001) were included in biological function categories involving cancer, cell development, cell growth and proliferation, cell signaling, inflammatory response, and cell death and survival. Further pathway analysis revealed upregulation of c-Fos and genes involved in chemotaxis such as CXCL16. AML-derived endothelial cells are similar in phenotype and function to their normal marrow-derived counterparts, but genomic analysis suggests a differential signature with altered expression of genes, which could play a role in leukemogenesis or leukemia cell maintenance in the marrow microenvironment. PMID:26851308

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mature Cheddar Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, N. A.; Cogan, T. M.; Condon, S.; Beresford, T.

    1999-01-01

    Non-starter lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 14 premium-quality and 3 sensorially defective mature Irish Cheddar cheeses, obtained from six manufacturers. From countable plates of Lactobacillus-selective agar, 20 single isolated colonies were randomly picked per cheese. All 331 viable isolates were biochemically characterized as mesophilic (i.e., group II) Lactobacillus spp. Phenotypically, the isolates comprised 96.4% L. paracasei, 2.1% L. plantarum, 0.3% L. curvatus, 0.3% L. brevis, and 0.9% unidentified species. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to rapidly identify the dominant strain groups in nine cheeses from three of the factories, and through clustering by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages, an average of seven strains were found per cheese. In general, strains isolated from cheese produced at the same factory clustered together. The majority of isolates associated with premium-quality cheese grouped together and apart from clusters of strains from defective-quality cheese. No correlation was found between the isomer of lactate produced and RAPD profiles, although isolates which did not ferment ribose clustered together. The phenotypic and genotypic methods employed were validated with a selection of 31 type and reference strains of mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. commonly found in Cheddar cheese. RAPD analysis was found to be a useful and rapid method for identifying isolates to the species level. The low homology exhibited between RAPD banding profiles for cheese isolates and collection strains demonstrated the heterogeneity of the L. paracasei complex. PMID:10427029

  4. Treatment and re-characterization of mouse obstructive genitourinary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cimadevila, María Jesús; García-Robles, Tomás; Muñoz-Mediavilla, Clara; Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Wägner, Ana M; Rey, Paloma; Sanchez, Alicia

    2016-05-20

    We aimed to characterize and to explore a treatment for a condition in which male mice exhibited a solid bulge in the preputial area and an inability to breed. Twenty-seven mice from several animal housing institutions in Spain were included in this study for microbiological and pathological characterization of this condition. The condition mostly affected breeding animals and was associated with the C57BL/6J genetic background. A solid, yellowish-white substance was found inside the prepuce, which displaced the penis cranially, preventing its externalization and limiting the animal's capacity to breed. This pattern was almost identical to that of post-coital vaginal plugs, suggesting that the blocking substance originated from ejaculate. Opposite to what was suggested in previous publications, the penis was completely intact in all of the cases, with no signs of mutilation or wounds. Based on our findings, we developed a surgical technique to clear the prepuce and recover breeding performance, which we tested in 15 other mice with the condition. We eliminated the blocking substance and recurrence of the condition by surgically opening the prepuce, and most of the animals recovered fertility. PMID:27203264

  5. The high-throughput phenotyping of the viscoelastic behavior of whole mouse intervertebral discs using a novel method of dynamic mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennifer W; Abraham, Adam C; Tang, Simon Y

    2015-07-16

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is highly correlated with lower back pain, and thus understanding the mechanisms of IVD degeneration is critical for the treatment of this disease. Utilizing mouse models to probe the mechanisms of degeneration is especially attractive due to the ease of manipulating mouse models and the availability of transgenics. Yet characterizing the mechanical behavior of mice IVDs remain challenging due to their minute size (approximately 540 μm in height and 1080 μm(2) in cross sectional area). We have thus developed a simple method to dynamically characterize the mechanical properties of intact mouse IVDs. The IVDs were dissected with the endplates intact, and dynamically compressed in the axial direction at 1% and 5% peak strains at 1 Hz. Utilizing this novel approach, we examined the effects of in vitro ribosylation and trypsin digestion for 24 or 72 h on the viscoelastic behavior of the whole murine IVD. Trypsin treatment resulted in a decrease of proteoglycans and loss of disc height, while ribosylation had no effect on structure or proteoglycan composition. The 72 h ribosylation group exhibited a stiffening of the disc, and both treatments significantly reduced viscous behavior of the IVDs, with the effects being more pronounced at 5% strain. Here we demonstrate a novel high-throughput method to mechanically characterize murine IVDs and detect strain-dependent differences in the elastic and the viscous behavior of the treated IVDs due to ribose and trypsin treatments. PMID:26004435

  6. MouseNet v2: a database of gene networks for studying the laboratory mouse and eight other model vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyojin; Shim, Hongseok; Kang, Byunghee; Yang, Sunmo; Shim, Jae Ho; Shin, Seung Yeon; Marcotte, Edward M.; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, is one of the most important animal tools in biomedical research. Functional characterization of the mouse genes, hence, has been a long-standing goal in mammalian and human genetics. Although large-scale knockout phenotyping is under progress by international collaborative efforts, a large portion of mouse genome is still poorly characterized for cellular functions and associations with disease phenotypes. A genome-scale functional network of mouse genes, MouseNet, was previously developed in context of MouseFunc competition, which allowed only limited input data for network inferences. Here, we present an improved mouse co-functional network, MouseNet v2 (available at http://www.inetbio.org/mousenet), which covers 17 714 genes (>88% of coding genome) with 788 080 links, along with a companion web server for network-assisted functional hypothesis generation. The network database has been substantially improved by large expansion of genomics data. For example, MouseNet v2 database contains 183 co-expression networks inferred from 8154 public microarray samples. We demonstrated that MouseNet v2 is predictive for mammalian phenotypes as well as human diseases, which suggests its usefulness in discovery of novel disease genes and dissection of disease pathways. Furthermore, MouseNet v2 database provides functional networks for eight other vertebrate models used in various research fields. PMID:26527726

  7. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Y.; Krishnan, V.; Zeng, Z.

    1995-09-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are orphan members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. COUP-TF homologues have been cloned in many species, from Drosophila to human. The protein sequences of COUP-TFs are highly homologous across species, suggesting functional conservation. Two COUP-TF genes have been cloned from human, and their genomic organizations have been characterized. To determine whether the genomic organization is conserved between human and mouse, we isolated two mouse COUP-TF genes (I and II) and characterized their genomic structures. Both genes have relatively simple structures that are similar to those of their human counterparts. In addition, we mapped mouse COUP-TF I to the distal region of chromosome 13 and COUP-TF II to the central region of chromosome 7. Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; von der Weid, Benoît; Rodriguez, Ivan; Spehr, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, the basic biophysical characteristics of the more recently identified FPR-expressing vomeronasal neurons have not been studied. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse strain that coexpresses an enhanced variant of yellow fluorescent protein together with FPR-rs3 allowing to identify and analyze FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in acute VNO tissue slices. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings allow comparative characterization of the biophysical properties inherent to a prototypical member of the FPR-expressing subpopulation of VNO neurons. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled vs. unmarked vomeronasal neurons. Our results reveal striking similarities in the basic (electro) physiological architecture of both transgene-expressing and non-expressing neurons, confirming the suitability of this genetically engineered mouse model for future studies addressing more specialized issues in vomeronasal FPR neurobiology. PMID:25484858

  9. Phenotypic characterization and genetic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with pubescent leaves and glabrous hulls (plgh)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop pubescence (hairs or trichomes), the outermost cell layer covering plant organs, provides an advantage as a plant defense mechanism but can be abrasive to field and processing equipment. All previous studies on the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of rice pubescence have used genetic m...

  10. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from retail foods based on serotyping, pulse field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance and other phenotypic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Salmonella strains isolated from a variety of foods during 2000 and 2003, by the Florida State Department of Agriculture, were characterized by various genotypic and phenotypic tests. Among 16 isolates, 15 different serotypes were identified. Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerpr...

  11. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  12. Characterization of spatio-temporal epidural event-related potentials for mouse models of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Pinto-Duarte, António; Behrens, M Margarita; Zhou, Xianjin; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    Distinctive features in sensory event-related potentials (ERPs) are endophenotypic biomarkers of psychiatric disorders, widely studied using electroencephalographic (EEG) methods in humans and model animals. Despite the popularity and unique significance of the mouse as a model species in basic research, existing EEG methods applicable to mice are far less powerful than those available for humans and large animals. We developed a new method for multi-channel epidural ERP characterization in behaving mice with high precision, reliability and convenience and report an application to time-domain ERP feature characterization of the Sp4 hypomorphic mouse model for schizophrenia. Compared to previous methods, our spatio-temporal ERP measurement robustly improved the resolving power of key signatures characteristic of the disease model. The high performance and low cost of this technique makes it suitable for high-throughput behavioral and pharmacological studies. PMID:26459883

  13. Characterization of spatio-temporal epidural event-related potentials for mouse models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Pinto-Duarte, António; Margarita Behrens, M.; Zhou, Xianjin; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Distinctive features in sensory event-related potentials (ERPs) are endophenotypic biomarkers of psychiatric disorders, widely studied using electroencephalographic (EEG) methods in humans and model animals. Despite the popularity and unique significance of the mouse as a model species in basic research, existing EEG methods applicable to mice are far less powerful than those available for humans and large animals. We developed a new method for multi-channel epidural ERP characterization in behaving mice with high precision, reliability and convenience and report an application to time-domain ERP feature characterization of the Sp4 hypomorphic mouse model for schizophrenia. Compared to previous methods, our spatio-temporal ERP measurement robustly improved the resolving power of key signatures characteristic of the disease model. The high performance and low cost of this technique makes it suitable for high-throughput behavioral and pharmacological studies. PMID:26459883

  14. Characterization of mouse model-derived osteosarcoma (OS) cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Uluçkan, Özge; Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary tumor of bone with a high incidence in children. Treatment options for OS are limited, and once metastasized, the prognosis is very poor. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are valuable tools to understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and to test possible therapies. In this chapter, we summarize the methods related to the isolation, characterization, and transplantation of OS cells obtained from GEMMs. PMID:25636475

  15. Characterization of neurophysiological and behavioral changes, MRI brain volumetry and 1H MRS in zQ175 knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Taneli; Lehtimäki, Kimmo; Vartiainen, Nina; Puoliväli, Jukka; Hendricks, Susan J; Glaser, Jack R; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Wadel, Kristian; Touller, Chrystelle; Kontkanen, Outi; Yrjänheikki, Juha M; Buisson, Bruno; Howland, David; Beaumont, Vahri; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Park, Larry C

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Since the discovery of the huntingtin gene (HTT) mutation that causes the disease, several mouse lines have been developed using different gene constructs of Htt. Recently, a new model, the zQ175 knock-in (KI) mouse, was developed (see description by Menalled et al, [1]) in an attempt to have the Htt gene in a context and causing a phenotype that more closely mimics HD in humans. Here we confirm the behavioral phenotypes reported by Menalled et al [1], and extend the characterization to include brain volumetry, striatal metabolite concentration, and early neurophysiological changes. The overall reproducibility of the behavioral phenotype across the two independent laboratories demonstrates the utility of this new model. Further, important features reminiscent of human HD pathology are observed in zQ175 mice: compared to wild-type neurons, electrophysiological recordings from acute brain slices reveal that medium spiny neurons from zQ175 mice display a progressive hyperexcitability; glutamatergic transmission in the striatum is severely attenuated; decreased striatal and cortical volumes from 3 and 4 months of age in homo- and heterozygous mice, respectively, with whole brain volumes only decreased in homozygotes. MR spectroscopy reveals decreased concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and increased concentrations of glutamine, taurine and creatine + phosphocreatine in the striatum of 12-month old homozygotes, the latter also measured in 12-month-old heterozygotes. Motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in homozygotes occur concurrently with the structural and metabolic changes observed. In sum, the zQ175 KI model has robust behavioral, electrophysiological, and histopathological features that may be valuable in both furthering our understanding of HD-like pathophyisology and the evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies to

  16. Characterization of Neurophysiological and Behavioral Changes, MRI Brain Volumetry and 1H MRS in zQ175 Knock-In Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Taneli; Lehtimäki, Kimmo; Vartiainen, Nina; Puoliväli, Jukka; Hendricks, Susan J.; Glaser, Jack R.; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Wadel, Kristian; Touller, Chrystelle; Kontkanen, Outi; Yrjänheikki, Juha M.; Buisson, Bruno; Howland, David; Beaumont, Vahri; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Park, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Since the discovery of the huntingtin gene (HTT) mutation that causes the disease, several mouse lines have been developed using different gene constructs of Htt. Recently, a new model, the zQ175 knock-in (KI) mouse, was developed (see description by Menalled et al, [1]) in an attempt to have the Htt gene in a context and causing a phenotype that more closely mimics HD in humans. Here we confirm the behavioral phenotypes reported by Menalled et al [1], and extend the characterization to include brain volumetry, striatal metabolite concentration, and early neurophysiological changes. The overall reproducibility of the behavioral phenotype across the two independent laboratories demonstrates the utility of this new model. Further, important features reminiscent of human HD pathology are observed in zQ175 mice: compared to wild-type neurons, electrophysiological recordings from acute brain slices reveal that medium spiny neurons from zQ175 mice display a progressive hyperexcitability; glutamatergic transmission in the striatum is severely attenuated; decreased striatal and cortical volumes from 3 and 4 months of age in homo- and heterozygous mice, respectively, with whole brain volumes only decreased in homozygotes. MR spectroscopy reveals decreased concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and increased concentrations of glutamine, taurine and creatine + phosphocreatine in the striatum of 12-month old homozygotes, the latter also measured in 12-month-old heterozygotes. Motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in homozygotes occur concurrently with the structural and metabolic changes observed. In sum, the zQ175 KI model has robust behavioral, electrophysiological, and histopathological features that may be valuable in both furthering our understanding of HD-like pathophyisology and the evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies to

  17. Characterization of the Mouse Brain Proteome Using Global Proteomic Analysis Complemented with Cysteinyl-Peptide Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haixing H.; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Barry, Richard C.; Liu, Tao; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Khan, Arshad H.; Smith, Desmond; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-02-01

    Given the growing interest in applying genomic and proteomic approaches for studying the mammalian brain using mouse models, we hereby present for the first time a comprehensive characterization of the mouse brain proteome. Preparation of the whole brain sample incorporated a highly efficient cysteinyl-peptide enrichment (CPE) technique to complement a global enzymatic digestion method. Both the global and the cysteinyl-enriched peptide samples were analyzed by SCX fractionation coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 48,328 different peptides were confidently identified (>98% confidence level), covering 7792 non-redundant proteins (~34% of the predicted mouse proteome). 1564 and 1859 proteins were identified exclusively from the cysteinyl-peptide and the global peptide samples, respectively, corresponding to 25% and 31% improvements in proteome coverage compared to analysis of only the global peptide or cysteinyl-peptide samples. The identified proteins provide a broad representation of the mouse proteome with little bias evident due to protein pI, molecular weight, and/or cellular localization. Approximately 26% of the identified proteins with gene ontology (GO) annotations were membrane proteins, with 1447 proteins predicted to have transmembrane domains, and many of the membrane proteins were found to be involved in transport and cell signaling. The MS/MS spectrum count information for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. The mouse brain peptide/protein database generated from this study represents the most comprehensive proteome coverage for the mammalian brain to date, and the basis for future quantitative brain proteomic studies using mouse models.

  18. Development and Characterization of a Mouse Model for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever▿

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Wells, Jay; Lofts, Loreen; Cooper, Meagan T.; Alves, D. Anthony; Reed, Daniel K.; VanTongeren, Sean A.; Mech, Christine A.; Bavari, Sina

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a mouse model has hampered an understanding of the pathogenesis and immunity of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), the disease caused by marburgvirus (MARV), and has created a bottleneck in the development of antiviral therapeutics. Primary isolates of the filoviruses, i.e., ebolavirus (EBOV) and MARV, are not lethal to immunocompetent adult mice. Previously, pathological, virologic, and immunologic evaluation of a mouse-adapted EBOV, developed by sequential passages in suckling mice, identified many similarities between this model and EBOV infections in nonhuman primates. We recently demonstrated that serially passaging virus recovered from the liver homogenates of MARV-infected immunodeficient (SCID) mice was highly successful in reducing the time to death in these mice from 50 to 70 days to 7 to 10 days after challenge with the isolate MARV-Ci67, -Musoke, or -Ravn. In this study, we extended our findings to show that further sequential passages of MARV-Ravn in immunocompetent mice caused the MARV to kill BALB/c mice. Serial sampling studies to characterize the pathology of mouse-adapted MARV-Ravn revealed that this model is similar to the guinea pig and nonhuman primate MHF models. Infection of BALB/c mice with mouse-adapted MARV-Ravn caused uncontrolled viremia and high viral titers in the liver, spleen, lymph node, and other organs; profound lymphopenia; destruction of lymphocytes within the spleen and lymph nodes; and marked liver damage and thrombocytopenia. Sequencing the mouse-adapted MARV-Ravn strain revealed differences in 16 predicted amino acids from the progenitor virus, although the exact changes required for adaptation are unclear at this time. This mouse-adapted MARV strain can now be used to develop and evaluate novel vaccines and therapeutics and may also help to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors associated with MARV. PMID:19369350

  19. [A comprehensive form for the standardized characterization of transgenic rodents: genotype, phenotype, welfare assessment, recommendations for refinement].

    PubMed

    Mertens, C; Rülicke, T

    2000-01-01

    When "creating" transgenic mouse strains it is not possible to predict their phenotype with certainty, particularly not with respect to welfare. The generation of models for (human) diseases deliberately implies a compromised health ranging from minor (clinically inapparent) to lethal. To ensure animal welfare requirements and apply the criteria of the 3R, a careful phenotype characterisation and welfare assessment has to be done routinely for each newly produced strain, at individual and strain level, starting by the standardised monitoring of founders and their consequent generations. A comprehensive form has been developed for a standardised characterisation of transgenic mouse strains. It is subdivided into basic and detail information. It can be kept up to date continuously in the form of a computerised database, incorporating growing knowledge and experience of the strain. Basic information mainly serves the requirements of housing and breeding facilities as well as the authorities in view of animal welfare measures, detail information mainly serves the interests of research and efficiency. PMID:11103109

  20. Isolated Anxa5{sup +}/Sca-1{sup +} perivascular cells from mouse meningeal vasculature retain their perivascular phenotype in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Brachvogel, Bent . E-mail: bent.brachvogel@uni-koeln.de; Pausch, Friederike; Farlie, Peter; Gaipl, Udo; Etich, Julia; Zhou, Zhigang; Cameron, Trevor; Mark, Klaus von der; Bateman, John F.; Poeschl, Ernst . E-mail: e.poschl@uea.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Pericytes are closely associated with endothelial cells, contribute to vascular stability and represent a potential source of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Using the specifically expressed annexin A5-LacZ fusion gene (Anxa5-LacZ), it became possible to isolate perivascular cells (PVC) from mouse tissues. These cells proliferate and can be cultured without undergoing senescence for multiple passages. PVC display phenotypic characteristics of pericytes, as they express pericyte-specific markers (NG2-proteoglycan, desmin, {alpha}SMA, PDGFR-{beta}). They also express stem cell marker Sca-1, whereas endothelial (PECAM), hematopoietic (CD45) or myeloid (F4/80, CD11b) lineage markers are not detectable. These characteristics are in common with the pericyte-like cell line 10T1/2. PVC also display a phagocytoic activity higher than 10T1/2 cells. During coculture with endothelial cells both cell types stimulate angiogenic processes indicated by an increased expression of PECAM in endothelial cells and specific deposition of basement membrane proteins. PVC show a significantly increased induction of endothelial specific PECAM expression compared to 10T1/2 cells. Accordingly, in vivo grafts of PVC aggregates onto chorioallantoic membranes of quail embryos recruit endothelial cells, get highly vascularized and deposit basement membrane components. These data demonstrate that isolated Anxa5-LacZ{sup +} PVC from mouse meninges retain their capacity for differentiation to pericyte-like cells and contribute to angiogenic processes.

  1. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Xiongjun; Raman, Babu; Zhu, Mingjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  2. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, Lee R; Shao, Xiongjun; Raman, Babu; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Zhu, Mingjun

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1 2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  3. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BREAST INVASIVE CARCINOMA VIA TRANSFERABLE TISSUE MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS LEARNED FROM GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ju; Fontenay, Gerald V.; Wang, Yunfu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of whole slide images (WSIs) in a large cohort may provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. Although unsupervised feature learning provides a promising way in learning pertinent features without human intervention, its capability can be greatly limited due to the lack of well-curated examples. In this paper, we explored the transferability of knowledge acquired from a well-curated Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) dataset through its application to the representation and characterization of tissue histology from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Breast Invasive Carcinoma (BRCA) cohort. Our experimental results reveals two major phenotypic subtypes with statistically significantly different survival curves. Further differential expression analysis of these two subtypes indicates enrichment of genes regulated by NF-kB in response to TNF and genes up-regulated in response to IFNG. PMID:27390615

  4. Characterization of G6PD genotypes and phenotypes on the northwestern Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Bancone, Germana; Chu, Cindy S; Somsakchaicharoen, Raweewan; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Parker, Daniel M; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François H

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene result in red blood cells with increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. Significant haemolysis can be caused by primaquine and other 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials used for the radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria. The distribution and phenotypes of mutations causing G6PD deficiency in the male population of migrants and refugees in a malaria endemic region on the Thailand-Myanmar border were characterized. Blood samples for G6PD fluorescent spot test (FST), G6PD genotyping, and malaria testing were taken from 504 unrelated males of Karen and Burman ethnicities presenting to the outpatient clinics. The overall frequency of G6PD deficiency by the FST was 13.7%. Among the deficient subjects, almost 90% had the Mahidol variant (487G>A) genotype. The remaining subjects had Chinese-4 (392G>T), Viangchan (871G>A), Açores (595A>G), Seattle (844G>C) and Mediterranean (563C>T) variants. Quantification of G6PD activity was performed using a modification of the standard spectrophotometric assay on a subset of 24 samples with Mahidol, Viangchan, Seattle and Chinese-4 mutations; all samples showed a residual enzymatic activity below 10% of normal and were diagnosed correctly by the FST. Further studies are needed to characterise the haemolytic risk of using 8-aminoquinolines in patients with these genotypes. PMID:25536053

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of native Azospirillum strains from rice fields to improve crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Pradhan, Madhusmita; Dangar, Tushar K; Mohanty, Santanu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-07-01

    Beneficial microorganisms have been considered as an important tool for crop improvement. Native isolates of Azospirillum spp. were obtained from the rhizospheres of different rice fields. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characterizations of these isolates led to the identification of six efficient strain of Azospirillum. PCR amplification of the nif genes (nifH, nifD and nifK) and protein profile of Azospirillum strains revealed inter-generic and inter-specific diversity among the strains. In vitro nitrogen fixation performance and the plant growth promotion activities, viz. siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were found to vary among the Azospirillum strains. The effect of Azospirillum formulations on growth of rice var. Khandagiri under field condition was evaluated, which revealed that the native formulation of Azospirillum of CRRI field (As6) was most effective to elevate endogenous nutrient content, and improved growth and better yield are the result. The 16S rRNA sequence revealed novelty of native Azospirillum lipoferum (As6) (JQ796078) in the NCBI database. PMID:24414168

  6. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Saccharomyces spp. strains isolated in distillery plants.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, Juan F; Chacón-Ocaña, Maria; Díaz-Hellín, Patricia; Ramírez-Pérez, Hector; Briones, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the biodiversity and some interesting phenotypic properties of Saccharomyces wild yeasts isolated in distilleries, at least 100 years old, located in La Mancha (Spain), were determined. Strains were genetically characterized by RFLP-mtDNA, which confirmed a great genetic biodiversity with 73% of strains with different mtDNA profiles, highlighting the large variability found in sweet and fermented piquette substrata. The predominant species identified was S. cerevisiae, followed by S. paradoxus and S. bayanus Due to the residual sugar-alcohol extraction process using warm water, a great number of thermophilic Saccharomyces strains with a great cell vitality were found to have potential use as starters in distillery plants. Interesting technological properties such as cell vitality and growth rate at different temperatures were studied. The thermal washing process for the extraction of alcohol and reducing sugars of some raw materials contributes to the presence of Saccharomyces strains with technologically interesting properties, especially in terms of vitality and resistance to high temperatures. Due to the fact that fermentation is spontaneous, the yeast biota of these environments, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces, is very varied so these ecological niches are microbial reserves of undoubted biotechnological interest. PMID:27189361

  7. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiongjun; Raman, Babu; Zhu, Mingjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed. PMID:21874277

  8. Characterization of CADASIL among the Han Chinese in Taiwan: Distinct Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Wei-Ju; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Lee, I-Hui; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Wang, Yen-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Ming-Hung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is originally featured with a strong clustering of mutations in NOTCH3 exons 3–6 and leukoencephalopathy with frequent anterior temporal pole involvement. The present study aims at characterizing the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of CADASIL in Taiwan. One hundred and twelve patients with CADASIL from 95 families of Chinese descents in Taiwan were identified by Sanger sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of NOTCH3. Twenty different mutations in NOTCH3 were uncovered, including 3 novel ones, and R544C in exon 11 was the most common mutation, accounting for 70.5% of the pedigrees. Haplotype analyses were conducted in 14 families harboring NOTCH3 R544C mutation and demonstrated a common haplotype linked to NOTCH3 R544C at loci D19S929 and D19S411. Comparing with CADASIL in most Caucasian populations, CADASIL in Taiwan has several distinct features, including less frequent anterior temporal involvement, older age at symptom onset, higher incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, and rarer occurrence of migraine. Subgroup analyses revealed that the R544C mutation is associated with lower frequency of anterior temporal involvement, later age at onset and higher frequency of cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the present study broadens the spectrum of NOTCH3 mutations and provides additional insights for the clinical and molecular characteristics of CADASIL patients of Han-Chinese descents. PMID:26308724

  9. The Sweet Drive Test: refining phenotypic characterization of anhedonic behavior in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mateus-Pinheiro, António; Patrício, Patrícia; Alves, Nuno D.; Machado-Santos, Ana R.; Morais, Monica; Bessa, João M.; Sousa, Nuno; Pinto, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring anhedonic behavior in rodents is a challenging task as current methods display only moderate sensitivity to detect anhedonic phenotype and, consequently, results from different labs are frequently incongruent. Herein we present a newly-developed test, the Sweet Drive Test (SDT), which integrates food preference measurement in a non-aversive environment, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) recording. Animals were placed in a soundproofed black arena, under red light illumination, and allowed to choose between regular and sweet food pellets. During the test trials, 50 KHz USVs, previously described to be associated with positive experiences, were recorded. In a first experimental approach, we demonstrate the ability of SDT to accurately characterize anhedonic behavior in animals chronically exposed to stress. In a subsequent set of experiments, we show that this paradigm has high sensitivity to detect mood-improving effects of antidepressants. The combined analysis of both food preference and the number of 50 KHz vocalizations in the SDT provides also a valuable tool to discriminate animals that responded to treatment from non-responder animals. PMID:24639637

  10. Characterization of G6PD Genotypes and Phenotypes on the Northwestern Thailand-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Somsakchaicharoen, Raweewan; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Parker, Daniel M.; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François H.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene result in red blood cells with increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. Significant haemolysis can be caused by primaquine and other 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials used for the radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria. The distribution and phenotypes of mutations causing G6PD deficiency in the male population of migrants and refugees in a malaria endemic region on the Thailand-Myanmar border were characterized. Blood samples for G6PD fluorescent spot test (FST), G6PD genotyping, and malaria testing were taken from 504 unrelated males of Karen and Burman ethnicities presenting to the outpatient clinics. The overall frequency of G6PD deficiency by the FST was 13.7%. Among the deficient subjects, almost 90% had the Mahidol variant (487G>A) genotype. The remaining subjects had Chinese-4 (392G>T), Viangchan (871G>A), Açores (595A>G), Seattle (844G>C) and Mediterranean (563C>T) variants. Quantification of G6PD activity was performed using a modification of the standard spectrophotometric assay on a subset of 24 samples with Mahidol, Viangchan, Seattle and Chinese-4 mutations; all samples showed a residual enzymatic activity below 10% of normal and were diagnosed correctly by the FST. Further studies are needed to characterise the haemolytic risk of using 8-aminoquinolines in patients with these genotypes. PMID:25536053

  11. Streptococcus suis causes septic arthritis and bacteremia: phenotypic characterization and molecular confirmation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanah; Lee, Sang Hoon; Moon, Hee-Won; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Hwa; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen that causes meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, and endocarditis. The first case of human S. suis infection was reported in Denmark in 1968, and since then, this infection with has been reported in many countries, especially in Southeast Asia because of the high density of pigs in this region. We report the case of a patient with septic arthritis and bacteremia caused by S. suis. Cases in which S. suis is isolated from the joint fluid are very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is first case report of S. suis infection in Korea. The identity of this organism was confirmed by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. An 81-yr-old Korean woman who presented with fever, arthralgia, and headache was admitted to a secondary referral center in Korea. Culture of aspirated joint fluid and blood samples showed the growth of S. suis biotype II, which was identified by the Vitek2 GPI and API 20 Strep systems (bioMérieux, USA), and this organism was susceptible to penicillin G and vancomycin. The 16S rRNA sequences of the blood culture isolates showed 99% homology with those of S. suis subsp. suis, which are reported in GenBank. The patient's fever subsided, and blood and joint cultures were negative for bacterial growth after antibiotic therapy; however, the swelling and pain in her left knee joint persisted. She plans to undergo total knee replacement. PMID:21474987

  12. A protocol for phenotypic detection and characterization of vascular cells of different origins in a lung neovascularization model in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rosemary C; Capen, Diane E; Cohen, Kenneth S; Munn, Lance L; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

    2009-01-01

    The goal of many current studies of neovascularization is to define the phenotype of vascular cell populations of different origins and to determine how such cells promote assembly of vascular channel. Here, we describe a protocol to immunophenotype vascular cells by high-resolution imaging and by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry in an in vivo rodent model of pulmonary microvascular remodeling. Analysis of cells by this combined approach will characterize their phenotype, quantify their number and identify their role in the assembly of vascular channels. PMID:18323810

  13. Reversal of dendritic phenotypes in 16p11.2 microduplication mouse model neurons by pharmacological targeting of a network hub.

    PubMed

    Blizinsky, Katherine D; Diaz-Castro, Blanca; Forrest, Marc P; Schürmann, Britta; Bach, Anthony P; Martin-de-Saavedra, Maria Dolores; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Duan, Jubao; Penzes, Peter

    2016-07-26

    The architecture of dendritic arbors contributes to neuronal connectivity in the brain. Conversely, abnormalities in dendrites have been reported in multiple mental disorders and are thought to contribute to pathogenesis. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are genetic alterations that are associated with a wide range of mental disorders and are highly penetrant. The 16p11.2 microduplication is one of the CNVs most strongly associated with schizophrenia and autism, spanning multiple genes possibly involved in synaptic neurotransmission. However, disease-relevant cellular phenotypes of 16p11.2 microduplication and the driver gene(s) remain to be identified. We found increased dendritic arborization in isolated cortical pyramidal neurons from a mouse model of 16p11.2 duplication (dp/+). Network analysis identified MAPK3, which encodes ERK1 MAP kinase, as the most topologically important hub in protein-protein interaction networks within the 16p11.2 region and broader gene networks of schizophrenia-associated CNVs. Pharmacological targeting of ERK reversed dendritic alterations associated with dp/+ neurons, outlining a strategy for the analysis and reversal of cellular phenotypes in CNV-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27402753

  14. Genotypic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris: A Contribution to Species Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Pietropaolo, Valeria; Ciuffreda, Emanuela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is the main cause of most spoilage problems in fruit juices and acidic products. Since soil borne species often contaminate fruit juices and do not need strict extreme requirements for survival, it is a great concern to investigate whether and how soil species could evolve from their ecological niches in microbial community to new environments as fruit juices. In this study, 23 isolates of thermo-acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria from soil were characterized by cultural and molecular methods. In addition, 2 strains isolated from a spoilage incident in pear juice were typed. Strains phenotyping showed that they could be grouped into 3 different clusters, and some isolates showed identical or quite similar patterns. Analyzing pH and temperature ranges for growth, the majority of strains were able to grow at values described for many species of Alicyclobacillus. Qualitative utilization of lysine, arginine and indole production from tryptophan revealed, for the first time, deamination of lysine and decarboxylation of arginine. Resistance to 5% NaCl as well as the ability to hydrolyze starch and gelatin, nitrate reduction, catalase and oxidase activities confirmed literature evidences. Examining of 16S rRNA, showed that isolates were divided into three blocks represented by effectively soil species and strains that are moving from soil to other possible growing source characterized by parameters that could strongly influence bacterial survival. RAPD PCR technique evidenced a great variability in banding patterns and, although it was not possible to obtain genotypically well-distinguished groups, it was feasible to appreciate genetic similarity between some strains. In conclusion, the investigation of a microbial community entails a combination of metagenomic and classic culture-dependent approaches to expand our knowledge about Alicyclobacillus and to look for new subspecies. PMID:26484547

  15. Genotypic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris: A Contribution to Species Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Mischitelli, Monica; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Ciuffreda, Emanuela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is the main cause of most spoilage problems in fruit juices and acidic products. Since soil borne species often contaminate fruit juices and do not need strict extreme requirements for survival, it is a great concern to investigate whether and how soil species could evolve from their ecological niches in microbial community to new environments as fruit juices. In this study, 23 isolates of thermo-acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria from soil were characterized by cultural and molecular methods. In addition, 2 strains isolated from a spoilage incident in pear juice were typed. Strains phenotyping showed that they could be grouped into 3 different clusters, and some isolates showed identical or quite similar patterns. Analyzing pH and temperature ranges for growth, the majority of strains were able to grow at values described for many species of Alicyclobacillus. Qualitative utilization of lysine, arginine and indole production from tryptophan revealed, for the first time, deamination of lysine and decarboxylation of arginine. Resistance to 5% NaCl as well as the ability to hydrolyze starch and gelatin, nitrate reduction, catalase and oxidase activities confirmed literature evidences. Examining of 16S rRNA, showed that isolates were divided into three blocks represented by effectively soil species and strains that are moving from soil to other possible growing source characterized by parameters that could strongly influence bacterial survival. RAPD PCR technique evidenced a great variability in banding patterns and, although it was not possible to obtain genotypically well-distinguished groups, it was feasible to appreciate genetic similarity between some strains. In conclusion, the investigation of a microbial community entails a combination of metagenomic and classic culture-dependent approaches to expand our knowledge about Alicyclobacillus and to look for new subspecies. PMID:26484547

  16. Characterization and differential gene expression between two phenotypic phase variants in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sheila K; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Johnson, Timothy; Xu, Wayne; Isaacson, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 798 has previously been shown to undergo phenotypic phase variation. One of the phenotypes expresses virulence traits such as adhesion, while the other phenotype does not. Phenotypic phase variation appears to correlate with the ability of this strain to cause persistent, asymptomatic infections of swine. A new method to detect cells in either phenotypic phase was developed using Evans Blue-Uranine agar plates. Using this new assay, rates of phenotypic phase variation were obtained. The rate of phase variation from non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-4) per cell per generation while phase variation from the adhesive to the non-adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-6) per cell per generation. Two highly virulent S. Typhimurium strains, SL1344 and ATCC 14028, were also shown to undergo phase variation. However, while the rate from adhesive to non-adhesive phenotype was approximately the same as for strain 798, the non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype shift was 37-fold higher. Differential gene expression was measured using RNA-Seq. Eighty-three genes were more highly expressed by 798 cells in the adhesive phenotype compared to the non-adhesive cells. Most of the up-regulated genes were in virulence genes and in particular all genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 were up-regulated. When compared to the virulent strain SL1344, expression of the virulence genes was approximately equal to those up-regulated in the adhesive phenotype of strain 798. A comparison of invasive ability demonstrated that strain SL1344 was the most invasive followed by the adhesive phenotype of strain 798, then the non-adhesive phenotype of strain 798. The least invasive strain was ATCC 14028. The genome of strain 798 was sequenced and compared to SL1344. Both strains had very similar genome sequences and gene deletions could not readily explain differences in the rates of phase variation from non-adhesive to the

  17. Mouse Mincle: Characterization as a Model for Human Mincle and Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rambaruth, Neela D. S.; Jégouzo, Sabine A. F.; Marlor, Hayley; Taylor, Maureen E.; Drickamer, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Mincle, the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin also known as CLEC-4E, binds to the mycobacterial glycolipid trehalose dimycolate and initiates a signaling cascade by serving as a receptor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species. Studies of the biological functions of human mincle often rely on mouse models, based on the assumption that the biological properties of the mouse receptor mimic those of the human protein. Experimental support for this assumption has been obtained by expression of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of mouse mincle and characterization of its interaction with small molecule analogs of trehalose dimycolate. The results confirm that the ligand-binding properties of mouse mincle closely parallel those of the human receptor. These findings are consistent with the conservation of key amino acid residues that have been shown to form the ligand-binding site in human and cow mincle. Sequence alignment reveals that these residues are conserved in a wide range of mammalian species, suggesting that mincle has a conserved function in binding ligands that may include endogenous mammalian glycans or pathogen glycans in addition to trehalose dimycolate. PMID:25884549

  18. Characterization of the TGF-β1 signaling abnormalities in the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zingariello, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Masiello, Francesca; Ghinassi, Barbara; D’Amore, Emanuela; Massa, Margherita; Barosi, Giovanni; Sancillo, Laura; Li, Xiaochun; Goldberg, Judith D.; Rana, Rosa Alba

    2013-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is characterized by fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis in marrow, and hematopoiesis in extramedullary sites and is associated with abnormal megakaryocyte (MK) development and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 release. To clarify the role of TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of this disease, the TGF-β1 signaling pathway of marrow and spleen of the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis (MF) was profiled and the consequences of inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling on disease manifestations determined. The expression of 20 genes in marrow and 36 genes in spleen of Gata1low mice was altered. David-pathway analyses identified alterations of TGF-β1, Hedgehog, and p53 signaling in marrow and spleen and of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in spleen only and predicted that these alterations would induce consequences consistent with the Gata1low phenotype (increased apoptosis and G1 arrest both in marrow and spleen and increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in marrow only). Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling normalized the expression of p53-related genes, restoring hematopoiesis and MK development and reducing fibrosis, neovascularization, and osteogenesis in marrow. It also normalized p53/mTOR/Hedgehog-related genes in spleen, reducing extramedullary hematopoiesis. These data identify altered expression signatures of TGF-β1 signaling that may be responsible for MF in Gata1low mice and may represent additional targets for therapeutic intervention in PMF. PMID:23462118

  19. Integrating Genetic and Network Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Mouse Weight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Susanna; Plaisier, Christopher; Castellanos, Ruth; Brozell, Alec; Schadt, Eric E; Drake, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Systems biology approaches that are based on the genetics of gene expression have been fruitful in identifying genetic regulatory loci related to complex traits. We use microarray and genetic marker data from an F2 mouse intercross to examine the large-scale organization of the gene co-expression network in liver, and annotate several gene modules in terms of 22 physiological traits. We identify chromosomal loci (referred to as module quantitative trait loci, mQTL) that perturb the modules and describe a novel approach that integrates network properties with genetic marker information to model gene/trait relationships. Specifically, using the mQTL and the intramodular connectivity of a body weight–related module, we describe which factors determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and weight. Our approach results in the identification of genetic targets that influence gene modules (pathways) that are related to the clinical phenotypes of interest. PMID:16934000

  20. Integrating genetic and network analysis to characterize genes related to mouse weight.

    PubMed

    Ghazalpour, Anatole; Doss, Sudheer; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Susanna; Plaisier, Christopher; Castellanos, Ruth; Brozell, Alec; Schadt, Eric E; Drake, Thomas A; Lusis, Aldons J; Horvath, Steve

    2006-08-18

    Systems biology approaches that are based on the genetics of gene expression have been fruitful in identifying genetic regulatory loci related to complex traits. We use microarray and genetic marker data from an F2 mouse intercross to examine the large-scale organization of the gene co-expression network in liver, and annotate several gene modules in terms of 22 physiological traits. We identify chromosomal loci (referred to as module quantitative trait loci, mQTL) that perturb the modules and describe a novel approach that integrates network properties with genetic marker information to model gene/trait relationships. Specifically, using the mQTL and the intramodular connectivity of a body weight-related module, we describe which factors determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and weight. Our approach results in the identification of genetic targets that influence gene modules (pathways) that are related to the clinical phenotypes of interest. PMID:16934000

  1. Hexa-D-Arginine treatment increases 7B2•PC2 activity in hyp-mouse osteoblasts and rescues the HYP phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Baozhi; Feng, Jian Q.; Bowman, Stephen; Liu, Ying; Blank, Robert D.; Lindberg, Iris; Drezner, Marc K.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of PHEX/Phex underlie disease in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the hyp-mouse, a murine homologue of the human disorder. Although increased serum FGF-23 underlies the HYP phenotype, the mechanism(s) by which PHEX mutations inhibit FGF-23 degradation and/or enhance production remains unknown. Here we show that treatment of wild type mice with the proprotein convertase (PC) inhibitor, Decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, increases serum FGF-23 and produces the HYP phenotype. Since PC2 is uniquely co-localized with PHEX in osteoblasts/bone, we examined if PC2 regulates PHEX-dependent FGF-23 cleavage and production. Transfection of murine osteoblasts with PC2 and its chaperone protein 7B2 cleaved FGF-23, while Signe1 (7B2) RNAi transfection, which limited 7B2 protein production, decreased FGF-23 degradation and increased Fgf-23 mRNA and protein. The mechanism by which decreased 7B2•PC2 activity influences Fgf-23 mRNA was linked to reduced conversion of proBMP1 to active BMP1, which resulted in limited cleavage of DMP1, and consequent increased Fgf-23 mRNA. The significance of decreased 7B2•PC2 activity in XLH was confirmed by studies of hyp-mouse bone, which revealed significantly decreased Sgne1 (7B2) mRNA and 7B2 protein, and limited cleavage of proPC2 to active PC2. The expected downstream effects of these changes included decreased FGF-23 cleavage and increased FGF-23 synthesis, secondary to decreased BMP1-mediated degradation of DMP1. Subsequent Hexa-D-Arginine treatment of hyp-mice enhanced bone 7B2•PC2 activity, normalized FGF-23 degradation and production, and rescued the HYP phenotype. These data suggest decreased PHEX-dependent 7B2•PC2 activity is central to the pathogenesis of XLH. PMID:22886699

  2. A new digital enumeration method to collect phenotypic data for characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent data across animal populations are required to inform genomic science aimed at finding important adaptive genetic variations. The ADAPTMap Digital Phenotype Collection Method is a new procedure to provide consistent phenotypic data by digital enumeration of categorical and continuous valu...

  3. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase reveals a novel neuronal phenotype in the mouse medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Edwards, Ian J; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2015-12-01

    GABAergic and cholinergic systems play an important part in autonomic pathways. To determine the distribution of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine in areas involved in autonomic control in the mouse brainstem, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurones, combined with choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurones were observed throughout the brainstem. A small number of cells contained both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP. Such double labelled cells were observed in the NTS (predominantly in the intermediate and central subnuclei), the area postrema, reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus. All ChAT-IR neurones in the area postrema contained GAD67-GFP. Double labelled neurones were not observed in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or hypoglossal nucleus. Double labelled ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP cells in the NTS did not contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity, whereas those in the reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus did. The function of these small populations of double labelled cells is currently unknown, however their location suggests a potential role in integrating signals involved in oromotor behaviours. PMID:26015156

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Yersinia ruckeri isolates from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Ciftci, Alper; Findik, Arzu; Ciftci, Gülay; Altun, Soner; Balta, Fikri; Ozer, Selmin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Yersinia (Y) ruckeri strains, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), by antibiotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of whole cell proteins. For this aim, a total of 97 Y ruckeri isolates were analyzed. The isolates were distinguished into ten antibiotypes and six phenotypes according to their resistance properties and whole cell protein profiles, respectively. Also, a glycoprotein band of approximately 25.5 kDa was observed in all Y ruckeri strains tested. In all strains, six different RAPD types were observed. In conclusion, Y ruckeri strains isolated from rainbow trout of fish farms in Turkey showed variation according to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the use of these three typing techniques in double and triple combinations could be more useful for discriminating the strains. PMID:21848040

  5. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of a New Corynebacterium Species from Dogs: Description of Corynebacterium auriscanis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Matthew D.; Hoyles, Lesley; Lawson, Paul A.; Falsen, Enevold; Robson, Robert L.; Foster, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Six strains of a previously undescribed catalase-positive coryneform bacterium isolated from clinical specimens from dogs were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic studies revealed that the unknown bacterium belonged to the genus Corynebacterium sensu stricto. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the six strains were genealogically highly related and constitute a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium; this subline is close to but distinct from C. falsenii, C. jeikeium, and C. urealyticum. The unknown bacterium from dogs was distinguished from all currently validated Corynebacterium species by phenotypic tests including electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a new species, Corynebacterium auriscanis. The type strain of C. auriscanis is CCUG 39938T. PMID:10523531

  6. Phenotypical and functional characterization of alveolar macrophage subpopulations in the lungs of NO2-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Garn, Holger; Siese, Anette; Stumpf, Sabine; Wensing, Anka; Renz, Harald; Gemsa, Diethard

    2006-01-01

    Background Alveolar macrophages (AM) are known to play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reactions in the lung, e.g. during the development of chronic lung diseases. Exposure of rats to NO2 has recently been shown to induce a shift in the activation type of AM that is characterized by reduced TNF-α and increased IL-10 production. So far it is unclear, whether a functional shift in the already present AM population or the occurrence of a new, phenotypically different AM population is responsible for these observations. Methods AM from rat and mice were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface marker expression and in vivo staining with PKH26 was applied to characterize newly recruited macrophages. Following magnetic bead separation, AM subpopulations were further analyzed for cytokine, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mRNA expression using quantitative RT-PCR. Following in vitro stimulation, cytokines were quantitated in the culture supernatants by ELISA. Results In untreated rats the majority of AM showed a low expression of the surface antigen ED7 (CD11b) and a high ED9 (CD172) expression (ED7-/ED9high). In contrast, NO2 exposure induced the occurrence of a subpopulation characterized by the marker combination ED7+/ED9low. Comparable changes were observed in mice and by in vivo labeling of resident AM using the dye PKH26 we could demonstrate that CD11b positive cells mainly comprise newly recruited AM. Subsequent functional analyses of separated AM subpopulations of the rat revealed that ED7+ cells showed an increased expression and production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 whereas TNF-α production was lower compared to ED7- AM. However, iNOS and IL-12 expression were also increased in the ED7+ subpopulation. In addition, these cells showed a significantly higher mRNA expression for the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-7, -8, -9, and -12. Conclusion NO2 exposure induces the infiltration of an AM subpopulation

  7. Does Virulence Assessment of Vibrio anguillarum Using Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae Correspond with Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization?

    PubMed Central

    Frans, Ingeborg; Dierckens, Kristof; Crauwels, Sam; Van Assche, Ado; Leisner, Jørgen; Larsen, Marianne H.; Michiels, Chris W.; Willems, Kris A.; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibriosis is one of the most ubiquitous fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio such as Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum. Despite a lot of research efforts, the virulence factors and mechanism of V. anguillarum are still insufficiently known, in part because of the lack of standardized virulence assays. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated and compared the virulence of 15 V. anguillarum strains obtained from different hosts or non-host niches using a standardized gnotobiotic bioassay with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae as model hosts. In addition, to assess potential relationships between virulence and genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strains were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) analyses, as well as by phenotypic analyses using Biolog’s Phenotype MicroArray™ technology and some virulence factor assays. Conclusions/Significance Virulence testing revealed ten virulent and five avirulent strains. While some relation could be established between serotype, genotype and phenotype, no relation was found between virulence and genotypic or phenotypic characteristics, illustrating the complexity of V. anguillarum virulence. Moreover, the standardized gnotobiotic system used in this study has proven its strength as a model to assess and compare the virulence of different V. anguillarum strains in vivo. In this way, the bioassay contributes to the study of mechanisms underlying virulence in V. anguillarum. PMID:23936439

  8. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 19q12q13.1 deletions: a report of five patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shimul; Bandholz, Anne M; Parkash, Sandhya; Dyack, Sarah; Rideout, Andrea L; Leppig, Kathleen A; Thiese, Heidi; Wheeler, Patricia G; Tsang, Marilyn; Ballif, Blake C; Shaffer, Lisa G; Torchia, Beth S; Ellison, Jay W; Rosenfeld, Jill A

    2014-01-01

    A syndrome associated with 19q13.11 microdeletions has been proposed based on seven previous cases that displayed developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech disturbances, pre- and post-natal growth retardation, microcephaly, ectodermal dysplasia, and genital malformations in males. A 324-kb critical region was previously identified as the smallest region of overlap (SRO) for this syndrome. To further characterize this microdeletion syndrome, we present five patients with deletions within 19q12q13.12 identified using a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. Patients 1 and 2 possess deletions overlapping the SRO, and Patients 3-5 have deletions proximal to the SRO. Patients 1 and 2 share significant phenotypic overlap with previously reported cases, providing further definition of the 19q13.11 microdeletion syndrome phenotype, including the first presentation of ectrodactyly in the syndrome. Patients 3-5, whose features include developmental delay, growth retardation, and feeding problems, support the presence of dosage-sensitive genes outside the SRO that may contribute to the abnormal phenotypes observed in this syndrome. Multiple genotype-phenotype correlations outside the SRO are explored, including further validation of the deletion of WTIP as a candidate for male hypospadias observed in this syndrome. We postulate that unique patient-specific deletions within 19q12q13.1 may explain the phenotypic variability observed in this emerging contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:24243649

  9. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major 'green revolution' traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  10. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J.; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major ‘green revolution’ traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  11. Generation of a Mouse Model with Down-Regulated U50 snoRNA (SNORD50) Expression and Its Organ-Specific Phenotypic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Soeno, Yuuichi; Fujita, Kazuya; Kudo, Tomoo; Asagiri, Masataka; Kakuta, Shigeru; Taya, Yuji; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Sato, Kaori; Tanaka-Fujita, Ritsuko; Kubo, Sachiko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Mori, Shigeo; Aoba, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    Box C/D-type small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are functional RNAs responsible for mediating 2′-O-ribose methylation of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) within the nucleolus. In the past years, evidence for the involvement of human U50 snoRNA in tumorigenesis has been accumulating. We previously identified U50HG, a non-protein-coding gene that hosted a box C/D-type U50 snoRNA, in a chromosomal breakpoint in a human B-cell lymphoma. Mouse genome analysis revealed four mouse U50 (mU50) host-genes: three mU50HG-a gene variants that were clustered in the genome and an mU50HG-b gene that we supposed to be the U50HG ortholog. In this study, to investigate the physiological importance of mU50 snoRNA and its involvement in tumorigenesis, we eliminated mU50 snoRNA sequences from the mU50HG-b gene. The established mouse line (ΔmU50(HG-b)) showed a significant reduction of mU50 snoRNA expression without alteration of the host-gene length and exon-intron structure, and the corresponding target rRNA methylation in various organs was reduced. Lifelong phenotypic monitoring showed that the ΔmU50(HG-b) mice looked almost normal without accelerated tumorigenicity; however, a notable difference was the propensity for anomalies in the lymphoid organs. Transcriptome analysis showed that dozens of genes, including heat shock proteins, were differentially expressed in ΔmU50(HG-b) mouse lymphocytes. This unique model of a single snoRNA knockdown with intact host-gene expression revealed further new insights into the discrete transcriptional regulation of multiple mU50 host-genes and the complicated dynamics involved in organ-specific processing and maintenance of snoRNAs. PMID:23991050

  12. Gene delivery to mitotic and postmitotic photoreceptors via compacted DNA nanoparticles results in improved phenotype in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; Conley, Shannon M; Nash, Zack; Fliesler, Steven J; Cooper, Mark J; Naash, Muna I

    2010-04-01

    nanoparticles results in improved phenotype in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:19952284

  13. Lysine overproducing Corynebacterium glutamicum is characterized by a robust linear combination of two optimal phenotypic states.

    PubMed

    Rajvanshi, Meghna; Gayen, Kalyan; Venkatesh, K V

    2013-06-01

    A homoserine auxotroph strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum accumulates storage compound trehalose with lysine when limited by growth. Industrially lysine is produced from C. glutamicum through aspartate biosynthetic pathway, where enzymatic activity of aspartate kinase is allosterically controlled by the concerted feedback inhibition of threonine plus lysine. Ample threonine in the medium supports growth and inhibits lysine production (phenotype-I) and its complete absence leads to inhibition of growth in addition to accumulating lysine and trehalose (phenotype-II). In this work, we demonstrate that as threonine concentration becomes limiting, metabolic state of the cell shifts from maximizing growth (phenotype-I) to maximizing trehalose phenotype (phenotype-II) in a highly sensitive manner (with a Hill coefficient of 4). Trehalose formation was linked to lysine production through stoichiometry of the network. The study demonstrated that the net flux of the population was a linear combination of the two optimal phenotypic states, requiring only two experimental measurements to evaluate the flux distribution. The property of linear combination of two extreme phenotypes was robust for various medium conditions including varying batch time, initial glucose concentrations and medium osmolality. PMID:24432142

  14. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (A{sup y}) mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E.J.; Klebig, M.L.; Stubbs, L.J.; Russell, L.B.; Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J. |; Vugt, M.J. van |

    1994-03-29

    Lethal yellow (A{sup y}) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for A{sup y} results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The A{sup y} mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3{prime} end of the agouti gene. The authors present a model for the structure of the A{sub y} allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

  15. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Mouse and Human Fcγ Receptors.

    PubMed

    Tutt, Alison L; James, Sonya; Laversin, Stéphanie A; Tipton, Thomas R W; Ashton-Key, Margaret; French, Ruth R; Hussain, Khiyam; Vaughan, Andrew T; Dou, Lang; Earley, Alexander; Dahal, Lekh N; Lu, Chen; Dunscombe, Melanie; Chan, H T Claude; Penfold, Christine A; Kim, Jinny H; Potter, Elizabeth A; Mockridge, C Ian; Roghanian, Ali; Oldham, Robert J; Cox, Kerry L; Lim, Sean H; Teige, Ingrid; Frendéus, Bjorn; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    FcγRs are key regulators of the immune response, capable of binding to the Fc portion of IgG Abs and manipulating the behavior of numerous cell types. Through a variety of receptors, isoforms, and cellular expression patterns, they are able to fine-tune and direct appropriate responses. Furthermore, they are key determinants of mAb immunotherapy, with mAb isotype and FcγR interaction governing therapeutic efficacy. Critical to understanding the biology of this complex family of receptors are reagents that are robust and highly specific for each receptor. In this study, we describe the development and characterization of mAb panels specific for both mouse and human FcγR for use in flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemistry. We highlight key differences in expression between the two species and also patterns of expression that will likely impact on immunotherapeutic efficacy and translation of therapeutic agents from mouse to clinic. PMID:26512139

  16. Phenotypic Characterization and ln Vivo Localization of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Young-Joon; Cho, Tae-Jun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Choi, Jin-Young; Cho, Jaejin

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) are a potential cell source for autologous cell therapy due to their regenerative ability. However, detailed cytological or phenotypic characteristics of these cells are still unclear. Therefore, we determined and compared cell size, morphology, ultrastructure, and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profiles of isolated hADMSCs and cells located in human adipose tissues. We also characterized the localization of these cells in vivo. Light microscopy examination at low power revealed that hADMSCs acquired a spindle-shaped morphology after four passages. Additionally, high power views showed that these cells had various sizes, nuclear contours, and cytoplasmic textures. To further evaluate cell morphology, transmission electron microscopy was performed. hADMSCs typically had ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of primitive mesenchymal cells including a relatively high nuclear/cytosol ratio, prominent nucleoli, immature cytoplasmic organelles, and numerous filipodia. Some cells contained various numbers of lamellar bodies and lipid droplets. IHC staining demonstrated that PDGFR and CD10 were constitutively expressed in most hADMSCs regardless of passage number but expression levels of α-SMA, CD68, Oct4 and c-kit varied. IHC staining of adipose tissue showed that cells with immunophenotypic characteristics identical to those of hADMSCs were located mainly in the perivascular adventitia not in smooth muscle area. In summary, hADMSCs were found to represent a heterogeneous cell population with primitive mesenchymal cells that were mainly found in the perivascular adventitia. Furthermore, the cell surface markers would be CD10/PDGFR. To obtain defined cell populations for therapeutic purposes, further studies will be required to establish more specific isolation methods. PMID:23677376

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of four factor VII deficiency patients from central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Hua-Fang; Cheng, Zhi-peng; Wang, Qing-yun; Hu, Bei; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Ying-ying; Guo, Tao; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary coagulation factor VII deficiency (FVIID) is a rare autosomal, recessive inherited hemorrhagic disorder related to a variety of mutations or polymorphisms throughout the factor VII (FVII) gene (F7). The aims of this study were to characterize the molecular defect of the F7 gene in four unrelated patients with FVIID and to find the genotype-phenotype correlation. All nine exons, exon-intron boundaries, and 5' and 3'-untranslated regions of the F7 gene were amplified by PCR and the purified PCR products were sequenced directly. Suspected mutations were confirmed by another PCR and sequencing of the opposite strand. Family studies were also performed. A total of five unique lesions were identified, including three missense mutations (c.384A>G, c.839A>C, c.1163T>G, predicting p.Tyr128Cys, p.Glu280Ala and p.Phe388Cys substitution, respectively) and two splice junction mutations (c.572-1G>A, c.681+1G>T), among which two (p.Glu280Ala, p.Phe388Cys) were novel. A previously reported mutation p.Tyr128Cys was seen in the homozygous state in two unrelated patients. The other two cases were both compound heterozygotes of a missense mutation and a splicing site mutation. Multiple sequence alignment using DNAMAN analysis showed that all the missense mutations were found in residues that highly conserved across species and vitamin K-dependent serine proteases. Online software Polyphen and SIFT were used to confirm the pathogenic of the missense mutation. p.Tyr128Cys seems to be a hotspot of the F7 gene in ethnic Han Chinese population. PMID:25767893

  18. Simultaneous Characterization of Metabolic, Cardiac, Vascular and Renal Phenotypes of Lean and Obese SHHF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P. J.; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF+/? regrouping +/+ and +/cp rats) and obese (SHHFcp/cp, “cp” defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHFcp/cp but not SHHF+/? rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF+/? rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF+/? rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHFcp/cp rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHFcp/cp rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF+/?. In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHFcp/cp rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHFcp/cp rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development. PMID:24831821

  19. Phenotype of TPBG Gene Replacement in the Mouse and Impact on the Pharmacokinetics of an Antibody-Drug Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hu, George; Leal, Mauricio; Lin, Qingcong; Affolter, Timothy; Sapra, Puja; Bates, Brian; Damelin, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The use of predictive preclinical models in drug discovery is critical for compound selection, optimization, preclinical to clinical translation, and strategic decision-making. Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPBG), also known as 5T4, is the therapeutic target of several anticancer agents currently in clinical development, largely due to its high expression in tumors and low expression in normal adult tissues. In this study, mice were engineered to express human TPBG under endogenous regulatory sequences by replacement of the murine Tpbg coding sequence. The gene replacement was considered functional since the hTPBG knockin (hTPBG-KI) mice did not exhibit clinical observations or histopathological phenotypes that are associated with Tpbg gene deletion, except in rare instances. The expression of hTPBG in certain epithelial cell types and in different microregions of the brain and spinal cord was consistent with previously reported phenotypes and expression patterns. In pharmacokinetic studies, the exposure of a clinical-stage anti-TPBG antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), A1mcMMAF, was lower in hTPBG-KI versus wild-type animals, which was evidence of target-related increased clearance in hTPBG-KI mice. Thus, the hTPBG-KI mice constitute an improved system for pharmacology studies with current and future TPBG-targeted therapies and can generate more precise pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data. In general the strategy of employing gene replacement to improve pharmacokinetic assessments should be broadly applicable to the discovery and development of ADCs and other biotherapeutics. PMID:25423493

  20. Involvement of the agmatinergic system in the depressive-like phenotype of the Crtc1 knockout mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Meylan, E M; Breuillaud, L; Seredenina, T; Magistretti, P J; Halfon, O; Luthi-Carter, R; Cardinaux, J-R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies implicate the arginine-decarboxylation product agmatine in mood regulation. Agmatine has antidepressant properties in rodent models of depression, and agmatinase (Agmat), the agmatine-degrading enzyme, is upregulated in the brains of mood disorder patients. We have previously shown that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) associate behavioral and molecular depressive-like endophenotypes, as well as blunted responses to classical antidepressants. Here, the molecular basis of the behavioral phenotype of Crtc1(-/-) mice was further examined using microarray gene expression profiling that revealed an upregulation of Agmat in the cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses confirmed Agmat upregulation in the Crtc1(-/-) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, which were further demonstrated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy to comprise an increased number of Agmat-expressing cells, notably parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. Acute agmatine and ketamine treatments comparably improved the depressive-like behavior of male and female Crtc1(-/-) mice in the forced swim test, suggesting that exogenous agmatine has a rapid antidepressant effect through the compensation of agmatine deficit because of upregulated Agmat. Agmatine rapidly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels only in the PFC of wild-type (WT) females, and decreased eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation in the PFC of male and female WT mice, indicating that agmatine might be a fast-acting antidepressant with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist properties. Collectively, these findings implicate Agmat in the depressive-like phenotype of Crtc1(-/-) mice, refine current understanding of the agmatinergic system in the brain and highlight its putative role in major depression. PMID:27404284

  1. Characterization of Human CD8(+)TCR(-) Facilitating Cells In Vitro and In Vivo in a NOD/SCID/IL2rγ(null) Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Elliott, M J; Yolcu, E S; Miller, T O; Ratajczak, J; Bozulic, L D; Wen, Y; Xu, H; Ratajczak, M Z; Ildstad, S T

    2016-02-01

    CD8(+)/TCR(-) facilitating cells (FCs) in mouse bone marrow (BM) significantly enhance engraftment of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Human FC phenotype and mechanism of action remain to be defined. We report, for the first time, the phenotypic characterization of human FCs and correlation of phenotype with function. Approximately half of human FCs are CD8(+)/TCR(-)/CD56 negative (CD56(neg)); the remainder are CD8(+)/TCR(-)/CD56 bright (CD56(bright)). The CD56(neg) FC subpopulation significantly promotes homing of HSPCs to BM in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/IL-2 receptor γ-chain knockout mouse recipients and enhances hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. The CD56(neg) FC subpopulation promotes rapid reconstitution of donor HSPCs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); recipients of CD56(bright) FCs plus HSPCs exhibit low donor chimerism early after transplantation, but the level of chimerism significantly increases with time. Recipients of HSPCs plus CD56(neg) or CD56(bright) FCs showed durable donor chimerism at significantly higher levels in BM. The majority of both FC subpopulations express CXCR4. Coculture of CD56(bright) FCs with HSPCs upregulates cathelicidin and β-defensin 2, factors that prime responsiveness of HSPCs to stromal cell-derived factor 1. Both FC subpopulations significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the HSPC growth factors and Flt3 ligand. These results indicate that human FCs exert a direct effect on HSPCs to enhance engraftment. Human FCs offer a potential regulatory cell-based therapy for enhancement of engraftment and prevention of GVHD. PMID:26550777

  2. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of

  3. Episodic ataxia type 1: clinical characterization, quality of life and genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Tracey D.; Cha, Yoon-Hee; Hahn, Angelika F.; Barohn, Richard; Salajegheh, Mohammed K.; Griggs, Robert C.; Bundy, Brian N.; Jen, Joanna C.; Baloh, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 is considered a rare neuronal ion channel disorder characterized by brief attacks of unsteadiness and dizziness with persistent myokymia. To characterize the natural history, develop outcome measures for future clinical trials, and correlate genotype with phenotype, we undertook an international, prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine individuals (51% male) were enrolled: median age 37 years (range 15–65 years). We identified 10 different pathogenic point mutations in KCNA1 that accounted for the genetic basis of 85% of the cohort. Participants with KCNA1 mutations were more likely to have a positive family history. Analysis of the total cohort showed that the first episode of ataxia occurred before age 20 in all but one patient, with an average age of onset of 7.9 years. Physical exertion, emotional stress and environmental temperature were the most common triggers for attacks. Attack frequency ranged from daily to monthly, even with the same KCNA1 genotype. Average attack duration was in the order of minutes. Ten participants (26%) developed permanent cerebellar signs, which were related to disease duration. The average Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score (SARA, a standardized measure of cerebellar dysfunction on clinical examination, scores range from 0–40) was an average of 3.15 for all participants (range 0–14), but was only 2 in those with isolated episodic ataxia compared with 7.7 in those with progressive cerebellar ataxia in addition to episodic ataxia. Thirty-seven participants completed the SF-36, a quality of life survey; all eight domain norm-based average scores (mean = 50) were below normal with mental health being the lowest (41.3) in those with mutation positive episodic ataxia type 1. Scores on SF-36 correlated negatively with attack frequency. Of the 39 participants in the study, 33 harboured mutations in KCNA1 whereas the remaining six had no mutation identified. Episodic ataxia type 1

  4. Phenotyping of sensory and sympathetic ganglion neurons of a galanin-overexpressing mouse--possible implications for pain processing.

    PubMed

    Brumovsky, Pablo; Hygge-Blakeman, Karin; Villar, Marcelo J; Watanabe, Masahiko; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2006-06-01

    The distribution of galanin was studied in the lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord, superior cervical ganglia (SCGs), and skin of transgenic mice overexpressing galanin under the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter (GalOE-DBH mice) and in wild type (WT) mice. The DRGs and spinal cord were analysed before and after a unilateral, complete transection (axotomy) of the sciatic nerve and after dorsal rhizotomy. Both galanin protein and transcript were studied by, respectively, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Increased galanin expression was observed in several small, medium-sized and large DRG neuron profiles (NPs) in the naïve transgenic mouse, frequently in neurons lacking calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and isolectin B4-binding. This lack of coexistence was particularly evident in the medium-sized/large NPs. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, no differences were detected between GalOE-DBH and WT mice, both displaying a strong galanin-positive neuropil in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn, but the transgenic mice showed a more abundant galanin-positive innervation of the ventral horn. A 12-day dorsal rhizotomy, surprisingly, failed to alter the galanin staining patterns in the dorsal (and ventral) dorsal horn. Unilateral axotomy induced upregulation of galanin in DRG NPs of all sizes in both types of mouse. In the hindpaw skin, a profuse galanin-positive fiber plexus was observed in sweat glands and around blood vessels of the transgenic mice, being much more restricted in WT mice. Finally, GalOE mice exhibited a strong galanin-like immunoreactivity in most SCG NPs. The overexpression of the peptide in DRGs and SCGs was paralleled by increased mRNA levels. The present results show that overexpression of galanin under the control of the DBH promoter does not only occur, as expected in these mice, in noradrenline/adrenaline neurons but also in DRG neurons, particularly in large and medium-sized NPs. To what

  5. Characterization of a panel of somatic cell hybrids for regional mapping of the mouse X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Avner, P.; Arnaud, D.; Amar, L.; Cambrou, J.; Winking, H.; Russell, L.B.

    1987-08-01

    A panel of five hybrid cell lines containing mouse X chromosomes with various deletions has been obtained by fusing splenocytes from male mice carrying one of a series of reciprocal X-autosome translocations with the azaguanine-resistant Chinese hamster cell line CH3g. These hybrids have been extensively characterized by using the allozymes hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (encoded by the Hprt locus) and ..cap alpha..-galactosidase (Ags) and a series of 11 X-chromosome-specific DNA probes whose localization had been previously established by linkage studies. Such studies have established the genetic breakpoints of the T(X;12)13R1 and T(X;2)14R1 X-autosome translocations on the X chromosome and provided additional information as to the X-chromosome genetic breakpoints of the T(X;16)16H, T(X;4)7R1, and T(X;7)6R1 translocations. The data establish clearly that both the T(X;7)5RI and T(X;12)13R1 X-chromosome breakpoints are proximal to Hprt, the breakpoint of the former being more centromeric, lying as it does in the 9-centimorgan interval between the ornithine transcarbamoylase (Otc) and DXPas7 (M2C) loci. These five hybrid cell lines provide, with the previously characterized EBS4 hybrid cell line, a nested series of seven mapping intervals distributed along the length of the mouse X chromosome. Their characterization not only allows further correlation of the genetic and cytological X-chromosome maps but also should permit the rapid identification of DNA probes specific for particular regions of the mouse X chromosome.

  6. Morphological comparison of the craniofacial phenotypes of mouse models expressing the Apert FGFR2 S252W mutation in neural crest- or mesoderm-derived tissues

    PubMed Central

    Heuzé, Yann; Singh, Nandini; Basilico, Claudio; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Holmes, Greg; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2014-01-01

    Bones of the craniofacial skeleton are derived from two distinct cell lineages, cranial neural crest and mesoderm, and articulate at sutures and synchondroses which represent major bone growth sites. Premature fusion of cranial suture(s) is associated with craniofacial dysmorphogenesis caused in part by alteration in the growth potential at sutures and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a syndrome, such as Apert syndrome. Conditional expression of the Apert FGFR2 S252W mutation in mesoderm was previously shown to be necessary and sufficient to cause coronal craniosynostosis. Here we used micro computed tomography images of mice expressing the Apert mutation constitutively in either mesoderm or neural crest to quantify craniofacial shape variation and suture fusion patterns, and to identify shape changes in craniofacial bones derived from the lineage not expressing the mutation, referred to here as secondary shape changes. Our results show that at postnatal day 0: (i) conditional expression of the FGFR2 S252W mutation in neural crest-derived tissues causes a more severe craniofacial phenotype than when expressed in mesoderm-derived tissues; and (ii) both mesoderm- and neural crest-specific mouse models display secondary shape changes. We also show that premature suture fusion is not necessarily dependent on the expression of the FGFR2 S252W mutation in the sutural mesenchyme. More specifically, it appears that suture fusion patterns in both mouse models are suture-specific resulting from a complex combination of the influence of primary abnormalities of biogenesis or signaling within the sutures, and timing. PMID:24632501

  7. Brain and behaviour phenotyping of a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type-1: an MRI/DTI study on social cognition.

    PubMed

    Petrella, L I; Cai, Y; Sereno, J V; Gonçalves, S I; Silva, A J; Castelo-Branco, M

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder and an important cause of intellectual disability. Brain-behaviour associations can be examined in vivo using morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study brain structure. Here, we studied structural and behavioural phenotypes in heterozygous Nf1 mice (Nf1(+/-) ) using T2-weighted imaging MRI and DTI, with a focus on social recognition deficits. We found that Nf1(+/-) mice have larger volumes than wild-type (WT) mice in regions of interest involved in social cognition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the caudate-putamen (CPu). Higher diffusivity was found across a distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain regions, within and beyond these regions. Significant differences were observed for the social recognition test. Most importantly, significant structure-function correlations were identified concerning social recognition performance and PFC volumes in Nf1(+/-) mice. Analyses of spatial learning corroborated the previously known deficits in the mutant mice, as corroborated by platform crossings, training quadrant time and average proximity measures. Moreover, linear discriminant analysis of spatial performance identified 2 separate sub-groups in Nf1(+/-) mice. A significant correlation between quadrant time and CPu volumes was found specifically for the sub-group of Nf1(+/-) mice with lower spatial learning performance, suggesting additional evidence for reorganization of this region. We found strong evidence that social and spatial cognition deficits can be associated with PFC/CPu structural changes and reorganization in NF1. PMID:27283753

  8. Opposite Phenotypes of Muscle Strength and Locomotor Function in Mouse Models of Partial Trisomy and Monosomy 21 for the Proximal Hspa13-App Region

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Véronique; Duchon, Arnaud; Romestaing, Caroline; Sahun, Ignasi; Pothion, Stéphanie; Karout, Mona; Borel, Christelle; Dembele, Doulaye; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Messaddeq, Nadia; Sharp, Andrew J.; Roussel, Damien; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Dierssen, Mara; Hérault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), which causes Down syndrome (DS), is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21) of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function. PMID:25803843

  9. A characterization of the elements comprising the promoter of the mouse ribosomal protein gene RPS16.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, N; Perry, R P

    1989-07-11

    The elements comprising the mouse rpS16 promoter were characterized by transfection experiments with mutant genes in which various portions of the 5' flanking region and exon I were removed or substituted with extraneous DNA sequence. These experiments were carried out with otherwise intact rpS16 genes transfected into monkey kidney (COS) cells and also with chimeric rpS16-CAT gene constructs transfected into mouse plasmacytoma cells and COS cells. The locations of the functionally important elements were generally correlated with the locations of binding sites for specific nuclear factors, which were identified by gel-mobility shift analyses and methylation interference footprints. The most upstream element, which is located approximately 165 bp from the cap site, binds the Sp1 transcription factor and augments the promoter activity by 2 to 2.5-fold. In addition, there is a complex bipartite element in the -83 to -59 region, an element in the -37 to -12 region and an element in the +9 to +29 region of exon I, all of which are essential for rpS16 expression. The rpS16 promoter has a general architecture that resembles other mouse rp promoters; however, it also possesses some distinctive characteristics. PMID:2762128

  10. Characterization of a knock-in mouse model of the homozygous p.V37I variant in Gjb2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Hu, Lingxiang; Wang, Xueling; Sun, Changling; Lin, Xin; Li, Lei; Mei, Ling; Huang, Zhiwu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The homozygous p.V37I variant in GJB2 is prevalent in East and Southeast Asians and may lead to mild-to-moderate hearing loss with reduced penetrance. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism underlying this variant, we generated a knock-in mouse model of homozygous p.V37I by an embryonic stem cell gene targeting method. Auditory brainstem response test showed that the knock-in mice developed progressive, mild-to-moderate hearing loss over the first 4-9 months. Overall no significant developmental and morphological abnormality was observed in the knock-in mouse cochlea, while confocal immunostaining and electron microscopic scanning revealed minor loss of the outer hair cells. Gene expression microarray analysis identified 105 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes in P5 knock-in mouse cochleae (P < 0.05 adjusted by the Benjamini &Hochberg method), among which four top candidate genes with the highest fold-changes or implication to deafness Fcer1g, Nnmt and Lars2 and Cuedc1 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that the homozygous p.V37I knock-in mouse modeled the hearing phenotype of the human patients and can serve as a useful animal model for further studies. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study may shed new insights into the understanding of the pathogenic mechanism and the phenotypic modification of homozygous p.V37I. PMID:27623246

  11. Glucocorticoid Steroid and Alendronate Treatment Alleviates Dystrophic Phenotype with Enhanced Functional Glycosylation of α-Dystroglycan in Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy with FKRPP448L Mutation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Shah, Sapana N; Lu, Peijuan; Richardson, Stephanie M; Bollinger, Lauren E; Blaeser, Anthony; Madden, Kyle L; Sun, Yubo; Luckie, Taylor M; Cox, Michael D; Sparks, Susan; Harper, Amy D; Lu, Qi Long

    2016-06-01

    Fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy is characterized by defects in glycosylation of α-dystroglycan with variable clinical phenotypes, most commonly as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. There is no effective therapy available. Glucocorticoid steroids have become the standard treatment for Duchenne and other muscular dystrophies with serious adverse effects, including excessive weight gain, immune suppression, and bone loss. Bisphosphonates have been used to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy for prevention of osteoporosis. Herein, we evaluated prednisolone and alendronate for their therapeutic potential in the FKRPP448L-mutant mouse representing moderate limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. Mice were treated with prednisolone, alendronate, and both in combination for up to 6 months. Prednisolone improved muscle pathology with significant reduction in muscle degeneration, but had no effect on serum creatine kinase levels and muscle strength. Alendronate treatment did not ameliorate muscle degeneration, but demonstrated a limited enhancement on muscle function test. Combined treatment of prednisolone and alendronate provided best improvement in muscle pathology with normalized fiber size distribution and significantly reduced serum creatine kinase levels, but had limited effect on muscle force generation. The use of alendronate significantly mitigated the bone loss. Prednisolone alone and in combination with alendronate enhance functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan. These results, for the first time, demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of this alliance treatment of the two drugs for fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy. PMID:27109613

  12. Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2014-11-01

    The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3Δtk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is

  13. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr.

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Generation and Characterization of a Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Shannon; Salphati, Laurent; Gomez-Zepeda, David; Wanek, Thomas; Chen, Liangfu; Chu, Xiaoyan; Kunta, Jeevan; Mezler, Mario; Menet, Marie-Claude; Chasseigneaux, Stephanie; Declèves, Xavier; Langer, Oliver; Pierre, Esaie; DiLoreto, Karen; Hoft, Carolin; Laplanche, Loic; Pang, Jodie; Pereira, Tony; Andonian, Clara; Simic, Damir; Rode, Anja; Yabut, Jocelyn; Zhang, Xiaolin; Scheer, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is expressed in various tissues, such as the gut, liver, kidney and blood brain barrier (BBB), where it mediates the unidirectional transport of substrates to the apical/luminal side of polarized cells. Thereby BCRP acts as an efflux pump, mediating the elimination or restricting the entry of endogenous compounds or xenobiotics into tissues and it plays important roles in drug disposition, efficacy and safety. Bcrp knockout mice (Bcrp(-/-)) have been used widely to study the role of this transporter in limiting intestinal absorption and brain penetration of substrate compounds. Here we describe the first generation and characterization of a mouse line humanized for BCRP (hBCRP), in which the mouse coding sequence from the start to stop codon was replaced with the corresponding human genomic region, such that the human transporter is expressed under control of the murineBcrppromoter. We demonstrate robust human and loss of mouse BCRP/Bcrp mRNA and protein expression in the hBCRP mice and the absence of major compensatory changes in the expression of other genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition. Pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies with several BCRP probe substrates confirmed the functional activity of the human transporter in these mice. Furthermore, we provide practical examples for the use of hBCRP mice to study drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The hBCRP mouse is a promising model to study the in vivo role of human BCRP in limiting absorption and BBB penetration of substrate compounds and to investigate clinically relevant DDIs involving BCRP. PMID:26893303

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention. PMID:24159312

  16. Isolation, Identification and Phenotypic Characterization of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria from Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, A.; Mou, X. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Erie, the smallest and warmest lake among the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its problem of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). One major harmful effect of CyanoHABs is the production of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins. Microcystins (MC) are a group of hepatotoxins and the predominant variant of them is MC-LR. Field measurements and lab experiments indicate that MC degradation in Lake Erie is mainly carried out by indigenous bacteria. However, our knowledge on taxa involved in this process is very limited. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap using a culture-dependent approach. Water and surface sediment samples were collected from Lake Erie in 2014 and 2015 and enriched with MC-LR. Cells were plated on a number of culturing media. The obtained pure bacterial cultures were screened for MC degrading abilities by MT2 BIO-LOG assays and by growing cells in liquid media containing MC-LR as the sole carbon source. In the latter experiment, MC concentrations were measured using HPLC. Isolates showing positive MC degradation activities in the screening steps were designated MC+ bacteria and characterized based on their phenotypic properties, including colony pigmentation, elevation, opacity, margin, gram nature and motility. The taxonomic identity of MC+ bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene full-length DNA sequencing. The presence of mlrA, a gene encoding MC cleavage pathway, was detected by PCR. Our culturing efforts obtained 520 pure cultures; 44 of them were identified as MC+. These MC+ isolates showed diversity in taxonomic identities and differed in their morphology, gram nature, colony characteristics and motility. PCR amplification of mlrA gene yield negative results for all MC+ isolates, indicating that the primers that were used may not be ubiquitous enough to cover the heterogeneity of mlrA genes or, more likely, alternative degradative genes/pathways were employed by Lake Erie bacteria

  17. Construction of minicircle DNA vectors capable of correcting familial hypercholesterolemia phenotype in a LDLR-deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Jiao, R; Guo, X; Wang, T; Chen, P; Wang, D; Chen, Y; He, C-Y; Chen, Z-Y

    2016-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by defect in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a life-threatening disease with poor response to conventional treatments. Earlier gene therapy studies have generated promising results, but further development is hampered because the cells harboring the viral vectors were eliminated by host immune system soon after delivery, whereas the nonviral vectors were too bulky to be delivered to target cells. To overcome these problems, we constructed multiple minicircle (MC) DNA vectors to express the therapeutic LDLR. MC is an optimized nonviral vector that is capable of expressing high level of transgene product persistently. We found that among the seven MCs tested, the best is MC5 with multiple advanced features. First, the LDLr gene was placed under the control of sterol regulatory element (SRE) using LDLr gene promoter or apoprotein E (ApoE) promoter, allowing the transcription of the LDLr gene to be regulated by serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as its functional gene counterpart. Second, a hepatic control region (HCR) was placed upstream of the promoter that serves as a controller to ensure liver-specific expression. Third, the modified Kozak sequence was placed in front of the LDLr gene start codon to enhance its translation efficiency. MC5 was 5.23 kb in size, and was capable of tight physiological control in intracellular LDL cholesterol level even when challenged with high dose of sterols in vitro. Importantly, it was able to correct the phenotype of LDLR-deficient mice C57BL/6 LDLR(-/-) for more than 105 days without detectable toxicity. Therefore, this MC has the clinical application potential for treating FH. PMID:27092942

  18. Phenotype MicroArrays as a complementary tool to next generation sequencing for characterization of tree endophytes.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Kathrin; Macaya-Sanz, David; Martín, Juan A; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Witzell, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing need to calibrate microbial community profiles obtained through next generation sequencing (NGS) with relevant taxonomic identities of the microbes, and to further associate these identities with phenotypic attributes. Phenotype MicroArray (PM) techniques provide a semi-high throughput assay for characterization and monitoring the microbial cellular phenotypes. Here, we present detailed descriptions of two different PM protocols used in our recent studies on fungal endophytes of forest trees, and highlight the benefits and limitations of this technique. We found that the PM approach enables effective screening of substrate utilization by endophytes. However, the technical limitations are multifaceted and the interpretation of the PM data challenging. For the best result, we recommend that the growth conditions for the fungi are carefully standardized. In addition, rigorous replication and control strategies should be employed whether using pre-configured, commercial microwell-plates or in-house designed PM plates for targeted substrate analyses. With these precautions, the PM technique is a valuable tool to characterize the metabolic capabilities of individual endophyte isolates, or successional endophyte communities identified by NGS, allowing a functional interpretation of the taxonomic data. Thus, PM approaches can provide valuable complementary information for NGS studies of fungal endophytes in forest trees. PMID:26441951

  19. Phenotype MicroArrays as a complementary tool to next generation sequencing for characterization of tree endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Kathrin; Macaya-Sanz, David; Martín, Juan A.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Witzell, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing need to calibrate microbial community profiles obtained through next generation sequencing (NGS) with relevant taxonomic identities of the microbes, and to further associate these identities with phenotypic attributes. Phenotype MicroArray (PM) techniques provide a semi-high throughput assay for characterization and monitoring the microbial cellular phenotypes. Here, we present detailed descriptions of two different PM protocols used in our recent studies on fungal endophytes of forest trees, and highlight the benefits and limitations of this technique. We found that the PM approach enables effective screening of substrate utilization by endophytes. However, the technical limitations are multifaceted and the interpretation of the PM data challenging. For the best result, we recommend that the growth conditions for the fungi are carefully standardized. In addition, rigorous replication and control strategies should be employed whether using pre-configured, commercial microwell-plates or in-house designed PM plates for targeted substrate analyses. With these precautions, the PM technique is a valuable tool to characterize the metabolic capabilities of individual endophyte isolates, or successional endophyte communities identified by NGS, allowing a functional interpretation of the taxonomic data. Thus, PM approaches can provide valuable complementary information for NGS studies of fungal endophytes in forest trees. PMID:26441951

  20. Identification and characterization of oxidation and deamidation sites in monoclonal rat/mouse hybrid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Timm, Vera; Gruber, Patrick; Wasiliu, Michael; Lindhofer, Horst; Chelius, Dirk

    2010-03-15

    Oxidation of methionine residues and deamidation of asparagine residues are the major causes of chemical degradation of biological pharmaceuticals. The mechanism of these non-enzymatic chemical reactions has been studied in great detail. However, the identification and quantification of oxidation and deamidation sites in a given protein still remains a challenge. In this study, we identified and characterized several oxidation and deamidation sites in a rat/mouse hybrid antibody. We evaluated the effects of the sample preparation on oxidation and deamidation levels and optimized the peptide mapping method to minimize oxidation and deamidation artifacts. Out of a total number of 18 methionine residues, we identified six methionine residues most susceptible to oxidation. We determined the oxidation rate of the six methionine residues using 0.05% H(2)O(2) at different temperatures. Methionine residue 256 of the mouse heavy chain showed the fastest rate of oxidation under those conditions with a half life of approximately 200 min at 4 degrees C and 27 min at 37 degrees C. We identified five asparagine residues prone to deamidation under accelerated conditions of pH 8.6 at 37 degrees C. Kinetic characterization of the deamidation sites showed that asparagine residue 218 of the rat heavy chain exhibited the fastest rate of deamidation with a half live of 1.5 days at pH 8.6 and 37 degrees C. Analysis of antibody isoforms using free flow electrophoresis showed that deamidation is the major cause of the charged variants of this rat/mouse hybrid antibody. PMID:20153988

  1. Characterization of Chikungunya Virus Induced Host Response in a Mouse Model of Viral Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwani, Rekha; Khan, Mohsin; Lomash, Vinay; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Ly, Hinh; Parida, Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    While a number of studies have documented the persistent presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in muscle tissue with primary fibroblast as the preferable cell target, little is known regarding the alterations that take place in muscle tissue in response to CHIKV infection. Hence, in the present study a permissive mouse model of CHIKV infection was established and characterized in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The two dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteome performed for differential analysis indicated a drastic reprogramming of the proteins from various classes like stress, inflammation, cytoskeletal, energy and lipid metabolism. The roles of the affected proteins were explained in relation to virus induced myopathy which was further supported by the histopathological and behavioural experiments proving the lack of hind limb coordination and other loco-motor abnormalities in the infected mice. Also, the level of various pro-inflammatory mediators like IL-6, MCP-1, Rantes and TNF-α was significantly elevated in muscles of infected mice. Altogether this comprehensive study of characterizing CHIKV induced mouse myopathy provides many potential targets for further evaluation and biomarker study. PMID:24667237

  2. Molecular characterization of mouse-virulent poliovirus type 1 Mahoney mutants: involvement of residues of polypeptides VP1 and VP2 located on the inner surface of the capsid protein shell.

    PubMed Central

    Couderc, T; Hogle, J; Le Blay, H; Horaud, F; Blondel, B

    1993-01-01

    Most poliovirus (PV) strains, including PV PV-1/Mahoney, are unable to cause paralysis in mice. Determinants for restriction of PV-1/Mahoney in mice have been identified by manipulating PV-1 cDNA and located on the viral capsid protein VP1. These determinants consist of a highly exposed amino acid sequence on the capsid surface corresponding to the B-C loop (M. Murray, J. Bradley, X. Yang, E. Wimmer, E. Moss, and V. Racaniello, Science 241:213-215, 1988; A. Martin, C. Wychowski, T. Couderc, R. Crainic, J. Hogle, and M. Girard, EMBO J. 7:2839-2847, 1988) and of residues belonging to the N-terminal sequence located on the inner surface of the protein shell (E. Moss and V. Racaniello, EMBO J. 10:1067-1074, 1991). Using an in vivo approach, we isolated two mouse-neurovirulent PV-1 mutants in the mouse central nervous system after a single passage of PV-1/Mahoney inoculated by the intracerebral route. Both mutants were subjected to two additional passages in mice, plaque purified, and subsequently characterized. The two cloned mutants, Mah-NK13 and Mah-NL32, retained phenotypic characteristics of the parental PV-1/Mahoney, including epitope map, heat lability, and temperature sensitivity. Mah-NK13 exhibited slightly smaller plaques than did the parental virus. The nucleotide sequences of the mutant genomes were determined, and mutations were identified. Mutations were independently introduced into the parental PV-1/Mahoney genome by single-site mutagenesis. Mutated PV-1/Mahoney viruses were then tested for their neurovirulence in mice. A single amino acid substitution in the capsid proteins VP1 (Thr-22-->Ile) and VP2 (Ser-31-->Thr) identified in the Mah-NK13 and Mah-NL32 genomes, respectively, conferred the mouse-virulent phenotype to the mouse-avirulent PV-1/Mahoney. Ile-22 in VP1 was responsible for the small-plaque phenotype of Mah-NK13. Both mutations arose during the first passage in the mouse central nervous system. We thus identified a new mouse adaptation

  3. Natural killer cells phenotypic characterization as an outcome predictor of HCV-linked HCC after curative treatments.

    PubMed

    Cariani, Elisabetta; Pilli, Massimo; Barili, Valeria; Porro, Emanuela; Biasini, Elisabetta; Olivani, Andrea; Dalla Valle, Raffaele; Trenti, Tommaso; Ferrari, Carlo; Missale, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    NK-cell number and function have been associated with cancer progression. A detailed analysis of phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK-cells in HCC is still lacking. NK-cell function is regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors determined by genetic factors and engagement with cognate ligands on transformed or infected cells. We evaluated phenotypic and functional characteristic of NK-cells in HCC patients undergoing curative treatment in relation to clinical outcome. NK-cells from 70 HCC patients undergoing resection or ablative treatment, 18 healthy volunteers and 12 cirrhotic patients with HCV-infection (controls) were phenotypically characterized. Unsupervised clustering based on the frequency of cells expressing different phenotypic NK-cell markers segregated HCC patients into different cohorts that were compared for outcome. NK-cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity were compared between cohorts with different overall survival (OS) and time to disease recurrence (TTR). By multivariate analysis, age, Child-Pugh class and NK-cell phenotypic clustering could independently identify patients with significantly different OS. NK-cells from patients with better outcome expressed higher levels of cytotoxic granules and CD3ζ and lower levels of natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) that were co-expressed with the inhibitory receptor NKG2A known to negatively regulate NCR function. Cytotoxic function and IFNγ production were significantly lower in the cohort of patients with worse outcome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Our results show a role for NK-cells in the control of HCC progression and survival providing the basis for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies to potentiate NK-cell response. PMID:27622055

  4. A non-destructive method for characterizing phenotypes and growth of a Bacillus subtilis biofilm using fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Stephan; Wang, Xiaoling; Wilking, James; Weitz, Dave

    2015-11-01

    We develop an imaging technique for characterizing growth of biofilms using a triple fluorescent labeled strain for the three main phenotypes of a Bacillus subtilis biofilm on an agar substrate. We find that the biofilm does not flow across the substrate and thus growth is due to colonization at the periphery and thickening of the interior regions. We obtain local height and its composition of the three main phenotypes, which are motile, matrix-producing and sporulating, as well as the non-fluorescent material, which can be spores, dormant or dead cells or extracellular matrix. This technique is suitable for the study of biofilm growth and inhibition for different conditions such as biocides or bioremediation.

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumonia recovered from nonhuman primates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a zoonotic, Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of nosocomial septicemic, pneumonic, and urinary tract infections. Recently, pathogenic strains of K. pneumoniae sharing a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype have been attributed to ...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' RECA GENE: THE LES (LYSOGENY ESTABLISHMENT DEFICIENT)- PHENOTYPE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Les- (lysogeny establishment deficient) phenotype is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aruginosa PAO. LesB908-containing strains are also deficient in general recombination, sensitive to UV irradiation, and deficient in UV-stimulated induction of pro...

  8. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA gene: the Les- phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kokjohn, T.A.; Miller, R.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Les- phenotype (lysogeny establishment deficient) is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. lesB908-containing strains are also (i) deficient in general recombination, (ii) sensitive to UV irradiation, and (iii) deficient in UV-stimulated induction of prophages. The P. aeruginosa recA-containing plasmid pKML3001 complemented each of these pleiotropic characteristics of the lesB908 mutation, supporting the hypothesis that lesB908 is an allele of the P. aeruginosa recA gene. The phenotypic effects of the lesB908 mutation may be best explained by the hypothesis that the lesB908 gene product is altered in such a way that it has lost synaptase activity but possesses intrinsic protease activity in the absence of DNA damage. The Les- phenotype is a result of the rapid destruction of newly synthesized phage repressor, resulting in lytic growth of the infecting virus. This hypothesis is consistent with the observations that increasing the number of copies of the phage repressor gene by increasing the multiplicity of infection (i.e., average number of phage genomes per cell) or by introducing the cloned phage repressor gene into a lesB908 mutant will also suppress the Les- phenotype in a phage-specific fashion.

  9. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  10. Molecular genetic characterization of the deaf Snell`s waltzer mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Avraham, K.B.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1994-09-01

    Many mutations in the mouse affect hearing. Their study may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying sensorineural hearing impairment in humans. One such mutation is Snell`s waltzer (sv), which exhibits deafness and circling behavior. The abnormalities of the inner ear consist of post-natal degeneration of the entire neuroepithelium. The sv locus maps 2 cM distal to the dilute and short ear loci on chromosome 9. A number of radiation-induced mutations have previously been isolated that affect one or more genes in this region. One of these mutations, se{sup sv}, products a viable, short eared, Snell`s waltzer phenotype when homozygous. Molecular probes from the short ear region detect altered restriction fragments in DNA from mice carrying the se{sup sv} mutation. We have cloned the altered restriction fragments, sequenced the changes, and shown that the mutation consists of a chromosome inversion, with one end near the short ear gene and the other end in or near the sv gene. Attempts are currently underway to identify the sv gene by methods such as exon trapping and cDNA screening. The cloning of this gene is a prerequisite for a complete analysis of the abnormalities of sv/sv mice, and will aid in understanding the normal process of inner ear growth and morphogenesis.

  11. Mice trisomic for a bacterial artificial chromosome with the single-minded 2 gene (Sim2) show phenotypes similar to some of those present in the partial trisomy 16 mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrast, R; Scott, H S; Madani, R; Huber, L; Wolfer, D P; Prinz, M; Aguzzi, A; Lipp, H P; Antonarakis, S E

    2000-07-22

    The Drosophila single-minded (sim) transcription factor, is a master regulator of fruitfly neurogenesis. Recently, we have cloned and mapped a human homolog of sim, SIM2, to chromosome 21 in the so-called 'Down syndrome chromosomal region'. Three copies of SIM2 may contribute to some Down syndrome (DS) phenotypes because of the mapping position function as transcriptional repressor, temporal and spatial expression pattern of mouse Sim2, and the potentially analogous role of human SIM2 to that of Drosophila sim during neurogenesis. In order to validate this hypothesis in vivo, we have created the first bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing a gene possibly involved in DS with only one or two additional copies of mouse Sim2. The transgene was shown to be expressed in the same spatial pattern as the endogenous gene. The mice develop normally, are fertile and do not show detectable histopathological abnormalities. However, detailed analysis of their behavior revealed anxiety-related/reduced exploratory behaviour and sensitivity to pain, phenotypes similar to those also present in other partial trisomy 16 mouse models of DS. Our data therefore suggest that overexpression of SIM2 contributes to some of the complex DS phenotypes. PMID:10915774

  12. Comparing methods for ex vivo characterization of human monocyte phenotypes and in vitro responses.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa; Harding, Scott A; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2015-12-01

    Monocytes are key innate effector cells and their phenotype and function may be a useful biomarker of disease state or therapeutic response. However, for such an assay to be clinically feasible it needs to be simple and reproducible, which this study aimed to address. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)(2) isolated from whole blood using Histopaque-1077 or cell preparation tubes (CPT) showed no difference in the ex vivo monocyte activation marker expression or in vitro responses; however, a delayed isolation using CPT significantly altered ex vivo and in vitro phenotypes and responses. Furthermore, purification of monocytes using CD14(+) microbeads resulted in a loss of CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes compared to PBMC samples. Thus, the use of CPT reduced complexity and time compared to Histopaque, and PBMC isolation allowed the analysis of all 3 major monocyte subsets. Finally, because the delayed isolation of PBMC from CPT significantly altered monocytes, time delays should be standardized. PMID:26256247

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic approach to characterize Arcanobacterium pluranimalium isolated from bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wickhorst, Jörn-Peter; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Sammra, Osama; Huber-Schlenstedt, Reglindis; Lämmler, Christoph; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Timke, Markus; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, three Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strains isolated from bovine milk samples of three cows of three farms (two cows with subclinical mastitis) could successfully be identified by phenotypical investigations, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis and genotypically by sequencing the molecular targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap, the elongation factor tu encoding gene tuf, and the pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla. The latter could also be identified by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. The presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might support the identification of A. pluranimalium in future and might help to understand the role this species plays in bovine mastitis. PMID:26883140

  14. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-04-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals.

  15. Characterization of a flocculation-like phenotype in Cryptococcus neoformans and its effects on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zaragoza, Oscar; Casadevall, Arturo; Fries, Bettina C

    2006-11-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of cell-cell aggregation (flocculation) in a serotype D strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 24067, isolate RC-2). Cell aggregation into clumps of 5-40 cells (clump+ cells) occurred during the early log phase and disappeared in the beginning of the stationary phase (clump- cells). The cell aggregation phenomenon was medium dependent. Clump+ cells could be dispersed by either vortexing or proteinase K digestion. Most importantly, the transient change in cellular phenotype changed several important host-pathogen interactions. Adherence of clump+ cells to murine macrophage-like cells J774.16 was significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced compared with adherence of clump- cells. Furthermore, complement-mediated phagocytosis efficacy of dispersed clump+ cells was significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with clump- cells. Similar findings were documented with an in vivo phagocytosis assay. Infection of mice with a low inoculum (10(4)) of clump+ cells resulted in lower fungal burden when compared with mice infected with clump- cells. Accordingly, mice infected with clump+ cells survived significantly longer than mice infected with clump- cells. These results indicate that the cellular phenotype undergoes significant changes that result in a transient flocculation-like phenotype. We hypothesize that this cell-cell aggregation is the result of changes in protein content in the polysaccharide capsule. We conclude from our data that the change in cellular phenotype has a dramatic effect on cell adherence, and on complement-mediated phagocytosis, both of which can affect the pathogenesis of the disease in the host. Our results underscore the complexity of studies that investigate host pathogen interactions and may explain differences and inconsistencies observed in in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:16759224

  16. Why Quantification Matters: Characterization of Phenotypes at the Drosophila Larval Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Mario; Kubasik-Thayil, Anisha; Pennetta, Giuseppa

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on morphogenesis rely on qualitative descriptions of how anatomical traits are affected by the disruption of specific genes and genetic pathways. Quantitative descriptions are rarely performed, although genetic manipulations produce a range of phenotypic effects and variations are observed even among individuals within control groups. Emerging evidence shows that morphology, size and location of organelles play a previously underappreciated, yet fundamental role in cell function and survival. Here we provide step-by-step instructions for performing quantitative analyses of phenotypes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We use several reliable immuno-histochemical markers combined with bio-imaging techniques and morphometric analyses to examine the effects of genetic mutations on specific cellular processes. In particular, we focus on the quantitative analysis of phenotypes affecting morphology, size and position of nuclei within the striated muscles of Drosophila larvae. The Drosophila larval NMJ is a valuable experimental model to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and the function of the neuromuscular system, both in health and disease. However, the methodologies we describe here can be extended to other systems as well. PMID:27213489

  17. Why Quantification Matters: Characterization of Phenotypes at the Drosophila Larval Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Pennetta, Giuseppa

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on morphogenesis rely on qualitative descriptions of how anatomical traits are affected by the disruption of specific genes and genetic pathways. Quantitative descriptions are rarely performed, although genetic manipulations produce a range of phenotypic effects and variations are observed even among individuals within control groups. Emerging evidence shows that morphology, size and location of organelles play a previously underappreciated, yet fundamental role in cell function and survival. Here we provide step-by-step instructions for performing quantitative analyses of phenotypes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We use several reliable immuno-histochemical markers combined with bio-imaging techniques and morphometric analyses to examine the effects of genetic mutations on specific cellular processes. In particular, we focus on the quantitative analysis of phenotypes affecting morphology, size and position of nuclei within the striated muscles of Drosophila larvae. The Drosophila larval NMJ is a valuable experimental model to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and the function of the neuromuscular system, both in health and disease. However, the methodologies we describe here can be extended to other systems as well. PMID:27213489

  18. Characterization of spectrum, de novo rate and genotype-phenotype correlation of dominant GJB2 mutations in Chinese hans.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiuhong; Chai, Yongchuan; Sun, Lianhua; Chen, Dongye; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Dominant mutations in GJB2 may lead to various degrees of sensorineural hearing impairment and/or hyperproliferative epidermal disorders. So far studies of dominant GJB2 mutations were mostly limited to case reports of individual patients and families. In this study, we identified 7 families, 11 subjects with dominant GJB2 mutations by sequencing of GJB2 in 2168 Chinese Han probands with sensorineural hearing impairment and characterized the associated spectrum, de novo rate and genotype-phenotype correlation. We identified p.R75Q, p.R75W and p.R184Q as the most frequent dominant GJB2 mutations among Chinese Hans, which had a very high de novo rate (71% of probands). A majority (10/11) of subjects carrying dominant GJB2 mutations exhibited palmoplantar keratoderma in addition to hearing impairment. In two families segregated with additional c.235delC or p.V37I mutations of GJB2, family members with the compound heterozygous mutations exhibited more severe phenotype than those with single dominant GJB2 mutation. Our study suggested that the high de novo mutation rate gives rise to a significant portion of dominant GJB2 mutations. The severity of the hearing and epidermal phenotypes associated with dominant GJB2 mutations may be modified by additional recessive mutations of GJB2. PMID:24945352

  19. Characterization of phenotype variations of luminescent and non-luminescent variants of Vibrio harveyi wild type and quorum sensing mutants.

    PubMed

    Hong, N T X; Baruah, K; Vanrompay, D; Bossier, P

    2016-03-01

    Vibrio harveyi, a luminescent Gram-negative motile marine bacterium, is an important pathogen responsible for causing severe diseases in shrimp, finfish and molluscs leading to severe economic losses. Non-luminescent V. harveyi obtained by culturing luminescent strains under static and dark condition were reported to alter the levels of virulence factors and metalloprotease gene and luxR expression when compared to their luminescent variants. Presently, we conducted an in vitro study aiming at the characterization of virulence-related phenotypic traits of the wild-type V. harveyi BB120 strain and its isogenic quorum sensing mutants before and after switching to the non-luminescent status. We measured the production of caseinase, haemolysin and elastase and examined swimming motility and biofilm formation. Our results showed that switching from the bioluminescent to the non-luminescent state changed the phenotypic physiology or behaviour of V. harveyi resulting in alterations in caseinase and haemolytic activities, swimming motility and biofilm formation. The switching capacity was to a large extent independent from the quorum sensing status, in that quorum sensing mutants were equally capable of making the phenotypic switch. PMID:25865123

  20. Nif- phenotype of Azotobacter vinelandii UW97. Characterization and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Pulakat, L; Hausman, B S; Lei, S; Gavini, N

    1996-01-26

    We have identified the molecular basis for the nitrogenase negative phenotype exhibited by Azotobacter vinelandii UW97. This strain was initially isolated following nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Recently, it was shown that this strain lacks the Fe protein activity, which results in the synthesis of a FeMo cofactor-deficient apodinitrogenase. Activation of this apodinitrogenase requires the addition of both MgATP and wild-type Fe protein to the crude extracts made by A. vinelandii UW97 (Allen, R.M., Homer, M.J., Chatterjee R., Ludden, P.W., Roberts, G.P., and Shah, V.K. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268 23670-23674). Earlier, we proposed the sequence of events in the MoFe protein assembly based on the biochemical and spectroscopic analysis of the purified apodinitrogenase from A. vinelandii DJ54 (Gavini, N., Ma, L., Watt, G., and Burgess, B.K. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 11842-11849). Taken together, these results imply that the assembly process of apodinitrogenase is arrested at the same step in both of these strains. Since A. vinelandii DJ54 is a delta nifH strain, this strain is not useful in identifying the features of the Fe protein involved in the MoFe protein assembly. Here, we report a systematic analysis of an A. vinelandii UW97 mutant and show that, unlike A. vinelandii DJ54, the nifH gene of A. vinelandii UW97 has no deletion in either coding sequence or the surrounding sequences. The specific mutation responsible for the Nif- phenotype of A. vinelandii UW97 is the substitution of a non-conserved serine at position 44 of the Fe protein by a phenylalanine as shown by DNA sequencing. Furthermore, oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis was employed to confirm that the Nif- phenotype in A. vinelandii UW97 is exclusively due to the substitution of the Fe protein residue serine 44 by phenylalanine. By contrast, replacing Ser-44 with alanine did not affect the Nif phenotype of A. vinelandii. Therefore, it seems that the Nif- phenotype of A. vinelandii UW97 is caused by a

  1. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jeong, M S; Del Cacho, E; Kim, J B; Kim, H R; Min, W; Jeoung, H Y; An, D J

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin-1β proteins from chicken, duck, goose, turkey, and pigeon share 77 to 99% amino acid sequence similarity among themselves, and only 31 to 35% sequence similarity is shared between avian and mammalian IL-1β. There have been no antibodies that specifically detect avian IL-1β, and the current study was conducted to develop mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against chicken IL-1β (chIL-1β) to further define its biochemical and immunological properties. In this study, 2 mouse mAb that are specific for chIL-1β were produced and characterized. Both mAb identified a 66.0 kDa recombinant chIL-1β protein expressed in Escherichia coli by Western blot analysis that corresponded to the expected molecular weight of a recombinant fusion protein containing the full-length 23.0 kDa chIL-1β protein and a 43.0 kDa maltose binding protein tag. Immunohistochemical analysis identified cells producing endogenous chIL-1β in the cecal tonsils, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen. Purified recombinant chIL-1β dose-dependently stimulated the proliferation and nitric oxide production by thymocytes, and both activities were inhibited by co-incubation with the 2 chIL-1β mAb described in this paper. These mAb will be important immune reagents for basic and applied poultry research of IL-1β in poultry. PMID:25037821

  2. Comparative characterization of the human and mouse third ventricle germinal zones.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Sonika; Lee, Da Yong; Gutmann, David H

    2011-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates differences in neural stem cell biology in different brain regions. For example, we demonstrated that neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene inactivation leads to increased neural stem cell proliferation and gliogenesis in the optic chiasm and brainstem but not in the cerebral cortex. The differential effect of Nf1 inactivation in the optic nerve and brainstem (in which gliomas commonly form in children with NF1) versus the cortex (in which gliomas rarely develop) suggests the existence of distinct ventricular zones for gliomagenesis in children and in adults. Here, we characterized the third ventricle subventricular zone (tv-SVZ) in young and adult mouse and human brains. In children, but not adult humans, the tv-SVZ contains nestin-positive, glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive, brain fatty acid binding protein-positive, and sox2-positive cells with radial processes and prominent cilia. In contrast, the tv-SVZ in young mice contains sox2-positive progenitor cells and ciliated ependymal lining cells but lacks glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive, nestin-positive radial glia. As in the lateral ventricle SVZ, proliferation in the human and murine tv-SVZ decreases with age. The tv-SVZ in adult mice lacks the hypocellular subventricular zone observed in adult human specimens. Collectively, these data indicate the existence of a subventricular zone relevant to our understanding of glioma formation in children and will assist interpretation of genetically engineered mouse glioma models. PMID:21666496

  3. Cloning and partial characterization of the mouse glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Sayeski, P P; Wang, D; Su, K; Han, I O; Kudlow, J E

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the enzyme that is rate limiting in the synthesis of glucosamine and hexosamines. Glucosamine has been proposed to contribute to the glucotoxicity of diabetes. Evidence that the gene encoding GFAT is transcriptionally regulated prompted us to clone and characterize its promoter. The position of the mouse GFAT promoter relative to the translational start site was located by primer extension and found to be 149 bp upstream of the translational start site. A 1.9 kb SacI fragment of the GFAT gene was found to contain the promoter and 88 bp of sequence downstream of the transcriptional start site. This promoter segment could drive expression of a luciferase reporter gene, could confer correct transcriptional initiation to the reporter and could confer the EGF-responsiveness previously observed in the native gene. The mouse GFAT promoter lacks a canonical TATA box and has several GC boxes within a highly GC-rich region. Deletional analysis of the promoter indicated that a proximal element extending to -120 relative to the transcriptional start site could confer reporter expression at a level of 57% of the 1.9 kb construct. Detailed analysis of this proximal region by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Sp1 binds to three elements in this proximal promoter segment and plays a vital role in regulation of transcription from this gene. PMID:9060444

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian; Hou, Lichao; Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  5. High sensitivity mass spectral characterization of glycosphingolipids from bovine erythrocytes, mouse kidney and fetal calf brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, H.; Hronowski, X. L.; Koul, O.; Street, J.; McCluer, R. H.; Costello, C. E.

    1997-12-01

    Stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA) glycosphingolipids (GSLs) found in the central nervous system are implicated in regulating cell-cell recognition, targeting and migration of cells during development. Through the action of fucosyltransferase enzymes, SSEA-1 (Lewisx) glycolipids are biosynthesized in the brain by fucosylation of lipid substrates with the neolacto series glycolipid core structure [Gal[beta]1 --> 4GlcNAc[beta]1 --> 3Gal[beta]1 --> 4Glc[beta]1 --> 1'Cer] (originally termed paragloboside) or its higher analogs. In order to optimize methodology for high sensitivity structural determinations of SSEA-1 type glycolipids from fetal calf brain, potential precursors and SSEA-1 glycolipids of previously established structure were first isolated from bovine erythrocytes and beige mutant mouse kidney, purified by column chromatography and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, liquid secondary ionization mass spectrometry (LSIMS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), among other techniques. Peracetylated derivatives were detected at the low femtomole level by MALDI-TOF MS and the subnanomole level by LSIMS. MALDI-TOF MS produced mainly [M + Na] + and [M + K]+ species. On the basis of the direct and tandem mass spectral analyses of peracetylated and permethylated derivatives, the carbohydrate sequences in the selected bovine erythrocyte and mouse kidney GSL fractions were found to be consistent with those of glycolipids previously-reported from larger-scale studies of these sources. Their heterogeneous ceramide moieties were characterized by collision induced decomposition (CID) MS/MS of abundant Z0-type ions in the LSI mass spectra of the permethylated GSLs. MALDI-PSD-TOF mass spectral analyses of low and subpicomole amounts of derivatized GSL fractions from fetal calf brain provided carbohydrate sequence information that indicates the presence of mono- and difucosylated SSEA-1 neolacto series

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Mycobacterium africanum Isolates from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Frothingham, Richard; Strickland, Percy L.; Bretzel, Gisela; Ramaswamy, Srinivas; Musser, James M.; Williams, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti. Most clinical isolates are M. tuberculosis or M. bovis. These species can be distinguished by phenotypes and genotypes. However, there is no simple definition of M. africanum, and some authors question the validity of this species. We analyzed 17 human isolates from Sierra Leone, identified as M. africanum by biochemical and growth characteristics. We sequenced polymorphic genes and intergenic regions. We amplified DNA from six loci with variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and determined the exact number of repeats at each locus in each strain. All M. africanum isolates had the ancestral CTG Leu at katG codon 463. Drug-resistant M. africanum isolates had katG and rpoB mutations similar to those found in drug-resistant M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Fourteen Sierra Leone M. africanum isolates (designated group A) had katG codon 203 ACC Thr, also found in M. africanumT (the T indicates type strain) from Senegal. Group A isolates clustered with M. africanumT by VNTR analysis. Three M. africanum isolates (group B) had katG codon 203 ACT Thr, found in M. tuberculosisT, and clustered with M. tuberculosisT by VNTR analysis. Phenotypic identification of M. africanum yielded a heterogeneous collection of strains. Genotypic analyses identified a cluster (M. africanum group A) which included M. africanumT and was distinct from the rest of the M. tuberculosis complex. Future studies of M. africanum should include both phenotypic and genotypic analyses. PMID:10325347

  7. Development of pseudointima and stenosis after transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts: characterization of cell phenotype and function.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, A J; Contos, M J; Yager, D; Zhu, Y N; Willey, A; Graham, M F

    1998-07-01

    The clinical utility of transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts (TIPS) is frequently complicated by the ingrowth of tissue into the stent lumen, causing stent stenosis. These studies were undertaken to define the cellular and matrix components of the pseudointima, define the phenotype and function of the mesenchymal cells in the pseudointima and maintain them in culture, and to study the differences between stenotic and nonstenosed stents. A total of 35 stents were evaluated. TIPS pseudointima were examined histologically, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to determine the cellular and connective tissue constituents. Mesenchymal cells were grown from tissue within the TIPS and around it, and their phenotype was studied and compared with control smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Masson's trichrome staining of histological sections demonstrated that TIPS tissue was composed of collagen and palisades of mesenchymal cells and was lined by an endothelium. Immunostaining demonstrated strong and uniform alpha-smooth muscle staining in TIPS mesenchymal cells and peri-TIPS cells. Type I procollagen mRNA expression was demonstrated in mesenchymal cells in and around the stent by in situ hybridization. TIPS mesenchymal cells secreted less radiolabeled fibronectin, and far more type III, relative to type I, collagen compared with peri-TIPS cells. TIPS cells also expressed high levels of type III procollagen mRNA compared with peri-TIPS cells. There was no difference between stenotic stents and nonstenosed stents with respect to clinical features, time from stenting, gross morphology, histology, presence of bile fistulae, and cell phenotype. However, smooth muscle cells (SMC) from stenotic stents demonstrated both greater cell proliferation and collagen I and III secretion compared with those from nonstenosed stents. These data demonstrate that TIPS stenosis results from an accumulation of collagen and proliferation of SMC within the stent lumen. PMID

  8. Characterization of Behavioral, Neuropathological, Brain Metabolic and Key Molecular Changes in zQ175 Knock-In Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mali; Jin, Jing; Hou, Zhipeng; Zheng, Jennifer; Zhang, Jiangyang; Duan, Wenzhen

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the trinucleotide poly (CAG) tract located in exon 1 of the huntingtin (Htt) gene leading to progressive neurodegeneration in selected brain regions, and associated functional impairments in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric domains. Since the discovery of the gene mutation that causes the disease, mouse models have been developed by different strategies. Recently, a new model, the zQ175 knock-in (KI) line, was developed in an attempt to have the Htt gene in a context and causing a phenotype that more closely mimics HD in humans. The behavioral phenotype was characterized across the independent laboratories and important features reminiscent of human HD are observed in zQ175 mice. In the current study, we characterized the zQ175 model housed in an academic laboratory under reversed dark-light cycle, including motor function, in vivo longitudinal structural MRI imaging for brain volume, MRS for striatal metabolites, neuropathology, as well as a panel of key disease marker proteins in the striatum at different ages. Our results suggest that homozygous zQ175 mice exhibited significant brain atrophy before the motor deficits and brain metabolite changes. Altered striatal medium spiny neuronal marker, postsynaptic marker protein and complement component C1qC also characterized zQ175 mice. Our results confirmed that the zQ175 KI model is valuable in understanding of HD-like pathophysiology and evaluation of potential therapeutics. Our data also provide suggestions to select appropriate outcome measurements in preclinical studies using the zQ175 mice. PMID:26859386

  9. Phenotypic characterization and RAPD fingerprinting of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus isolated during Tunisian fish farm outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sadok, Khouadja; Mejdi, Snoussi; Nourhen, Saidi; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastrointestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes and shellfish including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 9 V. parahaemolyticus and 27 V. alginolyticus strains isolated from outbreaks affecting cultured Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) along the Tunisian coast from 2008 to 2009. All isolates were tested for the presence of DNase, caseinase, protease, lipase, amylase, gelatinase, hemolytic activity and antibacterial resistance to different drugs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA was used to examine the genetic relatedness among the V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus strains. PMID:22684973

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua Isolated from Swine Slaughterhouses and Meat Markets

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Paixão, Renata; Sena de Gobbi, Debora Dirani; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; Micke Moreno, Andrea; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Matté, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence. PMID:24987702

  11. Pathologic and phenotypic alterations in a mouse expressing a connexin47 missense mutation that causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Tress, Oliver; Maglione, Marta; Zlomuzica, Armin; May, Dennis; Dicke, Nikolai; Degen, Joachim; Dere, Ekrem; Kettenmann, Helmut; Hartmann, Dieter; Willecke, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Gap junction channels are intercellular conduits that allow diffusional exchange of ions, second messengers, and metabolites. Human oligodendrocytes express the gap junction protein connexin47 (Cx47), which is encoded by the GJC2 gene. The autosomal recessive mutation hCx47M283T causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease 1 (PMLD1), a progressive leukodystrophy characterized by hypomyelination, retarded motor development, nystagmus, and spasticity. We introduced the human missense mutation into the orthologous position of the mouse Gjc2 gene and inserted the mCx47M282T coding sequence into the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Three-week-old homozygous Cx47M282T mice displayed impaired rotarod performance but unchanged open-field behavior. 10-15-day-old homozygous Cx47M282T and Cx47 null mice revealed a more than 80% reduction in the number of cells participating in glial networks after biocytin injections into oligodendrocytes in sections of corpus callosum. Homozygous expression of mCx47M282T resulted in reduced MBP expression and astrogliosis in the cerebellum of ten-day-old mice which could also be detected in Cx47 null mice of the same age. Three-month-old homozygous Cx47M282T mice exhibited neither altered open-field behavior nor impaired rotarod performance anymore. Adult mCx47M282T expressing mice did not show substantial myelin alterations, but homozygous Cx47M282T mice, additionally deprived of connexin32, which is also expressed in oligodendrocytes, died within six weeks after birth and displayed severe myelin defects accompanied by astrogliosis and activated microglia. These results strongly suggest that PMLD1 is caused by the loss of Cx47 channel function that results in impaired panglial coupling in white matter tissue. PMID:21750683

  12. Genetic and virulence-phenotype characterization of serotypes 2 and 9 of Streptococcus suis swine isolates.

    PubMed

    Blume, Verena; Luque, Inmaculada; Vela, Ana I; Borge, Carmen; Maldonado, Alfonso; Domínguez, Lucas; Tarradas, Carmen; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic characteristics and virulence phenotypes of Streptococcus suis, specifically, in clinical isolates of serotypes 2 and 9 (n = 195), obtained from diverse geographical areas across Spain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing identified 97 genetic profiles, 68% of which were represented by single isolates, indicative of a substantial genetic diversity among the S. suis isolates analyzed. Five PFGE profiles accounted for 33.3% of the isolates and were isolated from 38% of the herds in nine different provinces, indicative of the bacterium's widespread distribution in the Spanish swine population. Representative isolates of the most prevalent PFGE profiles of both serotypes were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The results indicated that serotypes 2 and 9 have distinct genetic backgrounds. Serotype 2 isolates belong to the ST1 complex, a highly successful clone that has spread over most European countries. In accordance with isolates of this complex, most serotype 2 isolates also expressed the phenotype MRP(+)EF(+)SLY(+). Serotype 9 isolates belong to the ST61 complex, which is distantly related to the widespread European ST87 clone. Also, in contrast to most isolates of the European ST87 clone, which express the large variant MRP*, the majority of serotype 9 isolates (97.9%) did not express the protein. PMID:19784922

  13. Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Riccardi, Kátia; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; Carvalho, Marileda Bonafim; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%), followed by cephalotin (69.2%), sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%), tetracycline (61.5%), streptomycin (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (53.8%), ampicillin (46.2%), gentamicin (30.8%) and chloramphenicol (23.1%). No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A) had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31) and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D), whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E. PMID:24031842

  14. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of an abamectin-degrading bacterial strain isolated from a citrus orchard.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Yu, Fang-Bo; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strain GB-01 was isolated from abamectin-contaminated soils by continuous enrichment culture. The preliminary identification of strain GB-01 as a Burkholderia species was based mainly on simple biochemical and substrate utilization tests; however, these tests alone cannot accurately differentiate all the species within the genus Burkholderia. The strain GB-01 was subjected to taxonomic analysis through a polyphasic approach, in which phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic information was gathered to conclude the classification of this microbe. Phenotypic information comes from basic bacteriological tests and substrate utilization patterns using the Biolog GN2 MicroPlating system and automated miniature biochemical test kits, i.e. API 20 NE, ID 32 GN and API 50 CH, as well as analyzing the whole cell fatty acid profile. Genotypic information was gathered from whole genome DNA base composition (G+C mol%), and DNA-DNA hybridization with its closest species, while phylogenetic information was collected from the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. The results of polyphasic analysis concluded that strain GB-01 is an atypical strain of the Burkholderia diffusa species. PMID:23863292

  15. Phenotypic characterization of Corynebacterium glutamicum under osmotic stress conditions using elementary mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajvanshi, Meghna; Venkatesh, K V

    2011-09-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil bacterium, is used to produce amino acids such as lysine and glutamate. C. glutamicum is often exposed to osmolality changes in its medium, and the bacterium has therefore evolved several adaptive response mechanisms to overcome them. In this study we quantify the metabolic response of C. glutamicum under osmotic stress using elementary mode analysis (EMA). Further, we obtain the optimal phenotypic space for the synthesis of lysine and formation of biomass. The analysis demonstrated that with increasing osmotic stress, the flux towards trehalose formation and energy-generating pathways increased, while the flux of anabolic reactions diminished. Nodal analysis indicated that glucose-6-phosphate, phosphoenol pyruvate, and pyruvate nodes were capable of adapting to osmotic stress, whereas the oxaloacetic acid node was relatively unresponsive. Fewer elementary modes were active under stress indicating the rigid behavior of the metabolism in response to high osmolality. Optimal phenotypic space analysis revealed that under normal conditions the organism optimized growth during the initial log phase and lysine and trehalose formation during the stationary phase. However, under osmotic stress, the analysis demonstrated that the organism operates under suboptimal conditions for growth, and lysine and trehalose formation. PMID:21132515

  16. Characterization of a biofilm-forming Shigella flexneri phenotype due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Liao, Chongbing

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency in biosynthesis of inner core of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rendered a characteristic biofilm-forming phenotype in E. coli. The pathological implications of this new phenotype in Shigella flexneri, a highly contagious enteric Gram-negative bacteria that is closely related to E. coli, were investigated in this study. The ΔrfaC (also referred as waaC) mutant, with incomplete inner core of LPS due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis, was characteristic of strong biofilm formation ability and exhibited much more pronounced adhesiveness and invasiveness to human epithelial cells than the parental strain and other LPS mutants, which also showed distinct pattern of F-actin recruitment. Failure to cause keratoconjunctivitis and colonize in the intestine in guinea pigs revealed that the fitness gain on host adhesion resulted from biofilm formation is not sufficient to offset the loss of fitness on survivability caused by LPS deletion. Our study suggests a clear positive relationship between increased surface hydrophobicity and adhesiveness of Shigella flexneri, which should be put into consideration of virulence of Shigella, especially when therapeutic strategy targeting the core oligosaccharide (OS) is considered an alternative to deal with bacterial antibiotics-resistance. PMID:27478696

  17. Characterization of a biofilm-forming Shigella flexneri phenotype due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Liao, Chongbing; Shao, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency in biosynthesis of inner core of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rendered a characteristic biofilm-forming phenotype in E. coli. The pathological implications of this new phenotype in Shigella flexneri, a highly contagious enteric Gram-negative bacteria that is closely related to E. coli, were investigated in this study. The ΔrfaC (also referred as waaC) mutant, with incomplete inner core of LPS due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis, was characteristic of strong biofilm formation ability and exhibited much more pronounced adhesiveness and invasiveness to human epithelial cells than the parental strain and other LPS mutants, which also showed distinct pattern of F-actin recruitment. Failure to cause keratoconjunctivitis and colonize in the intestine in guinea pigs revealed that the fitness gain on host adhesion resulted from biofilm formation is not sufficient to offset the loss of fitness on survivability caused by LPS deletion. Our study suggests a clear positive relationship between increased surface hydrophobicity and adhesiveness of Shigella flexneri, which should be put into consideration of virulence of Shigella, especially when therapeutic strategy targeting the core oligosaccharide (OS) is considered an alternative to deal with bacterial antibiotics-resistance. PMID:27478696

  18. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI tr