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Sample records for mouse urinary bladder

  1. Bilateral Inguinal Hernia Containing Urinary Bladder as Sole Content With "Pelvic Mickey Mouse Sign".

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2016-04-01

    Inguinal hernias may contain urinary bladder as one of its contents, but very rarely have it as sole content. Inguinal vesical hernias may be unilateral or bilateral. When bilateral, inguinal vesical hernia may produce "pelvic Mickey mouse sign." This case reinforces the "pelvic Mickey mouse sign" in bilateral inguinal hernia containing only urinary bladder as content, which has been described only once before. PMID:26775075

  2. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine‑associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine‑treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  3. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine-associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine-treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  4. Characterization of Mouse Lumbar Splanchnic and Pelvic Nerve Urinary Bladder Mechanosensory Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linjing; Gebhart, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory information from the urinary bladder is conveyed via lumbar splanchnic (LSN) and sacral pelvic (PN) nerves to the spinal cord. In the present report we compared the mechanosensitive properties of single afferent fibers in these two pathways using an in vitro mouse bladder preparation. Mechanosensitive primary afferents were recorded from the LSN or PN and distinguished based on their response to receptive field stimulation with different mechanical stimuli: probing (160 mg to 2 g), stretch (1–25 g), and stroking of the urothelium (10–1,000 mg). Four different classes of afferent were recorded from the LSN and PN: serosal, muscular, muscular/urothielial, and urothelial. The LSN contained principally serosal and muscular afferents (97% of the total sample), whereas all four afferent classes of afferent were present in the PN (63% of which were muscular afferents). In addition, the respective proportions and receptive field distributions differed between the two pathways. Both low- and high-threshold stretch-sensitive muscular afferents were present in both pathways, and muscular afferents in the PN were shown to sensitize after exposure to an inflammatory soup cocktail. The LSN and PN pathways contain different populations of mechanosensitive afferents capable of detecting a range of mechanical stimuli and individually tuned to detect the type, magnitude, and duration of the stimulus. This knowledge broadens our understanding of the potential roles these two pathways play in conveying mechanical information from the bladder to the spinal cord. PMID:18003875

  5. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  6. The effects of whole green tea infusion on mouse urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Andreia; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; I Faustino-Rocha, Ana; I Teixeira-Guedes, Catarina; Pinho-Oliveira, Jacinta; Talhada, Daniela; H Teixeira, José; Andrade, Andreia; Colaço, Bruno; N Paiva-Cardoso, Maria; J Pires, Maria; MVD Ferreira, Ana; M Nunes, Fernando; A Oliveira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Green tea (GT) is one of the most popular beverages worldwide whose beneficial effects on health have been demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that GT may contribute to reduction of cancer risk and progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole GT on urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis in male and female ICR mice. Materials and Methods: The GT characterization was performed using spectrophotometric methods. Urinary bladder lesions were induced using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) by gavage during 10 weeks and whole GT (0.5%) was provided ad libitum during 20 weeks. Results: Animals from groups BBN+GT and BBN only developed preneoplastic lesions. Conclusion: We did not observe any effects by GT infusion administration on urinary bladder cancer development. PMID:24711900

  7. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Wöllner, J; Janzen, J; Pannek, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is rare. Only 10 cases have been described in the literature. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal paralysis. During the diagnostic work-up which included cystoscopy, black spots in the bladder wall were observed. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign suburothelial melanosis. Thus, with cystoscopic suspicion of a malignancy (melanoma), a biopsy is mandatory and regular cystoscopic follow-up is recommended. PMID:26358438

  8. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  9. Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... following ways: Lengthen the amount of time between bathroom trips. Increase the amount of urine your bladder ... Kegel exercises may also help control urges. Scheduled bathroom trips: Some people control their incontinence by going ...

  10. Early and long-term effects of radiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in mouse urinary bladder endothelium.

    PubMed

    Jaal, J; Dörr, W

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of irradiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells of vessels in mouse urinary bladder and to compare endothelial ICAM-1 expression with changes in bladder function (storage capacity) during the early and late radiation response phases. Female C3H/Neu mice were irradiated with doses of either 20 or 0 Gy. For assessment of ICAM-1 expression, which was measured by the intensity of the immunohistochemical staining signal in bladder endothelium, an arbitrary semiquantitative score (0 - 3) was applied. Bladder storage function was assessed by transurethral cystotonometry. A positive functional radiation response, defined as a reduction in bladder capacity by > 50%, between days 0 and 15 or 16 and 30 was found in 40 and 64% of the animals, respectively. A late functional response was observed in 71% of the animals sacrificed after day 180. Minor constitutive expression of ICAM-1 was observed in bladder endothelial cells. After irradiation, an increase in staining signal by day 2, with a maximum on day 4, and on days 16 - 28 was found, which preceded the functional radiation effects. A permanent increase in ICAM-1 staining signal was observed in the late phase on top of an age-related rise. ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in animals with a positive late response on day 90, i.e. during the initial late phase. Irradiation induces significant early and chronic variations in ICAM-1 expression in bladder endothelium, which preceded the functional response. This suggests that endothelial ICAM-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of both the early and late phases of radiation-induced urinary bladder effects. PMID:16076754

  11. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α cells in mouse urinary bladder: a new class of interstitial cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Byoung H; Roy, Rishiparna; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; McHale, Noel G; Sergeant, Gerard P; Hatton, William J; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Specific classes of interstitial cells exist in visceral organs and have been implicated in several physiological functions including pacemaking and mediators in neurotransmission. In the bladder, Kit+ interstitial cells have been reported to exist and have been suggested to be neuromodulators. More recently a second interstitial cell, which is identified using antibodies against platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α) has been described in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and has been implicated in enteric motor neurotransmission. In this study, we examined the distribution of PDGFR-α+ cells in the murine urinary bladder and the relation that these cells may have with nerve fibres and smooth muscle cells. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α+ cells had a spindle shape or stellate morphology and often possessed multiple processes that contacted one another forming a loose network. These cells were distributed throughout the bladder wall, being present in the lamina propria as well as throughout the muscularis of the detrusor. These cells surrounded and were located between smooth muscle bundles and often came into close morphological association with intramural nerve fibres. These data describe a new class of interstitial cells that express a specific receptor within the bladder wall and provide morphological evidence for a possible neuromodulatory role in bladder function. PMID:22151424

  12. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  13. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  14. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  15. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  16. Concentration-and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to twelve weeks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (AsD is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to ASi in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concen...

  17. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José G.A.; Klojda, Carlos A.B.; Araújo, Claudio P. De; Pires, Lucas A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman. PMID:27437302

  18. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  19. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  1. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  2. Cancer of the Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 76,960 % of All New Cancer Cases 4.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 16,390 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 587,426 people living with bladder cancer in ...

  3. Haemangiosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a dog.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Dernell, W S; Withrow, S J

    2004-04-01

    Haemangiosarcoma of the urinary bladder is reported in a dog. The bladder mass was detected incidentally during physical examination. Partial cystectomy with unilateral ureteroneocystostomy were performed to remove the tumour en bloc. Necrosis of the urinary bladder was diagnosed 10 days postoperatively and the dog was euthanased. PMID:15149071

  4. Iatrogenic foreign body in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Safdar; Qureshi, Farhan; Rakhio, Sain

    2015-04-01

    A 60 years old man presented with a history of suprapubic pain, painful micturition, perineal pain, and acute retention of urine followed by catheterization. On abdominal ultrasound, there was a metallic needle found in the urinary bladder which was confirmed on pelvis X-ray. The needle was found to be a metallic piece of a resectoscope cutting loop which was removed through cystourethroscopy. PMID:25899202

  5. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder. PMID:27335777

  6. Multistage carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S M; Greenfield, R E; Ellwein, L B

    1983-01-01

    The induction of cancer of the urinary bladder is a multi-stage process involving multiple exogenous and endogenous factors. Based on the classical initiation-promotion model, we have used N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) as initiator and sodium saccharin (SAC) or tryptophan as promoters. These latter chemicals have the properties expected of promoters: induction of hyperplasia, reversibility and nonmutagenicity. Also, tumors were induced whether the promoter was administered immediately after FANFT or beginning 6 weeks after FANFT was discontinued, but no tumors resulted if either promoter was given without initiation with FANFT. Factor(s) present in normal urine also are involved in the promotion process, in addition to the role of urine as a carrier of carcinogens. However, administration of SAC to animals with a rapidly proliferating bladder mucosa, induced by ulceration, pellet insertion, or in utero, resulted in bladder tumor induction, even without prior initiation with FANFT. To better understand the complex interaction of the multiple variables in bladder carcinogenesis, a stochastic computer model has been formulated based on long-term carcinogenicity and tissue kinetic studies in vivo. This model indicates the importance of cell proliferation and the development of hyperplasia in carcinogenesis. PMID:6832093

  7. Electroanatomical Mapping of the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Farag, Fawzy; Koens, Martin; Tijssen, Marij; Jong, Sytse de; Fabius, Timon; Tromp, Johnny; Breda, Hendrikje van; Smeets, Joep; Feitz, Wout; Heesakkers, John

    2016-06-01

    A noncontact mapping system (EnSite) was used for electroanatomical mapping of the bladder simultaneously with pressure flow study in three women with lower urinary tract symptoms. We selected the periods of obvious detrusor activity. Data were processed to remove baseline drift, and an envelope of electrovesicography (EVG) data was created. The correlation coefficient for the correlation between between the EVG envelope and the detrusor pressure (Pdet) was calculated. Bladder geometry was successfully created in all 3 patients. Simultaneous recording of EVG and pressure flow data was successful in 1 patient. Scatter plots were made of the highest correlation coefficient, showing a positive correlation between the Pdet and the envelope, and negative correlation between abdominal pressure (Pabd) and the envelope. Minimal electrical activity could be observed. Significant weak to moderate correlation coefficients were found for the correlations between Pdet and EVG and between Pabd and EVG. PMID:27377950

  8. Electroanatomical Mapping of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koens, Martin; Tijssen, Marij; de Jong, Sytse; Fabius, Timon; Tromp, Johnny; van Breda, Hendrikje; Smeets, Joep; Feitz, Wout; Heesakkers, John

    2016-01-01

    A noncontact mapping system (EnSite) was used for electroanatomical mapping of the bladder simultaneously with pressure flow study in three women with lower urinary tract symptoms. We selected the periods of obvious detrusor activity. Data were processed to remove baseline drift, and an envelope of electrovesicography (EVG) data was created. The correlation coefficient for the correlation between between the EVG envelope and the detrusor pressure (Pdet) was calculated. Bladder geometry was successfully created in all 3 patients. Simultaneous recording of EVG and pressure flow data was successful in 1 patient. Scatter plots were made of the highest correlation coefficient, showing a positive correlation between the Pdet and the envelope, and negative correlation between abdominal pressure (Pabd) and the envelope. Minimal electrical activity could be observed. Significant weak to moderate correlation coefficients were found for the correlations between Pdet and EVG and between Pabd and EVG. PMID:27377950

  9. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  10. Urinary Bladder Xanthoma - Is Immunohistochemistry Necessary?

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, M; Venugopal, A; Kaushik, Vinay N

    2016-09-01

    Urinary Bladder Xanthomas (UBX) are non-neoplastic reactive tumor like process. Isolated UBX is rare with only around 15 cases reported (Yu, Patel, & Bonert, 2015). UBX are reported in older patients who present with non specific symptoms like UTI or hematuria. Patients often have associated lipid anomalies. UBX have been vaguely described as yellowish white plaques or patches. Also, recent reports have stressed on the role of Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis (Al-Daraji, Varghese, & Husain, 2007; Vimal, Masih, Manipadam, & Chacko, 2012). The objective of this report is to provide a cystoscopic view of the tumor which will enable easier identification and also to debate on the role of IHC in diagnosis. PMID:27462546

  11. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  12. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  13. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection./sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  14. [Tumoriform endometriosis of the urinary bladder in advanced pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Zavadil, M; Feyreisl, J; Krofta, L; Jarolím, L

    2006-04-01

    A case of tumoriform endometriosis of urinary bladder immitating a tumor of the bladder during the first pregnancy of a 25-year-old patient was successfully treated by partial cystectomy allowing continuation of the pregnancy, a normal term delivery and after 5 months a second pregnancy with term delivery. PMID:16715635

  15. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of the Urinary Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Shipley, William U.

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed.

  16. Radiation dose-volume effects of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Akila N; Yorke, Ellen D; Marks, Lawrence B; Eifel, Patricia J; Shipley, William U

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed. PMID:20171505

  17. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  18. [An artificial urinary bladder sphincter for men].

    PubMed

    Hanus, T; Dvorácek, J; Kocvara, R

    1997-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a condition with involuntary escape of urine and causes not only medical but also social and hygienic problems. One of the causes of incontinence is insufficiency of the urethral closure mechanism which in men is usually caused by previous prostatectomy or neurogenic dysfunction of the lower urinary pathways. The method of choice is the application of an artificial sphincter (model AMS 800) to the bulbar urethra or cervix. The authors applied an artificial sphincter in 1993-1996 to one boy and 14 men aged 11-72 years. The basic components of the artificial sphincter of the urethra-AMS 800 is a cuff, balloon and pump. The whole system is filled with isotonic solution Omnipaque 300, the cuff which is 45-80 mm long is placed either round the bulbar urethra from a perineal approach or round the cervix by a retropubic approach. The pump is placed beneath the skin of the scrotum and the balloon is in a perivesical position. All parts of the AMS are connected by tubes. Because of infectious complications the authors had to explant the sphincter in two patients. In one patient it was necessary to add another cuff. The perineal approach is simpler, but is associated with a higher risk of erosion of the urethra. Patients with a neurogenic bladder had more complications than those after prostatectomy. Despite the fact that the method and aid is expensive, the treatment is very effective and makes the patients independent on other aids for incontinent patients. PMID:9182338

  19. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the options?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher C.K.; Khandasamy, Yugasaravanan; Singam, Praveen; Hong Goh, Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli M.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract. PMID:21483557

  20. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention. PMID:26693057

  1. Pathogenesis of human urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, George T.

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder cancer is being analyzed at several levels of biological organization, i.e., population groups, individual whole animal, tissue, cell, molecule, etc. Each of these levels provides opportunities for mechanistic studies. Yet the integration of these several levels into a cohesive fabric is incomplete. From a clinical point of view, the following seem of importance to human bladder cancer pathogenesis. The initiation, promotion, and progression of bladder cancer involves several factors acting concurrently or sequentially. These factors appear to be naturally occurring or synthetically created chemicals present in the external environment. Human exposures to these agents may begin in utero, and varying, dynamic qualitative and quantitative exposure patterns continue through developmental and adult life. Apparent latent periods of development of clinical bladder cancer may be as short as one, or as long as 50 years or more. Individuals may exhibit differential susceptibility to vesical carcinogens, perhaps through phenotypic differences in quantitative biotransformation routes. Differences in bladder epithelial cell susceptibilities probably also occur, as well as varying local tissue and generalized resistance to neoplasia formation. Older individuals do not appear to be more resistant to bladder carcinogenesis. A number of animal model systems have been developed for the study of the in vivo, cellular, and molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer. These models replicate many of the known salient features of human bladder cancer. Through use of appropriate whole animal models in conjunction with investigations of human and animal bladder cells and tissues in culture, controlled mechanistic and quantitative studies of bladder cancer pathogenesis should rapidly develop. PMID:6832092

  2. Urinary bladder calculi complicating ventriculo-vesical shunt.

    PubMed

    Shahul Hameed, A S; Yousaf, I; Choudhari, K A

    2005-10-01

    A rare case of vesical calculi complicating the procedure of ventriculo-vesical shunt is presented. In addition to highlighting technical difficulties in placing shunt catheters into the urinary system, the potential complications are discussed. We consider this route of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) diversion less physiological compared with the peritoneal, pleural or the venous sites, and discourage use of the urinary bladder as the drainage site for the shunting of CSF. PMID:16455572

  3. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  4. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Objective Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Methods Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1μM-100mM), α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. Results SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Conclusions Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in

  5. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  6. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment☆

    PubMed Central

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  7. Ultrasound-guided urinary bladder biopsy through a urinary catheter in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Julio; Norman, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    A 34.4 kg 5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. The dog had a recent onset of hematuria and stranguria but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog was sedated and a 10-French rubber catheter that had the blunt end removed was passed from the urethra to the urinary bladder. Using ultrasound guidance, ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps were advanced through the rubber catheter to the urinary bladder mass and biopsies were successfully obtained. The dog was discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with polypoid cystitis. Follow-up surgical removal of the polyp was uneventful, and histopathology confirmed the presurgical biopsy diagnosis. Procurement of urinary bladder biopsies through a urinary catheter with ultrasound guidance was used as a minimally invasive alternative to either cystoscopy or surgery in a bitch. Use of this technique achieved a diagnosis without the need for specialized endoscopic equipment, anesthesia, or surgery. PMID:25251433

  8. An unusual foreign body in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Hiranmay; Biswas, Siddhartha; Chowdhury, Jayanta Roy; Murmu, Rana Pratap

    2010-08-01

    A coiled electric cable was removed from the urinary bladder of a 35-year-old male, electrician by profession. Psychiatric evaluation revealed normal childhood and no psychiatric illness. Proper management by both a urologist and a psychiatrist is required in these cases. PMID:21404753

  9. Urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma in a shorthorn heifer.

    PubMed Central

    Step, D L; Streeter, R N; Confer, A W; Kirkpatrick, J G; Sundberg, J P; Arnold, C S; Bartels, K E

    2000-01-01

    A 12-month-old shorthorn heifer was presented for pollakiuria of 4 months' duration. Urinary bladder transitional cell papilloma was diagnosed. The heifer had no exposure to bracken fern and no papillomavirus or bacterium was demonstrated. Laser surgery was used in an attempt to debulk the mass. Images Figure 1. PMID:11062838

  10. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with <30 being malignant. A 50-year-old male presented with painless hematuria for 6 months. Cystoscopic biopsy of the bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology. PMID:25885144

  11. Developing a functional urinary bladder: a neuronal context

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Janet R.; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of organs occurs in parallel with the formation of their nerve supply. The innervation of pelvic organs (lower urinary tract, hindgut, and sexual organs) is complex and we know remarkably little about the mechanisms that form these neural pathways. The goal of this short review is to use the urinary bladder as an example to stimulate interest in this question. The bladder requires a healthy mature nervous system to store urine and release it at behaviorally appropriate times. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the construction of these neural circuits is not only relevant to defining the basis of developmental problems but may also suggest strategies to restore connectivity and function following injury or disease in adults. The bladder nerve supply comprises multiple classes of sensory, and parasympathetic or sympathetic autonomic effector (motor) neurons. First, we define the developmental endpoint by describing this circuitry in adult rodents. Next we discuss the innervation of the developing bladder, identifying challenges posed by this area of research. Last we provide examples of genetically modified mice with bladder dysfunction and suggest potential neural contributors to this state. PMID:26389118

  12. Primary malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder and ureter.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munad; O'Kane, Dermot; Du Plessis, Justin; Hoag, Nathan; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder is a rare lesion. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with no previous history of cutaneous melanoma who presented with hematuria. Further investigation with imaging and cystoscopy raised suspicion of a primary bladder and ureteric melanoma, which had subsequently metastasized. This was confirmed with histological assessment and a thorough search for alternative primary lesions. Unfortunately, our patient passed away prior to receiving any oncological treatment for his metastatic melanoma, underscoring both the high mortality of this lesion and the need for a consensus on definitive treatment. PMID:26892061

  13. Urinary bladder fibromas in dogs: 51 cases (1981-1985).

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G

    1987-02-15

    Between Jan 1, 1981, and June 30, 1985, fibromas were diagnosed in tissues removed from the urinary bladders of 51 dogs. Hematuria, the most common clinical sign, was associated with the fibromas in 47 of 50 cases. Most dogs responded well to surgical excision of the neoplasms, with rapid resolution of the hematuria followed by long periods without abnormal clinical signs. Three dogs were euthanatized because of continuing or recurrent clinical problems, which included bladder dysfunction. One dog required continuing medication with antibiotics and corticosteroids to control hematuria. PMID:3558085

  14. Impalement injury of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morita, Jun; Naoe, Michio; Nakasato, Takehiko; Ogawa, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    Impalement injury of the urinary bladder, especially secondary to rectal impalement, is extremely rare. In this case, a 31-year-old man sustained a steel pipe impalement injury through his perirectal region. He presented with gross hematuria, abdominal defense, and a penetrating wound. On the basis of the computed tomography findings and abdominal defense, we suspected a through-and-through bladder perforation from the rectal space to the intraperitoneum. Laparotomy revealed a through-and-through bladder perforation as well as damage to the right ureter, 3 distinct ileal injuries, and rectal anterior, anal, and right seminal vesicle injuries. Surgical repair of each damaged site was undertaken. The prompt diagnosis and surgical repair ensured good postoperative recovery. PMID:22741055

  15. Na+ transport by rabbit urinary bladder, a tight epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S A; Diamond, J M

    1976-08-27

    By in vitro experiments on rabbit bladder, we reassessed the traditional view that mammalian urinary bladder lacks ion transport mechanisms. Since the ratio of actual-to-nominal membrane area in folded epithelia is variable and hard to estimate, we normalized membrane properties to apical membrane capacitance rather than to nominal area (probably 1 muF approximately 1 cm2 actual area). A new mounting technique that virtually eliminates edge damage yielded resistances up to 78,000 omega muF for rabbit bladder, and resistances for amphibian skin and bladder much higher than those usually reported. This technique made it possible to observe a transport-related conductance pathway, and a close correlation between transepithelial conductance (G) and short-circuit current (Isc) in these tight epithelia. G and Isc were increased by mucosal (Na+) [Isc approximately 0 when (Na+) approximately 0], aldosterone, serosal (HCO-3) and high mucosal (H+); were decreased by amiloride, mucosal (Ca++), ouabain, metabolic inhibitors and serosal (H+); and were unaffected by (Cl-) and little affected by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Physiological variation in the rabbits' dietary Na+ intake caused variations in bladder G and Isc similar to those caused by the expected in vivo changes in aldosterone levels. The relation between G and Isc was the same whether defined by diet changes, natural variation among individual rabbits, or most of the above agents. A method was developed for separately resolving conductances of junctions, basolateral cell membrane, and apical cell membrane from this G--Isc relation. Net Na+ flux equalled Isc. Net Cl- flux was zero on short circuit and equalled only 25% of net Na+ flux in open circuit. Bladder membrane fragments contained a Na+-K+-activated, ouabain-inhibited ATPase. The physiological significance of Na+ absorption against steep gradients in rabbit bladder may be to maintain kidney-generated ion gradients during bladder storage of urine, especially

  16. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  17. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  18. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  19. Regulation of urinary bladder capacity by endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Booth, A M; Hisamitsu, T; Kawatani, M; De Groat, W C

    1985-02-01

    Naloxone administered to chloralose or ketamine anesthetized cats reduced urinary bladder capacity. Successive cystometrograms revealed that naloxone in doses of 0.5 microgram./kg. to 15 micrograms./kg. i.v. reduced the volume necessary to evoke micturition by 10 to 50 per cent, respectively. The effect was maximal within a few minutes, remained constant for about 1/2 hour and returned to control values over the next 2 to 3 hours. Following return to control, subsequent doses of naloxone produced no further effect on capacity. In chloralose anesthetized animals naloxone also increased the frequency and amplitude of low amplitude pressure waves on the tonus limb of the cystometrogram. Intrathecal administration of naloxone to the sacral spinal cord did not significantly reduce the volume necessary to evoke micturition even at large doses, but did increase the amplitude of micturition contractions. These data, along with previous reports, suggest that mu receptors in the brainstem alter urinary bladder capacity, while delta receptors in the spinal cord modulate the magnitude of bladder contractions. Pharmacological manipulation of these receptor systems could provide a tool for the management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. PMID:3968761

  20. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder. PMID:26694548

  1. Isolation of highly purified, functional endosomes from toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, T G; Morré, D J; Harris, H W; Zeidel, M L

    1993-01-01

    Endosomes are difficult to isolate as they share size and density properties with much more abundant cellular organelles such as mitochondria. In cultured cell lines the tandem use of charge-dependent isolation techniques and differential centrifugation is necessary to isolate endosomes. Endosomal populations of the toad urinary bladder are of special interest because they are thought to contain a water channel. Understanding of the molecular structure of the water channel has been constrained, as there is currently no practical method to isolate functional water-channel-containing vesicles. This study reports the tandem use of charge-dependent techniques and centrifugation to isolate populations of endosomes from the toad urinary bladder. To purify water-channel-containing vesicles aqueous two-phase partition was utilized to fractionate a preparation partially purified by differential centrifugation. Populations of endosomes were analysed by small-particle flow cytometry techniques. A 5-fold enrichment in endosomes, achieved with aqueous two-phase partition, allowed us to identify two populations of endosomes of diverse size in a toad bladder endosomal fraction. Preenrichment also improved the efficiency of flow cytometry sorting, allowing isolation of the two endosomal populations in sufficient quantities for secondary analysis. A population of larger endosomes had very high water permeability, indicating the presence of water channels. The two populations had different SDS/PAGE fingerprints. Electron micrographs of the flow-sorted material shows a uniform population of membrane vesicles devoid of mitochondria and other identifiable cellular organelles. Hence, aqueous two-phase partition and flow cytometry allow identification of two populations of endosomes in the toad urinary bladder which have diverse structural and functional properties. Isolation of functional water-channel-containing vesicles allows co-localization of water-channel function with candidate

  2. Ultrasonographic characterization of the urinary bladder in sows with and without urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Kauffold, Johannes; Gmeiner, Kerstin; Sobiraj, Axel; Richter, Andreas; Failing, Klaus; Wendt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The urinary bladders of sows (n=10) without urinary tract infection (UTI) were longitudinally transrectally scanned after emptying and refilling with 200, 400, 600 and 800mL saline, and a volume dependence was found for bladder depth (BD), dorsal (dWT) and ventral wall thicknesses (vWT), wall regularity (WR) and mucosal wall surface (mWS). When another 31 sows without and 15 with UTI (as defined on the basis of high bacterial count and macroscopic/biochemical urine abnormalities) were compared for these parameters using BD as volume equivalent, no differences were found. Sows with UTI more often had moderate to high amounts of sediment than animals without UTI. Ultrasonographic assessment of dWT, vWT, WR and mWS of the urinary bladder of sows requires knowledge of bladder volume, and BD may be used as a volume equivalent. However, the parameters are inappropriate for the diagnosis of UTI as defined in this study, while moderate/high amounts of sediment seem to be indicative. Sediment can be visualized by transrectal scanning, but this is also possible using the transcutaneous route. PMID:18976940

  3. Quantitative elasticity measurement of urinary bladder wall using laser-induced surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Zhang, Fan; Song, Shaozhen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of urinary bladder elasticity is essential to its functions, including the storage and voiding phases of the micturition cycle. The bladder stiffness can be changed by various pathophysiological conditions. Quantitative measurement of bladder elasticity is an essential step toward understanding various urinary bladder disease processes and improving patient care. As a nondestructive, and noncontact method, laser-induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can accurately characterize the elastic properties of different layers of organs such as the urinary bladder. This initial investigation evaluates the feasibility of a noncontact, all-optical method of generating and measuring the elasticity of the urinary bladder. Quantitative elasticity measurements of ex vivo porcine urinary bladder were made using the laser-induced SAW technique. A pulsed laser was used to excite SAWs that propagated on the bladder wall surface. A dedicated phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system remotely recorded the SAWs, from which the elasticity properties of different layers of the bladder were estimated. During the experiments, series of measurements were performed under five precisely controlled bladder volumes using water to estimate changes in the elasticity in relation to various urinary bladder contents. The results, validated by optical coherence elastography, show that the laser-induced SAW technique combined with PhS-OCT can be a feasible method of quantitative estimation of biomechanical properties. PMID:25574440

  4. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Lorenzo, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26962441

  5. [Follow-up after surgical replacement of the urinary bladder (urinary diversion)].

    PubMed

    Ubrig, B; Kories, C; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Surgical replacement of the urinary bladder is usually necessary after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Besides uro-oncological follow-up (local, urethral, and systemic recurrence; tumor in the upper tract) functional follow-up of the urinary diversion is indicated. Guidelines are still scarce. Long contact time and large surface area in continent pouches made from long intestinal segments lead to absorption of contents of urine and thus to acidosis and imbalances in serum electrolytes. Compensation depends on renal function. Exclusion of long ileal segments out of the intestinal passage may lead to malabsorption of Vitamin B12 and bile acids. 30 % and more of long-term survivors with continent pouches take Vitamin B12 and sodium bicarbonate. Special attention has to be paid to obstruction of the upper urinary tract, total renal function and to secondary malignancy in the bladder substitute. For the latter, sigma-rectum pouches, augmentation cystoplasties and continent pouches with incorporation of colonic segments are at special risk. Functional follow-up affords good understanding of the specific complications of the different types of urinary diversions. PMID:23386377

  6. Squamous Dysplasia of the Urinary Bladder: A Consecutive Cystectomy Series.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Kaag, Matthew; Raman, Jay D; Chan, Wilson; Tran, Truc; Kunchala, Sudhir; DeGraff, David; Chen, Guoli

    2016-06-01

    Squamous dysplasia of the urinary bladder is uncommon and may represent a precursor to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Though significant focus has been devoted to squamous differentiation in invasive bladder cancer, relatively little attention has been given to squamous dysplasia. We methodically reviewed microscopic slides from a consecutive cystectomy series at our institution (n = 303; 2001-2014), with special attention given to squamous dysplasia and squamous differentiation within association invasive carcinoma. Of these 303 cases, 3% (9 cases) had squamous dysplasia. The majority (89%; 8/9) had a similar morphological appearance to squamous dysplasia of the head and neck (ie, cytological atypia, architectural disturbances, and abnormal keratinization). Invasive carcinoma was present in 230 of the cystectomy cases. Of these 230 cases with invasive carcinoma, 4% (8 cases) also had squamous dysplasia. The invasive carcinoma had evidence of squamous differentiation in all cases with concurrent squamous dysplasia. Concurrent flat urothelial carcinoma in situ was present in 3 of the 8 cases with both invasive carcinoma and squamous dysplasia. Squamous dysplasia was not associated with clinical outcomes data, including death from bladder cancer and bladder cancer recurrence. The data from this study indicate that squamous dysplasia is uncommon in the cystectomy setting, frequently has the morphology of head and neck dysplasia, and is often associated with invasive carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:26860905

  7. Pathophysiology of Overactive Bladder and Urge Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Steers, William D

    2002-01-01

    Storage symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence, are characterized as overactive bladder (OAB). OAB can lead to urge incontinence. Disturbances in nerves, smooth muscle, and urothelium can cause this condition. In some respects the division between peripheral and central causes of OAB is artificial, but it remains a useful paradigm for appreciating the interactions between different tissues. Models have been developed to mimic the OAB associated with bladder instability, lower urinary tract obstruction, neuropathic disorders, diabetes, and interstitial cystitis. These models share the common features of increased connectivity and excitability of both detrusor smooth muscle and nerves. Increased excitability and connectivity of nerves involved in micturition rely on growth factors that orchestrate neural plasticity. Neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, and growth factors, such as nerve growth factor, provide mechanisms for bidirectional communication between muscle or urothelium and nerve, leading to OAB with or without urge incontinence. PMID:16986023

  8. Characterization of vasopressin receptors of rat urinary bladder and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.; Snajdar, R.M.; Rapp, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    By use of tritiated arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin specific binding sites were detected on Sprague-Dawley rat urinary bladder and spleen. In both tissues, one class of high-affinity binding sites was characterized with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.61 +/- 0.22 and 1.91 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 155 and 110 fmol/mg of protein, for bladder and spleen, respectively. In both tissues, several experimental arguments suggest that these receptors belong to the V/sub 1/-vascular type. AVP (10/sup -12/-10/sup -5/ M) did not modify the basal cyclic AMP production in either tissue. As cyclic AMP is known to respond to V/sub 2/ stimulation, the data suggest that the receptors measured are the V/sub 1/ type. The exploration of vasopressin receptors regulation should facilitate the comprehension of the role played by AVP in different models of experimental hypertension.

  9. Chronic bladder ischemia and oxidative stress: new pharmacotherapeutic targets for lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nomiya, Masanori; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bladder ischemia is potentially a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in the elderly. Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between lower urinary tract symptoms and vascular risk factors for atherosclerosis, and investigations using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography have shown a negative correlation between decreased lower urinary tract perfusion and International Prostate Symptom Score in elderly patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Bladder blood flow is also known to decrease in men with bladder outlet obstruction as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Studies in animal models suggest that chronic bladder ischemia and repeated ischemia/reperfusion during a micturition cycle might produce oxidative stress, leading to denervation of the bladder and the expression of tissue-damaging molecules in the bladder wall, which could be responsible for the development of bladder hyperactivity progressing to bladder underactivity. The effects of drugs with different mechanisms of action; for example, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, free radical scavengers and β3-adrenoceptor agonist, have been studied in animal models of chronic bladder ischemia. The drugs, representing different treatment principles for increasing blood flow and decreasing oxidative stress, showed protective effects not only on urodynamic parameters, but also on negative effects on muscle contractility and on detrimental structural bladder wall changes. Improvement of lower urinary tract perfusion and control of oxidative stress can be considered new therapeutic strategies for treatment of bladder dysfunction induced by chronic ischemia. PMID:25339506

  10. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases.

    PubMed

    Elawdy, Mohamed M; Harraz, Ahmed M; Zahran, Mohamed H; Abdelraheem; El-Baz, Mahmoud; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    "Inflammatory pseudotumor" (IPT) has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3-8 cm); computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2-10 years), no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries. PMID:26834412

  11. Robotic partial cystectomy for lymphangioma of the urinary bladder in an adult woman

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Raouf; Alzahrani, Hassan M.; Alkhudair, Waleed K.; Dababo, Mohammed Anas; Al-Otaibi, Mohammed F.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangioma of the urinary bladder is a very rare tumour in adulthood. Robotic partial cystectomy is evolving for treatment of a limited number of bladder tumours. We describe a case of an adult woman with a bladder dome lymphangioma for which robotic partial cystectomy was carried out. PMID:22396382

  12. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from 18F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for 99mTc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for 18F-FDG and 30% higher for 99mTc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  13. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  14. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Szopiński, Tomasz; Gołąbek, Tomasz; Ostasz, Oksana; Bojko, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1) anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele); 2) tumor- like lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies); 3) bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis), focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4) lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis); 5) postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis. PMID:26672732

  15. 5-hydroxytryptamine induced relaxation in the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Paz; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M; Bustamante, Salvador; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the inhibitory mediators in the urinary bladder outlet region. Here we investigated mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced relaxations of the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach Urothelium-denuded strips of pig bladder were mounted in organ baths for isometric force recordings of responses to 5-HT and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Key results After phenylephrine-induced contraction, 5-HT and 5-HT receptor agonists concentration-dependently relaxed the preparations, with the potency order: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-HT = RS67333 > (±)-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralinhydrobromide > m-chlorophenylbiguanide > α-methyl-5-HT > ergotamine. 5-HT and 5-CT relaxations were reduced by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulphonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride and potentiated by (S)-N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenylpropanamide dihydrochloride (WAY 100135) and cyanopindolol, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonists respectively. Inhibitors of 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A and 5-HT6 receptors failed to modify 5-HT responses. Blockade of monoamine oxidase A/B, noradrenergic neurotransmission, α-adrenoceptors, muscarinic and purinergic receptors, nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and prostanoid synthesis did not alter relaxations to 5-HT. Inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ and ATP-dependent K+ channels failed to modify 5-HT responses but blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na+-, Ca2+-and voltage-gated K+ (Kv)-channels potentiated these relaxations. Adenylyl cyclase activation and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition potentiated and reduced, respectively, 5-HT-induced responses. Under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic, non-nitrergic conditions, EFS induced neurogenic, frequency-dependent, relaxations which were resistant to WAY 100135 and cyanopindolol. Conclusions and implications 5-HT relaxed

  16. Effect of stretch on passive transport in toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Lief, P D; Mutz, B F; Bank, N

    1976-06-01

    In order to gain further information about the effect of stretch on the urinary bladder of the toad, transepithelial movement of radioactive sucrose, chloride, and urea was measured across bladder sacs during acute changes in the internal volume. Short-circuit current (SCC) and total tissue conductance (Kt) were also measured in each experiment. It was found that sudden large increases or smaller graded increases in volume resulted in a consistent fall in the tracer permeability (P*) of all three isotopes. However, this fall was due entirely to the larger area term in the calculation of P* rather than any real change in isotope movement. When total diffusion (TD) of each isotope was calculated by a method that eliminated the changes in surface area, it was apparent that stretch produced no significant effects on the transepithelial movement of any of these three molecules. Large stretch also resulted in parallel increases in SCC and Kt in most bladders. We conclude from these observations that the intercellular pathway for sucrose and chloride and the transcellular pathway for urea are unaltered by degrees of stretch that enhance SCC and sodium transport. By inference, the observed increases in Kt appear to represent changes in specific active pathway conductance (Ka), and may relate importantly to the changes in sodium transport. PMID:820207

  17. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  18. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  19. Light chain amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. A site restricted deposition of an externally produced immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, A; Shtrasburg, S; Martin, B; Baniel, J; Gal, R; Pras, M

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To identify the amyloid protein in a patient with amyloidosis localised to the urinary bladder, and to see whether subtyping of the protein by sequence analysis increases the understanding of the selection of the urinary bladder as the site of amyloid deposition. Methods—A patient with gross haematuria and a congophilic mass in his urinary bladder was evaluated further. Characterisation of the amyloid protein was performed using conventional histological and immunohistochemical methods. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the amyloid protein was performed using protein sequencers. Results—The patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation excluded the involvement of other organs, justifying a diagnosis of amyloidosis localised to the urinary bladder. Histological and immunological studies showed that the amyloid protein deposited in the urinary bladder of the patient was probably of the amyloid light chain type. No plasma cells or lymphocytes were seen in sections of the urinary bladder and lower ureter adjacent to the amyloid deposits. Molecular analysis showed the sequence NFMLTQPHSISGSPG, which assigned the amyloid protein to either the VλI or the VλVI immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain families. Conclusions—The findings suggest that the amyloid protein in this patient originated outside the urinary bladder. The heterogeneity of the Ig proteins in known cases of amyloidosis of the lower urinary tract suggests that the amino acid residues, which determine the Vλ subtyping, have no major role in restricting the deposited protein to the urinary bladder. Key Words: primary amyloidosis • urinary bladder • λ light chain • amino acid sequence PMID:11729210

  20. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as “villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix.” PMID:27169015

  1. Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  2. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB); A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sawalmeh, Haitham; Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Hussein, Ahmed; Al-Badri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous urinary bladder rupture is a rare urological emergency. It is usually secondary to an underlying pathology and it is an uncommon complication of urosepsis. We report a case of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture as a complication of urosepsis in a 67 year old male patient, who was admitted as a case of left diabetic foot and urinary tract infection. Case presentation A 67 year old male patient with a long standing indwelling urinary catheter and chronic cystitis developed acute peritonitis. Intraoperative finding was ruptured urinary bladder. Discussion A few cases of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture due to infection were found in literature. The majority of the patients present with diffuse abdominal pain, and tenderness due to chemical peritonitis. In the majority of cases the bladder perforation was diagnosed intra-operative. Conclusion A diagnosis of spontaneous perforation of the bladder should be considered in patients presenting with an acute abdomen. The general surgeon is more likely than the urologist to encounter such patients in the first instance. There should be a high index of suspicion in patients with an acute abdomen and have associated urinary bladder condition. PMID:26451645

  3. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in men: a Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    The rising incidence of urinary bladder cancer is alarming and potential relationships with different risk factors have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between different environmental risk factors and urinary bladder cancer. All men with urinary bladder cancer who were admitted to the Department of Urology of Reina Sofia University Hospital of Cordoba, Spain over 1 year were included in our study. Men were administered an interview questionnaire, which included data on history of known urinary bladder cancer risk factors. Comparisons between men with urinary bladder cancer (cases) and those with nonmalignant urological disease (controls) were made. The study included 74 cases and 89 controls. The variables associated with malignant lesions on univariate analysis were age, smoking and drinking alcohol. Meanwhile, fish, poultry and beef consumption were proved to be protective factors. The risk factors identified by the logistic regression analysis were age, smoking and fluid intake. The independent protective factors on the multivariate analysis were fish and poultry consumptions. Smoking was found to be the principal independent risk factors for urinary bladder cancer. Our results call for further investigation of urinary bladder cancer risk factors; future studies should preferably be performed on large prospective cohorts, to increase their validity. PMID:17106329

  4. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild t...

  5. Bioimpedance based monitoring system for people with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Palla, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefano; Fanucci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with impaired bladder volume sensation have the necessity to monitor bladder level in order to avoid urinary tract infections and urinary reflux that can lead to renal failure. In this paper the the effectiveness of an embedded and wearable solution for bladder volume monitoring using the bioimpedance measurement is tested. Data are streamed real-time using Bluetooth wireless technology. The bioimpedance measurements on a healthy subject prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. In the future the system will be evaluated in real world scenarios with patients affected by spinal paralysis and bladder neurogenic dysfunction. PMID:26294580

  6. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sounak; Zhang, Jun; Rivera, Michael; Erickson, Lori A

    2016-09-01

    Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder can arise sporadically or as a part of hereditary syndromes including those with underlying mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, which serve as tumor suppressors. SDH deficiency can be screened for by absence of immunohistochemical detection of SDHB. In this study of 11 cases, clinical follow-up was available for 9/11 cases. The cases were reviewed and graded based on the grading system for adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (GAPP) criteria. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki67 and SDHB. Proliferative index was calculated by quantification of Ki67-positive cells at hot spots. The medical record was accessed for documentation of germline SDH mutations. Urinary bladder paragangliomas had a female predilection (8/11 cases), and 5/11 cases exhibited metastatic behavior. Patients with metastatic disease tended to be younger (mean age 43 vs 49 years), have larger lesions (5.8 vs 1.5 cm), and presented with catecholamine excess (4/4 vs 2/6 patients with non-metastatic lesions). Patients with metastatic disease had a higher mean Ki67 proliferation rate (4.9 vs 1.3 %) and GAPP score (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8) (p = 0.01). IHC for SDHB expression revealed loss of expression in 2/6 cases of non-metastatic paragangliomas compared to 4/5 patients with metastatic paragangliomas. Interestingly, of these four patients, two had a documented mutation of SDHB, one patient had a SDHC mutation, and another patient had a history of familial disease without mutation analysis being performed. Our study, suggests that SDH loss was suggestive of metastatic behavior in addition to younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and higher Ki67 proliferation rate and catecholamine type. PMID:27262318

  7. Agricultural workers and urinary bladder cancer risk in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa'a A; Magder, Laurence S; Mikhail, Nabiel N; St George, Diane Marie; Squibb, Katherine; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between farming and the risk for squamous cell (SCC) or urothelial cell (UC) carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Egyptians. The authors used data from a multicenter case-control study (1,525 male and 315 female cases, and 2,069 male and 547 female age- and residence-matched, population-based controls) to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Men in farming and who never smoked had increased risk for either SCC or UC (AOR [95% CI]: 4.65 [2.59-8.36] and 6.22 [3.82-10.15], respectively). If they ever smoked, their risks were 2.27 (1.75-2.95) and 1.93 (1.58-2.35), respectively. Women in farmer households were at increased risk for SCC (1.40 [0.93-2.09] and UC [1.25 (0.82-1.89]), although not statistically significant. Occupational and environmental exposures to farming increased the risk for bladder cancer among Egyptians. PMID:23930791

  8. Specificities and binding properties of 2 monoclonal antibodies against carcinoma cells of the human urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Aissa, H.; Paulie, S.; Koho, H.; Biberfeld, P.; Hansson, Y.; Lundblad, M. L.; Gustafson, H.; Jonsdottir, I.; Perlmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    Mice were immunized with cultured cells derived from transitional cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder (TCC). Spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma cell line Sp2/0-Ag14 and the hybridomas obtained screened for antibody production against a panel of human cells. Two hybridomas were selected for further studies. The antibodies from one of these hybridomas (P7A5-4) could clearly discriminate between malignant and normal cells from the bladder, both when tested with cultured cells and fresh tissue. The P7A5-4 antibodies, however, also reacted with some non-TCC cultured carcinoma and melanoma cells but to a lesser extent. This difference in reactivity was even more pronounced in the fresh tumours tested, thus indicating a quantitative difference in antigen expression between TCC and other cells. From extracts of TCC cells, P7A5-4 bound three polypeptides of mol. wts 92Kd (ConA+), 23 and 17Kd (ConA-). The antibody derived from hybridoma SK4H-12 bound a ConA reactive glycopeptide of 100Kd mol. wt, the expression of which was almost entirely restricted to urothelial cell lines and tissue of TCC origin, as shown by immunocytochemical studies. The finding in this study of new antigens associated with urinary bladder carcinoma, extend the results obtained previously in our laboratory (Koho et al., 1984; Paulie et al., 1984) and further delineate the heterogeneity of tumour-associated antigens in this human tumour system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4015953

  9. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder ... stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of urinary tract infection (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need ...

  10. Selective binding of lectins to normal and neoplastic urothelium in rat and mouse bladder carcinogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Romih, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer adjuvant intravesical therapy could be optimized by more selective targeting of neoplastic tissue via specific binding of lectins to plasma membrane carbohydrates. Our aim was to establish rat and mouse models of bladder carcinogenesis to investigate in vivo and ex vivo binding of selected lectins to the luminal surface of normal and neoplastic urothelium. Male rats and mice were treated with 0.05 % N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water and used for ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments. Urinary bladder samples were also used for paraffin embedding, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence labelling of uroplakins. During carcinogenesis, the structure of the urinary bladder luminal surface changed from microridges to microvilli and ropy ridges and the expression of urothelial-specific glycoproteins uroplakins was decreased. Ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments gave comparable results. Jacalin (lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia) exhibited the highest selectivity for neoplastic compared to normal urothelium of rats and mice. The binding of lectin from Amaranthus caudatus decreased in rat model and increased in mouse carcinogenesis model, indicating interspecies variations of plasma membrane glycosylation. Lectin from Datura stramonium showed higher affinity for neoplastic urothelium compared to the normal in rat and mouse model. The BBN-induced animal models of bladder carcinogenesis offer a promising approach for lectin binding experiments and further lectin-mediated targeted drug delivery research. Moreover, in vivo lectin binding experiments are comparable to ex vivo experiments, which should be considered when planning and optimizing future research. PMID:23828036

  11. Post-Radical-Prostatectomy Urinary Incontinence: The Management of Concomitant Bladder Neck Contracture

    PubMed Central

    King, Thomas; Almallah, Y. Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Urinary incontinence postradical prostatectomy is a common problem which adversely affects quality of life. Concomitant bladder neck contracture in the setting of postprostatectomy incontinence represents a challenging clinical problem. Postprostatectomy bladder neck contracture is frequently recurrent and makes surgical management of incontinence difficult. The aetiology of bladder neck contracture and what constitutes the optimum management strategy are controversial. Here we review the literature and also present our approach. PMID:22611382

  12. Urinary Bladder Paraganglioma and Concomitant Metastatic Lung Cancer. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gkikas, Christos; Ram, Manisha; Tsafrakidis, Petros

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of an organ confined urinary bladder paraganglioma and concomitant metastatic lung cancer to the liver diagnosed on a 66 year old man initially though to be metastatic bladder cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital for frank hematuria and a single solid bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy. We are also reviewing the literature on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma. PMID:26793591

  13. Combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture: an unusual complication of obstructed labor in a primigravida

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Idris Usman; Abubakar, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background Combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture following prolonged obstructed labor is indeed a momentous uro-obstetric emergency. The urinary bladder involvement is distinctly rare in the absence of factors that predispose the bladder to be adherent to the lower uterine segment and is quite unusual in a primigravida. Objective To report a rare case of uterine rupture involving urinary bladder secondary to a prolonged obstructed labor in a primigravida from a low resource setting. Case A 17-year-old married unbooked primigravida who presented with a 3-day history of spontaneous onset of labor at term that was initially managed at home and later in a primary health care center where she had fundal pressure and oxytocin augmentation, respectively. The labor was complicated by combined uterine and urinary bladder rupture with sepsis. She was resuscitated and had exploratory laparotomy with uterine and urinary bladder repair. The postoperative period was uneventful and she was followed-up at the gynecology and family planning clinics. Conclusion There is a need for community reawakening on the inherent risks of teenage pregnancy, bad obstetric practices, and unsupervised pregnancy, labor, and delivery, particularly in the rural settings as in the index patient. A high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate intervention will reduce the sequel of morbidity and occasional mortality from this predicament. PMID:27499647

  14. Characterization of the basolateral membrane conductance of Necturus urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R; Finn, A L

    1987-04-01

    Necturus urinary bladders stripped of serosal muscle and connective tissue were impaled through their basolateral membranes with microelectrodes in experiments that permitted rapid changes in the ion composition of the serosal solution. The transepithelial electrical properties exhibited a marked seasonal variation that could be attributed to variations in the conductance of the shunt pathway, apical membrane selectivity, and basolateral Na+ transport. In contrast, the passive electrical properties of the basolateral membrane remained constant throughout the year. The apparent transference numbers (Ti) of the basolateral membrane for K+ and Cl- were determined from the effect on the basolateral membrane equivalent electromotive force of a sudden increase in the serosal K+ concentration from 2.5 to 50 mM/liter or a decrease in the Cl- concentration from 101 to 10 mM/liter. TK and TCl were 0.71 +/- 0.05 and 0.04 +/- 0.01, respectively. The basolateral K+ conductance could be blocked by Ba2+ (0.5 mM), Cs+ (10 mM), or Rb+ (10 mM), but was unaffected by 3,4-diaminopyridine (100 microM), decamethonium (100 microM), or tetraethylammonium (10 mM). We conclude that a highly selective K+ conductance dominates the electrical properties of the basolateral membrane and that this conductance is different from those found in nerve and muscle membranes. PMID:2438371

  15. Vitamin D Induction of the Human Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hertting, Olof; Holm, Åsa; Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Hanna; Dyrdak, Robert; Jonasson, Aino Fianu; Wiklund, Peter; Chromek, Milan; Brauner, Annelie

    2010-01-01

    The urinary tract is frequently being exposed to potential pathogens and rapid defence mechanisms are therefore needed. Cathelicidin, a human antimicrobial peptide is expressed and secreted by bladder epithelial cells and protects the urinary tract from infection. Here we show that vitamin D can induce cathelicidin in the urinary bladder. We analyzed bladder tissue from postmenopausal women for expression of cathelicidin, before and after a three-month period of supplementation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3). Cell culture experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms for cathelicidin induction. We observed that, vitamin D per se did not up-regulate cathelicidin in serum or in bladder tissue of the women in this study. However, when the bladder biopsies were infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), a significant increase in cathelicidin expression was observed after 25D3 supplementation. This observation was confirmed in human bladder cell lines, even though here, cathelicidin induction occurred irrespectively of infection. Vitamin D treated bladder cells exerted an increased antibacterial effect against UPEC and colocalization to cathelicidin indicated the relevance of this peptide. In the light of the rapidly growing problem of resistance to common urinary tract antibiotics, we suggest that vitamin D may be a potential complement in the prevention of UTI. PMID:21179490

  16. Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L W; Zachariah, N Y

    1979-09-14

    This study was done to determine if steroid compounds will stimulate the urinary bladder of the toad to increase its capacity to acidify the urine and excrete NH+4. Aldosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, dexamethasone, pregnenolone, and cholesterol were tested on the bladder. All compounds tested were found to stimulate the rate of acidification by the bladder, above that of a paired control hemibladder. In contrast, only the steroids aldosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were found to stimulate NH+4 excretion in the bladder. Cycloheximide was found to block the action of aldosterone on the NH+4 excretion, but did not have a significant effect on the stimulation of acidification by aldosterone. We conclude that steroids stimulate H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder. In addition, the NH+4 excretory system seems to be more specific to this effect than is the H+ excretory system. PMID:113550

  17. Is the poly (L- lactide- co- caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane suitable for urinary bladder regeneration?

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Adamowicz, Jan; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×10(6) cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  18. Pleomorphic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Renshaw, Idris L; Rubin, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the urinary bladder is often mixed with conventional transitional cell carcinoma and/or other histotypes. The pathologist's determination of the morphologic purity of a given LELC at the biopsy stage is a clinically relevant endeavour, because there is some anecdotal evidence suggesting that pure or predominant LELC may be comparatively chemosensitive and have a favorable prognostic profile, which may potentially offer the possibility of effective therapy without bladder resection. The precise degree of cellular pleomorphism that is allowed in a pure LELC is unclear. We describe herein an otherwise conventional and pure LELC that showed, in a localized area that constituted approximately 25% of the overall tumor volume, a two to six fold variation in nuclear size, including multinucleated tumor cells. These pleomorphic areas were set in the same lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate as their conventional counterparts, and similarly displayed cellular syncytia. We performed a detailed immunophenotypic comparison between the conventional areas and the pleomorphic areas. No significant differences were found between the 2 areas in overall lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic density, lymphocytic CD4/CD8 ratio, and lymphoplasmacytic kappa/lambda ratio. Similarly, both displayed similar qualitative and quantitative staining indices for p53, Ki67, cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and p16(INKa). Scattered cells were cytoplasmically beta-catenin positive exclusively in the pleomorphic areas; however these cells were not notably larger than the cells in the conventional areas. Both components were immunohistochemically negative for HMB-45, CD1a, the estrogen receptor, Epstein-Barr virus, CD117, D2-40, CD56, cytokeratin 20 and chromogranin. Clinicopathologic analysis of a series of cases is required to establish if there is any significance to nuclear pleomorphism in LELC. However, the phenotypic similarity between the 2 areas in this case, the intimate

  19. Transient contractions of urinary bladder smooth muscle are drivers of afferent nerve activity during filling.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Hill-Eubanks, David; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-04-01

    Activation of afferent nerves during urinary bladder (UB) filling conveys the sensation of UB fullness to the central nervous system (CNS). Although this sensory outflow is presumed to reflect graded increases in pressure associated with filling, UBs also exhibit nonvoiding, transient contractions (TCs) that cause small, rapid increases in intravesical pressure. Here, using an ex vivo mouse bladder preparation, we explored the relative contributions of filling pressure and TC-induced pressure transients to sensory nerve stimulation. Continuous UB filling caused an increase in afferent nerve activity composed of a graded increase in baseline activity and activity associated with increases in intravesical pressure produced by TCs. For each ∼4-mmHg pressure increase, filling pressure increased baseline afferent activity by ∼60 action potentials per second. In contrast, a similar pressure elevation induced by a TC evoked an ∼10-fold greater increase in afferent activity. Filling pressure did not affect TC frequency but did increase the TC rate of rise, reflecting a change in the length-tension relationship of detrusor smooth muscle. The frequency of afferent bursts depended on the TC rate of rise and peaked before maximum pressure. Inhibition of small- and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(SK and BK) channels increased TC amplitude and afferent nerve activity. After inhibiting detrusor muscle contractility, simulating the waveform of a TC by gently compressing the bladder evoked similar increases in afferent activity. Notably, afferent activity elicited by simulated TCs was augmented by SK channel inhibition. Our results show that afferent nerve activity evoked by TCs represents the majority of afferent outflow conveyed to the CNS during UB filling and suggest that the maximum TC rate of rise corresponds to an optimal length-tension relationship for efficient UB contraction. Furthermore, our findings implicate SK channels in controlling the gain of sensory

  20. Visualization of Proteus mirabilis within the matrix of urease-induced bladder stones during experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Hui; Lockatell, C Virginia; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2002-01-01

    The virulence of a urease-negative mutant of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and its wild-type parent strain was assessed by using a CBA mouse model of catheterized urinary tract infection. Overall, catheterized mice were significantly more susceptible than uncatheterized mice to infection by wild-type P. mirabilis. At a high inoculum, the urease-negative mutant successfully colonized bladders of catheterized mice but did not cause urolithiasis and was still severely attenuated in its ability to ascend to kidneys. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of P. mirabilis within the urease-induced stone matrix. Alizarin red S staining was used to detect calcium-containing deposits in bladder and kidney tissues of P. mirabilis-infected mice. PMID:11748205

  1. A mathematical model for the proliferation of bacteria in the urinary bladder due to enlarged prostate.

    PubMed

    Moxnes, John F; Hausken, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    Urinary retention due to enlargement of the prostate (prostate hypertrophy) leads to increased proliferation of bacteria in the bladder. This in turn increases the infection rate. The reason is that the enlarged prostate presses on the urine channel and tends to close it. Thus the out flux of the bladder consists of repeatedly small amounts of fluid during a day. A mathematical dynamic model with differential equations is developed for the proliferation of bacteria in the urinary bladder (vesica urinary). The model accounts for how this proliferation is associated with varying amounts of mass of urine within the bladder. Parameters are estimated from published data and analytical and numerical results are presented. The relationships between the proliferation of bacteria within the bladder and the type of urinal out flux from the bladder are examined. The proliferation is shown to depend on the amount of mass of urine and the out flux of urine from the bladder. In the normal situation the bladder is drained successfully which also drains the bacteria. In the abnormal situation the bladder drains only partly. Despite frequent urination, substantial urine mass in the bladder on the average allows bacteria to proliferate and increase in number through time. The simulations depend on the numerical values of the parameters which again depend on the prostate condition of each male adult under scrutiny. By determining the parameters for each male, the dynamic model can be used as a powerful tool by which the proliferation of bacteria in the bladder can be studied and controlled by different means. Three clinical advices are provided. First, try to achieve that the proliferation rate of bacteria in the bladder is as small as possible, e.g. through altering the pH or chemical composition within the bladder. Second, try to achieve that the out flux of urine from the bladder is substantial, through sufficient drinking. Third, try to achieve that the mass of urine in the

  2. Adjustable passive stiffness in mouse bladder: regulated by Rho kinase and elevated following partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Henderson, Sheree; Wilson, Cameron W; Klausner, Adam P; Ratz, Paul H

    2012-04-15

    Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contributes to bladder wall tension during filling, and bladder wall deformation affects the signaling system that leads to urgency. The length-passive tension (L-T(p)) relationship in rabbit DSM can adapt with length changes over time and exhibits adjustable passive stiffness (APS) characterized by a L-T(p) curve that is a function of both activation and strain history. Muscle activation with KCl, carbachol (CCh), or prostaglandin E(2) at short muscle lengths can increase APS that is revealed by elevated pseudo-steady-state T(p) at longer lengths compared with prior T(p) measurements at those lengths, and APS generation is inhibited by the Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitor H-1152. In the current study, mouse bladder strips exhibited both KCl- and CCh-induced APS. Whole mouse bladders demonstrated APS which was measured as an increase in pressure during passive filling in calcium-free solution following CCh precontraction compared with pressure during filling without precontraction. In addition, CCh-induced APS in whole mouse bladder was inhibited by H-1152, indicating that ROCK activity may regulate bladder compliance during filling. Furthermore, APS in whole mouse bladder was elevated 2 wk after partial bladder outlet obstruction, suggesting that APS may be relevant in diseases affecting bladder mechanics. The presence of APS in mouse bladder will permit future studies of APS regulatory pathways and potential alterations of APS in disease models using knockout transgenetic mice. PMID:22205227

  3. Allopurinol Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rat Urinary Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Hyun; Chun, Kwang Sik; Na, Yong-Gil; Song, Ki-Hak; Kim, Seung Il; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gun-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Bladder ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and markedly elevates the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO) and thus can serve as an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. Here, a rat model was used to assess the ability of allopurinol treatment to ameliorate the deleterious effects of urinary bladder I/R injury. I/R injury reduced the in vitro contractile responses of longitudinal bladder strips, elevated XO activity in the plasma and bladder tissue, increased the bladder levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduced the bladder levels of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and decreased and increased the bladder levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. I/R injury also elevated lipid peroxidation in the bladder. Allopurinol treatment in the I/R injury was generated significantly ameliorating all I/R-induced changes. Moreover, an in situ fluorohistological approach also showed that allopurinol reduces the generation of intracellular superoxides enlarged by I/R injury. Together, the beneficial effects of allopurinol reducing ROS production may be mediated by normalizing the activity of the ERK, JNK, and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways and by controlling TNF-α expression. PMID:26491537

  4. From gene discovery to new biological mechanisms: heparanases and congenital urinary bladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a scientific investigation into the pathogenesis of a urinary bladder disease. The disease in question is called urofacial syndrome (UFS), a congenital condition inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. UFS features incomplete urinary bladder emptying and vesicoureteric reflux, with a high risk of recurrent urosepsis and end-stage renal disease. The story starts from a human genomic perspective, then proceeds through experiments that seek to determine the roles of the implicated molecules in embryonic frogs and newborn mice. A future aim would be to use such biological knowledge to intelligently choose novel therapies for UFS. We focus on heparanase proteins and the peripheral nervous system, molecules and tissues that appear to be key players in the pathogenesis of UFS and therefore must also be critical for functional differentiation of healthy bladders. These considerations allow the envisioning of novel biological treatments, although the potential difficulties of targeting the developing bladder in vivo should not be underestimated. PMID:26315301

  5. Urinary symptoms and the neurological features of bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Betts, C D; D'Mellow, M T; Fowler, C J

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on the relationship between their neurological features and urinary symptoms. The severity of the urinary symptoms was related to the degree of pyramidal impairment in the lower limbs so that both problems are thought to reflect the extent of spinal involvement. No other neurological features correlated with bladder dysfunction. Detrusor hyperreflexia was the commonest finding on cystometry and no patient had areflexia. More than half of the patients had a significantly raised post-micturition residual volume but symptoms were largely unreliable in predicting poor bladder emptying. In this series only two patients had evidence of upper tract disease: both men with severe, longstanding neurological disease who had indwelling catheters. Detrusor hyperreflexia can be anticipated in patients with MS who have irritative urinary symptoms and pyramidal signs in their lower limbs. After measurement of the residual volume appropriate treatment can be instituted. PMID:8459239

  6. Myeloid sarcoma of the urinary bladder with cutaneous tumour seeding after percutaneous suprapubic catheterization.

    PubMed

    Geok Chin, Tan; Masir, Noraidah; Noor Hussin, Hamidah; Mohd Sidik, Shiran; Boon Cheok, Lee; Yean, Thean

    2011-06-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary myeloid tumour. It has been reported in various sites, including lymph node, bone, skin, soft tissue, various organs and the CNS. It may precede or occur concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia. Urinary bladder involvement is extremely uncommon. We report a 70-year-old female who had MS of the urinary bladder, presented with frank and persistent hematuria associated with lower abdominal pain. She subsequently had tumour seeding in the abdominal skin via percutaneous suprapubic catheter. Tumours from both the urinary bladder and skin showed immature cells that were immunoreactive toward LCA (focal), MPO (strong), CD99 (weak) and CD117 (weak). Summary of cases in the literature is presented. The potential of its misdiagnosis and the useful markers for the diagnosis of MS are discussed. PMID:21874752

  7. Cortex Moutan Induces Bladder Cancer Cell Death via Apoptosis and Retards Tumor Growth in Mouse Bladders.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Lee, Ying-Ray; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Cheng-Da; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Cortex Moutan is the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. It is the herbal medicine widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome. Furthermore, it has been reported that Cortex Moutan has anticancer effect. In this study, the Cortex Moutan extract was evaluated in bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. Cortex Moutan extract reduces cell viability with IC50 between 1~2 mg/ml in bladder cancer cells, and it has lower cytotoxicity in normal urotheliums. It arrests cells in G1 and S phase and causes phosphatidylserine expression in the outside of cell membrane. It induces caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation. The pan caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk reverses Cortex Moutan-induced cell death. Cortex Moutan also inhibits cell invasion activity in 5637 cells. In mouse orthotopic bladder cancer model, intravesical application of Cortex Moutan decreases the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters. In summary, these results demonstrate the antiproliferation and anti-invasion properties of Cortex Moutan in bladder cancer cells and its antibladder tumor effect in vivo. Cortex Moutan may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:24282433

  8. Colonization of frog Rana temporaria L. urinary bladder by Gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased effect of arginine-vasotocin on water reabsorption from the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ekaterina; Lavrova, Elena; Parnova, Rimma

    2013-11-01

    In frogs and toads the urinary bladder is very important for the maintenance of water balance due to its ability to store water which can be reabsorbed under the action of arginine-vasotocin (AVT). The usage of isolated bladders as a model for studying the osmotic water permeability (OWP) regulation has a disadvantage which relates to high variability of AVT effect among individuals, some showing insensitivity to the hormone. We hypothesized that the response of the bladder to AVT could depend on the colonization of the mucosal epithelium by Gram-negative bacteria. To test this, paired hemibladders of the frog Rana temporaria were used for measurement of OWP and for analysis of Gram-negative bacteria in the bladder tissue or isolated epithelial cells. Among the 206 frogs studied, 41% were infected by different Enterobacteriaceae, with prevalence of Hafnia alvei and Escherichia coli. In infected bladders the basal level of OWP was unchanged, whereas OWP stimulated by AVT was reduced (non-infected: 2.53 ± 0.13, n = 59, infected: 1.21 ± 0.17 µL min(-1)  cm(-2), n = 38, for the 15 min of AVT action, P < 0.001). In the sample, 100% of hemibladders that responded to AVT very weakly (OWP <0.5 µL min(-1)  cm(-2)) had a bacterial infection. Overnight treatment of hemibladders with mucosal lipopolysaccharide E. coli decreased OWP induced by AVT, forskolin, or IBMX lowering basal and stimulated level of cAMP. The data obtained indicate that the frog bladder epithelium could be colonized by Gram-negative bacteria, probably of cloacal origin, leading to reduction of sensitivity to AVT and to impairment of the urinary bladder to provide osmoregulation. PMID:23836531

  9. The increased excretion of urinary orosomucoid 1 as a useful biomarker for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Pengliang; Lin, Guangzheng; Li, Tieqiu; Hou, Lina; Du, Yuejun; Tan, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Improving the early detection rate and prediction of bladder cancer remains a great challenge in management of this disease. To examine the value of urinary orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) for the early detection and surveillance of bladder cancer, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS) were applied to identify the differently expressed proteins in urine between bladder cancer and healthy controls. Thirteen different proteins including ORM1 were identified. After verification by western blotting, the ORM1 expressions were quantified in 186 urine samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correcting for creatinine expression. ELISA quantification showed the urinary ORM1-Cr was found to be higher in bladder cancer patients compared to controls and benign cases (7172.23±3049.67 versus 2243.16±969.01, 2493.48±830.37 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the pearson correlation analysis indicated that urinary ORM1 had high positive correlation with the pathology classification of bladder cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value for early diagnosis of bladder cancer, and rendered an optimum cut-off value of 3912.97 ng/mg corresponding to 91.96% sensitivity and 94.34% specificity. Moreover, a cut-off value with 7351.28 ng/mg was utilized to distinguish infiltrating urothelial carcinoma from bladder cancer patients corresponding to 91.89% sensitivity and 90.67% specificity. In conclusion, our findings suggested the elevated urinary ORM1 could be a useful biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated ORM1. PMID:27186407

  10. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  11. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  12. The macro-microscopic peculiarities of the human urinary bladder glands.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, G

    2010-01-01

    We studied the glands of the 130 persons, victims from the casual reasons (a trauma, an asphyxia, etc.) from newborn to senile age; we investigated different variants of a bladder glands forms, the changes in different parts of the organs wall (proximal, average, distal thirds) from the newborn period to senile age by the method of macro-microsopy and morphometry on the total preparations of urinary bladder. Glands preliminary have been stained by a solution 0,05% methylene dark blue with Sinelnicov's method and by hematoxilin and eozin. The glands were investigated with the application of stereo binocular microscope MBS-9. Statistical data processing included calculation of arithmetic-mean values, their errors, confidential intervals (excel). The view of the human urinary bladder glands in the macro-microscopy investigation is different. The glands have roundish, oval, ribbon forms. The form of the glands in the different parts of human urinary bladder (proximal, middle and distal) is difference. In the microtopography the glands have been proximal-distal changes; the quantity of glands increase from the proximal to distal portion. The human urinary bladder have many complex glands (the glands with 3, 4 and more beginnings parts) to the quantity in the distal part. PMID:20834080

  13. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  14. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Managed by Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Rao, Ram Nawal; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Pradhan, Krishna; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder is a rare mesenchymal tumor with uncertain malignant potential. It often mimics soft tissue sarcomas both clinically and radiologically. Surgical resection in the form of partial cystectomy or transurethral resection remains the mainstay of treatment. Herein we report the case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a young girl, which was managed by laparoscopic partial cystectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic management of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder. PMID:24255764

  15. Nonkeratinised Squamous Metaplasia of the Urinary Bladder in Children: A Report of Case Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Background. Squamous metaplasia refers to the pathological transformation of the urothelium leading to nonkeratinised stratified squamous metaplasia (N-KSM). Objective. To present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children. Materials and Methods. In this study, we present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children aged from 5 to 17 years. From 2005 to 2013, metaplasia was diagnosed in 119 patients. The reasons behind visiting the hospital were nonspecific intense pain in the abdomen, recurrent urinary tract infections, and urination disorders. The most common symptoms of urinary bladder dysfunction were pollakiuria and difficulties in initiating micturition and retention of urine (reduced detrusor muscle activity). Results. In 20/119 patients (16.8%), metaplasia was incidentally diagnosed during cystoscopy performed for other causes. The changes characteristic for squamous metaplasia were diagnosed—in all these patients, a biopsy was performed. In all 119 patients, a squamous metaplasia was histopathologically diagnosed. Conclusions. Squamous metaplasia of the urinary bladder mucosa occurs in children and adolescents. Symptomatic treatment is administered mainly to improve the patients' quality of life and disease prognosis. PMID:24822222

  16. Update on Urinary Tract Markers in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, Bogdan; Powers, Kenneth; Lazarou, George

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic hypersensory condition of unknown etiology. Moreover, the optimal modality for diagnosing IC remains disputed. Several urinary markers have been investigated that may have potential utility in the diagnosis or confirmation of IC/BPS. Thus, inflammatory mediators, proteoglycans, urinary hexosamines, proliferative factors, nitric oxide (NO), BK polyomavirus family, and urothelial proinflammatory gene analysis have been found to correlate with varying degrees with the clinical diagnosis or cystoscopic findings in patients with IC/BPS. The most promising urinary biomarker for IC/BPS is antiproliferative factor, a sialoglycopeptide that has demonstrated inhibitory effects on urothelial cell proliferation and a high sensitivity and specificity for IC/BPS symptoms and clinical findings. In this article, we review the urinary markers, possible future therapies for IC/BPS, and the clinical relevance and controversies regarding the diagnosis of IC/BPS. PMID:26571430

  17. Adductor longus muscle metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Irfan; Ucar, Mehmet; Bozdag, Zehra; Alkan, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones and adrenal glands. Metastasis of bladder cancer to the skeletal muscle is extremely rare, as is the case in other malignancies. We report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who presented with pain and swelling in the right lower extremity and had difficulty walking, and who was later found to have metastasis in the adductor longus muscle 3 months after the initial diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The study also provides a review of the current literature. PMID:24827659

  18. Changes in autofluorescence based organoid model of muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Fleming, Stewart; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446646

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking. PMID:26271292

  20. Changes in autofluorescence based organoid model of muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Fleming, Stewart; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-04-01

    Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446646

  1. Real-Time Classification of Bladder Events for Effective Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Karam, Robert; Bourbeau, Dennis; Majerus, Steve; Makovey, Iryna; Goldman, Howard B; Damaser, Margot S; Bhunia, Swarup

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction with urodynamics has historically relied on data acquired from multiple sensors using nonphysiologically fast cystometric filling. In addition, state-of-the-art neuromodulation approaches to restore bladder function could benefit from a bladder sensor for closed-loop control, but a practical sensor and automated data analysis are not available. We have developed an algorithm for real-time bladder event detection based on a single in situ sensor, making it attractive for both extended ambulatory bladder monitoring and closed-loop control of stimulation systems for diagnosis and treatment of bladder overactivity. Using bladder pressure data acquired from 14 human subjects with neurogenic bladder, we developed context-aware thresholding, a novel, parameterized, user-tunable algorithmic framework capable of real-time classification of bladder events, such as detrusor contractions, from single-sensor bladder pressure data. We compare six event detection algorithms with both single-sensor and two-sensor systems using a metric termed Conditional Stimulation Score, which ranks algorithms based on projected stimulation efficacy and efficiency. We demonstrate that adaptive methods are more robust against day-to-day variations than static thresholding, improving sensitivity and specificity without parameter modifications. Relative to other methods, context-aware thresholding is fast, robust, highly accurate, noise-tolerant, and amenable to energy-efficient hardware implementation, which is important for mapping to an implant device. PMID:26292331

  2. Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a serious clinical problem, yet effective therapeutic options are limited, especially against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. In this review, we explore the development of a clinically relevant model of rUTI in previously infected mice and review recent developments in bladder innate immunity that may affect susceptibility to rUTI. Recent findings Chronic bladder inflammation during prolonged bacterial cystitis in mice causes bladder mucosal remodelling that sensitizes the host to rUTI. Although constitutive defenses help prevent bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder, once infection occurs, induced cytokine and myeloid cell responses predominate and the balance of immune cell defense and bladder immunopathology is critical for determining disease outcome, in both naïve and experienced mice. In particular, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier appears to be essential for preventing severe infection. Summary The innate immune response plays a key role in determining susceptibility to rUTI. Future studies should be directed towards understanding how the innate immune response changes as a result of bladder mucosal remodelling in previously infected mice, and validating these findings in human clinical specimens. New therapeutics targeting the immune response should selectively target the induced innate responses that cause bladder immunopathology, while leaving protective defenses intact. PMID:25517222

  3. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  4. Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-06-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane-anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE = voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72 ± 7% to 29 ± 7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70 ± 5% to 18 ± 4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low-intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1-50 Hz increased VE to 40-51% following UST and to 39-49% following BST, while high-intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention.

  5. Management of Urinary Incontinence in Complete Bladder Duplication by Injection of Bulking Agent at Bladder Neck Level into the Proximal Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Bladder duplication is a rare entity in children. The term encompasses a wide spectrum of anomalies from isolated bladder duplication in coronal or sagittal planes to duplicated bladder exstrophy and associated musculoskeletal and visceral anomalies. Given this wide variability, the treatment of these patients is not standardized. We hereby present a female patient with chief complaint of long-standing urinary incontinence who had complete bladder and urethral duplication and pubic diastasis. The patient was treated with bulking agent injection at the incompetent bladder neck and proximal urethra with resolution of incontinence, obviating the need for extensive surgeries. PMID:26904349

  6. Differential expression of microRNAs in mouse embryonic bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Benchun; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2009-08-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in several biological processes including development, differentiation and proliferation. Analysis of miRNA expression patterns in the process of embryogenesis may have substantial value in determining the mechanism of embryonic bladder development as well as for eventual therapeutic intervention. The miRNA expression profiles are distinct among the cellular types and embryonic stages as demonstrated by microarray technology and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR approach. Remarkably, the miRNA expression patterns suggested that unique miRNAs from epithelial and submucosal areas are responsible for mesenchymal cellular differentiation, especially regarding bladder smooth muscle cells. Our data show that miRNA expression patterns are unique in particular cell types of mouse bladder at specific developmental stages, reflecting the apparent lineage and differentiation status within the embryonic bladder. The identification of unique miRNAs expression before and after smooth muscle differentiation in site-specific area of the bladder indicates their roles in embryogenesis and may aid in future clinical intervention.

  7. Diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases in dogs by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Dehmiwal; Behl, S.M.; Singh, Prem; Tayal, Rishi; Pal, Madan; Chandolia, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the urinary bladder in different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducting on total 10clinical cases of the urinary bladder in dogs. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having a four-dimensional volumetric probe. Results: In the present study, the inflamed thickened wall was clearly visible with the distinction of different layers of the urinary bladder wall in some of the cases of cystitis using 2D ultrasonography. In 3D sonogram, the urinary bladder was visualized as a large anechoic structure with no distinction of different layers of the bladder wall. The cystoliths were clearly visible as hyperechoic structures with distal acoustic shadow in 2D sonogram and appeared as a bright echogenic area in 3D sonogram. In case of urinary bladder neoplasia in 2D ultrasonogram, the bladder lumen was found to be occluded with a large growth imaged as focal anechoic areas in the tissue of mixed echogenicity with small hyperechoic dots in this tissue parenchyma. In 3D ultrasonogram, a tissue of mixed echogenicity of pus was also observed. Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that 2D and 3D ultrasonography is very helpful for diagnosis of different clinical conditions of the urinary bladder such as cystitis, cystoliths, and urinary bladder neoplasia. The cavity of urinary bladder was more clearly visualized in 3D ultrasonography, but the distinction of different layers of the bladder wall was visualized only in 2D ultrasonography. The distinct shadow of pus and cystoliths were visible in 2D ultrasonogram. The visualization of pus in 3D ultrasonography was done for the first time in present study. PMID:27047159

  8. [EFFECT OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ON NEUTRAL LIPID METABOLISM AND CELLULAR ENERGETICS IN FROG URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Fock, E M; Braylovskaya, I V; Bachteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Parnova, R G

    2015-09-01

    It was shown previously that colonization of the frog urinary bladder by gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder (Fock et al. J. Exp. Zool., 2013, 319A: 487-494). In the present work performed on epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder the influence of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neutral lipid metabolism and cellular energetics was studied. It was shown that incubation of cells with LPS led to decrease of fatty acids oxidation and to retention of triacylglycerols (TAG) followed by an increase of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and cellular amount of TAG. Fatty acid composition of TAG was not changed under LPS. LPS did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential, however, LPS decreased oxygen consumption rate both in basal and uncoupling conditions. Cellular ATP production was also reduced in the presence of LPS. The data obtained indicate that a decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder induced by bacterial pathogens could be related to inhibition of fatty acids oxidation and impaired energy metabolism. PMID:26672162

  9. Strategies for prevention of urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Lance L; Klausner, Adam P

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the problem of urinary tract infections (UTIs) after spinal cord injury and disorders is defined, the relationship of bladder management to UTIs is discussed, and mechanical and medical strategies for UTI prevention in spinal cord injury and disorders are described. PMID:25064790

  10. Endoscopy-guided ectopic egg removal from the urinary bladder in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis)

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Christoph; Foster, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Egg retention in the urinary bladder of a leopard tortoise was diagnosed by radiography and confirmed by cystoscopy. The egg was removed with a modified polypectomy snare, aided by a flexible endoscope and insufflation. No complications occurred during the procedures and the tortoise made a complete recovery. PMID:24891641

  11. The pathology of urinary bladder lesions with an inverted growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aitao; Liu, Aijun; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Inverted lesions in the urinary bladder have been the source of some difficulty in urological pathology. The two common ones are von Brunn's nests and cystitis cystic/cystitis glandularis, which are considered normal variants of urothelium. Apart from them, a number of other rare urothelial lesions with inverted growth pattern occur in the urinary bladder. Some of them are only reactive conditions, just as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Some are benign tumors, namely inverted papilloma. Whereas others are malignant neoplasms, including inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma (low-grade and high-grade), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (inverted, nested and big nested variants). Because of the overlapping morphological features of all the inverted lesions mentioned above, even between high-grade invasive carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia which are only a kind of reactive conditions, it is very important for the surgical pathologist to recognize and be familiar with these inverted lesions in urinary bladder. In this article, we review these spectrums of inverted lesions of the urinary bladder. Emphasis is placed on histogenesis, morphology, differential diagnosis of these lesions, and the pathologic grading of the non-invasive inverted neoplasms, such as inverted papilloma, inverted PUNLMP, non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with low-grade, and non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with high-grade. PMID:27041933

  12. COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION IN KIDNEY AND URINARY BLADDER FROM RATS TREATED WITH DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is widespread in the environment and a human carcinogen. A major metabolite of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in most species, including humans, is dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which is also used as a pesticide. Unlike iAs, DMA induces urinary bladder tumors in rats. DMA is belie...

  13. The pathology of urinary bladder lesions with an inverted growth pattern

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aijun; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Inverted lesions in the urinary bladder have been the source of some difficulty in urological pathology. The two common ones are von Brunn’s nests and cystitis cystic/cystitis glandularis, which are considered normal variants of urothelium. Apart from them, a number of other rare urothelial lesions with inverted growth pattern occur in the urinary bladder. Some of them are only reactive conditions, just as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Some are benign tumors, namely inverted papilloma. Whereas others are malignant neoplasms, including inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma (low-grade and high-grade), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (inverted, nested and big nested variants). Because of the overlapping morphological features of all the inverted lesions mentioned above, even between high-grade invasive carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia which are only a kind of reactive conditions, it is very important for the surgical pathologist to recognize and be familiar with these inverted lesions in urinary bladder. In this article, we review these spectrums of inverted lesions of the urinary bladder. Emphasis is placed on histogenesis, morphology, differential diagnosis of these lesions, and the pathologic grading of the non-invasive inverted neoplasms, such as inverted papilloma, inverted PUNLMP, non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with low-grade, and non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with high-grade. PMID:27041933

  14. Imidazolium salts as small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Wagers, Patrick O; Tiemann, Kristin M; Shelton, Kerri L; Kofron, William G; Panzner, Matthew J; Wooley, Karen L; Youngs, Wiley J; Hunstad, David A

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel family of small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants that are expected to be of great value in preclinical studies of urologic conditions and have improved potential for translation compared with prior agents. There is broad urologic interest in the therapeutic potential of such exfoliating agents. The primary agent used in preclinical models, the cationic peptide protamine sulfate (PS), has limited translational potential due to concerns including systemic adverse reactions and bladder tissue injury. Intravesical application of a safe, systemically nontoxic exfoliant would have potential utility in the eradication of Escherichia coli and other uropathogens that reside in the bladder epithelium following cystitis, as well as in chronic bladder pain and bladder cancer. Here, we introduce a family of imidazolium salts with potent and focused exfoliating activity on the bladder epithelium. Synthesis and purification were straightforward and scalable, and the compounds exhibited prolonged stability in lyophilized form. Most members of the compound family were cytotoxic to cultured uroepithelial cells, with >10-fold differences in potency across the series. Upon topical (intravesical) administration of selected compounds to the murine bladder, complete epithelial exfoliation was achieved with physiologically relevant imidazolium concentrations and brief contact times. The exfoliative activity of these compounds was markedly improved in comparison to PS, as assessed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting for uroplakins. Bladder uroepithelium regenerated within days to yield a histologically normal appearance, and no toxicity was observed. Finally, the chemical scaffold offers an opportunity for inclusion of antimicrobials or conjugation with chemotherapeutic or other moieties. PMID:26124168

  15. Imidazolium Salts as Small-Molecule Urinary Bladder Exfoliants in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wagers, Patrick O.; Tiemann, Kristin M.; Shelton, Kerri L.; Kofron, William G.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Wooley, Karen L.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel family of small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants that are expected to be of great value in preclinical studies of urologic conditions and have improved potential for translation compared with prior agents. There is broad urologic interest in the therapeutic potential of such exfoliating agents. The primary agent used in preclinical models, the cationic peptide protamine sulfate (PS), has limited translational potential due to concerns including systemic adverse reactions and bladder tissue injury. Intravesical application of a safe, systemically nontoxic exfoliant would have potential utility in the eradication of Escherichia coli and other uropathogens that reside in the bladder epithelium following cystitis, as well as in chronic bladder pain and bladder cancer. Here, we introduce a family of imidazolium salts with potent and focused exfoliating activity on the bladder epithelium. Synthesis and purification were straightforward and scalable, and the compounds exhibited prolonged stability in lyophilized form. Most members of the compound family were cytotoxic to cultured uroepithelial cells, with >10-fold differences in potency across the series. Upon topical (intravesical) administration of selected compounds to the murine bladder, complete epithelial exfoliation was achieved with physiologically relevant imidazolium concentrations and brief contact times. The exfoliative activity of these compounds was markedly improved in comparison to PS, as assessed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting for uroplakins. Bladder uroepithelium regenerated within days to yield a histologically normal appearance, and no toxicity was observed. Finally, the chemical scaffold offers an opportunity for inclusion of antimicrobials or conjugation with chemotherapeutic or other moieties. PMID:26124168

  16. Breast metastasis from signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YAOMIN; WEI, HAIYAN; LI, JUN; LIU, XIAOJIAO; FU, PEIFEN

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the bladder metastatic to the breast is only sporadically reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first described case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder metastasizing to the breast. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who underwent transurethral partial cystectomy for signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine. At 7 months postcystectomy, the patient presented with a solitary nodule in the right breast. Following transdermic core needle puncture biopsy of the lesion and histological examination, the tumor was found to be composed of signet ring cells, which were similar to the cells in the original cystectomy specimen. The patient underwent mastectomy without further chemotherapy and has remained free from metastasis to other organs during 1 year follow-up. PMID:27330778

  17. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit. PMID:17401130

  18. Primary Urinary Bladder Angiosarcoma with Osteoclast-Like Multinucleated Giant Cells: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Nariman A.; Olsen, Jamie; Jelic, Tomislav M.; He, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Urinary bladder angiosarcoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: TURBT Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Angiosarcoma is a fatal and aggressive mesenchymal tumor. It occurs in skin, breast, and parenchymal organs. It rarely arises primarily in the urinary bladder. Only 13 cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma have been reported in the English literature. Case Report: The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with inability to void. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a urinary bladder mass. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Pathological examination results were consistent with angiosarcoma. In addition to the unusual location of this tumor, the pathology was different from the previously reported cases in that this case was rich with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: The pathological diagnosis of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma is challenging. Histological patterns and immunophenotypes are variable. Here, we review all reported cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma, highlight the clinical and morphological features of this malignant neoplasm, and report a unique case of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. PMID:26947436

  19. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ristimäki, Ari; Nieminen, Outi; Saukkonen, Kirsi; Hotakainen, Kristina; Nordling, Stig; Haglund, Caj

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is elevated in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and that inhibition of Cox-2 activity suppresses bladder cancer in experimental animal models. We have investigated the expression of Cox-2 protein in human TCCs (n = 85), in in situ carcinomas (Tis) of the urinary bladder (n = 17), and in nonneoplastic urinary bladder samples (n = 16) using immunohistochemistry. Cox-2 immunoreactivity was detected in 66% (67 of 102) of the carcinomas, whereas only 25% (4 of 16) of the nonneoplastic samples were positive (P < 0.005). Cox-2 immunoreactivity localized to neoplastic cells in the carcinoma samples. The rate of positivity was the same in invasive (T1–3; 70%, n = 40) and in noninvasive (Tis and Ta; 65%, n = 62) carcinomas, but noninvasive tumors had a higher frequency (32%) of homogenous pattern of staining (>90% of the tumor cells positive) than the invasive carcinomas (10%) (P < 0.05). However, several invasive TCCs exhibited the strongest intensity of Cox-2 staining in the invading cells, whereas other parts of the tumor were virtually negative. Finally, strong Cox-2 positivity was also found in nonneoplastic ulcerations (2 of 2) and in inflammatory pseudotumors (2 of 2), in which the immunoreactivity localized to the nonepithelial cells. Taken together, our data suggest that Cox-2 is highly expressed in noninvasive bladder carcinomas, whereas the highest expression of invasive tumors associated with the invading cells, and that Cox-2 may also have a pathophysiological role in nonneoplastic conditions of the urinary bladder, such as ulcerations and inflammatory pseudotumors. PMID:11238034

  20. Receptors involved in the modulation of guinea pig urinary bladder motility by prostaglandin D2

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have described a urothelium-dependent release of PGD2-like activity which had inhibitory effects on the motility of guinea pig urinary bladder. Here, we have pharmacologically characterized the receptors involved and localized the sites of PGD2 formation and of its receptors. Experimental Approach In the presence of selective DP and TP receptor antagonists alone or combined, PGD2 was applied to urothelium-denuded diclofenac-treated urinary bladder strips mounted in organ baths. Antibodies against PGD2 synthase and DP1 receptors were used with Western blots and for histochemistry. Key Results PGD2 inhibited nerve stimulation -induced contractions in strips of guinea pig urinary bladder with estimated pIC50 of 7.55 ± 0.15 (n = 13), an effect blocked by the DP1 receptor antagonist BW-A868C. After blockade of DP1 receptors, PGD2 enhanced the contractions, an effect abolished by the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548. Histochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity for PGD synthase in the urothelium/suburothelium with strongest reaction in the suburothelium. Immunoreactive DP1 receptors were found in the smooth muscle of the bladder wall with a dominant localization to smooth muscle membranes. Conclusions and Implications In guinea pig urinary bladder, the main effect of PGD2 is an inhibitory action via DP1 receptors localized to the smooth muscle, but an excitatory effect via TP receptors can also be evoked. The urothelium with its suburothelium might signal to the smooth muscle which is rich in PGD2 receptors of the DP1 type. The results are important for our understanding of regulation of bladder motility. PMID:25917171

  1. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  2. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  3. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  4. Coexistence of Malakoplakia and Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song Liang Joshua; Teo, Jin Kiat; Lim, Sey Kiat Terence; Salkade, Hema Parag; Mancer, Kent

    2015-10-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease that commonly involves the genitourinary tract, with the urinary bladder being the most frequently affected site. Grossly, malakoplakia can present as soft yellow plaques, nodules, bladder mass, or even without any visible lesion. In this article, we present a 74-year-old female with a background of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and poorly controlled diabetes who presented with sepsis of unknown origin. During the course of the investigation of the source of her sepsis, an incidental bladder tumor was discovered. She subsequently underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Histology revealed ordinary low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma that had small colonies of malakoplakia that appeared to have developed secondary to the tumor and presented concurrently. We seek to demonstrate the rare association of papillary urothelial carcinoma and malakoplakia. PMID:26194600

  5. [Inhibitory effect of Chinese herb medicine zhuling on urinary bladder cancer. An experimental and clinical study].

    PubMed

    Yang, D A

    1991-06-01

    Inhibitory effect of Zhuling (Grifola umbellata pilat) on urinary bladder cancer was determined experimentally and clinically. The results showed that zhuling inhibited significantly the induction of bladder cancer in rats exposed to N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), decreasing from 100% (18/18) in control group to 61.1% (11/18) in zhuling (P less than 0.01). Zhuling was given to 22 patients with recurrent bladder cancer after TUR or partial cystectomy. The patients were followed up for 12 to 38 months (average 26.5 months). Bladder cancer recurred in seven of the patients with a longer recurrence interval (19.2 months) after medication than before medication (P less than 0.05). The remaining 15 patients had no recurrence. The mechanism of Zhuling is discussed. PMID:1935440

  6. Downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and IL-6 following irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Giglio, D; Wasén, C; Mölne, J; Suchy, D; Swanpalmer, J; Jabonero Valbuena, J; Tobin, G; Ny, L

    2016-07-01

    The pathophysiology behind radiation cystitis is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether bladder irradiation affects the immune system of the rat urinary bladder. Female rats were sedated and exposed to one single radiation dose of 20 Gy or only sedated (controls) and killed 16 h to 14 days later. Rats were placed in a metabolic cage at 16 h, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days following bladder irradiation. The urinary bladders were harvested and analysed with qPCR, immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot for the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Urine was collected and analysed for IL-6 and nitrite (reflecting nitric oxide activity) with ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Irradiation increased bladder frequency and decreased voiding volumes 14 days following bladder irradiation. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of IL-10 and collagen in the bladder, while TLR4 and IL-6 expressions were decreased in the urothelium concomitantly with a decrease in mast cells in the submucosa and urine levels of IL-6 and nitrite. The present findings show that bladder irradiation leads to urodynamic changes in the bladder and may suppress important immunoregulatory pathways in the urinary bladder. PMID:27117224

  7. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tan Tanny, Sharman P.; Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath A.; Longano, Anthony; Appu, Sree; Shahbaz, Shekib

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare but benign clinical entity. Its ability to mimic malignancy poses a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report the first case in Australia, of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the bladder in a 40-year-old male, removed via transurethral resection. PMID:27175348

  8. Physiological and pathophysiological implications of micromotion activity in urinary bladder function.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, B; Drake, M J

    2015-02-01

    'Micromotions' is a term signifying the presence of localized microcontractions and microelongations, alongside non-motile areas. The motile areas tend to shift over the bladder surface with time, and the intravesical pressure reflects moment-by-moment summation of the interplay between net contractile force generated by micromotions and general bladder tone. Functionally, the bladder structure may comprise modules with variable linkage, which supports presence of localized micromotions (no functional linkage between modules), propagating contractions (where emergence of linkage allows sequential activation) and the shifting of micromotions over time. Detrusor muscle, interstitial cells and intramural innervation have properties potentially relevant for initiating, coordinating and modulating micromotions. Conceptually, such activity could facilitate the generation of afferent activity (filling state reporting) in the absence of intravesical pressure change and the ability to transition to voiding at any bladder volume. This autonomous activity is an intrinsic property, seen in various experimental contexts including the clinical setting of human (female) overactive bladder. 'Disinhibited autonomy' may explain the obvious micromotions in isolated bladders and perhaps contribute clinically in neurological disease causing detrusor overactivity. Furthermore, any process that could increase the initiation or propagation of microcontractions might be anticipated to have a functional effect, increasing the likelihood of urinary urgency and detrusor overactivity respectively. Thus, models of bladder outlet obstruction, neurological trauma and ageing provide a useful framework for detecting cellular changes in smooth muscle, interstitial cells and innervation, and the consequent effects on micromotions. PMID:25154454

  9. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Men: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Kelsey, Karl T.; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand the association between Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and risk of bladder cancer in a large men's cohort. Methods Using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined risk of bladder cancer in relation to severity of LUTS among 30,183 men. During the follow-up period from 1996 until 2010, 476 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Among men with severe LUTS, risk of bladder cancer was 64% higher (relative risk (RR): 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 3.08) compared with men who reported no LUTS. Subjects with both voiding and storage dysfunction had a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer (RR: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.56). Among individual urinary symptoms, urinary hesitancy was strongly associated with bladder cancer; those who experienced urinary hesitancy at least 50% of the time had more than twice the risk of bladder cancer (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.78). Conclusions Our findings suggest that LUTS, especially urinary hesitancy, are associated with the development of bladder cancer in men. PMID:25863833

  10. Podoplanin (D2-40) is a reliable marker of urinary bladder myofibroblasts (telocytes).

    PubMed

    Povýšil, C; Kaňa, M; Zámečník, L; Vaľová, Z; Hanuš, T

    2014-01-01

    Podoplanin, D2-40, has been described in a variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. It is often used for highlighting lymphatics. We evaluated the expression of podoplanin in α-smooth muscle actinpositive myofibroblasts producing the suburothelial layer in tunica propria of the urinary bladder that have some similar features with telocytes. Our results showed that these cells demonstrate distinct D2-40 immunoreactivity from telocytes occurring in the renal pelvis and ureter. We observed positive reaction not only in bioptic specimens from women with interstitial cystitis, but also in a control group of women and men treated for pathological bladder lesion different from interstitial cystitis. It is interesting that identical staining reaction was observed in the ureters only exceptionally. In addition, we examined samples from myofibroblastic tumoriform lesions of soft tissue such as nodular fascitis and fibromatosis (desmoid) and we obtained negative results. It means that the so-called myofibroblasts of urinary bladder tunica propria have a unique immunophenotype that has probably not been described until now. Our findings suggest that D2-40 can be used as a complementary immunostainer to α-smooth muscle actin on urinary bladder biopsies from patients with interstitial cystitis. The role of D2-40 as an immunohistochemical marker is still being investigated. PMID:25629270

  11. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: How Immunohistochemistry Can Assist to Identify Patients With SDHB Germline and Somatic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Giubellino, Alessio; Lara, Karlena; Martucci, Victoria; Huynh, Than; Agarwal, Piyush; Pacak, Karel; Merino, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary bladder paraganglioma (paraganglioma) is a rare tumor of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic system of the urinary bladder wall. We studied 14 cases of this entity and investigated the usefulness of SDHB protein staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with bladder paragangliomas that could be associated with SDHB gene mutations, as these patients have a more aggressive disease. Eleven tumors from these patients were stained by IHC. Six of 11 tumors were negative for SDHB staining by IHC with no cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells when compared with normal tissues. Five of these 6 negative cases were confirmed to be positive for germline SDHB mutations. One case showed negative staining and no germline SDHB mutation; however, further investigation of the tumor revealed a somatic SDHB gene deletion. The remaining 5 cases showed strong cytoplasmic staining, but they were negative for the presence of SDHB mutation. They were found to be either sporadic tumors or part of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Staining for SDHA was positive in all cases. Our study confirms that there is very good correlation between the presence of an SDHB mutation, whether germline or sporadic, and negative SDHB IHC staining in urinary bladder paragangliomas, and this is the first study to demonstrate that somatic mutations can be recognized by IHC staining. PMID:26457353

  12. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

  13. Overexpression of Aquaporin-1 and Caveolin-1 in the Rat Urinary Bladder Urothelium Following Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung Hee; Park, Kwangsung; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of detrusor overactivity induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and caveolin 1 (CAV1) in the rat urinary bladder, and to determine the role of these molecules in detrusor overactivity. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n=30) and experimental (n=30) groups. The BOO group underwent partial BOO, and the control group underwent a sham operation. After 4 weeks, an urodynamic study was performed to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 and CAV1 were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence experiments in the rat urinary bladder. Results In cystometrograms, the contraction interval was significantly lower in the BOO group (2.9±1.5 minutes) than in the control group (6.7±1.0 minutes) (P<0.05). Conversely, the average contraction pressure was significantly higher in the BOO group (21.2±3.3 mmHg) than in the control group (13.0±2.5 mmHg) (P<0.05). AQP1 and CAV1 were coexpressed in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the suburothelial layer. AQP1 and CAV1 protein expression was significantly increased in the BOO rats compared to the control rats (P<0.05). Conclusions Detrusor overactivity induced by BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1 and CAV1, which were coexpressed in the suburothelial microvasculature. This finding suggests that AQP1 and CAV1 might be closely related to bladder signal activity and may have a functional role in BOO-associated detrusor overactivity. PMID:24466464

  14. Inhibitory actions of GABA on rabbit urinary bladder muscle strips: mediation by potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D R; Marchant, J S

    1995-05-01

    1. The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) upon rabbit urinary bladder muscle were investigated to determine whether they were mediated through potassium channels. 2. In vitro experiments were undertaken in which bladder muscle strips were caused to contract with carbachol. Addition of GABA or baclofen reduced the size of such evoked contractions in the case of GABA by 20.7 +/- 3.2%, in the case of baclofen by 22.4 +/- 2.2%. 3. Electrical stimulation of autonomic nerves in bladder wall strips also evoked contractions which were significantly smaller in potassium-free Krebs solution. The size of contractions produced by carbachol on the other hand were unaffected by the absence of potassium in the Krebs solution. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA and baclofen on carbachol-induced contractions of bladder muscle were detected at much lower concentrations in potassium-free compared with potassium containing solutions. 5. The inhibitory effects of baclofen were completely reversed by tetraethyl ammonium chloride between 1 and 5 mM, caesium chloride between 0.5 and 3 mM and barium chloride between 0.5 and 2.5 mM. The actions of baclofen were only partially reversed by 4-amino-pyridine between 1 and 5 mM. 6. It was concluded that the GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory actions on rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle cells were produced by activation of potassium channels. PMID:7647988

  15. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  16. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  17. Fourier analysis of electrical impedance variations in urinary bladder during changes of intravesical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. V.; Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Gavrilov, I. Yu; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Stranadko, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Original hardware and software system was used to record and analyze the variations of electrical impedance of the urinary bladder in narcotized rats (n=7) at rest, during instillation of physiological saline into the bladder resulted in elevation of intravesical pressure, and during subsequent urination accompanied by intravesical pressure release. Fourier analysis of impedance variations revealed three periodic components with the frequencies of heartbeat, respiration, and the Mayer wave (~0.1 Hz). In resting bladder, the amplitude of Mayer and respiratory spectrum peaks were high, and they increased to a different extent during physiological elevation of intravesical pressure, while a small cardiac peak did not changed significantly and tended to decrease at high intravesical pressure. Urination released intravesical pressure and restored all the peaks to the resting level. It is hypothesized that Mayer and respiratory bioimpedance oscillations of urinary bladder are neural in origin, while the cardiac peak is mainly determined by hydrodynamic arterial pulsations. The novel method can assess vesical circulation and its neural control at various phases of bladder activity.

  18. Botulinum Toxin A Injection in the Bladder Neck: A Promising Treatment for Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Marianne; Zgheib, Joseph; El Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Secondary to failure of optimal medical therapy and the high morbidity that accompanies surgical techniques in high risk patients, the use of de novo treatments including botulinum toxin A is emerging in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the treatment of urinary retention secondary to BPH via injecting botulinum toxin into the bladder neck is not well established in the literature. This case report describes the case of a 75-year-old male patient with a chronic history of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and multiple comorbidities who was admitted to the hospital for management of recurrent urinary retention. The patient was not a surgical candidate for transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Botulinum toxin injection into the bladder neck was performed with very satisfying results. Botulinum toxin injection in the bladder neck presents a promising minimally invasive, tolerated, and cost-effective approach for the treatment of urinary retention in patients with benign prostatic obstruction who are not candidates for surgery or in whom medical treatment has failed. More research is needed to identify the efficacy of this novel approach. PMID:27088032

  19. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jing-Jing; Dai, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1

  20. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma urinary bladder coexisting with tuberculosis in pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Murugan, P Puvai

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is usually associated with Schistosoma haematobium and chronic bladder irritation. We report a case of coexistent metastatic SCC and tuberculosis in obturator lymph nodes in radical cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Though tubercular iliac lymphadenitis and metastatic transitional carcinoma following intravesical BCG has been reported, the concurrent presence of non-transitional cell cancer and primary lymph nodal tuberculosis in regional lymph nodes is rare. This case is reported to highlight the paucity of management guidelines available presently in the treatment of such patients who require systemic chemotherapy and antitubercular therapy. PMID:24296773

  1. [Sonography of the uretero-vesical junction and the urinary bladder in children].

    PubMed

    Ponhold, W; Balzar, E; Zwiauer, K

    1984-03-01

    Sonography of the ureterovesical junction and of the urinary bladder is described on the basis of examinations of 41 children. This included all distended bladder walls, ureteral dilations, ureteroceles and a rhabdomyosarcoma. Sonographic imaging presents difficulties in visualising ureters less than 6 mm wide, and in case of normal uretero-vesical junctions. Sonography cannot assess a versicoureteral reflux. Sonography should not be used in the first diagnosis of nephrourological changes as an alternative to radiological methods, since this may result in overlooking relevant curable changes in children. Sonography is particularly valuable in clarifying renal insufficiency and in following up children with nephrourological disease. PMID:6713789

  2. Is chronic urinary infection a cause of overactive bladder?

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Aswini A; Wildman, Scott S; Strutt, Matthew; Duckett, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a diagnosis resulting from a combination of multiple underlying factors. Current traditional treatments are based on anticholinergic blockade which have marginal benefits and are associated with poor tolerability and continuation rates. There is mounting evidence that chronic low grade bacterial bladder colonisation may exacerbate OAB symptoms and may explain why the current treatment strategies are not always successful. However, standard diagnostic laboratory tests to identify the presence of such bacterial infection are unreliable. Newer technologies such as RNA sequencing and extended culture techniques, show that urine is not sterile and organisms that are found in urine may be responsible for OAB symptoms. This article aims to review the current evidence suggesting that micro-organisms in urine may be important in the aetiology of OAB or may exacerbate OAB symptoms. PMID:27088624

  3. Cystoscopic optical coherence tomography for urinary bladder imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. G.; Adler, H.; Chan, D.; Jain, A.; Xie, H. K.; Wu, Z. L.; Pan, Y. T.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes the development of new 2D MEMS mirrors and the pertinent modification to improve OCT endoscopic catheter packaging suitable for in vivo imaging diagnosis of bladder cancers. Comparative study of the newly developed endocopic OCT versus the bench-top OCT is presented. Results of in vivo OCT cystoscopy based on a porcine acute inflammation model are presented to compare time-domain OCT and spectral-domain OCT for in vivo imaging. In addition, results of spectral-domain Doppler OCT are presented to image blood flow in the lamina propria of the bladder. The results of our in vivo animal study using the presented OCT endoscope are discussed for potential problems in the future clinical applications.

  4. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  5. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Çamtosun, Ahmet; Çelik, Huseyin; Altıntaş, Ramazan; Akpolat, Nusret

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material. PMID:26788399

  6. Time-dependent aldosterone metabolism in toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Brem, A.S.; Pacholski, M.; Morris, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) metabolism was examined in the toad bladder. Bladders were incubated with (/sup 3/H)aldosterone (10(-7) M) for 5 h, 1 h, or 10 min. Tissues were analyzed for metabolites using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In separate experiments, Na+ transport was assessed by the short-circuit current (SCC) technique. Following a 5-h tissue incubation, about 25% of the (/sup 3/H)-aldosterone was converted into metabolites including a polar monosulfate metabolite, 20 beta-dihydroaldo (20 beta-DHAldo), small quantities of 5 beta-reduced products, and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced Aldo products including 5 alpha-DHAldo, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroaldo (3 alpha,5 alpha-THAldo), and 3 beta,5 alpha-THAldo. Tissues metabolized approximately 10% of the labeled hormone into the same compounds by 1 h. Measurable quantities of these metabolites were also synthesized by bladders exposed to Aldo for only 10 min and then incubated in buffer for an additional 50 min without Aldo. Bladders pretreated with the spironolactone, K+-canrenoate (3.5 X 10(-4) M), and stimulated with Aldo (10(-7) M) generated a peak SCC 44 +/- 6% of that observed in matched pairs stimulated with Aldo (P less than 0.001; n = 6). K+-canrenoate also markedly diminished (/sup 3/H)aldosterone metabolism at both 5 and 1 h. Thus, metabolic transformation of Aldo begins prior to hormone-induced increases in Na+ transport. Both the generation of certain metabolites (e.g., 5 alpha-reductase pathway products) and the increase in Na+ transport can be selectively inhibited by K+-canrenoate.

  7. [Removal of a Foreign Body in the Urinary Bladder in a Patient Four Times in the Past Thirty Years].

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Sohei; Tsutahara, Koichi; Yamamichi, Gaku; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of recurring foreign bodies in the urinary bladder. A 67-year-old male inserted a foreign body into the urinary bladder during masturbation. Eight months later, he experienced a fever and went to a hospital where ultrasonography revealed a foreign body in his urinary bladder. Then, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. The patient's surgical record indicated that he had undergone the same operation 3 times in the past thirty years. The inserted foreign body was successfully removed by suprapubic cystotomy, and he was discharged 13 days after the operation. He was also evaluated by psychiatrists, but they diagnosed that he had no mental disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the removal of a foreign body in the urinary bladder four times in the same patient. PMID:27133888

  8. Crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit currents in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Loo, D D; Diamond, J M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a condition in rabbits characterized by CaCO3 crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit current (Isc) in the urinary bladder. The incidence of the condition was high in rabbits kept for 2 mo or more in the vivarium. The crystal mass in the bladder increased with age or time until it occupied up to one-third of the bladder volume and occasionally aggregated as stones, and the urine attained a sludgy consistency. In animals with sludgy urine, the urine excreted had a crystal content 20 times lower than that of urine contained in the bladder at time of death, implying retention of crystals in the bladder. Kidney stones were not detected in rabbits with bladder crystals, and bladder crystals were absent in rabbits with kidney stones induced experimentally by uremia. In old rabbits with sludgy urine the Isc, a measure of Na+ transport, was up to 46 microA/cm2 and averaged 12 microA/cm2, seven times the Isc of rabbits with nonsludgy urine. The increased Isc was entirely amiloride sensitive. Noise analysis showed it to arise entirely from increased channel density, without change in single-channel current. With one possible exception, we could not find bacterial infection or abnormalities in plasma aldosterone, GFR, or urinary [Na+], [Ca2+], pH, or osmolality that could explain the condition. The exception is that some unidentified component accounting for half the osmolality of nonsludgy urine is absent or at low concentration in sludgy urine. It remains unknown why the condition develops and whether CaCO3 crystals cause high Isc or vice versa or whether both result from a third factor. PMID:3970165

  9. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Igor; Recio, Paz; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Agis-Torres, Ángel; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Fernandes, Vítor S.; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR) and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR) were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR. PMID:27285468

  10. Central role of the BK channel in urinary bladder smooth muscle physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The physiological functions of the urinary bladder are to store and periodically expel urine. These tasks are facilitated by the contraction and relaxation of the urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), also known as detrusor smooth muscle, which comprises the bladder wall. The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK, BKCa, MaxiK, Slo1, or KCa1.1) channel is highly expressed in UBSM and is arguably the most important physiologically relevant K+ channel that regulates UBSM function. Its significance arises from the fact that the BK channel is the only K+ channel that is activated by increases in both voltage and intracellular Ca2+. The BK channels control UBSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the repolarization phase of the spontaneous action potentials that determine UBSM spontaneous rhythmic contractility. In UBSM, these channels have complex regulatory mechanisms involving integrated intracellular Ca2+ signals, protein kinases, phosphodiesterases, and close functional interactions with muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors. BK channel dysfunction is implicated in some forms of bladder pathologies, such as detrusor overactivity, and related overactive bladder. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the functional role of UBSM BK channels under normal and pathophysiological conditions and provides new insight toward the BK channels as targets for pharmacological or genetic control of UBSM function. Modulation of UBSM BK channels can occur by directly or indirectly targeting their regulatory mechanisms, which has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches for bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder and detrusor underactivity. PMID:24990859

  11. Stimulation of urinary acidification by insulin in the turtle bladder.

    PubMed

    Arruda, J A

    1983-07-01

    Addition of insulin to the substrate-containing serosal solution of freshly excised bladders or to that of bladders incubated overnight in substrate-enriched media increases the rate of H+ secretion to a greater extent in the latter (overnight group) than in the former. This effect can be blocked by pretreatment with anti-insulin antibody, suggesting that the stimulation of H+ secretion is a specific effect of insulin. The effect of insulin is concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation of H+ secretion at 100 mU/ml and maximal stimulation at 250 mU/ml. Other characteristics of the insulin-induced stimulation of H+ secretion were its independence of any effect of Na transport and its absolute requirement for the presence of substrate (glucose or pyruvate) under aerobic conditions only. The proton-secreting action of insulin is associated with an increase in the proton-selective conductance in series with the proton pump while the estimated electromotive force of the proton pump remains constant. Finally, the insulin-induced and aldosterone-induced stimulations of proton secretion are mutually independent, as shown by the additivity of these events and by the fact that the effect of insulin was not blocked by pretreatment with cycloheximide. These data suggest that endogenous insulin modulates the rate of H+ secretion by the in vivo turtle bladder. PMID:6346905

  12. Primary uterine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder with urinary cytology mimicking carcinomas: A case report.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Sumiyo; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Liang, Shan-Guang; Ishida, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 69-year-old woman in whom diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) originated from the uterus and involved the urinary bladder. The cervical smears of the case mostly consisted of discohesive atypical round cells, which were highly suggestive of lymphoma; however, in voided urine smears, a majority of the cells formed large aggregates of degenerated cells, mimicking those of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The smears also represented some small loose clusters, in which tumor cells formed short chains with nuclear molding, mimicking those of small cell carcinoma. The cytodiagnosis got definitive when we identified the atypical cells that showed CD20+/CD3-/cytokeratin-/NSE- immunophenotype. These are of particular concern as they may have misleading similarities to other epithelial neoplasms when examining lymphoma involving the urinary bladder. Accordingly, this case highlights the importance of immunocytochemistry to rule out malignant lymphoma when encountering large and/or small loose clusters of atypical round cells on urinary cytology. PMID:26729979

  13. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification: Molecular and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Erik; Cheng, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the urinary bladder are a rare type of tumor that account for a small percentage of urinary bladder neoplasms. These tumors of the urinary bladder range from well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (carcinoids) to the more aggressive subtypes such as small cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, there has been substantial investigation into the underlying genomic, molecular, and the cellular alterations within this group of neoplasms. Accordingly, these findings are increasingly incorporated into the understanding of clinical aspects of these neoplasms. In this review, we provide an overview of recent literature related to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder. Particular emphasis is placed on molecular alterations and recently described gene expression. The neuroendocrine tumors of the urinary bladder are subdivided into four subtypes. Similar to their pulmonary and other extrapulmonary site counterparts, these have different degrees of neuroendocrine differentiation and morphological features. The clinical aspects of four subtypes of neuroendocrine tumor are discussed with emphasis of the most recent developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. An understanding of molecular basis of neuroendocrine tumors will provide a base of knowledge for future investigations into this group of unusual bladder neoplasms. PMID:27334654

  14. Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A novel management approach to a rare tumour

    PubMed Central

    Pugashetti, Neil; Yap, Stanley A.; Lara, Primo N.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Dall’Era, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a variant of adenocarcinoma, is exceedingly rare and as a result no gold standard exists for its management. We report a case of primary SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases; we utilized an innovative diagnostic approach and the patient exhibited a treatment response to palliative FOLFOX-6 chemotherapy. PMID:26085880

  15. Functional and biochemical characteristics of urinary bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivo as well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined. Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different. Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors. PMID:26466064

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced neoplasia in the urinary bladder: a missing link?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Wang, Lisha; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Emerson, Robert E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Pedrosa, Jose A; Kaimakliotis, Hristos Z; Koch, Michael O; Cheng, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The discovery that the role human papillomavirus (HPV) plays in the induction of human cancer represents an important achievement in oncologic research. It has taken on even greater importance since the development of vaccines, which promise the hope of preventing these cancers from ever occurring. Because of these important implications, many have attempted to determine a possible role for the virus in cancers of the urinary bladder-an organ in close anatomic proximity to the primary sites of HPV-induced neoplasia and one which already has an established oncogenic infectious agent in Schistosoma haematobium. Here we review the current literature exploring this possible role in the most common subtype of cancer of the urinary bladder, urothelial carcinoma, and two much more rare histologic subtypes that have well established roles for HPV-induced neoplasia in other anatomic sites-squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. PMID:26687533

  17. The use of urinary bladder matrix in the treatment of trauma and combat casualty wound care.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Ian L; Campbell, Paul; Sabino, Jennifer; Dearth, Christopher L; Fleming, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of combat injuries and resulting wounds can be difficult to treat due to compromised and evolving tissue necrosis, environmental contaminants, multidrug resistant microbacterial and/or fungal infections, coupled with microvascular damage and/or hypovascularized exposed vital structures. Our group has developed surgical care algorithms with identifiable salvage techniques to achieve stable, definitive wound coverage often with the aid of certain regenerative medicine biologic scaffold materials and advanced wound care to facilitate tissue coverage and healing. This case series reports on the role of urinary bladder matrix scaffolds in the wound care and reconstruction of traumatic and combat wounds. Urinary bladder matrix was found to facilitate definitive soft tissue reconstruction by establishing a neovascularized soft tissue base acceptable for second stage wound and skin coverage options within traumatic and combat-related wounds. PMID:26237704

  18. Concrement formation in the urinary bladder in rats inoculated with Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Brorson, J E; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1985-01-01

    To study the concrement-forming ability of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the urinary tract, viable and heat-killed ureaplasmas as well as urease and non-urease-producing bacteria were inoculated into the bladder in rats. Viable ureaplasmas, in contrast to heat-killed, caused the formation of bladder stones with a frequency corresponding to urease-producing bacteria (Proteus mirabilis). It was not possible to reculture the inoculated ureaplasmas from the urinary tract. Non-urease producing microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma hominis) only occasionally induced stone formation. The results indicate that U. urealyticum can initiate stone formation, a property that appears to be associated with the urease activity of the organism. PMID:4049607

  19. Effects of tachykinins on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in slices of hamster urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, D. R.; Curtis, N. R.; Suman-Chauhan, N.; Watling, K. J.; Williams, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    Tachykinin-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis was examined in slices of hamster urinary bladder. In the presence of lithium, to inhibit inositol monophosphatase activity, substance P, eledoisin and related tachykinins induced large, dose-dependent increases in [3H]-inositol monophosphate accumulation. The responses to substance P and eledoisin were not antagonized by the cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins was kassinin greater than neurokinin A greater than neurokinin B greater than eledoisin greater than physaelamin greater than substance P greater than substance P methyl ester. The synthetic analogue [p-Glu6, D-Pro9]SP (6-11) was considerably more potent than its L-prolyl stereoisomer at stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. These results suggest that in the hamster urinary bladder, tachykinin-induced inositol phospholipid breakdown is mediated via tachykinin receptors of the SP-E type, as opposed to the SP-P type. PMID:3028559

  20. Scientific basis for learning transfer from movements to urinary bladder functions for bladder repair in human patients with CNS injury.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT) has been shown to be able to partly repair CNS injury. The repair is based on a movement-based re-learning theory which requires at least three levels of description: the movement or pattern (and anamnesis) level, the collective variable level, and the neuron level. Upon CDT not only the actually performed movement pattern itself is repaired, but the entire dynamics of CNS organization is improved, which is the theoretical basis for (re-) learning transfer. The transfer of learning for repair from jumping on springboard and exercising on a special CDT and recording device to urinary bladder functions is investigated at the neuron level. At the movement or pattern level, the improvement of central nervous system (CNS) functioning in human patients can be seen (or partly measured) by the improvement of the performance of the pattern. At the collective variable level, coordination tendencies can be measured by the so-called 'coordination dynamics' before, during and after treatment. At the neuron level, re-learning can additionally be assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) as alterations of single motor unit firings and motor programs. But to express the ongoing interaction between the numerous neural, muscular, and metabolic elements involved in perception and action, it is relevant to inquire how the individual afferent and efferent neurons adjust their phase and frequency coordination to other neurons to satisfy learning task requirements. With the single-nerve fibre action potential recording method it was possible to measure that distributed single neurons communicate by phase and frequency coordination. It is shown that this timed firing of neurons is getting impaired upon injury and has to be improved by learning The stability of phase and frequency coordination among afferent and efferent neuron firings can be related to pattern stability. The stability of phase and frequency coordination at the neuron level can

  1. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Materials and Methods Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. Results The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (p<0.001). The expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA in BC patients was also significantly higher than that in noncancer patient controls and hematuria patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). High expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA was also detected in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. Conclusions In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC. PMID:26981592

  2. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with bladder neck preservation: positive surgical margin and urinary continence status

    PubMed Central

    Jaskulski, Jaroslaw; Jarecki, Piotr; Dudek, Przemysław; Szopiński, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preservation of the bladder neck (BN) has been controversial, as limited excision of the bladder neck may result in incomplete resection of the disease. Moreover, the urinary continence rate may not be improved. Aim To evaluate the effect of bladder neck sparing on urinary continence, and surgical margins status in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 295 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer in a single institution was performed. Positive surgical margin (SM(+)) and urinary continence status at 3, 6, and 12 months were evaluated. Results The distribution of SM(+) for pT2, pT3, and pT4a was 15.3% (27/176), 49.1% (58/118), and 100% (1/1), respectively. Overall, there were 55.61%, 80.61%, and 84.69% of men continent at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. However, when limiting the analysis to those who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy within 12 months following surgery, urinary continence rates were 59.23%, 85.86%, and 90.21% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological T stage were identified as significant predictors of positive surgical margins. Conclusions Conclusions: Laparoscopic radical extraperitoneal prostatectomy with bladder neck preservation has been a safe procedure which has resulted in good functional outcome. We observed a relatively high incidence of positive surgical margins which could be attributed to a large number of extracapsular disease cases. PMID:25337159

  3. Transepithelial water flow regulates apical membrane retrieval in antidiuretic hormone-stimulated toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Harris, H W; Wade, J B; Handler, J S

    1986-09-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases the osmotic water permeability (Posm) of toad urinary bladder. This increase is believed to be produced by fusion of intracellular vesicles called aggrephores with the granular cell apical plasma membrane. Aggrephores contain intramembrane particle aggregates postulated to be water channels. ADH-stimulated Posm is decreased by osmotic gradient exposure, which is termed flux inhibition. We studied flux inhibition by exposing ADH-stimulated bladders to various osmotic gradients. Osmotic water flow was initially proportional to the applied osmotic gradient, but Posm decreased with time. Ultrastructural and quantitative studies of endocytosis demonstrate that apical membrane retrieval was a direct function of the transepithelial osmotic gradient. Posm remained unchanged when apical membrane retrieval was blocked by incubation of bladders at 2 degrees C, or under low water-flow conditions. These effects were reversed by increases in temperature or the applied osmotic gradient. We conclude that apical membrane retrieval causes the phenomenon of flux inhibition. PMID:2427542

  4. An Unusual Complication of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Urinary Bladder Stone Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songtao; Sheng, Weixin; Qiu, Yufa; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery is the most common technique used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt to the bladder is rare. Only two cases have been previously reported in the literature. Case Presentation: We report on a 38-year-old male who had hydrocephalus and V-P shunt for 12 years. Two years ago, he found himself with recurrent urinary tract infections, haematuria and urges incontinence, and then he was diagnosed with bladder perforation and merge stones. The patient had an abdominal operation to cut off and take out the shunt catheter, as well as a transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy. Conclusions: Bladder perforation and stones are rare examples of complications in V-P surgical procedures. Controlling the effective length of the terminal V-P shunt and modifying it appropriately can effectively reduce these complications. PMID:26889393

  5. [Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder without typical symptoms: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Kunihiro; Kamei, Shingo; Taniguchi, Mitsuhiro; Tada, Kouji; Takahashi, Yoshito; Iwata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with bladder tumor. It was detected by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an examination for hysteromyoma. She had neither hypertention, gross hematuria nor the classic symptoms of cathecholamine excess during micturition. The diameter of the tumor was 33 mm. Cystoscopic examination showed a submucosal tumor in the left anterior wall of the bladder. Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed. Biopsy specimens revealed as a pheochromocytoma. 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy showed abnormal accumulation in the bladder, and no abnormal accumulation in the other lesion. Endocrinologic examination disclosed increased levels of serum and urinary noradrenalin. On May 18, 2005, partial cystectomy was performed. The catecholamine levels normalized after partial cystectomy. The patient has been followed up for 9 months and shown no recurrence. PMID:17176875

  6. Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Daugherty, Stephanie L.; de Groat, William C.; Birder, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to

  7. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone. PMID:26354548

  8. Sonographic detection of a foreign body in the urethra and urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, M; Cohen, I; Stein, A

    2000-01-01

    Reported herein is a 41-year-old male who presented for ultrasound due to two episodes of lower urinary tract infections within a period of 5 months. The sonographic examination revealed an elongated foreign body in the urethra extending into the urinary bladder. Self-insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra is usually done for erotic stimulation. However, foreign bodies can be inserted by children due to curiosity and by mentally retarded people, patients with psychiatric disorders as well as by intoxicated patients and in confusional states. Due to embarrassment, the patients seek medical help only when they are symptomatic and hence some of the foreign bodies are removed only several months after insertion. Detection might be either by plain abdominal films when the foreign bodies are radiopaque or by the use of contrast media. In the case presented by us, this was done by sonography. Endoscopic removal of these foreign bodies is considered the treatment of choice. Recurrent or chronic unexplained urinary tract infections should raise a high index of suspicion to the possible existence of a foreign body in the urethra and/or urinary bladder. PMID:10859554

  9. Do the urinary bladder and large bowel interact, in sickness or in health?

    PubMed Central

    Malykhina, Anna P.; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Andersson, Karl-Erik; De Wachter, Stefan; Dmochowski, Roger R.

    2011-01-01

    Normal functioning of the urinary bladder and the distal gut is an essential part of daily physiological activity coordinated by the peripheral and central nervous systems. Pathological changes in one of these organs may induce the development of cross-organ sensitization in the pelvis and underlie clinical co-morbidity of genitourinary and GI dysfunctions. Experimental human and animal data suggest that the bladder and distal colon interact under both normal and pathological conditions, however, the directions of these interactions can change dramatically depending on the nature and duration of the applied stimuli. This review article aimed to summarize the clinical data on colon-bladder cross-reflexes in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with co-morbid disorders. It also discusses currently used animal models, experimental approaches, and suggested mechanisms of colon-bladder cross-talk. Additionally, it provides an overview of the potential pharmacological targets to develop treatment options for patients with co-morbid disorders. Presented work resulted from the discussion of colon/bladder interactions during “Think Tank 9” presentations at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society meeting held in Bristol, UK, 2011. PMID:22378593

  10. Detecting the onset of urinary bladder contractions using an implantable pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, J; Rijkhoff, N J M

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates whether signals obtained from an implantable pressure sensor placed in the urinary bladder wall could be used to detect the onset of bladder contractions. The sensor assembly was custom made using a small piezoresistive sensor die. The die was mounted on ceramic substrate (8 mm × 8 mm) and encapsulated in silicone by a two-part moulding process. The final sensor was lens shaped with a diameter of 13.6 mm and height of 2.0 mm. Experiments were performed in six pigs that had one or more sensors placed in the bladder wall. An external reference sensor was used to simultaneously monitor intravesical pressure via a transurethral catheter. Bladder contractions were evoked by unilateral electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. Onset latency was computed using both signals. In addition, the correlation between wall pressure and intravesical pressure was calculated. On average, the onset latency was - 307 ms using the wall sensors compared to the intravesical pressure, i.e., the detection occurred earlier using the wall sensors than the intravesical sensor. In 91 of 114 recordings the correlation coefficient was above 0.90. In conclusion, the implantable sensor performs similar to the reference sensor when used to detect the onset of bladder contractions. PMID:21997323

  11. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  12. Constitutively active PKA regulates neuronal acetylcholine release and contractility of guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenkuan; Li, Ning; Fernandes, Vitor S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-06-01

    Autonomic and somatic motor neurons that innervate the urinary bladder and urethra control the highly coordinated functions of the lower urinary tract, the storage, and the emptying of urine. ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the bladder. Here, we aimed to determine whether PKA regulates neuronal ACh release and related nerve-evoked detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions in the guinea pig urinary bladder. Isometric DSM tension recordings were used to measure spontaneous phasic and electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and carbachol-induced DSM contractions with a combination of pharmacological tools. The colorimetric method was used to measure ACh released by the parasympathetic nerves in DSM isolated strips. The pharmacological inhibition of PKA with H-89 (10 μM) increased the spontaneous phasic contractions, whereas it attenuated the EFS-induced DSM contractions. Intriguingly, H-89 (10 μM) attenuated the (primary) cholinergic component, whereas it simultaneously increased the (secondary) purinergic component of the nerve-evoked contractions in DSM isolated strips. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine (10 μM), increased EFS-induced DSM contractions, and the subsequent addition of H-89 attenuated the contractions. H-89 (10 μM) significantly increased DSM phasic contractions induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. The inhibition of PKA decreased the neuronal release of ACh in DSM tissues. This study revealed that PKA-mediated signaling pathways differentially regulate nerve-evoked and spontaneous phasic contractions of guinea pig DSM. Constitutively active PKA in the bladder nerves controls synaptic ACh release, thus regulating the nerve-evoked DSM contractions, whereas PKA in DSM cells controls the spontaneous phasic contractility. PMID:27029424

  13. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  14. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Meisner, Jay W; Hofer, Matthias D; Webber, Matthew J; Chow, Lesley W; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S; Diaz, Edward C; Stupp, Samuel I; Cheng, Earl Y; Sharma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  15. Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krewer, F.; Morgan, F.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.; O'Halloran, M.

    2014-05-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.

  16. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Meisner, Jay W.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Webber, Matthew J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S.; Diaz, Edward C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Cheng, Earl Y.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  17. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity. PMID

  18. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  19. Increased susceptibility of estrogen-induced bladder outlet obstruction in a novel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tam, Neville Ngai-Chung; Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Hong; Song, Dan; Levin, Linda; Meller, Jarek; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Disorders of the prostate and lower urinary tract are common in elderly men. We investigated the role of metallothionein-1 (MT1) in prostate carcinogenesis by generating a prostate-specific, MT1-expressing mouse. Unexpectedly, genomic analyses revealed that a 12.1-kb genomic region harboring several conserved noncoding elements was unintentionally deleted, upstream of the transgene integration site in the mouse, which we named it 12.1ΔMT1. Male 12.1ΔMT1 mice chronically treated with testosterone (T) plus 17β-estradiol (E2) to induce prostate cancer exhibited no evidence of precancerous or cancerous lesions. Instead, most of them exhibited a bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) phenotype not observed in treated wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, we hypothesized that 12.1ΔMT1 is a novel model for studying the hormonal requirement for BOO induction. Adult male 12.1ΔMT1 and WT mice were treated with T, E2, bisphenol A (BPA), T+E2, or T+BPA for up to 6 months. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the prostate, bladder, and urethra were performed. No significant prostate pathologies were observed in WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice treated with any of the hormone regimens. As expected, prostatic regression occurred in all E2-treated animals (WT and 12.1ΔMT1). Of great interest, despite a small prostate, 100% of E2-treated 12.1ΔMT1 mice, but only 40% of E2-treated WT mice, developed severe BOO (P<0.01). In contrast, T+E2 treatment was less effective than E2 treatment in inducing severe BOO in 12.1ΔMT1 mice (68%, P<0.05) and was completely ineffective in WT animals. Similarly, T, BPA, and T+BPA treatments did not induce BOO in either WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice. The BOO pathology includes a thinner detrusor wall, narrowing of bladder neck and urethral lumen, and basal cell hyperplasia in the bladder body and urethra. These findings indicate that 12.1ΔMT1 mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to E2-induced BOO that is independent of prostate enlargement but that is attenuated by the

  20. The radiation dose to the urinary bladder in radio-iodine therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, A. A.; Hilditch, T. E.

    1996-10-01

    A new MIRD dynamic model has been used to provide estimates of the dose to the urinary bladder resulting from the administration of the therapeutic agents as iodide (for thyroid carcinoma) and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) (for neuroendocrine tumours). Because the latter agent is used for therapeutic purposes in children, dose estimates were obtained for subjects aged 1 year and upwards. Those parameters likely to influence the bladder dose were also investigated, making use of the inherent flexibility of the model. For an administration of 1 GBq of either as iodide or MIBG to an adult subject, the radiation dose to the inner surface of the bladder was estimated to be approximately 1100 mGy, which is nearly twice the value estimated using a constant-volume bladder model. The new model produced dose estimates for children (within the range of MIBG) which were approximately 50% greater than those derived using a constant-volume bladder model. The urine flow rate was found to have the greatest effect on the bladder dose, a flow of twice the normal rate resulting in a reduction in the bladder dose by a factor of two. On the other hand, a reduction in the urine flow rate to half the normal value was estimated to increase the radiation dose by a factor of two. This was true for subjects of all ages. With normal voiding, the average dose to the bladder wall from -radiation was estimated to be 5 - 13% of the surface beta dose for

  1. Non-uniform changes in membrane receptors in the rat urinary bladder following outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwen; Ekman, Mari; Jiang, Chonghe; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and distribution of membrane receptors after bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was induced in female rats and bladders were harvested after either 10 days or 6 weeks of BOO. The expression of different receptors was surveyed by microarrays and corroborated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A microarray experiment identified 10 membrane receptors that were differentially expressed compared to sham-operated rats including both upregulated and downregulated receptors. Four of these were selected for functional experiments on the basis of magnitude of change and relevance to bladder physiology. At 6 weeks of BOO, maximal contraction was reduced for neuromedin B and vasopressin (AVP), consistent with reductions of receptor mRNA levels. Glycine receptor-induced contraction on the other hand was increased and receptor mRNA expression was accordingly upregulated. Maximal relaxation by the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 was reduced as was the receptor mRNA level. Immunohistochemistry supported reduced expression of neuromedin B receptors, V1a receptors and β3-adrenergic receptors, but glycine receptor expression appeared unchanged. Western blotting confirmed repression of V1a receptors and induction of glycine receptors in BOO. mRNA for vasopressin was detectable in the bladder, suggesting local AVP production. We conclude that changes in receptor expression following bladder outlet obstruction are non-uniform. Some receptors are upregulated, conferring increased responsiveness to agonist, whereas others are downregulated, leading to decreased agonist-induced responses. This study might help to select pharmacological agents that are effective in modulating lower urinary tract symptoms in BOO. PMID:26004535

  2. [THE SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND ABERRANT METHYLATION AS POTENTIAL GENETIC MARKERS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER].

    PubMed

    Mikhailenko, D S; Kushlinskii, N E

    2016-02-01

    All around the world, more than 330 thousands cases of bladder cancer are registered annually hence representing actual problem of modern oncology. Still in demand are search and characteristic of new molecular markers of bladder cancer detecting in tumor cells from urinary sediment and having high diagnostic accuracy. The studies of last decade, especially using methods of genome-wide sequencing, permitted to receive a large amount of experimental data concerning development and progression of bladder cancer The review presents systematic analysis of publications available in PubMed data base mainly of last five years. The original studies of molecular genetic disorders under bladder cancer and meta-analyzes were considered This approach permitted to detected the most common local alterations of DNA under bladder cancer which can be detected using routine genetic methods indifferent clinical material and present prospective interest for development of test-systems. The molecular genetic markers of disease can be activating missense mutations in 7 and 10 exons of gene of receptor of growth factor of fibroblasts 3 (FGFR3), 9 and 20 exons of gene of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bi-phosphate-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and mutation in -124 and -146 nucleotides in promoter of gene of catalytic subunit telomerase (TERT). The development of test-systems on the basis of aberrant methylation of CpG-islets of genes-suppressors still is seemed as a difficult task because of differences in pattern of methylation of different primary tumors at various stages of clonal evolution of bladder cancer though they can be considered as potential markers. PMID:27455559

  3. Clinical experience of MRI in two dogs with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kija; Choi, Sooyoung; Choi, Hojung; Lee, Youngwon

    2016-09-01

    This study described high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in two dogs. Ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder mass with ambiguous result about invasion to the muscular layer. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the bladder wall in which the mass was attached was more intensely enhanced than the normal bladder walls, supporting invasion to the muscular layer. The mass revealed an intermediate signal intensity with interruption of the hypointense muscular layer on T2-weighted MRI and showed greater enhancement compared with the normal bladder wall on postcontrast T1-weighted images. T2-weighted MRI, postcontrast T1-weighted MRI and contrast-enhanced dual-phasic CT were useful for evaluating muscle-invasive bladder TCC in dogs. PMID:27149892

  4. Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nephrogenic adenoma of the urinary bladder (NAUB) is a rare lesion associated with nonspecific symptoms and could inadvertently be misdiagnosed. Aim. To review the literature. Methods. Various internet search engines were used. Results. NAUB is a benign tubular and papillary lesion of the bladder, is more common in men and adults, and has been associated with chronic inflammation/irritation, previous bladder surgery, diverticula, renal transplantation, and intravesical BCG; recurrences and malignant transformations have been reported. Differential diagnoses include clear cell adenocarcinoma, endocervicosis, papillary urothelial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma of bladder, and nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; most NAUBs have both surface papillary and submucosal tubular components; both the papillae and tubules tend to be lined by a single layer of mitotically inactive bland cells which have pale to clear cytoplasm. Diagnosis may be established by using immunohistochemistry (positive staining with racemase; PAX2; keratins stain positive with fibromyxoid variant), electron microscopy, DNA analysis, and cytological studies. Treatment. Endoscopic resection is the treatment but recurrences including sporadic malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusions. There is no consensus on best treatment. A multicentre study is required to identify the treatment that would reduce the recurrence rate, taking into consideration that intravesical BCG is associated with NAUB.

  5. Laparoscopic urinary bladder diverticulectomy combined with photoselective vaporisation of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eret, Viktor; Stránský, Petr; Trávníček, Ivan; Dolejšová, Olga; Chudáček, Zdeněk; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej; Chłosta, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pseudodiverticulum of the urinary bladder is mostly a complication of subvesical obstruction (SO). The gold standard of treatment was open diverticulectomy with adenectomy. A more contemporary resolution is endoscopic, in two steps: the first transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the second laparoscopic diverticulectomy (LD). Aim To present a one-session procedure – photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP) with LD. Material and methods From 1/2011 to 6/2014, 14 LDs were performed: 1 LD only, 1 with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, 12 combined with treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 cases of TURP and LD in the second period. In 8 cases, PVP and LD in one session were combined. These 8 cases are presented. 3D CT cystography was used as a gold standard for assessment of diverticulum. Results The mean age was 66.5 ±5.5 (57.3–75.1) years, the mean size of the diverticulum 61.8 ±22.1 (26–90) mm. The procedure starts in the lithotomy position. It includes PVP and stenting of the ureter(s). Changing of position and laparoscopy follows: four ports, transperitoneal extravesical approach. Photoselective vaporisation of the prostate was performed using the Green Light Laser HPS (1x) or XPS with cooled fibre MoXy (7x). The mean delivered energy in PVP was 205.1 ±106.4 (120–458) kJ. The mean time of operation was 165.0 ±48.5 (90–255) min. No postoperative complications were observed. One patient underwent TUR incision after 1 year for sclerosis of the bladder neck. Conclusions Pseudodiverticulum of the urinary bladder (with or without SO) is a relatively rare disease. One session of PVP (Green Light Laser XPS, MoXy fibre) and laparoscopic (transperitoneal extravesical) diverticulectomy is the preferred method for treatment of subvesical obstruction due to BPH and bladder diverticulum at our institution. PMID:25960795

  6. New genetic variants of LATS1 detected in urinary bladder and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saadeldin, Mona K.; Shawer, Heba; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kassem, Neemat M.; Amleh, Asma; Siam, Rania

    2015-01-01

    LATS1, the large tumor suppressor 1 gene, encodes for a serine/threonine kinase protein and is implicated in cell cycle progression. LATS1 is down-regulated in various human cancers, such as breast cancer, and astrocytoma. Point mutations in LATS1 were reported in human sarcomas. Additionally, loss of heterozygosity of LATS1 chromosomal region predisposes to breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors. In the current study, we investigated LATS1 genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 28 Egyptian patients with either urinary bladder or colon cancers. The LATS1 gene was amplified and sequenced and the expression of LATS1 at the RNA level was assessed in 12 urinary bladder cancer samples. We report, the identification of a total of 29 variants including previously identified SNPs within LATS1 coding and non-coding sequences. A total of 18 variants were novel. Majority of the novel variants, 13, were mapped to intronic sequences and un-translated regions of the gene. Four of the five novel variants located in the coding region of the gene, represented missense mutations within the serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain. Interestingly, LATS1 RNA steady state levels was lost in urinary bladder cancerous tissue harboring four specific SNPs (16045 + 41736 + 34614 + 56177) positioned in the 5′UTR, intron 6, and two silent mutations within exon 4 and exon 8, respectively. This study identifies novel single-base-sequence alterations in the LATS1 gene. These newly identified variants could potentially be used as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer. PMID:25628642

  7. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-07-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As{sup III}). During the first week of As{sup III} exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As{sup III} showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As{sup III} on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

  8. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Natalie J.; Hannick, Jessica H.; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  9. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Diaz, Edward C; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Hannick, Jessica H; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  10. Forced diuresis 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast enhanced in detection of carcinoma of urinary bladder diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Singh, Harmandeep; Arora, Saurabh; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0.8–10% and its diagnosis still remains a challenge. Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary. Here, we present a case of 48-year-old male with urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma detected by forced diuretic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). This case also highlights the significance of forced diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection, staging, and response evaluation of bladder diverticular carcinoma. PMID:25589819

  11. Transcriptomic dose-and-time-course indicators of early key events in a cytotoxicity-mediated mode of action for rodent urinary bladder tumorigenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTOMIC DOSE- AND TIME-COURSE INDICATORS OF EARLY KEY EVENTS IN A CYTOTOXICITY-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION FOR RODENT URINARY BLADDER TUMORIGENESISDiuron is a substituted urea compound used globally as an herbicide. Urinary bladder tumors were induced in rats after chronic die...

  12. Arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water did not affect DNA damage repair in urinary bladder transitional cells or micronuclei in bone marrow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the urinary bladder (with cigarette smoking) and skin (with UV light exposure). Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include induction of DNA ...

  13. Detection of bovine papillomavirus type 14 DNA sequences in urinary bladder tumors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Roperto, Sante; Munday, John S; Corrado, Federica; Goria, Maria; Roperto, Franco

    2016-07-15

    Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution. PMID:27283849

  14. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sandeep; Praneeth, Kokkula; Rathore, Yashwant; Waran, Vignesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair. PMID:26917927

  15. Large diverticulum of the urinary bladder: A rare cause of deep vein thrombosis with consecutive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Oliver; Torzewski, Jan; Reichenbach-Klinke, Ekkehard; Zenk, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with progressive dyspnea; he also had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An angio computed tomography scan showed pulmonary embolism with thrombi in both main pulmonary arteries. By duplex ultrasonography, we detected a thrombus in the right vena femoralis superficialis and vena femoralis communis. Simultaneously, we also noticed a large diverticulum on the right side of the urinary bladder and urinary stasis II of the left kidney. We consider the BPH as the trigger for a secondary diverticulum of the urinary bladder. As a result of its large dimensions, mechanical compression of the deep right pelvic veins resulted in thrombosis which finally caused the pulmonary embolism. With respect to the urinary stasis II, surgical excavation of the diverticulum with infravesical desobstruction was planned. The potentially lethal course of large diverticula may require surgery. PMID:26029307

  16. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  17. Higher risk of urothelial carcinoma in the upper urinary tract than in the urinary bladder in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Fan; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Purpose This study used the a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study with the claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods The study population consisted of 2689 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) newly diagnosed in 2000-2002 and underwent maintenance HD. Then, 21,449 reference patients were collected without HD randomly selected and matched with sex and age. The exclusion criteria were previous long-term analgesics and Chinese medication usage. Incidence density rates of UC in upper urinary tract (UTUC) and bladder (UBUC) were estimated for both cohorts by the end of 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of UC were measured in association with HD, covariates, and comorbidity. Results The incidence of UC was significantly higher in the HD cohort than in the reference cohort for both UT (21.8 vs. 0.65 per 10,000 person-years) and UB (17.7 vs. 3.55 per 10,000 person-years). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the HRs of UTUC in HD cohort was 33.3 (95% CI = 15.9-69.5) and 5.14 for UBUC (95% CI = 3.24-8.15). The risk increased further for HD patients with comorbidity of hematuria, urinary tract infection (UTI) or hydronephrosis. Conclusion Patients with ESRD on HD are at a high risk of developing UC, especially UTUC in Taiwan. They will be paid more frequent to check urine analysis, urine cytology, and upper urinary tract survey. PMID:26956094

  18. Optimal bladder diary duration for patients with suprapontine neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Kratiras, Zisis; Samarinas, Michael; Skriapas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the minimum bladder diary's length required to furnish reliable documentation of LUTS in a specific cohort of patients suffering from neurogenic urinary dysfunction secondary to suprapontine pathology. Materials and Methods: From January 2008 to January 2014, patients suffering from suprapontine pathology and LUTS were requested to prospectively complete a bladder diary form for 7 consecutive days. Micturitions per day, excreta per micturition, urgency and incontinence episodes and voided volume per day were evaluated from the completed diaries. We compared the averaged records of consecutive days (2-6 days) to the total 7 days records for each patient's diary, seeking the minimum diary's length that could provide records comparable to the 7 days average, the reference point in terms of reliability. Results: From 285 subjects, 94 male and 69 female patients enrolled in the study. The records of day 1 were significantly different from the average of the 7 days records in every parameter, showing relatively small correlation and providing insufficient documentation. Correlations gradually increased along the increase in diary's duration. According to our results a 3-day duration bladder diary is efficient and can provide results comparable to a 7 day length for four of our evaluated parameters. Regarding incontinence episodes, 3 days seems inadequate to furnish comparable results, showing a borderline difference. Conclusions: A 3-day diary can be used, as its reliability is efficient regarding number of micturition per day, excreta per micturition, episodes of urgency and voided volume per day. PMID:27564288

  19. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Eliyakin, Nuket; Postaci, Hakan; Baskin, Yasemin; Kozacioğlu, Zafer

    2015-12-29

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromo-granin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N) and 562 (p.E562D) in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A) and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC). The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy. PMID:26788274

  20. Detection of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria Angelica; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Maria; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Mathew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Kinzler, Kenneth; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J

    2016-07-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) have been detected in 60% to 80% of urothelial carcinomas. A molecular urine-based screening assay for the detection of TERT-mut is currently being pursued by our group and others. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are adenocarcinoma. The current study assesses the incidence of TERT-mut in primary adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder. A retrospective search of our institutional pathology records identified 23 cystectomy specimens with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (2000-2014). All slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm tumor type and select a representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block for mutational analysis. Adequate material for DNA testing was available in 14 cases (7 enteric type and 7 not otherwise specified). TERT-mut sequencing analysis was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. Overall, 28.5% of primary adenocarcinoma harbored TERT-mut. Interestingly, 57% of nonenteric adenocarcinomas were mutation positive, whereas none of the enteric-type tumors harbored mutations. Similar to urothelial carcinoma, we found a relatively higher rate of TERT-mut among nonenteric-type adenocarcinomas further supporting the potential utility of TERT-mut urine-based screening assay for bladder cancer. PMID:26980028

  1. Urinary bladder matrix promotes site appropriate tissue formation following right ventricle outflow tract repair

    PubMed Central

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yoshida, Masahiro; Guest, Brogan N; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Weaver, Michelle L; Wagner, William R; Brown, Bryan N; Tobita, Kimimasa; Wearden, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The current prevalence and severity of heart defects requiring functional replacement of cardiac tissue pose a serious clinical challenge. Biologic scaffolds are an attractive tissue engineering approach to cardiac repair because they avoid sensitization associated with homograft materials and theoretically possess the potential for growth in similar patterns as surrounding native tissue. Both urinary bladder matrix (UBM) and cardiac ECM (C-ECM) have been previously investigated as scaffolds for cardiac repair with modest success, but have not been compared directly. In other tissue locations, bone marrow derived cells have been shown to play a role in the remodeling process, but this has not been investigated for UBM in the cardiac location, and has never been studied for C-ECM. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effectiveness of an organ-specific C-ECM patch with a commonly used ECM scaffold for myocardial tissue repair of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), and to examine the role of bone marrow derived cells in the remodeling response. A chimeric rat model in which all bone marrow cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated and used to show the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from the heart and bladder to support cardiac function and cellular growth in the RVOT. The results from this study suggest that urinary bladder matrix may provide a more appropriate substrate for myocardial repair than cardiac derived matrices, as shown by differences in the remodeling responses following implantation, as well as the presence of site appropriate cells and the formation of immature, myocardial tissue. PMID:23974174

  2. Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Exploits Host Rab35 for Iron Acquisition and Survival within Urinary Bladder Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Neha; Bist, Pradeep; Fenlon, Shannon N.; Pulloor, Niyas Kudukkil; Chua, Christelle En Lin; Scidmore, Marci A.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Tang, Bor Luen; Chen, Swaine L.; Sukumaran, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are common and morbid infections with limited therapeutic options. Previous studies have demonstrated that persistent intracellular infection of bladder epithelial cells (BEC) by UPEC contributes to recurrent UTI in mouse models of infection. However, the mechanisms employed by UPEC to survive within BEC are incompletely understood. In this study we aimed to understand the role of host vesicular trafficking proteins in the intracellular survival of UPEC. Using a cell culture model of intracellular UPEC infection, we found that the small GTPase Rab35 facilitates UPEC survival in UPEC-containing vacuoles (UCV) within BEC. Rab35 plays a role in endosomal recycling of transferrin receptor (TfR), the key protein responsible for transferrin–mediated cellular iron uptake. UPEC enhance the expression of both Rab35 and TfR and recruit these proteins to the UCV, thereby supplying UPEC with the essential nutrient iron. Accordingly, Rab35 or TfR depleted cells showed significantly lower intracellular iron levels and reduced ability to support UPEC survival. In the absence of Rab35, UPEC are preferentially trafficked to degradative lysosomes and killed. Furthermore, in an in vivo murine model of persistent intracellular infection, Rab35 also colocalizes with intracellular UPEC. We propose a model in which UPEC subverts two different vesicular trafficking pathways (endosomal recycling and degradative lysosomal fusion) by modulating Rab35, thereby simultaneously enhancing iron acquisition and avoiding lysosomal degradation of the UCV within bladder epithelial cells. Our findings reveal a novel survival mechanism of intracellular UPEC and suggest a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention against recurrent UTI. PMID:26248231

  3. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  4. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: changing trends in the current literature.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Özdemir, Nuriye Yıldırım; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Şahin, Süleyman; Bozkaya, Yakup; Zengin, Nurullah

    2016-06-01

    Background Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (SmCC), also known as oat cell carcinoma or small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, is characterized by an aggressive clinical course with early metastasis pattern and a short life expectancy. So far, there is no prospective, data-based case-control study due to its low incidence. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology, morphopathology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of bladder SmCC in the light of the literature. Scope PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting abstracts were searched according to the following keywords: 'extrapulmonary SmCC', 'bladder cancer', and 'therapeutic approach'. The last search was performed on 1 October 2015. Some additional papers were determined by reviewing references of the appropriate articles. Most of the data regarding small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SmCCB) were found to be based on the retrospective trials. Findings Bladder SmCC is more frequent in men and usually appears in the seventh to eighth decades. Macroscopic hematuria is the most common clinical symptom. The diagnosis of SmCCB is performed based on the same criteria determined by the WHO classification for the diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Prognosis is closely correlated with the stage at presentation. Although the prognosis of the disease is poor, a long survival can be achieved particularly by radical surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage tumors. Cystectomy is still the current standard local treatment. However, cystectomy alone is not sufficient. Chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy should be preferred for limited disease in patients who are not candidate for surgery. Conclusion Considering the poor prognosis of the disease, further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment options and new molecular markers in the way of early diagnosis and favorable outcomes. Prospective

  5. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  6. A biological modeling based comparison of two strategies for adaptive radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lutkenhaus, L J; Vestergaard, A; Bel, A; Høyer, M; Hulshof, M C C M; van Leeuwen, C M; Casares-Magaz, O; Petersen, J B; Søndergaard, J; Muren, L P

    2016-08-01

    Background Adaptive radiotherapy is introduced in the management of urinary bladder cancer to account for day-to-day anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adaptive plan selection strategy using either the first four cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-based strategy) for plan creation, or the interpolation of bladder volumes on pretreatment CT scans (CT-based strategy), is better in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue sparing while taking the clinically applied fractionation schedules also into account. Material and methods With the CT-based strategy, a library of five plans was created. Patients received 55 Gy to the bladder tumor and 40 Gy to the non-involved bladder and lymph nodes, in 20 fractions. With the CBCT-based strategy, a library of three plans was created, and patients received 70 Gy to the tumor, 60 Gy to the bladder and 48 Gy to the lymph nodes, in 30-35 fractions. Ten patients were analyzed for each adaptive plan selection strategy. TCP was calculated applying the clinically used fractionation schedules, as well as a rescaling of the dose from 55 to 70 Gy for the CT-based strategy. For rectum and bowel, equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) were calculated. Results The CBCT-based strategy resulted in a median TCP of 75%, compared to 49% for the CT-based strategy, the latter improving to 72% upon rescaling the dose to 70 Gy. A median rectum V30Gy (EQD2) of 26% [interquartile range (IQR): 8-52%] was found for the CT-based strategy, compared to 58% (IQR: 55-73%) for the CBCT-based strategy. Also the bowel doses were lower with the CT-based strategy. Conclusions Whereas the higher total bladder TCP for the CBCT-based strategy is due to prescription differences, the adaptive strategy based on CT scans results in the lowest rectum and bowel cavity doses. PMID:27100215

  7. Orthotopic urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Hadži-Djokić; Vladan, Andrejević; Tomislav, Pejčić; Miodrag, Aćimović; Uroš, Babić; Miodrag, Stanić; Zoran, Džamić

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of invasive carcinoma of the bladder in males includes total cystectomy removal of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and the distal parts of the urethers and the pelvic lymph node dissection as well. At this moment it is not possible to recommend a particular type of urinary diversion, but today in clinical practice commonly used derivative are ileal orthotopic neobladder as the continent one and ileal conduit as non-continent urinary diversion. Continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy are the result of the application of technological innovation in surgery, but also knowledge, imagination and skill of well trained urologist. This type of operation significantly improves the quality of life in patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and the proposal is to operate whenever there is a possibility for this type of procedure. Also it is very important, during surgery to respect oncological principles, of complete removal of tumorous tissue and that the functional principle of ensur- ing that the patients have daytime and also nighttime continence later on after the surgery. PMID:25782228

  8. Genomic complexity of urothelial bladder cancer revealed in urinary cfDNA.

    PubMed

    Togneri, Fiona S; Ward, Douglas G; Foster, Joseph M; Devall, Adam J; Wojtowicz, Paula; Alyas, Sofia; Vasques, Fabiana Ramos; Oumie, Assa; James, Nicholas D; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, Maurice P; Deshmukh, Nayneeta; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Philippe; Spink, Karen G; McMullan, Dominic J; Griffiths, Mike; Bryan, Richard T

    2016-08-01

    Urothelial bladder cancers (UBCs) have heterogeneous clinical characteristics that are mirrored in their diverse genomic profiles. Genomic profiling of UBCs has the potential to benefit routine clinical practice by providing prognostic utility above and beyond conventional clinicopathological factors, and allowing for prediction and surveillance of treatment responses. Urinary DNAs representative of the tumour genome provide a promising resource as a liquid biopsy for non-invasive genomic profiling of UBCs. We compared the genomic profiles of urinary cellular DNA and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from the urine with matched diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour DNAs for 23 well-characterised UBC patients. Our data show urinary DNAs to be highly representative of patient tumours, allowing for detection of recurrent clinically actionable genomic aberrations. Furthermore, a greater aberrant load (indicative of tumour genome) was observed in cfDNA over cellular DNA (P<0.001), resulting in a higher analytical sensitivity for detection of clinically actionable genomic aberrations (P<0.04) when using cfDNA. Thus, cfDNA extracted from the urine of UBC patients has a higher tumour genome burden and allows greater detection of key genomic biomarkers (90%) than cellular DNA from urine (61%) and provides a promising resource for robust whole-genome tumour profiling of UBC with potential to influence clinical decisions without invasive patient interventions. PMID:26757983

  9. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Housami, Fadi; Drake, Marcus; Abrams, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis. PMID:19468439

  10. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  11. Transcriptional profile of diurnon-induces toxicity on the urinary bladder of male wistar rats to inform mode of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. Th...

  12. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy associated with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: antemortem diagnosis by pulmonary microvascular cytology

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami; Ishikawa, Takeo; Takagi, Masamichi; Katagi, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Jun; Kosuga, Tsuneharu; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message PTTM (Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy) is very difficult to diagnose before death. We report a case of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with PTTM in which an antemortem diagnosis by PMC (pulmonary microvascular cytology). PMC may represent the only chance for diagnosis and achievement of remission in PTTM. PMID:26401277

  13. Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-11-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in cruciferous vegetables that are commonly consumed by humans and has been shown to inhibit urinary bladder cancer growth and progression in previous preclinical studies. However, AITC does not significantly modulate cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), whose oncogenic activity has been well documented in bladder cancer and other cancers. Celecoxib is a selective Cox-2 inhibitor and has been widely used for treatment of several diseases. Celecoxib has also been evaluated in bladder cancer patients, but its efficacy against bladder cancer as a single agent remains unclear. In a syngeneic rat model of orthotopic bladder cancer, treatment of the animals with the combination of AITC and celecoxib at low dose levels (AITC at 1 mg/kg and celecoxib at 10 mg/kg) led to increased or perhaps synergistic inhibition of bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion, compared with each agent used alone. The combination regime was also more effective than each single agent in inhibiting microvessel formation and stimulating microvessel maturation in the tumor tissues. The anticancer efficacy of the combination regime was associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2, a key downstream signaling molecule of Cox-2, caspase activation and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor tissues. These data show that AITC and celecoxib complement each other for inhibition of bladder cancer and provide a novel combination approach for potential use for prevention or treatment of human bladder cancer. PMID:23946495

  14. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Superinfection Enhances the Severity of Mouse Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Drew J.; Conover, Matt S.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict over 9 million women in America every year, often necessitating long-term prophylactic antibiotics. One risk factor for UTI is frequent sexual intercourse, which dramatically increases the risk of UTI. The mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown; however, bacteriuria increases immediately after sexual intercourse episodes, suggesting that physical manipulation introduces periurethral flora into the urinary tract. In this paper, we investigated whether superinfection (repeat introduction of bacteria) resulted in increased risk of severe UTI, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high titer bladder bacterial burdens and chronic inflammation, an outcome referred to as chronic cystitis. Chronic cystitis represents unchecked luminal bacterial replication and is defined histologically by urothelial hyperplasia and submucosal lymphoid aggregates, a histological pattern similar to that seen in humans suffering chronic UTI. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to chronic cystitis after a single infection; however, they developed persistent bacteriuria and chronic cystitis when superinfected 24 hours apart. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), keratinocyte cytokine (KC/CXCL1), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the serum of C57BL/6J mice prior to the second infection predicted the development of chronic cystitis. These same cytokines have been found to precede chronic cystitis in singly infected C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, inoculating C3H/HeN mice twice within a six-hour period doubled the proportion of mice that developed chronic cystitis. Intracellular bacterial replication, regulated hemolysin (HlyA) expression, and caspase 1/11 activation were essential for this increase. Microarrays conducted at four weeks post inoculation in both mouse strains revealed upregulation of IL-1 and antimicrobial peptides during chronic cystitis. These data suggest a mechanism by which caspase-1/11 activation and IL-1 secretion

  15. Type IV Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Displacing the Urinary Bladder: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharzadeh, Sahar; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma is a rare pediatric tumor that is confined to the presacral area with no external component. The signs and symptoms often arise due to mass effect and compression of adjacent organs. Urinary retention is an uncommon presenting symptom in these patients. A wide spectrum of imaging findings may be encountered in cases with sacrococcygeal teratoma because of variability of tumor size and components. We hereby present a unique magnetic resonance urography finding in a type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma which caused bladder displacement. A meticulous and complete resection of tumor with special attention to the pelvic plexus led to preservation of normal voiding function and normal bowel function in this patient. PMID:27413571

  16. Influence of ovariohysterectomy and deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of the rabbit urinary bladder in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bujok, Jolanta; Wincewicz, Edyta; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are not only a serious health problem but also a substantial sociologic issue affecting human beings and companion animals. Estrogen deficiency is considered an etiologic factor of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women and spayed female dogs. However, insufficient effectiveness of hormonal therapy has caused an intensive search for new therapeutic options. GnRH analogs have positive clinical effects in neutered female dogs suffering from incontinence, but the mechanism of action is not known. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of long-acting deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of urinary bladder sections from a rabbit model of long-term estrogen deprivation. The study was conducted on 21 female New Zealand White rabbits divided into the following groups: control group, ovariohysterectomized (OHX) group, and ovariohysterectomized group given a deslorelin acetate implant. Urinary bladders were excised immediately after sacrifice, and the spontaneous activity of dorsal and ventral strips of the bladder body was examined in organ bath chambers. The amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions were evaluated. Most of the sections developed spontaneous activity. Ovariohysterectomy caused a decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the tissues obtained only from the dorsal part of the bladder body. After OHX, the frequency was higher compared with the control group in both parts of the bladder. Deslorelin acetate did not significantly affect the spontaneous contraction amplitude but caused a decrease in the frequency in the dorsal and ventral parts of the bladder. In conclusion, long-term changes in the levels of hormones and other regulatory substances associated with the reproductive system are related to altered spontaneous activity of the urinary bladder, which may impact the symptoms of urgency and incontinence appearing in women after menopause and in female animals after

  17. Mode of action of pulegone on the urinary bladder of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Anwar, Muhammad M; Adams, Bret R; Taylor, Sean V; Wermes, Clint; Adams, Timothy B; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-07-01

    Essential oils from mint plants, including peppermint and pennyroyal oils, are used at low levels as flavoring agents in various foods and beverages. Pulegone is a component of these oils. In a 2-year bioassay, oral administration of pulegone slightly increased the urothelial tumor incidence in female rats. We hypothesized that its mode of action (MOA) involved urothelial cytotoxicity and increased cell proliferation, ultimately leading to tumors. Pulegone was administered by gavage at 0, 75, or 150 mg/kg body weight to female rats for 4 and 6 weeks. Fresh void urine and 18-h urine were collected for crystal and metabolite analyses. Urinary bladders were evaluated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index. Pulegone and its metabolites, piperitenone, piperitone, menthofuran, and menthone, were tested for cytotoxicity in rat (MYP3) and human (1T1) urothelial cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. No abnormal urinary crystals were observed by light microscopy. Urine samples (18-h) showed the presence of pulegone, piperitone, piperitenone, and menthofuran in both treated groups. By SEM, bladders from treated rats showed superficial necrosis and exfoliation. There was a significant increase in the BrdU labeling index in the high-dose group. In vitro studies indicated that pulegone and its metabolites, especially piperitenone, are excreted and concentrated in the urine at cytotoxic levels when pulegone is administered at high doses to female rats. The present study supports the hypothesis that cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation is the MOA for pulegone-induced urothelial tumors in female rats. PMID:22499580

  18. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  19. Topographies and isoforms of the progesterone receptor in female human, rat and mouse bladder.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Thomas; Rietjens, Roma; Voets, Thomas; Everaerts, Wouter; De Ridder, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Steroid hormones such as progesterone are known to influence bladder function. Progesterone effects are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR) but no detailed studies of PR in bladder exist. We have investigated the presence, topography and subtypes of PR in mouse, rat and human bladder. Fresh tissue samples were obtained from cystectomies in female humans, rats and mice (n = 7 per group). Tissue samples were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and western blot (WB) and, for each species, a panel of specific PR antibody clones was used. Interpretation of IHC/IF was carried out by light/fluorescent microscopy and of WB via standard WB software. IHC/IF in female human bladder showed PR on the interstitial cells in the lamina propria and between detrusor smooth muscle cells, whereas in female rat and mouse bladder, PR was only found on the urothelium. WB in human bladder showed a 78-kD and a 60-kDa band, respectively, corresponding to a modified PR isoform A and PR isoform C. WB in rat and mice bladder showed a 60 kDa band and a 37 kDa band, respectively corresponding with PR isoform C and an unknown isoform. This is the first detailed investigation of the precise location and presence of several isoforms of PR in bladder, together with a comparison of these data between human, rat and mouse. Our study has revealed complex PR families in bladders from the various species studied and demonstrates obvious inter-species differences in PR topography and isoforms. PMID:26650465

  20. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  1. A secoisopimarane diterpenoid from Salvia cinnabarina inhibits rat urinary bladder contractility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Romussi, Giovanni; Capasso, Francesco; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Bisio, Angela; Mascolo, Nicola

    2004-02-01

    We have evaluated the effect of 3,4-secoisopimar-4(18),7,15-triene-3-oic acid (compound 1), isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia cinnabarina, on the contractile response elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the rat isolated urinary bladder. Compound 1 (10 ( - 7) - 10 ( - 4) M) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS contractile response without modifying the contractions produced by exogenous acetylcholine (10 ( - 6) M). A number of antagonists/inhibitors including a combination of atropine (10 ( - 6) M), phentolamine (10 ( - 6) M), propranolol (10 ( - 6) M) and hexamethonium (10 ( - 4) M), the NK (1) receptor antagonist SR140333 (10 ( - 7) M) plus the NK (2) receptor antagonist SR48968 (10 ( - 6) M), naloxone (10 ( - 6) M), verapamil (10 ( - 7) M), capsazepine (10 ( - 5) M) and the CB (1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (10 ( - 6) M) did not modify the inhibitory effect of compound 1. However, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME (3 x 10 ( - 4) M), significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of compound 1. It is concluded that compound 1 inhibits rat bladder contractility with a mechanism involving, at least in part, NO production. PMID:14994202

  2. The prognostic value of family history among patients with urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-03-01

    A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression. PMID:24978702

  3. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  4. AB048. A urinary-metabolomics-based panel for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and has a high probability of recurrence. Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate. The common diagnostic modalities, such as cystoscopy and urinary cytology, have their limitations. In this study, potential metabolic biomarkers have been discovered through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on distinct metabolomics of urine between BCa patients and healthy people, we forged a non-invasive BCa diagnostic model and investigated its performance. Methods This study includes Training Phase, Modeling Phase and Test Phase. During the Training Phase, urine samples were collected from 32 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer and 21 healthy controls. We applied unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model used as a diagnostic model to distinguish two groups. We further constructed logistic regression model using combinations of the metabolites to improve the sensitivity and specificity for early BCa determination. In addition, we screened metabolites which AUC was more than 0.75 for establishing the model of diagnostic panel using logistic regressive analysis. In Test Phase, urine samples from 79 BCa patients and 51 non-BCa controls were subjected to test the diagnostic model. Moreover, by subgroup analysis of BCa, some metabolites were indentified to associate with tumor grade and stage. Results In Training phase, a set of 22 candidate differential metabolites was based on statistical significance and fold difference. Logistic diagnostic model has been established as below: Y=1.3333-8.891X(Glycine)×10-8-4.811X(3-Phosphoglycericacid)×10-5-5.625X(Cytosine)×10-5, with Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) =0.88, sensitivity =78.1% and specificity =95.2%. In Test phase, the efficiency of our diagnostic model shown AUC =0.705, sensitivity =62.0% and specificity =72.5%, better than that of urinary cytology. Besides

  5. β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Muscle in β2-Adrenoceptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propping, Stefan; Lorenz, Kristina; Michel, Martin C.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In order to characterize the β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved in agonist-stimulated relaxation of murine urinary bladder we studied the effects of (-)-isoprenaline and CL 316,243 on tonic contraction and spontaneous contractions in detrusor strips of wild-type (WT) and β2-AR knockout (β2-AR KO) mice. Materials and Methods: Urinary bladders were isolated from male WT and β2-AR KO mice. β-AR subtype expression was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. Intact muscle strips pre-contracted with KCl (40 mM) were exposed to cumulatively increasing concentrations of (-)-isoprenaline or β3-AR agonist CL 316,243 in the presence and absence of the subtype-selective β-AR blockers CGP 20712A (β1-ARs), ICI 118,551 (β2-ARs), and L748,337 (β3-ARs). Results: Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed lack of β2-AR expression in bladder tissue from β2-AR KO mice. In isolated detrusor strips, pre-contraction with KCl increased basal tone and enhanced spontaneous activity significantly more in β2-AR KO than in WT. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed tonic tension and attenuated spontaneous activity with similar potency, but the concentrations required were two orders of magnitude higher in β2-AR KO than WT. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) for relaxation were not affected by CGP 20712A (300 nM), but were shifted to the right by ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and L748,337 (10 μM). The -logEC50 values for (-)-isoprenaline in WT and β2-AR KO tissue were 7.98 and 6.00, respectively, suggesting a large receptor reserve of β2-AR. (-)-CL 316,243 relaxed detrusor and attenuated spontaneous contractions from WT and β2-AR KO mice with a potency corresponding to the drug’s affinity for β3-AR. L743,337 shifted the CRCs to the right. Conclusion: Our findings in β2-AR KO mice suggest that there is a large receptor reserve for β2-AR in WT mice so that this β-AR subtype will mediate relaxation of tone and attenuation of spontaneous activity under physiological

  6. Dysuria and fever in a young woman diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Patne, Shashikant Chandrakant Urmila; Katiyar, Richa; Chaudhary, Deepshikha; Trivedi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with dysuria and fever. Her medical and family histories were unremarkable. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a polypoid mass of 4×2.6×2.2 cm. Her cystoscopy showed a 4×2 cm solid broad-based growth at trigone of the urinary bladder. She underwent transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumour (TURBT). Histopathology revealed a poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a haphazard and fascicular manner along with many traversing blood vessels in a myxoid and hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemistry was positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1, smooth muscle actin, CD10, cytokeratin and desmin; and negative for CD34 and S-100 protein. Ki-67 proliferative index in the tumour was <1%. The patient was diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder. After TURBT, her fever and urinary symptoms resolved. Her 1-month postoperative period was uneventful. She has been advised regular follow-up. PMID:26880824

  7. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Magdalena Maria; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill. Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each abdominal examination. Such examinations should be performed with fasting patients or several hours after the last meal, with filled urinary bladder. Apparatus Ultrasound examinations in children and infants are performed using transducers with the frequency of 5.0–9.0 MHz and in adults – with the frequency of 2.0–6.0 MHz. Doppler options are desirable since they improve diagnostic capacity of sonography in terms of differentiation between renal focal lesions. Scanning technique Renal examinations are performed with the patients in the supine position. The right kidney is examined in the right hypochondriac region using the liver as the ultrasound “window.” The left kidney is examined in the left hypochondriac region, preferably in the posterior axillary line. Ultrasound examinations of the upper segment of the ureters are performed after renal examination when the pelvicalyceal system is dilated. A condition necessary for a proper examination of the perivesical portion of the ureter is full urinary bladder. The scans of the urinary bladder are performed in transverse, longitudinal and oblique planes when the bladder is filled. Description of the examination The description should include patient's personal details, details of the referring unit, of the unit in which the examination is performed, examining physician's details, type of ultrasound apparatus and transducers as well as the description proper. PMID:26673083

  8. Recurrent verrucous carcinoma of the urinary bladder after transurethral resection followed by intravesical mitomycin, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Masroor; Qureshi, Asim; Nasir, Humaira

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a locally invasive, non-metastasising well differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is very rare in the urinary bladder and mostly associated with schistosomiasis. It has a characteristic multilobular appearance with small surface projections on contrast cystogram. Owing to its bland cytology, it is a challenging diagnosis. We report a case of VC of the bladder-unrelated to schistosomiasis and involving the prostate-that recurred after transurethral resection of the tumour and prostate followed by six doses of intravesical mitomycin. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported from Pakistan. PMID:27307433

  9. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder’s organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects. PMID:26267862

  10. THE URINARY BLADDER EXHIBITS A U-SHAPED GENOMIC DOSE-RESPONSE FOLLOWING SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE OF MICE TO ARSENATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have demonstrated increased urinary bladder tumor incidence in populations exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at concentrations on the order of several hundred micrograms per liter, but experimental animal studies at much higher concentrations have...

  11. Neurogenic bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the cause. They often include symptoms of urinary incontinence . Symptoms of overactive bladder: Having to urinate too ... If you are having urinary incontinence, organizations are available for further information and support.

  12. Urinary bladder rupture in a two-year-old horse: sequel to a surgically repaired neonatal injury.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, R L; Fubini, S L

    1987-09-01

    After routine cryptorchid castration, a 2-year-old Thoroughbred colt was admitted 72 hours later because of depression, abdominal distention, and pollakiuria, with production of small quantities of urine. A diagnosis of a ruptured bladder was made on the basis of a large volume of abdominal fluid and a disparity between the urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in the serum (70 mg/dl and 8.4 mg/dl, respectively) and in the abdominal fluid (154 mg/dl and 43 mg/dl, respectively). The colt had undergone surgical correction of a ruptured urinary bladder at 4 days of age, and a 5-cm tear through one of the previous scars was identified and repaired during exploratory celiotomy. The previous injury to the bladder was extensive and may have left an inherent weakness in the bladder wall. Evidence of adhesion formation or urethral obstruction was not found. The combination of a full bladder and the trauma associated with induction of anesthesia may have contributed to the recurrence of bladder rupture. PMID:2889712

  13. Spinal cord injury markedly altered protein expression patterns in the affected rat urinary bladder during healing stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Bong Jo; Sim, Gyujin; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kang, Dawon; Jung, Jae Hun; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Kwak, Yeon Ju; Choi, Yeon Jin; Park, Young Sook; Han, Jaehee; Lee, Cheol Soon; Kang, Kee Ryeon

    2011-06-01

    The influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) on protein expression in the rat urinary bladder was assessed by proteomic analysis at different time intervals post-injury. After contusion SCI between T9 and T10, bladder tissues were processed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS at 6 hr to 28 days after SCI to identify proteins involved in the healing process of SCI-induced neurogenic bladder. Approximately 1,000 spots from the bladder of SCI and sham groups were visualized and identified. At one day after SCI, the expression levels of three protein were increased, and seven spots were down-regulated, including heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20). Fifteen spots such as S100-A11 were differentially expressed seven days post-injury, and seven proteins including transgelin had altered expression patterns 28 days after injury. Of the proteins with altered expression levels, transgelin, S100-A11, Hsp27 and Hsp20 were continuously and variably expressed throughout the entire post-SCI recovery of the bladder. The identified proteins at each time point belong to eight functional categories. The altered expression patterns identified by 2-DE of transgelin and S100-A11 were verified by Western blot. Transgelin and protein S100-A11 may be candidates for protein biomarkers in the bladder healing process after SCI. PMID:21655070

  14. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  15. Urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... Causes of urinary incontinence include: Blockage in the urinary system Brain or nerve problems Dementia or other mental health problems that make ...

  16. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. PMID:24526807

  17. In-vivo CO2 laser rat urinary bladder welding with silver halide fiber optic radiometric temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, Bernard; Eyal, Ophir; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Shenfeld, Ofer; Kariv, Noam; Goldwasser, Benad; Katzir, Abraham

    1995-05-01

    Laser welding has been used for connecting various tissues in the body. In urology such welding has the advantage of forming an immediate water tight seal. We have developed a fiberoptic system that makes it possible to monitor and control the temperature of the tissue during welding. In previous work we demonstrated that this system could be successfully used to weld punctures in the urinary bladder of rats. It was found that optimal welding was obtained at a temperature of 55 degree(s)C. In this work we used the same system for welding of large openings (cystotomy) in the urinary bladder of rats. In early experiments we used stay sutures and decompressing catheters. It was later found that complete closure can be obtained with CO2-laser welding alone. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using temperature controlled laser welding as an efficient surgical tool.

  18. Ischemia in pelvic organs as an independent pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kirpatovskii, V I; Mudraya, I S; Mkrtchyan, K G; Revenko, S V; Efremov, G D; Nadtochii, O N; Kabanova, I V

    2015-04-01

    Blood supply to the pelvic organs of outbred male rats was diminished by graduated constriction of the distal part of the inferior vena cava. Deficiency of intramural blood supply in prostate and urinary bladder was revealed by bioimpedance harmonic analysis according to the magnitude of first cardiac peak in the bioimpedance spectrogram. In 1-1.5 months, the histological examination revealed the glandular-stromal form of progressive benign prostatic hyperplasia in all ischemic rats. The development of hyperplasia was not accompanied by the changes in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol in blood and prostatic tissue. Assessment of vesical functional status by recording the intravesical pressure during infusion cystometry revealed an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations of detrusor tone and intravesical pressure during bladder filling, which can be considered as indicator of detrusor hyperactivity. The data conclude that chronic ischemia of pelvic organs is an individual pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated urinary disorders. PMID:25896589

  19. Steroid-induced protein synthesis in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders. Correlation with natriferic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Geheb, M; Alvis, R; Owen, A; Hercker, E; Cox, M

    1984-01-01

    We have identified a group of proteins (Mr approximately 70 000-80 000; pI approximately 5.5-6.0) in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders whose synthesis appears to be related to aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport. Spironolactone, a specific mineralocorticoid antagonist in renal epithelia, inhibits the synthesis of these proteins as well as the natriferic effect of the hormone. Since a variety of other steroids (some of which are traditionally considered to be glucocorticoids) also stimulate Na+ transport in toad urinary bladders, we examined whether their natriferic activity was expressed in a fashion similar to that of aldosterone. Short-circuit current was used to measure Na+ transport, and epithelial-cell protein synthesis was detected with high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. At a concentration of approximately 100 nM, dexamethasone, corticosterone and aldosterone were equinatriferic. Dexamethasone and aldosterone had identical dose-response curves, maximal and half-maximal activity being evident at concentrations of approximately 100 nM and 10 nM respectively. In contrast, at a concentration of approximately 10 nM, corticosterone had no effect on Na+ transport. The natriferic activities of these three steroids correlate with their known affinities for the putative mineralocorticoid receptor in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic concentrations of dexamethasone and corticosterone (140 nM) induced the synthesis of proteins with characteristics identical with those induced by aldosterone. Spironolactone, at an antagonist/agonist ratio of 2000:1, inhibited steroid-induced Na+ transport and the synthesis of these proteins. Thus it appears that all natriferic steroids share a common mechanism of action in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic activity can be correlated not only with relative steroid-receptor affinity but also with the induction of a specific group of epithelial-cell proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig

  20. Chemopreventive efficacy of naproxen and nitric oxide-naproxen in rodent models of colon, urinary bladder, and mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Zhang, Yuting; Patlolla, Jagan; Boring, Daniel; Kopelovich, Levy; Juliana, M Margaret; Grubbs, Clinton J; Lubet, Ronald A

    2009-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal ulceration and may increase cardiovascular events. Naproxen seems to cause the lowest cardiovascular events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. Nitric oxide (NO)-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a NO group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm) and reduced total ACF by 20% to 40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, whereas the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started 3 months after hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86-94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed nonsignificant inhibitions (12% and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis. PMID:19892664

  1. CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFICACY OF NAPROXEN AND NO-NAPROXEN IN RODENT MODELS OF COLON, URINARY BLADDER, AND MAMMARY CANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Zhang, Yuting; Patlolla, Jagan; Boring, Daniel; Kopelovich, Levy; Juliana, M. Margaret; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically; and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration and may increase cardiovascular (CV) events. Naproxen appears to cause the lowest CV events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. NO-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a nitric oxide (NO) group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45–60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm), and reduced total ACF by 20–40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine (OH-BBN) rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 ppm or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, while the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started three months after OH-BBN, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86–94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed non-significant inhibitions (12 and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis. PMID:19892664

  2. Antepartum fetal bladder rupture leading to urinary ascitis: attempt to rescue by placement of peritoneo-amniotic shunt.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nilanchali; Tripathi, Reva; Tyagi, Shakun; Batra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Fetal bladder rupture is a rare complication occurring due to bladder outlet obstruction, mostly posterior urethral valves. A 26-year-old primigravida presented to us at 27 weeks gestation with an ultrasound report showing gross fetal ascitis and mild oligohydramnios. A repeat scan was performed which showed fetal bladder rupture and urinary ascitis. In conjunction with paediatric surgeon, we performed ultrasound-guided placement of double-ended pigtail catheter connecting the fetal peritoneal cavity with the amniotic cavity at 28 weeks gestation. Ultrasound performed 3 days after the placement of the catheter showed its correct placement. Unfortunately, 1 week after the procedure at 29 weeks gestation, the patient had premature rupture of membranes and later went into labour and delivered vaginally. The neonate could not be revived and expired after few hours of birth due to prematurity-related complications. The placement of the shunt could have probably precipitated preterm rupture of membranes. PMID:23946514

  3. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  4. Nuclear Localization of COX-2 in relation to the Expression of Stemness Markers in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thanan, Raynoo; Murata, Mariko; Ma, Ning; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; El Leithy, Tarek; Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation may activate stem cells via prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of stemness markers (Oct3/4 and CD44v6) and COX-2 in urinary bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and cancer patients with and without Schistosoma haematobium infections. Immunoreactivity to Oct3/4 was significantly higher in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues than in normal tissues. CD44v6 expression was significantly higher in bladder cancer without S. haematobium than in normal tissues. COX-2 was located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of the cancer cells. Interestingly, the nuclear localization of COX-2, which was reported to function as a transcription factor, was significantly associated with the upregulation of Oct3/4 and CD44v6 in bladder cancer tissues with and without S. haematobium infection, respectively. COX-2 activation may be involved in inflammation-mediated stem cell proliferation/differentiation in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:22577245

  5. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Urinary Protein Biomarkers in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Costa, Jamie J.; Goldsmith, James C.; Wilson, Jayne S.; Bryan, Richard T.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    For over 80 years, cystoscopy has remained the gold-standard for detecting tumours of the urinary bladder. Since bladder tumours have a tendency to recur and progress, many patients are subjected to repeated cystoscopies during long-term surveillance, with the procedure being both unpleasant for the patient and expensive for healthcare providers. The identification and validation of bladder tumour specific molecular markers in urine could enable tumour detection and reduce reliance on cystoscopy, and numerous classes of biomarkers have been studied. Proteins represent the most intensively studied class of biomolecule in this setting. As an aid to researchers searching for better urinary biomarkers, we report a comprehensive systematic review of the literature and a searchable database of proteins that have been investigated to date. Our objective was to classify these proteins as: 1) those with robustly characterised sensitivity and specificity for bladder cancer detection; 2) those that show potential but further investigation is required; 3) those unlikely to warrant further investigation; and 4) those investigated as prognostic markers. This work should help to prioritise certain biomarkers for rigorous validation, whilst preventing wasted effort on proteins that have shown no association whatsoever with the disease, or only modest biomarker performance despite large-scale efforts at validation. PMID:27500198

  6. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and a Series of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martano, Manuela; Roperto, Franco; Russo, Valeria; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Paciello, Orlando; Iovane, Valentina; Leonardi, Leonardo; Maiolino, Paola; Restucci, Brunella; Papparella, Serenella; Roperto, Sante

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the histopathology of two hundred and fifty-three mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. Approximately 80% were hemangiomas and angiosarcomas. Hemangioma (capillary, cavernous, and large vessels) was the most frequent mesenchymal tumor and was more common than angiosarcoma. Although the appearance of endothelial cells can vary remarkably, epithelioid angiosarcomas, often containing multinucleated cells, were the most frequent malignant vascular tumors. Hemangiopericytoma and tumors of muscle and soft connective tissue origin, alone and/or in association with tumor-like lesions, were less frequently seen. Furthermore, forty-five cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), a lesion not previously reported in the urinary bladder of cattle, were also described. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 DNA was amplified in tumor samples. Forty vascular tumors were investigated by dual-labeling immunofluorescence, and, for the first time, a coexpression of E5 and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) was shown to occur. The results show that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the activated form of the PDGFβ receptor thus playing an important role in mesenchymal as well as epithelial carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that BPV-2 infects both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. PMID:23862156

  7. The Ewing’s Sarcoma Family of Tumors of Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tonyalı, Şenol; Yazıcı, Sertaç; Yeşilırmak, Aysun; Ergen, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Only 15 cases of Ewing’s Sarcoma (EWS) family of tumors of urinary bladder have been documented in the literature to date. Case Report: We presented here a 38 year-old female with primary urinary bladder EWS with no distant metastases. She had presented with macroscopic hematuria and had undergone transurethral resection of the tumor within the following week. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor diffusely infiltrating the lamina propria and muscularis propria under an intact urothelium, which was composed of small round blue cells with scant cytoplasm, monotonous round or oval nuclei, stippled chromatin and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed strong vimentin, synaptophysin and membranous CD99 expression by the tumor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis displayed the EWSR1 rearrangement. Radical cystectomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, extended lymph node dissection, and ileal conduit were performed. As adjuvant chemotherapy, she received vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and mesna, alternating with courses of etoposide, iphosphamide and mesna. She is alive and well with no evidence of disease 14 months after the surgery. Conclusion: Surgery supported with chemotherapy should be considered as an option, especially in advanced Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors of urinary bladder. PMID:27606145

  8. Effects of hypoxia and glucose-removal condition on muscle contraction of the smooth muscles of porcine urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    NAGAI, Yuta; KANEDA, Takeharu; MIYAMOTO, Yasuyuki; NURUKI, Takaomi; KANDA, Hidenori; URAKAWA, Norimoto; SHIMIZU, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the dependence of aerobic energy metabolism and utilization of glucose in contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle, we investigated the changes in the reduced pyridine nucleotide (PNred) fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity, and determined the phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP contents of the porcine urinary bladder during contractions induced by high K+ or carbachol (CCh) and with and without hypoxia (achieved by bubbling N2 instead of O2) or in a glucose-free condition. Hyperosmotic addition of 65 mM KCl (H-65K+) and 1 µM CCh induced a phasic contraction followed by a tonic contraction. A glucose-free physiological salt solution (PSS) did not change the subsequent contractile responses to H-65K+ and CCh. However, hypoxia significantly attenuated H-65K+- and CCh-induced contraction. H-65K+ and CCh induced a sustained increase in PNred fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity. Hypoxia enhanced H-65K+- and CCh-induced increases in PNred fluorescence, whereas glucose-free PSS decreased these increases, significantly. In the presence of H-65K+, hypoxia decreased the PCr and ATP contents; however, the glucose-free PSS did not change the PCr contents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high K+- and CCh-induced contractions depend on aerobic metabolism and that an endogenous substrate may be utilized to maintain muscle contraction in a glucose-free PSS in the porcine urinary bladder. PMID:26369431

  9. Urinary fibronectin levels in patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Danişman, A; Bulut, K; Kukul, E; Ozen, I; Sevük, M

    2000-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, but the precise mechanism of action of BCG remains poorly understood. Fibronectin (FN), an important component of the extracellular matrix, has been found to play a role in BCG therapy. Some studies have shown that the soluble form of FN can compete efficiently with the matrix form of binding to the specific receptors on the bacteria and could consequently diminish the effect of BCG treatment. To evaluate a possible correlation between the urinary levels of FN and the efficacy of BCG therapy, we determined prospectively the urinary FN levels in 38 patients with TCC of the bladder and in 25 control subjects without malignancy matched for age and sex. All TCC patients were treated with transurethral tumor resection plus 6 weekly intravesical BCG instillations. After an average follow-up of 30 months, 8 patients (21.1%) had recurrent tumors, while 30 (78.9%) were free of tumor after intravesical BCG therapy. Urinary levels of FN in cancer patients have been shown to be significantly higher than controls (p < 0.001). These elevated levels were not decreased significantly after the operation (p > 0. 05). It was also found that the mean urinary FN levels were not statistically significant between patients with recurrence and complete remission. The data suggest that BCG-bladder tumor cell binding is not influenced by soluble fibronectin and urinary FN may not be a ideal marker for selecting patients to BCG therapy. PMID:10895085

  10. Effect of detrusor overactivity on the expression of aquaporins and nitric oxide synthase in rat urinary bladder following bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Choi, Dongjune; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs) have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a role in the bladder overactivity related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of BOO on the expression of AQP2-3 and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in rat urothelium. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 60) were divided into 2 groups. The control group (n = 30) and the partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) group (n = 30). After 4 weeks, we performed a urodynamic study to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of AQP2-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results: On the cystometrogram, the estimated contraction interval time (minutes, mean ± SE) was significantly lower in the BOO group (3.0 ± 0.9) than in the control group (6.3 ± 0.4; p < 0.05). AQP2 was localized in the cytoplasm of the epithelium, whereas AQP3 was found only in the cell membrane of the epithelium. The protein expression of AQP2-3, eNOS and nNOS was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusion: Detrusor overactivity induced by BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP2-3, eNOS, and nNOS in rat urinary bladder. This may imply that the AQPs and NOS isoforms have a functional role in the bladder dysfunction that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:23766828

  11. Hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds from electrospinning of a synthetic biodegradable elastomer and urinary bladder matrix

    PubMed Central

    Stankus, John J.; Freytes, Donald O.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic materials can be electrospun into submicron or nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) scale and architecture with reproducible composition and adaptable mechanical properties. However, these materials lack the bioactivity present in natural ECM. ECM-derived scaffolds contain bioactive molecules that exert in vivo mimicking effects as applied for soft tissue engineering, yet do not possess the same flexibility in mechanical property control as some synthetics. The objective of the present study was to combine the controllable properties of a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer with the inherent bioactivity of an ECM derived scaffold. A hybrid electrospun scaffold composed of a biodegradable poly(ester-urethane)urea (PEUU) and a porcine ECM scaffold (urinary bladder matrix, UBM) was fabricated and characterized for its bioactive and physical properties both in vitro and in vivo. Increasing amounts of PEUU led to linear increases in both tensile strength and breaking strain while UBM incorporation led to increased in vitro smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation and in vitro mass loss. Subcutaneous implantation of the hybrid scaffolds resulted in increased scaffold degradation and a large cellular infiltrate when compared with electrospun PEUU alone. Electrospun UBM/PEUU combined the attractive bioactivity and mechanical features of its individual components to result in scaffolds with considerable potential for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:18419942

  12. A Novel Strain of Porcine Adenovirus Detected in Urinary Bladder Urothelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Jerman, Urška Dragin; Kolenc, Marko; Steyer, Andrej; Veranič, Peter; Prijatelj, Mateja Poljšak; Kreft, Mateja Erdani

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of cell cultures is the most common problem encountered in cell culture laboratories. Besides the secondary cell contaminations often occurring in the cell laboratories, the contaminations originating from donor animal or human tissue are equally as common, but usually harder to recognize and as such require special attention. The present study describes the detection of porcine adenovirus (PAdV), strain PAdV-SVN1 in cultures of normal porcine urothelial (NPU) cells isolated from urinary bladders of domestic pigs. NPU cell cultures were evaluated by light microscopy (LM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and additionally assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Characteristic ultrastructure of virions revealed the infection with adenovirus. The adenoviral contamination was further identified by the sequence analysis, which showed the highest similarity to recently described PAdV strain PAdV-WI. Additionally, the cell ultrastructural analysis confirmed the life-cycle characteristic for adenoviruses. To closely mimic the in vivo situation, the majority of research on in vitro models uses cell cultures isolated from human or animal tissue and their subsequent passages. Since the donor tissue could be a potential source of contamination, the microbiological screening of the excised tissue and harvested cell cultures is highly recommended. PMID:24960273

  13. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPARα + γ Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Southgate, Jennifer; Iversen, Lars; Egerod, Frederikke L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPARα and γ (here termed PPARα+γ agonists) have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARα is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARγ can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPARα as well as PPARγ, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPARα+γ agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology). Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPARα+γ agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPARα and γ in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPARα+γ agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds. PMID:19197366

  14. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taeyeol; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1) herbal therapy, (2) acupuncture, (3) pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4) moxibustion, and (5) cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients. PMID:27190532

  15. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. ({sup 14}C)urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane.

  16. Electrical Characterization of Proposed Transpositional Acupoints on the Urinary Bladder Meridian in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sang-Jun; Soh, Kwang-sup; Myoung, Hyoun-Seok; Lee, Kyoung-Joung; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Lee, Yong-Heum

    2011-01-01

    Specific electrical characteristicsof acupointswere investigated on the urinary bladder (BL) meridian in 14 rats. BL acupointsand non-acupoints on the back were selected and their electrical voltages were measured by using aSPACsystem.The mean voltages of each point or each line were statistically analyzed by using the ANOVA test.The BL meridian showed voltages higher than those of the reference line (P < .05). Bilateral 1st BL lines presented higher voltages than bilateral 2nd BL lines (P < .05). Most BL acupoints had voltageshigher than those for the corresponding reference points (P < .05). In particular, theright BL16 exhibited the biggest difference from the reference point, followed by the left extra BL point-2, the right BL27, the left BL17, and theleft BL45. Additionally, the distributions of neurofilamentsfor several points were investigated by using immunohistochemistry. There was a trend for the BL acupoints to have larger numbers of neurofilaments than the reference points, and that trend seemed to be directly proportional to the difference in voltage between the points.In conclusion, BL acupoints on the back in ratsexhibited specific electric and histologic characteristics. Therefore, those acupointsmay be utilized to investigate the efficacy of acupuncturewith laboratory animals. PMID:21350605

  17. [Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the urinary bladder associated with left renal pelvic carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Koji; Sato, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masato; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki; Oka, Kazuhisa; Tsujimoto, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of primary mucosa-associated lympoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the urinary bladder associated with left renal pelvic carcinoma. A 84-year-old woman showed microscopic hematuria during follow up for hypertention. Left renal pelvic tumor was found and she was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and managemant. She showed pyuria and Escherichia coli was detected by urine culture. Intravenous pyelography and computed tomography revealed the left renal pelvic tumor and solid bladder tumor. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor and left total nephroureterectomy were performed. Histologically, the left renal pelvic tumor was urothelial carcinoma > > adenocarcinoma, G2, pT2 and the bladder tumor was MALT lymphoma. Ga-scintigraphy showed no hot uptake suspicious of metastatic lesion. Then, external beam radiotherapy (36 Gy) was performed to the urinary bladder. She has been alive for 14 months with neither renal pelvic tumor nor MALT lymphoma showing any evidence of disease progression. PMID:17310771

  18. Prevention of Anti-microbial Peptide LL-37-Induced Apoptosis and ATP Release in the Urinary Bladder by a Modified Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Yong; Savage, Justin R.; Zhang, Jianxing; Jia, Wanjian; Oottamasathien, Siam; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), often referred to in combination with painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder. Current therapies primarily focus on replenishing urothelial glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer using GAG analogs and managing pain with supportive therapies. However, the elusive etiology of IC and the lack of animal models to study the disease have been major hurdles developing more effective therapeutics. Previously, we showed an increased urinary concentration of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in spina bifida patients and used LL-37 to develop a mouse model of cystitis that mimics important clinical findings of IC. Here we investigate (1) the molecular mechanism of LL-37 induced cystitis in cultured human urothelial cells and in mice, (2) the protective effects of GM-0111, a modified GAG, within the context of this mechanism, (3) the physiological and molecular markers that correlate with the severity of the inflammation, and (4) the protective effects of several GAGs using these biomarkers in our LL-37 induced cystitis model. We find that LL-37 quickly induces release of ATP and apoptosis in the urothelium. These changes can be inhibited by a chemically-modified GAG, GM-0111. Furthermore, we also find that GAG analogs provide varying degrees of protection against LL-37 challenge in mice. These findings suggest that GM-0111 and possibly GAG molecules prevent the development of cystitis by blocking the apoptosis and the concurrent release of ATP from the urothelium. PMID:24204996

  19. Late Effects on the Urinary Bladder in Patients Treated for Cancer in Childhood: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children’s Oncology Group Long Term Followup (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  20. Complement Component 1, s Subcomponent Overexpression is an Independent Poor Prognostic Indicator in Patients with Urothelial Carcinomas of the Upper Urinary Tract and Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Wei; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Wu, Wen-Jen; Liang, Peir-In; Li, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Bi-Wen; He, Hong-Lin; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Chan, Ti-Chun; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and upper tract is prevalent. By subjecting a documented transcriptome data set of urothelial carcinoma of bladder (GSE31684) to data mining and focusing on genes linked to peptidase activity (GO:0008233), we recognized C1S as the most significantly upregulated gene related to an advanced tumor status and metastasis. We subsequently analyzed the association of both C1S mRNA and its encoded protein expression with the clinical and pathological significance. Materials and Methods: We used real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect C1S transcription levels in 20 cases each of urothelial carcinoma of bladder and upper tract. An immunohistochemical stain was conducted to determine C1s protein expression levels in patients with urothelial carcinoma of upper tract (n = 340) and urinary bladder (n = 295). Furthermore, we examined the correlation of C1s expression with clinicopathological characteristics, disease-specific survival, and metastasis-free survival. Results: C1S transcription levels were significantly high in patients with advanced-stage tumors of both groups (all P < .05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that C1s expression levels were significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters in both groups of urothelial carcinoma (all P < .05). C1s overexpression predicted poor disease-specific and metastasis-free survival rates for both urothelial carcinoma groups in the univariate analysis, and it was also an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis (all P < .05). Conclusions: C1s may play a pivotal role in urothelial carcinoma progress and can represent a vital prognostic marker and a promising new therapeutic target in urothelial carcinoma. PMID:27471555

  1. The soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein as neuroprotective agents against anoxia-glucopenia and reperfusion damage in rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Valeri, A; Fiorenzani, P; Rossi, R; Aloisi, A M; Valoti, M; Pessina, F

    2012-10-01

    Some bladder disorders, such as obstructive bladder and hyperactivity, may be caused partly by ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The neuroprotective effects of estrogens were demonstrated in in vitro studies and a great interest in soy isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) as alternative to the synthetic estrogen receptor modulators for therapeutic use has been pointed out. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genistein and daidzein, on rat detrusor smooth muscle contractility and their possible neuroprotective role against I/R-like condition. Whole rat urinary bladders were subjected to in vitro anoxia-glucopenia (A-G) and reperfusion (R) in the absence or presence of drugs and response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nerves evaluated. Furthermore rats were treated in vivo for 1 week with the phytoestrogens and the same in vitro protocol was applied to the ex vivo bladders. Antioxidant activity of genistein and daidzein on the A-G/R model was determined by measuring malonyldialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, hormones plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Genistein and daidzein administered either in vitro or in vivo showed significant neuroprotective effect and antioxidant activity. Testosterone and 17β-estradiol plasma levels were not modified by daidzein, while a significant decrease of testosterone in genistein treated rats was evident. Moreover both phytoestrogens significantly decreased detrusor contractions induced by EFS in a concentration-dependent manner. For being either neuroprotective and myorelaxant, genistein and daidzein could be considered a good lead for new therapeutic agents to protect the urinary bladder from hyperactivity and nerve damage. PMID:22743170

  2. From urothelial signalling to experiencing a sensation related to the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Birder, L.; Wyndaele, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying bladder sensation and the way we experience sensations during normal voiding and in pathology is complex and not well understood. During storage and emptying, mechanical changes occurring in number of cell types within the bladder wall (i.e. the uroepithelium and bladder afferents) can have a major influence on our sensory systems. In this review, we discuss bladder sensation with a focus on coding events in the periphery. PMID:23110490

  3. Transcription factor network downstream of protease activated receptors (PARs) modulating mouse bladder inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Ricardo; Simpson, Cindy; Davis, Carole A; Dozmorov, Igor; Maier, Julie; Fowler, Ben; Ihnat, Michael A; Hurst, Robert E; Wershil, Barry K; Saban, Marcia R

    2007-01-01

    Background All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. Methods For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing 345 different TF consensus sequences. Next, the TF selected was validated by EMSA and IHC. As mast cells seem to play a fundamental role in bladder inflammation, we determined whether c-kit receptor deficient (Kitw/Kitw-v) mice have an abrogated response to PAR stimulation. Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB. Results TFEB, a member of the MiTF family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper, was the only TF commonly up-regulated by all PAR-APs. IHC results confirm a correlation between inflammation and TFEB expression in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Kitw/Kitw-v mice did not exhibit inflammation in response to PAR activation. EMSA results confirmed the increased TFEB binding activity in C57BL/6 but not in Kitw/Kitw-v mice. Conclusion This is the first report describing the increased expression of TFEB in bladder inflammation in response to PAR activation. As TFEB belongs to a family of TFs essential for mast cell survival, our findings suggest that this molecule may influence the participation of mast cells in PAR-mediated inflammation and that targeting TFEB/MiTF activity may be a novel approach for the treatment of bladder inflammatory disorders. PMID:17705868

  4. Production of the Escherichia coli Common Pilus by Uropathogenic E. coli Is Associated with Adherence to HeLa and HTB-4 Cells and Invasion of Mouse Bladder Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Durán, Laura; Zhang, Yushan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Puente, José L.; Daaka, Yehia; Girón, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause urinary tract infections and employ type 1 and P pili in colonization of the bladder and kidney, respectively. Most intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli strains produce a pilus called E. coli common pilus (ECP) involved in cell adherence and biofilm formation. However, the contribution of ECP to the interaction of UPEC with uroepithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that prototypic UPEC strains CFT073 and F11 mutated in the major pilin structural gene ecpA are significantly deficient in adherence to cultured HeLa (cervix) and HTB-4 (bladder) epithelial cells in vitro as compared to their parental strains. Complementation of the ecpA mutant restored adherence to wild-type levels. UPEC strains produce ECP upon growth in Luria-Bertani broth or DMEM tissue culture medium preferentially at 26°C, during incubation with cultured epithelial cells in vitro at 37°C, and upon colonization of mouse bladder urothelium ex vivo. ECP was demonstrated on and inside exfoliated bladder epithelial cells present in the urine of urinary tract infection patients. The ability of the CFT073 ecpA mutant to invade the mouse tissue was significantly reduced. The presence of ECP correlated with the architecture of the biofilms produced by UPEC strains on inert surfaces. These data suggest that ECP can potentially be produced in the bladder environment and contribute to the adhesive and invasive capabilities of UPEC during its interaction with the host bladder. We propose that along with other known adhesins, ECP plays a synergistic role in the multi-step infection of the urinary tract. PMID:25036370

  5. Effects of Sulfamethizole and Amdinocillin against Escherichia coli Strains (with Various Susceptibilities) in an Ascending Urinary Tract Infection Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kerrn, M. B.; Frimodt-Møller, N.; Espersen, F.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is increasing worldwide. The impact of in vitro resistance on clinical outcome in UTIs requires further study, since most studies of both humans and animals have evaluated only the efficacy of antibiotics toward bacteria susceptible in vitro. We were interested in evaluating the relationship between the in vitro antibacterial effect and the in vivo efficacy after antibiotic treatment. We simulated a natural ascending UTI by use of the ascending UTI mouse model and used Escherichia coli strains with various susceptibilities to amdinocillin (mecillinam) and sulfamethizole. Mice were treated for 3 days with antibiotic doses approximating human urinary tract concentrations after a standard oral dose. For a susceptible strain (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 128 μg/ml), respectively, there were significant reductions in bacterial counts in the urine, bladder, and kidneys after treatment with amdinocillin, whereas for a strain for which the MIC was 16 μg/ml, there was a significant reduction in bacterial counts in the kidneys only (P < 0.05). Treatment with sulfamethizole resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial counts in all samples from a susceptible strain (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 512 μg/ml). Infection with a sulII gene-positive strain (MIC, >2,048 μg/ml) could not be treated with sulfamethizole, as no effect could be demonstrated in the urine, bladder, or kidneys. For amdinocillin, there was no clear-cut relationship between the in vitro susceptibility and the in vivo outcome, while for sulfamethizole, we found a relationship between the MIC for the strain and the effect in the urinary tract. PMID:12604534

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE RAT URINARY TRACT: URETER, URINARY BLADDER.

    PubMed

    Kazaryan, K V; Simonyan, L G; Chibukhchyan, R G

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous recording of spontaneous electrical activity was conducted from the ending areas of the ureter (the zone bordered with pyeloureteral anastomosis and bladder, respectively), as well as of the proximal part of the bladder. Normally the activity of the distal ureter zone is a propagating from the perirenal area action potentials with increased amplitude (100 microV). In these conditions from the bladder were recorded action potentials with relatively lower values of amplitude and frequency rhythm (31.9 microV and 17 min(-1), respectively). Isolation of investigating ureter areas from each other and from the bladder leads to the emergence of spike activity in the peribladder area different from that in norm: in the background of oscillating waves arises the action potential. Isolation of the ureter from the bladder also affects the nature of the initial activity. Of all analyzed parameters of activity change (decrease) only the amplitude and the frequency of action potentials reaching respectively 24.5 microV and 14.2 min(-1). The results indicate the presence of different types of autonomous spontaneous activity in the extreme zones of the ureter and bladder. The adjustment of these activity parameters in the areas can be provided by their relationship with each other. PMID:26336741

  7. Primary adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, XING; JIA, LINGHUA; WANG, JINGEN

    2016-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma is a rare type of urological neoplasm. The present study reports the case of a 55-year-old man with multifocal adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder that occurred in association with a large cystic calculus and perinephric abscess. The patient had suffered from gross hematuria for 2 years and right flank pain for 2 months. Following a series of investigations, a large cystic calculus with multiple tumors in the renal pelvis and ureter was identified. Multifocal tumors and a large calculus were located in the bladder using a cystoscope. The pathological report of 3 individual biopsies revealed a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Right nephrectomy, ureterectomy, radical cystectomy and left ureterocutaneostomy were performed. The pathological investigation revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder. No additional treatment was administered and the patient remains alive at follow-up without disease recurrence or metastasis. Although uncommon, the development of a tumor is possible in patients that possess long-standing urolithiasis, particularly when accompanied by hydronephrosis or infection. PMID:26998081

  8. Increased Sensitivity of Glutathione S-Transferase P-Null Mice to Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Haberzettl, Petra; Lesgards, Jean-Francois; Prough, Russell A.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis and diffuse inflammation of the bladder, common side effects of cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment, have been linked to the generation of acrolein derived from CY metabolism. Metabolic removal of acrolein involves multiple pathways, which include reduction, oxidation, and conjugation with glutathione. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), the GST isoform that displays high catalytic efficiency with acrolein, protects against CY-induced urotoxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Treatment of wild-type (WT) and mGstP1/P2 null (GSTP-null) mice with CY caused hemorrhagic cystitis, edema, albumin extravasation, and sloughing of bladder epithelium; however, CY-induced bladder ulcerations of the lamina propria were more numerous and more severe in GSTP-null mice. CY treatment also led to greater accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive cells and specific protein-acrolein adducts in the bladder of GSTP-null than WT mice. There was no difference in hepatic microsomal production of acrolein from CY or urinary hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid output between WT and GSTP-null mice, but CY induced greater c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38, activation in GSTP-null than in WT mice. Pretreatment with mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium) abolished CY toxicity and JNK activation in GSTP-null mice. Taken together, these data support the view that GSTP prevents CY-induced bladder toxicity, in part by detoxifying acrolein. Because polymorphisms in human GSTP gene code for protein variants differing significantly in their catalytic efficiency toward acrolein, it is likely that GSTP polymorphisms influence CY urotoxicity. In addition, pretreatment with dietary or nutrient inducers of GSTP may be of use in minimizing bladder injury in patients undergoing CY therapy. PMID:19696094

  9. Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Patients with Frailty, Medical Comorbidities or Prior Lower Urinary Tract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Jiang, Yuan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms increase with age and involve several comorbidities. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) intravesical injection is a treatment choice for patients who are intolerant of or refractory to antimuscarinics. However, the increased risk of urinary tract infection and elevated post-void residual (PVR) volume post-treatment require resolution. Male sex, baseline PVR > 100 mL, and comorbidities are independent risk factors of adverse events (AEs) such as acute urinary retention (AUR). Intravesical BoNT-A injection is safe and effective for OAB patients with frailty, medical comorbidities such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), chronic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), dementia, or diabetes, or a history of prior lower urinary tract surgery (prostate or transvaginal sling surgery). Post-treatment, 60% of frail elderly patients had a PVR volume > 150 mL and 11% had AUR. Although intravesical BoNT-A injection is safe for PD patients, CVA patients had higher strain voiding rates. Diabetic patients were at increased risk of large PVR urine volume and general weakness post-treatment. Treatment results were similar between patients with and without a history of prostate or transvaginal sling surgery. Possible AEs and bladder management strategies should be conveyed to patients before treatment. Careful patient selection is important, and therapeutic safety and efficacy should be carefully balanced. PMID:27023603

  10. Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Bladder Patients with Frailty, Medical Comorbidities or Prior Lower Urinary Tract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Jiang, Yuan-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms increase with age and involve several comorbidities. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) intravesical injection is a treatment choice for patients who are intolerant of or refractory to antimuscarinics. However, the increased risk of urinary tract infection and elevated post-void residual (PVR) volume post-treatment require resolution. Male sex, baseline PVR > 100 mL, and comorbidities are independent risk factors of adverse events (AEs) such as acute urinary retention (AUR). Intravesical BoNT-A injection is safe and effective for OAB patients with frailty, medical comorbidities such as Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), dementia, or diabetes, or a history of prior lower urinary tract surgery (prostate or transvaginal sling surgery). Post-treatment, 60% of frail elderly patients had a PVR volume > 150 mL and 11% had AUR. Although intravesical BoNT-A injection is safe for PD patients, CVA patients had higher strain voiding rates. Diabetic patients were at increased risk of large PVR urine volume and general weakness post-treatment. Treatment results were similar between patients with and without a history of prostate or transvaginal sling surgery. Possible AEs and bladder management strategies should be conveyed to patients before treatment. Careful patient selection is important, and therapeutic safety and efficacy should be carefully balanced. PMID:27023603

  11. Urinary Bladder-Relaxant Effect of Kurarinone Depending on Potentiation of Large-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojung; Chae, Mee Ree; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Chul; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sung Won; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Park, Chul-Seung

    2016-08-01

    The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa channel) plays critical roles in smooth muscle relaxation. In urinary bladder smooth muscle, BKCa channel activity underlies the maintenance of the resting membrane potential and repolarization of the spontaneous action potential triggering the phasic contraction. To identify novel BKCa channel activators, we screened a library of natural compounds using a cell-based fluorescence assay and a hyperactive mutant BKCa channel (Lee et al., 2013). From 794 natural compounds, kurarinone, a flavanone from Sophora flavescens, strongly potentiated BKCa channels. When treated from the extracellular side, this compound progressively shifted the conductance-voltage relationship of BKCa channels to more negative voltages and increased the maximum conductance in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas kurarinone strongly potentiated the homomeric BKCa channel composed of only the α subunit, its effects were much smaller on heteromeric channels coassembled with auxiliary β subunits. Although the activation kinetics was not altered significantly, the deactivation of BKCa channels was dramatically slowed by kurarinone treatment. At the single-channel level, kurarinone increased the open probability of the BKCa channel without affecting its single-channel conductance. Kurarinone potently relaxed acetylcholine-induced contraction of rat bladder smooth muscle and thus decreased the micturition frequency of rats with overactive bladder symptoms. These results indicate that kurarinone can directly potentiate BKCa channels and demonstrate the therapeutic potentials of kurarinone and its derivatives for developing antioveractive bladder medications and supplements. PMID:27251362

  12. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  13. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  14. Ultrasound distinction between simple recurrent urinary tract infections and a specific bladder wall inflammatory entity called cystitis cystica.

    PubMed

    Milosević, Danko; Batinic, Danica; Vrljicak, Kristina; Skitarelić, Natasa; Potkonjak, Ana-Meyra; Turudić, Daniel; Bambir, Ivan; Roić, Andrea Cvitković; Spajić, Marija; Spajić, Borislav

    2014-03-01

    A specific representative of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) called cystitis cystica (CC) was assessed by ultrasound. The aim of the study was to delineate, by means of ultrasound measurement (US) of bladder wall thickness (BWT), the children with mere repeated UTI from those prone to frequent UTI due to CC. Two groups were compared, the control group of 30 with recurrent UTI without US CC BWT changes, and the group of 30 children with characteristic CC bladder wall thickening in whom cystoscopy was performed for verification the diagnosis of CC. BWT of > 3 mm (> 2.8 mm and > 3.3 mm) was found as cut-of value for distinction of CC versus simple recurrent UTI. US BWT measurement is useful in diagnosing CC and therefore valuable in decision about need of UTI prophylaxis. PMID:24851610

  15. Tetronic(®)-based composite hydrogel scaffolds seeded with rat bladder smooth muscle cells for urinary bladder tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Srikanth; Ostendorff, Rachel; Fleishman, Benjamin; Nagatomi, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrogels such as collagen offer desirable properties for tissue engineering, including cell adhesion sites, but their low mechanical strength is not suitable for bladder tissue regeneration. In contrast, synthetic hydrogels such as poly (ethylene glycol) allow tuning of mechanical properties, but do not elicit protein adsorption or cell adhesion. For this reason, we explored the use of composite hydrogel blends composed of Tetronic (BASF) 1107-acrylate (T1107A) in combination with extracellular matrix moieties collagen and hyaluronic acid seeded with bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMC). This composite hydrogel supported BSMC growth and distribution throughout the construct. When compared to the control (acellular) hydrogels, mechanical properties (peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus) of the cellular hydrogels were significantly greater. When compared to the 7-day time point after BSMC seeding, results of mechanical testing at the 14-day time point indicated a significant increase in both ultimate tensile stress (4.1-11.6 kPa) and elastic modulus (11.8-42.7 kPa) in cellular hydrogels. The time-dependent improvement in stiffness and strength of the cellular constructs can be attributed to the continuous collagen deposition and reconstruction by BSMC seeded in the matrix. The composite hydrogel provided a biocompatible scaffold for BSMC to thrive and strengthen the matrix; further, this trend could lead to strengthening the construct to match the mechanical properties of the bladder. PMID:25495917

  16. Pearsonema plica (Capillaria plica) infection and associated urinary bladder pathology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Kadrić, Mirsad; Beširović, Hajrudin; Prašović, Senad

    2015-05-01

    Pearsonema plica is a widely distributed nematode parasite that occurs in the urinary tract of various domestic and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and geographical distribution of P. plica and associated urinary bladder pathology in 112 red foxes (70 males, 42 females; 87 adults >1 year, 25 juveniles <1 year) from six different geographical regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The urinary bladders of the red foxes were subjected to gross examination and histopathology. Urine content (n = 40) and mucosal smears (n = 71) of the urinary bladders were examined microscopically for the presence of P. plica. Overall, adults and eggs of P. plica were detected in 65 (58.0 %; 95% CI 48.9-67.2%) of the foxes. Out of the positive foxes, 42 were males (64.6%) and 23 females (35.3%). According to age, 49 adults (75.3%) and 16 juveniles (24.6%) were positive. There were no statistically significant differences in the infection prevalence between the geographical regions (p = 0.701), sex (p = 0.693), or age (p = 0.646) of the host. Also, no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites in urine content (48.7%; 20/41) and mucosal smears (63.3%; 45/71) were observed (p = 0.165). Eosinophilic cystitis characterized with mild to severe infiltrates of eosinophils in the propria of the bladder mucosa accompanied by hyperemia and edema was observed in 36 examined foxes, 24 of which were P. plica positive. Parasites attached and embedded into the mucosa and free in the lumen were recorded in both cystitis positive and negative foxes. Beside clear numerical differences, the influence of P. plica infection on the occurrence of cystitis was not significant (p = 0.309). The results of this study give the first insight into the distribution of P. plica infection among the red fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Observed microscopic changes may contribute toward a better understanding of pathology caused by this

  17. Treatment of “Bacterial Cystitis” in Fully Automatic Mechanical Models Simulating Conditions of Bacterial Growth in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, F.; Mackintosh, I. P.; Greenwood, D.; Watson, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    Two fully automatic models are described in which growing cultures can be continuously diluted and periodically discharged producing conditions of growth resembling those of the infected urinary bladder. Both models generate a continuous record of the opacity of the growing culture and the second model also generates a record of the Eh. The effect of adding ampicillin to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli growing in these conditions is described and the relation of the results to human therapy is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4577943

  18. Holographic Laser Interferometry For Detection Of Tumors In The Rabbit Urinary Bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, R.; Hofstetter, A.; Keiditsch, E.; Grunewald, K.

    1980-05-01

    Holographic interferometric investigations were performed in male giant rabbits (n=10) with and without bladder tumors. Double impulse ruby laser technique was able to detect elasticity changes of the bladder wall caused by tumors. The reproducibility of the experimental results was tested in vivo and in vitro. Healthy and tumorous changed regions of the bladder show a different stretch behavior in response to alterations of internal pressure.The method was found applicable to organic tissue without destruction of the tissue. Holographic interferometry was found to be sensitive method for distinction between normal and tumorous regions of the bladder wall. The results encourage the construction of a designed endoscope for holographic medical diagnostics.

  19. Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle Engineered from Adipose Stem Cells and a Three Dimensional Synthetic Composite

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Gregory S.; Zhang, Rong; Lee, Min; Xu, Yuhan; Wu, Ben; Rodríguez, Larissa V.

    2009-01-01

    Human adipose stem cells were cultured in smooth muscle inductive media and seeded into synthetic bladder composites to tissue engineer bladder smooth muscle. 85:15 poly-lactic-glycolic acid bladder dome composites were cast using an electropulled microfiber luminal surface combined with an outer porous sponge. Cell seeded bladders expressed smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, calponinin, and caldesmon via RT-PCR and immunoflourescence. Nude rats (n=45) underwent removal of half their bladder and repair using: (i) augmentation with the adipose stem cell seeded composites, (ii) augmentation with a matched acellular composite, or (iii) suture closure. Animals were followed for 12 weeks post-implantation and bladders were explanted serially. Results showed that bladder capacity and compliance were maintained in the cell seeded group throughout the 12 weeks, but deteriorated in the acellular scaffold group sequentially with time. Control animals repaired with sutures regained their baseline bladder capacities by week 12, demonstrating a long term limitation of this model. Histological analysis of explanted materials demonstrated viable adipose stem cells and increasing smooth muscle mass in the cell seeded scaffolds with time. Tissue bath stimulation demonstrated smooth muscle contraction of the seeded implants but not the acellular implants after 12 weeks in vivo. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and short term physical properties of bladder tissue engineered from adipose stem cells. PMID:19345408

  20. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nath, Vikas; Baliga, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:27006847

  1. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:27006847

  2. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Dimethylarsinous Acid (DMAIII) on the Urinary Bladder Epithelium of Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase (As3mt) Knockout and C57BL/6 Wild Type Female Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is carcinogenic to the human urinary bladder. It produces urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation in rats and mice. DMAv, a major methylated urinary metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder carcinogen, but without effects on the...

  3. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, Michael P. . E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov; Liu Jie; Ward, Jerrold M.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2006-09-15

    Pregnant CD1 mice received 85 ppm arsenite in the drinking water from gestation day 8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 {mu}g/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 {mu}g/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 weeks. Arsenic alone increased hepatocellular carcinoma (14%), adenoma (23%) and total tumors (31%) compared to control (0, 2 and 2%, respectively). Arsenic alone also increased lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortical adenoma and renal cystic tubular hyperplasia compared to control. Compared to arsenic alone, arsenic plus DES increased liver tumor incidence in mice at risk 2.2-fold and increased liver tumor multiplicity (tumors/liver) 1.8-fold. The treatments alone did not impact urinary bladder carcinogenesis, but arsenic plus TAM significantly increased formation of urinary bladder transitional cell tumors (papilloma and carcinoma; 13%) compared to control (0%). Urinary bladder proliferative lesions (combined tumors and hyperplasia) were also increased by arsenic plus TAM (40%) or arsenic plus DES (43%) compared to control (0%) or the treatments alone. Urinary bladder proliferative lesions occurred in the absence of any evidence of uroepithelial cytotoxic lesions. Urinary bladder lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by arsenic plus TAM and/or DES overexpressed estrogen receptor-{alpha}, indicating that aberrant estrogen signaling may have been a factor in the enhanced carcinogenic response. Thus, in male CD1 mice, gestational arsenic exposure alone induced liver adenoma and carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal adenoma and renal cystic hyperplasia. Furthermore, DES enhanced transplacental arsenic-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In utero arsenic also initiated urinary bladder tumor formation when followed by postnatal TAM and uroepithelial proliferative lesions when followed by TAM or DES.

  4. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclin D1, Cytokeratin 20, and Uroplakin III in Proliferative Urinary Bladder Lesions Induced by o-Nitroanisole in Fischer 344/N Rats.

    PubMed

    Willson, C J; Flake, G P; Sills, R C; Kissling, G E; Cesta, M F

    2016-05-01

    o-Nitroanisole is an intermediate in the manufacture of azo dyes. In a National Toxicology Program stop-exposure study,o-nitroanisole induced hyperplasia, papillomas, and papillary carcinomas in the urinary bladder of Fischer 344/N rats.o-Nitroanisole was investigated since occupational or environmental exposure to aniline and azo dyes is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer in humans. The current study describes the morphology of urinary bladder neoplasms seen in rats with respect to those observed in humans. This study also evaluated immunohistochemical expression of the cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1 and p53 and the differentiation markers cytokeratin 20 and uroplakin III in hyperplastic (n= 11) and neoplastic (n= 6 papillomas,n= 11 carcinomas) lesions of the urinary bladder epithelium from rats treated witho-nitroanisole and in normal (n= 6) urinary bladders from untreated rats. The tumors observed were more similar to the papillary type rather than the muscle-invasive type of urinary bladder cancer in humans. The preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions observed suggest progression from hyperplasia to papilloma to papillary carcinoma. With neoplastic progression (hyperplasia to papilloma to carcinoma), cyclin D1 immunoreactivity progressively increased in intensity, percentage of cells staining, and distribution. Overexpression of p53 was not found. Cytokeratin 20 staining decreased in superficial cells, while uroplakin III staining increased in intermediate and basal cells with progression from hyperplasia to carcinoma. The results are consistent with increased cell cycle dysregulation or proliferation (cyclin D1), decreased differentiation (cytokeratin 20), and abnormal differentiation (uroplakin III) as lesions progress toward malignancy. PMID:26319780

  5. Investigation of bladder dose and volume factors influencing late urinary toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Lee, Andrew K.; Frank, Steven; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Thames, Howard; Mohan, Radhe; Kuban, Deborah

    2007-03-15

    Background: We sought to identify the bladder dose-volume factors associated with an increased risk of late urinary toxicity among prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis included data from 128 prostate cancer patients treated on protocol with 2 Gy/fraction to 46 Gy followed by a boost to 78 Gy. The endpoint for this analysis was Grade 1 or greater late genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring within two years of treatment. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman, mean dose, threshold dose, and hottest volume models were fitted to the toxicity data using the maximum likelihood method. Results: Model fits based on dose-volume histograms tended to fit the toxicity data better than models based on dose-wall histograms. The hottest volume (hotspot) model was found to be the best-fitting model investigated. The best fit was for the hottest 2.9% of bladder (95% CI, 1.1-6.8%). This model has an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74. The hotspot model separated the patients into clinically meaningful subgroups with {approx}25% of the patients who received <78 Gy to the hottest 2.9% of bladder had GU toxicity at eight years compared with {approx}50% when the dose was {>=}78 Gy (p = 0.002). Conclusion: This provides the first evidence supporting that bladder 'hotspots' are related to GU toxicity within two years after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Confirming data are needed from other investigators. Particular attention should be given to hotspots higher than 78 Gy in bladder in radiation treatment planning.

  6. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you risk getting rashes, sores, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Also, you may find yourself avoiding friends and ... elderly and may be a sign of a urinary tract infection or an overactive bladder. Overflow incontinence This type ...

  7. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or being unable to control when ... Surgery Bladder Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries Urethral Disorders Urinary Incontinence Urine and Urination Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  8. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  9. Arylamine-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo: their role in bacterial mutagenesis and urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beland, Frederick A.; Beranek, David T.; Dooley, Kenneth L.; Heflich, Robert H.; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    1983-01-01

    frameshift reversions induced by these agents, with the lesions showing a relative order of mutagenic efficiency of ABZ>AF≅2-NA>ABP. These data suggest that mutagenic N-hydroxyarylamines may be ultimate carcinogens for the bladder epithelium. Furthermore, if one assumes that a mutagenic lesion is important for tumor initiation, then C8-deoxyguanosine substitution by these compounds may be significant for urinary bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:6339219

  10. Effects of internal and external pH on amiloride-blockable Na transport across toad urinary bladder vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, E.D.; Civan, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of internal and external pH on Na+ transport across toad bladder membrane vesicles. Of the total SSNa uptake measured 0.5-2.0 min after introducing tracer, 80 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) is blocked by the diuretic with a KI of 2 X 10(-8) M. Thus, this amiloride-sensitive flux is mediated by the apical sodium-selective channels. Varying the internal (cytosolic) pH over the physiologic range 7.0-8.0 had no effect on sodium transport; this result suggests that variation of intracellular pH in vivo has no direct apical effect on modulating sodium uptake. On the other hand, SSNa was directly and monotonically dependent on external pH. External acidification also reduced the amiloride-sensitive efflux across the walls of the vesicles. This inhibition of 22Na efflux was noted at external Na concentrations of both 0.2 microM and 53 mM. These results are different from those reported with whole toad bladder. A number of possible bases for these differences are considered and discussed. They suggest that the natriferic response induced by mucosal acidification of whole toad urinary bladder appears to operate indirectly through one or more factors, presumably cytosolic, present in whole cells and absent from the vesicles.

  11. Antepartum fetal bladder rupture leading to urinary ascitis: attempt to rescue by placement of peritoneo-amniotic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilanchali; Tripathi, Reva; Tyagi, Shakun; Batra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Fetal bladder rupture is a rare complication occurring due to bladder outlet obstruction, mostly posterior urethral valves. A 26-year-old primigravida presented to us at 27 weeks gestation with an ultrasound report showing gross fetal ascitis and mild oligohydramnios. A repeat scan was performed which showed fetal bladder rupture and urinary ascitis. In conjunction with paediatric surgeon, we performed ultrasound-guided placement of double-ended pigtail catheter connecting the fetal peritoneal cavity with the amniotic cavity at 28 weeks gestation. Ultrasound performed 3 days after the placement of the catheter showed its correct placement. Unfortunately, 1 week after the procedure at 29 weeks gestation, the patient had premature rupture of membranes and later went into labour and delivered vaginally. The neonate could not be revived and expired after few hours of birth due to prematurity-related complications. The placement of the shunt could have probably precipitated preterm rupture of membranes. PMID:23946514

  12. Antagonism by nifedipine of contraction and Ca2(+)-influx evoked by ATP in guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Katsuragi, T.; Usune, S.; Furukawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of Ca2(+)-antagonists, especially nifedipine, on contraction and increase of intracellular Ca2+ (Fura-2/AM method) evoked by ATP were evaluated in a thin outer layer segment of guinea-pig urinary bladder. 2. The ATP-evoked contraction was markedly inhibited by dihydropyridine-type Ca2(+)-antagonists, such as nifedipine and nitrendipine, but not by D-600, omega-conotoxin and tetramethrin. 3. This antagonism by nifedipine of ATP-evoked contractions was competitive from the Schild plot analysis, the pA2 value being 8.23. The reduction of ATP-evoked contraction by nifedipine (0.1 microM) was fully reversed by administration of Bay K 8644 (0.1 microM). 4. ATP (100 microM) caused an increase of fluorescence brightness after loading Fura-2/AM, which was coupled with a contraction of the bladder. Both the contraction and the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ evoked evoked by the nucleotide were completely antagonized by nifedipine. by the nucleotide were completely antagonized by nifedipine. 5. These results suggest that ATP may activate the dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent Ca2(+)-channels in a direct or indirect fashion and, thereby, elicit a contraction of the bladder. PMID:1696154

  13. Age-Related Alterations in Regeneration of the Urinary Bladder after Subtotal Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, David M.; AbouShwareb, Tamer; Bergman, Christopher R.; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Christ, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior work documented that surgical removal of approximately 70% of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy) in 12-week-old female rats induced complete functional regeneration of the bladder within 8 weeks. To determine whether animal age affects bladder regeneration, female F344 rats aged 12 weeks (young) and 12 months (old) underwent subtotal cystectomy, and then were evaluated from 1 to 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy. At 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy, bladder capacity in young animals was indistinguishable from that in age-matched controls, but bladder capacity in old animals was only approximately 56% of that in age-matched controls. There was no detectable difference in residual volume among treatment groups, but the diminished regeneration in old animals was associated with a corresponding increase in the ratio of residual volume to micturition volume. The majority of old animals exhibited evidence of chronic kidney damage after subtotal cystectomy. Maximal contraction of bladder strips to electrical field stimulation, as well as activation with carbachol, phenylephrine, and KCl, were lower in old than in young animals at 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy. Immunostaining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Von Willebrand factor revealed delayed and/or diminished proliferative and angiogenic responses, respectively, in old animals. These results confirm prior work and suggest that multiple mechanisms may contribute to an age-related decline in the regenerative capacity of the bladder. PMID:24012523

  14. Mouse urinary peptides provide a molecular basis for genotype discrimination by nasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Theo; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Maček, Boris; Walzer, Mathias; Jung, Stephan; Pömmerl, Beate; Stevanović, Stefan; Zufall, Frank; Overath, Peter; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    Selected groups of peptides, including those that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins, have been proposed to transmit information to the olfactory system of vertebrates via their ability to stimulate chemosensory neurons. However, the lack of knowledge about such peptides in natural sources accessible for nasal recognition has been a major barrier for this hypothesis. Here we analyse urinary peptides from selected mouse strains with respect to genotype-related individual differences. We discover many abundant peptides with single amino-acid variations corresponding to genomic differences. The polymorphism of major urinary proteins is reflected by variations in prominent urinary peptides. We also demonstrate an MHC-dependent peptide (SIINFEKL) occurring at very low concentrations in mouse urine. Chemoreceptive neurons in the vomeronasal organ detect and discriminate single amino-acid variation peptides as well as SIINFEKL. Hence, urinary peptides represent a real-time sampling of the expressed genome available for chemosensory assessment by other individuals. PMID:23511480

  15. Dietary administration of sodium arsenite to rats: Relations between dose and urinary concentrations of methylated and thio-metabolites and effects on the rat urinary bladder epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Chen, Baowei; Naranmandura, Hua; Le, X. Chris; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-04-15

    Based on epidemiological data, chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is carcinogenic to humans, inducing skin, urinary bladder and lung tumors. In vivo, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals including the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Short-term treatment of rats with 100 mug/g trivalent arsenic (As{sup III}) as sodium arsenite in the diet or in drinking water induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to determine if these arsenic-induced urothelial effects are dose responsive, the dose of arsenic at which urothelial effects are not detected, and the urinary concentrations of the arsenical metabolites. We treated female F344 rats for 5 weeks with sodium arsenite at dietary doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and hyperplasia of urothelial superficial cells were increased in a dose-responsive manner, with maximum effects found at 50 ppm As{sup III}. There were no effects at 1 ppm As{sup III}. The main urinary arsenical in As{sup III}-treated rats was the organic arsenical dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). The thio-metabolites dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}) and monomethylmonothioarsinic acid (MMMTA{sup V}) were also found in the urine of As{sup III}-treated rats. The LC{sub 50} concentrations of DMMTA{sup V} for rat and human urothelial cells in vitro were similar to trivalent oxygen-containing arsenicals. These data suggest that dietary As{sup III}-induced urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation are dose responsive, and the urothelial effects have a threshold corresponding to the urinary excretion of measurable reactive metabolites.

  16. Preventive effects of NSAIDs, NO-NSAIDs, and NSAIDs plus difluoromethylornithine in a chemically induced urinary bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Grubbs, Clinton J; Margaret Juliana, M; Bode, Ann M; Kim, Mi-Sung; Lu, Yan; You, Ming; Milne, Ginger L; Boring, Daniel; Steele, Vernon E; Lubet, Ronald A

    2014-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer prevention studies were performed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) naproxen (a standard NSAID with a good cardiovascular profile), sulindac, and their nitric oxide (NO) derivatives. In addition, the effects of the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), alone or combined with a suboptimal dose of naproxen or sulindac was examined. Agents were evaluated at their human equivalent doses (HED), as well as at lower doses. In the hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) model of urinary bladder cancer, naproxen (400 or 75 ppm) and sulindac (400 ppm) reduced the incidence of large bladder cancers by 82%, 68%, and 44%, respectively, when the agents were initially given 3 months after the final dose of the carcinogen; microscopic cancers already existed. NO-naproxen was highly effective, whereas NO-sulindac was inactive. To further compare naproxen and NO-naproxen, we examined their effects on gene expression in rat livers following a 7-day exposure. Limited, but similar, gene expression changes in the liver were induced by both agents, implying that the primary effects of both are mediated by the parent NSAID. When agents were initiated 2 weeks after the last administration of OH-BBN, DFMO at 1,000 ppm had limited activity, a low dose of naproxen (75 ppm) and sulindac (150 ppm) were highly and marginally effective. Combining DFMO with suboptimal doses of naproxen had minimal effects, whereas the combination of DMFO and sulindac was more active than either agent alone. Thus, naproxen and NO-naproxen were highly effective, whereas sulindac was moderately effective in the OH-BBN model at their HEDs. PMID:24346344

  17. Hydatid cyst of urinary bladder associated with pregnancy:a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanagal, Deepa V; Hanumanalu, Lokeshchandra C

    2010-07-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease which is caused by Echinococcus group of cestodes is very rare in pregnancy. While liver and lungs are commonly involved, other sites can be rarely affected. The management of hydatid disease in pregnancy is challenging in view of varied presentation and manifestation. We report a case of hydatid cyst arising from the bladder associated with pregnancy and presenting with abdominal pain. The cyst was surgically removed and the bladder wash was given with povidone-iodine. The postoperative recovery was uneventful with ongoing pregnancy. This is to our knowledge, the first case of hydatid cyst arising from the bladder associated with pregnancy to be reported. PMID:20169445

  18. Prevalence of Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women Who Have Sex with Women: An Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Renea M.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L.; Brown, Jeannete S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0–8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted. PMID:25314336

  19. Silencing expression of the NANOG gene and changes in migration and metastasis of urinary bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Galilejczyk, Anna; Krawczyk, Michał; Bednarek, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It has been proved that expression of the NANOG gene is observed not only in embryonic-derived malignancies, but also in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervix cancer and bladder cancer. NANOG overexpression is correlated with high activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the malignant phenotype of T24 bladder cancer cells with modulated expression of the NANOG gene. Material and methods Human urinary bladder cancer cells T24 (HTB-4) were cultivated under standard conditions. Transfection of the cells with silencing constructions was performed with the application of Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) reagent. Evaluation of changes in the expression level of individual genes was performed using qRTPCR. Changes in the protein level were evaluated using the Human ELISA Kit (Abcam). The invasion capability of transfected cells was tested using Matrigel Invasion Chambers (BD Biosciences). The changes in cell migration were assessed with a wound-healing assay. Results The qRTPCR evaluation showed that silencing the NANOG gene in T24 cells led to the decrease of mRNA for the MMP-2 gene to the level of 62.4% and the MMP-9 gene to the level of 76%. The cells with modulated expression of the NANOG gene migrated slower in the Matrigel invasion assay and in the wound-healing assay. The immunoenzymatic test showed a decrease in the protein level of MMP-9. Conclusions The transcriptional activity of the NANOG gene might be connected with some aspects of bladder cancer cell metastasis in vitro and has an influence on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels. PMID:27478472

  20. Isometric and isotonic length-tension relations and variaitonsin cell length in longitudinal smooth muscel from rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Uvelius, B

    1976-03-01

    Isometric and isotonic length-tension relations of longitudinal smooth muscle from rabbit urinary bladder were studied together with muscle cell length and tissue structure as revealed histologically. In vivo strip length at a bladder volume of 10 m1 is referred to as L10. The smooth muscle was relaxed by Ca2+-free solution and contracted by K+-high solution with different Ca2+-concentrations. Maximal active force, 12.5+/-0.4 N/cm2 (S.E., n =11), for wholestrips was attained at a length of 206+/-4% (S.E., n=5) of L10. Passive tension at this length was about 15% of total tension. After correction for amount of connective tissue, maximal active tension of pure muscle bundles was 19 N/cm2. Up to about 165% of L10 isometric and isotonic length-tension relations were identical; if the muscle was stretched beyond this, it failed to shorten isotonically to the same length as when contracting from a shorter starting length. This decreased shortening capacity was reversible if the muscle was shortened passively. The extent of shortening against zero load was dependent on degree of activation suggesting an internal resistance to shortening. A linear relationship was found between bladder radius and muscle cell length, indicating that no slippage occurs between the cells when the bladder is filled. Mean cell diameter in the nuclear regionat L10 was 7.2+/-0.2 mum (S.D.,n=10). Mean macimal active tension per cell was calculated to be 2.3-10(-6) N and occurred at a cell length of 655 mum. PMID:818878

  1. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS with enhanced contour conjoint procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for computerized bladder segmentation in CTU is that the bladder often contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast. Previously, we proposed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours with a Contour Conjoint Procedure (CCP). The CCP is not trivial. Inaccuracies in the NC and C contours may cause CCP to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented model-guided refinement to propagate the C contour if the level set propagation in the region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. An enhanced CCP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. Segmentation performance was evaluated using 70 cases. For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of average volume intersection %, average % volume error, and average minimum distance. With enhanced CCP, those values were 84.4±10.6%, 8.3±16.1%, 3.4±1.8 mm, respectively. With CLASS, those values were 74.6±13.1%, 19.6±18.6%, 4.4±2.2 mm, respectively. The enhanced CCP improved bladder segmentation significantly (p<0.001) for all three performance measures.

  2. Altered distribution of interstitial cells and innervation in the rat urinary bladder following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Louise; Cunningham, Rebecca MJ; Young, John S; Fry, Christopher H; McMurray, Gordon; Eccles, Rachel; McCloskey, Karen D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the distribution of interstitial cells (IC) are reportedly associated with dysfunctional bladder. This study investigated whether spinal cord injury (SCI) resulted in changes to IC subpopulations (vimentin-positive with the ultrastructural profile of IC), smooth muscle and nerves within the bladder wall and correlated cellular remodelling with functional properties. Bladders from SCI (T8/9 transection) and sham-operated rats 5 weeks post-injury were used for ex vivo pressure–volume experiments or processed for morphological analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light/confocal microscopy. Pressure-volume relationships revealed low-pressure, hypercompliance in SCI bladders indicative of decompensation. Extensive networks of vimentin-positive IC were typical in sham lamina propria and detrusor but were markedly reduced post-SCI; semi-quantitative analysis showed significant reduction. Nerves labelled with anti-neurofilament and anti-vAChT were notably decreased post-SCI. TEM revealed lamina propria IC and detrusor IC which formed close synaptic-like contacts with vesicle-containing nerve varicosities in shams. Lamina propria and detrusor IC were ultrastructurally damaged post-SCI with retracted/lost cell processes and were adjacent to areas of cellular debris and neuronal degradation. Smooth muscle hypertrophy was common to SCI tissues. In conclusion, IC populations in bladder wall were decreased 5 weeks post-SCI, accompanied with reduced innervation, smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased compliance. These novel findings indicate that bladder wall remodelling post-SCI affects the integrity of interactions between smooth muscle, nerves and IC, with compromised IC populations. Correlation between IC reduction and a hypercompliant phenotype suggests that disruption to bladder IC contribute to pathophysiological processes underpinning the dysfunctional SCI bladder. PMID:21883887

  3. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  4. INDUCTION OF URINARY BLADDER PATHOLOGY IN MALE AND FEMALE C3H MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE FROM GESTATION THROUGH YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cancer of the skin, urinary bladder and lung as well as the kidney and liver. Recently, an in utero animal model was developed to characterize the carcinogenic properties of inorganic arsen...

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of p63, Ki67 and β-catenin in canine transitional cell carcinoma and polypoid cystitis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Hanazono, K; Nishimori, T; Fukumoto, S; Kawamura, Y; Endo, Y; Kadosawa, T; Uchide, T

    2016-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a urinary bladder tumour associated with high mortality in dogs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using p63, Ki67 or β-catenin as a clinical marker for predicting biological behaviour and prognosis in canine TCC. Expression levels of these proteins in TCC (n = 25), polypoid cystitis (n = 5) and normal urinary bladder (n = 5) were scored after immunohistochemical staining. The staining scores for p63 (P < 0.01) and β-catenin (P < 0.05) in TCC were significantly lower than those in normal urinary bladder and polypoid cystitis. In contrast, Ki67 (P < 0.01) staining scores in TCC were significantly higher than those in normal urinary bladder and polypoid cystitis. In TCC, low p63 expression was significantly related to the presence of vessel invasion (P < 0.05) and metastasis (P < 0.01) as well as short survival time (P < 0.05). These findings show that p63 could be a reliable marker for predicting prognosis in canine TCC. PMID:24758385

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM FROM URINARY BLADDERS OF RATS EXPOSED TO DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Development of a Novel Method for Analysis of Transcriptional Changes in Transitional Epithelium from Urinary Bladders of Rats Exposed to Drinking Water Disinfection By- products.

    Epidemiologic studies in human populations that drink chemically disinfected drinking wa...

  7. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  8. Delaying urinary catheter insertion in the reception and resuscitation of blunt multitrauma and using a full bladder to tamponade pelvic bleeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sean; Vohora, Ashray; Russ, Matthias K; Mathew, Joseph K; Johnny, Cecil S; Stevens, Jeremy; Fitzgerald, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a counter-argument to standard Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training--which advocates bladder catheterisation to be performed as an adjunct to the primary survey and resuscitation for early decompression of the bladder and urine output monitoring. We argue the case for delaying bladder catheterisation until after definitive truncal Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. To reduce pelvic volume and associated bleeding, our trauma team delay catheter insertion until after the initial CT scan. The benefits of a full bladder also include improved views on initial Focussed Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) scan and improved interpretation of injuries on CT. Our urinary catheter related infection rates anecdotally decreased when insertion was delayed and consequently performed in a more controlled, non-resuscitation setting following CT. Adult blunt multitrauma patients with pelvic ring fractures are at risk of significant haemorrhage. Venous, arterial and medullary injuries with associated bleeding may be potentiated by an increased pelvic volume with ring disruption, as well as a reduced pressure effect from retroperitoneal and intra-pelvic organs on bleeding sites. Various techniques are used to reduce intra-pelvic bleeding. For shocked patients who have sustained major pelvic injuries with no other signs of urinary tract trauma and minimal urine in the bladder on initial FAST scan, we advocate careful, aseptic Foley catheter insertion followed by bladder insufflation with 500-600 mL of Normal Saline (NS) and subsequent catheter clamping to tamponade pelvic bleeding. PMID:25805552

  9. Polymorphic enzymes, urinary bladder cancer risk, and structural change in the local industry.

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Selinski, Silvia; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Moormann, Oliver; Haenel, Matthias W; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In the 1990s, an uncommonly high percentage of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) negative bladder cancer cases (70%) was reported in the greater Dortmund area. The question arose as to whether this uncommonly high percentage of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer cases was due to environmental and/or occupational exposure decades ago. Thus, 15 years later, another study on bladder cancer was performed in the same area after the coal, iron, and steel industries had finally closed in the 1990s. In total 196 bladder cancer patients from the St.-Josefs-Hospital Dortmund-Hörde and 235 controls with benign urological diseases were assessed by questionnaire and genotyped for GSTM1, glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) tag SNP rs1495741. The frequency of the GSTM1 negative genotype was 52% in bladder cancer cases and thus lower compared to a previous study performed from 1992 to 1995 in the same area (70%). NAT2 genotypes were distributed equally among cases and controls (63% slow acetylators). Fewer GSTT1 negative genotypes were present in cases (17%) than in controls (20%). PMID:22686316

  10. Central delta-opioid receptor interactions and the inhibition of reflex urinary bladder contractions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dray, A; Nunan, L; Wire, W

    1985-07-01

    The in vivo effects of a number of opioid agonists and antagonists were studied on the spontaneous reflex contractions of the urinary bladder recorded isometrically in the rat anesthetized with urethane. All substances were administered into the central nervous system by the intracereboventricular (i.c.v.) or spinal intrathecal (i.t.) route. The conformationally restricted enkephalin analogues [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-cysteine] enkephalin (DPLCE), [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPLPE) and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPDPE) produced dose-related inhibition of reflex bladder contractions when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. Both the novel delta-opioid receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 (200-600 micrograms) [N,N-bisallyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Psi-(CH2S)-Phe-Leu-OH) and ICI 174,864 (1-3 micrograms) [N,N-dially-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH: Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid] attenuated or abolished the effects of DPLCE, DPLPE and DPDPE when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. The antagonism observed was selective since the equipotent inhibition produced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me-Phe4, Gly(ol)5] enkephalin (DAGO) was unaffected. Overall, ICI 154,129 was considerably weaker than ICI 174,864 and both antagonists inhibited bladder activity at doses higher than those required to demonstrate delta-receptor antagonism. Further studies of the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 showed that it was insensitive to low doses of naloxone (2 micrograms, i.c.v. or i.t.) but could be abolished by higher (10-15 micrograms) doses of naloxone. These observations suggested that the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 was not mediated by mu-opioid receptor. beta-Endorphin (0.2-1.0 micrograms, i.c.v.) inhibited bladder contractions but following recovery from this effect, appeared to prevent the expression of delta-receptor antagonism by ICI 174,864. In addition a previously subthreshold dose of ICI 174,864 now exhibited marked agonistic

  11. Local Change in Urinary Bladder Contractility Following CNS Dopamine Denervation in the 6-OHDA Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Reinika; Aronsson, Patrik; Winder, Michael; Tobin, Gunnar; Bergquist, Filip; Carlsson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Urinary problems, including urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia are some of the non-motor symptoms that correlate most with poor quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. However, the mechanism behind these symptoms is poorly understood, in particular regarding peripheral bladder pathophysiology following dopamine degeneration. Objective: In this study, we compared the contractile responsiveness of urinary bladder from the 6-OHDA unilateral rat model of Parkinson’s disease with that of normal untreated animals. Methods: The contractility of the urinary detrusor muscle was evaluated in bladder strip preparations using electrical field stimulation, and muscarinic and purinoceptor stimulations in an vitro organ bath setup. Results: Our data show that the overall contractile response following electrical field stimulation was significantly higher (43% at maximum contraction by 20–40 Hz stimulation) in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats as compared to control animals. This increase was associated with a significant increase in the cholinergic contractile response, where the muscarinic agonist methacholine produced a 44% (at 10 −4 M concentration) higher response in the 6-OHDA-treated rats as compared to controls with a significant left-shift of the dose response. This indicates an altered sensitivity of the muscarinic receptor system following the specific central 6-OHDA-induced dopamine depletion. In addition a 36% larger contraction of strips from the 6-OHDA animals was also observed with purinoceptor activation using the agonist ATP (5×10 −3 M) during atropine treatment. Conclusions: Our data shows that it is not only the central dopamine control of the micturition reflex that is altered in Parkinson’s disease, but also the local contractile function of the urinary bladder. The current study draws attention to a mechanism of urinary dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease that has previously not been described. PMID:25697958

  12. Comparison of CLASS and ITK-SNAP in segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. We have developed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast, CLASS segments the noncontrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours. In this study, we compared the performance of CLASS to ITK-SNAP 2.4, which is a publicly available software application for segmentation of structures in 3D medical images. ITK-SNAP performs segmentation by using the edge-based level set on preprocessed images. The level set were initialized by manually placing a sphere at the boundary between the C and NC parts of the bladders with C and NC regions, and in the middle of the bladders that had only C or NC region. Level set parameters and the number of iterations were chosen after experimentation with bladder cases. Segmentation performances were compared using 30 randomly selected bladders. 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of the average volume intersection %, average % volume error, average absolute % volume error, average minimum distance, and average Jaccard index. For CLASS, the values for these performance metrics were 79.0±8.2%, 16.1±16.3%, 19.9±11.1%, 3.5±1.3 mm, 75.7±8.4%, respectively. For ITK-SNAP, the corresponding values were 78.8±8.2%, 8.3±33.1%, 24.2±23.7%, 5.2±2.6 mm, 71.0±15.4%, respectively. CLASS on average performed better and exhibited less variations than ITK-SNAP for bladder segmentation.

  13. Prognostic Impact of Thrombospodin-2 (THBS2) Overexpression on Patients with Urothelial Carcinomas of Upper Urinary Tracts and Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Wei; Li, Chien-Feng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; He, Hong-Lin; Liang, Per-In; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Li, Ching-Chia; Huang, Chun-Nung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a type of tumor, especially of the urinary bladder, that affects people worldwide. Clarification of its detailed tumor biology and discovery of potential targets for developing treatment strategies are imperative because of frequent recurrences and poor prognosis of advanced UCs. By data mining a published dataset of UC of bladder (UCB) transcriptome (GSE31684) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information (GEO, NCBI), we identified that THBS2 was the most significantly upregulated gene among those related to structural molecule activity (GO:0005198). Therefore, we evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic impact of thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) protein, A.K.A. TSP2, which encoded by THBS2 gene. Materials and Methods: THBS2 immunostaining was performed in 340 UCs of upper urinary tract (UC-UUTs) and 295 UCBs; subsequently, both groups were dichotomized into high- and low-expression subgroups. Moreover, statistical analyses were performed to correlate the association between THBS2 expression and clinicopathological parameters with two survival indexes: disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: High THBS2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with advanced primary tumor status, nodal metastasis, and vascular invasion in both UC-UUT and UCB groups (all P ≤ .001). In addition, THBS2 overexpression was linked to adverse DSS and MeFS in univariate analyses and served as an independent prognosticator indicating poor outcomes in both groups in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: THBS2 may play a crucial role in UC progression and may be a novel prognostic marker. Additional investigations to elucidate the molecular pathway are necessary for developing potential THBS2-targeted therapies for UCs. PMID:27471570

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the bladder: a new technique for studying lower urinary tract function in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Afshar, Kourosh; Stothers, Lynn; Macnab, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Background: Continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor chromophore change in the bladder detrusor muscle during voiding; oxygenation and hemodynamic data derived differ in health and disease. Application of wireless NIRS for evaluation of voiding dysfunction would benefit children. Methods: Subjects: 20 children (4-17 yrs) [5 normal, 15 with urinary tract pathology]. Instrumentation: self-contained device weight 84 gm; 3 paired light emitting diodes (760/850 nm) in a spatially resolved configuration; source-detector separation distances (30, 35 and 40 mm); silicon photodiode detector; and Bluetooth®. Procedure: Transcutaneous monitoring (midline abdominal skin 2 cm above pubis) during spontaneous voiding (bladder contraction) of oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI %) at 10 Hz. Results: All 20 trials produced clear graphic data with no movement effect evident. Comparison of patterns of chromophore change between normal and symptomatic subjects revealed trend differences in O2Hb and tHb. (Normal positive; Symptomatic negative, and TSI% fell in symptomatic group). Conclusions: Wireless NIRS is technically feasible in ambulant children. Negative trends in chromophore concentration and falls in TSI% suggest a hemodynamic impairment may underlie some forms of voiding dysfunction, with abnormal physiology involving the microcirculation possibly resulting in muscle fatigue during voiding.

  15. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Rosemary H; Novejarque, Amparo; Huang, Wenlong; Wodarski, Rachel; Denk, Franziska; Dawes, John D; Pheby, Tim; McMahon, Stephen B; Rice, Andrew SC

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone) in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators. PMID:27158443

  16. Functional coupling of TRPV4 channels and BK channels in regulating spontaneous contractions of the guinea pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Ayu; Lee, Ken; Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the role of TRPV4 channels (TRPV4) in regulating the contractility of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) and muscularis mucosae (MM) of the urinary bladder. Distribution of TRPV4 in DSM and MM of guinea-pig bladders was examined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Changes in the contractility of DSM and MM bundles were measured using isometric tension recording. Intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics were visualized by Cal-520 fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging, while membrane potential changes were recorded using intracellular microelectrode technique. DSM and MM expressed TRPV4 immunoreactivity. GSK1016790A (GSK, 1 nM), a TRPV4 agonist, evoked a sustained contraction in both DSM and MM associated with a cessation of spontaneous phasic contractions in a manner sensitive to HC-067047 (10 μM), a TRPV4 antagonist. Iberiotoxin (100 nM) and paxilline (1 μM), large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel blockers restored the spontaneous contractions in GSK. The sustained contractions in DSM and MM were reduced by nifedipine (10 μM), a blocker of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (LVDCCs) by about 40 % and by nominally Ca(2+)-free solution by some 90 %. GSK (1 nM) abolished spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, increased basal Ca(2+) levels and also prevented spontaneous action potential discharge associated with DSM membrane hyperpolarization. In conclusion, Ca(2+) influx through TRPV4 appears to activate BK channels to suppress spontaneous contractions and thus a functional coupling of TRPV4 with BK channels may act as a self-limiting mechanism for bladder contractility during its storage phase. Despite the membrane hyperpolarization in GSK, Ca(2+) entry mainly through TRPV4 develops the tonic contraction. PMID:27497848

  17. Reversal of muscle hypertrophy in the rat urinary bladder after removal of urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabella, G; Uvelius, B

    1994-08-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of the bladder musculature after first inducing hypertrophy by means of urethral obstruction and subsequently removing the obstruction. With hypertrophy the bladder musculature increases ten-fold or more in volume; after de-obstruction approximately 4/5 of the hypertrophic muscle weight and volume is lost within six weeks. In spite of this very large decrease in muscle mass there is no degeneration of muscle cells or nerve endings or of other cell types in the de-obstructed bladder either at 5 days or at 6 weeks. The individual muscle cells are smaller in size than in the hypertrophic bladder but still larger than control muscle cells. The decrease in muscle cell size is more substantial than the decrease in muscle cell surface. There are no lysosomes or other signs of intracellular degradation in any cells of the muscle layer. The musculature contains a very large amount of intercellular material, mainly collagen. This study documents the great plasticity of the musculature in the reduction of muscle mass after de-obstruction. However, some of the fine structural features are almost as different from the controls as in the hypertrophic muscle. PMID:8082124

  18. Leak point pressure at different bladder volumes in stress urinary incontinence in women: Comparison between Valsalva and cough-induced leak point pressure

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ho; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women at different bladder volumes; examined the relationship between VLPP and cough-induced leak point pressure (CLPP) compared by incontinence severity; and evaluated the influence of bladder volume on each leak point pressure (LPP). Methods: Women with urodynamically proven SUI who underwent serial VLPP and CLPP measurement at bladder volumes of 150, 200, 250, and 300 mL were included in this study (n=228). LPP determination was repeated two times in each subject after finishing one series of LPP measurement. LPP at different bladder volumes was compared by subjective symptom severity of Stamey grade. Results: Patients mean age was 51.3±7.6 years (range: 40–65 years). Stamey grade I, II, and III was assigned to 68 (29.8%), 102 (44.7%), and 58 (25.4%) patients, respectively. Mean CLPP was higher than VLPP (p=0.002) at every bladder volume. VLPP and CLPP were significantly decreased by the increase of bladder volume (p=0.001). The mean first positive LPPs were significantly lower at higher Stamey grade (p=0.004). Conclusions: LPP is more frequently induced by cough than by the Valsalva maneuver. VLPP and CLPP decreased significantly with bladder filling and those with severe symptoms of SUI are more likely to have low LPP. PMID:26858783

  19. Necdin Overexpression Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinomas of the Upper Urinary Tract and Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Liang, Peir-In; Li, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Ting-Feng; He, Hong-Lin; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Oncogenesis is a multistep process, resulting from the accumulations of multiple mutations. Of these mutations, self-sufficiency in growth signals, i.e., disruption of cell growth regulation, is the first episode. Nonetheless, the genes associated with cell growth dysregulation have seldom been systematically evaluated in either urothelial carcinomas of upper urinary tract (UTUC) or urothelial carcinomas of urinary baldder (UBUC). By data mining a published transcriptomic dataset of UBUCs (GSE31684), we identified the NDN gene as one of the most significant of those associated with the regulation of cell growth and found this gene is associated with advanced tumor status and metastatic disease (GO:0001558). Accordingly, we analyzed NDN transcript and protein expression with their clinicopathological significance. Materials and Methods: We used real time RT-PCR to detect NDN transcript levels in 27 UTUCs and 27 UBUCs, respectively. Immunohistochemical study was performed to determine NDN protein (a.k.a. Necdin) expression evaluated by H-score method in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. NDN expression was further correlated with clinicopathological features and disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: NDN transcriptional level was significantly higher in UCs of both sites with stepwise more advanced pT statuses. Through immunohistochemistry, we found NDN protein expression was significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters, e.g., advanced pT status, nodal metastasis, high grade histological patterns, and frequent mitotses (all P<0.05). In univariate analysis, NDN overexpression not only predicted worse DSS and MeFS in both the UTUC and UBUC groups, it also served as an independent prognostic factor for DSS and MeFS in multivariate analysis (all P<0.05). Conclusions: NDN may play an important role in tumor progression in UC and could serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential novel therapeutic

  20. Molecular evolution and intratumor heterogeneity by topographic compartments in muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Cano, S J; Blanes, A; Rubio, J; Matilla, A; Wolfe, H J

    2000-03-01

    Superficial transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder have been shown to be monoclonal. However, no combined study of clonality and tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is available to date for muscle-invasive TCC. Forty-four muscle-invasive TCC of the urinary bladder selected from women were included in this study. Tumor cells located above and below the muscularis mucosa zone were systematically microdissected and used for DNA extraction. Hha-I digested and undigested samples were used to study the methylation pattern of androgen receptor alleles and undigested samples were used for microsatellite analysis of TSG (TP53, RB1, WT1, and NF1). Both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses were performed using optimized denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The expression of p53, pRB, and p21WAF1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Appropriate controls were run in every case. All except two TCC showed a monoclonal pattern with the same allele inactivated in both compartments. Microsatellite analysis of TSG revealed the same LOH/SNP pattern in both tumor compartments in 30 cases (involving more than 1 TSG locus in 8) and genetic heterogeneity in 14 cases. From the latter group, 9 cases expressed more genetic changes in the deep compartment (involving TP53 gene in all cases, WT1 gene in 2, and NF1 in 1), whereas in 4 cases the superficial compartment showed more genetic changes (three involving NF1 and one involving both RB and TP53). No statistical difference in the immunoexpression was detected, although it tended to be higher in the superficial compartment than in the deep compartment. These concordant data in polymorphic DNA regions indicate that bladder-muscle-invasive TCC are monoclonal proliferations with homogeneous tumor cell selection. Heterogeneous tumor cell selection by topography defined two different genetic compartments: superficial, NF1-defective, and deep, TP53-defective. No differences in the

  1. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19–2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65–1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28–3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43–4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21–1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95–1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  2. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses.

    PubMed

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19-2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65-1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28-3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43-4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21-1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95-1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  3. VEGF, CA9 and Angiogenin as a Urinary Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Urquidi, Virginia; Goodison, Steve; Kim, Jeongsoon; Chang, Myron; Dai, Yunfeng; Rosser, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether elevated urinary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and angiogenin are associated with BCa. Methods This is a case-control study in which voided urines from 127 patients: control subjects (n = 63) and tumor bearing subjects (n = 64) were analyzed. The urinary concentrations of VEGF, CA9, angiogenin and BTA were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves to determine the ability of VEGF, CA9, and angiogenin to detect BCa in voided urine samples. Data were also compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak©). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results Urinary concentrations of VEGF, CA9, angiogenin and BTA were significantly elevated in BCa. VEGF was the most accurate urinary biomarker (AUC: 0.886; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8301–0.9418). Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis highlighted VEGF (OR: 5.90; 95% CI: 2.60–13.40, p < 0.0001) as an independent variable. The sensitivities and specificities for VEGF (sensitivity, 83% and specificity, 87%) outperformed BTA (sensitivity, 80% and specificity, 84%). Conclusions VEGF may be a valuable addition to voided urine sample analysis for the detection of BCa. Larger, prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of urinary VEGF and angiogenin as biomarkers in the non-invasive evaluation of BCa patients. PMID:22386755

  4. CT urography: segmentation of urinary bladder using CLASS with local contour refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-06-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CT urography (CTU), as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. The presence of regions filled with intravenous contrast and without contrast presents a challenge for bladder segmentation. Previously, we proposed a conjoint level set analysis and segmentation system (CLASS). In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast-filled (C) region separately and automatically conjoins the NC and C region contours; however, inaccuracies in the NC and C region contours may cause the conjoint contour to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a local contour refinement (LCR) method that exploits model-guided refinement (MGR) and energy-driven wavefront propagation (EDWP). MGR propagates the C region contours if the level set propagation in the C region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. EDWP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. EDWP uses changes in energies, smoothness criteria of the contour, and previous slice contour to determine when to stop the propagation, following decision rules derived from training. A data set of 173 cases was collected for this study: 81 cases in the training set (42 lesions, 21 wall thickenings, 18 normal bladders) and 92 cases in the test set (43 lesions, 36 wall thickenings, 13 normal bladders). For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard and used for the evaluation of the computerized segmentation accuracy. For CLASS with LCR, the average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, absolute average volume error, average minimum distance and Jaccard index were 84.2 ± 11.4%, 8.2 ± 17.4%, 13.0 ± 14.1%, 3.5 ± 1.9 mm, 78.8 ± 11.6%, respectively, for the training set and 78.0 ± 14.7%, 16.4 ± 16.9%, 18.2 ± 15.0%, 3

  5. Bladder (ICRU) dose point does not predict urinary acute toxicity in adjuvant isolated vaginal vault high-dose-rate brachytherapy for intermediate-risk endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aiza, Antonio; Gomes, Maria José Leite; Chen, Michael Jenwei; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio de Assis; Mansur, David B.; Baiocchi, Glauco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) alone is an adjuvant treatment option for stage I intermediaterisk endometrial cancer after complete surgical resection. The aim of this study was to determine the value of the dose reported to ICRU bladder point in predicting acute urinary toxicity. Oncologic results are also presented. Material and methods One hundred twenty-six patients were treated with postoperative HDR-BT 24 Gy (4 × 6 Gy) per ICRU guidelines for dose reporting. Cox analysis was used to identify variables that affected local control. The mean bladder point dose was examined for its ability to predict acute urinary toxicity. Results Two patients (1.6%) developed grade 1 gastrointestinal toxicity and 12 patients (9.5%) developed grades 1-2 urinary toxicity. No grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. The mean bladder point dose was 46.9% (11.256 Gy) and 49.8% (11.952 Gy) for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups, respectively (p = 0.69). After a median follow-up of 36.8 months, the 3-year local failure and 5-year cancer-specific and overall survival rates were 2.1%, 100%, and 94.6%, respectively. No pelvic failure was seen in this cohort. Age over 60 years (p = 0.48), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.77), FIGO histological grade (p = 0.76), isthmus invasion (p = 0.68), and applicator type (cylinder × ovoid) (p = 0.82) did not significantly affect local control. Conclusions In this retrospective study, ICRU bladder point did not correlate with urinary toxicity. Four fractions of 6 Gy HDR-BT effected satisfactory local control, with acceptable urinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:26622241

  6. Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate possesses many medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor. It has been extensively used as a folk medicine by many cultures. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to have the inhibitory efficacy against prostate cancer and lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It can be exploited in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study we examined the anti-cancer efficacy of pomegranate fruit grown in Taiwan against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and its mechanism of action. Methods Edible portion of Taiwanese pomegranate was extracted using ethanol and the anti-cancer effectiveness of ethanol extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry and western immunoblotting were exploited to uncover the molecular pathways underlying anti-UBUC activity of Taiwanese pomegranate ethanol extract. Results This study demonstrated that Taiwanese pomegranate fruit ethanol extract (PEE) could effectively restrict the proliferation of UBUC T24 and J82 cells. Cell cycle analyses indicated that the S phase arrest induced by PEE treatment might be caused by an increase in cyclin A protein level and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The results of western immunoblotting demonstrated that PEE treatment could not only evoke the activation of pro-caspase-3, -8,-9 but also increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in T24 cells. The above observations implicated that PEE administration might trigger the apoptosis in T24 cells through death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. Besides we found that PEE exposure to T24 cells could provoke intensive activation of procaspase-12 and enhance the expressions of CHOP and Bip, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, suggesting that ER stress might be the cardinal apoptotic mechanism of PEE-induced inhibition of bladder cancer cell. Conclusions The analytical results of this study help to provide

  7. Guizhi Fuling Wan as a Novel Agent for Intravesical Treatment for Bladder Cancer in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Chia-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Wu, Jiann-Der; Tseng, Ling-Huei; Hwang, Dennis W; Chen, Syue-Yi; Wu, Shu-Fen; Chan, Michael W Y; Hsu, Cheng-Da

    2016-01-01

    Alternative intravesical agents are required to overcome the side effects currently associated with the treatment of bladder cancer. This study used an orthotopic bladder cancer mouse model to evaluate Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) as an intravesical agent. The effects of GFW were compared with those of mitomycin-C (Mito-C) and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We began by evaluating the response of the mouse bladder cancer cell line MB49 to GFW treatment, with regard to cell viability, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. MB49 cells were subsequently implanted into the urothelial walls of the bladder in female C57BL/6 mice. The success of the model was confirmed by the appearance of hematuria and tumor growth in the bladder. Intravesical chemotherapy was administered in accordance with a published protocol. In vitro data revealed that GFW arrested MB49 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. One possible mechanism underlying these effects is an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels leading to the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and ATM/P53 pathways, thereby mediating cell cycle progression and apoptosis, respectively. This mouse model demonstrates the effectiveness of GFW in the tumor growth, with results comparable to those achieved by using BCG and Mito-C. Furthermore, GFW was shown to cause only mild hematuria. The low toxicity of the compound was confirmed by a complete lack of lesions on bladder tissue, even after 10 consecutive treatments using high concentrations of GFW. These results demonstrate the potential of GFW for the intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. PMID:26837068

  8. Characteristics of Patients With Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Kermanshah Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Masoud; Sadeghi, Edris

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iran, bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy sites among men, ranking as the fifth with age-specific incidence rate of about 11.2 per 100,000 males. It causes 8% of all malignancies in men and 3% of all malignancies in women. Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of bladder cancer in Western Iran compared to other studies. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study between 2003 and 2014 when forty-four patients with bladder cancer referred to Hematology Clinic of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, Iran. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was in 39 patients. Results: In the patients with TCC, the mean age in diagnosis for them was 65.43 years (± 11.64), range of age 42 to 88 years , thirty-three patients (84.6%) were male, and six patients (15.4%) were female. Of 39 patients with TCC, 16 patients (41%) had metastasis. 21 patients (53.8%) were smoker and 16 patients (41%) had muscle invasive. 35 patients (89.7%) were histological high grade and the rest of patients were low grade. In the TCC patients with increasing age, metastasis and muscle invasive increased. Conclusions: The age presentation of TCC in West Iran was similar to other studies. Percentage of patients with high grade is more than other studies, and also the number of patients with bladder cancer has increased during last 4 years. For better results, studies must be conducted with more patients in this area, and other areas of Iran with checking of genetics, race and environmental factors. PMID:26855723

  9. Response of the rat to saccharin with particular reference to the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Chowaniec, J.; Hicks, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were administered sodium saccharin for life (2 yr) either in the drinking water or diet. The maximum palatable dose of saccharin in the drinking water was found to be 2 g/kg/day and, even then, there was some voluntary restriction of fluid intake in the males. By contrast, double this dose--namely 4 g/kg/day, was palatable in the diet. A control group of rats of both sexes received saccharin-free diet and drinking water. Mild urothelial hyperplasias developed from 85 weeks in rats of both sexes receiving saccharin either in the drinking water or diet; the incidence was statistically significant in both the bladders and kidneys of rats receiving the higher dose of saccharin in the diet, but in the kidneys only of rats receiving the lower dose of saccharin in the drinking water. Telangiectasia of the vasa recta was significant in saccharin-treated rats of both sexes at both doses. A very low incidence of bladder tumours, exclusively in males receiving the higher saccharin dose in the diet was seen from 95 weeks. No consistent relationship between bladder epithelial hyperplasias and crystalluria could be demonstrated, although all 3 bladder tumours were associated with some form of mineralisation. Results suggest a particular susceptibility of males to saccharin treatment. The possibility that saccharin may promote, or enhance, the development of latent tumour cells already present in the experimental population, rather than initiate carcinogenesis per se is considered. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:36123

  10. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you urinate. Urinalysis to check for urinary tract infection. Urinary stress test: You stand with a full bladder ... out of the bed or chair Unpleasant odors Urinary tract infections Vaginal discharge The condition may get in the ...

  11. Interventions for impaired bladders in paediatric renal transplant recipients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Al-Khudairi, Naji; Riley, Paul; Desai, Divyesh Y; Reid, Christopher; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2013-04-01

    Dysfunctional bladders in paediatric patients were thought to be a contraindication for renal transplantation, but advances in surgical techniques have meant that surgical correction can allow safe transplantation. This study compares the outcomes of renal transplantation for different interventions, and the timing of such interventions, in relation to transplantation. We identified all paediatric renal transplant recipients with LUTD that received intervention for their impaired bladders at two hospitals between 2002 and 2010. Outcome measures included patient and graft survival, perioperative complications, UTI incidence, acute rejection episodes and serum creatinine levels. A total of 288 allografts were transplanted, 77 were in 75 children with LUTD, of which 46 received intervention. Patient survival was 100% in the intervention group and 97% in the nonintervention group (P = 0.815). Death-censored graft survival was 96% and 100% respectively (P = 0.688). In the groups receiving intervention pretransplant or post-transplant, graft survival rates were 95% and 100% respectively (P = 0.476). The follow-up serum creatinine levels were higher in the pretransplant intervention group (P < 0.001). Interventions for dysfunctional bladders can be performed safely in paediatric renal transplant recipients. The mode of intervention and timing of intervention, in relation to transplant, do not influence outcomes if guided by careful assessment and investigation. PMID:23350943

  12. Changes in Immunogenicity during the Development of Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Brożyna, Anna A.; Siekiera, Jerzy; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blood regulatory T lymphocyte (Tregs, CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+) expression in bladder cancer patients. The number of CD4+, CD8+, CD25+, FoxP3+ and CD20+ TILs was analyzed in association with clinico-pathomorphological features. In more advanced metastasizing tumors, showing non-classic differentiation (ND) and a more aggressive tissue invasion type (TIT), the number of TILs decreased. A low number of CD4+ TILs was associated with poor prognosis. Similarly, Treg frequency before surgery and after surgical treatment was significantly lower in more advanced tumors. The changes in TILs, as well as of local and systemic Tregs, were accompanied by changes in the histological phenotype of urothelial carcinoma regarding pT stage, NDs, TIT, and clinical outcomes. The number of TILs and the frequency of blood Tregs (indicators of antitumor response) may be essential for choosing an immunotherapy that is adjusted to the immune status according to the phase of tumor growth. Moreover, a significant reduction in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs with the development of NDs in more advanced tumors may be associated with lower tumor immunogenicity, resulting in immune tolerance towards tumor tissue. These observations and the tendency of urothelial bladder carcinoma to undergo NDs in a heterogeneous manner during tumor progression suggest complex interactions between bladder cancer immunogenicity and stages of tumor progression. PMID:26927070

  13. MR imaging of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging: a review and a pictorial essay of diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Shigeru; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    Treatment decisions for bladder cancer patients are mainly based on the depth of bladder wall invasion by the tumor. In this article, we review the conventional MRI and exhibit a recently emerged diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging. We discuss limitations of conventional MRI, scanning protocols of DWI, normal pelvic findings on DWI, determination of T-stage using DWI, and pitfalls of DWI. DWI provides high contrast between bladder cancer and background tissue because the cancer shows markedly high SI. DWI has high sensitivity for detecting the stalk seen in stage Ta or T1. An inflammatory change or fibrosis surrounding the tumor mimics the invasion of bladder cancer on T2-weighted imaging or enhanced MRI and could lead to over-staging, but DWI could differentiate them clearly because these benign changes do not show high SI on DWI. DWI is also useful for detecting ureteral, urethral, and prostatic extension by means of the urethra. DWI provides more accurate information on the extent of bladder cancer and contributes to determination of the treatment strategy. PMID:24265260

  14. Effects of Chronic Hyperlipidemia on Lower Urinary Tract Function-Bladder Dysfunction in Myocardial Infarction-Prone Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kudoh, Junzo; Masunaga, Koichi; Nagata, Takashi; Shiomi, Masashi

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic hyperlipidemia on bladder function, we examined the functional and histological changes of the bladder in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL-MI) rabbits. Two age groups of WHHL-MI rabbits (6-12 months old, young WHHL-MI rabbits; and 20-24 months old, old WHHL-MI rabbits group) and the sex- and age-matched control rabbits were prepared. Bladder functions were evaluated using frequency volume charts and cystometrograms, and functional experiments using isolated bladder specimens. Histological studies of bladder were performed with HE staining and immunohistochemical staining with mouse monoclonal S-100 protein antibodies and sheep polyclonal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antibodies. In cystometrograms, it has been demonstrated that WHHL-MI rabbits showed significantly shorter micturition interval, smaller voided volume with non-voiding contractions compared to control. There was no significant difference in voiding pressure between young WHHL-MI and control rabbits. However, old WHHL-MI rabbits showed a lower voiding pressure than control rabbits. The functional experiments revealed that carbachol- and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractile responses of isolated bladder strips were significantly increased in young WHHL-MI rabbits than in control rabbits. However, in the bladder strips of old WHHL-MI rabbits, decreased responses to carbachol and EFS were observed. In WHHL-MI rabbits, bladder urothelium became thinner, smooth muscle area decreased and connective tissue area increased gradually with aging. A significant decrease in S-100 protein-positive neurons, and an increased number of CGRP-positive neurons were observed in both young and old WHHL-MI rabbits. The data demonstrated that there were differences in bladder dysfunction between young and old WHHL-MI rabbits. Old WHHL-MI rabbits showed detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contraction. This study may demonstrate the

  15. Nrf2 protects against As(III)-induced damage in mouse liver and bladder

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Huang, Zheping; Chan, Jefferson Y.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are classified as toxicants and human carcinogens. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Arsenic elicits its toxic efforts through many mechanisms, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nrf2 is the primary transcription factor that controls expression of a main cellular antioxidant response, which is required for neutralizing ROS and thus defending cells from exogenous insults. Previously, we demonstrated a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic-induced toxicity using a cell culture model. In this report, we present evidence that Nrf2 protects against liver and bladder injury in response to six-weeks of arsenic exposure in a mouse model. Nrf2−/− mice displayed more severe pathological changes in the liver and bladder, compared to Nrf2+/+ mice. Furthermore, Nrf2−/− mice were more sensitive to arsenic-induced DNA hypomethylation, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death. These results indicate a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic toxicity in vivo. Hence, this work demonstrates the feasibility of using dietary compounds that target activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway to alleviate arsenic-induced damage. PMID:19538980

  16. The role of urinary pH in o-phenylphenol-induced cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage in the bladders of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Hasegawa, L; Eastmond, D A

    2016-04-01

    o-Phenylphenol (OPP) is a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent that at high doses has been shown to cause bladder cancer in male F344 rats. The mechanisms underlying OPP-induced bladder carcinogenicity remain unclear but it has been proposed that a non-enzymatic pH-dependent autoxidation of phenylhydroquinone (PHQ), a primary metabolite of OPP, may be a key step in OPP-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this mechanism and to provide insights into the potential human health relevance of OPP-induced cancer, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. In human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells and rat bladder epithelial NBT-II cells, strong increases in cytotoxicity were seen at a constant concentration of PHQ by increasing the buffer pH as well as by increasing concentrations of PHQ at a constant pH. In in vivo studies, male rats were administered OPP (4,000 and 8,000 ppm) in a diet supplemented with either 1% ammonium chloride or 3% sodium bicarbonate to produce acidic and alkaline urinary pH, respectively. Significant increases in cell proliferation as detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and micronucleus formation were seen in the bladder cells of OPP-treated rats with neutral or alkaline urinary pH but not in animals with the acidified urine. The results from these in vitro and in vivo studies provide support for the autoxidation hypothesis of bioactivation, and provide additional evidence that urinary pH can significantly influence the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of this important agent. PMID:26919225

  17. Philureter trigoniopsis, a new genus and species (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Viozzi, G P; Gutiérrez, P A

    2001-04-01

    The monotypic Philureter n. gen. (Ancyrocephalinae; Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. with the following features: presence of a cuplike ventral haptor armed with 14 hooks and 2 anchor/bar complexes; dorsal pair of anchors poorly defined and variable in shape, 1 frequently absent; tandem, intercecal gonads, testis bilaterally lobulated. Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. is described from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes) in Patagonian Andean lakes, Argentina. PMID:11318570

  18. Gene environment interaction in urinary bladder cancer with special reference to organochlorine pesticide: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tusha; Jain, Smita; Verma, Ankur; Sharma, Nivedita; Gupta, Sanjay; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Dev Banerjee, Basu

    2013-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is a common disease worldwide with a higher incidence rate in developed countries. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), potent endocrine disrupters, are found to be associated with several cancers such as prostate, breast, bladder, etc. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a polymorphic supergene family involved in the detoxification of numerous environmental toxins including OCPs. The present study was carried out in UBC subjects (n=50) and healthy control subjects (n=50) with an aim to determine the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism and its implication on the OCP detoxification or bioaccumulation which may increase the risk of UBC in humans. This study was also designed to identify the "gene-environment interaction" specifically between gene polymorphism in xenobiotic metabolizing genetic enzyme(s) and blood OCP levels. GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphism was analysed by using multiplex PCR. OCPs levels in whole blood were estimated by Gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The results demonstrated a significant (p< 0.05) increase in frequency of GSTM1^{-}/GSTT1^{-} (null) genotype in UBC cases without interfering the distribution of other GSTT1/GSTM1 genotypes. The blood levels of alpha (α), Beta (β), Gamma (γ), total - Hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH) and para-para - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane (p,p'-DDT) were found to be significantly (p< 0.05) high in UBC cases as compared to controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between β-HCH and GSTM1^{-} genotype (p< 0.05) as well as in β-HCH and GSTT1^{-} genotype (p< 0.05) respectively. These findings indicate that "gene-environment interaction" may play a key role in increasing the risk for UBC in individuals who are genetically more susceptible due to presence of GSTM1/GSTT1 null deletion during their routine encounter with or exposure to OCPs. PMID:24240585

  19. Association Between the Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score and Urodynamic Examination in Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Alessandro; Giardina, Raimondo; Privitera, Salvatore; Favilla, Vincenzo; Patti, Francesco; Welk, Blayne; Cimino, Sebastiano; Castelli, Tommaso; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between the neurogenic bladder symptoms score (NBSS) and urodynamic examination in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) and related lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Methods: We recruited 122 consecutive patients with MS in remission and LUTD from January 2011 to September 2013 who underwent their first urodynamic examination. Neurological impairment was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and bladder symptoms were studied with the NBSS. Results: Median NBSS was 20.0 (interquartile range, 12.75–31.0). Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) was discovered in 69 patients (56.6%). The concordance between patients with NDO and maximum detrusor pressure during involuntary detrusor contraction (PdetmaxIDC)≥20.0 cm H2O was 0.89 (κ-Cohen; P<0.05). Patients with EDSS scores of ≥4.5 had a greater NBSS (25.41 vs. 20.19, P<0.05), NBSS-incontinence (8.73 vs. 4.71, P<0.05), NBSS-consequence (4.51 vs. 3.13, P<0.05) and NBSS-quality of life (2.14 vs. 1.65, P<0.05). The NBSS was not associated with PdetmaxIDC≥20 cm H2O (P=0.77) but with maximum cystometric capacity<212 mL (odds ratio, 0.95; P<0.05). Conclusions: The NBSS cannot give adequate information the way urodynamic studies can, in patients with MS and LUTD. PMID:26739182

  20. EFFECTS OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) ON FETAL MOUSE URINARY TRACT EPITHELIUM IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), produces hydronephrosis by altering the differentiation and proliferation of ureteric epithelial cells in the embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tract. This study examines the effects of TCDD on late gestation fetal urinary tract cells u...

  1. Assessment of noninvasive predictors of bladder outlet obstruction and acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, Ashraf; El-Karamany, Tarek; Al-Adl, Ahmed Mahmoud; Abdel-Wahab, Osama; Farouk, Hesham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), detrusor wall thickness (DWT), prostate volume (PV) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels for detecting bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and predicting acute urinary retention (AUR) secondary to benign prostatic obstruction. Patients and methods In all, 135 men who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement were enrolled in the study; among them, 50 presented with AUR. Thirty normal men in the same age group were included and represented a control group for normative data. Their evaluation included a digital rectal examination, International Prostate Symptom Score and quality-of-life question, uroflowmetry and serum total PSA assay. Transabdominal ultrasonography was used to measure the PV, IPP DWT and post-void residual urine volume. Pressure-flow urodynamic studies were used as the reference standard test for BOO, differentiating obstructed from unobstructed bladders. DWT, IPP, PV and total PSA level served as index tests. To compare the usefulness of the various indices, the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operator characteristic curves was calculated for each index. Results According to presentation and urodynamic studies, patients were classified into three groups: Group 1 (no BOO), 50 patients with a BOO index (BOOI) of <40; group 2 (BOO), 35 with a BOOI of >40; and group 3 (AUR), 50 who presented with AUR. The IPP, DWT, PV and PSA levels differed significantly between obstructed and unobstructed patients, with a significant correlation with the BOOI. The AUC for IPP, DWT, PSA and PV were 0.885, 0.783, 0.745 and 0.678, respectively. The IPP threshold at 8 mm provided the best diagnostic accuracy (80%) for detecting BOO, followed by combined DWT and IPP (77.6%). Between patients with and without AUR, there was a highly significant difference in IPP, DWT and PSA; a combined IPP threshold of >8 mm and DWT

  2. Case-control study of urinary bladder cancer in metropolitan Nagoya.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Aoki, K; Obata, K; Morrison, A S

    1985-12-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of patients with bladder cancer and of controls drawn randomly from the general population of Metropolitan Nagoya and interviewed both groups. The incidence rates of bladder cancer were 2.42 and 7.05/100,000 for females and males, respectively. The analysis, based on 293 patients and 589 controls who were frequency matched for age, sex, and residence, provided the following major findings. Age-adjusted relative risks of 1.89 (1.15-3.10) and 3.53 (1.71-7.27) were found in male and female cigarette smokers, respectively. Significant relative risk was also found in males who drank cocoa. Elevated risk with a dose-response relationship was observed among women who used hair dye and who smoke, but this risk was insignificant, with the disappearance of a dose-response relationship, when it was adjusted for smoking. Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risk of coffee drinking was insignificant with no dose-response relationship. Relative risk of artificial sweetener use was below 1 with adjustment for age and smoking. Intake of alcoholic beverages and cola was insignificantly associated. Reduced risk of significance was suggested for the intake of black tea and matcha (powdered green tea) in females and of fruit juice in males. PMID:3834338

  3. A comparative study of peanut agglutinin and amaranthin binding to human urinary bladder tumor glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, N C; Orntoft, T F

    1995-01-01

    The reactivity of two T-antigen specific lectins, Amaranthin (ACA) and Peanut Agglutinin (PNA), was compared by immunohistochemical staining of serial sections of human bladder tumors and by Western Blot analysis of glycoproteins extracted from human bladder tumors prior to and after sialic acid removal. In low grade tumors ACA reacted prior to neuraminidase treatment. PNA on the other hand only showed positive reaction in these tumors after neuraminidase treatment. The two lectins showed identical staining patterns after neuraminidase treatment in tumors. In Western blottings both lectins detected a 28 kD glycoprotein. PNA also reacted with several other bands after neuraminidase treatment. The reactivity of ACA was not enhanced after neuraminidase treatment. In monosaccharide inhibition tests ACA- and PNA-binding to different T-antigens was most efficiently inhibited by GalNAc and Gal respectively. PNA binding was also inhibited by Glc, GlcNAc and GalNAc at higher concentrations, while the binding of ACA was only scarcely affected by Glc, GlcNAc and Gal. PMID:8578258

  4. Simultaneous metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma to the urinary bladder and left retroperitoneal space: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, HENGPING; WANG, JIANZHONG; WEI, QIANG; WANG, HUAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes an extremely rare case of simultaneous metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) to the urinary bladder and left retroperitoneal space, occurring subsequent to an open radical nephrectomy. A review of the literature is also considered. A 70-year-old man presenting with diabetes mellitus and hypertension was referred to West China Hospital (Chengdu, China) with constant left flank pain that had been apparent for 2 months. Ultrasonography identified a heterogeneous tumor with a solid component measuring 4.4×3.4×5.0 cm, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a circumscribed and contrast-enhanced tumor in the left kidney. Subsequent pathological analysis of the specimen, obtained from an open radical nephrectomy, confirmed the presence of ccRCC. At 1 month after the radical nephrectomy, an abdominopelvic CT scan identified tumors located on the posterior bladder wall and also in the left retroperitoneal space, forming due to hematuria and acute urinary clot retention. There was no evidence of metastasis to the lungs, bones or other organs. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and pathological analysis of the bladder specimen demonstrated metastatic ccRCC. Extensive hydrothorax and general anasarca presented half a month after the transurethral resection, with the patient subsequently succumbing 15 days later. PMID:27347119

  5. [Gram-negative bacteria influence on the ability of the arginine-vasotocin to stimulate osmotic permeability of the frog urinary bladder epithelium].

    PubMed

    Lavrova, E A; Gretchenko, L S; Parnova, R G; Fok, E M

    2012-04-01

    The influence of endogenous gram-negative bacteria colonizing the mucosal epithelium of frog Rana temporaria L. urinary bladders (FUB) on arginine-vasotocin AVT-stimulated osmotic water flow in isolated urinary bladders was investigated. 170 animals were examined and only 40% were contaminated with gram-negative bacteria (about 10(3)-10(6) CFU per hemibladder). Several Enterobacteriaceae species were identified (Hafnia alvei, 36.7%, E. coli, 32.3%, Serratia marcescens, 8.8%, Citrobacter freundii, 4.4% etc.). Basal osmotic water flow level was invariable in "clean" and contaminated FUB, whereas bacterial contamination resulted in considerable decrease in AVT-stimulated water flow ("clean": 2.53 +/- 0.13, n = 59, contaminated: 1.21 +/- 0.17 me/min/cm2, n = 38, p < 0.001, within first 15 min of incubation with 5 x 10(-10)M AVT). Gentamycin protection assay revealed predominantly adhesive forms of bacteria. Thus our data indicated that the presence of gram-negative bacteria colonizing the mucosal epithelium of the urinary bladder results in decreased adility of ADH to rise osmotic water permeability which in turn could impair body osmoregulation. PMID:22834340

  6. Smoking related carcinogen-DNA adducts in biopsy samples of human urinary bladder: Identification of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl as a major adduct

    SciTech Connect

    Talaska, G. Univ. of Cincinnati, OH ); Al-Juburi, A.Z.S.S. ); Kadlubar, F.F. )

    1991-06-15

    The prevalence of covalent modifications to DNA (carcinogen-DNA adducts) in 42 human urinary bladder biopsy samples was investigated by {sup 32}P-postlabeling methods, with enhancement by both nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction. Total mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels and the mean levels of several specific adducts were significantly elevated in DNA samples of 13 current smokers, as opposed to 9 never smokers or 20 ex-smokers (5 years abstinence). There was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Several DNA adducts enhanced by nuclease P1 treatment were chromatographically similar to putative hydrocarbon DNA adducts reported earlier for placenta and lung DNA samples obtained from cigarette smokers. Putative aromatic amine adducts were detected by 1-butanol extraction that were not present when the samples were treated with nuclease P1. One of these displayed chromatographic behavior identical to the predominant adduct induced by the human urinary bladder carcinogen, 4-aminobiphenyl, which is present in cigarette smoke. This adduct comigrated in several thin-layer chromatographic systems with a synthetic N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-amino(2,2{prime}-{sup 3}H)biphenyl-3{prime},5{prime}-bisphosphate marker. These data reinforce an association between cigarette smoking and DNA damage and suggest a molecular basis for the initiation of human urinary bladder cancer by cigarette smoke.

  7. Subclassification of muscarinic receptors in the heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia in the pithed rat. Selectivity of some classical agonists.

    PubMed

    van Charldorp, K J; de Jonge, A; Thoolen, M J; van Zwieten, P A

    1985-12-01

    In pithed normotensive rats muscarinic receptors were characterized in heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia; the selectivity of some classical muscarinic agents for these subtypes was investigated. The potencies in decreasing heart rate, increasing bladder pressure and increasing diastolic blood pressure were measured for the following, intraarterially administered cholinergic agonists: McN-A-343 ([4-m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy]-2-butynyltrimethylammonium), pilocarpine, carbachol, oxotremorine, arecoline, acetyl-beta-methylcholine and acetylcholine. The selective M1-antagonist pirenzepine, the mixed M1/M2-antagonist dexetimide and the cardioselective M2-antagonist gallamine were used as tools for identification of the receptors. All data were obtained after intravenous pretreatment with a high dose of atenolol to eliminate tachycardia induced by stimulating sympathetic ganglionic muscarinic receptors. Dexetimide strongly antagonized the bradycardia as well as the increase in bladder pressure induced by pilocarpine, carbachol, oxotremorine, arecoline, acetyl-beta-methylcholine and acetylcholine, whereas pirenzepine was much less effective. Gallamine antagonized the bradycardia, whereas no influence was found on the bladder contraction. Pilocarpine acted as a partial agonist in reducing heart rate as well as in increasing bladder pressure, whereas McN-A-343 was almost ineffective in doses up to 1 mg/kg. The hypertensive response to pilocarpine and carbachol was less pronounced than that produced by McN-A-343. Pirenzepine and dexetimide significantly antagonized the hypertensive response to McN-A-343 and pilocarpine, whereas gallamine was much less effective. The hypertensive response induced by carbachol was totally blocked by hexamethonium. The other agonists used in this study did not produce a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in doses that produced a maximal effect on heart rate and urinary bladder pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS

  8. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study of 107 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David; Barney, Brandon; Sundar, Santhanam; Poortmans, Philip; Villa, Salvador; Nasrallah, Haitam; Boujelbene, Noureddine; Ghadjar, Pirus; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin; Senkus, Elżbieta; Oar, Andrew; Roelandts, Martine; Amichetti, Maurizio; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zilli, Thomas; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Small cell carcinomas of the bladder (SCCB) account for fewer than 1% of all urinary bladder tumors. There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for SCCB. Methods and Materials: Fifteen academic Rare Cancer Network medical centers contributed SCCB cases. The eligibility criteria were as follows: pure or mixed SCC; local, locoregional, and metastatic stages; and age ≥18 years. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze survival as functions of clinical and therapeutic factors. Results: The study included 107 patients (mean [±standard deviation, SD] age, 69.6 [±10.6] years; mean follow-up time, 4.4 years) with primary bladder SCC, with 66% of these patients having pure SCC. Seventy-two percent and 12% of the patients presented with T2-4N0M0 and T2-4N1-3M0 stages, respectively, and 16% presented with synchronous metastases. The most frequent curative treatments were radical surgery and chemotherapy, sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radical surgery alone. The median (interquartile range, IQR) OS and DFS times were 12.9 months (IQR, 7-32 months) and 9 months (IQR, 5-23 months), respectively. The metastatic, T2-4N0M0, and T2-4N1-3M0 groups differed significantly (P=.001) in terms of median OS and DFS. In a multivariate analysis, impaired creatinine clearance (OS and DFS), clinical stage (OS and DFS), a Karnofsky performance status <80 (OS), and pure SCC histology (OS) were independent and significant adverse prognostic factors. In the patients with nonmetastatic disease, the type of treatment (ie radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy vs conservative treatment) did not significantly influence OS or DFS (P=.7). Conclusions: The prognosis for SCCB remains poor. The finding that radical cystectomy did not influence DFS or OS in the patients with nonmetastatic disease

  9. Expression and function of KV2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Kiril L.; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of KV2.1, KV2.2, and the electrically silent KV9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of KV2.1, KV2.2, and KV4.2 homotetrameric channels and of KV2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca2+ imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of KV2.1, KV2.2, and KV9.3 (but not KV4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. KV2.1 and KV2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced KV current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca2+ level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5–30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive KV2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction. PMID:22422395

  10. Lower urinary tract development and disease.

    PubMed

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  11. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  12. Effect of CD44 gene polymorphisms on risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yu-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Huang, Ching-Hsuan; Chou, Ying-Erh

    2016-05-01

    The carcinogenesis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder involves etiological factors, such as ethnicity, the environment, genetics, and diet. Cluster of differentiation (CD44), a well-known tumor marker, plays a crucial role in regulating tumor cell differentiation and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of CD44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TCC risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Five SNPs of CD44 were analyzed through real-time polymerase chain reaction in 275 patients with TCC and 275 participants without cancer. In this study, we observed that CD44 rs187115 polymorphism carriers with the genotype of at least one G were associated with TCC risk. Furthermore, TCC patients who carried at least one G allele at CD44 rs187115 had a higher stage risk than did patients carrying the wild-type allele (p < 0.05). In addition, The AATAC or GACGC haplotype among the five CD44 sites was also associated with a reduced risk of TCC. In conclusion, our results suggest that CD44 SNPs influence the risk of TCC. Patients with CD44 rs187115 variant genotypes (AG + GG) exhibited a higher risk of TCC; these patients may possess chemoresistance to developing late-stage TCC compared with those with the wild-type genotype. The CD44 rs187115 SNP may predict poor prognosis in patients with TCC. PMID:26662954

  13. Comparison of essential and toxic elements in esophagus, lung, mouth and urinary bladder male cancer patients with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Tuzen, Mustafa; Baig, Jameel Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    There is a compelling evidence in support of negative associations between essential trace and toxic elements in different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between carcinogenic (As, Cd, Ni) and anti-carcinogenic (Se, Zn) trace elements in scalp hair samples of different male cancerous patients (esophagus, lung, mouth, and urinary bladder). For comparative purposes, the scalp hair samples of healthy males of the same age group (ranged 35-65 years) as controls were analyzed. Both controls and patients have the same socioeconomic status, localities, dietary habits, and smoking locally made cigarette. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by 65% nitric acid: 30% hydrogen peroxide (2:1) ratio in microwave oven followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material of human hair BCR 397. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, and Ni were found to be significantly higher in scalp hair samples of patients having different cancers as compared to the controls, while reverse results were obtained in the case of Se and Zn levels (p < 0.01). The study revealed that the carcinogenic processes are significantly affecting the trace elements burden and mutual interaction of essential trace and toxic elements in the cancerous patients. PMID:25548013

  14. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  15. Unilateral temporary functional stasis in the upper urinary tract caused by "a filled bladder" on Tc-99m DTPA diuresis renography: a teaching case.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Arslan, Nuri; Emer, Ozdes; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2005-09-01

    A 2-year-old girl with recurrent urinary tract infection having slight left pelvicaliceal dilatation on her renal ultrasound underwent a Tc-99m DTPA diuresis renography. During the excretion phase, a prominent and persisting left pelvicaliceal stasis was noticed even after the diuretic injection. However, it disappeared simultaneously with an uncontrolled micturition. This patient is presented to show the effect of filled bladder on the physiological drainage of urine. Since urine flow in the urinary system is more complicated than simple drainage, a thorough understanding of the physiological basis for diuresis renography and the pitfalls of the technique is required for its appropriate use in the management of patients suspected of urinary tract obstruction. PMID:16248389

  16. Conditional ablation of TGF-β signaling inhibits tumor progression and invasion in an induced mouse bladder cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Zhu, Fengyu; Zhang, Haojie; Chen, Demeng; Zhang, Xiuhong; Gao, Qian; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer progression is still under debate. To determine the function of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression, we conditionally knocked out the Tgfbr2 in mouse model after a N-butyl-N-4-hydroxybutyl Nitrosamine induced bladder carcinogenesis. We found the ablation of TGF-β signaling could inhibit the cancer cell proliferation, cancer stem cell population and EMT, hence suppressed the invasive cancer progression, which is similar with the result of TGF-β receptor I inhibitor treatment. These findings recognize the roles and mechanisms of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression in vivo for the first time. PMID:27378170

  17. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence Causes Hypertrophy of the Urethral Sphincters and Reduces Bladder Neck Mobility During Coughing

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Linda; Varette, Kevin; Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; Harvey, Marie-Andree; Baker, Kevin; Sauerbrei, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 12-week pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training program on urethral morphology and mobility in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Forty women with SUI were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the treatment group received 12 weekly physiotherapy sessions during which they learned how to properly contract their pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and a home exercise program was prescribed, reviewed, and progressed; the control group received no treatment. Before and after the 12-week study period, ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate bladder neck position and mobility during coughing and Valsalva maneuver in supine and in standing, as well as urethral morphology. Secondary outcome measures included a 3-day bladder diary, 30-min pad test, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6). Results The women in the treatment group demonstrated reduced bladder neck mobility during coughing and increased cross-sectional area of their urethra after as compared to before the training. These changes were not evident in the control group. No differences in the resting position of the bladder neck or in bladder neck excursion during Valsalva maneuver were noted in either group. Concomitantly the women in the treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in the 3-day bladder diary and IIQ-7 after the PFM training and improved significantly more than the control group. Conclusion Physiotherapist-supervised PFM training reduces bladder neck motion during coughing, and results in hypertrophy of the urethral sphincter in women who present with SUI. PMID:23861324

  18. Surfactant protein D inhibits adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelial cells and the bacterium-induced cytotoxicity: a possible function in urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kurimura, Yuichiro; Nishitani, Chiaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Saito, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Motoko; Hashimoto, Jiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kuroki, Yoshio

    2012-11-16

    The adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to the host urothelial surface is the first step for establishing UPEC infection. Uroplakin Ia (UPIa), a glycoprotein expressed on bladder urothelium, serves as a receptor for FimH, a lectin located at bacterial pili, and their interaction initiates UPEC infection. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is known to be expressed on mucosal surfaces in various tissues besides the lung. However, the functions of SP-D in the non-pulmonary tissues are poorly understood. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible function of SP-D expressed in the bladder urothelium and the mechanisms by which SP-D functions. SP-D was expressed in human bladder mucosa, and its mRNA was increased in the bladder of the UPEC infection model in mice. SP-D directly bound to UPEC and strongly agglutinated them in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Co-incubation of SP-D with UPEC decreased the bacterial adherence to 5637 cells, the human bladder cell line, and the UPEC-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, preincubation of SP-D with 5637 cells resulted in the decreased adherence of UPEC to the cells and in a reduced number of cells injured by UPEC. SP-D directly bound to UPIa and competed with FimH for UPIa binding. Consistent with the in vitro data, the exogenous administration of SP-D inhibited UPEC adherence to the bladder and dampened UPEC-induced inflammation in mice. These results support the conclusion that SP-D can protect the bladder urothelium against UPEC infection and suggest a possible function of SP-D in urinary tract. PMID:23012359

  19. Suppressive effects of acid-forming diet against the tumorigenic potential of pioglitazone hydrochloride in the urinary bladder of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Keiichiro; Awasaki, Yasuyuki; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tanakamaru, Zen-yo; Nagai, Hirofumi; Baron, David; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2011-03-15

    Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, was administered orally for 85 weeks at 16 mg/kg/day to male rats fed either a diet containing 1.5% ammonium chloride (acid-forming diet) or a control diet to investigate the effects of urinary acidification induced by the acid-forming diet on the tumorigenic potential of PIO in the urinary bladder. The surviving animals at the end of the administration period were followed to the end of the 2-year study period without changes in the diet and were subjected to terminal necropsy on Week 104. The number of urinary microcrystals, evaluated by manual counting with light microscopy and by an objective method with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, was increased by PIO on Weeks 12 and 25 and the increases were markedly suppressed by urinary acidification. Urinary citrate was decreased by PIO throughout the study period, but no changes were seen in urinary oxalate at any timepoint. The incidences of PIO-treated males bearing at least one of the advanced proliferative changes consisting of papillary hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, papilloma or carcinoma were significantly decreased from 11 of 82 males fed the control diet to 2 of 80 males fed the acid-forming diet. The acid-forming diet did not show any effects on the toxicokinetic parameters of PIO and its metabolites. Microcrystalluria appears to be involved in the development of the advanced stage proliferative lesions in bladder tumorigenesis induced by PIO in male rats.

  20. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Jane P.; Latthe, Pallavi; Coomarasamy, Arri; Rachaneni, Suneetha; McCooty, Shanteela; Verghese, Tina S.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. Design Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS) and secondary sources. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken. Results Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties. Conclusions Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty. PMID:27513926

  1. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  2. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer and recurrence after BCG immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahirwar, Dinesh K; Agrahari, Anita; Mandhani, Anil; Mittal, Rama D

    2009-06-01

    The association of interleukin-1beta (IL-1B) -511C > T and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) VNTR, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B1) +28C > T and interferon-gamma (IFN-G) + 874T>A polymorphisms with bladder cancer (CaB) susceptibility and risk of recurrence in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-treated patients was analyzed in 287 controls and 213 CaB patients (73 BCG treated). Increased risk was observed with the IL-1RN*2 allele (odds ratio (OR) 5.01) and the IFN-G +874 A allele (OR 1.78). TGF-B TT and IFN-G +874 A carriers were associated with reduced (hazard ratio (HR) 0.37) and enhanced (HR 2.24) risk of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy, respectively. The study suggests that cytokine gene variants may modulate CaB susceptibility and risk of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy. PMID:19489682

  3. Radiotherapy for urinary bladder pheochromocytoma with invasion of the prostate: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    YOU, DONG; REN, RUIZHEN; CHEN, ERCHENG; CHEN, SHULIN; WANG, DAWEI; LIU, JIANHUI

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, for which there is currently no effective therapy. Cytoreductive surgery is recommended to reduce tumor burden and relieve the symptoms of catecholamine excess, although complete eradication of the lesions is often not feasible. In patients with advanced disease, for whom surgical resection is not an option, systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy and treatment with iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine may be used to achieve symptomatic relief. Although malignant pheochromocytoma is considered to be unresponsive to radiotherapy, a limited number of case reports, although not large patient samples, have been published on the effectiveness of radiotherapy for the treatment of this disease. This is the case report of a 23-year-old male patient with bladder pheochromocytoma invading the prostate, who refused to undergo surgery. The tumor shrank following radiotherapy and had not increased in size 1.5 years after treatment. Similarly, the blood pressure of the patient remained within normal limits without antihypertensive medication; the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites also remained normal. Our case demonstrated that radiotherapy was effective for malignant pheochromocytoma to a certain extent and, therefore, it may be selected when surgery is not feasible.

  4. Intravesical administration of exogenous microRNA-145 as a therapy for mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Teruo; Taniguchi, Kohei; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Iwatsuki, Ayako; Takai, Tomoaki; Komura, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Tanda, Naoki; Kouno, Junko; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Akao, Yukihiro; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-08-28

    We previously reported that the level of microRNA (miR)-145 is attenuated in human bladder cancer cells. In this current study, we investigated whether intravesical administration of miR-145 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling bladder cancer by using an orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft model. Following transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145, the effects of the ectopic expression of miR-145 were examined by performing MTT, Western blotting analysis, Hoechst33342 staining, and wound healing assay in vitro. Also, a mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer model was established by inoculating 253J B-V cells into the bladder wall of mice. The anti-cancer effects of intravesical injections of miR-145 into these mice were then assessed. Transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145 induced apoptosis and suppression of cell migration in vitro. Western blotting showed that the levels of c-Myc, socs7, FSCN1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and catenin δ-1 were decreased and that the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways were increased in compensatory fashion. In vivo, mice treated with miR-145 showed 76% inhibition of tumor growth, with a significant prolongation of animal survival (p = 0.0183 vs. control). Western blotting showed that both apoptosis and cell motility-related genes were significantly decreased as seen in vitro. Furthermore, PI3k/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which were activated in a compensatory manner in vitro, were decreased in vivo. Intravesical administration of exogenous miR-145 was thus concluded to be a valid therapy for bladder cancer in this human bladder cancer xenograft model. PMID:26036261

  5. Intravesical epinephrine preserves uroplakin II expression in urinary bladder from cyclophosphamide-induced rat cystitis.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Yoon Soo; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the attenuated effect of intravesical epinephrine (EPI) on uroplakin II (UPII) expression in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced rat cystitis. Sixty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into one negative control group (GI) and five intraperitoneally CYP (150 mg CYP/kg)-injected groups (GII-VI) consisting of a positive control group (GII), three groups (GIII-V) with retaining intravesically instillated ameliorating agents for 90 min by urethral ligation until sacrifice, and one group (GVI) with freely voiding after intravesical EPI instillation. The retention groups were further classified into null-treated- (GIII), EPI- (GIV), and vehicle group (GV). All rats were euthanized 24 h after CYP injection. The UPII and α1-adrenergic receptors (AR) levels were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and the morphological changes were also evaluated. CYP induced severe cystitis and decreased vesical UPII mRNA level. The EPI-treated groups had showed attenuation effects against submucosal edema and hemorrhage, and preserved UPII expression. Concurrently, intravesical EPI resulted in a significant preservation of both subtypes of α1A- and α1B AR expressions, which was well correlated with the hemostatic pattern in the samples. The obstructed and null-treated group (GIII) revealed severe cystitis and maximally decreased UPII levels, and the diluting effect of vehicle (GV) on CYP toxicity was insignificant on UPII preservation. The UPII level of RT-PCR was well correlated with the UPII immunohistological expression and their morphological changes. Intravesical instillation of EPI preserves UPII expression and attenuates the toxic responses in the bladder in CYP-induced rat cystitis. PMID:22638760

  6. ARID1A immunohistochemistry improves outcome prediction in invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Ellis, Carla; Driscoll, Tina; Schoenberg, Mark P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2014-11-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is tumor suppressor gene that interacts with BRG1 adenosine triphosphatase to form a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling protein complex. Inactivation of ARID1A has been described in several neoplasms, including epithelial ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, and has been correlated with prognosis. In the current study, ARID1A expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and its association with clinicopathological parameters and outcome are addressed. Five tissue microarrays were constructed from 136 cystectomy specimens performed for UC at our institution. Nuclear ARID1A staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. An H-score was calculated as the sum of the products of intensity (0-3) multiplied by extent of expression (0%-100%). Average H-score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was categorized in low and high using Youden index to define the cut point. ARID1A expression significantly increased from normal to noninvasive UC to invasive UC. For both tumor progression and cancer death, Youden index yielded an H-score of 288 as the optimal cut point for ARID1A expression. Low ARID1A expression showed a tendency for lower risk of tumor progression and cancer mortality. Adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features offers a better model for predicting outcome than pathologic features alone. Low ARID1A expression was more frequently seen in earlier stage disease. There was a tendency for low ARID1A expression to predict better outcome. More importantly, the findings indicate that adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features increases the goodness of fit of the predictive model. PMID:25175170

  7. Evaluation of time dependence and interindividual differences in benzo[a]pyrene-mediated CYP1A1 induction and genotoxicity in porcine urinary bladder cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Plottner, Sabine; Borza, Alexandra; Wolf, Alexander; Bolt, Hermann M; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Follmann, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is an established cause of cancer in humans and cigarette smoking is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer development. Aromatic amines are believed responsible for the bladder-specific carcinogenic effect, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also of potential relevance. Urothelial cells contain a number of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, which enable them to convert pro-carcinogens into reactive intermediates. In a preceding study, it was demonstrated using cultured porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) that CYP1A1 mRNA is induced in a potent manner by treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In the present study, the time dependence of these effects was evaluated and whether PUBEC cultures derived from individual donors respond differently to BaP treatment was determined. CYP1A1 induction was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and genotoxic effects were studied using the Comet assay. Incubation of PUBEC with BaP increased CYP1A1 expression and induction of DNA strand breaks in a time-dependent manner. Interindividual differences were found between PUBEC cultures derived from several donor animals with respect to the response to BaP, such that the extent of CYP1A1 induction and magnitude of DNA damage was interrelated. Hence, individual differences in metabolic capacities and responsiveness to xenobiotics of urothelial cells from individual donors may be factors in susceptibility to genotoxic effects induced by PAHs. PMID:18569604

  8. Characterization and modulation of [125I]iberiotoxin-D19Y/Y36F binding in the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E J; Sullivan, J P; Wan, Y; Brioni, J D; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2000-01-28

    The radioligand binding characteristics of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel ligand [125I]iberiotoxin-D19Y/Y36F were examined in guinea-pig urinary bladder membranes. Saturation analysis revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites in the bladder with a K(D) value of 45.6 pM and a B(max) value of 112 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaced by unlabeled iberiotoxin and penitrem A, but not by blockers of other classes of K(+) channels including alpha-dendrotoxin, margatoxin and apamin. The indole alkaloids, paxilline and verruculogen, significantly increased binding by 4.5- and 4.3-fold, respectively. Tetraacetic acid derivatives such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid enhanced specific [125I]iberiotoxin-D19Y/Y36F binding about 2.5-fold, which was not attributable to calcium chelation. This increase was due to a significant change in ligand binding affinity (K(D)=6.3 pM), but not due to a change in the B(max), indicating that these compounds may enhance toxin binding via allosteric interactions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the binding sites for [125I]iberiotoxin-D19Y/Y36F present in the urinary bladder shows a pharmacological profile typical of maxi-K(+) channels and can be modulated, not only by previously known indole alkaloids, but also by tetraacetic acid analogs. PMID:10666507

  9. A Novel Model of Urinary Tract Differentiation, Tissue Regeneration, and Disease: Reprogramming Human Prostate and Bladder Cells into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moad, Mohammad; Pal, Deepali; Hepburn, Anastasia C.; Williamson, Stuart C.; Wilson, Laura; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Hayward, Simon W.; Franco, Omar E.; Cates, Justin M.; Fordham, Sarah E.; Przyborski, Stefan; Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; Robson, Craig N.; Heer, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary culture and animal and cell-line models of prostate and bladder development have limitations in describing human biology, and novel strategies that describe the full spectrum of differentiation from foetal through to ageing tissue are required. Recent advances in biology demonstrate that direct reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells is possible. These cells, termed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could theoretically generate adult prostate and bladder tissue, providing an alternative strategy to study differentiation. Objective To generate human iPSCs derived from normal, ageing, human prostate (Pro-iPSC), and urinary tract (UT-iPSC) tissue and to assess their capacity for lineage-directed differentiation. Design, setting, and participants Prostate and urinary tract stroma were transduced with POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1; formerly OCT4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Kruppel-like factor 4 (gut) (KLF4), and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) (MYC, formerly C-MYC) genes to generate iPSCs. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The potential for differentiation into prostate and bladder lineages was compared with classical skin-derived iPSCs. The student t test was used. Results and limitations Successful reprogramming of prostate tissue into Pro-iPSCs and bladder and ureter into UT-iPSCs was demonstrated by characteristic ESC morphology, marker expression, and functional pluripotency in generating all three germ-layer lineages. In contrast to conventional skin-derived iPSCs, Pro-iPSCs showed a vastly increased ability to generate prostate epithelial-specific differentiation, as characterised by androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen induction. Similarly, UT-iPSCs were shown to be more efficient than skin-derived iPSCs in undergoing bladder differentiation as demonstrated by expression of urothelial-specific markers: uroplakins, claudins, and

  10. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction. PMID:27366009

  11. Nerve-released acetylcholine contracts urinary bladder smooth muscle by inducing action potentials independently of IP3-mediated calcium release.

    PubMed

    Nausch, Bernhard; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    Nerve-released ACh is the main stimulus for contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). Here, the mechanisms by which ACh contracts UBSM are explored by determining Ca(2+) and electrical signals induced by nerve-released ACh. Photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) evoked Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Electrical field stimulation (20 Hz) induced Ca(2+) waves within the smooth muscle that were present only during stimulus application. Ca(2+) waves were blocked by inhibition of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) with atropine and depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and therefore likely reflect activation of IP(3) receptors (IP(3)Rs). Electrical field stimulation also increased excitability to induce action potentials (APs) that were accompanied by Ca(2+) flashes, reflecting Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) during the action potential. The evoked Ca(2+) flashes and APs occurred as a burst with a lag time of approximately 1.5 s after onset of stimulation. They were not inhibited by blocking IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) waves, but by blockers of mAChRs (atropine) and VDCCs (diltiazem). Nerve-evoked contractions of UBSM strips were greatly reduced by blocking VDCCs, but not by preventing IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling with cyclopiazonic acid or inhibition of PLC with U73122. These results indicate that ACh released from nerve varicosities induces IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) waves during stimulation; but contrary to expectations, these signals do not appear to participate in contraction. In addition, our data provide compelling evidence that UBSM contractions evoked by nerve-released ACh depend on increased excitability and the resultant Ca(2+) entry through VDCCs during APs. PMID:20573989

  12. Intravesical PAC1 Receptor Antagonist, PACAP(6-38), Reduces Urinary Bladder Frequency and Pelvic Sensitivity in NGF-OE Mice.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan E; Mathews, Morgan M; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic NGF overexpression (OE) in the urothelium, achieved through the use of a highly urothelium-specific uroplakin II promoter, stimulates neuronal sprouting in the urinary bladder, produces increased voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, and referred somatic sensitivity. Additional NGF-mediated pleiotropic changes might contribute to increased voiding frequency and pelvic hypersensitivity in NGF-OE mice such as neuropeptide/receptor systems including PACAP(Adcyap1) and PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1). Given the presence of PAC1-immunoreactive fibers and the expression of PAC1 receptor expression in bladder tissues, and PACAP-facilitated detrusor contraction, whether PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to increased voiding frequency and somatic sensitivity was evaluated in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical administration of the PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38) (300 nM), significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased intercontraction interval (2.0-fold) and void volume (2.5-fold) in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical instillation of PACAP(6-38) also decreased baseline bladder pressure in NGF-OE mice. PACAP(6-38) had no effects on bladder function in WT mice. Intravesical administration of PACAP(6-38) (300 nM) significantly (p ≤ 0.01) reduced pelvic sensitivity in NGF-OE mice but was without effect in WT mice. PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to the increased voiding frequency and pelvic sensitivity observed in NGF-OE mice. PMID:27146136

  13. Construction of a urease-negative mutant of Proteus mirabilis: analysis of virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, B D; Lockatell, C V; Johnson, D E; Warren, J W; Mobley, H L

    1990-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a urease-producing uropathogen, causes serious urinary tract infections in humans. To specifically evaluate the contribution of urease to virulence, a mutation was introduced into P. mirabilis HI4320 by homologous recombination. Virulence was assessed in the CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Twenty mice each were challenged transurethrally with P. mirabilis HI4320 and its urease-negative derivative (1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9) CFU). At 48 h animals were sacrificed and the mean log10 CFU per milliliter of urine (parent, 6.23; mutant, 4.19; P = 0.0014) or per gram of bladder (parent, 6.29; mutant, 4.28; P = 0.0002), left kidney (parent, 4.11; mutant, 1.02; P = 0.00009), and right kidney (parent, 4.11; mutant, 2.43; P = 0.036) were all shown to be significantly different. These data demonstrate a role for urease as a critical virulence determinant for uropathogenic P. mirabilis. PMID:2180821

  14. Nitric oxide modulates bladder afferent nerve activity in the in vitro urinary bladder-pelvic nerve preparation from rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongbei; de Groat, William C

    2013-01-15

    Effects of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (SNAP), NO substrate (l-arginine), and NO synthase inhibitor (l-NAME) on bladder afferent nerve (BAN) activity were studied in an in vitro bladder-pelvic nerve preparation from untreated or cyclophosphamide (CYP) treated rats. Distension of the bladder induced phasic bladder contractions (PBC) that were accompanied by multiunit afferent firing. Intravesical administration of SNAP (2mM) which did not change the amplitude of PBC significantly decreased peak afferent firing from 79 ± 15 spikes/s to 44 ± 8 spikes/s in CYP pretreated but not untreated preparations. In CYP treated preparations SNAP also decreased by 33-55% BAN firing induced by isotonic distension of the bladder at 10-40 cmH(2)O pressures. Electrical stimulation on the surface of the bladder elicited action potentials (AP) in BAN. SNAP significantly increased the voltage threshold by 75% (p<0.05) and decreased by 45% (p<0.05) the area of the AP evoked at submaximal stimulus intensity. Bath application of SNAP (2mM) or l-arginine (50mM) elicited similar inhibitory effects on the distension evoked BAN firing. The effects of l-arginine were blocked by bath application of l-NAME (20mM). l-NAME alone did not alter BAN firing. In preparations from normal rats SNAP or l-arginine did not alter BAN activity. These results suggest that exogenous as well as endogenously generated NO depresses the excitability of sensitized but not normal BAN and that NO may have an antinociceptive function and modulate bladder hyperactivity induced by pathological conditions. PMID:23063886

  15. Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2015-04-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  16. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  17. c.29C>T polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) gene correlates with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Pooja, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Goel, Apul; Rajender, Singh

    2015-10-01

    TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which plays a dual role in tumor development. In the early stages, it inhibits the growth of tumor while in the late stages of carcinoma, it promotes tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of the TGFB1 gene polymorphisms between cases and controls so as to assess their correlation with bladder cancer risk. This study included 237 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 290 age matched controls from the same ethnic background. Three polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene, c.29C>T (rs-1800470), c.74G>C (rs-1800471) and +140A>G (rs-13447341), were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the demographical data, except that the frequencies of smokers and non-vegetarians were higher in the cases. Eighty percent of the bladder cancer patients had superficial transitional cell carcinoma, and 53.16% and 26.31% of the patients were in grade I and grade II, respectively. We found that c.29C>T substitution increased the risk of bladder cancer significantly and recessive model of analysis was the best fitted model (p=0.004; OR=1.72 95% CI 1.18-2.50). A significantly higher risk in the recessive form was also suggested by co-dominant analysis showing that the homozygous form (TT) was a significant risk factor in comparison to CC and CT genotypes. The other two polymorphisms, c.74G>C (p=0.18, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.37-1.21) and +140A>G (p=0.416, OR=0.77 95% CI 0.41-1.45) did not affect the risk of urinary bladder cancer. In conclusion, we found that the TGFB1 c.29C>T substitution increases the risk of bladder cancer significantly while c.74G>C and +140A>G polymorphisms do not affect the risk. PMID:26048435

  18. Evaluation of Immunological Disorders of T Lymphocytes and Endocrinological Disorders as Pathogen Factors in Patients With Metaplasia of Urinary Bladder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-19

    The Follow-up Duration Was 1-8 Years.; The Main Reasons Behind Visiting the Hospital Were Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection,; Urinary Urgencies, Pollakiuria, Difficulty in Initiating Micturition, Pain in Hypogastrium,; Night Wetting and Day Wetting, Menstruation's Disorders, Urolithiasis, Defects of Urinary; System and Hematuria.

  19. Refinement of the prediction of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotypes with respect to enzyme activity and urinary bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) are well known to modify urinary bladder cancer risk as well as efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals via reduction in the enzyme's acetylation capacity. Nevertheless, the discussion about optimal NAT2 phenotype prediction, particularly differentiation between different degrees of slow acetylation, is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes on slow acetylation in vivo and on bladder cancer risk. For this purpose, we used a study cohort of 1,712 bladder cancer cases and 2,020 controls genotyped for NAT2 by RFLP-PCR and for the tagSNP rs1495741 by TaqMan(®) assay. A subgroup of 344 individuals was phenotyped by the caffeine test in vivo. We identified an 'ultra-slow' acetylator phenotype based on combined *6A/*6A, *6A/*7B and *7B/*7B genotypes containing the homozygous minor alleles of C282T (rs1041983, *6A, *7B) and G590A (rs1799930, *6A). 'Ultra-slow' acetylators have significantly about 32 and 46 % lower activities of caffeine metabolism compared with other slow acetylators and with the *5B/*5B genotypes, respectively (P < 0.01, both). The 'ultra-slow' genotype showed an association with bladder cancer risk in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.31, P = 0.012) and a trend adjusted for age, gender and smoking habits (OR = 1.22, P = 0.082). In contrast, slow acetylators in general were not associated with bladder cancer risk, neither in the univariate (OR = 1.02, P = 0.78) nor in the adjusted (OR = 0.98, P = 0.77) analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that NAT2 phenotype prediction should be refined by consideration of an 'ultra-slow' acetylation genotype. PMID:24221535

  20. [The operative cystoscope with joystick control mechanism of flexible tools inserted into the urinary bladder and the ureter].

    PubMed

    Komiakov, B K; Topuzov, M É; Zubarev, V A; Stetsik, O V

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed an operative cystoscope with joystick control mechanism of ureter catheters and other flexible tools. This construction allowed control of flexible tools inserted into the bladder and the ureter in various directions, thus providing a necessary observation of the operative field at endoscopic operations on the bladder and ureter. This was one of the factors, which determined the operation success. PMID:25055539

  1. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  2. GENE EXPRESSION DOSE-RESPONSE IN THE MOUSE BLADDER FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ARSENATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association between drinking water exposures to inorganic arsenic and life-threatening tumors in the human is strongest for bladder cancer. Moreover, a working model for the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer has been developed. To investigate the mode of action for inorgan...

  3. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  4. The value of diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of malignant and benign urinary bladder lesions

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, S; Koseoglu, M N; Ceylan, K; Dbulutand, M; Unal, O

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the diagnosis of urinary bladder (UB) tumours by means of measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods A total of 83 people aged between 18 and 86 years were included in the study: 63 patients with UB pathology (46 malignant, 17 benign) constituted the case group; 20 individuals without any UB pathology constituted the control group. DWI was applied to all individuals. The ADC values were measured based on the tissue of the UB mass entities and normal UB wall in the control group. Results The mean ADC value in the UB carcinoma group was significantly lower than that in the control group: 1.0684 ± 0.26 × 10−3 mm2 s–1 and 2.010 ± 0.11 × 10−3 mm2 s–1, respectively (p<0.01). There was a significant difference among the mean ADC values of different grades of malignant tumours, corresponding to 0.9185 ± 0.20 mm2 s–1 and 1.281 ± 0.18 mm2 s–1 in high-grade and low-grade malignant UB carcinomas, respectively (p<0.01). The ADC value in the carcinoma group was significantly lower than that in the benign lesion group: 1.0684 ± 0.26 × 10−3 mm2 s–1 and 1.803 ± 0.19 × 10−3 mm2 s–1, respectively (p<0.01). All 46 malignant lesions displayed a restriction in diffusion; 4 of the 17 benign lesions displayed a mild restriction in diffusion. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DWI in the diagnosis of malignant UB lesions was 100%, 76.5% and 93.65%, respectively. Conclusion DWI can be beneficial in the differentiation of benign and malignant UB lesions, as well as of high-grade and low-grade UB carcinomas, using quantitative ADC measurements. PMID:21224296

  5. Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Mattias; Scherbak, Nikolai; Khalaf, Hazem; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2012-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli. PMID:22620976

  6. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN MOUSE BLADDER TISSUE IN RESPONSE TO INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic human exposures to high arsenic concentrations are associated with lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Considerable controversy exists concerning arsenic mode of action and low dose extrapolation. This investigation was designed to identify dose-response changes in gene expre...

  7. Distribution and Fate of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide (CARTp) Expressing Cells in Rat Urinary Bladder: A Developmental Study

    PubMed Central

    Zvarova, K.; Vizzard, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the distribution and fate of CARTp55–102 immunoreactive (IR) structures in the neonatal and adult rat urinary bladder. Staining for the apoptotic enzyme, caspase-3, and double labeling studies examining CARTp with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were performed in whole-mount preparations of urothelium or detrusor. In younger animals (P1, P3), CARTp-IR cell bodies in detrusor smooth muscle were observed in large clusters (~100 cells/cluster) at the ureteral insertion and along thick bundles of nerve fibers at bladder base. The total number of CARTp-IR cells was significantly reduced (5-fold) in older animals, stabilized at P14 and persisted into adulthood. The decrease in number of CARTp expressing cells was complemented with staining for caspase-3 suggestive that apoptosis contributed to this decrease. At birth (P1), all CARTp-IR cells expressed the neuronal marker, Hu. After birth, CARTp was expressed by some neurons (CARTp+, Hu+) that represent intramural ganglion cells and by cells that lacked a neuronal phenotype (CARTp+, Hu−) but did express TH. These cells (CARTp+, Hu−, TH+) may represent paraganglion or small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells. The percentage of colocalization of CARTp-IR and nNOS or TH was dependent on age and showed an inverse relationship. The suburothelial plexus showed no presence of CARTp-IR nerve fibers until P14 when nerve fibers were observed in urethra and bladder neck. This study demonstrates that CARTp-IR intramural ganglia and CARTp-IR paraganglion or SIF cells exist in postnatal and adult rat bladder although the role of these cell types remains to be determined. PMID:16025456

  8. Expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle and signaling pathways are independent of TP53 status in urinary bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Glenda N; Evangelista, Adriane F; Magalhães, Danielle A; Macedo, Cláudia; Búfalo, Michelle C; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Passos, Geraldo A S; Salvadori, Daisy M F

    2011-08-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the Western world. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype, accounting for about 90% of all bladder cancers. The TP53 gene plays an essential role in the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis and therefore contributes to cellular transformation and malignancy; however, little is known about the differential gene expression patterns in human tumors that present with the wild-type or mutated TP53 gene. Therefore, because gene profiling can provide new insights into the molecular biology of bladder cancer, the present study aimed to compare the molecular profiles of bladder cancer cell lines with different TP53 alleles, including the wild type (RT4) and two mutants (5637, with mutations in codons 280 and 72; and T24, a TP53 allele encoding an in-frame deletion of tyrosine 126). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and gene networks were constructed based on data generated by cDNA microarrays using mRNA from the three cell lines. Differentially expressed genes related to the cell cycle, cell division, cell death, and cell proliferation were observed in the three cell lines. However, the cDNA microarray data did not cluster cell lines based on their TP53 allele. The gene profiles of the RT4 cells were more similar to those of T24 than to those of the 5637 cells. While the deregulation of both the cell cycle and the apoptotic pathways was particularly related to TCC, these alterations were not associated with the TP53 status. PMID:21116856

  9. Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

  10. Bladder dose-surface maps and urinary toxicity: Robustness with respect to motion in assessing local dose effects.

    PubMed

    Palorini, F; Botti, A; Carillo, V; Gianolini, S; Improta, I; Iotti, C; Rancati, T; Cozzarini, C; Fiorino, C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of inter-fraction modifications of bladder during RT of prostate cancer on bladder dose surface maps (DSM). Eighteen patients treated with daily image-guided Tomotherapy and moderate hypofractionation (70-72.8Gy at 2.5-2.6Gy/fr in 28 fractions and full bladder) were considered. Bladder contours were delineated on co-registered daily Megavoltage CT (MVCT) by a single observer and copied on the planning CT to generate dose-volume/surface histograms (DVH/DSH) and bladder DSMs. Discrepancies between planned and daily absorbed doses were analyzed through the average of individual systematic errors, the population systematic errors and the population random errors for the DVH/DSHs and DSMs. In total, 477 DVH/DSH and 472 DSM were available. DSH and DVH showed small population systematic errors of absolute surfaces (<3.4cm(2)) and volumes (<8.4cm(3)) at the highest doses. The dose to the posterior bladder base assessed on DSMs showed a mean systematic error below 1Gy, with population systematic and random errors within 4 and 3Gy, respectively. The region surrounding this area shows higher mean systematic errors (1-3Gy), population systematic (8-11Gy) and random (5-7Gy) errors. In conclusion, DVH/DSH and DSMs are quite stable with respect to inter-fraction variations in the high-dose region, within about 2cm from bladder base. Larger systematic variations occur in the anterior portion and cranially 2.5-3.5cm from the base. Results suggest that dose predictors related to the high dose area (including the trigone dose) are likely to be sufficiently reliable with respect to the expected variations due to variable bladder filling. PMID:27053449

  11. Expression of Aggrus/podoplanin in bladder cancer and its role in pulmonary metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Satoshi; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeo; Gong, Bo; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is associated with tumor malignancy by promoting hematogenous metastasis. Aggrus overexpression has been reported in some tumor tissues including lung, esophagus, head and neck and brain. We here found the frequent upregulation of aggrus mRNA in urinary bladder cancers using cancer tissue panels from various organs. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed Aggrus protein expression in urinary bladder cancers and suggested a positive correlation between Aggrus expression and metastatic tendency in bladder cancers. Endogenous expression of Aggrus protein on the cell surface was found in the mouse bladder cancer MBT-2 cell line and human bladder cancer SCaBER cell lines. Knockdown of Aggrus expression in MBT-2 cells decreased their ability to induce platelet aggregation and form pulmonary metastasis in syngeneic mouse models. Knockdown of Aggrus expression in the human bladder cancer SCaBER cells also attenuated their ability to induce platelet aggregation and form pulmonary metastasis in mice. Moreover, pulmonary metastasis of SCaBER cells was prevented by prior administration of our generated anti-Aggrus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies by attenuating their retention in lung. These results indicate that Aggrus plays an important role in bladder cancer metastasis. Thus, anti-Aggrus neutralizing antibodies would be useful for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of Aggrus-positive bladder cancer. PMID:24222607

  12. DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID ALTERS EXPRESSION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DNA REPAIR GENES IN A DOSE DEPENDENT MANNER IN THE TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM OF THE URINARY BLADDER FROM FEMALE F344 RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-dependent alteration of oxidative stress and DNA repair gene expression by Dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder from female F344 rats.
    Arsenic (As) is a major concern as millions of people are at risk from drinking arsenic contaminat...

  13. INDUCTION OF TRANSTITIONAL CELL HYPERPLASIA IN THE URINARY BLADDER AND ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLON OF RATS TREATED WITH INDIVIDUAL AND A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Cancer of the urinary bladder and colon are significant human health concerns. Epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation between these cancers and the chronic consumption of drinking water containing disinfection by-products (DBPs). The present study...

  14. Effects of divalent cations and La3+ on contractility and ecto-ATPase activity in the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshin, A U; Ziganshina, L E; Hoyle, C H; Burnstock, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Several cations (Ba2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+, all as chloride salts, 1-1000 microM) were tested in the guinea-pig urinary bladder for their ability to: (i) modify contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-meATP), carbachol (CCh), and KCl; (ii) affect ecto-ATPase activity. 2. Ba2+ (10-1000 microM) concentration-dependently potentiated contractile responses evoked by EFS (4-16 Hz), ATP (100 microM), alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM), CCh (0.5 microM), and KCl (30 mM). Ni2+ at concentrations of 1-100 microM also potentiated contractility of the urinary bladder, but at concentrations tested its effect was not concentration-dependent. Cu2+ at a concentration of 10 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 1 microM potentiated responses to all stimuli, except KCl. Ni2+ at a concentration of 1000 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 100 microM inhibited contractions evoked by all stimuli, and at a concentration of 1000 microM Cd2+ abolished any contractions. Responses to ATP and alpha,beta-meATP were selectively inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+ or La3+, each at a concentration of 1 mM. 3. Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+ (100-1000 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited ecto-ATPase activity in the urinary bladder smooth muscle preparations, while Ba2+ and Mn2+ were without effect, and Cd2+ and Co2+ caused significant inhibition only at a concentration of 1000 microM. 4. There was no correlation between the extent of ecto-ATPase inhibition and the effect on contractile activity of any of the cations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7735690

  15. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Ibrahim A; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1(∗)14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1(∗)14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53-40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1(∗)14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1(∗)14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1(∗)14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  16. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Ibrahim A.; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E.; Dhaini, Hassan R.

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  17. Neuromodulation in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Melissa T.

    2016-01-01

    While neuromodulation is a well-established treatment option for patients with non-neurogenic overactive bladder and urinary retention, its applicability to the neurogenic bladder population has only recently been examined more in depth. In this article we will discuss the outcomes, contraindications, and special considerations of sacral and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26904417

  18. Immunolocalization and mRNA expression of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha-subunit in the kidney and urinary bladder of the marine toad, Bufo marinus, under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamada, Toshiki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2007-06-01

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has previously been shown to be involved in the maintenance of body fluid volume and in Na(+) absorption across the skin and urinary bladder in amphibians. However, the function and distribution of ENaC have not been clearly described in amphibian kidney. We therefore cloned the ENaC alpha-subunit cDNA from kidney of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. The ENaC mRNA and protein were abundantly expressed in the kidney and in the urinary bladder and ventral pelvic skin. In an immunohistochemical study, the ENaC alpha-subunit protein was specifically localized to the apical membrane of the principal cells but not the intercalated cells from the late distal tubule to the collecting duct in the kidney or in the apical area of cells of urinary bladder epithelia. When toads were acclimated to dry and hyper-saline environments, the levels of ENaC mRNA expression in the kidney and urinary bladder decreased under hyper-saline acclimation, but not under dry conditions. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that the levels of ENaC protein expression were much lower in the apical area of renal distal tubules and urinary bladder epithelia of hyper-saline acclimated toad compared with controls. The present study suggests that Bufo ENaC is significantly expressed and functions during Na(+) reabsorption in the apical membrane domain in the distal nephron of normal and desiccated toads. Natriuresis may be caused by decreases in ENaC expression and its trafficking to the cell surface in the distal nephron, a response to prevent excessive Na(+) reabsorption in hyper-saline-acclimated toads. PMID:17333031

  19. [A CASE OF UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER WITH SQUAMOUS DIFFERENTIATION RESPONDING TO PACLITAXEL AND CARBOPLATIN NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY].

    PubMed

    Banno, Eri; Nishino, Aki; Nagai, Yasuharu; Yasuda, Muneo; Tahara, Hideo; Kino, Shigeo; Kanno, Norihumi

    2015-07-01

    A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital for macrohematuria. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed right hydronephrosis and a retroperitoneal mass, located next to right side of the bladder. Cystoscopy showed a protruded lesion covered with normal mucosa at the right lateral wall. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and biopsies of the bladder wall. Histological examination showed squamous cell carcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) was performed. A total cystectomy, right nephroureterectomy and construction of the ileal conduit were performed after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Histological examination showed urothelial carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation. Unexpectedly, a small amount of CIS was detected only in the vicinity of the TUR scar. The patient received 2 cycles of TC chemotherapy as adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, 11 months later, local recurrence and liver metastasis were detected. He died 17 months after the surgery. PMID:26419080

  20. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Marcia R; Hellmich, Helen L; Turner, Mary; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Dyer, David W; Hurst, Robert E; Centola, Michael; Saban, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH) to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TRE)s. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF) maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I) were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in organogenesis and

  1. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits vasotocin-induced osmotic water permeability in the frog urinary bladder by EP1-receptor-mediated activation of NO/cGMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Bachteeva, Vera; Fock, Ekaterina; Lavrova, Elena; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Gambaryan, Stepan; Parnova, Rimma

    2007-07-01

    PGE(2) is a well-known inhibitor of the antidiuretic hormone-induced increase of osmotic water permeability (OWP) in different osmoregulatory epithelia; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect of PGE(2) are not completely understood. Here, we report that, in the frog Rana temporaria urinary bladder, EP(1)-receptor-mediated inhibition of arginine-vasotocin (AVT)-induced OWP by PGE(2) is attributed to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) in epithelial cells. It was shown that the inhibitory effect of 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE(2) (17-ph-PGE(2)), an EP(1) agonist, on AVT-induced OWP was significantly reduced in the presence of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor. NO synthase (NOS) activity in both lysed and intact epithelial cells measured as a rate of conversion of l-[(3)H]arginine to l-[(3)H]citrulline was Ca(2+) dependent and inhibited by 7-NI. PGE(2) and 17-ph-PGE(2), but not M&B-28767 (EP(3) agonist) or butaprost (EP(2) agonist), stimulated NOS activity in epithelial cells. The above effect of PGE(2) was abolished in the presence of SC-19220, an EP(1) antagonist. 7-NI reduced the stimulatory effect of 17-ph-PGE(2) on NOS activity. 17-ph-PGE(2) increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and cGMP in epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed an nNOS expression in epithelial cells. These results show that the inhibitory effect of PGE(2) on AVT-induced OWP in the frog urinary bladder is based at least partly on EP(1)-receptor-mediated activation of the NO/cGMP pathway, suggesting a novel cross talk between AVT, PGE(2), and nNOS that may be important in the regulation of water transport. PMID:17363677

  2. Early Life Inorganic Lead Exposure Induces Testicular Teratoma and Renal and Urinary Bladder Preneoplasia in Adult Metallothionein-Knockout Mice but Not in Wild Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic lead compounds are carcinogenic in animals and have carcinogenic potential in humans. In mice, lead (Pb) is a transplacental carcinogen in the kidney. Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein that can reduce the toxicity of various metals, including Pb, either by direct sequestration or as an antioxidant for metals that generate reactive oxygen species. Although MT appears to reduce Pb carcinogenicity in adult mice it is unknown how MT deficiency may affect Pb carcinogenicity from early life exposure. Thus, groups (n = 10) of pregnant MT-I/II double knockout (MT-null) or 129/SVJ MT wild type (WT) mice were exposed to Pb acetate in the drinking water (0, 2000, 4000 ppm Pb) from gestation day 8 through birth and during lactation. Maternal drinking water Pb exposure continued to weaning at 4 weeks of age and the male offspring were then directly exposed to Pb until 8 weeks of age and observed until 2 years old. High dose (4000 ppm) but not low dose (2000 ppm) Pb reduced survival in the latter part of the study in both MT-null and WT mice. In MT-null mice, but not WT, early life Pb exposure caused a dose-related increase in testicular teratomas, to a maximum incidence of 28% compared to control (4%). Pb-induced renal cystic hyperplasia, considered preneoplastic, were a prominent occurrence in MT-null mice but nearly absent in WT mice. Pb dose-related increases in renal cystic hyperplasia occurred in adult MT-null with early life exposure with maximal incidence of 52%. Pb-treated MT-null mice also showed dose-related increases in urinary bladder hyperplasia with occasional papilloma that were absent in WT mice. Thus, MT deficiency made mice more sensitive to early life Pb exposure with regard to testes tumors, and renal and urinary bladder preneoplastic lesions. PMID:20600549

  3. [A Crossover Comparison Study on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms with Overactive Bladder Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Naftopidil versus Tamsulosin with Solifenacin].

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Keiyu; Tsunemori, Hiroyuki; Muguruma, Koei; Kawakita, Mutsushi; Kamiyama, Yuki; Kanamaru, Sojun; Ito, Noriyuki; Tsukazaki, Hideki; Shirahase, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of naftopidil monotherapy with combination therapy using tamsulosin hydrochloride and solifenacin succinate in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with overactive bladder (OAB) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thirty one patients were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. Fourteen patients were initially prescribed naftopidil 75 mg (N) for 8 weeks, followed by tamsulosin 0.2 mg and solifenacin 5 mg (TS) for 8 weeks (group N) ; another 17 were initially prescribed TS, followed by N (group TS). The efficacy variables were the changes in international prostate symptom score (I-PSS), quality of life (QOL) score, overative bladder symptom score (OABSS), and post-void residual (PVR) urine volume. After the study, a questionnaire survey was carried out about the choice of treatment. After treatment with each agent, total I-PSS, storage symptom score, QOL score and OABSS except for the daytime frequency were significantly improved from baseline. PVR was significantly increased after TS treatment. There were no significant differences between the two treatments except for PVR. As a result of the questionnaire survey, 13 patients chose N and 17 chose TS. In conclusion, N monotherapy can be expected to have an equal effect in the treatment of LUTS with OAB secondary to BPH in comparison with TS combination therapy. PMID:27569351

  4. Frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in peripheral blood in relation to urinary bladder cancer malignancy indicators before and after surgical removal

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Brożyna, Anna A.; Siekiera, Jerzy; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells communicate with stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), to form microenvironment inhibiting immune responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) stimulate immune tolerance and facilitate tumor progression. We analyzed the changes in Treg frequencies assessed using flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients with urothelial bladder cancer before and after tumor-removal. Changes in Treg frequency were investigated in relation to clinicopathomorphological indicators of tumor malignancy and expression of RCAS1 on CAFs and TAMs. Higher Treg frequencies were observed in early phase of tumor growth (pTa-pT2), in larger tumors, with more aggressive type of invasion, and with expression of RCAS1. The later phase of tumor development, accompanied by a nonclassic differentiations and pT3-pT4 advancement, had lower number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and lower Treg frequency. Furthermore, in pT2-pT4 tumors, a decreased post-surgery Treg frequency was associated with poorer prognosis: patients with the lowest frequency of Tregs died first. These findings strongly suggest that the Treg frequencies at later phase of tumor growth, associated with a low anti-tumor response, represent a new and important prognostic indicator in urinary bladder cancer. PMID:26862849

  5. Frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in peripheral blood in relation to urinary bladder cancer malignancy indicators before and after surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Brożyna, Anna A; Siekiera, Jerzy; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-03-01

    Tumor cells communicate with stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), to form microenvironment inhibiting immune responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) stimulate immune tolerance and facilitate tumor progression. We analyzed the changes in Treg frequencies assessed using flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients with urothelial bladder cancer before and after tumor-removal. Changes in Treg frequency were investigated in relation to clinicopathomorphological indicators of tumor malignancy and expression of RCAS1 on CAFs and TAMs. Higher Treg frequencies were observed in early phase of tumor growth (pTa-pT2), in larger tumors, with more aggressive type of invasion, and with expression of RCAS1. The later phase of tumor development, accompanied by a nonclassic differentiations and pT3-pT4 advancement, had lower number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and lower Treg frequency. Furthermore, in pT2-pT4 tumors, a decreased post-surgery Treg frequency was associated with poorer prognosis: patients with the lowest frequency of Tregs died first. These findings strongly suggest that the Treg frequencies at later phase of tumor growth, associated with a low anti-tumor response, represent a new and important prognostic indicator in urinary bladder cancer. PMID:26862849

  6. N-Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine in primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells and in the human urothelial cell line 5637.

    PubMed

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Behm, Claudia; Degen, Gisela H; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are important enzymes in the metabolism of certain carcinogenic arylamines, as N-acetylation decreases or prevents their bioactivation via N-hydroxylation. To study such processes in the bladder, cell culture models may be used, but metabolic competence needs to be characterized. This study focused on the N-acetylation capacity of two urothelial cell systems, using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the hair dye precursor p-phenylenediamine (PPD), two well-known substrates of the enzyme NAT1. The constitutive NAT1 activity was investigated using primary cultures of porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) and in the human urothelial cell line 5637 to assess their suitability for further in vitro studies on PABA and PPD-induced toxicity. N-Acetylation of PABA and PPD was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in cytosols of the two cell systems upon incubation with various substrate levels for up to 60 min. The primary PUBEC revealed higher N-acetylation rates (2.5-fold for PABA, 5-fold for PPD) compared to the 5637 cell line, based on both PABA conversion to its acetylated metabolite and formation of mono- and diacetylated PPD. The urothelial cell systems may thus be useful as a tool for further studies on the N-acetylation of aromatic amines via NAT1. PMID:22994574

  7. Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Achanzar, William E. Moyer, Carolyn F.; Marthaler, Laura T.; Gullo, Russell; Chen, Shen-Jue; French, Michele H.; Watson, Linda M.; Rhodes, James W.; Kozlosky, John C.; White, Melvin R.; Foster, William R.; Burgun, James J.; Car, Bruce D.; Cosma, Gregory N.; Dominick, Mark A.

    2007-09-15

    We previously reported prevention of urolithiasis and associated rat urinary bladder tumors by urine acidification (via diet acidification) in male rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}/{gamma} agonist muraglitazar. Because urine acidification could potentially alter PPAR signaling and/or cellular proliferation in urothelium, we evaluated urothelial cell PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{delta}, PPAR{gamma}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, PPAR signaling, and urothelial cell proliferation in rats fed either a normal or an acidified diet for 5, 18, or 33 days. A subset of rats in the 18-day study also received 63 mg/kg of the PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone daily for the final 3 days to directly assess the effects of diet acidification on responsiveness to PPAR{gamma} agonism. Urothelial cell PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} expression and signaling were evaluated in the 18- and 33-day studies by immunohistochemical assessment of PPAR protein (33-day study only) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurement of PPAR-regulated gene expression. In the 5-day study, EGFR expression and phosphorylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and egfr and akt2 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Diet acidification did not alter PPAR{alpha}, {delta}, or {gamma} mRNA or protein expression, PPAR{alpha}- or {gamma}-regulated gene expression, total or phosphorylated EGFR protein, egfr or akt2 gene expression, or proliferation in urothelium. Moreover, diet acidification had no effect on pioglitazone-induced changes in urothelial PPAR{gamma}-regulated gene expression. These results support the contention that urine acidification does not prevent PPAR{gamma} agonist-induced bladder tumors by altering PPAR{alpha}, {gamma}, or EGFR expression or PPAR signaling in rat bladder urothelium.

  8. Inverse p16 and p63 expression in small cell carcinoma and high-grade urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Cohen, Paul J; Pei Hui; Parkash, Vinita

    2010-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the urinary bladder is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm. The diagnosis is usually made on morphologic grounds, with the help of immunohistochemistry to document neuroendocrine differentiation. However, neuroendocrine markers generally have low sensitivity, ranging between 30-70%. Recent studies have reported p16 over-expression in SmCC of the lung, suggesting that p16 immunohistochemistry may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder SmCC. This is the first study to analyze the usefulness of p16 in the distinction of small cell and high grade urothelial cell carcinoma (HG-UCC). Fourteen cases of SmCCs and sixteen cases of HG-UCC of the bladder were stained with p16, p63, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), chromogranin (Chr), synaptophysin (Syn), and CD56. P16 expression was significantly higher in SmCCs (92.8%) when compared to HG-UCCs (43.7%). P63 and CK20, on the other hand, were positive in the majority of HG-UCCs (81.3% and 50%, respectively), while only 14.3% of SmCCs showed focal immunoreactivity with CK20. The sensitivity of the traditional neuroendocrine markers was low, ranging between 28.6% (Chr) and 71.4% (CD56) in SmCCs. P16 positivity in the absence of p63 and CK20 is highly characteristic of SmCC, while p63 and CK20 positivity with or without p16 expression is typical of HG-UCC. PMID:20164052

  9. Changes in Bladder Wall Thickness and Detrusor Wall Thickness After Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Enlargement in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hakmin; Choo, Minsoo; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative changes in bladder wall thickness and detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Fifty-one men who were treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms with transurethral prostatectomy were prospectively analyzed from May 2012 to July 2013. Prostate size, detrusor wall thickness, and bladder wall thickness were assessed by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography perioperatively. All postoperative evaluations were performed 1 month after the surgery. Results The patients' mean age was 69.0 years, the mean prostate-specific antigen concentration was 8.1 ng/mL, and the mean prostate volume was 63.2 mL. The mean bladder wall thickness was 5.1 mm (standard deviation [SD], ±1.6), 5.1 mm (SD, ±1.6), and 5.0 mm (SD, ±1.4) preoperatively and 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.5), 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.3), and 4.6 mm (SD, ±1.2) postoperatively in the anterior wall, dome, and trigone, respectively (p=0.178, p=0.086, and p=0.339, respectively). The mean detrusor wall thickness was 0.9 mm (SD, ±0.4) preoperatively and 0.7 mm (SD, ±0.3) postoperatively (p=0.001). A subgroup analysis stratifying patients into a large prostate group (weight, ≥45 g) and a high Abrams-Griffiths number group (>30) showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness (p=0.002, p=0.018). Conclusions There was a decrease in detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. The large prostate group and the high Abrams-Griffiths number group showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness after surgery. PMID:24466397

  10. Impairment of ATP hydrolysis decreases adenosine A1 receptor tonus favoring cholinergic nerve hyperactivity in the obstructed human urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ramos, M; Silva, I; Faria, M; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Correia, J; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether reduced adenosine formation linked to deficits in extracellular ATP hydrolysis by NTPDases contributes to detrusor neuromodulatory changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The kinetics of ATP catabolism and adenosine formation as well as the role of P1 receptor agonists on muscle tension and nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release were evaluated in mucosal-denuded detrusor strips from BPH patients (n = 31) and control organ donors (n = 23). The neurogenic release of ATP and [(3)H]ACh was higher (P < 0.05) in detrusor strips from BPH patients. The extracellular hydrolysis of ATP and, subsequent, adenosine formation was slower (t (1/2) 73 vs. 36 min, P < 0.05) in BPH detrusor strips. The A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of evoked [(3)H]ACh release by adenosine (100 μM), NECA (1 μM), and R-PIA (0.3 μM) was enhanced in BPH bladders. Relaxation of detrusor contractions induced by acetylcholine required 30-fold higher concentrations of adenosine. Despite VAChT-positive cholinergic nerves exhibiting higher A(1) immunoreactivity in BPH bladders, the endogenous adenosine tonus revealed by adenosine deaminase is missing. Restoration of A1 inhibition was achieved by favoring (1) ATP hydrolysis with apyrase (2 U mL(-1)) or (2) extracellular adenosine accumulation with dipyridamole or EHNA, as these drugs inhibit adenosine uptake and deamination, respectively. In conclusion, reduced ATP hydrolysis leads to deficient adenosine formation and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of cholinergic nerve activity in the obstructed human bladder. Thus, we propose that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous adenosine levels and/or A(1) receptor activation might be useful to control bladder overactivity in BPH patients. PMID:26521170

  11. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and cholinergic nerves (ChAT) was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor. To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. Results In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment) reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation) caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSC) in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a key modulator of

  12. Urinary volatile molecules vary in males of the 2 European subspecies of the house mouse and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, C; Redaelli, M; Orsetti, A; Perriat-Sanguinet, M; Zagotto, G; Ganem, G

    2010-10-01

    Mice recognize other mice by identifying chemicals that confer a molecular signature to urinary marks. Such molecules may be involved in species recognition, and previous behavioral studies have related divergence of sexual preference between 2 subspecies of the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus) to urinary odors. To characterize the differences between odors of males of the 2 subspecies and their first-generation offspring, the urinary volatile molecules were examined via gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Seven molecules were present in the samples from mice of at least one group. Their quantity varied among groups: M. m. domesticus showed a quantitatively richer panel of odorants in their urine when compared with M. m. musculus. The hybrids showed a more complex picture that was not directly related to one or the other parental subspecies. These quantitative differences may contribute to the specificity of the odorant bouquet of the 2 subspecies. PMID:20530376

  13. Overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Karen M.; Drake, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is highly prevalent, and increasingly so with aging. It is characterized by the presence of urinary urgency, and can be associated with incontinence, increased voiding frequency, and nocturia. Assessment needs to exclude serious medical disorders that might present with similar symptoms, and a bladder diary is an invaluable part of understanding the presentation. Initial management is conservative, comprising education, bladder training, and advice on fluid intake. Drug therapy options include antimuscarinic medications and beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists. Persistent overactive bladder syndrome, despite initial therapy, requires a review of the patient’s understanding of conservative management and compliance, and adjustment of medications. For refractory cases, specialist review and urodynamic testing should be considered; this may identify detrusor overactivity or increased filling sensation, and needs to exclude additional factors, such as stress incontinence and voiding dysfunction. Botulinum neurotoxin-A bladder injections can be used in severe overactivity, provided the patient is able and willing to do intermittent self-catheterisation, which is necessary in about 5% of treated patients. Sacral nerve stimulation and tibial nerve stimulation are other approaches. Major reconstructive surgery, such as augmentation cystoplasty, is rarely undertaken in modern practice but remains a possibility in extreme cases. PMID:26918151

  14. Role of L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in muscarinic receptor-mediated facilitation of ACh and noradrenaline release in the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, G T; Zernova, G V; Tanowitz, M; de Groat, W C

    1997-01-01

    1. 3H-Noradrenaline (NA) and 14C-acetylcholine (ACh) released by electrical field stimulation were measured simultaneously in strips from the body of rat urinary bladder. 2. omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTX; 20-100 nM) suppressed the non-facilitated transmitter release evoked by intermittent stimulation (IS), whereas nifedipine (1 microM) did not affect release. 3. Continuous electrical stimulation (CS) facilitated NA and ACh release via an atropine-sensitive mechanism. omega-CgTX reduced the facilitated release of NA (44% depression) but did not affect ACh release. Nifedipine depressed ACh release (43%) but not NA release. Combined administration of nifedipine and omega-CgTX (20 nM) produced a greater suppression of NA and ACh release (86 and 91%, respectively). 4. Maximal muscarinic facilitation of NA (5-fold) and ACh (17-fold) release occurred following administration of eserine, an anticholinesterase agent. Release of both NA and ACh was depressed by nifedipine (70 and 83%, respectively) but not by omega-CgTX. Combined application of omega-CgTX and nifedipine elicited a further depression of NA (95%) but not ACh release. 5. When NA and ACh release was facilitated with phorbol dibutyrate (0.5 microM), nifedipine inhibited ACh (67%) but not NA release, whereas omega-CgTX inhibited NA (73%) but not ACh release. Combined administration of both Ca2+ channel blockers did not elicit greater inhibition. 6. Bay K 8644, the L-type Ca2+ channel activator, increased ACh release in a dose-dependent manner (up to 5-fold) but did not significantly change NA release. 7. Both omega-CgTX (20-100 nM) and nifedipine (100 nM-1 microM) significantly decreased (50-80%) the neurally evoked contractions of the bladder strips. 8. It is concluded that L-type Ca2+ channels play a major role in muscarinic facilitation of NA and ACh release in the urinary bladder but are not essential for non-facilitated release. Other types of Ca2+ channels, including N-type, are involved to varying

  15. [Clinical effect of LM-001, prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor, on pain from urinary tract stone and vesical urgency after operation of the bladder or prostate].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E; Yoshioka, T; Matsuda, M; Sonoda, T; Yano, H; Ihara, Y; Kuroda, H; Kishimoto, T; Sakurai, T; Uchida, K

    1990-05-01

    Clinical effect of LM-001, a prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor developed from a drug delivery system, was evaluated in 54 patients with pain from urinary tract stones (stone pain) and 32 with vesical urgency after an operation on bladder or prostate. LM-001, felbinac ethyl incorporated in lipid microsphere, wes intravenously administered at the onset of stone pain or vesical urgency. Of 54 with stones and 32 with urgency, 53 and 29 were eligible for response, respectively. The symptoms improved or disappeared in some cases just after the administration and in the majority of patients within 15 minutes, in 49 of 53 patients with stone pain. Further, the effectiveness lasted over 24 hours in 26 of the 49 responding to this agent. On one hand, improvement or disappearance of vesical urgency was recognized in 25 of 29 patients, and the effectiveness was observed shortly after injection in 16 and lasted over 24 hours in 13 cases. Toxicities of this drug were investigated in 54 patients with stone pain and 32 with urinary urgency. Side effects consisted of pain at the injection site in 4, a slight fall of blood pressure in 1, slight visual disturbance in 1, body heat sensation in 1, leukocytosis in 3 and elevation of alkaline phosphatase in 1. These symptoms were transient and disappeared without use of any agent. LM-001 is concluded to be a useful drug for controlling stone pain and vesical urgency since an immediate effect, long durability and high response rates were obtained without severe side PMID:2399865

  16. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of Urinary Bladder Occurring as a Second Primary Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sitthideatphaiboon, Piyada; Thanakit, Voranuch; Pukiat, Sulada; Panumatrassamee, Kamol; Opanuraks, Julin; Santi-Ngamkun, Apirak

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bladder alveolar soft part sarcoma in an 18-year-old Thai male patient who had been treated with testicular radiation and systemic chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with testicular relapse. He presented with recurrent dysuria and gross hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a 2-centimeter irregular sessile mass at the bladder base adjacent to left ureteral orifice. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was alveolar soft part sarcoma. Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed no evidence of metastasis. He was treated with partial cystectomy and left ureteral reimplantation with negative surgical margin. No evidence of recurrence was found during a 28-month follow-up period with surveillance cystoscopy and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen. PMID:27547480

  17. Expression of VEGF in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in an Iraqi population subjected to depleted uranium: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbasi, Dhafer S; Al-Janabi, As'ad A; Al-Toriahi, Kaswer M; Jabor, Thekra A; Yasseen, Akeel A

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression and the grade, size, and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the south of Iraq, which includes regions that have been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. The study also sought to evaluate whether there is any biomarker in the expression that could be correlated with the increased incidence of this type of cancer in the exposed areas. Samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 54 patients (41 males and 13 females) with TCC and from 32 patients with benign bladder lesions (cystitis) used as controls were included in this study. The avidin-biotin complex method was used for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. VEGF immunoexpression was positive in 77.77% of TCC but was not found in benign bladder lesions (cystitis) (P<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade, stage, and recurrence of TCC but the findings were not statistically significant (P>0.05). These findings support the role of VEGF in the carcinogenesis of TCC regarding evolution, behavior, and aggressiveness. Hence, VEGF could be considered as a poor prognostic parameter in bladder cancer. No positive correlation between immunohistochemical expression and the high incidence of TCC was detected (R=<0.3). The study further concludes that immunohistochemical expression of the VEGF gene in TCC bladder cancer does not differ from similar cancers found in other parts of the world where there has been no known exposure to depleted uranium. PMID:19151604

  18. Genome-Wide Mapping of Cystitis Due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli in Mice Identifies a Unique Bladder Transcriptome That Signifies Pathogen-Specific Antimicrobial Defense against Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee K.; Carey, Alison J.; Cui, Xiangqin; Webb, Richard I.; Ipe, Deepak; Crowley, Michael; Cripps, Allan W.; Benjamin, William H.; Ulett, Kimberly B.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The most common causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) are Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli; however, Gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), also cause UTI. In GBS infection, UTI progresses to cystitis once the bacteria colonize the bladder, but the host responses triggered in the bladder immediately following infection are largely unknown. Here, we used genome-wide expression profiling to map the bladder transcriptome of GBS UTI in mice infected transurethrally with uropathogenic GBS that was cultured from a 35-year-old women with cystitis. RNA from bladders was applied to Affymetrix Gene-1.0ST microarrays; quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze selected gene responses identified in array data sets. A surprisingly small significant-gene list of 172 genes was identified at 24 h; this compared to 2,507 genes identified in a side-by-side comparison with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). No genes exhibited significantly altered expression at 2 h in GBS-infected mice according to arrays despite high bladder bacterial loads at this early time point. The absence of a marked early host response to GBS juxtaposed with broad-based bladder responses activated by UPEC at 2 h. Bioinformatics analyses, including integrative system-level network mapping, revealed multiple activated biological pathways in the GBS bladder transcriptome that regulate leukocyte activation, inflammation, apoptosis, and cytokine-chemokine biosynthesis. These findings define a novel, minimalistic type of bladder host response triggered by GBS UTI, which comprises collective antimicrobial pathways that differ dramatically from those activated by UPEC. Overall, this study emphasizes the unique nature of bladder immune activation mechanisms triggered by distinct uropathogens. PMID:22733575

  19. Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Berrondo, Claudia; Flax, Jonathan; Kucherov, Victor; Siebert, Aisha; Osinski, Thomas; Rosenberg, Alex; Fucile, Christopher; Richheimer, Samuel; Beckham, Carla J

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26800519

  20. Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Berrondo, Claudia; Flax, Jonathan; Kucherov, Victor; Siebert, Aisha; Osinski, Thomas; Rosenberg, Alex; Fucile, Christopher; Richheimer, Samuel; Beckham, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26800519

  1. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  2. Combined abdominal and vaginal approach for bladder neck closure and permanent suprapubic tube: urinary diversion in the neurologically impaired woman.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Jacobs, J A; Wein, A J

    1994-12-01

    Chronic indwelling Foley catheter placement in the neurologically impaired patient can lead to pressure necrosis of the urethra with incontinence. We report on 2 series of patients who underwent bladder neck closure and insertion of a suprapubic catheter for this problem. Our initial group includes 4 patients who underwent 5 transvaginal procedures, of which 2 (40%) were successful. Subsequently, we modified our approach, and used a combined abdominal and transvaginal repair, which was successful in 10 consecutive patients with a followup of 6 to 40 months (mean 15.6). PMID:7966679

  3. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  4. Analysis of 4-aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human urinary bladder and lung by alkaline hydrolysis and negative ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, D; Lay, J O; Bryant, M S; Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Bartsch, H; Lang, N P; Kadlubar, F F

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of carcinogen-DNA adducts has been regarded as a useful means of assessing human exposure to chemical carcinogens. We have established a method for quantitation of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP)-DNA adducts by alkaline hydrolysis and gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). Aliquots of DNA (typically 100 micrograms/ml) were spiked with an internal standard, d9-4-ABP, and were hydrolyzed in 0.05 N NaOH at 130 degrees C overnight. The liberated 4-ABP was extracted with hexane and derivatized using pentafluoropropionic anhydride in trimethylamine for 30 min at room temperature prior to GC-NICI-MS. With in vitro [3H]N-hydroxy-4-ABP modified DNA standards, we observed 59 +/- 7% (n = 9) recovery of the 4-ABP and a linear correlation between hydrolyzed 4-ABP and the adduct levels ranging from about 1 in 10(8) to 1 in 10(4) nucleotides (r = 0.999, n = 9). The method was further validated by comparison of the results with that obtained by the 32P-postlabeling method. There was excellent agreement (r = 0.994, p < 0.001) between the two methods for quantitation of the adduct in eight samples of Salmonella typhimurium DNA treated with 4-ABP and rat liver S9, although the 32P-postlabeling method gave slightly higher values. The DNA adducts in 11 human lung and 8 urinary bladder mucosa specimens were then determined by our GC-NICI-MS method. The adduct levels were found to be < 0.32 to 49.5 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides in the lungs and < 0.32 to 3.94 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides in the bladder samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:7889831

  5. Nested quantitative PCR approach for urinary cell-free EZH2 mRNA and its potential clinical application in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Tong; Li, Peilong; Du, Lutao; Yang, Yongmei; Wang, Lili; Wang, Chuanxin

    2016-10-15

    EZH2 is overexpressed in bladder cancer (BC) and plays important roles in tumor development and progression. Recent studies show cell free (cf) RNAs released from cancer cells can reflect tissues changes and are stable and detectable in urine. Although conventional quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is highly sensitive, low abundances of urinary cf-RNAs usually result in false-negatives. Thus, this study develops a nested qPCR (nqPCR) approach to quantify cf-EZH2 mRNA in urine and further assess its clinical significance for BC. Forty urine samples were first selected to evaluate feasibility of nqPCR. Then, levels of urinary cf-EZH2 mRNA were detected using developed method in an independent cohort of subjects with 91 healthy, 81 cystitis, 169 nonmuscle invasive BC (NMIBC) and 103 muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). In cf-EZH2 mRNA detection, nqPCR method was significantly associated with qPCR, but it could detect more urine samples and increase detection limit three orders of magnitude. Based on nqPCR method, cf-EZH2 mRNA levels have been found to be increased in urine of NMIBC and MIBC patients (p < 0.001). Compared with cytology, cf-EZH2 mRNA showed higher diagnostic ability for MIBC (p < 0.001) while not for NMIBC (p > 0.05). Moreover, it also could distinguish MIBC from NMIBC, with AUC of 0.787. For MIBC patients, high expression of cf-EZH2 mRNA associated with advanced stage and was an independent predictor of reduced disease free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, detection of cf-EZH2 mRNA in urine by nqPCR is a sensitive and noninvasive approach and may be used for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of MIBC. PMID:27300769

  6. Early and late changes in the normal mouse bladder reservoir function due to irradiation and cis-DDP.

    PubMed Central

    Lundbeck, F.; Overgaard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Early and late changes in the reservoir function of the mouse bladder were investigated after radiation alone or a combination of radiation and cisplatinum (cis-DDP). Bladder function was investigated by repeated cystometries. Treatments consisted of either single fraction radiation (5-10-15-25-30 Gy) or 20 Gy in combination with cis-DDP (6 mg kg-1; i.p.) administered at various time intervals from 14 days before until 14 days after radiation. At two selected time intervals (15 min and 4 h before) radiation was given at different dose levels (5-10-15-20 Gy). Within 30 days after irradiation a dose-dependent early response was noticed both in the radiation alone group and the group where cis-DDP was administered 15 min before radiation. The dose-response curve showed a slight but non-significant shift to the left in the combined treatment group (dose effect factor (DEF) = 1.18). Investigation of the early change in bladder reservoir function in the animals treated with 20 Gy alone or a combination of 20 Gy plus cis-DDP at various intervals in relation to irradiation demonstrated a significant increase in response when cis-DDP was administered 24 h and 15 min before and 4 h, 72 h and 336 h after 20 Gy (P less than 0.05). The reversible nature of the early damage was demonstrated. Late response was irreversible and significantly increased in most groups were cis-DDP was administered from 168 h before until 72 h after compared to radiation alone. Comparing groups treated with radiation alone with groups where cis-DDP was administered 15 min and 4 h before radiation revealed DEF values up to 1.45 (P less than 0.05), reflecting the significantly larger response in combined treatment groups. Survival was significantly decreased in all combined treatment groups compared to groups treated with radiation only and likewise survival was decreased in the group treated by cis-DDP alone compared to control (no treatment at all). PMID:1637684

  7. The cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 transactivates epithelial membrane protein 2, a potential tumor suppressor in the urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Feng; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Wu, Wen-Ren; Liao, Yu-Jing; Chen, Lih-Ren; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chow, Nan-Haw; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2015-04-20

    In this study, we report that EMP2 plays a tumor suppressor role by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, suppressing cell viability, proliferation, colony formation/anchorage-independent cell growth via regulation of G2/M checkpoints in distinct urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC)-derived cell lines. Genistein treatment or exogenous expression of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) gene in different UBUC-derived cell lines induced EMP2 transcription and subsequent translation. Mutagenesis on either or both cAMP-responsive element(s) dramatically decreased the EMP2 promoter activity with, without genistein treatment or exogenous CREB1 expression, respectively. Significantly correlation between the EMP2 immunointensity and primary tumor, nodal status, histological grade, vascular invasion and mitotic activity was identified. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that low EMP2 immunoexpression is an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-specific survival. Genistein treatments, knockdown of EMP2 gene and double knockdown of CREB1 and EMP2 genes significantly inhibited tumor growth and notably downregulated CREB1 and EMP2 protein levels in the mice xenograft models. Therefore, genistein induced CREB1 transcription, translation and upregulated pCREB1(S133) protein level. Afterward, pCREB1(S133) transactivated the tumor suppressor gene, EMP2, in vitro and in vivo. Our study identified a novel transcriptional target, which plays a tumor suppressor role, of CREB1. PMID:25940704

  8. The cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 transactivates epithelial membrane protein 2, a potential tumor suppressor in the urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Ren; Liao, Yu-Jing; Chen, Lih-Ren; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chow, Nan-Haw; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report that EMP2 plays a tumor suppressor role by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, suppressing cell viability, proliferation, colony formation/anchorage-independent cell growth via regulation of G2/M checkpoints in distinct urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC)-derived cell lines. Genistein treatment or exogenous expression of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) gene in different UBUC-derived cell lines induced EMP2 transcription and subsequent translation. Mutagenesis on either or both cAMP-responsive element(s) dramatically decreased the EMP2 promoter activity with, without genistein treatment or exogenous CREB1 expression, respectively. Significantly correlation between the EMP2 immunointensity and primary tumor, nodal status, histological grade, vascular invasion and mitotic activity was identified. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that low EMP2 immunoexpression is an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-specific survival. Genistein treatments, knockdown of EMP2 gene and double knockdown of CREB1 and EMP2 genes significantly inhibited tumor growth and notably downregulated CREB1 and EMP2 protein levels in the mice xenograft models. Therefore, genistein induced CREB1 transcription, translation and upregulated pCREB1(S133) protein level. Afterward, pCREB1(S133) transactivated the tumor suppressor gene, EMP2, in vitro and in vivo. Our study identified a novel transcriptional target, which plays a tumor suppressor role, of CREB1. PMID:25940704

  9. Optical detection of human urinary bladder carcinoma utilising tissue autoflurescence and protoporphyrin IX-induced fluorescence following low dose ALA instillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokahr, Ingrid; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Baert, Luc; Wang-Nordman, Ingrid; Svanberg, Katarina

    1995-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectra were recorded in patients undergoing urinary bladder cystoscopy. The measurements were performed in vivo and the spectra were collected from normal and diseased tissue. The patients were divided into two groups. An instillation of a 1% delta-amino-levulinic acid (ALA) solution was performed 2 - 4 hours prior to the investigation of one group of patients. A second group of patients was investigated without any tumor marking substance. The fluorescence was detected following laser excitation at 405 and 337 nm. Fluorescence emission related to ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was detected in the ALA group for 405 nm excitation. The data were evaluated at the PpIX emission peak at 635 nm and at 490 nm, which approximately corresponds to the peak of the tissue autofluorescence. The data obtained with 337 nm excitation were evaluated at 400 and 460 nm as well as at 390 and 431 nm. The ratios of the respective wavelength pairs were formed in order to investigate the demarcation between tumor and normal tissue. The tumor demarcation results were better and more consistent utilizing the autofluorescence signal following excitation at 337 nm than the PpIX-related signal excited at 405 nm.

  10. Use of Intravesicular Amikacin Irrigations for the Treatment and Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in a Patient with Spina Bifida and Neurogenic Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Donna; Morgan, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of intravesicular amikacin irrigations to treat and prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a pediatric patient with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder. A 15 year old Hispanic female was admitted for a UTI caused by Enterobacter cloacae and multiple-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 7 day course of daily intravenous amikacin and ceftazidime was initiated along with twice daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations (15 mg/30 mL) with a dwell time of 2 hours. The patient improved and was discharged on prophylactic Bactrim SS (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) 1 tablet daily and intravesicular amikacin irrigations (15 mg/30 mL) once every other day. Approximately 2 months after discharge, the patient developed another UTI from multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and was treated with a 14 day course of daily intravenous ciprofloxacin accompanied by daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations. Adjunctive therapy with either once daily or twice daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations successfully treated the patient's UTI. However, prophylactic treatment with intravesicular amikacin failed to prevent future UTIs in this patient. PMID:22477833

  11. Improved diagnosis and therapy of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder by 5-aminolevulinic-acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence: a prospective study in 100 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Ruecker, Frank

    2001-05-01

    The prognosis of superficial bladder cancer is strongly related to a high recurrence rate and the presence of concomitant plane tumor lesions such as severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. They are frequently overlooked on white light cystoscopy. Furthermore, the traditional transurethral tumor resection of superficial bladder tumor is frequently incomplete. This prospective study aimed to evaluate whether or not 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence cystoscopy could increase the detection of superficial bladder tumors and/or plane carcinoma in situ invisible on white light cystoscopy. 100 patients with superficial TCC of the urinary bladder underwent cystoscopy under white light and under blue fluorescence light. 2 hours (1-4 hours) prior to cystoscopy 50 ml 3 percent 5-ALA-solution were intravesically instilled into the empty bladder. All lesions visible on white light cystoscopy were compared with fluorescence findings and, vice versa, all fluorescence findings were compared with white light cystoscopy findings. All lesions visible under white light, and all lesions only visible under 5-ALA induced fluorescence were resected/biopsied and histologically examined.

  12. Further characterization of the muscle layers and lamina propria of the urinary bladder by systematic histologic mapping: implications for pathologic staging of invasive urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Ro, Jae Y; Wojcik, Eva M; Venkataraman, Girish; Datta, Milton W; Amin, Mahul B

    2007-09-01

    The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscularis propria (MP) are important landmarks for pathologic tumor (pT) staging of urinary bladder cancer, which is the quintessential prognostic factor. In our routine practice, we have occasionally noted patterns of MM, which do not always conform to the originally described configuration of thin slender bundles arranged in a single layer of interrupted, dispersed, or continuous muscle. We evaluated the lamina propria (LP), MM, and MP characteristics in 35 urinary bladder resection specimens with systematic sampling from the dome, trigone, anterior, posterior, right, and left lateral walls. Among the subsites, the trigone had a relatively flatter surface and attenuated LP depth (0.46 to 1.58 mm), about half of the thickest region which was the dome (0.98 to 3.07 mm). The MM was typically in individual or small groups of slender and wavy fascicles or wispy fibers. MM also had focal to rarely extensive hyperplastic appearance (53%, most common in dome) with 2 recognizable patterns: (a) aggregates of hyperplastic MM with haphazard outlines (33%) distinct from that of MP, and (b) hyperplastic compact MM with parallel muscle fibers and regular outline arranged singly or in small groups (45%) that occasionally strongly resembled MP muscle but distinguishable from it on the basis of the location in the LP. By distribution, these muscle bundles were more typically dispersed or formed a discernable layer (41%) as discontinuous or infrequently near-continuous layer. The LP vascular plexus was present in every section most often in association with the MM muscle; however, variations in the distribution were observed. The MP most commonly had a relatively regular interface with the LP. A distinctive pattern was noted in the trigone where occasionally there was gradual diminution of size of the MP muscle bundles as they extended to almost a suburothelial location. In 22%, isolated or small groups of compact regular hyperplastic MM muscle

  13. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  14. Urinary metabolic profile predicts high-fat diet sensitivity in the C57Bl6/J mouse.

    PubMed

    Fedry, Juliette; Blais, Anne; Even, Patrick C; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To prevent the development of adiposity-associated metabolic diseases, early biomarkers are needed. Such markers could bring insight to understand the complexity of susceptibility to obesity. Urine and plasma metabolomics fingerprints have been successfully associated with metabolic dysfunctions. Fat resistance (FR) was found to be associated with higher urinary levels of acylglycines and leucine. However, no differences were observed before the diet switch. In this context, we aimed at characterizing metabolic signatures predictive of resistance or sensitivity to fat in the C57Bl6/J mouse model. Urinary metabolic profiles of FR (n=15) and fat sensitivity (FS) mice (n=14) were performed on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary and plasma metabolic profiles were first collected at baseline (during low-fat diet), then after 10weeks of high-fat (HF) feeding. Mice were sorted a posteriori into FS and FR based on their final adiposity. After HF feeding for 10weeks, FS mice tended to have lower plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate than FR ones. Urinary metabolic profiles showed that baseline levels of octanoylglycine, leucine and valine were significantly lower in FS mice. Moreover, expressions in the adipose tissue of Baat and Glyat mRNA were lower in FS than in FR mice. In muscle, mRNA encoding CaD and UbE2b tended to be lower in FS mice than in FR mice (P=.056 and P=.071, respectively). The data show that lower levels of urinary octanoylglycine, leucine and valine are potential predictive biomarkers of FS and could be related to a lower stimulation in adipose acyl-coenzyme A conjugation to glycine and to muscle protein breakdown. PMID:27133427

  15. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in association with transforming growth factor-beta1 in urinary bladder lesions in humans after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Alina; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the molecular pathways of cell-cell communication in chronic inflammatory processes associated with long-term low-dose urinary bladder exposure to ionizing radiation in people without major disease living more than 19 years in radio-contaminated areas of Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Patterns of components of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were immunohistochemically evaluated in urinary bladder biopsies from 52 males with benign prostate hyperplasia and 8 females with chronic cystitis (group 1). For comparison, 25 males and 6 females living in non-contaminated areas of Ukraine were also investigated (group 2). Fourteen patients with primary urothelial carcinomas, which were operated on before the Chernobyl accident, were included as a carcinoma group. Chronic proliferative atypical cystitis ('Chernobyl cystitis') was observed in group 1 patients. Foci of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were found in 51 (85%) and 34 (57%) of the 60 cases, respectively. Chronic cystitis with areas of dysplasia was detected in only 4 (13%) cases of 31 group 2 patients. Statistically significant differences in immunohistochemical scores for TGF-beta1 in the urothelium and lamina propria, iNOS in the urothelium and both beta-catenin and E-cadherin in the cytoplasm were observed between groups 1 and 2 with marked expression in group 1. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 overexpression and alteration in E-cadherin/beta-catenin complexes in bladder urothelium might play a crucial role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis in humans exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation. PMID:16367920

  16. Bladder leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jun; Lai, Hai-ping; Lin, Shao-kun; Zhang, Qing-quan; Shao, Chu-xiao; Jin, Lie; Lei, Wen-hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare tumor arising from the submucosa. Most patients with bladder leiomyoma may present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. However, there are a few cases of bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. We herein report an unusual case of coexisting bladder leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. Case presentation: A 44-year-old Asian female presented to urologist and complained that she had experienced dyspareunia over the preceding several months. A pelvic ultrasonography revealed a mass lesion located in the trigone of urinary bladder. The mass lesion was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT scan also revealed a lobulated and enlarged uterus consistent with uterine leiomyoma. Then, the biopsies were then taken with a transurethral resection (TUR) loop and these biopsies showed a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in a connective tissue stroma suggestive of bladder leiomyoma. An open local excision of bladder leiomyoma and hysteromyomectomy were performed successfully. Histological examination confirmed bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma. Conclusion: This case highlights a rare presentation of bladder leiomyoma, dyspareunia, as the chief symptom in a patient who had coexisting uterine leiomyoma. Bladder leiomyomas coexisting with uterine leiomyomas are rare and can present with a wide spectrum of complaints including without symptoms, irritative symptoms, obstructive symptoms, or even dyspareunia. PMID:27428187

  17. The conditioned place preference test for assessing welfare consequences and potential refinements in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Roughan, John V; Coulter, Claire A; Flecknell, Paul A; Thomas, Huw D; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain) before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models. PMID:25100208

  18. DIRECTED DIFFERENTIATION OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS INTO BLADDER TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Oottamasathien, Siam; Wang, YongQing; Williams, Karin; Franco, Omar E.; Wills, Marcia L.; Thomas, John C.; Saba, Katrina; Sharif-Afshar, Ali-Reza; Makari, John H.; Bhowmick, Neil A; DeMarco, Romano T.; Hipkens, Susan; Magnuson, Mark; Brock, John W.; Hayward, Simon W.; Pope, John C.; Matusik, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Manipulatable models of bladder development which interrogate specific pathways are badly needed. Such models will allow a systematic investigation of the multitude of pathologies which result from developmental defects of the urinary bladder. In the present communication, we describe a model in which mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are directed to differentiate to form bladder tissue by specific interactions with fetal bladder mesenchyme. This model allows us to visualize the various stages in the differentiation of urothelium from ES cells, including the commitment to an endodermal cell lineage, with the temporal profile characterized by examining the induction of specific endodermal transcription factors (Foxa1 and Foxa2). In addition, final functional urothelial differentiation was characterized by examining uroplakin expression. It is well established that ES cells will spontaneously develop teratomas when grown within immunocompromised mouse hosts. We determined the specific mesenchymal to ES cell ratios necessary to dictate organ-specific differentiation while completely suppressing teratomatous growth. Embryonic mesenchyme is well established as an inductive tissue which dictates organ-specific programming of epithelial tissues. The present study demonstrates that embryonic bladder mesenchyme can also steer ES cells towards developing specific endodermal derived urothelium. These approaches allow us to capture specific stages of stem cell differentiation and to better define stem cell hierarchies. PMID:17289017

  19. Endoscopic Management of Bladder Diverticula.

    PubMed

    Pham, Khanh N; Jeldres, Claudio; Hefty, Thomas; Corman, John M

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary retention had a very large diverticulum on the posterior wall of the bladder. The patient was managed with transurethral resection of the prostate and endoscopic fulguration of the bladder diverticulum mucosa using the Orandi technique. There was near-complete resolution of the bladder diverticulum following endoscopic management, obviating the need for bladder diverticulectomy. The patient now empties his bladder, with a postvoid residual < 50 mL and the absence of urinary tract infection after 6-month follow-up. We report the successful treatment of a large bladder diverticulum with endoscopic fulguration to near-complete resolution. This minimally invasive technique is a useful alternative in patients unfit for a more extensive surgical approach. PMID:27601971

  20. Endoscopic Management of Bladder Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Khanh N.; Jeldres, Claudio; Hefty, Thomas; Corman, John M.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary retention had a very large diverticulum on the posterior wall of the bladder. The patient was managed with transurethral resection of the prostate and endoscopic fulguration of the bladder diverticulum mucosa using the Orandi technique. There was near-complete resolution of the bladder diverticulum following endoscopic management, obviating the need for bladder diverticulectomy. The patient now empties his bladder, with a postvoid residual < 50 mL and the absence of urinary tract infection after 6-month follow-up. We report the successful treatment of a large bladder diverticulum with endoscopic fulguration to near-complete resolution. This minimally invasive technique is a useful alternative in patients unfit for a more extensive surgical approach. PMID:27601971

  1. Productive Infection of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 in the Placenta of Pregnant Cows Affected with Urinary Bladder Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Sante; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Corteggio, Annunziata; Tatè, Rosarita; Cermola, Michele; Paciello, Orlando; Roperto, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo. PMID:22479413

  2. Systemic transduction of p16INK4A antitumor peptide inhibits the growth of MBT-2 mouse bladder tumor cell line grafts.

    PubMed

    Shimazui, Toru; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Kojima, Takahiro; Inai, Hiromu; Ando, Satoshi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    p16(INK4a) (p16), a key molecule in bladder tumor development, inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and maintains the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in its active hypophosphorylated state. Following the finding that the p16 antitumor peptide dramatically inhibits the growth of aggressive leukemia/lymphoma through the restoration of p16 function using the Wr-T peptide transporter system, in this study, we developed a systemic therapy using mouse‑p16 peptide (m‑p16) in subcutaneous p16‑null mouse bladder tumors. In vitro analysis showed that the growth of p16‑null bladder tumor cells and the hyperphosphorylation of their pRbs were inhibited by p16 transduction in a concentration‑dependent manner. In an animal model, p16‑null MBT‑2 cells were injected subcutaneously into KSN/SKC nude mice. The systemic delivery of the m‑p16 peptide using Wr‑T by cardiac injection significantly inhibited the growth of solid MBT‑2 tumors compared with the control phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) injection. Histological examination by TUNEL staining revealed that apoptosis was increased and pRb phosphorylation was inhibited. Thus, the systemic peptide delivery of p16 restores the hypophosphorylation of pRb and may be a useful tool for the treatment of bladder tumors. PMID:23292502

  3. Social stress in mice induces voiding dysfunction and bladder wall remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy; Butler, Stephan; Sliwoski, Joanna; Valentino, Rita; Canning, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have anecdotally reported the occurrence of altered urinary voiding patterns in rodents exposed to social stress. A recent study characterized the urodynamic and central changes in a rat model of social defeat. Here, we describe a similar voiding phenotype induced in mice by social stress and in addition we describe potential molecular mechanisms underlying the resulting bladder wall remodeling. The mechanism leading to the altered voiding habits and underlying bladder phenotype may be relevant to the human syndrome of dysfunctional voiding which is thought to have a psychological component. To better characterize and investigate social stress-induced bladder wall hypertrophy, FVB mice (6 wk old) were randomized to either social stress or control manipulation. The stress involved repeated cycles of a 1-h direct exposure to a larger aggressive C57Bl6 breeder mouse followed by a 23-h period of barrier separation over 4 wk. Social stress resulted in altered urinary voiding patterns suggestive of urinary retention and increased bladder mass. In vivo cystometry revealed an increased volume at micturition with no change in the voiding pressure. Examination of these bladders revealed increased nuclear expression of the transcription factors MEF-2 and NFAT, as well as increased expression of the myosin heavy chain B isoform mRNA. BrdU uptake was increased within the urothelium and lamina propria layers in the social stress group. We conclude that social stress induces urinary retention that ultimately leads to shifts in transcription factors, alterations in myosin heavy chain isoform expression, and increases in DNA synthesis that mediate bladder wall remodeling. Social stress-induced bladder dysfunction in rodents may provide insight into the underlying mechanisms and potential treatment of dysfunctional voiding in humans. PMID:19587139

  4. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  5. EGFR-expression in primary urinary bladder cancer and corresponding metastases and the relation to HER2-expression. On the possibility to target these receptors with radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Jörgen; Wester, Kenneth; De La Torre, Manuel; Malmström, Per-Uno; Gårdmark, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or “naked” antibodies binding EGFR or HER2 for therapy of metastasized urinary bladder cancer and these methods are therefore not routinely used. Targeting radio-nuclides to the extracellular domain of the receptors is potentially a better possibility. Methods EGFR- and HER2-expression was analyzed for primary tumors and corresponding metastases from 72 patients using immunohistochemistry and the internationally recommended HercepTest. Intracellular mutations were not analyzed since only the receptors were considered as targets and intracellular abnormalities should have minor effect on radiation dose. Results EGFR was positive in 71% of the primary tumors and 69% of corresponding metastases. Local and distant metastases were EGFR-positive in 75% and 66% of the cases, respectively. The expression frequency of HER2 in related lesions was slightly higher (data from previous study). The EGFR-positive tumors expressed EGFR in metastases in 86% of the cases. The co-expression of EGFR and HER2 was 57% for tumors and 53% for metastases. Only 3% and 10% of the lesions were negative for both receptors in tumors and metastases, respectively. Thus, targeting these receptors with radionuclides might be applied for most patients. Conclusions At least one of the EGFR- or HER2-receptors was present in most cases and co-expressed in more than half the cases. It is therefore interesting to deliver radionuclides for whole-body receptor-analysis, dosimetry and therapy. This can hopefully compensate for resistance to other therapies and more patients can hopefully be treated with curative instead of palliative intention. PMID:25810701

  6. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  7. Bladder reconstruction: The past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    EL-TAJI, OMAR M.S.; KHATTAK, ALTAF Q.; HUSSAIN, SYED A.

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for urinary tract reconstruction following cystectomy. This procedure uses gastrointestinal segments for bladder augmentation, a technique that is often associated with significant complications. The substantial progression in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine over the previous two decades has resulted in the development of techniques that may lead to the construction of functional de novo urinary bladder substitutes. The present review identifies and discusses the complications associated with current treatment options post-cystectomy. The current techniques, achievements and perspectives of the use of biomaterials and stem cells in the field of urinary bladder reconstruction are also reviewed. PMID:26170968

  8. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tract Infection” What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, which includes the bladder (which stores the ...

  9. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  10. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic