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Sample records for mouse urinary bladder

  1. Bilateral Inguinal Hernia Containing Urinary Bladder as Sole Content With "Pelvic Mickey Mouse Sign".

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2016-04-01

    Inguinal hernias may contain urinary bladder as one of its contents, but very rarely have it as sole content. Inguinal vesical hernias may be unilateral or bilateral. When bilateral, inguinal vesical hernia may produce "pelvic Mickey mouse sign." This case reinforces the "pelvic Mickey mouse sign" in bilateral inguinal hernia containing only urinary bladder as content, which has been described only once before. PMID:26775075

  2. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine‑associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine‑treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  3. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine-associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine-treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  4. Characterization of Mouse Lumbar Splanchnic and Pelvic Nerve Urinary Bladder Mechanosensory Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linjing; Gebhart, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory information from the urinary bladder is conveyed via lumbar splanchnic (LSN) and sacral pelvic (PN) nerves to the spinal cord. In the present report we compared the mechanosensitive properties of single afferent fibers in these two pathways using an in vitro mouse bladder preparation. Mechanosensitive primary afferents were recorded from the LSN or PN and distinguished based on their response to receptive field stimulation with different mechanical stimuli: probing (160 mg to 2 g), stretch (1–25 g), and stroking of the urothelium (10–1,000 mg). Four different classes of afferent were recorded from the LSN and PN: serosal, muscular, muscular/urothielial, and urothelial. The LSN contained principally serosal and muscular afferents (97% of the total sample), whereas all four afferent classes of afferent were present in the PN (63% of which were muscular afferents). In addition, the respective proportions and receptive field distributions differed between the two pathways. Both low- and high-threshold stretch-sensitive muscular afferents were present in both pathways, and muscular afferents in the PN were shown to sensitize after exposure to an inflammatory soup cocktail. The LSN and PN pathways contain different populations of mechanosensitive afferents capable of detecting a range of mechanical stimuli and individually tuned to detect the type, magnitude, and duration of the stimulus. This knowledge broadens our understanding of the potential roles these two pathways play in conveying mechanical information from the bladder to the spinal cord. PMID:18003875

  5. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  6. The effects of whole green tea infusion on mouse urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Andreia; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; I Faustino-Rocha, Ana; I Teixeira-Guedes, Catarina; Pinho-Oliveira, Jacinta; Talhada, Daniela; H Teixeira, José; Andrade, Andreia; Colaço, Bruno; N Paiva-Cardoso, Maria; J Pires, Maria; MVD Ferreira, Ana; M Nunes, Fernando; A Oliveira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Green tea (GT) is one of the most popular beverages worldwide whose beneficial effects on health have been demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that GT may contribute to reduction of cancer risk and progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole GT on urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis in male and female ICR mice. Materials and Methods: The GT characterization was performed using spectrophotometric methods. Urinary bladder lesions were induced using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) by gavage during 10 weeks and whole GT (0.5%) was provided ad libitum during 20 weeks. Results: Animals from groups BBN+GT and BBN only developed preneoplastic lesions. Conclusion: We did not observe any effects by GT infusion administration on urinary bladder cancer development. PMID:24711900

  7. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Wöllner, J; Janzen, J; Pannek, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is rare. Only 10 cases have been described in the literature. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal paralysis. During the diagnostic work-up which included cystoscopy, black spots in the bladder wall were observed. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign suburothelial melanosis. Thus, with cystoscopic suspicion of a malignancy (melanoma), a biopsy is mandatory and regular cystoscopic follow-up is recommended. PMID:26358438

  8. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  9. Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... following ways: Lengthen the amount of time between bathroom trips. Increase the amount of urine your bladder ... Kegel exercises may also help control urges. Scheduled bathroom trips: Some people control their incontinence by going ...

  10. Early and long-term effects of radiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in mouse urinary bladder endothelium.

    PubMed

    Jaal, J; Dörr, W

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of irradiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells of vessels in mouse urinary bladder and to compare endothelial ICAM-1 expression with changes in bladder function (storage capacity) during the early and late radiation response phases. Female C3H/Neu mice were irradiated with doses of either 20 or 0 Gy. For assessment of ICAM-1 expression, which was measured by the intensity of the immunohistochemical staining signal in bladder endothelium, an arbitrary semiquantitative score (0 - 3) was applied. Bladder storage function was assessed by transurethral cystotonometry. A positive functional radiation response, defined as a reduction in bladder capacity by > 50%, between days 0 and 15 or 16 and 30 was found in 40 and 64% of the animals, respectively. A late functional response was observed in 71% of the animals sacrificed after day 180. Minor constitutive expression of ICAM-1 was observed in bladder endothelial cells. After irradiation, an increase in staining signal by day 2, with a maximum on day 4, and on days 16 - 28 was found, which preceded the functional radiation effects. A permanent increase in ICAM-1 staining signal was observed in the late phase on top of an age-related rise. ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in animals with a positive late response on day 90, i.e. during the initial late phase. Irradiation induces significant early and chronic variations in ICAM-1 expression in bladder endothelium, which preceded the functional response. This suggests that endothelial ICAM-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of both the early and late phases of radiation-induced urinary bladder effects. PMID:16076754

  11. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α cells in mouse urinary bladder: a new class of interstitial cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Byoung H; Roy, Rishiparna; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; McHale, Noel G; Sergeant, Gerard P; Hatton, William J; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Specific classes of interstitial cells exist in visceral organs and have been implicated in several physiological functions including pacemaking and mediators in neurotransmission. In the bladder, Kit+ interstitial cells have been reported to exist and have been suggested to be neuromodulators. More recently a second interstitial cell, which is identified using antibodies against platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α) has been described in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and has been implicated in enteric motor neurotransmission. In this study, we examined the distribution of PDGFR-α+ cells in the murine urinary bladder and the relation that these cells may have with nerve fibres and smooth muscle cells. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α+ cells had a spindle shape or stellate morphology and often possessed multiple processes that contacted one another forming a loose network. These cells were distributed throughout the bladder wall, being present in the lamina propria as well as throughout the muscularis of the detrusor. These cells surrounded and were located between smooth muscle bundles and often came into close morphological association with intramural nerve fibres. These data describe a new class of interstitial cells that express a specific receptor within the bladder wall and provide morphological evidence for a possible neuromodulatory role in bladder function. PMID:22151424

  12. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  13. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  14. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  15. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  16. Concentration-and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to twelve weeks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (AsD is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to ASi in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concen...

  17. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José G.A.; Klojda, Carlos A.B.; Araújo, Claudio P. De; Pires, Lucas A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman. PMID:27437302

  18. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  19. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  20. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  1. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  2. Cancer of the Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 76,960 % of All New Cancer Cases 4.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 16,390 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 587,426 people living with bladder cancer in ...

  3. Haemangiosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a dog.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Dernell, W S; Withrow, S J

    2004-04-01

    Haemangiosarcoma of the urinary bladder is reported in a dog. The bladder mass was detected incidentally during physical examination. Partial cystectomy with unilateral ureteroneocystostomy were performed to remove the tumour en bloc. Necrosis of the urinary bladder was diagnosed 10 days postoperatively and the dog was euthanased. PMID:15149071

  4. Iatrogenic foreign body in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Safdar; Qureshi, Farhan; Rakhio, Sain

    2015-04-01

    A 60 years old man presented with a history of suprapubic pain, painful micturition, perineal pain, and acute retention of urine followed by catheterization. On abdominal ultrasound, there was a metallic needle found in the urinary bladder which was confirmed on pelvis X-ray. The needle was found to be a metallic piece of a resectoscope cutting loop which was removed through cystourethroscopy. PMID:25899202

  5. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder. PMID:27335777

  6. Multistage carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S M; Greenfield, R E; Ellwein, L B

    1983-01-01

    The induction of cancer of the urinary bladder is a multi-stage process involving multiple exogenous and endogenous factors. Based on the classical initiation-promotion model, we have used N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) as initiator and sodium saccharin (SAC) or tryptophan as promoters. These latter chemicals have the properties expected of promoters: induction of hyperplasia, reversibility and nonmutagenicity. Also, tumors were induced whether the promoter was administered immediately after FANFT or beginning 6 weeks after FANFT was discontinued, but no tumors resulted if either promoter was given without initiation with FANFT. Factor(s) present in normal urine also are involved in the promotion process, in addition to the role of urine as a carrier of carcinogens. However, administration of SAC to animals with a rapidly proliferating bladder mucosa, induced by ulceration, pellet insertion, or in utero, resulted in bladder tumor induction, even without prior initiation with FANFT. To better understand the complex interaction of the multiple variables in bladder carcinogenesis, a stochastic computer model has been formulated based on long-term carcinogenicity and tissue kinetic studies in vivo. This model indicates the importance of cell proliferation and the development of hyperplasia in carcinogenesis. PMID:6832093

  7. Electroanatomical Mapping of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koens, Martin; Tijssen, Marij; de Jong, Sytse; Fabius, Timon; Tromp, Johnny; van Breda, Hendrikje; Smeets, Joep; Feitz, Wout; Heesakkers, John

    2016-01-01

    A noncontact mapping system (EnSite) was used for electroanatomical mapping of the bladder simultaneously with pressure flow study in three women with lower urinary tract symptoms. We selected the periods of obvious detrusor activity. Data were processed to remove baseline drift, and an envelope of electrovesicography (EVG) data was created. The correlation coefficient for the correlation between between the EVG envelope and the detrusor pressure (Pdet) was calculated. Bladder geometry was successfully created in all 3 patients. Simultaneous recording of EVG and pressure flow data was successful in 1 patient. Scatter plots were made of the highest correlation coefficient, showing a positive correlation between the Pdet and the envelope, and negative correlation between abdominal pressure (Pabd) and the envelope. Minimal electrical activity could be observed. Significant weak to moderate correlation coefficients were found for the correlations between Pdet and EVG and between Pabd and EVG. PMID:27377950

  8. Electroanatomical Mapping of the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Farag, Fawzy; Koens, Martin; Tijssen, Marij; Jong, Sytse de; Fabius, Timon; Tromp, Johnny; Breda, Hendrikje van; Smeets, Joep; Feitz, Wout; Heesakkers, John

    2016-06-01

    A noncontact mapping system (EnSite) was used for electroanatomical mapping of the bladder simultaneously with pressure flow study in three women with lower urinary tract symptoms. We selected the periods of obvious detrusor activity. Data were processed to remove baseline drift, and an envelope of electrovesicography (EVG) data was created. The correlation coefficient for the correlation between between the EVG envelope and the detrusor pressure (Pdet) was calculated. Bladder geometry was successfully created in all 3 patients. Simultaneous recording of EVG and pressure flow data was successful in 1 patient. Scatter plots were made of the highest correlation coefficient, showing a positive correlation between the Pdet and the envelope, and negative correlation between abdominal pressure (Pabd) and the envelope. Minimal electrical activity could be observed. Significant weak to moderate correlation coefficients were found for the correlations between Pdet and EVG and between Pabd and EVG. PMID:27377950

  9. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  10. Urinary Bladder Xanthoma - Is Immunohistochemistry Necessary?

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, M; Venugopal, A; Kaushik, Vinay N

    2016-09-01

    Urinary Bladder Xanthomas (UBX) are non-neoplastic reactive tumor like process. Isolated UBX is rare with only around 15 cases reported (Yu, Patel, & Bonert, 2015). UBX are reported in older patients who present with non specific symptoms like UTI or hematuria. Patients often have associated lipid anomalies. UBX have been vaguely described as yellowish white plaques or patches. Also, recent reports have stressed on the role of Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis (Al-Daraji, Varghese, & Husain, 2007; Vimal, Masih, Manipadam, & Chacko, 2012). The objective of this report is to provide a cystoscopic view of the tumor which will enable easier identification and also to debate on the role of IHC in diagnosis. PMID:27462546

  11. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  12. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  13. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection./sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  14. [Tumoriform endometriosis of the urinary bladder in advanced pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Zavadil, M; Feyreisl, J; Krofta, L; Jarolím, L

    2006-04-01

    A case of tumoriform endometriosis of urinary bladder immitating a tumor of the bladder during the first pregnancy of a 25-year-old patient was successfully treated by partial cystectomy allowing continuation of the pregnancy, a normal term delivery and after 5 months a second pregnancy with term delivery. PMID:16715635

  15. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of the Urinary Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Shipley, William U.

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed.

  16. Radiation dose-volume effects of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Akila N; Yorke, Ellen D; Marks, Lawrence B; Eifel, Patricia J; Shipley, William U

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed. PMID:20171505

  17. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  18. [An artificial urinary bladder sphincter for men].

    PubMed

    Hanus, T; Dvorácek, J; Kocvara, R

    1997-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a condition with involuntary escape of urine and causes not only medical but also social and hygienic problems. One of the causes of incontinence is insufficiency of the urethral closure mechanism which in men is usually caused by previous prostatectomy or neurogenic dysfunction of the lower urinary pathways. The method of choice is the application of an artificial sphincter (model AMS 800) to the bulbar urethra or cervix. The authors applied an artificial sphincter in 1993-1996 to one boy and 14 men aged 11-72 years. The basic components of the artificial sphincter of the urethra-AMS 800 is a cuff, balloon and pump. The whole system is filled with isotonic solution Omnipaque 300, the cuff which is 45-80 mm long is placed either round the bulbar urethra from a perineal approach or round the cervix by a retropubic approach. The pump is placed beneath the skin of the scrotum and the balloon is in a perivesical position. All parts of the AMS are connected by tubes. Because of infectious complications the authors had to explant the sphincter in two patients. In one patient it was necessary to add another cuff. The perineal approach is simpler, but is associated with a higher risk of erosion of the urethra. Patients with a neurogenic bladder had more complications than those after prostatectomy. Despite the fact that the method and aid is expensive, the treatment is very effective and makes the patients independent on other aids for incontinent patients. PMID:9182338

  19. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the options?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher C.K.; Khandasamy, Yugasaravanan; Singam, Praveen; Hong Goh, Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli M.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract. PMID:21483557

  20. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention. PMID:26693057

  1. Pathogenesis of human urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, George T.

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder cancer is being analyzed at several levels of biological organization, i.e., population groups, individual whole animal, tissue, cell, molecule, etc. Each of these levels provides opportunities for mechanistic studies. Yet the integration of these several levels into a cohesive fabric is incomplete. From a clinical point of view, the following seem of importance to human bladder cancer pathogenesis. The initiation, promotion, and progression of bladder cancer involves several factors acting concurrently or sequentially. These factors appear to be naturally occurring or synthetically created chemicals present in the external environment. Human exposures to these agents may begin in utero, and varying, dynamic qualitative and quantitative exposure patterns continue through developmental and adult life. Apparent latent periods of development of clinical bladder cancer may be as short as one, or as long as 50 years or more. Individuals may exhibit differential susceptibility to vesical carcinogens, perhaps through phenotypic differences in quantitative biotransformation routes. Differences in bladder epithelial cell susceptibilities probably also occur, as well as varying local tissue and generalized resistance to neoplasia formation. Older individuals do not appear to be more resistant to bladder carcinogenesis. A number of animal model systems have been developed for the study of the in vivo, cellular, and molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer. These models replicate many of the known salient features of human bladder cancer. Through use of appropriate whole animal models in conjunction with investigations of human and animal bladder cells and tissues in culture, controlled mechanistic and quantitative studies of bladder cancer pathogenesis should rapidly develop. PMID:6832092

  2. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  3. Urinary bladder calculi complicating ventriculo-vesical shunt.

    PubMed

    Shahul Hameed, A S; Yousaf, I; Choudhari, K A

    2005-10-01

    A rare case of vesical calculi complicating the procedure of ventriculo-vesical shunt is presented. In addition to highlighting technical difficulties in placing shunt catheters into the urinary system, the potential complications are discussed. We consider this route of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) diversion less physiological compared with the peritoneal, pleural or the venous sites, and discourage use of the urinary bladder as the drainage site for the shunting of CSF. PMID:16455572

  4. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Objective Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Methods Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1μM-100mM), α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. Results SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Conclusions Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in

  5. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment☆

    PubMed Central

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  6. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  7. Ultrasound-guided urinary bladder biopsy through a urinary catheter in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Julio; Norman, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    A 34.4 kg 5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. The dog had a recent onset of hematuria and stranguria but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog was sedated and a 10-French rubber catheter that had the blunt end removed was passed from the urethra to the urinary bladder. Using ultrasound guidance, ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps were advanced through the rubber catheter to the urinary bladder mass and biopsies were successfully obtained. The dog was discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with polypoid cystitis. Follow-up surgical removal of the polyp was uneventful, and histopathology confirmed the presurgical biopsy diagnosis. Procurement of urinary bladder biopsies through a urinary catheter with ultrasound guidance was used as a minimally invasive alternative to either cystoscopy or surgery in a bitch. Use of this technique achieved a diagnosis without the need for specialized endoscopic equipment, anesthesia, or surgery. PMID:25251433

  8. An unusual foreign body in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Hiranmay; Biswas, Siddhartha; Chowdhury, Jayanta Roy; Murmu, Rana Pratap

    2010-08-01

    A coiled electric cable was removed from the urinary bladder of a 35-year-old male, electrician by profession. Psychiatric evaluation revealed normal childhood and no psychiatric illness. Proper management by both a urologist and a psychiatrist is required in these cases. PMID:21404753

  9. Urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma in a shorthorn heifer.

    PubMed Central

    Step, D L; Streeter, R N; Confer, A W; Kirkpatrick, J G; Sundberg, J P; Arnold, C S; Bartels, K E

    2000-01-01

    A 12-month-old shorthorn heifer was presented for pollakiuria of 4 months' duration. Urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma was diagnosed. The heifer had no exposure to bracken fern and no papillomavirus or bacterium was demonstrated. Laser surgery was used in an attempt to debulk the mass. Images Figure 1. PMID:11062838

  10. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with <30 being malignant. A 50-year-old male presented with painless hematuria for 6 months. Cystoscopic biopsy of the bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology. PMID:25885144

  11. Developing a functional urinary bladder: a neuronal context

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Janet R.; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of organs occurs in parallel with the formation of their nerve supply. The innervation of pelvic organs (lower urinary tract, hindgut, and sexual organs) is complex and we know remarkably little about the mechanisms that form these neural pathways. The goal of this short review is to use the urinary bladder as an example to stimulate interest in this question. The bladder requires a healthy mature nervous system to store urine and release it at behaviorally appropriate times. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the construction of these neural circuits is not only relevant to defining the basis of developmental problems but may also suggest strategies to restore connectivity and function following injury or disease in adults. The bladder nerve supply comprises multiple classes of sensory, and parasympathetic or sympathetic autonomic effector (motor) neurons. First, we define the developmental endpoint by describing this circuitry in adult rodents. Next we discuss the innervation of the developing bladder, identifying challenges posed by this area of research. Last we provide examples of genetically modified mice with bladder dysfunction and suggest potential neural contributors to this state. PMID:26389118

  12. Primary malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder and ureter.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munad; O'Kane, Dermot; Du Plessis, Justin; Hoag, Nathan; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder is a rare lesion. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with no previous history of cutaneous melanoma who presented with hematuria. Further investigation with imaging and cystoscopy raised suspicion of a primary bladder and ureteric melanoma, which had subsequently metastasized. This was confirmed with histological assessment and a thorough search for alternative primary lesions. Unfortunately, our patient passed away prior to receiving any oncological treatment for his metastatic melanoma, underscoring both the high mortality of this lesion and the need for a consensus on definitive treatment. PMID:26892061

  13. Urinary bladder fibromas in dogs: 51 cases (1981-1985).

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G

    1987-02-15

    Between Jan 1, 1981, and June 30, 1985, fibromas were diagnosed in tissues removed from the urinary bladders of 51 dogs. Hematuria, the most common clinical sign, was associated with the fibromas in 47 of 50 cases. Most dogs responded well to surgical excision of the neoplasms, with rapid resolution of the hematuria followed by long periods without abnormal clinical signs. Three dogs were euthanatized because of continuing or recurrent clinical problems, which included bladder dysfunction. One dog required continuing medication with antibiotics and corticosteroids to control hematuria. PMID:3558085

  14. Impalement injury of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morita, Jun; Naoe, Michio; Nakasato, Takehiko; Ogawa, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    Impalement injury of the urinary bladder, especially secondary to rectal impalement, is extremely rare. In this case, a 31-year-old man sustained a steel pipe impalement injury through his perirectal region. He presented with gross hematuria, abdominal defense, and a penetrating wound. On the basis of the computed tomography findings and abdominal defense, we suspected a through-and-through bladder perforation from the rectal space to the intraperitoneum. Laparotomy revealed a through-and-through bladder perforation as well as damage to the right ureter, 3 distinct ileal injuries, and rectal anterior, anal, and right seminal vesicle injuries. Surgical repair of each damaged site was undertaken. The prompt diagnosis and surgical repair ensured good postoperative recovery. PMID:22741055

  15. Na+ transport by rabbit urinary bladder, a tight epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S A; Diamond, J M

    1976-08-27

    By in vitro experiments on rabbit bladder, we reassessed the traditional view that mammalian urinary bladder lacks ion transport mechanisms. Since the ratio of actual-to-nominal membrane area in folded epithelia is variable and hard to estimate, we normalized membrane properties to apical membrane capacitance rather than to nominal area (probably 1 muF approximately 1 cm2 actual area). A new mounting technique that virtually eliminates edge damage yielded resistances up to 78,000 omega muF for rabbit bladder, and resistances for amphibian skin and bladder much higher than those usually reported. This technique made it possible to observe a transport-related conductance pathway, and a close correlation between transepithelial conductance (G) and short-circuit current (Isc) in these tight epithelia. G and Isc were increased by mucosal (Na+) [Isc approximately 0 when (Na+) approximately 0], aldosterone, serosal (HCO-3) and high mucosal (H+); were decreased by amiloride, mucosal (Ca++), ouabain, metabolic inhibitors and serosal (H+); and were unaffected by (Cl-) and little affected by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Physiological variation in the rabbits' dietary Na+ intake caused variations in bladder G and Isc similar to those caused by the expected in vivo changes in aldosterone levels. The relation between G and Isc was the same whether defined by diet changes, natural variation among individual rabbits, or most of the above agents. A method was developed for separately resolving conductances of junctions, basolateral cell membrane, and apical cell membrane from this G--Isc relation. Net Na+ flux equalled Isc. Net Cl- flux was zero on short circuit and equalled only 25% of net Na+ flux in open circuit. Bladder membrane fragments contained a Na+-K+-activated, ouabain-inhibited ATPase. The physiological significance of Na+ absorption against steep gradients in rabbit bladder may be to maintain kidney-generated ion gradients during bladder storage of urine, especially

  16. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  17. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  18. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  19. Regulation of urinary bladder capacity by endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Booth, A M; Hisamitsu, T; Kawatani, M; De Groat, W C

    1985-02-01

    Naloxone administered to chloralose or ketamine anesthetized cats reduced urinary bladder capacity. Successive cystometrograms revealed that naloxone in doses of 0.5 microgram./kg. to 15 micrograms./kg. i.v. reduced the volume necessary to evoke micturition by 10 to 50 per cent, respectively. The effect was maximal within a few minutes, remained constant for about 1/2 hour and returned to control values over the next 2 to 3 hours. Following return to control, subsequent doses of naloxone produced no further effect on capacity. In chloralose anesthetized animals naloxone also increased the frequency and amplitude of low amplitude pressure waves on the tonus limb of the cystometrogram. Intrathecal administration of naloxone to the sacral spinal cord did not significantly reduce the volume necessary to evoke micturition even at large doses, but did increase the amplitude of micturition contractions. These data, along with previous reports, suggest that mu receptors in the brainstem alter urinary bladder capacity, while delta receptors in the spinal cord modulate the magnitude of bladder contractions. Pharmacological manipulation of these receptor systems could provide a tool for the management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. PMID:3968761

  20. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder. PMID:26694548

  1. Isolation of highly purified, functional endosomes from toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, T G; Morré, D J; Harris, H W; Zeidel, M L

    1993-01-01

    Endosomes are difficult to isolate as they share size and density properties with much more abundant cellular organelles such as mitochondria. In cultured cell lines the tandem use of charge-dependent isolation techniques and differential centrifugation is necessary to isolate endosomes. Endosomal populations of the toad urinary bladder are of special interest because they are thought to contain a water channel. Understanding of the molecular structure of the water channel has been constrained, as there is currently no practical method to isolate functional water-channel-containing vesicles. This study reports the tandem use of charge-dependent techniques and centrifugation to isolate populations of endosomes from the toad urinary bladder. To purify water-channel-containing vesicles aqueous two-phase partition was utilized to fractionate a preparation partially purified by differential centrifugation. Populations of endosomes were analysed by small-particle flow cytometry techniques. A 5-fold enrichment in endosomes, achieved with aqueous two-phase partition, allowed us to identify two populations of endosomes of diverse size in a toad bladder endosomal fraction. Preenrichment also improved the efficiency of flow cytometry sorting, allowing isolation of the two endosomal populations in sufficient quantities for secondary analysis. A population of larger endosomes had very high water permeability, indicating the presence of water channels. The two populations had different SDS/PAGE fingerprints. Electron micrographs of the flow-sorted material shows a uniform population of membrane vesicles devoid of mitochondria and other identifiable cellular organelles. Hence, aqueous two-phase partition and flow cytometry allow identification of two populations of endosomes in the toad urinary bladder which have diverse structural and functional properties. Isolation of functional water-channel-containing vesicles allows co-localization of water-channel function with candidate

  2. Ultrasonographic characterization of the urinary bladder in sows with and without urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Kauffold, Johannes; Gmeiner, Kerstin; Sobiraj, Axel; Richter, Andreas; Failing, Klaus; Wendt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The urinary bladders of sows (n=10) without urinary tract infection (UTI) were longitudinally transrectally scanned after emptying and refilling with 200, 400, 600 and 800mL saline, and a volume dependence was found for bladder depth (BD), dorsal (dWT) and ventral wall thicknesses (vWT), wall regularity (WR) and mucosal wall surface (mWS). When another 31 sows without and 15 with UTI (as defined on the basis of high bacterial count and macroscopic/biochemical urine abnormalities) were compared for these parameters using BD as volume equivalent, no differences were found. Sows with UTI more often had moderate to high amounts of sediment than animals without UTI. Ultrasonographic assessment of dWT, vWT, WR and mWS of the urinary bladder of sows requires knowledge of bladder volume, and BD may be used as a volume equivalent. However, the parameters are inappropriate for the diagnosis of UTI as defined in this study, while moderate/high amounts of sediment seem to be indicative. Sediment can be visualized by transrectal scanning, but this is also possible using the transcutaneous route. PMID:18976940

  3. Quantitative elasticity measurement of urinary bladder wall using laser-induced surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Zhang, Fan; Song, Shaozhen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of urinary bladder elasticity is essential to its functions, including the storage and voiding phases of the micturition cycle. The bladder stiffness can be changed by various pathophysiological conditions. Quantitative measurement of bladder elasticity is an essential step toward understanding various urinary bladder disease processes and improving patient care. As a nondestructive, and noncontact method, laser-induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can accurately characterize the elastic properties of different layers of organs such as the urinary bladder. This initial investigation evaluates the feasibility of a noncontact, all-optical method of generating and measuring the elasticity of the urinary bladder. Quantitative elasticity measurements of ex vivo porcine urinary bladder were made using the laser-induced SAW technique. A pulsed laser was used to excite SAWs that propagated on the bladder wall surface. A dedicated phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system remotely recorded the SAWs, from which the elasticity properties of different layers of the bladder were estimated. During the experiments, series of measurements were performed under five precisely controlled bladder volumes using water to estimate changes in the elasticity in relation to various urinary bladder contents. The results, validated by optical coherence elastography, show that the laser-induced SAW technique combined with PhS-OCT can be a feasible method of quantitative estimation of biomechanical properties. PMID:25574440

  4. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Lorenzo, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26962441

  5. [Follow-up after surgical replacement of the urinary bladder (urinary diversion)].

    PubMed

    Ubrig, B; Kories, C; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Surgical replacement of the urinary bladder is usually necessary after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Besides uro-oncological follow-up (local, urethral, and systemic recurrence; tumor in the upper tract) functional follow-up of the urinary diversion is indicated. Guidelines are still scarce. Long contact time and large surface area in continent pouches made from long intestinal segments lead to absorption of contents of urine and thus to acidosis and imbalances in serum electrolytes. Compensation depends on renal function. Exclusion of long ileal segments out of the intestinal passage may lead to malabsorption of Vitamin B12 and bile acids. 30 % and more of long-term survivors with continent pouches take Vitamin B12 and sodium bicarbonate. Special attention has to be paid to obstruction of the upper urinary tract, total renal function and to secondary malignancy in the bladder substitute. For the latter, sigma-rectum pouches, augmentation cystoplasties and continent pouches with incorporation of colonic segments are at special risk. Functional follow-up affords good understanding of the specific complications of the different types of urinary diversions. PMID:23386377

  6. Squamous Dysplasia of the Urinary Bladder: A Consecutive Cystectomy Series.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Kaag, Matthew; Raman, Jay D; Chan, Wilson; Tran, Truc; Kunchala, Sudhir; DeGraff, David; Chen, Guoli

    2016-06-01

    Squamous dysplasia of the urinary bladder is uncommon and may represent a precursor to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Though significant focus has been devoted to squamous differentiation in invasive bladder cancer, relatively little attention has been given to squamous dysplasia. We methodically reviewed microscopic slides from a consecutive cystectomy series at our institution (n = 303; 2001-2014), with special attention given to squamous dysplasia and squamous differentiation within association invasive carcinoma. Of these 303 cases, 3% (9 cases) had squamous dysplasia. The majority (89%; 8/9) had a similar morphological appearance to squamous dysplasia of the head and neck (ie, cytological atypia, architectural disturbances, and abnormal keratinization). Invasive carcinoma was present in 230 of the cystectomy cases. Of these 230 cases with invasive carcinoma, 4% (8 cases) also had squamous dysplasia. The invasive carcinoma had evidence of squamous differentiation in all cases with concurrent squamous dysplasia. Concurrent flat urothelial carcinoma in situ was present in 3 of the 8 cases with both invasive carcinoma and squamous dysplasia. Squamous dysplasia was not associated with clinical outcomes data, including death from bladder cancer and bladder cancer recurrence. The data from this study indicate that squamous dysplasia is uncommon in the cystectomy setting, frequently has the morphology of head and neck dysplasia, and is often associated with invasive carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:26860905

  7. Characterization of vasopressin receptors of rat urinary bladder and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.; Snajdar, R.M.; Rapp, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    By use of tritiated arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin specific binding sites were detected on Sprague-Dawley rat urinary bladder and spleen. In both tissues, one class of high-affinity binding sites was characterized with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.61 +/- 0.22 and 1.91 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 155 and 110 fmol/mg of protein, for bladder and spleen, respectively. In both tissues, several experimental arguments suggest that these receptors belong to the V/sub 1/-vascular type. AVP (10/sup -12/-10/sup -5/ M) did not modify the basal cyclic AMP production in either tissue. As cyclic AMP is known to respond to V/sub 2/ stimulation, the data suggest that the receptors measured are the V/sub 1/ type. The exploration of vasopressin receptors regulation should facilitate the comprehension of the role played by AVP in different models of experimental hypertension.

  8. Pathophysiology of Overactive Bladder and Urge Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Steers, William D

    2002-01-01

    Storage symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence, are characterized as overactive bladder (OAB). OAB can lead to urge incontinence. Disturbances in nerves, smooth muscle, and urothelium can cause this condition. In some respects the division between peripheral and central causes of OAB is artificial, but it remains a useful paradigm for appreciating the interactions between different tissues. Models have been developed to mimic the OAB associated with bladder instability, lower urinary tract obstruction, neuropathic disorders, diabetes, and interstitial cystitis. These models share the common features of increased connectivity and excitability of both detrusor smooth muscle and nerves. Increased excitability and connectivity of nerves involved in micturition rely on growth factors that orchestrate neural plasticity. Neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, and growth factors, such as nerve growth factor, provide mechanisms for bidirectional communication between muscle or urothelium and nerve, leading to OAB with or without urge incontinence. PMID:16986023

  9. Chronic bladder ischemia and oxidative stress: new pharmacotherapeutic targets for lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nomiya, Masanori; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bladder ischemia is potentially a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in the elderly. Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between lower urinary tract symptoms and vascular risk factors for atherosclerosis, and investigations using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography have shown a negative correlation between decreased lower urinary tract perfusion and International Prostate Symptom Score in elderly patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Bladder blood flow is also known to decrease in men with bladder outlet obstruction as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Studies in animal models suggest that chronic bladder ischemia and repeated ischemia/reperfusion during a micturition cycle might produce oxidative stress, leading to denervation of the bladder and the expression of tissue-damaging molecules in the bladder wall, which could be responsible for the development of bladder hyperactivity progressing to bladder underactivity. The effects of drugs with different mechanisms of action; for example, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, free radical scavengers and β3-adrenoceptor agonist, have been studied in animal models of chronic bladder ischemia. The drugs, representing different treatment principles for increasing blood flow and decreasing oxidative stress, showed protective effects not only on urodynamic parameters, but also on negative effects on muscle contractility and on detrimental structural bladder wall changes. Improvement of lower urinary tract perfusion and control of oxidative stress can be considered new therapeutic strategies for treatment of bladder dysfunction induced by chronic ischemia. PMID:25339506

  10. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases.

    PubMed

    Elawdy, Mohamed M; Harraz, Ahmed M; Zahran, Mohamed H; Abdelraheem; El-Baz, Mahmoud; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    "Inflammatory pseudotumor" (IPT) has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3-8 cm); computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2-10 years), no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries. PMID:26834412

  11. Robotic partial cystectomy for lymphangioma of the urinary bladder in an adult woman

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Raouf; Alzahrani, Hassan M.; Alkhudair, Waleed K.; Dababo, Mohammed Anas; Al-Otaibi, Mohammed F.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangioma of the urinary bladder is a very rare tumour in adulthood. Robotic partial cystectomy is evolving for treatment of a limited number of bladder tumours. We describe a case of an adult woman with a bladder dome lymphangioma for which robotic partial cystectomy was carried out. PMID:22396382

  12. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from 18F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for 99mTc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for 18F-FDG and 30% higher for 99mTc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  13. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  14. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Szopiński, Tomasz; Gołąbek, Tomasz; Ostasz, Oksana; Bojko, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1) anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele); 2) tumor- like lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies); 3) bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis), focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4) lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis); 5) postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis. PMID:26672732

  15. 5-hydroxytryptamine induced relaxation in the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Paz; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M; Bustamante, Salvador; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the inhibitory mediators in the urinary bladder outlet region. Here we investigated mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced relaxations of the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach Urothelium-denuded strips of pig bladder were mounted in organ baths for isometric force recordings of responses to 5-HT and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Key results After phenylephrine-induced contraction, 5-HT and 5-HT receptor agonists concentration-dependently relaxed the preparations, with the potency order: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-HT = RS67333 > (±)-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralinhydrobromide > m-chlorophenylbiguanide > α-methyl-5-HT > ergotamine. 5-HT and 5-CT relaxations were reduced by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulphonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride and potentiated by (S)-N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenylpropanamide dihydrochloride (WAY 100135) and cyanopindolol, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonists respectively. Inhibitors of 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A and 5-HT6 receptors failed to modify 5-HT responses. Blockade of monoamine oxidase A/B, noradrenergic neurotransmission, α-adrenoceptors, muscarinic and purinergic receptors, nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and prostanoid synthesis did not alter relaxations to 5-HT. Inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ and ATP-dependent K+ channels failed to modify 5-HT responses but blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na+-, Ca2+-and voltage-gated K+ (Kv)-channels potentiated these relaxations. Adenylyl cyclase activation and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition potentiated and reduced, respectively, 5-HT-induced responses. Under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic, non-nitrergic conditions, EFS induced neurogenic, frequency-dependent, relaxations which were resistant to WAY 100135 and cyanopindolol. Conclusions and implications 5-HT relaxed

  16. Effect of stretch on passive transport in toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Lief, P D; Mutz, B F; Bank, N

    1976-06-01

    In order to gain further information about the effect of stretch on the urinary bladder of the toad, transepithelial movement of radioactive sucrose, chloride, and urea was measured across bladder sacs during acute changes in the internal volume. Short-circuit current (SCC) and total tissue conductance (Kt) were also measured in each experiment. It was found that sudden large increases or smaller graded increases in volume resulted in a consistent fall in the tracer permeability (P*) of all three isotopes. However, this fall was due entirely to the larger area term in the calculation of P* rather than any real change in isotope movement. When total diffusion (TD) of each isotope was calculated by a method that eliminated the changes in surface area, it was apparent that stretch produced no significant effects on the transepithelial movement of any of these three molecules. Large stretch also resulted in parallel increases in SCC and Kt in most bladders. We conclude from these observations that the intercellular pathway for sucrose and chloride and the transcellular pathway for urea are unaltered by degrees of stretch that enhance SCC and sodium transport. By inference, the observed increases in Kt appear to represent changes in specific active pathway conductance (Ka), and may relate importantly to the changes in sodium transport. PMID:820207

  17. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  18. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  19. Light chain amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. A site restricted deposition of an externally produced immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, A; Shtrasburg, S; Martin, B; Baniel, J; Gal, R; Pras, M

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To identify the amyloid protein in a patient with amyloidosis localised to the urinary bladder, and to see whether subtyping of the protein by sequence analysis increases the understanding of the selection of the urinary bladder as the site of amyloid deposition. Methods—A patient with gross haematuria and a congophilic mass in his urinary bladder was evaluated further. Characterisation of the amyloid protein was performed using conventional histological and immunohistochemical methods. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the amyloid protein was performed using protein sequencers. Results—The patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation excluded the involvement of other organs, justifying a diagnosis of amyloidosis localised to the urinary bladder. Histological and immunological studies showed that the amyloid protein deposited in the urinary bladder of the patient was probably of the amyloid light chain type. No plasma cells or lymphocytes were seen in sections of the urinary bladder and lower ureter adjacent to the amyloid deposits. Molecular analysis showed the sequence NFMLTQPHSISGSPG, which assigned the amyloid protein to either the VλI or the VλVI immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain families. Conclusions—The findings suggest that the amyloid protein in this patient originated outside the urinary bladder. The heterogeneity of the Ig proteins in known cases of amyloidosis of the lower urinary tract suggests that the amino acid residues, which determine the Vλ subtyping, have no major role in restricting the deposited protein to the urinary bladder. Key Words: primary amyloidosis • urinary bladder • λ light chain • amino acid sequence PMID:11729210

  20. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as “villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix.” PMID:27169015

  1. Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  2. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in men: a Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    The rising incidence of urinary bladder cancer is alarming and potential relationships with different risk factors have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between different environmental risk factors and urinary bladder cancer. All men with urinary bladder cancer who were admitted to the Department of Urology of Reina Sofia University Hospital of Cordoba, Spain over 1 year were included in our study. Men were administered an interview questionnaire, which included data on history of known urinary bladder cancer risk factors. Comparisons between men with urinary bladder cancer (cases) and those with nonmalignant urological disease (controls) were made. The study included 74 cases and 89 controls. The variables associated with malignant lesions on univariate analysis were age, smoking and drinking alcohol. Meanwhile, fish, poultry and beef consumption were proved to be protective factors. The risk factors identified by the logistic regression analysis were age, smoking and fluid intake. The independent protective factors on the multivariate analysis were fish and poultry consumptions. Smoking was found to be the principal independent risk factors for urinary bladder cancer. Our results call for further investigation of urinary bladder cancer risk factors; future studies should preferably be performed on large prospective cohorts, to increase their validity. PMID:17106329

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB); A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sawalmeh, Haitham; Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Hussein, Ahmed; Al-Badri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous urinary bladder rupture is a rare urological emergency. It is usually secondary to an underlying pathology and it is an uncommon complication of urosepsis. We report a case of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture as a complication of urosepsis in a 67 year old male patient, who was admitted as a case of left diabetic foot and urinary tract infection. Case presentation A 67 year old male patient with a long standing indwelling urinary catheter and chronic cystitis developed acute peritonitis. Intraoperative finding was ruptured urinary bladder. Discussion A few cases of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture due to infection were found in literature. The majority of the patients present with diffuse abdominal pain, and tenderness due to chemical peritonitis. In the majority of cases the bladder perforation was diagnosed intra-operative. Conclusion A diagnosis of spontaneous perforation of the bladder should be considered in patients presenting with an acute abdomen. The general surgeon is more likely than the urologist to encounter such patients in the first instance. There should be a high index of suspicion in patients with an acute abdomen and have associated urinary bladder condition. PMID:26451645

  4. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild t...

  5. Bioimpedance based monitoring system for people with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Palla, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefano; Fanucci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with impaired bladder volume sensation have the necessity to monitor bladder level in order to avoid urinary tract infections and urinary reflux that can lead to renal failure. In this paper the the effectiveness of an embedded and wearable solution for bladder volume monitoring using the bioimpedance measurement is tested. Data are streamed real-time using Bluetooth wireless technology. The bioimpedance measurements on a healthy subject prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. In the future the system will be evaluated in real world scenarios with patients affected by spinal paralysis and bladder neurogenic dysfunction. PMID:26294580

  6. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sounak; Zhang, Jun; Rivera, Michael; Erickson, Lori A

    2016-09-01

    Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder can arise sporadically or as a part of hereditary syndromes including those with underlying mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, which serve as tumor suppressors. SDH deficiency can be screened for by absence of immunohistochemical detection of SDHB. In this study of 11 cases, clinical follow-up was available for 9/11 cases. The cases were reviewed and graded based on the grading system for adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (GAPP) criteria. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki67 and SDHB. Proliferative index was calculated by quantification of Ki67-positive cells at hot spots. The medical record was accessed for documentation of germline SDH mutations. Urinary bladder paragangliomas had a female predilection (8/11 cases), and 5/11 cases exhibited metastatic behavior. Patients with metastatic disease tended to be younger (mean age 43 vs 49 years), have larger lesions (5.8 vs 1.5 cm), and presented with catecholamine excess (4/4 vs 2/6 patients with non-metastatic lesions). Patients with metastatic disease had a higher mean Ki67 proliferation rate (4.9 vs 1.3 %) and GAPP score (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8) (p = 0.01). IHC for SDHB expression revealed loss of expression in 2/6 cases of non-metastatic paragangliomas compared to 4/5 patients with metastatic paragangliomas. Interestingly, of these four patients, two had a documented mutation of SDHB, one patient had a SDHC mutation, and another patient had a history of familial disease without mutation analysis being performed. Our study, suggests that SDH loss was suggestive of metastatic behavior in addition to younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and higher Ki67 proliferation rate and catecholamine type. PMID:27262318

  7. Agricultural workers and urinary bladder cancer risk in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa'a A; Magder, Laurence S; Mikhail, Nabiel N; St George, Diane Marie; Squibb, Katherine; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between farming and the risk for squamous cell (SCC) or urothelial cell (UC) carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Egyptians. The authors used data from a multicenter case-control study (1,525 male and 315 female cases, and 2,069 male and 547 female age- and residence-matched, population-based controls) to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Men in farming and who never smoked had increased risk for either SCC or UC (AOR [95% CI]: 4.65 [2.59-8.36] and 6.22 [3.82-10.15], respectively). If they ever smoked, their risks were 2.27 (1.75-2.95) and 1.93 (1.58-2.35), respectively. Women in farmer households were at increased risk for SCC (1.40 [0.93-2.09] and UC [1.25 (0.82-1.89]), although not statistically significant. Occupational and environmental exposures to farming increased the risk for bladder cancer among Egyptians. PMID:23930791

  8. Specificities and binding properties of 2 monoclonal antibodies against carcinoma cells of the human urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Aissa, H.; Paulie, S.; Koho, H.; Biberfeld, P.; Hansson, Y.; Lundblad, M. L.; Gustafson, H.; Jonsdottir, I.; Perlmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    Mice were immunized with cultured cells derived from transitional cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder (TCC). Spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma cell line Sp2/0-Ag14 and the hybridomas obtained screened for antibody production against a panel of human cells. Two hybridomas were selected for further studies. The antibodies from one of these hybridomas (P7A5-4) could clearly discriminate between malignant and normal cells from the bladder, both when tested with cultured cells and fresh tissue. The P7A5-4 antibodies, however, also reacted with some non-TCC cultured carcinoma and melanoma cells but to a lesser extent. This difference in reactivity was even more pronounced in the fresh tumours tested, thus indicating a quantitative difference in antigen expression between TCC and other cells. From extracts of TCC cells, P7A5-4 bound three polypeptides of mol. wts 92Kd (ConA+), 23 and 17Kd (ConA-). The antibody derived from hybridoma SK4H-12 bound a ConA reactive glycopeptide of 100Kd mol. wt, the expression of which was almost entirely restricted to urothelial cell lines and tissue of TCC origin, as shown by immunocytochemical studies. The finding in this study of new antigens associated with urinary bladder carcinoma, extend the results obtained previously in our laboratory (Koho et al., 1984; Paulie et al., 1984) and further delineate the heterogeneity of tumour-associated antigens in this human tumour system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4015953

  9. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder ... stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of urinary tract infection (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need ...

  10. Selective binding of lectins to normal and neoplastic urothelium in rat and mouse bladder carcinogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Romih, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer adjuvant intravesical therapy could be optimized by more selective targeting of neoplastic tissue via specific binding of lectins to plasma membrane carbohydrates. Our aim was to establish rat and mouse models of bladder carcinogenesis to investigate in vivo and ex vivo binding of selected lectins to the luminal surface of normal and neoplastic urothelium. Male rats and mice were treated with 0.05 % N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water and used for ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments. Urinary bladder samples were also used for paraffin embedding, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence labelling of uroplakins. During carcinogenesis, the structure of the urinary bladder luminal surface changed from microridges to microvilli and ropy ridges and the expression of urothelial-specific glycoproteins uroplakins was decreased. Ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments gave comparable results. Jacalin (lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia) exhibited the highest selectivity for neoplastic compared to normal urothelium of rats and mice. The binding of lectin from Amaranthus caudatus decreased in rat model and increased in mouse carcinogenesis model, indicating interspecies variations of plasma membrane glycosylation. Lectin from Datura stramonium showed higher affinity for neoplastic urothelium compared to the normal in rat and mouse model. The BBN-induced animal models of bladder carcinogenesis offer a promising approach for lectin binding experiments and further lectin-mediated targeted drug delivery research. Moreover, in vivo lectin binding experiments are comparable to ex vivo experiments, which should be considered when planning and optimizing future research. PMID:23828036

  11. Post-Radical-Prostatectomy Urinary Incontinence: The Management of Concomitant Bladder Neck Contracture

    PubMed Central

    King, Thomas; Almallah, Y. Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Urinary incontinence postradical prostatectomy is a common problem which adversely affects quality of life. Concomitant bladder neck contracture in the setting of postprostatectomy incontinence represents a challenging clinical problem. Postprostatectomy bladder neck contracture is frequently recurrent and makes surgical management of incontinence difficult. The aetiology of bladder neck contracture and what constitutes the optimum management strategy are controversial. Here we review the literature and also present our approach. PMID:22611382

  12. Urinary Bladder Paraganglioma and Concomitant Metastatic Lung Cancer. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gkikas, Christos; Ram, Manisha; Tsafrakidis, Petros

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of an organ confined urinary bladder paraganglioma and concomitant metastatic lung cancer to the liver diagnosed on a 66 year old man initially though to be metastatic bladder cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital for frank hematuria and a single solid bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy. We are also reviewing the literature on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma. PMID:26793591

  13. Combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture: an unusual complication of obstructed labor in a primigravida

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Idris Usman; Abubakar, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background Combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture following prolonged obstructed labor is indeed a momentous uro-obstetric emergency. The urinary bladder involvement is distinctly rare in the absence of factors that predispose the bladder to be adherent to the lower uterine segment and is quite unusual in a primigravida. Objective To report a rare case of uterine rupture involving urinary bladder secondary to a prolonged obstructed labor in a primigravida from a low resource setting. Case A 17-year-old married unbooked primigravida who presented with a 3-day history of spontaneous onset of labor at term that was initially managed at home and later in a primary health care center where she had fundal pressure and oxytocin augmentation, respectively. The labor was complicated by combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture with sepsis. She was resuscitated and had exploratory laparotomy with uterine and urinary bladder repair. The postoperative period was uneventful and she was followed-up at the gynecology and family planning clinics. Conclusion There is a need for community reawakening on the inherent risks of teenage pregnancy, bad obstetric practices, and unsupervised pregnancy, labor, and delivery, particularly in the rural settings as in the index patient. A high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate intervention will reduce the sequel of morbidity and occasional mortality from this predicament. PMID:27499647

  14. Characterization of the basolateral membrane conductance of Necturus urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R; Finn, A L

    1987-04-01

    Necturus urinary bladders stripped of serosal muscle and connective tissue were impaled through their basolateral membranes with microelectrodes in experiments that permitted rapid changes in the ion composition of the serosal solution. The transepithelial electrical properties exhibited a marked seasonal variation that could be attributed to variations in the conductance of the shunt pathway, apical membrane selectivity, and basolateral Na+ transport. In contrast, the passive electrical properties of the basolateral membrane remained constant throughout the year. The apparent transference numbers (Ti) of the basolateral membrane for K+ and Cl- were determined from the effect on the basolateral membrane equivalent electromotive force of a sudden increase in the serosal K+ concentration from 2.5 to 50 mM/liter or a decrease in the Cl- concentration from 101 to 10 mM/liter. TK and TCl were 0.71 +/- 0.05 and 0.04 +/- 0.01, respectively. The basolateral K+ conductance could be blocked by Ba2+ (0.5 mM), Cs+ (10 mM), or Rb+ (10 mM), but was unaffected by 3,4-diaminopyridine (100 microM), decamethonium (100 microM), or tetraethylammonium (10 mM). We conclude that a highly selective K+ conductance dominates the electrical properties of the basolateral membrane and that this conductance is different from those found in nerve and muscle membranes. PMID:2438371

  15. Vitamin D Induction of the Human Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hertting, Olof; Holm, Åsa; Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Hanna; Dyrdak, Robert; Jonasson, Aino Fianu; Wiklund, Peter; Chromek, Milan; Brauner, Annelie

    2010-01-01

    The urinary tract is frequently being exposed to potential pathogens and rapid defence mechanisms are therefore needed. Cathelicidin, a human antimicrobial peptide is expressed and secreted by bladder epithelial cells and protects the urinary tract from infection. Here we show that vitamin D can induce cathelicidin in the urinary bladder. We analyzed bladder tissue from postmenopausal women for expression of cathelicidin, before and after a three-month period of supplementation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3). Cell culture experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms for cathelicidin induction. We observed that, vitamin D per se did not up-regulate cathelicidin in serum or in bladder tissue of the women in this study. However, when the bladder biopsies were infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), a significant increase in cathelicidin expression was observed after 25D3 supplementation. This observation was confirmed in human bladder cell lines, even though here, cathelicidin induction occurred irrespectively of infection. Vitamin D treated bladder cells exerted an increased antibacterial effect against UPEC and colocalization to cathelicidin indicated the relevance of this peptide. In the light of the rapidly growing problem of resistance to common urinary tract antibiotics, we suggest that vitamin D may be a potential complement in the prevention of UTI. PMID:21179490

  16. Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L W; Zachariah, N Y

    1979-09-14

    This study was done to determine if steroid compounds will stimulate the urinary bladder of the toad to increase its capacity to acidify the urine and excrete NH+4. Aldosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, dexamethasone, pregnenolone, and cholesterol were tested on the bladder. All compounds tested were found to stimulate the rate of acidification by the bladder, above that of a paired control hemibladder. In contrast, only the steroids aldosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were found to stimulate NH+4 excretion in the bladder. Cycloheximide was found to block the action of aldosterone on the NH+4 excretion, but did not have a significant effect on the stimulation of acidification by aldosterone. We conclude that steroids stimulate H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder. In addition, the NH+4 excretory system seems to be more specific to this effect than is the H+ excretory system. PMID:113550

  17. Is the poly (L- lactide- co- caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane suitable for urinary bladder regeneration?

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Adamowicz, Jan; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×10(6) cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  18. Pleomorphic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Renshaw, Idris L; Rubin, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the urinary bladder is often mixed with conventional transitional cell carcinoma and/or other histotypes. The pathologist's determination of the morphologic purity of a given LELC at the biopsy stage is a clinically relevant endeavour, because there is some anecdotal evidence suggesting that pure or predominant LELC may be comparatively chemosensitive and have a favorable prognostic profile, which may potentially offer the possibility of effective therapy without bladder resection. The precise degree of cellular pleomorphism that is allowed in a pure LELC is unclear. We describe herein an otherwise conventional and pure LELC that showed, in a localized area that constituted approximately 25% of the overall tumor volume, a two to six fold variation in nuclear size, including multinucleated tumor cells. These pleomorphic areas were set in the same lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate as their conventional counterparts, and similarly displayed cellular syncytia. We performed a detailed immunophenotypic comparison between the conventional areas and the pleomorphic areas. No significant differences were found between the 2 areas in overall lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic density, lymphocytic CD4/CD8 ratio, and lymphoplasmacytic kappa/lambda ratio. Similarly, both displayed similar qualitative and quantitative staining indices for p53, Ki67, cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and p16(INKa). Scattered cells were cytoplasmically beta-catenin positive exclusively in the pleomorphic areas; however these cells were not notably larger than the cells in the conventional areas. Both components were immunohistochemically negative for HMB-45, CD1a, the estrogen receptor, Epstein-Barr virus, CD117, D2-40, CD56, cytokeratin 20 and chromogranin. Clinicopathologic analysis of a series of cases is required to establish if there is any significance to nuclear pleomorphism in LELC. However, the phenotypic similarity between the 2 areas in this case, the intimate

  19. Transient contractions of urinary bladder smooth muscle are drivers of afferent nerve activity during filling.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Hill-Eubanks, David; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-04-01

    Activation of afferent nerves during urinary bladder (UB) filling conveys the sensation of UB fullness to the central nervous system (CNS). Although this sensory outflow is presumed to reflect graded increases in pressure associated with filling, UBs also exhibit nonvoiding, transient contractions (TCs) that cause small, rapid increases in intravesical pressure. Here, using an ex vivo mouse bladder preparation, we explored the relative contributions of filling pressure and TC-induced pressure transients to sensory nerve stimulation. Continuous UB filling caused an increase in afferent nerve activity composed of a graded increase in baseline activity and activity associated with increases in intravesical pressure produced by TCs. For each ∼4-mmHg pressure increase, filling pressure increased baseline afferent activity by ∼60 action potentials per second. In contrast, a similar pressure elevation induced by a TC evoked an ∼10-fold greater increase in afferent activity. Filling pressure did not affect TC frequency but did increase the TC rate of rise, reflecting a change in the length-tension relationship of detrusor smooth muscle. The frequency of afferent bursts depended on the TC rate of rise and peaked before maximum pressure. Inhibition of small- and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(SK and BK) channels increased TC amplitude and afferent nerve activity. After inhibiting detrusor muscle contractility, simulating the waveform of a TC by gently compressing the bladder evoked similar increases in afferent activity. Notably, afferent activity elicited by simulated TCs was augmented by SK channel inhibition. Our results show that afferent nerve activity evoked by TCs represents the majority of afferent outflow conveyed to the CNS during UB filling and suggest that the maximum TC rate of rise corresponds to an optimal length-tension relationship for efficient UB contraction. Furthermore, our findings implicate SK channels in controlling the gain of sensory

  20. Visualization of Proteus mirabilis within the matrix of urease-induced bladder stones during experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Hui; Lockatell, C Virginia; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2002-01-01

    The virulence of a urease-negative mutant of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and its wild-type parent strain was assessed by using a CBA mouse model of catheterized urinary tract infection. Overall, catheterized mice were significantly more susceptible than uncatheterized mice to infection by wild-type P. mirabilis. At a high inoculum, the urease-negative mutant successfully colonized bladders of catheterized mice but did not cause urolithiasis and was still severely attenuated in its ability to ascend to kidneys. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of P. mirabilis within the urease-induced stone matrix. Alizarin red S staining was used to detect calcium-containing deposits in bladder and kidney tissues of P. mirabilis-infected mice. PMID:11748205

  1. A mathematical model for the proliferation of bacteria in the urinary bladder due to enlarged prostate.

    PubMed

    Moxnes, John F; Hausken, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    Urinary retention due to enlargement of the prostate (prostate hypertrophy) leads to increased proliferation of bacteria in the bladder. This in turn increases the infection rate. The reason is that the enlarged prostate presses on the urine channel and tends to close it. Thus the out flux of the bladder consists of repeatedly small amounts of fluid during a day. A mathematical dynamic model with differential equations is developed for the proliferation of bacteria in the urinary bladder (vesica urinary). The model accounts for how this proliferation is associated with varying amounts of mass of urine within the bladder. Parameters are estimated from published data and analytical and numerical results are presented. The relationships between the proliferation of bacteria within the bladder and the type of urinal out flux from the bladder are examined. The proliferation is shown to depend on the amount of mass of urine and the out flux of urine from the bladder. In the normal situation the bladder is drained successfully which also drains the bacteria. In the abnormal situation the bladder drains only partly. Despite frequent urination, substantial urine mass in the bladder on the average allows bacteria to proliferate and increase in number through time. The simulations depend on the numerical values of the parameters which again depend on the prostate condition of each male adult under scrutiny. By determining the parameters for each male, the dynamic model can be used as a powerful tool by which the proliferation of bacteria in the bladder can be studied and controlled by different means. Three clinical advices are provided. First, try to achieve that the proliferation rate of bacteria in the bladder is as small as possible, e.g. through altering the pH or chemical composition within the bladder. Second, try to achieve that the out flux of urine from the bladder is substantial, through sufficient drinking. Third, try to achieve that the mass of urine in the

  2. Adjustable passive stiffness in mouse bladder: regulated by Rho kinase and elevated following partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Henderson, Sheree; Wilson, Cameron W; Klausner, Adam P; Ratz, Paul H

    2012-04-15

    Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contributes to bladder wall tension during filling, and bladder wall deformation affects the signaling system that leads to urgency. The length-passive tension (L-T(p)) relationship in rabbit DSM can adapt with length changes over time and exhibits adjustable passive stiffness (APS) characterized by a L-T(p) curve that is a function of both activation and strain history. Muscle activation with KCl, carbachol (CCh), or prostaglandin E(2) at short muscle lengths can increase APS that is revealed by elevated pseudo-steady-state T(p) at longer lengths compared with prior T(p) measurements at those lengths, and APS generation is inhibited by the Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitor H-1152. In the current study, mouse bladder strips exhibited both KCl- and CCh-induced APS. Whole mouse bladders demonstrated APS which was measured as an increase in pressure during passive filling in calcium-free solution following CCh precontraction compared with pressure during filling without precontraction. In addition, CCh-induced APS in whole mouse bladder was inhibited by H-1152, indicating that ROCK activity may regulate bladder compliance during filling. Furthermore, APS in whole mouse bladder was elevated 2 wk after partial bladder outlet obstruction, suggesting that APS may be relevant in diseases affecting bladder mechanics. The presence of APS in mouse bladder will permit future studies of APS regulatory pathways and potential alterations of APS in disease models using knockout transgenetic mice. PMID:22205227

  3. Allopurinol Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rat Urinary Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Hyun; Chun, Kwang Sik; Na, Yong-Gil; Song, Ki-Hak; Kim, Seung Il; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gun-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Bladder ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and markedly elevates the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO) and thus can serve as an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. Here, a rat model was used to assess the ability of allopurinol treatment to ameliorate the deleterious effects of urinary bladder I/R injury. I/R injury reduced the in vitro contractile responses of longitudinal bladder strips, elevated XO activity in the plasma and bladder tissue, increased the bladder levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduced the bladder levels of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and decreased and increased the bladder levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. I/R injury also elevated lipid peroxidation in the bladder. Allopurinol treatment in the I/R injury was generated significantly ameliorating all I/R-induced changes. Moreover, an in situ fluorohistological approach also showed that allopurinol reduces the generation of intracellular superoxides enlarged by I/R injury. Together, the beneficial effects of allopurinol reducing ROS production may be mediated by normalizing the activity of the ERK, JNK, and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways and by controlling TNF-α expression. PMID:26491537

  4. From gene discovery to new biological mechanisms: heparanases and congenital urinary bladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a scientific investigation into the pathogenesis of a urinary bladder disease. The disease in question is called urofacial syndrome (UFS), a congenital condition inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. UFS features incomplete urinary bladder emptying and vesicoureteric reflux, with a high risk of recurrent urosepsis and end-stage renal disease. The story starts from a human genomic perspective, then proceeds through experiments that seek to determine the roles of the implicated molecules in embryonic frogs and newborn mice. A future aim would be to use such biological knowledge to intelligently choose novel therapies for UFS. We focus on heparanase proteins and the peripheral nervous system, molecules and tissues that appear to be key players in the pathogenesis of UFS and therefore must also be critical for functional differentiation of healthy bladders. These considerations allow the envisioning of novel biological treatments, although the potential difficulties of targeting the developing bladder in vivo should not be underestimated. PMID:26315301

  5. Myeloid sarcoma of the urinary bladder with cutaneous tumour seeding after percutaneous suprapubic catheterization.

    PubMed

    Geok Chin, Tan; Masir, Noraidah; Noor Hussin, Hamidah; Mohd Sidik, Shiran; Boon Cheok, Lee; Yean, Thean

    2011-06-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary myeloid tumour. It has been reported in various sites, including lymph node, bone, skin, soft tissue, various organs and the CNS. It may precede or occur concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia. Urinary bladder involvement is extremely uncommon. We report a 70-year-old female who had MS of the urinary bladder, presented with frank and persistent hematuria associated with lower abdominal pain. She subsequently had tumour seeding in the abdominal skin via percutaneous suprapubic catheter. Tumours from both the urinary bladder and skin showed immature cells that were immunoreactive toward LCA (focal), MPO (strong), CD99 (weak) and CD117 (weak). Summary of cases in the literature is presented. The potential of its misdiagnosis and the useful markers for the diagnosis of MS are discussed. PMID:21874752

  6. Urinary symptoms and the neurological features of bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Betts, C D; D'Mellow, M T; Fowler, C J

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on the relationship between their neurological features and urinary symptoms. The severity of the urinary symptoms was related to the degree of pyramidal impairment in the lower limbs so that both problems are thought to reflect the extent of spinal involvement. No other neurological features correlated with bladder dysfunction. Detrusor hyperreflexia was the commonest finding on cystometry and no patient had areflexia. More than half of the patients had a significantly raised post-micturition residual volume but symptoms were largely unreliable in predicting poor bladder emptying. In this series only two patients had evidence of upper tract disease: both men with severe, longstanding neurological disease who had indwelling catheters. Detrusor hyperreflexia can be anticipated in patients with MS who have irritative urinary symptoms and pyramidal signs in their lower limbs. After measurement of the residual volume appropriate treatment can be instituted. PMID:8459239

  7. Cortex Moutan Induces Bladder Cancer Cell Death via Apoptosis and Retards Tumor Growth in Mouse Bladders.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Lee, Ying-Ray; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Cheng-Da; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Cortex Moutan is the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. It is the herbal medicine widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome. Furthermore, it has been reported that Cortex Moutan has anticancer effect. In this study, the Cortex Moutan extract was evaluated in bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. Cortex Moutan extract reduces cell viability with IC50 between 1~2 mg/ml in bladder cancer cells, and it has lower cytotoxicity in normal urotheliums. It arrests cells in G1 and S phase and causes phosphatidylserine expression in the outside of cell membrane. It induces caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation. The pan caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk reverses Cortex Moutan-induced cell death. Cortex Moutan also inhibits cell invasion activity in 5637 cells. In mouse orthotopic bladder cancer model, intravesical application of Cortex Moutan decreases the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters. In summary, these results demonstrate the antiproliferation and anti-invasion properties of Cortex Moutan in bladder cancer cells and its antibladder tumor effect in vivo. Cortex Moutan may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:24282433

  8. Colonization of frog Rana temporaria L. urinary bladder by Gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased effect of arginine-vasotocin on water reabsorption from the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ekaterina; Lavrova, Elena; Parnova, Rimma

    2013-11-01

    In frogs and toads the urinary bladder is very important for the maintenance of water balance due to its ability to store water which can be reabsorbed under the action of arginine-vasotocin (AVT). The usage of isolated bladders as a model for studying the osmotic water permeability (OWP) regulation has a disadvantage which relates to high variability of AVT effect among individuals, some showing insensitivity to the hormone. We hypothesized that the response of the bladder to AVT could depend on the colonization of the mucosal epithelium by Gram-negative bacteria. To test this, paired hemibladders of the frog Rana temporaria were used for measurement of OWP and for analysis of Gram-negative bacteria in the bladder tissue or isolated epithelial cells. Among the 206 frogs studied, 41% were infected by different Enterobacteriaceae, with prevalence of Hafnia alvei and Escherichia coli. In infected bladders the basal level of OWP was unchanged, whereas OWP stimulated by AVT was reduced (non-infected: 2.53 ± 0.13, n = 59, infected: 1.21 ± 0.17 µL min(-1)  cm(-2), n = 38, for the 15 min of AVT action, P < 0.001). In the sample, 100% of hemibladders that responded to AVT very weakly (OWP <0.5 µL min(-1)  cm(-2)) had a bacterial infection. Overnight treatment of hemibladders with mucosal lipopolysaccharide E. coli decreased OWP induced by AVT, forskolin, or IBMX lowering basal and stimulated level of cAMP. The data obtained indicate that the frog bladder epithelium could be colonized by Gram-negative bacteria, probably of cloacal origin, leading to reduction of sensitivity to AVT and to impairment of the urinary bladder to provide osmoregulation. PMID:23836531

  9. The increased excretion of urinary orosomucoid 1 as a useful biomarker for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Pengliang; Lin, Guangzheng; Li, Tieqiu; Hou, Lina; Du, Yuejun; Tan, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Improving the early detection rate and prediction of bladder cancer remains a great challenge in management of this disease. To examine the value of urinary orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) for the early detection and surveillance of bladder cancer, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS) were applied to identify the differently expressed proteins in urine between bladder cancer and healthy controls. Thirteen different proteins including ORM1 were identified. After verification by western blotting, the ORM1 expressions were quantified in 186 urine samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correcting for creatinine expression. ELISA quantification showed the urinary ORM1-Cr was found to be higher in bladder cancer patients compared to controls and benign cases (7172.23±3049.67 versus 2243.16±969.01, 2493.48±830.37 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the pearson correlation analysis indicated that urinary ORM1 had high positive correlation with the pathology classification of bladder cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value for early diagnosis of bladder cancer, and rendered an optimum cut-off value of 3912.97 ng/mg corresponding to 91.96% sensitivity and 94.34% specificity. Moreover, a cut-off value with 7351.28 ng/mg was utilized to distinguish infiltrating urothelial carcinoma from bladder cancer patients corresponding to 91.89% sensitivity and 90.67% specificity. In conclusion, our findings suggested the elevated urinary ORM1 could be a useful biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated ORM1. PMID:27186407

  10. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  11. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  12. The macro-microscopic peculiarities of the human urinary bladder glands.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, G

    2010-01-01

    We studied the glands of the 130 persons, victims from the casual reasons (a trauma, an asphyxia, etc.) from newborn to senile age; we investigated different variants of a bladder glands forms, the changes in different parts of the organs wall (proximal, average, distal thirds) from the newborn period to senile age by the method of macro-microsopy and morphometry on the total preparations of urinary bladder. Glands preliminary have been stained by a solution 0,05% methylene dark blue with Sinelnicov's method and by hematoxilin and eozin. The glands were investigated with the application of stereo binocular microscope MBS-9. Statistical data processing included calculation of arithmetic-mean values, their errors, confidential intervals (excel). The view of the human urinary bladder glands in the macro-microscopy investigation is different. The glands have roundish, oval, ribbon forms. The form of the glands in the different parts of human urinary bladder (proximal, middle and distal) is difference. In the microtopography the glands have been proximal-distal changes; the quantity of glands increase from the proximal to distal portion. The human urinary bladder have many complex glands (the glands with 3, 4 and more beginnings parts) to the quantity in the distal part. PMID:20834080

  13. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  14. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Managed by Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Rao, Ram Nawal; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Pradhan, Krishna; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder is a rare mesenchymal tumor with uncertain malignant potential. It often mimics soft tissue sarcomas both clinically and radiologically. Surgical resection in the form of partial cystectomy or transurethral resection remains the mainstay of treatment. Herein we report the case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a young girl, which was managed by laparoscopic partial cystectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic management of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder. PMID:24255764

  15. Nonkeratinised Squamous Metaplasia of the Urinary Bladder in Children: A Report of Case Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Background. Squamous metaplasia refers to the pathological transformation of the urothelium leading to nonkeratinised stratified squamous metaplasia (N-KSM). Objective. To present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children. Materials and Methods. In this study, we present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children aged from 5 to 17 years. From 2005 to 2013, metaplasia was diagnosed in 119 patients. The reasons behind visiting the hospital were nonspecific intense pain in the abdomen, recurrent urinary tract infections, and urination disorders. The most common symptoms of urinary bladder dysfunction were pollakiuria and difficulties in initiating micturition and retention of urine (reduced detrusor muscle activity). Results. In 20/119 patients (16.8%), metaplasia was incidentally diagnosed during cystoscopy performed for other causes. The changes characteristic for squamous metaplasia were diagnosed—in all these patients, a biopsy was performed. In all 119 patients, a squamous metaplasia was histopathologically diagnosed. Conclusions. Squamous metaplasia of the urinary bladder mucosa occurs in children and adolescents. Symptomatic treatment is administered mainly to improve the patients' quality of life and disease prognosis. PMID:24822222

  16. Update on Urinary Tract Markers in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, Bogdan; Powers, Kenneth; Lazarou, George

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic hypersensory condition of unknown etiology. Moreover, the optimal modality for diagnosing IC remains disputed. Several urinary markers have been investigated that may have potential utility in the diagnosis or confirmation of IC/BPS. Thus, inflammatory mediators, proteoglycans, urinary hexosamines, proliferative factors, nitric oxide (NO), BK polyomavirus family, and urothelial proinflammatory gene analysis have been found to correlate with varying degrees with the clinical diagnosis or cystoscopic findings in patients with IC/BPS. The most promising urinary biomarker for IC/BPS is antiproliferative factor, a sialoglycopeptide that has demonstrated inhibitory effects on urothelial cell proliferation and a high sensitivity and specificity for IC/BPS symptoms and clinical findings. In this article, we review the urinary markers, possible future therapies for IC/BPS, and the clinical relevance and controversies regarding the diagnosis of IC/BPS. PMID:26571430

  17. Adductor longus muscle metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Irfan; Ucar, Mehmet; Bozdag, Zehra; Alkan, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones and adrenal glands. Metastasis of bladder cancer to the skeletal muscle is extremely rare, as is the case in other malignancies. We report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who presented with pain and swelling in the right lower extremity and had difficulty walking, and who was later found to have metastasis in the adductor longus muscle 3 months after the initial diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The study also provides a review of the current literature. PMID:24827659

  18. Changes in autofluorescence based organoid model of muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Fleming, Stewart; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446646

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking. PMID:26271292

  20. Changes in autofluorescence based organoid model of muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Fleming, Stewart; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-04-01

    Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446646

  1. Real-Time Classification of Bladder Events for Effective Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Karam, Robert; Bourbeau, Dennis; Majerus, Steve; Makovey, Iryna; Goldman, Howard B; Damaser, Margot S; Bhunia, Swarup

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction with urodynamics has historically relied on data acquired from multiple sensors using nonphysiologically fast cystometric filling. In addition, state-of-the-art neuromodulation approaches to restore bladder function could benefit from a bladder sensor for closed-loop control, but a practical sensor and automated data analysis are not available. We have developed an algorithm for real-time bladder event detection based on a single in situ sensor, making it attractive for both extended ambulatory bladder monitoring and closed-loop control of stimulation systems for diagnosis and treatment of bladder overactivity. Using bladder pressure data acquired from 14 human subjects with neurogenic bladder, we developed context-aware thresholding, a novel, parameterized, user-tunable algorithmic framework capable of real-time classification of bladder events, such as detrusor contractions, from single-sensor bladder pressure data. We compare six event detection algorithms with both single-sensor and two-sensor systems using a metric termed Conditional Stimulation Score, which ranks algorithms based on projected stimulation efficacy and efficiency. We demonstrate that adaptive methods are more robust against day-to-day variations than static thresholding, improving sensitivity and specificity without parameter modifications. Relative to other methods, context-aware thresholding is fast, robust, highly accurate, noise-tolerant, and amenable to energy-efficient hardware implementation, which is important for mapping to an implant device. PMID:26292331

  2. Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a serious clinical problem, yet effective therapeutic options are limited, especially against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. In this review, we explore the development of a clinically relevant model of rUTI in previously infected mice and review recent developments in bladder innate immunity that may affect susceptibility to rUTI. Recent findings Chronic bladder inflammation during prolonged bacterial cystitis in mice causes bladder mucosal remodelling that sensitizes the host to rUTI. Although constitutive defenses help prevent bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder, once infection occurs, induced cytokine and myeloid cell responses predominate and the balance of immune cell defense and bladder immunopathology is critical for determining disease outcome, in both naïve and experienced mice. In particular, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier appears to be essential for preventing severe infection. Summary The innate immune response plays a key role in determining susceptibility to rUTI. Future studies should be directed towards understanding how the innate immune response changes as a result of bladder mucosal remodelling in previously infected mice, and validating these findings in human clinical specimens. New therapeutics targeting the immune response should selectively target the induced innate responses that cause bladder immunopathology, while leaving protective defenses intact. PMID:25517222

  3. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  4. Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-06-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane-anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE = voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72 ± 7% to 29 ± 7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70 ± 5% to 18 ± 4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low-intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1-50 Hz increased VE to 40-51% following UST and to 39-49% following BST, while high-intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention.

  5. Management of Urinary Incontinence in Complete Bladder Duplication by Injection of Bulking Agent at Bladder Neck Level into the Proximal Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Bladder duplication is a rare entity in children. The term encompasses a wide spectrum of anomalies from isolated bladder duplication in coronal or sagittal planes to duplicated bladder exstrophy and associated musculoskeletal and visceral anomalies. Given this wide variability, the treatment of these patients is not standardized. We hereby present a female patient with chief complaint of long-standing urinary incontinence who had complete bladder and urethral duplication and pubic diastasis. The patient was treated with bulking agent injection at the incompetent bladder neck and proximal urethra with resolution of incontinence, obviating the need for extensive surgeries. PMID:26904349

  6. Differential expression of microRNAs in mouse embryonic bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Benchun; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2009-08-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in several biological processes including development, differentiation and proliferation. Analysis of miRNA expression patterns in the process of embryogenesis may have substantial value in determining the mechanism of embryonic bladder development as well as for eventual therapeutic intervention. The miRNA expression profiles are distinct among the cellular types and embryonic stages as demonstrated by microarray technology and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR approach. Remarkably, the miRNA expression patterns suggested that unique miRNAs from epithelial and submucosal areas are responsible for mesenchymal cellular differentiation, especially regarding bladder smooth muscle cells. Our data show that miRNA expression patterns are unique in particular cell types of mouse bladder at specific developmental stages, reflecting the apparent lineage and differentiation status within the embryonic bladder. The identification of unique miRNAs expression before and after smooth muscle differentiation in site-specific area of the bladder indicates their roles in embryogenesis and may aid in future clinical intervention.

  7. Diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases in dogs by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Dehmiwal; Behl, S.M.; Singh, Prem; Tayal, Rishi; Pal, Madan; Chandolia, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the urinary bladder in different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducting on total 10clinical cases of the urinary bladder in dogs. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having a four-dimensional volumetric probe. Results: In the present study, the inflamed thickened wall was clearly visible with the distinction of different layers of the urinary bladder wall in some of the cases of cystitis using 2D ultrasonography. In 3D sonogram, the urinary bladder was visualized as a large anechoic structure with no distinction of different layers of the bladder wall. The cystoliths were clearly visible as hyperechoic structures with distal acoustic shadow in 2D sonogram and appeared as a bright echogenic area in 3D sonogram. In case of urinary bladder neoplasia in 2D ultrasonogram, the bladder lumen was found to be occluded with a large growth imaged as focal anechoic areas in the tissue of mixed echogenicity with small hyperechoic dots in this tissue parenchyma. In 3D ultrasonogram, a tissue of mixed echogenicity of pus was also observed. Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that 2D and 3D ultrasonography is very helpful for diagnosis of different clinical conditions of the urinary bladder such as cystitis, cystoliths, and urinary bladder neoplasia. The cavity of urinary bladder was more clearly visualized in 3D ultrasonography, but the distinction of different layers of the bladder wall was visualized only in 2D ultrasonography. The distinct shadow of pus and cystoliths were visible in 2D ultrasonogram. The visualization of pus in 3D ultrasonography was done for the first time in present study. PMID:27047159

  8. COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION IN KIDNEY AND URINARY BLADDER FROM RATS TREATED WITH DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is widespread in the environment and a human carcinogen. A major metabolite of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in most species, including humans, is dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which is also used as a pesticide. Unlike iAs, DMA induces urinary bladder tumors in rats. DMA is belie...

  9. Strategies for prevention of urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Lance L; Klausner, Adam P

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the problem of urinary tract infections (UTIs) after spinal cord injury and disorders is defined, the relationship of bladder management to UTIs is discussed, and mechanical and medical strategies for UTI prevention in spinal cord injury and disorders are described. PMID:25064790

  10. Endoscopy-guided ectopic egg removal from the urinary bladder in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis)

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Christoph; Foster, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Egg retention in the urinary bladder of a leopard tortoise was diagnosed by radiography and confirmed by cystoscopy. The egg was removed with a modified polypectomy snare, aided by a flexible endoscope and insufflation. No complications occurred during the procedures and the tortoise made a complete recovery. PMID:24891641

  11. The pathology of urinary bladder lesions with an inverted growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aitao; Liu, Aijun; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Inverted lesions in the urinary bladder have been the source of some difficulty in urological pathology. The two common ones are von Brunn's nests and cystitis cystic/cystitis glandularis, which are considered normal variants of urothelium. Apart from them, a number of other rare urothelial lesions with inverted growth pattern occur in the urinary bladder. Some of them are only reactive conditions, just as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Some are benign tumors, namely inverted papilloma. Whereas others are malignant neoplasms, including inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma (low-grade and high-grade), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (inverted, nested and big nested variants). Because of the overlapping morphological features of all the inverted lesions mentioned above, even between high-grade invasive carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia which are only a kind of reactive conditions, it is very important for the surgical pathologist to recognize and be familiar with these inverted lesions in urinary bladder. In this article, we review these spectrums of inverted lesions of the urinary bladder. Emphasis is placed on histogenesis, morphology, differential diagnosis of these lesions, and the pathologic grading of the non-invasive inverted neoplasms, such as inverted papilloma, inverted PUNLMP, non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with low-grade, and non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with high-grade. PMID:27041933

  12. [EFFECT OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ON NEUTRAL LIPID METABOLISM AND CELLULAR ENERGETICS IN FROG URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Fock, E M; Braylovskaya, I V; Bachteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Parnova, R G

    2015-09-01

    It was shown previously that colonization of the frog urinary bladder by gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder (Fock et al. J. Exp. Zool., 2013, 319A: 487-494). In the present work performed on epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder the influence of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neutral lipid metabolism and cellular energetics was studied. It was shown that incubation of cells with LPS led to decrease of fatty acids oxidation and to retention of triacylglycerols (TAG) followed by an increase of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and cellular amount of TAG. Fatty acid composition of TAG was not changed under LPS. LPS did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential, however, LPS decreased oxygen consumption rate both in basal and uncoupling conditions. Cellular ATP production was also reduced in the presence of LPS. The data obtained indicate that a decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder induced by bacterial pathogens could be related to inhibition of fatty acids oxidation and impaired energy metabolism. PMID:26672162

  13. The pathology of urinary bladder lesions with an inverted growth pattern

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aijun; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Inverted lesions in the urinary bladder have been the source of some difficulty in urological pathology. The two common ones are von Brunn’s nests and cystitis cystic/cystitis glandularis, which are considered normal variants of urothelium. Apart from them, a number of other rare urothelial lesions with inverted growth pattern occur in the urinary bladder. Some of them are only reactive conditions, just as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Some are benign tumors, namely inverted papilloma. Whereas others are malignant neoplasms, including inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma (low-grade and high-grade), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (inverted, nested and big nested variants). Because of the overlapping morphological features of all the inverted lesions mentioned above, even between high-grade invasive carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia which are only a kind of reactive conditions, it is very important for the surgical pathologist to recognize and be familiar with these inverted lesions in urinary bladder. In this article, we review these spectrums of inverted lesions of the urinary bladder. Emphasis is placed on histogenesis, morphology, differential diagnosis of these lesions, and the pathologic grading of the non-invasive inverted neoplasms, such as inverted papilloma, inverted PUNLMP, non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with low-grade, and non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with high-grade. PMID:27041933

  14. Imidazolium Salts as Small-Molecule Urinary Bladder Exfoliants in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wagers, Patrick O.; Tiemann, Kristin M.; Shelton, Kerri L.; Kofron, William G.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Wooley, Karen L.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel family of small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants that are expected to be of great value in preclinical studies of urologic conditions and have improved potential for translation compared with prior agents. There is broad urologic interest in the therapeutic potential of such exfoliating agents. The primary agent used in preclinical models, the cationic peptide protamine sulfate (PS), has limited translational potential due to concerns including systemic adverse reactions and bladder tissue injury. Intravesical application of a safe, systemically nontoxic exfoliant would have potential utility in the eradication of Escherichia coli and other uropathogens that reside in the bladder epithelium following cystitis, as well as in chronic bladder pain and bladder cancer. Here, we introduce a family of imidazolium salts with potent and focused exfoliating activity on the bladder epithelium. Synthesis and purification were straightforward and scalable, and the compounds exhibited prolonged stability in lyophilized form. Most members of the compound family were cytotoxic to cultured uroepithelial cells, with >10-fold differences in potency across the series. Upon topical (intravesical) administration of selected compounds to the murine bladder, complete epithelial exfoliation was achieved with physiologically relevant imidazolium concentrations and brief contact times. The exfoliative activity of these compounds was markedly improved in comparison to PS, as assessed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting for uroplakins. Bladder uroepithelium regenerated within days to yield a histologically normal appearance, and no toxicity was observed. Finally, the chemical scaffold offers an opportunity for inclusion of antimicrobials or conjugation with chemotherapeutic or other moieties. PMID:26124168

  15. Imidazolium salts as small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Wagers, Patrick O; Tiemann, Kristin M; Shelton, Kerri L; Kofron, William G; Panzner, Matthew J; Wooley, Karen L; Youngs, Wiley J; Hunstad, David A

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel family of small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants that are expected to be of great value in preclinical studies of urologic conditions and have improved potential for translation compared with prior agents. There is broad urologic interest in the therapeutic potential of such exfoliating agents. The primary agent used in preclinical models, the cationic peptide protamine sulfate (PS), has limited translational potential due to concerns including systemic adverse reactions and bladder tissue injury. Intravesical application of a safe, systemically nontoxic exfoliant would have potential utility in the eradication of Escherichia coli and other uropathogens that reside in the bladder epithelium following cystitis, as well as in chronic bladder pain and bladder cancer. Here, we introduce a family of imidazolium salts with potent and focused exfoliating activity on the bladder epithelium. Synthesis and purification were straightforward and scalable, and the compounds exhibited prolonged stability in lyophilized form. Most members of the compound family were cytotoxic to cultured uroepithelial cells, with >10-fold differences in potency across the series. Upon topical (intravesical) administration of selected compounds to the murine bladder, complete epithelial exfoliation was achieved with physiologically relevant imidazolium concentrations and brief contact times. The exfoliative activity of these compounds was markedly improved in comparison to PS, as assessed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting for uroplakins. Bladder uroepithelium regenerated within days to yield a histologically normal appearance, and no toxicity was observed. Finally, the chemical scaffold offers an opportunity for inclusion of antimicrobials or conjugation with chemotherapeutic or other moieties. PMID:26124168

  16. Breast metastasis from signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YAOMIN; WEI, HAIYAN; LI, JUN; LIU, XIAOJIAO; FU, PEIFEN

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the bladder metastatic to the breast is only sporadically reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first described case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder metastasizing to the breast. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who underwent transurethral partial cystectomy for signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine. At 7 months postcystectomy, the patient presented with a solitary nodule in the right breast. Following transdermic core needle puncture biopsy of the lesion and histological examination, the tumor was found to be composed of signet ring cells, which were similar to the cells in the original cystectomy specimen. The patient underwent mastectomy without further chemotherapy and has remained free from metastasis to other organs during 1 year follow-up. PMID:27330778

  17. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit. PMID:17401130

  18. Primary Urinary Bladder Angiosarcoma with Osteoclast-Like Multinucleated Giant Cells: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Nariman A.; Olsen, Jamie; Jelic, Tomislav M.; He, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Urinary bladder angiosarcoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: TURBT Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Angiosarcoma is a fatal and aggressive mesenchymal tumor. It occurs in skin, breast, and parenchymal organs. It rarely arises primarily in the urinary bladder. Only 13 cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma have been reported in the English literature. Case Report: The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with inability to void. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a urinary bladder mass. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Pathological examination results were consistent with angiosarcoma. In addition to the unusual location of this tumor, the pathology was different from the previously reported cases in that this case was rich with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: The pathological diagnosis of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma is challenging. Histological patterns and immunophenotypes are variable. Here, we review all reported cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma, highlight the clinical and morphological features of this malignant neoplasm, and report a unique case of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. PMID:26947436

  19. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ristimäki, Ari; Nieminen, Outi; Saukkonen, Kirsi; Hotakainen, Kristina; Nordling, Stig; Haglund, Caj

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is elevated in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and that inhibition of Cox-2 activity suppresses bladder cancer in experimental animal models. We have investigated the expression of Cox-2 protein in human TCCs (n = 85), in in situ carcinomas (Tis) of the urinary bladder (n = 17), and in nonneoplastic urinary bladder samples (n = 16) using immunohistochemistry. Cox-2 immunoreactivity was detected in 66% (67 of 102) of the carcinomas, whereas only 25% (4 of 16) of the nonneoplastic samples were positive (P < 0.005). Cox-2 immunoreactivity localized to neoplastic cells in the carcinoma samples. The rate of positivity was the same in invasive (T1–3; 70%, n = 40) and in noninvasive (Tis and Ta; 65%, n = 62) carcinomas, but noninvasive tumors had a higher frequency (32%) of homogenous pattern of staining (>90% of the tumor cells positive) than the invasive carcinomas (10%) (P < 0.05). However, several invasive TCCs exhibited the strongest intensity of Cox-2 staining in the invading cells, whereas other parts of the tumor were virtually negative. Finally, strong Cox-2 positivity was also found in nonneoplastic ulcerations (2 of 2) and in inflammatory pseudotumors (2 of 2), in which the immunoreactivity localized to the nonepithelial cells. Taken together, our data suggest that Cox-2 is highly expressed in noninvasive bladder carcinomas, whereas the highest expression of invasive tumors associated with the invading cells, and that Cox-2 may also have a pathophysiological role in nonneoplastic conditions of the urinary bladder, such as ulcerations and inflammatory pseudotumors. PMID:11238034

  20. Receptors involved in the modulation of guinea pig urinary bladder motility by prostaglandin D2

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have described a urothelium-dependent release of PGD2-like activity which had inhibitory effects on the motility of guinea pig urinary bladder. Here, we have pharmacologically characterized the receptors involved and localized the sites of PGD2 formation and of its receptors. Experimental Approach In the presence of selective DP and TP receptor antagonists alone or combined, PGD2 was applied to urothelium-denuded diclofenac-treated urinary bladder strips mounted in organ baths. Antibodies against PGD2 synthase and DP1 receptors were used with Western blots and for histochemistry. Key Results PGD2 inhibited nerve stimulation -induced contractions in strips of guinea pig urinary bladder with estimated pIC50 of 7.55 ± 0.15 (n = 13), an effect blocked by the DP1 receptor antagonist BW-A868C. After blockade of DP1 receptors, PGD2 enhanced the contractions, an effect abolished by the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548. Histochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity for PGD synthase in the urothelium/suburothelium with strongest reaction in the suburothelium. Immunoreactive DP1 receptors were found in the smooth muscle of the bladder wall with a dominant localization to smooth muscle membranes. Conclusions and Implications In guinea pig urinary bladder, the main effect of PGD2 is an inhibitory action via DP1 receptors localized to the smooth muscle, but an excitatory effect via TP receptors can also be evoked. The urothelium with its suburothelium might signal to the smooth muscle which is rich in PGD2 receptors of the DP1 type. The results are important for our understanding of regulation of bladder motility. PMID:25917171

  1. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  2. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  3. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  4. Coexistence of Malakoplakia and Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song Liang Joshua; Teo, Jin Kiat; Lim, Sey Kiat Terence; Salkade, Hema Parag; Mancer, Kent

    2015-10-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease that commonly involves the genitourinary tract, with the urinary bladder being the most frequently affected site. Grossly, malakoplakia can present as soft yellow plaques, nodules, bladder mass, or even without any visible lesion. In this article, we present a 74-year-old female with a background of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and poorly controlled diabetes who presented with sepsis of unknown origin. During the course of the investigation of the source of her sepsis, an incidental bladder tumor was discovered. She subsequently underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Histology revealed ordinary low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma that had small colonies of malakoplakia that appeared to have developed secondary to the tumor and presented concurrently. We seek to demonstrate the rare association of papillary urothelial carcinoma and malakoplakia. PMID:26194600

  5. [Inhibitory effect of Chinese herb medicine zhuling on urinary bladder cancer. An experimental and clinical study].

    PubMed

    Yang, D A

    1991-06-01

    Inhibitory effect of Zhuling (Grifola umbellata pilat) on urinary bladder cancer was determined experimentally and clinically. The results showed that zhuling inhibited significantly the induction of bladder cancer in rats exposed to N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), decreasing from 100% (18/18) in control group to 61.1% (11/18) in zhuling (P less than 0.01). Zhuling was given to 22 patients with recurrent bladder cancer after TUR or partial cystectomy. The patients were followed up for 12 to 38 months (average 26.5 months). Bladder cancer recurred in seven of the patients with a longer recurrence interval (19.2 months) after medication than before medication (P less than 0.05). The remaining 15 patients had no recurrence. The mechanism of Zhuling is discussed. PMID:1935440

  6. Downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and IL-6 following irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Giglio, D; Wasén, C; Mölne, J; Suchy, D; Swanpalmer, J; Jabonero Valbuena, J; Tobin, G; Ny, L

    2016-07-01

    The pathophysiology behind radiation cystitis is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether bladder irradiation affects the immune system of the rat urinary bladder. Female rats were sedated and exposed to one single radiation dose of 20 Gy or only sedated (controls) and killed 16 h to 14 days later. Rats were placed in a metabolic cage at 16 h, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days following bladder irradiation. The urinary bladders were harvested and analysed with qPCR, immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot for the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Urine was collected and analysed for IL-6 and nitrite (reflecting nitric oxide activity) with ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Irradiation increased bladder frequency and decreased voiding volumes 14 days following bladder irradiation. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of IL-10 and collagen in the bladder, while TLR4 and IL-6 expressions were decreased in the urothelium concomitantly with a decrease in mast cells in the submucosa and urine levels of IL-6 and nitrite. The present findings show that bladder irradiation leads to urodynamic changes in the bladder and may suppress important immunoregulatory pathways in the urinary bladder. PMID:27117224

  7. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tan Tanny, Sharman P.; Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath A.; Longano, Anthony; Appu, Sree; Shahbaz, Shekib

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare but benign clinical entity. Its ability to mimic malignancy poses a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report the first case in Australia, of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the bladder in a 40-year-old male, removed via transurethral resection. PMID:27175348

  8. Physiological and pathophysiological implications of micromotion activity in urinary bladder function.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, B; Drake, M J

    2015-02-01

    'Micromotions' is a term signifying the presence of localized microcontractions and microelongations, alongside non-motile areas. The motile areas tend to shift over the bladder surface with time, and the intravesical pressure reflects moment-by-moment summation of the interplay between net contractile force generated by micromotions and general bladder tone. Functionally, the bladder structure may comprise modules with variable linkage, which supports presence of localized micromotions (no functional linkage between modules), propagating contractions (where emergence of linkage allows sequential activation) and the shifting of micromotions over time. Detrusor muscle, interstitial cells and intramural innervation have properties potentially relevant for initiating, coordinating and modulating micromotions. Conceptually, such activity could facilitate the generation of afferent activity (filling state reporting) in the absence of intravesical pressure change and the ability to transition to voiding at any bladder volume. This autonomous activity is an intrinsic property, seen in various experimental contexts including the clinical setting of human (female) overactive bladder. 'Disinhibited autonomy' may explain the obvious micromotions in isolated bladders and perhaps contribute clinically in neurological disease causing detrusor overactivity. Furthermore, any process that could increase the initiation or propagation of microcontractions might be anticipated to have a functional effect, increasing the likelihood of urinary urgency and detrusor overactivity respectively. Thus, models of bladder outlet obstruction, neurological trauma and ageing provide a useful framework for detecting cellular changes in smooth muscle, interstitial cells and innervation, and the consequent effects on micromotions. PMID:25154454

  9. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Men: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Kelsey, Karl T.; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand the association between Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and risk of bladder cancer in a large men's cohort. Methods Using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined risk of bladder cancer in relation to severity of LUTS among 30,183 men. During the follow-up period from 1996 until 2010, 476 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Among men with severe LUTS, risk of bladder cancer was 64% higher (relative risk (RR): 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 3.08) compared with men who reported no LUTS. Subjects with both voiding and storage dysfunction had a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer (RR: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.56). Among individual urinary symptoms, urinary hesitancy was strongly associated with bladder cancer; those who experienced urinary hesitancy at least 50% of the time had more than twice the risk of bladder cancer (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.78). Conclusions Our findings suggest that LUTS, especially urinary hesitancy, are associated with the development of bladder cancer in men. PMID:25863833

  10. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: How Immunohistochemistry Can Assist to Identify Patients With SDHB Germline and Somatic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Giubellino, Alessio; Lara, Karlena; Martucci, Victoria; Huynh, Than; Agarwal, Piyush; Pacak, Karel; Merino, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary bladder paraganglioma (paraganglioma) is a rare tumor of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic system of the urinary bladder wall. We studied 14 cases of this entity and investigated the usefulness of SDHB protein staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with bladder paragangliomas that could be associated with SDHB gene mutations, as these patients have a more aggressive disease. Eleven tumors from these patients were stained by IHC. Six of 11 tumors were negative for SDHB staining by IHC with no cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells when compared with normal tissues. Five of these 6 negative cases were confirmed to be positive for germline SDHB mutations. One case showed negative staining and no germline SDHB mutation; however, further investigation of the tumor revealed a somatic SDHB gene deletion. The remaining 5 cases showed strong cytoplasmic staining, but they were negative for the presence of SDHB mutation. They were found to be either sporadic tumors or part of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Staining for SDHA was positive in all cases. Our study confirms that there is very good correlation between the presence of an SDHB mutation, whether germline or sporadic, and negative SDHB IHC staining in urinary bladder paragangliomas, and this is the first study to demonstrate that somatic mutations can be recognized by IHC staining. PMID:26457353

  11. Podoplanin (D2-40) is a reliable marker of urinary bladder myofibroblasts (telocytes).

    PubMed

    Povýšil, C; Kaňa, M; Zámečník, L; Vaľová, Z; Hanuš, T

    2014-01-01

    Podoplanin, D2-40, has been described in a variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. It is often used for highlighting lymphatics. We evaluated the expression of podoplanin in α-smooth muscle actinpositive myofibroblasts producing the suburothelial layer in tunica propria of the urinary bladder that have some similar features with telocytes. Our results showed that these cells demonstrate distinct D2-40 immunoreactivity from telocytes occurring in the renal pelvis and ureter. We observed positive reaction not only in bioptic specimens from women with interstitial cystitis, but also in a control group of women and men treated for pathological bladder lesion different from interstitial cystitis. It is interesting that identical staining reaction was observed in the ureters only exceptionally. In addition, we examined samples from myofibroblastic tumoriform lesions of soft tissue such as nodular fascitis and fibromatosis (desmoid) and we obtained negative results. It means that the so-called myofibroblasts of urinary bladder tunica propria have a unique immunophenotype that has probably not been described until now. Our findings suggest that D2-40 can be used as a complementary immunostainer to α-smooth muscle actin on urinary bladder biopsies from patients with interstitial cystitis. The role of D2-40 as an immunohistochemical marker is still being investigated. PMID:25629270

  12. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

  13. Overexpression of Aquaporin-1 and Caveolin-1 in the Rat Urinary Bladder Urothelium Following Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung Hee; Park, Kwangsung; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of detrusor overactivity induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and caveolin 1 (CAV1) in the rat urinary bladder, and to determine the role of these molecules in detrusor overactivity. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n=30) and experimental (n=30) groups. The BOO group underwent partial BOO, and the control group underwent a sham operation. After 4 weeks, an urodynamic study was performed to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 and CAV1 were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence experiments in the rat urinary bladder. Results In cystometrograms, the contraction interval was significantly lower in the BOO group (2.9±1.5 minutes) than in the control group (6.7±1.0 minutes) (P<0.05). Conversely, the average contraction pressure was significantly higher in the BOO group (21.2±3.3 mmHg) than in the control group (13.0±2.5 mmHg) (P<0.05). AQP1 and CAV1 were coexpressed in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the suburothelial layer. AQP1 and CAV1 protein expression was significantly increased in the BOO rats compared to the control rats (P<0.05). Conclusions Detrusor overactivity induced by BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1 and CAV1, which were coexpressed in the suburothelial microvasculature. This finding suggests that AQP1 and CAV1 might be closely related to bladder signal activity and may have a functional role in BOO-associated detrusor overactivity. PMID:24466464

  14. Fourier analysis of electrical impedance variations in urinary bladder during changes of intravesical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. V.; Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Gavrilov, I. Yu; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Stranadko, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Original hardware and software system was used to record and analyze the variations of electrical impedance of the urinary bladder in narcotized rats (n=7) at rest, during instillation of physiological saline into the bladder resulted in elevation of intravesical pressure, and during subsequent urination accompanied by intravesical pressure release. Fourier analysis of impedance variations revealed three periodic components with the frequencies of heartbeat, respiration, and the Mayer wave (~0.1 Hz). In resting bladder, the amplitude of Mayer and respiratory spectrum peaks were high, and they increased to a different extent during physiological elevation of intravesical pressure, while a small cardiac peak did not changed significantly and tended to decrease at high intravesical pressure. Urination released intravesical pressure and restored all the peaks to the resting level. It is hypothesized that Mayer and respiratory bioimpedance oscillations of urinary bladder are neural in origin, while the cardiac peak is mainly determined by hydrodynamic arterial pulsations. The novel method can assess vesical circulation and its neural control at various phases of bladder activity.

  15. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  16. Inhibitory actions of GABA on rabbit urinary bladder muscle strips: mediation by potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D R; Marchant, J S

    1995-05-01

    1. The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) upon rabbit urinary bladder muscle were investigated to determine whether they were mediated through potassium channels. 2. In vitro experiments were undertaken in which bladder muscle strips were caused to contract with carbachol. Addition of GABA or baclofen reduced the size of such evoked contractions in the case of GABA by 20.7 +/- 3.2%, in the case of baclofen by 22.4 +/- 2.2%. 3. Electrical stimulation of autonomic nerves in bladder wall strips also evoked contractions which were significantly smaller in potassium-free Krebs solution. The size of contractions produced by carbachol on the other hand were unaffected by the absence of potassium in the Krebs solution. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA and baclofen on carbachol-induced contractions of bladder muscle were detected at much lower concentrations in potassium-free compared with potassium containing solutions. 5. The inhibitory effects of baclofen were completely reversed by tetraethyl ammonium chloride between 1 and 5 mM, caesium chloride between 0.5 and 3 mM and barium chloride between 0.5 and 2.5 mM. The actions of baclofen were only partially reversed by 4-amino-pyridine between 1 and 5 mM. 6. It was concluded that the GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory actions on rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle cells were produced by activation of potassium channels. PMID:7647988

  17. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  18. Botulinum Toxin A Injection in the Bladder Neck: A Promising Treatment for Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Marianne; Zgheib, Joseph; El Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Secondary to failure of optimal medical therapy and the high morbidity that accompanies surgical techniques in high risk patients, the use of de novo treatments including botulinum toxin A is emerging in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the treatment of urinary retention secondary to BPH via injecting botulinum toxin into the bladder neck is not well established in the literature. This case report describes the case of a 75-year-old male patient with a chronic history of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and multiple comorbidities who was admitted to the hospital for management of recurrent urinary retention. The patient was not a surgical candidate for transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Botulinum toxin injection into the bladder neck was performed with very satisfying results. Botulinum toxin injection in the bladder neck presents a promising minimally invasive, tolerated, and cost-effective approach for the treatment of urinary retention in patients with benign prostatic obstruction who are not candidates for surgery or in whom medical treatment has failed. More research is needed to identify the efficacy of this novel approach. PMID:27088032

  19. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jing-Jing; Dai, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1

  20. [Sonography of the uretero-vesical junction and the urinary bladder in children].

    PubMed

    Ponhold, W; Balzar, E; Zwiauer, K

    1984-03-01

    Sonography of the ureterovesical junction and of the urinary bladder is described on the basis of examinations of 41 children. This included all distended bladder walls, ureteral dilations, ureteroceles and a rhabdomyosarcoma. Sonographic imaging presents difficulties in visualising ureters less than 6 mm wide, and in case of normal uretero-vesical junctions. Sonography cannot assess a versicoureteral reflux. Sonography should not be used in the first diagnosis of nephrourological changes as an alternative to radiological methods, since this may result in overlooking relevant curable changes in children. Sonography is particularly valuable in clarifying renal insufficiency and in following up children with nephrourological disease. PMID:6713789

  1. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma urinary bladder coexisting with tuberculosis in pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Murugan, P Puvai

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is usually associated with Schistosoma haematobium and chronic bladder irritation. We report a case of coexistent metastatic SCC and tuberculosis in obturator lymph nodes in radical cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Though tubercular iliac lymphadenitis and metastatic transitional carcinoma following intravesical BCG has been reported, the concurrent presence of non-transitional cell cancer and primary lymph nodal tuberculosis in regional lymph nodes is rare. This case is reported to highlight the paucity of management guidelines available presently in the treatment of such patients who require systemic chemotherapy and antitubercular therapy. PMID:24296773

  2. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  3. Is chronic urinary infection a cause of overactive bladder?

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Aswini A; Wildman, Scott S; Strutt, Matthew; Duckett, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a diagnosis resulting from a combination of multiple underlying factors. Current traditional treatments are based on anticholinergic blockade which have marginal benefits and are associated with poor tolerability and continuation rates. There is mounting evidence that chronic low grade bacterial bladder colonisation may exacerbate OAB symptoms and may explain why the current treatment strategies are not always successful. However, standard diagnostic laboratory tests to identify the presence of such bacterial infection are unreliable. Newer technologies such as RNA sequencing and extended culture techniques, show that urine is not sterile and organisms that are found in urine may be responsible for OAB symptoms. This article aims to review the current evidence suggesting that micro-organisms in urine may be important in the aetiology of OAB or may exacerbate OAB symptoms. PMID:27088624

  4. Cystoscopic optical coherence tomography for urinary bladder imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. G.; Adler, H.; Chan, D.; Jain, A.; Xie, H. K.; Wu, Z. L.; Pan, Y. T.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes the development of new 2D MEMS mirrors and the pertinent modification to improve OCT endoscopic catheter packaging suitable for in vivo imaging diagnosis of bladder cancers. Comparative study of the newly developed endocopic OCT versus the bench-top OCT is presented. Results of in vivo OCT cystoscopy based on a porcine acute inflammation model are presented to compare time-domain OCT and spectral-domain OCT for in vivo imaging. In addition, results of spectral-domain Doppler OCT are presented to image blood flow in the lamina propria of the bladder. The results of our in vivo animal study using the presented OCT endoscope are discussed for potential problems in the future clinical applications.

  5. Time-dependent aldosterone metabolism in toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Brem, A.S.; Pacholski, M.; Morris, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) metabolism was examined in the toad bladder. Bladders were incubated with (/sup 3/H)aldosterone (10(-7) M) for 5 h, 1 h, or 10 min. Tissues were analyzed for metabolites using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In separate experiments, Na+ transport was assessed by the short-circuit current (SCC) technique. Following a 5-h tissue incubation, about 25% of the (/sup 3/H)-aldosterone was converted into metabolites including a polar monosulfate metabolite, 20 beta-dihydroaldo (20 beta-DHAldo), small quantities of 5 beta-reduced products, and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced Aldo products including 5 alpha-DHAldo, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroaldo (3 alpha,5 alpha-THAldo), and 3 beta,5 alpha-THAldo. Tissues metabolized approximately 10% of the labeled hormone into the same compounds by 1 h. Measurable quantities of these metabolites were also synthesized by bladders exposed to Aldo for only 10 min and then incubated in buffer for an additional 50 min without Aldo. Bladders pretreated with the spironolactone, K+-canrenoate (3.5 X 10(-4) M), and stimulated with Aldo (10(-7) M) generated a peak SCC 44 +/- 6% of that observed in matched pairs stimulated with Aldo (P less than 0.001; n = 6). K+-canrenoate also markedly diminished (/sup 3/H)aldosterone metabolism at both 5 and 1 h. Thus, metabolic transformation of Aldo begins prior to hormone-induced increases in Na+ transport. Both the generation of certain metabolites (e.g., 5 alpha-reductase pathway products) and the increase in Na+ transport can be selectively inhibited by K+-canrenoate.

  6. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Çamtosun, Ahmet; Çelik, Huseyin; Altıntaş, Ramazan; Akpolat, Nusret

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material. PMID:26788399

  7. [Removal of a Foreign Body in the Urinary Bladder in a Patient Four Times in the Past Thirty Years].

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Sohei; Tsutahara, Koichi; Yamamichi, Gaku; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of recurring foreign bodies in the urinary bladder. A 67-year-old male inserted a foreign body into the urinary bladder during masturbation. Eight months later, he experienced a fever and went to a hospital where ultrasonography revealed a foreign body in his urinary bladder. Then, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. The patient's surgical record indicated that he had undergone the same operation 3 times in the past thirty years. The inserted foreign body was successfully removed by suprapubic cystotomy, and he was discharged 13 days after the operation. He was also evaluated by psychiatrists, but they diagnosed that he had no mental disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the removal of a foreign body in the urinary bladder four times in the same patient. PMID:27133888

  8. Central role of the BK channel in urinary bladder smooth muscle physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The physiological functions of the urinary bladder are to store and periodically expel urine. These tasks are facilitated by the contraction and relaxation of the urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), also known as detrusor smooth muscle, which comprises the bladder wall. The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK, BKCa, MaxiK, Slo1, or KCa1.1) channel is highly expressed in UBSM and is arguably the most important physiologically relevant K+ channel that regulates UBSM function. Its significance arises from the fact that the BK channel is the only K+ channel that is activated by increases in both voltage and intracellular Ca2+. The BK channels control UBSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the repolarization phase of the spontaneous action potentials that determine UBSM spontaneous rhythmic contractility. In UBSM, these channels have complex regulatory mechanisms involving integrated intracellular Ca2+ signals, protein kinases, phosphodiesterases, and close functional interactions with muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors. BK channel dysfunction is implicated in some forms of bladder pathologies, such as detrusor overactivity, and related overactive bladder. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the functional role of UBSM BK channels under normal and pathophysiological conditions and provides new insight toward the BK channels as targets for pharmacological or genetic control of UBSM function. Modulation of UBSM BK channels can occur by directly or indirectly targeting their regulatory mechanisms, which has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches for bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder and detrusor underactivity. PMID:24990859

  9. Crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit currents in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Loo, D D; Diamond, J M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a condition in rabbits characterized by CaCO3 crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit current (Isc) in the urinary bladder. The incidence of the condition was high in rabbits kept for 2 mo or more in the vivarium. The crystal mass in the bladder increased with age or time until it occupied up to one-third of the bladder volume and occasionally aggregated as stones, and the urine attained a sludgy consistency. In animals with sludgy urine, the urine excreted had a crystal content 20 times lower than that of urine contained in the bladder at time of death, implying retention of crystals in the bladder. Kidney stones were not detected in rabbits with bladder crystals, and bladder crystals were absent in rabbits with kidney stones induced experimentally by uremia. In old rabbits with sludgy urine the Isc, a measure of Na+ transport, was up to 46 microA/cm2 and averaged 12 microA/cm2, seven times the Isc of rabbits with nonsludgy urine. The increased Isc was entirely amiloride sensitive. Noise analysis showed it to arise entirely from increased channel density, without change in single-channel current. With one possible exception, we could not find bacterial infection or abnormalities in plasma aldosterone, GFR, or urinary [Na+], [Ca2+], pH, or osmolality that could explain the condition. The exception is that some unidentified component accounting for half the osmolality of nonsludgy urine is absent or at low concentration in sludgy urine. It remains unknown why the condition develops and whether CaCO3 crystals cause high Isc or vice versa or whether both result from a third factor. PMID:3970165

  10. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Igor; Recio, Paz; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Agis-Torres, Ángel; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Fernandes, Vítor S.; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR) and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR) were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR. PMID:27285468

  11. Stimulation of urinary acidification by insulin in the turtle bladder.

    PubMed

    Arruda, J A

    1983-07-01

    Addition of insulin to the substrate-containing serosal solution of freshly excised bladders or to that of bladders incubated overnight in substrate-enriched media increases the rate of H+ secretion to a greater extent in the latter (overnight group) than in the former. This effect can be blocked by pretreatment with anti-insulin antibody, suggesting that the stimulation of H+ secretion is a specific effect of insulin. The effect of insulin is concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation of H+ secretion at 100 mU/ml and maximal stimulation at 250 mU/ml. Other characteristics of the insulin-induced stimulation of H+ secretion were its independence of any effect of Na transport and its absolute requirement for the presence of substrate (glucose or pyruvate) under aerobic conditions only. The proton-secreting action of insulin is associated with an increase in the proton-selective conductance in series with the proton pump while the estimated electromotive force of the proton pump remains constant. Finally, the insulin-induced and aldosterone-induced stimulations of proton secretion are mutually independent, as shown by the additivity of these events and by the fact that the effect of insulin was not blocked by pretreatment with cycloheximide. These data suggest that endogenous insulin modulates the rate of H+ secretion by the in vivo turtle bladder. PMID:6346905

  12. Primary uterine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder with urinary cytology mimicking carcinomas: A case report.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Sumiyo; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Liang, Shan-Guang; Ishida, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 69-year-old woman in whom diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) originated from the uterus and involved the urinary bladder. The cervical smears of the case mostly consisted of discohesive atypical round cells, which were highly suggestive of lymphoma; however, in voided urine smears, a majority of the cells formed large aggregates of degenerated cells, mimicking those of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The smears also represented some small loose clusters, in which tumor cells formed short chains with nuclear molding, mimicking those of small cell carcinoma. The cytodiagnosis got definitive when we identified the atypical cells that showed CD20+/CD3-/cytokeratin-/NSE- immunophenotype. These are of particular concern as they may have misleading similarities to other epithelial neoplasms when examining lymphoma involving the urinary bladder. Accordingly, this case highlights the importance of immunocytochemistry to rule out malignant lymphoma when encountering large and/or small loose clusters of atypical round cells on urinary cytology. PMID:26729979

  13. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification: Molecular and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Erik; Cheng, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the urinary bladder are a rare type of tumor that account for a small percentage of urinary bladder neoplasms. These tumors of the urinary bladder range from well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (carcinoids) to the more aggressive subtypes such as small cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, there has been substantial investigation into the underlying genomic, molecular, and the cellular alterations within this group of neoplasms. Accordingly, these findings are increasingly incorporated into the understanding of clinical aspects of these neoplasms. In this review, we provide an overview of recent literature related to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder. Particular emphasis is placed on molecular alterations and recently described gene expression. The neuroendocrine tumors of the urinary bladder are subdivided into four subtypes. Similar to their pulmonary and other extrapulmonary site counterparts, these have different degrees of neuroendocrine differentiation and morphological features. The clinical aspects of four subtypes of neuroendocrine tumor are discussed with emphasis of the most recent developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. An understanding of molecular basis of neuroendocrine tumors will provide a base of knowledge for future investigations into this group of unusual bladder neoplasms. PMID:27334654

  14. Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A novel management approach to a rare tumour

    PubMed Central

    Pugashetti, Neil; Yap, Stanley A.; Lara, Primo N.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Dall’Era, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a variant of adenocarcinoma, is exceedingly rare and as a result no gold standard exists for its management. We report a case of primary SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases; we utilized an innovative diagnostic approach and the patient exhibited a treatment response to palliative FOLFOX-6 chemotherapy. PMID:26085880

  15. Functional and biochemical characteristics of urinary bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivo as well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined. Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different. Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors. PMID:26466064

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced neoplasia in the urinary bladder: a missing link?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Wang, Lisha; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Emerson, Robert E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Pedrosa, Jose A; Kaimakliotis, Hristos Z; Koch, Michael O; Cheng, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The discovery that the role human papillomavirus (HPV) plays in the induction of human cancer represents an important achievement in oncologic research. It has taken on even greater importance since the development of vaccines, which promise the hope of preventing these cancers from ever occurring. Because of these important implications, many have attempted to determine a possible role for the virus in cancers of the urinary bladder-an organ in close anatomic proximity to the primary sites of HPV-induced neoplasia and one which already has an established oncogenic infectious agent in Schistosoma haematobium. Here we review the current literature exploring this possible role in the most common subtype of cancer of the urinary bladder, urothelial carcinoma, and two much more rare histologic subtypes that have well established roles for HPV-induced neoplasia in other anatomic sites-squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. PMID:26687533

  17. Effects of tachykinins on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in slices of hamster urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, D. R.; Curtis, N. R.; Suman-Chauhan, N.; Watling, K. J.; Williams, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    Tachykinin-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis was examined in slices of hamster urinary bladder. In the presence of lithium, to inhibit inositol monophosphatase activity, substance P, eledoisin and related tachykinins induced large, dose-dependent increases in [3H]-inositol monophosphate accumulation. The responses to substance P and eledoisin were not antagonized by the cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins was kassinin greater than neurokinin A greater than neurokinin B greater than eledoisin greater than physaelamin greater than substance P greater than substance P methyl ester. The synthetic analogue [p-Glu6, D-Pro9]SP (6-11) was considerably more potent than its L-prolyl stereoisomer at stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. These results suggest that in the hamster urinary bladder, tachykinin-induced inositol phospholipid breakdown is mediated via tachykinin receptors of the SP-E type, as opposed to the SP-P type. PMID:3028559

  18. Concrement formation in the urinary bladder in rats inoculated with Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Brorson, J E; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1985-01-01

    To study the concrement-forming ability of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the urinary tract, viable and heat-killed ureaplasmas as well as urease and non-urease-producing bacteria were inoculated into the bladder in rats. Viable ureaplasmas, in contrast to heat-killed, caused the formation of bladder stones with a frequency corresponding to urease-producing bacteria (Proteus mirabilis). It was not possible to reculture the inoculated ureaplasmas from the urinary tract. Non-urease producing microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma hominis) only occasionally induced stone formation. The results indicate that U. urealyticum can initiate stone formation, a property that appears to be associated with the urease activity of the organism. PMID:4049607

  19. The use of urinary bladder matrix in the treatment of trauma and combat casualty wound care.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Ian L; Campbell, Paul; Sabino, Jennifer; Dearth, Christopher L; Fleming, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of combat injuries and resulting wounds can be difficult to treat due to compromised and evolving tissue necrosis, environmental contaminants, multidrug resistant microbacterial and/or fungal infections, coupled with microvascular damage and/or hypovascularized exposed vital structures. Our group has developed surgical care algorithms with identifiable salvage techniques to achieve stable, definitive wound coverage often with the aid of certain regenerative medicine biologic scaffold materials and advanced wound care to facilitate tissue coverage and healing. This case series reports on the role of urinary bladder matrix scaffolds in the wound care and reconstruction of traumatic and combat wounds. Urinary bladder matrix was found to facilitate definitive soft tissue reconstruction by establishing a neovascularized soft tissue base acceptable for second stage wound and skin coverage options within traumatic and combat-related wounds. PMID:26237704

  20. Scientific basis for learning transfer from movements to urinary bladder functions for bladder repair in human patients with CNS injury.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT) has been shown to be able to partly repair CNS injury. The repair is based on a movement-based re-learning theory which requires at least three levels of description: the movement or pattern (and anamnesis) level, the collective variable level, and the neuron level. Upon CDT not only the actually performed movement pattern itself is repaired, but the entire dynamics of CNS organization is improved, which is the theoretical basis for (re-) learning transfer. The transfer of learning for repair from jumping on springboard and exercising on a special CDT and recording device to urinary bladder functions is investigated at the neuron level. At the movement or pattern level, the improvement of central nervous system (CNS) functioning in human patients can be seen (or partly measured) by the improvement of the performance of the pattern. At the collective variable level, coordination tendencies can be measured by the so-called 'coordination dynamics' before, during and after treatment. At the neuron level, re-learning can additionally be assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) as alterations of single motor unit firings and motor programs. But to express the ongoing interaction between the numerous neural, muscular, and metabolic elements involved in perception and action, it is relevant to inquire how the individual afferent and efferent neurons adjust their phase and frequency coordination to other neurons to satisfy learning task requirements. With the single-nerve fibre action potential recording method it was possible to measure that distributed single neurons communicate by phase and frequency coordination. It is shown that this timed firing of neurons is getting impaired upon injury and has to be improved by learning The stability of phase and frequency coordination among afferent and efferent neuron firings can be related to pattern stability. The stability of phase and frequency coordination at the neuron level can

  1. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Materials and Methods Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. Results The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (p<0.001). The expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA in BC patients was also significantly higher than that in noncancer patient controls and hematuria patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). High expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA was also detected in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. Conclusions In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC. PMID:26981592

  2. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with bladder neck preservation: positive surgical margin and urinary continence status

    PubMed Central

    Jaskulski, Jaroslaw; Jarecki, Piotr; Dudek, Przemysław; Szopiński, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preservation of the bladder neck (BN) has been controversial, as limited excision of the bladder neck may result in incomplete resection of the disease. Moreover, the urinary continence rate may not be improved. Aim To evaluate the effect of bladder neck sparing on urinary continence, and surgical margins status in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 295 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer in a single institution was performed. Positive surgical margin (SM(+)) and urinary continence status at 3, 6, and 12 months were evaluated. Results The distribution of SM(+) for pT2, pT3, and pT4a was 15.3% (27/176), 49.1% (58/118), and 100% (1/1), respectively. Overall, there were 55.61%, 80.61%, and 84.69% of men continent at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. However, when limiting the analysis to those who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy within 12 months following surgery, urinary continence rates were 59.23%, 85.86%, and 90.21% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological T stage were identified as significant predictors of positive surgical margins. Conclusions Conclusions: Laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy with bladder neck preservation has been a safe procedure which has resulted in good functional outcome. We observed a relatively high incidence of positive surgical margins which could be attributed to a large number of extracapsular disease cases. PMID:25337159

  3. Transepithelial water flow regulates apical membrane retrieval in antidiuretic hormone-stimulated toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Harris, H W; Wade, J B; Handler, J S

    1986-09-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases the osmotic water permeability (Posm) of toad urinary bladder. This increase is believed to be produced by fusion of intracellular vesicles called aggrephores with the granular cell apical plasma membrane. Aggrephores contain intramembrane particle aggregates postulated to be water channels. ADH-stimulated Posm is decreased by osmotic gradient exposure, which is termed flux inhibition. We studied flux inhibition by exposing ADH-stimulated bladders to various osmotic gradients. Osmotic water flow was initially proportional to the applied osmotic gradient, but Posm decreased with time. Ultrastructural and quantitative studies of endocytosis demonstrate that apical membrane retrieval was a direct function of the transepithelial osmotic gradient. Posm remained unchanged when apical membrane retrieval was blocked by incubation of bladders at 2 degrees C, or under low water-flow conditions. These effects were reversed by increases in temperature or the applied osmotic gradient. We conclude that apical membrane retrieval causes the phenomenon of flux inhibition. PMID:2427542

  4. An Unusual Complication of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Urinary Bladder Stone Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songtao; Sheng, Weixin; Qiu, Yufa; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery is the most common technique used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt to the bladder is rare. Only two cases have been previously reported in the literature. Case Presentation: We report on a 38-year-old male who had hydrocephalus and V-P shunt for 12 years. Two years ago, he found himself with recurrent urinary tract infections, haematuria and urges incontinence, and then he was diagnosed with bladder perforation and merge stones. The patient had an abdominal operation to cut off and take out the shunt catheter, as well as a transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy. Conclusions: Bladder perforation and stones are rare examples of complications in V-P surgical procedures. Controlling the effective length of the terminal V-P shunt and modifying it appropriately can effectively reduce these complications. PMID:26889393

  5. [Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder without typical symptoms: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Kunihiro; Kamei, Shingo; Taniguchi, Mitsuhiro; Tada, Kouji; Takahashi, Yoshito; Iwata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with bladder tumor. It was detected by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an examination for hysteromyoma. She had neither hypertention, gross hematuria nor the classic symptoms of cathecholamine excess during micturition. The diameter of the tumor was 33 mm. Cystoscopic examination showed a submucosal tumor in the left anterior wall of the bladder. Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed. Biopsy specimens revealed as a pheochromocytoma. 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy showed abnormal accumulation in the bladder, and no abnormal accumulation in the other lesion. Endocrinologic examination disclosed increased levels of serum and urinary noradrenalin. On May 18, 2005, partial cystectomy was performed. The catecholamine levels normalized after partial cystectomy. The patient has been followed up for 9 months and shown no recurrence. PMID:17176875

  6. Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Daugherty, Stephanie L.; de Groat, William C.; Birder, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to

  7. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone. PMID:26354548

  8. Sonographic detection of a foreign body in the urethra and urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, M; Cohen, I; Stein, A

    2000-01-01

    Reported herein is a 41-year-old male who presented for ultrasound due to two episodes of lower urinary tract infections within a period of 5 months. The sonographic examination revealed an elongated foreign body in the urethra extending into the urinary bladder. Self-insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra is usually done for erotic stimulation. However, foreign bodies can be inserted by children due to curiosity and by mentally retarded people, patients with psychiatric disorders as well as by intoxicated patients and in confusional states. Due to embarrassment, the patients seek medical help only when they are symptomatic and hence some of the foreign bodies are removed only several months after insertion. Detection might be either by plain abdominal films when the foreign bodies are radiopaque or by the use of contrast media. In the case presented by us, this was done by sonography. Endoscopic removal of these foreign bodies is considered the treatment of choice. Recurrent or chronic unexplained urinary tract infections should raise a high index of suspicion to the possible existence of a foreign body in the urethra and/or urinary bladder. PMID:10859554

  9. Do the urinary bladder and large bowel interact, in sickness or in health?

    PubMed Central

    Malykhina, Anna P.; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Andersson, Karl-Erik; De Wachter, Stefan; Dmochowski, Roger R.

    2011-01-01

    Normal functioning of the urinary bladder and the distal gut is an essential part of daily physiological activity coordinated by the peripheral and central nervous systems. Pathological changes in one of these organs may induce the development of cross-organ sensitization in the pelvis and underlie clinical co-morbidity of genitourinary and GI dysfunctions. Experimental human and animal data suggest that the bladder and distal colon interact under both normal and pathological conditions, however, the directions of these interactions can change dramatically depending on the nature and duration of the applied stimuli. This review article aimed to summarize the clinical data on colon-bladder cross-reflexes in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with co-morbid disorders. It also discusses currently used animal models, experimental approaches, and suggested mechanisms of colon-bladder cross-talk. Additionally, it provides an overview of the potential pharmacological targets to develop treatment options for patients with co-morbid disorders. Presented work resulted from the discussion of colon/bladder interactions during “Think Tank 9” presentations at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society meeting held in Bristol, UK, 2011. PMID:22378593

  10. Detecting the onset of urinary bladder contractions using an implantable pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, J; Rijkhoff, N J M

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates whether signals obtained from an implantable pressure sensor placed in the urinary bladder wall could be used to detect the onset of bladder contractions. The sensor assembly was custom made using a small piezoresistive sensor die. The die was mounted on ceramic substrate (8 mm × 8 mm) and encapsulated in silicone by a two-part moulding process. The final sensor was lens shaped with a diameter of 13.6 mm and height of 2.0 mm. Experiments were performed in six pigs that had one or more sensors placed in the bladder wall. An external reference sensor was used to simultaneously monitor intravesical pressure via a transurethral catheter. Bladder contractions were evoked by unilateral electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. Onset latency was computed using both signals. In addition, the correlation between wall pressure and intravesical pressure was calculated. On average, the onset latency was - 307 ms using the wall sensors compared to the intravesical pressure, i.e., the detection occurred earlier using the wall sensors than the intravesical sensor. In 91 of 114 recordings the correlation coefficient was above 0.90. In conclusion, the implantable sensor performs similar to the reference sensor when used to detect the onset of bladder contractions. PMID:21997323

  11. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  12. Constitutively active PKA regulates neuronal acetylcholine release and contractility of guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenkuan; Li, Ning; Fernandes, Vitor S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-06-01

    Autonomic and somatic motor neurons that innervate the urinary bladder and urethra control the highly coordinated functions of the lower urinary tract, the storage, and the emptying of urine. ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the bladder. Here, we aimed to determine whether PKA regulates neuronal ACh release and related nerve-evoked detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions in the guinea pig urinary bladder. Isometric DSM tension recordings were used to measure spontaneous phasic and electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and carbachol-induced DSM contractions with a combination of pharmacological tools. The colorimetric method was used to measure ACh released by the parasympathetic nerves in DSM isolated strips. The pharmacological inhibition of PKA with H-89 (10 μM) increased the spontaneous phasic contractions, whereas it attenuated the EFS-induced DSM contractions. Intriguingly, H-89 (10 μM) attenuated the (primary) cholinergic component, whereas it simultaneously increased the (secondary) purinergic component of the nerve-evoked contractions in DSM isolated strips. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine (10 μM), increased EFS-induced DSM contractions, and the subsequent addition of H-89 attenuated the contractions. H-89 (10 μM) significantly increased DSM phasic contractions induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. The inhibition of PKA decreased the neuronal release of ACh in DSM tissues. This study revealed that PKA-mediated signaling pathways differentially regulate nerve-evoked and spontaneous phasic contractions of guinea pig DSM. Constitutively active PKA in the bladder nerves controls synaptic ACh release, thus regulating the nerve-evoked DSM contractions, whereas PKA in DSM cells controls the spontaneous phasic contractility. PMID:27029424

  13. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  14. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Meisner, Jay W.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Webber, Matthew J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S.; Diaz, Edward C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Cheng, Earl Y.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  15. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Meisner, Jay W; Hofer, Matthias D; Webber, Matthew J; Chow, Lesley W; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S; Diaz, Edward C; Stupp, Samuel I; Cheng, Earl Y; Sharma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  16. Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krewer, F.; Morgan, F.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.; O'Halloran, M.

    2014-05-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.

  17. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity. PMID

  18. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  19. Increased susceptibility of estrogen-induced bladder outlet obstruction in a novel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tam, Neville Ngai-Chung; Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Hong; Song, Dan; Levin, Linda; Meller, Jarek; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Disorders of the prostate and lower urinary tract are common in elderly men. We investigated the role of metallothionein-1 (MT1) in prostate carcinogenesis by generating a prostate-specific, MT1-expressing mouse. Unexpectedly, genomic analyses revealed that a 12.1-kb genomic region harboring several conserved noncoding elements was unintentionally deleted, upstream of the transgene integration site in the mouse, which we named it 12.1ΔMT1. Male 12.1ΔMT1 mice chronically treated with testosterone (T) plus 17β-estradiol (E2) to induce prostate cancer exhibited no evidence of precancerous or cancerous lesions. Instead, most of them exhibited a bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) phenotype not observed in treated wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, we hypothesized that 12.1ΔMT1 is a novel model for studying the hormonal requirement for BOO induction. Adult male 12.1ΔMT1 and WT mice were treated with T, E2, bisphenol A (BPA), T+E2, or T+BPA for up to 6 months. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the prostate, bladder, and urethra were performed. No significant prostate pathologies were observed in WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice treated with any of the hormone regimens. As expected, prostatic regression occurred in all E2-treated animals (WT and 12.1ΔMT1). Of great interest, despite a small prostate, 100% of E2-treated 12.1ΔMT1 mice, but only 40% of E2-treated WT mice, developed severe BOO (P<0.01). In contrast, T+E2 treatment was less effective than E2 treatment in inducing severe BOO in 12.1ΔMT1 mice (68%, P<0.05) and was completely ineffective in WT animals. Similarly, T, BPA, and T+BPA treatments did not induce BOO in either WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice. The BOO pathology includes a thinner detrusor wall, narrowing of bladder neck and urethral lumen, and basal cell hyperplasia in the bladder body and urethra. These findings indicate that 12.1ΔMT1 mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to E2-induced BOO that is independent of prostate enlargement but that is attenuated by the

  20. The radiation dose to the urinary bladder in radio-iodine therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, A. A.; Hilditch, T. E.

    1996-10-01

    A new MIRD dynamic model has been used to provide estimates of the dose to the urinary bladder resulting from the administration of the therapeutic agents as iodide (for thyroid carcinoma) and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) (for neuroendocrine tumours). Because the latter agent is used for therapeutic purposes in children, dose estimates were obtained for subjects aged 1 year and upwards. Those parameters likely to influence the bladder dose were also investigated, making use of the inherent flexibility of the model. For an administration of 1 GBq of either as iodide or MIBG to an adult subject, the radiation dose to the inner surface of the bladder was estimated to be approximately 1100 mGy, which is nearly twice the value estimated using a constant-volume bladder model. The new model produced dose estimates for children (within the range of MIBG) which were approximately 50% greater than those derived using a constant-volume bladder model. The urine flow rate was found to have the greatest effect on the bladder dose, a flow of twice the normal rate resulting in a reduction in the bladder dose by a factor of two. On the other hand, a reduction in the urine flow rate to half the normal value was estimated to increase the radiation dose by a factor of two. This was true for subjects of all ages. With normal voiding, the average dose to the bladder wall from -radiation was estimated to be 5 - 13% of the surface beta dose for

  1. [THE SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND ABERRANT METHYLATION AS POTENTIAL GENETIC MARKERS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER].

    PubMed

    Mikhailenko, D S; Kushlinskii, N E

    2016-02-01

    All around the world, more than 330 thousands cases of bladder cancer are registered annually hence representing actual problem of modern oncology. Still in demand are search and characteristic of new molecular markers of bladder cancer detecting in tumor cells from urinary sediment and having high diagnostic accuracy. The studies of last decade, especially using methods of genome-wide sequencing, permitted to receive a large amount of experimental data concerning development and progression of bladder cancer The review presents systematic analysis of publications available in PubMed data base mainly of last five years. The original studies of molecular genetic disorders under bladder cancer and meta-analyzes were considered This approach permitted to detected the most common local alterations of DNA under bladder cancer which can be detected using routine genetic methods indifferent clinical material and present prospective interest for development of test-systems. The molecular genetic markers of disease can be activating missense mutations in 7 and 10 exons of gene of receptor of growth factor of fibroblasts 3 (FGFR3), 9 and 20 exons of gene of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bi-phosphate-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and mutation in -124 and -146 nucleotides in promoter of gene of catalytic subunit telomerase (TERT). The development of test-systems on the basis of aberrant methylation of CpG-islets of genes-suppressors still is seemed as a difficult task because of differences in pattern of methylation of different primary tumors at various stages of clonal evolution of bladder cancer though they can be considered as potential markers. PMID:27455559

  2. Non-uniform changes in membrane receptors in the rat urinary bladder following outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwen; Ekman, Mari; Jiang, Chonghe; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and distribution of membrane receptors after bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was induced in female rats and bladders were harvested after either 10 days or 6 weeks of BOO. The expression of different receptors was surveyed by microarrays and corroborated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A microarray experiment identified 10 membrane receptors that were differentially expressed compared to sham-operated rats including both upregulated and downregulated receptors. Four of these were selected for functional experiments on the basis of magnitude of change and relevance to bladder physiology. At 6 weeks of BOO, maximal contraction was reduced for neuromedin B and vasopressin (AVP), consistent with reductions of receptor mRNA levels. Glycine receptor-induced contraction on the other hand was increased and receptor mRNA expression was accordingly upregulated. Maximal relaxation by the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 was reduced as was the receptor mRNA level. Immunohistochemistry supported reduced expression of neuromedin B receptors, V1a receptors and β3-adrenergic receptors, but glycine receptor expression appeared unchanged. Western blotting confirmed repression of V1a receptors and induction of glycine receptors in BOO. mRNA for vasopressin was detectable in the bladder, suggesting local AVP production. We conclude that changes in receptor expression following bladder outlet obstruction are non-uniform. Some receptors are upregulated, conferring increased responsiveness to agonist, whereas others are downregulated, leading to decreased agonist-induced responses. This study might help to select pharmacological agents that are effective in modulating lower urinary tract symptoms in BOO. PMID:26004535

  3. Clinical experience of MRI in two dogs with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kija; Choi, Sooyoung; Choi, Hojung; Lee, Youngwon

    2016-09-01

    This study described high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in two dogs. Ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder mass with ambiguous result about invasion to the muscular layer. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the bladder wall in which the mass was attached was more intensely enhanced than the normal bladder walls, supporting invasion to the muscular layer. The mass revealed an intermediate signal intensity with interruption of the hypointense muscular layer on T2-weighted MRI and showed greater enhancement compared with the normal bladder wall on postcontrast T1-weighted images. T2-weighted MRI, postcontrast T1-weighted MRI and contrast-enhanced dual-phasic CT were useful for evaluating muscle-invasive bladder TCC in dogs. PMID:27149892

  4. Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nephrogenic adenoma of the urinary bladder (NAUB) is a rare lesion associated with nonspecific symptoms and could inadvertently be misdiagnosed. Aim. To review the literature. Methods. Various internet search engines were used. Results. NAUB is a benign tubular and papillary lesion of the bladder, is more common in men and adults, and has been associated with chronic inflammation/irritation, previous bladder surgery, diverticula, renal transplantation, and intravesical BCG; recurrences and malignant transformations have been reported. Differential diagnoses include clear cell adenocarcinoma, endocervicosis, papillary urothelial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma of bladder, and nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; most NAUBs have both surface papillary and submucosal tubular components; both the papillae and tubules tend to be lined by a single layer of mitotically inactive bland cells which have pale to clear cytoplasm. Diagnosis may be established by using immunohistochemistry (positive staining with racemase; PAX2; keratins stain positive with fibromyxoid variant), electron microscopy, DNA analysis, and cytological studies. Treatment. Endoscopic resection is the treatment but recurrences including sporadic malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusions. There is no consensus on best treatment. A multicentre study is required to identify the treatment that would reduce the recurrence rate, taking into consideration that intravesical BCG is associated with NAUB.

  5. Laparoscopic urinary bladder diverticulectomy combined with photoselective vaporisation of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eret, Viktor; Stránský, Petr; Trávníček, Ivan; Dolejšová, Olga; Chudáček, Zdeněk; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej; Chłosta, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pseudodiverticulum of the urinary bladder is mostly a complication of subvesical obstruction (SO). The gold standard of treatment was open diverticulectomy with adenectomy. A more contemporary resolution is endoscopic, in two steps: the first transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the second laparoscopic diverticulectomy (LD). Aim To present a one-session procedure – photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP) with LD. Material and methods From 1/2011 to 6/2014, 14 LDs were performed: 1 LD only, 1 with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, 12 combined with treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 cases of TURP and LD in the second period. In 8 cases, PVP and LD in one session were combined. These 8 cases are presented. 3D CT cystography was used as a gold standard for assessment of diverticulum. Results The mean age was 66.5 ±5.5 (57.3–75.1) years, the mean size of the diverticulum 61.8 ±22.1 (26–90) mm. The procedure starts in the lithotomy position. It includes PVP and stenting of the ureter(s). Changing of position and laparoscopy follows: four ports, transperitoneal extravesical approach. Photoselective vaporisation of the prostate was performed using the Green Light Laser HPS (1x) or XPS with cooled fibre MoXy (7x). The mean delivered energy in PVP was 205.1 ±106.4 (120–458) kJ. The mean time of operation was 165.0 ±48.5 (90–255) min. No postoperative complications were observed. One patient underwent TUR incision after 1 year for sclerosis of the bladder neck. Conclusions Pseudodiverticulum of the urinary bladder (with or without SO) is a relatively rare disease. One session of PVP (Green Light Laser XPS, MoXy fibre) and laparoscopic (transperitoneal extravesical) diverticulectomy is the preferred method for treatment of subvesical obstruction due to BPH and bladder diverticulum at our institution. PMID:25960795

  6. New genetic variants of LATS1 detected in urinary bladder and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saadeldin, Mona K.; Shawer, Heba; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kassem, Neemat M.; Amleh, Asma; Siam, Rania

    2015-01-01

    LATS1, the large tumor suppressor 1 gene, encodes for a serine/threonine kinase protein and is implicated in cell cycle progression. LATS1 is down-regulated in various human cancers, such as breast cancer, and astrocytoma. Point mutations in LATS1 were reported in human sarcomas. Additionally, loss of heterozygosity of LATS1 chromosomal region predisposes to breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors. In the current study, we investigated LATS1 genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 28 Egyptian patients with either urinary bladder or colon cancers. The LATS1 gene was amplified and sequenced and the expression of LATS1 at the RNA level was assessed in 12 urinary bladder cancer samples. We report, the identification of a total of 29 variants including previously identified SNPs within LATS1 coding and non-coding sequences. A total of 18 variants were novel. Majority of the novel variants, 13, were mapped to intronic sequences and un-translated regions of the gene. Four of the five novel variants located in the coding region of the gene, represented missense mutations within the serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain. Interestingly, LATS1 RNA steady state levels was lost in urinary bladder cancerous tissue harboring four specific SNPs (16045 + 41736 + 34614 + 56177) positioned in the 5′UTR, intron 6, and two silent mutations within exon 4 and exon 8, respectively. This study identifies novel single-base-sequence alterations in the LATS1 gene. These newly identified variants could potentially be used as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer. PMID:25628642

  7. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-07-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As{sup III}). During the first week of As{sup III} exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As{sup III} showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As{sup III} on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

  8. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Diaz, Edward C; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Hannick, Jessica H; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  9. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Natalie J.; Hannick, Jessica H.; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  10. Forced diuresis 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast enhanced in detection of carcinoma of urinary bladder diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Singh, Harmandeep; Arora, Saurabh; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0.8–10% and its diagnosis still remains a challenge. Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary. Here, we present a case of 48-year-old male with urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma detected by forced diuretic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). This case also highlights the significance of forced diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection, staging, and response evaluation of bladder diverticular carcinoma. PMID:25589819

  11. Transcriptomic dose-and-time-course indicators of early key events in a cytotoxicity-mediated mode of action for rodent urinary bladder tumorigenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTOMIC DOSE- AND TIME-COURSE INDICATORS OF EARLY KEY EVENTS IN A CYTOTOXICITY-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION FOR RODENT URINARY BLADDER TUMORIGENESISDiuron is a substituted urea compound used globally as an herbicide. Urinary bladder tumors were induced in rats after chronic die...

  12. Arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water did not affect DNA damage repair in urinary bladder transitional cells or micronuclei in bone marrow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the urinary bladder (with cigarette smoking) and skin (with UV light exposure). Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include induction of DNA ...

  13. Detection of bovine papillomavirus type 14 DNA sequences in urinary bladder tumors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Roperto, Sante; Munday, John S; Corrado, Federica; Goria, Maria; Roperto, Franco

    2016-07-15

    Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution. PMID:27283849

  14. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sandeep; Praneeth, Kokkula; Rathore, Yashwant; Waran, Vignesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair. PMID:26917927

  15. Large diverticulum of the urinary bladder: A rare cause of deep vein thrombosis with consecutive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Oliver; Torzewski, Jan; Reichenbach-Klinke, Ekkehard; Zenk, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with progressive dyspnea; he also had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An angio computed tomography scan showed pulmonary embolism with thrombi in both main pulmonary arteries. By duplex ultrasonography, we detected a thrombus in the right vena femoralis superficialis and vena femoralis communis. Simultaneously, we also noticed a large diverticulum on the right side of the urinary bladder and urinary stasis II of the left kidney. We consider the BPH as the trigger for a secondary diverticulum of the urinary bladder. As a result of its large dimensions, mechanical compression of the deep right pelvic veins resulted in thrombosis which finally caused the pulmonary embolism. With respect to the urinary stasis II, surgical excavation of the diverticulum with infravesical desobstruction was planned. The potentially lethal course of large diverticula may require surgery. PMID:26029307

  16. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  17. Higher risk of urothelial carcinoma in the upper urinary tract than in the urinary bladder in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Fan; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Purpose This study used the a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study with the claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods The study population consisted of 2689 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) newly diagnosed in 2000-2002 and underwent maintenance HD. Then, 21,449 reference patients were collected without HD randomly selected and matched with sex and age. The exclusion criteria were previous long-term analgesics and Chinese medication usage. Incidence density rates of UC in upper urinary tract (UTUC) and bladder (UBUC) were estimated for both cohorts by the end of 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of UC were measured in association with HD, covariates, and comorbidity. Results The incidence of UC was significantly higher in the HD cohort than in the reference cohort for both UT (21.8 vs. 0.65 per 10,000 person-years) and UB (17.7 vs. 3.55 per 10,000 person-years). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the HRs of UTUC in HD cohort was 33.3 (95% CI = 15.9-69.5) and 5.14 for UBUC (95% CI = 3.24-8.15). The risk increased further for HD patients with comorbidity of hematuria, urinary tract infection (UTI) or hydronephrosis. Conclusion Patients with ESRD on HD are at a high risk of developing UC, especially UTUC in Taiwan. They will be paid more frequent to check urine analysis, urine cytology, and upper urinary tract survey. PMID:26956094

  18. Optimal bladder diary duration for patients with suprapontine neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Kratiras, Zisis; Samarinas, Michael; Skriapas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the minimum bladder diary's length required to furnish reliable documentation of LUTS in a specific cohort of patients suffering from neurogenic urinary dysfunction secondary to suprapontine pathology. Materials and Methods: From January 2008 to January 2014, patients suffering from suprapontine pathology and LUTS were requested to prospectively complete a bladder diary form for 7 consecutive days. Micturitions per day, excreta per micturition, urgency and incontinence episodes and voided volume per day were evaluated from the completed diaries. We compared the averaged records of consecutive days (2-6 days) to the total 7 days records for each patient's diary, seeking the minimum diary's length that could provide records comparable to the 7 days average, the reference point in terms of reliability. Results: From 285 subjects, 94 male and 69 female patients enrolled in the study. The records of day 1 were significantly different from the average of the 7 days records in every parameter, showing relatively small correlation and providing insufficient documentation. Correlations gradually increased along the increase in diary's duration. According to our results a 3-day duration bladder diary is efficient and can provide results comparable to a 7 day length for four of our evaluated parameters. Regarding incontinence episodes, 3 days seems inadequate to furnish comparable results, showing a borderline difference. Conclusions: A 3-day diary can be used, as its reliability is efficient regarding number of micturition per day, excreta per micturition, episodes of urgency and voided volume per day. PMID:27564288

  19. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Eliyakin, Nuket; Postaci, Hakan; Baskin, Yasemin; Kozacioğlu, Zafer

    2015-12-29

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromo-granin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N) and 562 (p.E562D) in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A) and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC). The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy. PMID:26788274

  20. Detection of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria Angelica; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Maria; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Mathew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Kinzler, Kenneth; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J

    2016-07-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) have been detected in 60% to 80% of urothelial carcinomas. A molecular urine-based screening assay for the detection of TERT-mut is currently being pursued by our group and others. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are adenocarcinoma. The current study assesses the incidence of TERT-mut in primary adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder. A retrospective search of our institutional pathology records identified 23 cystectomy specimens with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (2000-2014). All slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm tumor type and select a representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block for mutational analysis. Adequate material for DNA testing was available in 14 cases (7 enteric type and 7 not otherwise specified). TERT-mut sequencing analysis was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. Overall, 28.5% of primary adenocarcinoma harbored TERT-mut. Interestingly, 57% of nonenteric adenocarcinomas were mutation positive, whereas none of the enteric-type tumors harbored mutations. Similar to urothelial carcinoma, we found a relatively higher rate of TERT-mut among nonenteric-type adenocarcinomas further supporting the potential utility of TERT-mut urine-based screening assay for bladder cancer. PMID:26980028

  1. Urinary bladder matrix promotes site appropriate tissue formation following right ventricle outflow tract repair

    PubMed Central

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yoshida, Masahiro; Guest, Brogan N; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Weaver, Michelle L; Wagner, William R; Brown, Bryan N; Tobita, Kimimasa; Wearden, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The current prevalence and severity of heart defects requiring functional replacement of cardiac tissue pose a serious clinical challenge. Biologic scaffolds are an attractive tissue engineering approach to cardiac repair because they avoid sensitization associated with homograft materials and theoretically possess the potential for growth in similar patterns as surrounding native tissue. Both urinary bladder matrix (UBM) and cardiac ECM (C-ECM) have been previously investigated as scaffolds for cardiac repair with modest success, but have not been compared directly. In other tissue locations, bone marrow derived cells have been shown to play a role in the remodeling process, but this has not been investigated for UBM in the cardiac location, and has never been studied for C-ECM. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effectiveness of an organ-specific C-ECM patch with a commonly used ECM scaffold for myocardial tissue repair of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), and to examine the role of bone marrow derived cells in the remodeling response. A chimeric rat model in which all bone marrow cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated and used to show the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from the heart and bladder to support cardiac function and cellular growth in the RVOT. The results from this study suggest that urinary bladder matrix may provide a more appropriate substrate for myocardial repair than cardiac derived matrices, as shown by differences in the remodeling responses following implantation, as well as the presence of site appropriate cells and the formation of immature, myocardial tissue. PMID:23974174

  2. Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Exploits Host Rab35 for Iron Acquisition and Survival within Urinary Bladder Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Neha; Bist, Pradeep; Fenlon, Shannon N.; Pulloor, Niyas Kudukkil; Chua, Christelle En Lin; Scidmore, Marci A.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Tang, Bor Luen; Chen, Swaine L.; Sukumaran, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are common and morbid infections with limited therapeutic options. Previous studies have demonstrated that persistent intracellular infection of bladder epithelial cells (BEC) by UPEC contributes to recurrent UTI in mouse models of infection. However, the mechanisms employed by UPEC to survive within BEC are incompletely understood. In this study we aimed to understand the role of host vesicular trafficking proteins in the intracellular survival of UPEC. Using a cell culture model of intracellular UPEC infection, we found that the small GTPase Rab35 facilitates UPEC survival in UPEC-containing vacuoles (UCV) within BEC. Rab35 plays a role in endosomal recycling of transferrin receptor (TfR), the key protein responsible for transferrin–mediated cellular iron uptake. UPEC enhance the expression of both Rab35 and TfR and recruit these proteins to the UCV, thereby supplying UPEC with the essential nutrient iron. Accordingly, Rab35 or TfR depleted cells showed significantly lower intracellular iron levels and reduced ability to support UPEC survival. In the absence of Rab35, UPEC are preferentially trafficked to degradative lysosomes and killed. Furthermore, in an in vivo murine model of persistent intracellular infection, Rab35 also colocalizes with intracellular UPEC. We propose a model in which UPEC subverts two different vesicular trafficking pathways (endosomal recycling and degradative lysosomal fusion) by modulating Rab35, thereby simultaneously enhancing iron acquisition and avoiding lysosomal degradation of the UCV within bladder epithelial cells. Our findings reveal a novel survival mechanism of intracellular UPEC and suggest a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention against recurrent UTI. PMID:26248231

  3. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  4. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: changing trends in the current literature.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Özdemir, Nuriye Yıldırım; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Şahin, Süleyman; Bozkaya, Yakup; Zengin, Nurullah

    2016-06-01

    Background Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (SmCC), also known as oat cell carcinoma or small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, is characterized by an aggressive clinical course with early metastasis pattern and a short life expectancy. So far, there is no prospective, data-based case-control study due to its low incidence. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology, morphopathology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of bladder SmCC in the light of the literature. Scope PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting abstracts were searched according to the following keywords: 'extrapulmonary SmCC', 'bladder cancer', and 'therapeutic approach'. The last search was performed on 1 October 2015. Some additional papers were determined by reviewing references of the appropriate articles. Most of the data regarding small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SmCCB) were found to be based on the retrospective trials. Findings Bladder SmCC is more frequent in men and usually appears in the seventh to eighth decades. Macroscopic hematuria is the most common clinical symptom. The diagnosis of SmCCB is performed based on the same criteria determined by the WHO classification for the diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Prognosis is closely correlated with the stage at presentation. Although the prognosis of the disease is poor, a long survival can be achieved particularly by radical surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage tumors. Cystectomy is still the current standard local treatment. However, cystectomy alone is not sufficient. Chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy should be preferred for limited disease in patients who are not candidate for surgery. Conclusion Considering the poor prognosis of the disease, further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment options and new molecular markers in the way of early diagnosis and favorable outcomes. Prospective

  5. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  6. A biological modeling based comparison of two strategies for adaptive radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lutkenhaus, L J; Vestergaard, A; Bel, A; Høyer, M; Hulshof, M C C M; van Leeuwen, C M; Casares-Magaz, O; Petersen, J B; Søndergaard, J; Muren, L P

    2016-08-01

    Background Adaptive radiotherapy is introduced in the management of urinary bladder cancer to account for day-to-day anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adaptive plan selection strategy using either the first four cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-based strategy) for plan creation, or the interpolation of bladder volumes on pretreatment CT scans (CT-based strategy), is better in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue sparing while taking the clinically applied fractionation schedules also into account. Material and methods With the CT-based strategy, a library of five plans was created. Patients received 55 Gy to the bladder tumor and 40 Gy to the non-involved bladder and lymph nodes, in 20 fractions. With the CBCT-based strategy, a library of three plans was created, and patients received 70 Gy to the tumor, 60 Gy to the bladder and 48 Gy to the lymph nodes, in 30-35 fractions. Ten patients were analyzed for each adaptive plan selection strategy. TCP was calculated applying the clinically used fractionation schedules, as well as a rescaling of the dose from 55 to 70 Gy for the CT-based strategy. For rectum and bowel, equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) were calculated. Results The CBCT-based strategy resulted in a median TCP of 75%, compared to 49% for the CT-based strategy, the latter improving to 72% upon rescaling the dose to 70 Gy. A median rectum V30Gy (EQD2) of 26% [interquartile range (IQR): 8-52%] was found for the CT-based strategy, compared to 58% (IQR: 55-73%) for the CBCT-based strategy. Also the bowel doses were lower with the CT-based strategy. Conclusions Whereas the higher total bladder TCP for the CBCT-based strategy is due to prescription differences, the adaptive strategy based on CT scans results in the lowest rectum and bowel cavity doses. PMID:27100215

  7. Orthotopic urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Hadži-Djokić; Vladan, Andrejević; Tomislav, Pejčić; Miodrag, Aćimović; Uroš, Babić; Miodrag, Stanić; Zoran, Džamić

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of invasive carcinoma of the bladder in males includes total cystectomy removal of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and the distal parts of the urethers and the pelvic lymph node dissection as well. At this moment it is not possible to recommend a particular type of urinary diversion, but today in clinical practice commonly used derivative are ileal orthotopic neobladder as the continent one and ileal conduit as non-continent urinary diversion. Continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy are the result of the application of technological innovation in surgery, but also knowledge, imagination and skill of well trained urologist. This type of operation significantly improves the quality of life in patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and the proposal is to operate whenever there is a possibility for this type of procedure. Also it is very important, during surgery to respect oncological principles, of complete removal of tumorous tissue and that the functional principle of ensur- ing that the patients have daytime and also nighttime continence later on after the surgery. PMID:25782228

  8. Genomic complexity of urothelial bladder cancer revealed in urinary cfDNA.

    PubMed

    Togneri, Fiona S; Ward, Douglas G; Foster, Joseph M; Devall, Adam J; Wojtowicz, Paula; Alyas, Sofia; Vasques, Fabiana Ramos; Oumie, Assa; James, Nicholas D; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, Maurice P; Deshmukh, Nayneeta; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Philippe; Spink, Karen G; McMullan, Dominic J; Griffiths, Mike; Bryan, Richard T

    2016-08-01

    Urothelial bladder cancers (UBCs) have heterogeneous clinical characteristics that are mirrored in their diverse genomic profiles. Genomic profiling of UBCs has the potential to benefit routine clinical practice by providing prognostic utility above and beyond conventional clinicopathological factors, and allowing for prediction and surveillance of treatment responses. Urinary DNAs representative of the tumour genome provide a promising resource as a liquid biopsy for non-invasive genomic profiling of UBCs. We compared the genomic profiles of urinary cellular DNA and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from the urine with matched diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour DNAs for 23 well-characterised UBC patients. Our data show urinary DNAs to be highly representative of patient tumours, allowing for detection of recurrent clinically actionable genomic aberrations. Furthermore, a greater aberrant load (indicative of tumour genome) was observed in cfDNA over cellular DNA (P<0.001), resulting in a higher analytical sensitivity for detection of clinically actionable genomic aberrations (P<0.04) when using cfDNA. Thus, cfDNA extracted from the urine of UBC patients has a higher tumour genome burden and allows greater detection of key genomic biomarkers (90%) than cellular DNA from urine (61%) and provides a promising resource for robust whole-genome tumour profiling of UBC with potential to influence clinical decisions without invasive patient interventions. PMID:26757983

  9. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Housami, Fadi; Drake, Marcus; Abrams, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis. PMID:19468439

  10. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  11. Transcriptional profile of diurnon-induces toxicity on the urinary bladder of male wistar rats to inform mode of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. Th...

  12. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy associated with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: antemortem diagnosis by pulmonary microvascular cytology

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami; Ishikawa, Takeo; Takagi, Masamichi; Katagi, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Jun; Kosuga, Tsuneharu; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message PTTM (Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy) is very difficult to diagnose before death. We report a case of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with PTTM in which an antemortem diagnosis by PMC (pulmonary microvascular cytology). PMC may represent the only chance for diagnosis and achievement of remission in PTTM. PMID:26401277

  13. Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-11-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in cruciferous vegetables that are commonly consumed by humans and has been shown to inhibit urinary bladder cancer growth and progression in previous preclinical studies. However, AITC does not significantly modulate cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), whose oncogenic activity has been well documented in bladder cancer and other cancers. Celecoxib is a selective Cox-2 inhibitor and has been widely used for treatment of several diseases. Celecoxib has also been evaluated in bladder cancer patients, but its efficacy against bladder cancer as a single agent remains unclear. In a syngeneic rat model of orthotopic bladder cancer, treatment of the animals with the combination of AITC and celecoxib at low dose levels (AITC at 1 mg/kg and celecoxib at 10 mg/kg) led to increased or perhaps synergistic inhibition of bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion, compared with each agent used alone. The combination regime was also more effective than each single agent in inhibiting microvessel formation and stimulating microvessel maturation in the tumor tissues. The anticancer efficacy of the combination regime was associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2, a key downstream signaling molecule of Cox-2, caspase activation and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor tissues. These data show that AITC and celecoxib complement each other for inhibition of bladder cancer and provide a novel combination approach for potential use for prevention or treatment of human bladder cancer. PMID:23946495

  14. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Superinfection Enhances the Severity of Mouse Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Drew J.; Conover, Matt S.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict over 9 million women in America every year, often necessitating long-term prophylactic antibiotics. One risk factor for UTI is frequent sexual intercourse, which dramatically increases the risk of UTI. The mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown; however, bacteriuria increases immediately after sexual intercourse episodes, suggesting that physical manipulation introduces periurethral flora into the urinary tract. In this paper, we investigated whether superinfection (repeat introduction of bacteria) resulted in increased risk of severe UTI, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high titer bladder bacterial burdens and chronic inflammation, an outcome referred to as chronic cystitis. Chronic cystitis represents unchecked luminal bacterial replication and is defined histologically by urothelial hyperplasia and submucosal lymphoid aggregates, a histological pattern similar to that seen in humans suffering chronic UTI. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to chronic cystitis after a single infection; however, they developed persistent bacteriuria and chronic cystitis when superinfected 24 hours apart. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), keratinocyte cytokine (KC/CXCL1), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the serum of C57BL/6J mice prior to the second infection predicted the development of chronic cystitis. These same cytokines have been found to precede chronic cystitis in singly infected C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, inoculating C3H/HeN mice twice within a six-hour period doubled the proportion of mice that developed chronic cystitis. Intracellular bacterial replication, regulated hemolysin (HlyA) expression, and caspase 1/11 activation were essential for this increase. Microarrays conducted at four weeks post inoculation in both mouse strains revealed upregulation of IL-1 and antimicrobial peptides during chronic cystitis. These data suggest a mechanism by which caspase-1/11 activation and IL-1 secretion

  15. Type IV Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Displacing the Urinary Bladder: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharzadeh, Sahar; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma is a rare pediatric tumor that is confined to the presacral area with no external component. The signs and symptoms often arise due to mass effect and compression of adjacent organs. Urinary retention is an uncommon presenting symptom in these patients. A wide spectrum of imaging findings may be encountered in cases with sacrococcygeal teratoma because of variability of tumor size and components. We hereby present a unique magnetic resonance urography finding in a type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma which caused bladder displacement. A meticulous and complete resection of tumor with special attention to the pelvic plexus led to preservation of normal voiding function and normal bowel function in this patient. PMID:27413571

  16. Influence of ovariohysterectomy and deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of the rabbit urinary bladder in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bujok, Jolanta; Wincewicz, Edyta; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are not only a serious health problem but also a substantial sociologic issue affecting human beings and companion animals. Estrogen deficiency is considered an etiologic factor of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women and spayed female dogs. However, insufficient effectiveness of hormonal therapy has caused an intensive search for new therapeutic options. GnRH analogs have positive clinical effects in neutered female dogs suffering from incontinence, but the mechanism of action is not known. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of long-acting deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of urinary bladder sections from a rabbit model of long-term estrogen deprivation. The study was conducted on 21 female New Zealand White rabbits divided into the following groups: control group, ovariohysterectomized (OHX) group, and ovariohysterectomized group given a deslorelin acetate implant. Urinary bladders were excised immediately after sacrifice, and the spontaneous activity of dorsal and ventral strips of the bladder body was examined in organ bath chambers. The amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions were evaluated. Most of the sections developed spontaneous activity. Ovariohysterectomy caused a decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the tissues obtained only from the dorsal part of the bladder body. After OHX, the frequency was higher compared with the control group in both parts of the bladder. Deslorelin acetate did not significantly affect the spontaneous contraction amplitude but caused a decrease in the frequency in the dorsal and ventral parts of the bladder. In conclusion, long-term changes in the levels of hormones and other regulatory substances associated with the reproductive system are related to altered spontaneous activity of the urinary bladder, which may impact the symptoms of urgency and incontinence appearing in women after menopause and in female animals after

  17. Mode of action of pulegone on the urinary bladder of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Anwar, Muhammad M; Adams, Bret R; Taylor, Sean V; Wermes, Clint; Adams, Timothy B; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-07-01

    Essential oils from mint plants, including peppermint and pennyroyal oils, are used at low levels as flavoring agents in various foods and beverages. Pulegone is a component of these oils. In a 2-year bioassay, oral administration of pulegone slightly increased the urothelial tumor incidence in female rats. We hypothesized that its mode of action (MOA) involved urothelial cytotoxicity and increased cell proliferation, ultimately leading to tumors. Pulegone was administered by gavage at 0, 75, or 150 mg/kg body weight to female rats for 4 and 6 weeks. Fresh void urine and 18-h urine were collected for crystal and metabolite analyses. Urinary bladders were evaluated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index. Pulegone and its metabolites, piperitenone, piperitone, menthofuran, and menthone, were tested for cytotoxicity in rat (MYP3) and human (1T1) urothelial cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. No abnormal urinary crystals were observed by light microscopy. Urine samples (18-h) showed the presence of pulegone, piperitone, piperitenone, and menthofuran in both treated groups. By SEM, bladders from treated rats showed superficial necrosis and exfoliation. There was a significant increase in the BrdU labeling index in the high-dose group. In vitro studies indicated that pulegone and its metabolites, especially piperitenone, are excreted and concentrated in the urine at cytotoxic levels when pulegone is administered at high doses to female rats. The present study supports the hypothesis that cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation is the MOA for pulegone-induced urothelial tumors in female rats. PMID:22499580

  18. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  19. Topographies and isoforms of the progesterone receptor in female human, rat and mouse bladder.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Thomas; Rietjens, Roma; Voets, Thomas; Everaerts, Wouter; De Ridder, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Steroid hormones such as progesterone are known to influence bladder function. Progesterone effects are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR) but no detailed studies of PR in bladder exist. We have investigated the presence, topography and subtypes of PR in mouse, rat and human bladder. Fresh tissue samples were obtained from cystectomies in female humans, rats and mice (n = 7 per group). Tissue samples were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and western blot (WB) and, for each species, a panel of specific PR antibody clones was used. Interpretation of IHC/IF was carried out by light/fluorescent microscopy and of WB via standard WB software. IHC/IF in female human bladder showed PR on the interstitial cells in the lamina propria and between detrusor smooth muscle cells, whereas in female rat and mouse bladder, PR was only found on the urothelium. WB in human bladder showed a 78-kD and a 60-kDa band, respectively, corresponding to a modified PR isoform A and PR isoform C. WB in rat and mice bladder showed a 60 kDa band and a 37 kDa band, respectively corresponding with PR isoform C and an unknown isoform. This is the first detailed investigation of the precise location and presence of several isoforms of PR in bladder, together with a comparison of these data between human, rat and mouse. Our study has revealed complex PR families in bladders from the various species studied and demonstrates obvious inter-species differences in PR topography and isoforms. PMID:26650465

  20. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  1. A secoisopimarane diterpenoid from Salvia cinnabarina inhibits rat urinary bladder contractility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Romussi, Giovanni; Capasso, Francesco; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Bisio, Angela; Mascolo, Nicola

    2004-02-01

    We have evaluated the effect of 3,4-secoisopimar-4(18),7,15-triene-3-oic acid (compound 1), isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia cinnabarina, on the contractile response elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the rat isolated urinary bladder. Compound 1 (10 ( - 7) - 10 ( - 4) M) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS contractile response without modifying the contractions produced by exogenous acetylcholine (10 ( - 6) M). A number of antagonists/inhibitors including a combination of atropine (10 ( - 6) M), phentolamine (10 ( - 6) M), propranolol (10 ( - 6) M) and hexamethonium (10 ( - 4) M), the NK (1) receptor antagonist SR140333 (10 ( - 7) M) plus the NK (2) receptor antagonist SR48968 (10 ( - 6) M), naloxone (10 ( - 6) M), verapamil (10 ( - 7) M), capsazepine (10 ( - 5) M) and the CB (1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (10 ( - 6) M) did not modify the inhibitory effect of compound 1. However, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME (3 x 10 ( - 4) M), significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of compound 1. It is concluded that compound 1 inhibits rat bladder contractility with a mechanism involving, at least in part, NO production. PMID:14994202

  2. The prognostic value of family history among patients with urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-03-01

    A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression. PMID:24978702

  3. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  4. AB048. A urinary-metabolomics-based panel for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and has a high probability of recurrence. Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate. The common diagnostic modalities, such as cystoscopy and urinary cytology, have their limitations. In this study, potential metabolic biomarkers have been discovered through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on distinct metabolomics of urine between BCa patients and healthy people, we forged a non-invasive BCa diagnostic model and investigated its performance. Methods This study includes Training Phase, Modeling Phase and Test Phase. During the Training Phase, urine samples were collected from 32 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer and 21 healthy controls. We applied unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model used as a diagnostic model to distinguish two groups. We further constructed logistic regression model using combinations of the metabolites to improve the sensitivity and specificity for early BCa determination. In addition, we screened metabolites which AUC was more than 0.75 for establishing the model of diagnostic panel using logistic regressive analysis. In Test Phase, urine samples from 79 BCa patients and 51 non-BCa controls were subjected to test the diagnostic model. Moreover, by subgroup analysis of BCa, some metabolites were indentified to associate with tumor grade and stage. Results In Training phase, a set of 22 candidate differential metabolites was based on statistical significance and fold difference. Logistic diagnostic model has been established as below: Y=1.3333-8.891X(Glycine)×10-8-4.811X(3-Phosphoglycericacid)×10-5-5.625X(Cytosine)×10-5, with Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) =0.88, sensitivity =78.1% and specificity =95.2%. In Test phase, the efficiency of our diagnostic model shown AUC =0.705, sensitivity =62.0% and specificity =72.5%, better than that of urinary cytology. Besides

  5. β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Muscle in β2-Adrenoceptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propping, Stefan; Lorenz, Kristina; Michel, Martin C.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In order to characterize the β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved in agonist-stimulated relaxation of murine urinary bladder we studied the effects of (-)-isoprenaline and CL 316,243 on tonic contraction and spontaneous contractions in detrusor strips of wild-type (WT) and β2-AR knockout (β2-AR KO) mice. Materials and Methods: Urinary bladders were isolated from male WT and β2-AR KO mice. β-AR subtype expression was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. Intact muscle strips pre-contracted with KCl (40 mM) were exposed to cumulatively increasing concentrations of (-)-isoprenaline or β3-AR agonist CL 316,243 in the presence and absence of the subtype-selective β-AR blockers CGP 20712A (β1-ARs), ICI 118,551 (β2-ARs), and L748,337 (β3-ARs). Results: Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed lack of β2-AR expression in bladder tissue from β2-AR KO mice. In isolated detrusor strips, pre-contraction with KCl increased basal tone and enhanced spontaneous activity significantly more in β2-AR KO than in WT. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed tonic tension and attenuated spontaneous activity with similar potency, but the concentrations required were two orders of magnitude higher in β2-AR KO than WT. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) for relaxation were not affected by CGP 20712A (300 nM), but were shifted to the right by ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and L748,337 (10 μM). The -logEC50 values for (-)-isoprenaline in WT and β2-AR KO tissue were 7.98 and 6.00, respectively, suggesting a large receptor reserve of β2-AR. (-)-CL 316,243 relaxed detrusor and attenuated spontaneous contractions from WT and β2-AR KO mice with a potency corresponding to the drug’s affinity for β3-AR. L743,337 shifted the CRCs to the right. Conclusion: Our findings in β2-AR KO mice suggest that there is a large receptor reserve for β2-AR in WT mice so that this β-AR subtype will mediate relaxation of tone and attenuation of spontaneous activity under physiological

  6. Dysuria and fever in a young woman diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Patne, Shashikant Chandrakant Urmila; Katiyar, Richa; Chaudhary, Deepshikha; Trivedi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with dysuria and fever. Her medical and family histories were unremarkable. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a polypoid mass of 4×2.6×2.2 cm. Her cystoscopy showed a 4×2 cm solid broad-based growth at trigone of the urinary bladder. She underwent transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumour (TURBT). Histopathology revealed a poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a haphazard and fascicular manner along with many traversing blood vessels in a myxoid and hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemistry was positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1, smooth muscle actin, CD10, cytokeratin and desmin; and negative for CD34 and S-100 protein. Ki-67 proliferative index in the tumour was <1%. The patient was diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder. After TURBT, her fever and urinary symptoms resolved. Her 1-month postoperative period was uneventful. She has been advised regular follow-up. PMID:26880824

  7. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Magdalena Maria; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill. Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each abdominal examination. Such examinations should be performed with fasting patients or several hours after the last meal, with filled urinary bladder. Apparatus Ultrasound examinations in children and infants are performed using transducers with the frequency of 5.0–9.0 MHz and in adults – with the frequency of 2.0–6.0 MHz. Doppler options are desirable since they improve diagnostic capacity of sonography in terms of differentiation between renal focal lesions. Scanning technique Renal examinations are performed with the patients in the supine position. The right kidney is examined in the right hypochondriac region using the liver as the ultrasound “window.” The left kidney is examined in the left hypochondriac region, preferably in the posterior axillary line. Ultrasound examinations of the upper segment of the ureters are performed after renal examination when the pelvicalyceal system is dilated. A condition necessary for a proper examination of the perivesical portion of the ureter is full urinary bladder. The scans of the urinary bladder are performed in transverse, longitudinal and oblique planes when the bladder is filled. Description of the examination The description should include patient's personal details, details of the referring unit, of the unit in which the examination is performed, examining physician's details, type of ultrasound apparatus and transducers as well as the description proper. PMID:26673083

  8. Recurrent verrucous carcinoma of the urinary bladder after transurethral resection followed by intravesical mitomycin, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Masroor; Qureshi, Asim; Nasir, Humaira

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a locally invasive, non-metastasising well differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is very rare in the urinary bladder and mostly associated with schistosomiasis. It has a characteristic multilobular appearance with small surface projections on contrast cystogram. Owing to its bland cytology, it is a challenging diagnosis. We report a case of VC of the bladder-unrelated to schistosomiasis and involving the prostate-that recurred after transurethral resection of the tumour and prostate followed by six doses of intravesical mitomycin. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported from Pakistan. PMID:27307433

  9. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder’s organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects. PMID:26267862

  10. THE URINARY BLADDER EXHIBITS A U-SHAPED GENOMIC DOSE-RESPONSE FOLLOWING SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE OF MICE TO ARSENATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have demonstrated increased urinary bladder tumor incidence in populations exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at concentrations on the order of several hundred micrograms per liter, but experimental animal studies at much higher concentrations have...