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Sample records for movement ecology paradigm

  1. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.). PMID:19060196

  2. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  3. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space–time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

  4. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  5. Phenomenology as a paradigm of movement.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Wainwright, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Phenomenology is a well-founded qualitative methodology that is frequently used by nurse researchers and considered of value when addressing research questions in nursing practice and nurse education. However, at present, nurse researchers using phenomenology tend to divide phenomenological methodology into the descriptive and interpretive formats. The nursing literature suggests that there is a deep divide between researchers following the methodological underpinnings and basic precepts pertaining to these two camps. If we are to reach a clearer understanding of the theory underlying phenomenological methods it would be more helpful if we started to recognise that there are also important associations between transcendental and interpretive phenomenology. One such association is that a paradigm of movement exists that is not unique to transcendental and interpretive phenomenology but is common to them, as well as being inherent within a variety of fields of study. If we consider the universality of such imagery, looking to examples through parallel texts, we can obtain insights into phenomenology and its transposition into a workable scientific method that can be of use to the nurse researcher. PMID:16918790

  6. Ecological paradigms to understand the dynamics of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Roy, Sounak; Brown, Joel S; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-09-28

    The process by which prostate cancer cells non-randomly disseminate to the bone to form lethal metastases remains unknown. Metastasis is the ultimate consequence of the long-range dispersal of a cancer cell from the primary tumor to a distant secondary site. In order to metastasize, the actively emigrating cell must move. Movement ecology describes an individual's migration between habitats without the requirement of conscious decision-making. Specifically, this paradigm describes four interacting components that influence the dynamic process of metastasis: (1) the microenvironmental pressures exerted on the cancer cell, (2) how the individual cell reacts to these external pressures, (3) the phenotypic switch of a cell to gain the physical traits required for movement, and (4) the ability of the cancer cell to navigate to a specific site. A deeper understanding of each of these components will lead to the development of novel therapeutics targeted to interrupt previously unidentified steps of metastasis. PMID:26458994

  7. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  8. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  9. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. PMID:26979550

  10. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  11. Challenging the paradigms of deep-sea ecology.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Tyler, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent Earth's major ecological research frontier. Focusing on seafloor ecosystems, we demonstrate how new technologies underpin discoveries that challenge major ecological hypotheses and paradigms, illuminating new deep-sea geosphere-biosphere interactions. We now recognize greater habitat complexity, new ecological interactions and the importance of 'dark energy', and chemosynthetic production in fuelling biodiversity. We also acknowledge functional hotspots that contradict a food-poor, metabolically inactive, and minor component of global carbon cycles. Symbioses appear widespread, revealing novel adaptations. Populations show complex spatial structure and evolutionary histories. These new findings redefine deep-sea ecology and the role of Earth's largest biome in global biosphere functioning. Indeed, deep-sea exploration can open new perspectives in ecological research to help mitigate exploitation impacts. PMID:25001598

  12. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  13. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.

    PubMed

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-12-01

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement. PMID:19060194

  14. Trackable life: Data, sequence, and organism in movement ecology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade an increasing number of ecologists have begun to frame their work as a contribution to the emerging research field of movement ecology. This field's primary object of research is the movement track, which is usually operationalized as a series of discrete "steps and stops" that represent a portion of an animal's "lifetime track." Its practitioners understand their field as dependent on recent technical advances in tracking organisms and analyzing their movements. By making movement their primary object of research, rather than simply an expression of deeper biological phenomena, movement ecologists are able to generalize across the movement patterns of a wide variety of species and to draw on statistical techniques developed to model the movements of non-living things. Although it can trace its roots back to a long tradition of statistical models of movement, the field relies heavily on metaphors from genomics; in particular, movement tracks have been seen as similar to DNA sequences. Though this has helped movement ecology consolidate around a shared understanding of movement, the field may need to broaden its understanding of movement beyond the sequence if it is to realize its potential to address urgent concerns such as biodiversity loss. PMID:26948240

  15. Emerging Network-Based Tools in Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, David M P; Freeman, Robin

    2016-04-01

    New technologies have vastly increased the available data on animal movement and behaviour. Consequently, new methods deciphering the spatial and temporal interactions between individuals and their environments are vital. Network analyses offer a powerful suite of tools to disentangle the complexity within these dynamic systems, and we review these tools, their application, and how they have generated new ecological and behavioural insights. We suggest that network theory can be used to model and predict the influence of ecological and environmental parameters on animal movement, focusing on spatial and social connectivity, with fundamental implications for conservation. Refining how we construct and randomise spatial networks at different temporal scales will help to establish network theory as a prominent, hypothesis-generating tool in movement ecology. PMID:26879670

  16. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  17. Impulse processing: A dynamical systems model of incremental eye movements in the visual world paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kukona, Anuenue; Tabor, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The visual world paradigm presents listeners with a challenging problem: they must integrate two disparate signals, the spoken language and the visual context, in support of action (e.g., complex movements of the eyes across a scene). We present Impulse Processing, a dynamical systems approach to incremental eye movements in the visual world that suggests a framework for integrating language, vision, and action generally. Our approach assumes that impulses driven by the language and the visual context impinge minutely on a dynamical landscape of attractors corresponding to the potential eye-movement behaviors of the system. We test three unique predictions of our approach in an empirical study in the visual world paradigm, and describe an implementation in an artificial neural network. We discuss the Impulse Processing framework in relation to other models of the visual world paradigm. PMID:21609355

  18. Educational Perspectives in the Ecological Paradigm--Possibilities and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-O

    2007-01-01

    In principle, education depends upon the understanding of human beings. Ecological studies can give us opportunities to understand humans more clearly (or scientifically). This truth emphasizes the importance of ecological education. In ecology, a human being is a part of nature. This is because all living beings are members of ecological…

  19. From sedentary to active: Shifting the movement paradigm in workplaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhibha M; Mailey, Emily; Murray, Kate; Phillips, Siobhan M; Torres, Cam; King, Abby C

    2016-06-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and reduced physical activity are risk factors for morbidity and mortality. As adults spend a significant portion of their time at work where the default is to spend the majority of the day sitting, shifting workplace norms to decrease sedentary time and increase active time could have a public health impact. Workplaces offer a unique setting for multi-level interventions that can reach diverse populations. Traditional worksite wellness initiatives have produced equivocal results in terms of increasing physical activity. One reason for this may be the focus on corporate-fitness type programs and health education with little change in workplace culture. More innovative approaches combining theory-based worksite wellness components with behavioral economics approaches promoting incidental physical activity at the workplace to make activity the default may be necessary. This article discusses strategies to shift the workplace paradigm from being sedentary to more active using a range of approaches. PMID:27286083

  20. Movement-based embodied contemplative practices: definitions and paradigms.

    PubMed

    Schmalzl, Laura; Crane-Godreau, Mardi A; Payne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, cognitive neuroscience has witnessed a shift from predominantly disembodied and computational views of the mind, to more embodied and situated views of the mind. These postulate that mental functions cannot be fully understood without reference to the physical body and the environment in which they are experienced. Within the field of contemplative science, the directing of attention to bodily sensations has so far mainly been studied in the context of seated meditation and mindfulness practices. However, the cultivation of interoceptive, proprioceptive and kinesthetic awareness is also said to lie at the core of many movement-based contemplative practices such as Yoga, Qigong, and Tai Chi. In addition, it likely plays a key role in the efficacy of modern somatic therapeutic techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method and the Alexander Technique. In the current paper we examine how these practices are grounded in the concepts of embodiment, movement and contemplation, as we look at them primarily through the lens of an enactive approach to cognition. Throughout, we point to a series of challenges that arise when Western scientists study practices that are based on a non-dualistic view of mind and body. PMID:24782738

  1. Movement-based embodied contemplative practices: definitions and paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Schmalzl, Laura; Crane-Godreau, Mardi A.; Payne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, cognitive neuroscience has witnessed a shift from predominantly disembodied and computational views of the mind, to more embodied and situated views of the mind. These postulate that mental functions cannot be fully understood without reference to the physical body and the environment in which they are experienced. Within the field of contemplative science, the directing of attention to bodily sensations has so far mainly been studied in the context of seated meditation and mindfulness practices. However, the cultivation of interoceptive, proprioceptive and kinesthetic awareness is also said to lie at the core of many movement-based contemplative practices such as Yoga, Qigong, and Tai Chi. In addition, it likely plays a key role in the efficacy of modern somatic therapeutic techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method and the Alexander Technique. In the current paper we examine how these practices are grounded in the concepts of embodiment, movement and contemplation, as we look at them primarily through the lens of an enactive approach to cognition. Throughout, we point to a series of challenges that arise when Western scientists study practices that are based on a non-dualistic view of mind and body. PMID:24782738

  2. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, R.J., Jr.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  3. The portrayal of natural environment in the evolution of the ecological public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Forkink, Annet; Weiner, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualization of the natural environment in an evolving ecological public health paradigm. The natural environment has long been recognized as essential to supporting life, health, and wellbeing. Our understanding of the relationship between the natural environment and health has steadily evolved from one of an undynamic environment to a more sophisticated understanding of ecological interactions.  This evolution is reflected in a number of ecological public health models which demonstrate the many external and overlapping determinants of human health. Six models are presented here to demonstrate this evolution, each model reflecting an increasingly ecological appreciation for the fundamental role of the natural environment in supporting human health. We conclude that after decades of public health's acceptance of the ecological paradigm, we are only now beginning to assemble knowledge of sophisticated ecological interdependencies and apply this knowledge to the conceptualization and study of the relationship between the natural environment and the determinants of human health. PMID:24434596

  4. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  5. Language-Mediated Eye Movements in the Absence of a Visual World: The "Blank Screen Paradigm"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2004-01-01

    The "visual world paradigm" typically involves presenting participants with a visual scene and recording eye movements as they either hear an instruction to manipulate objects in the scene or as they listen to a description of what may happen to those objects. In this study, participants heard each target sentence only after the corresponding…

  6. Dyslexia: A Wider View. The Contribution of an Ecological Paradigm to Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Dyslexia issues such as its existence, definition, and medical versus educational construction have been framed by the scientific paradigm. Reframing using an ecological perspective allows assessment focused on whole-school approaches and sociocultural factors. It also enables the use of predictive research and a view of dyslexia as more than a…

  7. Factorial Structure of the New Ecological Paradigm Scale in Two French Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Renard, Elise; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test the factorial structure of the New Ecological Paradigm scale on a population of men and women residing in France. The tested model is a second-order factorial model. This factorial structure is evaluated on two separate samples to test the stability of the solution (a first sample of 253…

  8. The New Ecological Paradigm Revisited: Anchoring the NEP Scale in Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundmark, Carina

    2007-01-01

    The New Environmental or Ecological Paradigm (NEP) is widely acknowledged as a reliable multiple-item scale to capture environmental attitudes or beliefs. It has been used in statistical analyses for almost 30 years, primarily by psychologists, but also by political scientists, sociologists and geographers. The scale's theoretical foundation is,…

  9. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  10. The Biopsycho-ecological Paradigm: A Foundational Theory for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stineman, Margaret Grace; Streim, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    The current biomedical and psychosocial frameworks that form the conceptual basis of medicine today are insufficient to address the needs of the medically complex and environmentally challenged populations of patients often cared for by physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists. The expanded biopsycho-ecological model of health, illness, injury, and disability operating through mechanisms of Health Environmental Integration (HEI) encourages a more complete understanding of illness, injury, activity limitation, and participation restriction as arising at the interface between the person and the environment. HEI recognizes complex interacting multilevel functional hierarchies beginning at the cellular level and ending at the individual’s experience of the environment. Although the foci of illness and injury are within the body and mind, the physical and social environments contain elements that can cause or exacerbate disease and barriers that interact in ways that lead to injuries and disabilities. Furthermore, these environments hold the elements from which treating agents, facilitators, and social supports must be fashioned. The highly integrative biopsycho-ecological framework provides an expanded basis for understanding the objective causes and subjective meanings of disabilities. Disabilities are reduced through HEI by seeking to maximally integrate the body and mind (the self) with both the surrounding physical environment and other people in society. HEI offers mechanisms for interdisciplinary research, an expanded framework for education and empowerment, and a blueprint for optimizing day-to-day clinical care at both the individual patient and treatment population levels in the ever-changing scientific, political, and policy environments. PMID:21093839

  11. A paradigm analysis of ecological sustainability: The emerging polycentric climate change publics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taminiau, Job B.

    Climate change poses significant complications to the development model employed by modern societies. Using paradigm analysis, the dissertation explains why, after 21 years, policy failure haunts the field: a key impediment is the unquestioned assumption that policy must adhere to an economic optimality principle. This results in policy models which fail to uphold sustainability, justice, and equality due to an emphasis on economic growth, technology, and technical and bureaucratic expertise. Unable to build consensus among low- and high-carbon economies, and searching for what one economist has called an oxymoron -- "sustainable growth" (Daly, 1997) -- the policy process has foundered with its only international convention (the Kyoto Protocol) having lost relevance. In the midst of this policy failure, the dissertation offers and defends the premise that alternative strategies have emerged which signal the prospect of a paradigm shift to ecological sustainability -- a paradigm in which social change takes places through commons-based management and community authorship in the form of network governance and where sustainability serves as governor of growth -- something unavailable in an optimality-guided world. Especially, a strategy of polycentricity is discussed in detail in order to elucidate the potential for a paradigm shift. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of two innovative concepts -- the Sustainable Energy Utility and the Solar City -- that might fit the polycentricity strategy and bring forth transformative change. The dissertation finds considerable potential rests in these two concepts and argues the critical importance of further development of innovative approaches to implement the ecological sustainability paradigm.

  12. Beyond metacommunity paradigms: habitat configuration, life history, and movement shape an herbivore community on oak.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaozhi; Ovaskainen, Otso; Roslin, Tomas; Tack, Ayco J M

    2015-12-01

    Many empirical studies of metacommunities have focused on the classification of observational patterns into four contrasting paradigms characterized by different levels of movement and habitat heterogeneity. However, deeper insight into the underlying local and regional processes may be derived from a combination of long-term observational data and experimental studies. With the aim of exploring forces structuring the insect metacommunity on oak, we fit a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to data from observations and experiments. The fitted model reveals large variation in species-specific dispersal abilities and basic reproduction numbers, R0. The residuals from the model show only weak correlations among species, suggesting a lack of strong interspecific interactions. Simulations with model-derived parameter estimates indicate that habitat configuration and species attributes both contribute substantially to structuring insect communities. Overall, our findings demonstrate that community-level variation in movement and life history are key drivers of metacommunity dynamics. PMID:26909424

  13. China's transboundary waters: new paradigms for water and ecological security through applied ecology

    PubMed Central

    He, Daming; Wu, Ruidong; Feng, Yan; Li, Yungang; Ding, Chengzhi; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    China is Asia's most important upstream riparian country, sharing 110 rivers and lakes with 18 downstream countries. Consequently, China's management of transboundary water resources must consider both environmental and geopolitical risks. The major threats to and conflicts over international rivers in China revolve around biotic homogenisation due to the installation of transport links, water allocation, water pollution, alteration of natural flow patterns and disruption of fisheries due to the installation of hydropower dams, and droughts and floods exacerbated by climate change. Because these problems have an international component, they fall under China's Peaceful Rise strategy, mandating that transboundary conflicts be resolved amicably as part of the overarching goal of increasing regional economic growth with as little conflict as possible. Science-backed policy is more likely to result in long term, mutually agreeable solutions; the results of applied ecological research have already resulted in a number of mitigation measures, including setting operational thresholds to reduce the downstream impact of dams, designating protected areas along key river stretches where dams cannot be installed (one dam in a critical location has been cancelled), and the installation of terrestrial protected-area networks. Synthesis and applications. Applied ecology will continue to play an important role in the diagnosis and resolution of environmental threats to China's transboundary waters. More importantly, applied ecology can inform the development of a transboundary environmental compensation mechanism and regional consultative mechanisms that support informed, cooperative decision-making for China and its riparian neighbours. PMID:25558084

  14. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a paradigm of translational research in neurorehabilitation: Reviews and prospects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chien, Chung-Liang; Kashima, Haruo; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness about the importance of translation from basic scientific findings into practical application for efficiently improving human health, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of neurorehabilitation, however, the bench-to-bedside process continues to be developing, and thus most of the therapeutic interventions have encountered barriers during exploration of evidence-based effectiveness. Despite this immaturity, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIT), a well-evidenced treatment evolved from research in nonhuman primates, is suggested to be an ideal paradigm of translational research in the field of neurorehabilitation. This article reviews the evolvement of CIT with regards to its behavioral efficacy and neuroimaging evidence through the translation roadmap developed by the National Institutes of Health. We also discuss prospects for the application of combined interventions, such as stem cell therapy or pharmaceutical prescription, with appropriate screening of patients beforehand, as well as an efficient delivery mode after the treatment. To achieve such goals and consolidate evidenced-based neurorehabilitation, we provide a framework for applications into the translational research of other therapeutic interventions aside from CIT. PMID:21139805

  15. The Gaias (Earth Mothers) of the Ecological/Conservation Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Rosa M.; Biermann, Carol A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the contributions of women who have served as role models in the fields of ecology and conservation. Women discussed include Ellen Richards, Maria Merian, Jane Colden, Mary Chase, Emma Braun, Ann Morgan, Rachel Carson, Eugenie Clark, Sylvia Earle, Wangari Maathai, Dian Fossey, Birute Galdikas, and Ruth Patrick. Contains 26 references.…

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of a visual working memory task in an ecological momentary assessment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Neuropsychological performance has historically been measured in laboratory settings using standardized assessments. However, these methods may be inherently limited in generalizability. This concern may be mitigated with paradigms such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We evaluated the initial feasibility and acceptability of administering a visual working memory (VWM) task on handheld computers across 1 EMA study week among adolescents/young adults (N = 39). Participants also completed standardized laboratory neurocognitive measures to determine the extent to which EMA VWM performance mapped onto scores obtained in traditional testing environments. Compliance with the EMA protocol was high as participants responded to 87% of random prompts across the study week. As expected, EMA VWM performance was positively associated with laboratory measures of auditory and VWM, and these relationships persisted after adjusting for predicted intelligence. Further, discriminant validity tests showed that EMA VWM was not linked with laboratory scores of verbal abilities and processing speed. These data provide initial evidence on the convergent and discriminant validity of interpretations from this novel, ecologically valid neurocognitive approach. Future studies will aim to further establish the psychometric properties of this (and similar) tasks and investigate how momentary fluctuations in VWM correspond with contextual influences (e.g., substance use, mood) and clinical outcomes. PMID:25894710

  17. The Tragedy and Triumph of Minamata: A Paradigm for Understanding Ecological, Human-Environment and Culture-Technology Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allchin, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Contends that the example of mercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan can be used as a paradigm for teaching ecology and science-and-society issues. Discusses the history and science of the pollution and poisoning, and considers the social and cultural consequences of the incident, some aspects of causation and responsibility, and some aspects of…

  18. Multinomial-Regression Modeling of the Environmental Attitudes of Higher Education Students Based on the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Tim; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Shephard, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is increasingly interested in its impact on the sustainability attributes of its students, so we wanted to explore how our students' environmental concern changed during their higher education experiences. We used the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) with 505 students and developed and tested a multinomial…

  19. The ecology of nest movement in social insects.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Terrence P

    2012-01-01

    Social insect colonies are typically mobile entities, moving nests from one location to another throughout the life of a colony. The majority of social insect species-ants, bees, wasps, and termites-have likely adopted the habit of relocating nests periodically. The syndromes of nest relocation include legionary nomadism, unstable nesting, intrinsic nest relocation, and adventitious nest relocation. The emergence of nest movement is a functional response to a broad range of potential selective forces, including colony growth, competition, foraging efficiency, microclimate, nest deterioration, nest quality, parasitism, predation, and seasonality. Considering the great taxonomic and geographic distribution of nest movements, assumptions regarding the nesting biology of social insects should be reevaluated, including our understanding of population genetics, life-history evolution, and the role of competition in structuring communities. PMID:21910641

  20. Movement mysteries unveiled: spatial ecology of juvenile green sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.

    2013-01-01

    Locations of important foraging areas are not well defined for many marine species. Unraveling these mysteries is vital to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are threatened or endangered. Satellite-tracking is a tool that can reveal movement patterns at both broad and fine spatial scales, in all marine environments. This chapter presents records of the longest duration track of an individual juvenile green turtle (434 days) and highest number of tracking days in any juvenile green turtle study (5483 tracking days) published to date. In this chapter, we use spatial modeling techniques to describe movements and identify foraging areas for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) captured in a developmental habitat in south Texas, USA. Some green turtles established residency in the vicinity of their capture and release site, but most used a specific habitat feature (i.e., a jettied pass) to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and a nearby bay. Still others moved southward within the Gulf of Mexico into Mexican coastal waters, likely in response to decreasing water temperatures. These movements to waters off the coast of Mexico highlight the importance of international cooperation in restoration efforts undertaken on behalf of this imperiled species.

  1. The ecology of entrainment: Foundations of coordinated rhythmic movement

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Aktipis, C. Athena; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrainment has been studied in a variety of contexts including music perception, dance, verbal communication and motor coordination more generally. Here we seek to provide a unifying framework that incorporates the key aspects of entrainment as it has been studied in these varying domains. We propose that there are a number of types of entrainment that build upon pre-existing adaptations that allow organisms to perceive stimuli as rhythmic, to produce periodic stimuli, and to integrate the two using sensory feedback. We suggest that social entrainment is a special case of spatiotemporal coordination where the rhythmic signal originates from another individual. We use this framework to understand the function and evolutionary basis for coordinated rhythmic movement and to explore questions about the nature of entrainment in music and dance. The framework of entrainment presented here has a number of implications for the vocal learning hypothesis and other proposals for the evolution of coordinated rhythmic behavior across an array of species. PMID:21776183

  2. The importance of survey content: testing for the context dependency of the New Ecological Paradigm Scale.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Elizabeth F; Lew, Daniel K; Wallmo, Kristy

    2015-05-01

    Using a regression-based analysis of a survey of U.S. households, we demonstrate that both environmental concern, as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale, and facets of environmental concern, as measured by three NEP factors, are influenced by survey context. Survey respondents were presented with detailed information about two to four threatened and endangered marine species in the United States, including the Endangered Species Act listing status of the species and threats to the survival of the species. All else being equal, measures of environmental concern are influenced by both which species were included in the survey and by the concern expressed about these species. As such, measures of environmental concern are found to be context dependent since they are correlated with the species included in each survey. We also demonstrate that NEP-based measures of environmental concern are affected by socio-demographic variables, opinions about government spending, and environmental knowledge. Given the wide, multi-disciplinary use of the NEP Scale, it is important for researchers to recognize that NEP-based measures of environmental concern may be sensitive to information included in surveys. PMID:25769871

  3. Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements on Gist Based False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on gist based false recognition was investigated. Following exposure to lists of words related to a critical but non-studied word participants were asked to engage in 30s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Subsequent testing of recognition memory revealed that those who…

  4. Development of the Letter Identity Span in Reading: Evidence from the Eye Movement Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haikio, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    By means of the moving window paradigm, we examined how many letters can be identified during a single eye fixation and whether this letter identity span changes as a function of reading skill. The results revealed that 8-year-old Finnish readers identify approximately 5 characters, 10-year-old readers identify approximately 7 characters, and…

  5. Ecological correlates of fish movement in a network of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albanese, B.; Angermeier, P.L.; Dorai-Raj, S.

    2004-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence fish movement is a key step in predicting how populations respond to environmental change. Using mark-recapture (four species) and trap capture (eight species) data, we examined relationships between three attributes of movement and 15 ecological variables. The probability of emigrating from a reach was positively related to intermittency (one species) and body size (one species) and negatively related to distance from the mainstem creek (two species) and habitat complexity (one species). The number of fish moving upstream through traps was positively related to increases in flow (five species), day length (three species), and water temperature (two species); the number moving through downstream traps was positively associated with increases in flow (three species). Distance moved was greater for fish moving through unsuitable reaches (one species). Floods have a pervasive effect on fish movement, and human activities that affect flows will have widespread implications. The importance of other factors varies interspecifically, which may translate into variation in persistence and colonization rates. For example, species that exhibit reach fidelity in complex habitats may increase movement if habitats are homogenized. These species may suffer population declines because of the cost of increased movement and may ultimately be replaced by ecological generalists.

  6. Modelling non-Euclidean movement and landscape connectivity in highly structured ecological networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Christopher; Fuller, Angela K.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The ecological distance SCR model uses spatially indexed capture-recapture data to estimate how activity patterns are influenced by landscape structure. As well as reducing bias in estimates of abundance, this approach provides biologically realistic representations of home range geometry, and direct information about species-landscape interactions. The incorporation of both structural (landscape) and functional (movement) components of connectivity provides a direct measure of species-specific landscape connectivity.

  7. Using Portraiture to Shift Paradigms: The New Negro Movement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In the period from roughly 1915 to 1935, many African Americans undertook an ambitious campaign to remake their image in mainstream (white) American society. This New Negro Movement (NNM)--a term that the author uses purposefully in contradistinction to "Harlem renaissance"--can be studied in the classroom, allowing history teachers to introduce…

  8. Movement ecology of five Afrotropical waterfowl species from Malawi, Mali and Nigeria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Iverson, S.R.L.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Dodman, Tim; Hagemeijer, Ward; Eldridge, William D.; Petrie, Scott A.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Manu, Shiiwua; Olsen, Glenn H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Spragens, Kyle A; Douglas, David C.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat availability for Afrotropical waterbirds is highly dynamic with unpredictable rainfall patterns and ephemeral wetlands resulting in diverse movement strategies among different species. Movement strategies among waterfowl encompass resident, regional and intercontinental migrants, but little quantitative information exists on their specific movement patterns. We studied the movement ecology of five Afrotropical waterfowl species marked with satellite transmitters in Malawi, Mali and Nigeria. Resident species, including White-faced Whistling Ducks Dendrocygna viduata, Fulvous Whistling Ducks Dendrocygna bicolor and Spur-winged Geese Plectropterus gambensis, remained sedentary during the rainy season and only flew limited distances during other months. In contrast, Knob-billed Ducks Sarkidiornis melanotos made short regional movements >50 km in all months and showed little site fidelity to previously used habitats in subsequent years. Garganey Anas quequedula followed an intercontinental strategy and made long-distance jumps across the Sahara and Mediterranean to their Eurasian breeding grounds. Most species flew farthest during the dry season, as mean daily movements varied from 1.5 to 14.2 km and was greatest in the winter months (January-March). Total distance moved varied from 9.5 km for White-faced Whistling Ducks (October-December) to 45.6 km for Knob-billed Ducks (April-June). Nomadic behaviour by Knob-billed Ducks was evidenced by long exploratory flights, but small mean daily movements suggested that they were relying on previous experience. Improving our understanding of these movement strategies increases our ability to assess connectivity of wetland resources that support waterfowl throughout their annual cycle and focuses conservation efforts on their most important habitats.

  9. Early Association of Prosodic Focus with alleen 'only': Evidence from Eye Movements in the Visual-World Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Iris; Szendrői, Kriszta

    2016-01-01

    In three visual-world eye tracking studies, we investigated the processing of sentences containing the focus-sensitive operator alleen 'only' and different pitch accents, such as the Dutch Ik heb alleen SELDERIJ aan de brandweerman gegeven 'I only gave CELERY to the fireman' versus Ik heb alleen selderij aan de BRANDWEERMAN gegeven 'I only gave celery to the FIREMAN'. Dutch, like English, allows accent shift to express different focus possibilities. Participants judged whether these utterances match different pictures: in Experiment 1 the Early Stress utterance matched the picture, in Experiment 2 both the Early and Late Stress utterance did, and in Experiment 3 neither did. We found that eye-gaze patterns start to diverge across the conditions already as the indirect object is being heard. Our data also indicate that participants perform anticipatory eye-movements based on the presence of prosodic focus during auditory sentence processing. Our investigation is the first to report the effect of varied prosodic accent placement on different arguments in sentences with a semantic operator, alleen 'only', on the time course of looks in the visual world paradigm. Using an operator in the visual world paradigm allowed us to confirm that prosodic focus information immediately gets integrated into the semantic parse of the proposition. Our study thus provides further evidence for fast, incremental prosodic focus processing in natural language. PMID:27014107

  10. Early Association of Prosodic Focus with alleen ‘only’: Evidence from Eye Movements in the Visual-World Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Mulders, Iris; Szendrői, Kriszta

    2016-01-01

    In three visual-world eye tracking studies, we investigated the processing of sentences containing the focus-sensitive operator alleen ‘only’ and different pitch accents, such as the Dutch Ik heb alleen SELDERIJ aan de brandweerman gegeven ‘I only gave CELERY to the fireman’ versus Ik heb alleen selderij aan de BRANDWEERMAN gegeven ‘I only gave celery to the FIREMAN’. Dutch, like English, allows accent shift to express different focus possibilities. Participants judged whether these utterances match different pictures: in Experiment 1 the Early Stress utterance matched the picture, in Experiment 2 both the Early and Late Stress utterance did, and in Experiment 3 neither did. We found that eye-gaze patterns start to diverge across the conditions already as the indirect object is being heard. Our data also indicate that participants perform anticipatory eye-movements based on the presence of prosodic focus during auditory sentence processing. Our investigation is the first to report the effect of varied prosodic accent placement on different arguments in sentences with a semantic operator, alleen ‘only’, on the time course of looks in the visual world paradigm. Using an operator in the visual world paradigm allowed us to confirm that prosodic focus information immediately gets integrated into the semantic parse of the proposition. Our study thus provides further evidence for fast, incremental prosodic focus processing in natural language. PMID:27014107

  11. Movement-generated afference paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation: an associative stimulation paradigm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A peripheral nerve stimulus can enhance or suppress the evoked response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) depending on the latency of the preceding peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) pulse. Similarly, somatosensory afference from the passively moving limb can transiently alter corticomotor excitability, in a phase-dependent manner. The repeated association of PNS with TMS is known to modulate corticomotor excitability; however, it is unknown whether repeated passive-movement associative stimulation (MAS) has similar effects. Methods In a proof-of-principle study, using a cross-over design, seven healthy subjects received in separate sessions: (1) TMS (120% of the resting motor threshold-RMT, optimal site for Flexor Carpi Radialis) with muscle at rest; (2) TMS paired with cyclic passive movement during extension cyclic passive movement (400 pairs, 1 Hz), with the intervention order randomly assigned. Normality was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, then compared to pre-intervention baseline using repeated measures ANOVA with a Dunnet multiple comparisons test. Results MAS led to a progressive and significant decrease in the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude over the intervention (R2 = 0.6665, P < 0.0001), which was not evident with TMS alone (R2 = 0.0068, P = 0.641). Post-intervention excitability reduction, only present with MAS intervention, remained for 20min (0-10min = 68.2 ± 4.9%, P < 0.05; 10-20min = 73.3 ± 9.7%, P < 0.05). Conclusion The association of somatosensory afference from the moving limb with TMS over primary motor cortex in healthy subjects can be used to modulate corticomotor excitability, and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:24597619

  12. Exploring the Use of the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) to Monitor the Development of Students' Ecological Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harraway, John; Broughton-Ansin, Freya; Deaker, Lynley; Jowett, Tim; Shephard, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are interested in the impact that they and concurrent life experiences may have on students' sustainability attitudes, but they lack formal processes to monitor changes. We used the NEP to monitor changes in students' ecological-worldviews. We were interested in what variation there would be in a multidisciplinary…

  13. Identifying the Fundamental Units of Bacterial Diversity: A Paradigm Shift to Incorporate Ecology into Bacterial Systematics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How many ecologically distinct populations of bacteria are in a natural community, who are they, and what differences allow them to coexist or perform different ecosystem functions? These central questions of bacterial ecology and systematics require a method to consistently demarcate, from the vas...

  14. Movement and feeding ecology of recently emerged steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E., Jr.; Douglass, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ascend several Lake Ontario tributaries to spawn and juveniles are often the most abundant salmonid where spawning is successful. Movement and diet of recently emerged subyearling steelhead were examined in three New York tributaries of Lake Ontario. Downstream movement occurred mainly at night and consisted of significantly smaller fry that were feeding at lower levels than resident fry. Fry fed at the highest rate during the day and chironomids and baetids were the main components of their diet. The diet composition of steelhead fry was closely associated with the composition of the benthos in Trout Brook but more similar to the composition of the drift in the other streams. Daily ration was similar among streams, ranging from 10.2 to 14.3%. These findings are consistent with previous findings on the ecology of steelhead fry, as well as fry of other salmonid species

  15. Structural complexity, movement bias, and metapopulation extinction risk in dendritic ecological networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial complexity in metacommunities can be separated into 3 main components: size (i.e., number of habitat patches), spatial arrangement of habitat patches (network topology), and diversity of habitat patch types. Much attention has been paid to lattice-type networks, such as patch-based metapopulations, but interest in understanding ecological networks of alternative geometries is building. Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) include some increasingly threatened ecological systems, such as caves and streams. The restrictive architecture of dendritic ecological networks might have overriding implications for species persistence. I used a modeling approach to investigate how number and spatial arrangement of habitat patches influence metapopulation extinction risk in 2 DENs of different size and topology. Metapopulation persistence was higher in larger networks, but this relationship was mediated by network topology and the dispersal pathways used to navigate the network. Larger networks, especially those with greater topological complexity, generally had lower extinction risk than smaller and less-complex networks, but dispersal bias and magnitude affected the shape of this relationship. Applying these general results to real systems will require empirical data on the movement behavior of organisms and will improve our understanding of the implications of network complexity on population and community patterns and processes.

  16. A shifting paradigm: Teachers' beliefs and methods for fostering ecological literacy in two public charter schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Evan P.

    Ecological literacy is measured by a person's ability to understand the natural systems that make life on earth possible and how to live in accordance with those systems. The emergence of the pedagogies of place- and community-based education during the past two decades provides a possible avenue for fostering ecological literacy in schools. This thesis explores the following research questions: 1) How is ecological literacy fostered in two Alaskan public charter schools? 2) What are teachers' beliefs in these two schools about the way children and youth develop ecological literacy? 3) What are effective teaching methods and what are the challenges in engaging students in ecological literacy? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six K--12 teachers in two public charter schools in Alaska in order to investigate these questions, and relevant examples of student work were collected for study as well. Qualitative data analysis revealed several emergent themes: the need for real-world connections to curriculum; the necessity of time spent outdoors at a young age; the long-term and holistic nature of ecological literacy development; and the importance of family and community role models in developing connections with the natural world. Based upon the research findings, several recommendations are made to support the efforts of teachers in these schools and elsewhere for fostering ecological literacy in children and youth.

  17. Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

    2005-01-01

    Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

  18. Opportunities for the application of advanced remotely-sensed data in ecological studies of terrestrial animal movement.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Wiebke; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Estes, Anna B; Pidgeon, Anna M; Dettki, Holger; Ericsson, Göran; Radeloff, Volker C

    2015-01-01

    Animal movement patterns in space and time are a central aspect of animal ecology. Remotely-sensed environmental indices can play a key role in understanding movement patterns by providing contiguous, relatively fine-scale data that link animal movements to their environment. Still, implementation of newly available remotely-sensed data is often delayed in studies of animal movement, calling for a better flow of information to researchers less familiar with remotely-sensed data applications. Here, we reviewed the application of remotely-sensed environmental indices to infer movement patterns of animals in terrestrial systems in studies published between 2002 and 2013. Next, we introduced newly available remotely-sensed products, and discussed their opportunities for animal movement studies. Studies of coarse-scale movement mostly relied on satellite data representing plant phenology or climate and weather. Studies of small-scale movement frequently used land cover data based on Landsat imagery or aerial photographs. Greater documentation of the type and resolution of remotely-sensed products in ecological movement studies would enhance their usefulness. Recent advancements in remote sensing technology improve assessments of temporal dynamics of landscapes and the three-dimensional structures of habitats, enabling near real-time environmental assessment. Online movement databases that now integrate remotely-sensed data facilitate access to remotely-sensed products for movement ecologists. We recommend that animal movement studies incorporate remotely-sensed products that provide time series of environmental response variables. This would facilitate wildlife management and conservation efforts, as well as the predictive ability of movement analyses. Closer collaboration between ecologists and remote sensing experts could considerably alleviate the implementation gap. Ecologists should not expect that indices derived from remotely-sensed data will be directly

  19. Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.

    2013-10-01

    From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the California Current System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic ecosystems and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20° of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on ecosystems likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.

  20. Coordination of Group Movements in Wild Red-fronted Lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons): Processes and Influence of Ecological and Reproductive Seasonality.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Group-living species have to coordinate collective actions to maintain cohesion. In primates, spatial movements represent a meaningful model to study group coordination processes across different socio-ecological contexts. We studied 4 groups of red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) in Kirindy Forest, Madagascar, between 2008 and 2010 across different ecological and reproductive seasons. We collected data on ranging patterns using GPS collars and observational data on different predefined parameters of group movements, including initiation, leadership, followership, overtaking events, termination, and travel distances. Cohesion of these relatively small, egalitarian lemur groups was high year-round, but daily path length and home range size varied considerably between ecological seasons, presumably due to long-distance migrations of some groups at the beginning of the rainy season. Individuals of different age and sex classes successfully initiated group movements. However, stable female leadership prevailed year-round, irrespective of ecological and reproductive season, which might be due to higher or more specific energetic requirements of reproduction. In contrast to lemur species with a more despotic social structure, female red-fronted lemurs did not recruit more followers than males. Adult leaders recruited more followers than subadult ones. Further, recruitment success was higher during the peak of the dry season, when predation risk appeared to be higher. Distances of single group movements did not depend on the initiator's sex and age or on ecological seasons. Our results provide new insights into seasonal variability of coordination processes and the role of social dominance in lemur group movements, thereby contributing to a comparative perspective from a primate radiation that evolved group living independently of anthropoids. PMID:22207771

  1. Using diamond-mined sediment discharges to test the paradigms of sandy-beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulfrich, Andrea; Branch, George M.

    2014-10-01

    responses confirmed the prevailing paradigm that sandy beaches are physically driven, with diversity, abundance and biomass all declining at places and times where sediment particle size and beach slope increased due to sediment inputs.

  2. The Secret Life of Oilbirds: New Insights into the Movement Ecology of a Unique Avian Frugivore

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Richard A.; Wikelski, Martin; Kümmeth, Franz; Bosque, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Background Steatornis caripensis (the oilbird) is a very unusual bird. It supposedly never sees daylight, roosting in huge aggregations in caves during the day and bringing back fruit to the cave at night. As a consequence a large number of the seeds from the fruit they feed upon germinate in the cave and spoil. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we use newly developed GPS/acceleration loggers with remote UHF readout to show that several assumptions about the behaviour of Steatornis caripensis need to be revised. On average, they spend only every 3rd day in a cave, individuals spent most days sitting quietly in trees in the rainforest where they regurgitate seeds. Conclusions/Significance This provides new data on the extent of seed dispersal and the movement ecology of Steatornis caripensis. It suggests that Steatornis caripensis is perhaps the most important long-distance seed disperser in Neotropical forests. We also show that colony-living comes with high activity costs to individuals. PMID:20016844

  3. Factors influencing the movement biology of migrant songbirds confronted with an ecological barrier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smolinsky, J. A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Radzio, T. A.; Delaney, D. K.; Moore, F. R

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a migratory songbird embarks on a long-distance flight across an ecological barrier is likely a response to a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. During autumn 2008 and 2009, we used automated radio tracking to investigate how energetic condition, age, and weather influenced the departure timing and direction of Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory stopover along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Most birds left within 1 h after sunset on the evening following capture. Those birds that departed later on the first night or remained longer than 1 day were lean. Birds that carried fat loads sufficient to cross the Gulf of Mexico generally departed in a seasonally appropriate southerly direction, whereas lean birds nearly always flew inland in a northerly direction. We did not detect an effect of age or weather on departures. The decision by lean birds to reorient movement inland may reflect the suitability of the coastal stopover site for deposition of fuel stores and the motivation to seek food among more extensive forested habitat away from the barrier.

  4. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  5. Landscape fragmentation and pollinator movement within agricultural environments: a modelling framework for exploring foraging and movement ecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator decline has been linked to landscape change, through both habitat fragmentation and the loss of habitat suitable for the pollinators to live within. One method for exploring why landscape change should affect pollinator populations is to combine individual-level behavioural ecological techniques with larger-scale landscape ecology. A modelling framework is described that uses spatially-explicit individual-based models to explore the effects of individual behavioural rules within a landscape. The technique described gives a simple method for exploring the effects of the removal of wild corridors, and the creation of wild set-aside fields: interventions that are common to many national agricultural policies. The effects of these manipulations on central-place nesting pollinators are varied, and depend upon the behavioural rules that the pollinators are using to move through the environment. The value of this modelling framework is discussed, and future directions for exploration are identified. PMID:24795848

  6. Parallel Object Activation and Attentional Gating of Information: Evidence from Eye Movements in the Multiple Object Naming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do we access information from any object we can see, or do we access information only from objects that we intend to name? In 3 experiments using a modified multiple object naming paradigm, subjects were required to name several objects in succession when previews appeared briefly and simultaneously in the same location as the target as well as at…

  7. The Generative Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynes, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The "algorithmic" model of outdoor experiential learning is based in military tradition and characterized by questionable scientific rationale, production line metaphor, and the notion of learning as marketable commodity. Alternatives are the moral paradigm; the ecological paradigm "friluftsliv"; and the emerging "generative" paradigm, which…

  8. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  9. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C.; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J.; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  10. Long-Lasting Modifications of Saccadic Eye Movements Following Adaptation Induced in the Double-Step Target Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alahyane, Nadia; Pelisson, Denis

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of saccadic eye movements to environmental changes occurring throughout life is a good model of motor learning and motor memory. Numerous studies have analyzed the behavioral properties and neural substrate of oculomotor learning in short-term saccadic adaptation protocols, but to our knowledge, none have tested the persistence of…

  11. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Jeff A; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Fisher, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species--giant panda, dugong, and California condor--to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research. PMID:24988114

  12. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fu-Wen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species – giant panda, dugong, and California condor – to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  13. Movement-Based Estimation and Visualization of Space Use in 3D for Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species – giant panda, dugong, and California condor – to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research. PMID:24988114

  14. Movement propensity and ability correlate with ecological specialization in European land snails: comparative analysis of a dispersal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dahirel, Maxime; Olivier, Eric; Guiller, Annie; Martin, Marie-Claire; Madec, Luc; Ansart, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific differences in movement behaviour play an important role in the ecology and evolution of animals, particularly in fragmented landscapes. As a consequence of rarer and generally more fragmented habitat, and because dispersal tends to disrupt benefits brought by local adaptation, theory predicts that mobility and dispersal should be counter-selected in specialists. Using experimental data and phylogenetic comparative tools, we analysed movement propensity and capacity, as well as dispersal-related phenotypic traits, in controlled conditions in 20 species of European land snails from the Helicoidea superfamily. Costs of movement in terrestrial gastropods are among the highest in animals, which make them a potentially powerful model to test these predictions. Habitat specialists were indeed less likely to cross a boundary between a familiar and an unfamiliar substrate than generalists. They also had smaller feet, after accounting for size. Furthermore, exploring specialists were slower than generalists and had more tortuous trajectories, leading them to stay closer to the familiar patch. Movement traits were generally evolutionary labile, but some were constrained by body size, a phylogenetically conserved trait. High specialization and low-dispersal ability are two traits often considered to increase species vulnerability to fragmentation, climate changes and extinction. This study confirms they should not be considered separately, due to their integration in a dispersal syndrome. Therefore, specialist species face double penalty under habitat loss and other environmental changes, making them more vulnerable to extinction and contributing to the biotic homogenization of communities. PMID:25059798

  15. Paradigm Change in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, John

    1980-01-01

    Traces the shift of paradigms in the political science profession from the 1960s to 1980, examines the classical paradigm, compares it with modern paradigms, and reviews contemporary efforts to articulate a new paradigm which takes the ecological crisis into account. (Author/DB)

  16. Healthy Cities and the Transition movement: converging towards ecological well-being?

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Dooris, Mark; Poland, Blake

    2016-03-01

    This commentary identifies similarities, differences and opportunities for synergy and mutual learning between the Healthy Cities and the Transition movements. We outline what we consider to be the 'pressing issues' facing humanity and the planet in the early 21(st) century; consider the extent to which health promotion has engaged with and addressed these issues; compare Healthy Cities and the Transition movement; and conclude by suggesting possibilities for moving forward. PMID:27199022

  17. Cortical Dynamics during the Preparation of Antisaccadic and Prosaccadic Eye Movements in Humans in a Gap Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Cordones, Isabel; Gómez, Carlos M.; Escudero, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    To compare the cortical dynamics of different oculomotor tasks, EEG and eye movements were recorded in 21 volunteers. Using a comprehensive approach, subjects were asked to perform saccadic tasks, which included a saccadic eye movement to a peripheral target (prosaccadic), a movement to the opposite side (antisaccadic), or maintain the gaze fixed (no-go). In mixed trials, prosaccadic, antisaccadic and no-go tasks were indicated by a color square (S1) present for 1900–2500 ms (instructive period). S1 disappeared for 370 ms (gap) and a black dot at 8 deg at right or left indicated the beginning of the task. Reaction times, amplitude of eye movements and number of errors were greatest in antisaccadic tasks, suggesting a greater difficulty. The EEG showed a contingent negativity variation (CNV) that increased progressively along the instructive period and suddenly during the gap: higher in antisaccadic, followed by prosaccadic and no-go tasks. Principal component analysis (PCA) disentangled fronto-central and occipital CNV-related and fronto-central gap-related components. The instructive period was characterized by fronto-central and occipital beta desynchronization (ERD) higher in antisaccadic than in no-go and parieto-occipital alpha synchronization higher in no-go than in antisaccadic tasks. During the gap, parieto-occipital beta and alpha ERD were higher in antisaccadic compared to no-go. The gap was further characterized by a fronto-central increase of inter-trial coherence in theta: highest during antisaccadic, followed by prosaccadic and no-go tasks. This phase locking in theta was also accompanied by theta ERS, which was significantly higher in antisaccadic than in the other two tasks. In PCA of spectral power two main components had dynamics similar to those extracted from voltage data, suggesting cross-frequency coupling. These results suggest that the more difficult saccadic tasks are associated with top-down control mediated by frontal cortex, while

  18. Anti-vaccine activists, Web 2.0, and the postmodern paradigm--an overview of tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccination movement.

    PubMed

    Kata, Anna

    2012-05-28

    Websites opposing vaccination are prevalent on the Internet. Web 2.0, defined by interaction and user-generated content, has become ubiquitous. Furthermore, a new postmodern paradigm of healthcare has emerged, where power has shifted from doctors to patients, the legitimacy of science is questioned, and expertise is redefined. Together this has created an environment where anti-vaccine activists are able to effectively spread their messages. Evidence shows that individuals turn to the Internet for vaccination advice, and suggests such sources can impact vaccination decisions - therefore it is likely that anti-vaccine websites can influence whether people vaccinate themselves or their children. This overview examines the types of rhetoric individuals may encounter online in order to better understand why the anti-vaccination movement can be convincing, despite lacking scientific support for their claims. Tactics and tropes commonly used to argue against vaccination are described. This includes actions such as skewing science, shifting hypotheses, censoring dissent, and attacking critics; also discussed are frequently made claims such as not being "anti-vaccine" but "pro-safe vaccines", that vaccines are toxic or unnatural, and more. Recognizing disingenuous claims made by the anti-vaccination movement is essential in order to critically evaluate the information and misinformation encountered online. PMID:22172504

  19. The Ecology of Hope: Natural Guides to Building a Children and Nature Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Cheryl Charles, Ph.D gave the 2009 Paul F-Brandwein Lecture. The lecture addresses the impact of children's disconnect from the natural world in their everyday lives. Co-founder of the Children & Nature Network (C&NN) with Richard Louv, author of Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder (2005/2008), the author describes C&NN's approach to building a movement to reconnect children and nature for their health and well-being. She puts the growth of the movement in recent historical perspective, chronicling relevant contributing factors. Drawing on research as well as common sense, she summarizes evidence that indicates some of the negative impacts on children's health from their lack of contact with nature and other characteristics of contemporary lifestyles, as well as positive benefits to children's cognitive, emotional, social and physical development from direct learning and play in nature-based settings. She describes what she calls "natural guides" to building the children and nature movement as a part of the process of achieving sufficient critical mass to facilitate positive social change. Finally, she offers recommendations for actions.

  20. Social Ecology, Deep Ecology and the Future of Green Political Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Describes the differences which divide the social ecology movement and the Deep Ecology Movement. Discusses how each views population ecology, politics, natural resources, and ecological living. Calls for a unified ecological movement. (CW)

  1. Efficient 3D movement-based kernel density estimator and application to wildlife ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracey-PR, Jeff; Sheppard, James K.; Lockwood, Glenn K.; Chourasia, Amit; Tatineni, Mahidhar; Fisher, Robert N.; Sinkovits, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of a 3D movement-based kernel density estimator for determining animal space use from discrete GPS measurements. This new method provides more accurate results, particularly for species that make large excursions in the vertical dimension. The downside of this approach is that it is much more computationally expensive than simpler, lower-dimensional models. Through a combination of code restructuring, parallelization and performance optimization, we were able to reduce the time to solution by up to a factor of 1000x, thereby greatly improving the applicability of the method.

  2. Second-language experience modulates eye movements during first- and second-language sentence reading: evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word processing decreases. Here, we investigate whether current L2 exposure also relates to more general aspects of reading performance, including global eye movement measures and how bilinguals use parafoveal information to the right of fixation during L1 and L2 sentence-level reading, through use of a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). We found that bilinguals with high versus low current L2 exposure exhibited increased L2 reading fluency (faster reading rates, shorter forward fixation durations), but decreased L1 reading fluency (slower reading rates, longer forward fixation durations). We also found that bilinguals with high versus low current L2 exposure were more affected by reductions in window size during L2 reading (indicative of a larger L2 perceptual span), but were less affected by reductions in window size during L1 reading (indicative of a smaller L1 perceptual span). Taken together, these findings suggest that individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals also modulate more general aspects of reading behavior, including global measures of reading difficulty and the allocation of visual attention into the parafovea during both L1 and L2 sentence-level reading. PMID:25528098

  3. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  4. Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  5. New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Martin; Handermann, Michaela; Bahr, Udo; Rensch, Baldur; Müller, Sandra; Kehm, Roland; Muranyi, Walter; Darai, Gholamreza

    2005-03-01

    connection with the geographic name of its outbreak region the analysis of the individual viruses indicate that the causing virus of HPS was a genetically distinct hantavirus and consequently termed as Sin Nombre virus. Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are assumed to share a long time period of co-evolution with specific rodent species as their natural reservoir. The degree of relatedness between virus serotypes normally coincides with the relatedness between their respective hosts. There are no known diseases that are associated with hantavirus infections in rodents underlining the amicable relationship between virus and host developed by mutual interaction in hundreds of thousands of years. Although rodents are the major reservoir, antibodies against hantaviruses are also present in domestic and wild animals like cats, dogs, pigs, cattle, and deer. Domestic animals and rodents live jointly in a similar habitat. Therefore the transmission of hantaviruses from rodents to domestic animals seems to be possible, if the target organs, tissues, and cell parenchyma of the co-habitat domestic animals possess adequate virus receptors and are suitable for hantavirus entry and replication. The most likely incidental infection of species other than rodents as for example humans turns hantaviruses from harmless to life-threatening pathogenic agents focusing the attention on this virus group, their ecology and evolution in order to prevent the human population from a serious health risk. Much more studies on the influence of non-natural hosts on the ecology of hantaviruses are needed to understand the directions that the hantavirus evolution could pursue. At least, domestic animals that share their environmental habitat with rodents and humans particularly in areas known as high endemic hantavirus regions have to be copiously screened. Each transfer of hantaviruses from their original natural hosts to other often incidental hosts is accompanied by a change of ecology, a change

  6. Pest insect movement and dispersal as an example of applied movement ecology. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii, Petrovskaya and Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codling, Edward A.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past decade there has been a revolution in the development of new affordable sensing and tracking technology, and this has led to the deployment of a vast array of location sensors and data loggers for monitoring and recording animal movement [1,2]. This revolution has led to an enormous amount of animal movement data being collected and much of this is now freely available [3]. Alongside the technological revolution, by necessity there has also been a rapid development of new mathematical and statistical tools and techniques for analysing the enormous data sets collected [4-6]. Movement ecology has subsequently been recognised as an important research field in its own right [7,8]. Nevertheless, there are still many open problems remaining. In particular, Petrovskii et al. [9] highlight an important question about how the movement and dispersal of pest insects relates to their population abundance, dynamics and spatial spread. Such a question can be considered an example of "applied movement ecology". As well as serving as an important case study to develop and test movement analysis and spatial modelling techniques, there are obvious direct economic, societal, and conservation benefits to be had from better understanding of pest insect dispersal and subsequent population dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Outbreaks of pest insect species (such as Tipula paludosa, as discussed in [9]) are known to cause serious damage to crops. Outbreaks can occur at a range of spatial scales: from a small localised outbreak affecting part of a field, through to a regional outbreak or invasion of a pest species [10,11]. Many millions of dollars are lost globally every year because of lost or reduced crop yields caused directly by pest insect damage [10]. Hence it is important that we can develop better knowledge of pest insect movement and dispersal in order to properly implement integrated pest management (IPM) [11].

  7. Second-Language Experience Modulates Eye Movements during First- and Second-Language Sentence Reading: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word…

  8. Fish Movement Ecology in High Gradient Headwater Streams: Its Relevance to Fish Passage Restoration through Stream Culvert Barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide. The problem has many dimensions, including the huge number of potential barriers, uncertainty about which structures are actually barriers, the benefits and risks involved with restoration, and the financial costs and timelines. This report attempts to address what we call 'thinking outside of the pipe' in terms of fish passage information needs. This means understanding the value of each potential passage restoration project in the context of other possible projects, and to view individual restoration projects within a larger landscape of habitats and population processes. In this report we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. While several other fishes and many other species use streams where culvert passage barriers may occur, it is the salmonids that are by far the most widespread and in most cases extending furthest into the headwaters of stream networks in Washington. We begin this report by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  9. The application of co-ordination dynamics to the analysis of discrete movements using table-tennis as a paradigm skill.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, V; Ingvaldsen, R P; Whiting, H T

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore the application of co-ordination dynamics to the analysis of discrete rather than cyclical movements. Subjects, standing in a fixed position, were required to return table-tennis balls delivered to different spatial locations in the direction of a fixed target. This was achieved in condition 1 by systematically scaling, from left to right and vice versa, the 'spatial location' of the ball-identified as a control parameter. In condition 2, the control condition, the spatial location was varied randomly over the same range. The changes between regimes of the stroke co-ordination pattern, defined at two different levels, (1) organisational--forehand or backhand drive. and (2) kinematic-the distance of the bat at ball-bat contact relative to the leading edge of the table, were identified as collective variables, the values of which changed spontaneously at the transition points exposed by the control parameter. The switch between regimes was shown to be dependent upon the direction of scaling, i.e. a hysteresis effect was identified in both conditions. These findings confirm that the conceptual and methodological frameworks of co-ordination dynamics can be applied, appropriately, to the analysis of discrete movements. Moreover, it would seem that control parameter values (spatial location of the ball) do not necessarily have to be scaled in a systematic way in order to produce the required effects. PMID:11471838

  10. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.

  11. Monitoring the resilience of rivers as social-ecological systems: a paradigm shift for river assessment in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    First, we briefly describe the development of the major, biophysically-focused river assessment and monitoring approaches over the last 50 years. We then assess the utility of biophysical parameters for assessing rivers as social-ecological systems. We then develop a framework de...

  12. Ecology of the tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae): population estimation, spatial distribution, movement, and host relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Scapteriscus vicinus is the most important pest of turf and pasture grasses in Florida. This study develops a method of correlating sample results with true population density and provides the first quantitative information on spatial distribution and movement patterns of mole crickets. Three basic techniques for sampling mole crickets were compared: soil flushes, soil corer, and pitfall trapping. No statistical difference was found between the soil corer and soil flushing. Soil flushing was shown to be more sensitive to changes in population density than pitfall trapping. No technique was effective for sampling adults. Regression analysis provided a means of adjusting for the effects of soil moisture and showed soil temperature to be unimportant in predicting efficiency of flush sampling. Cesium-137 was used to label females for subsequent location underground. Comparison of mean distance to nearest neighbor with the distance predicted by a random distribution model showed that the observed distance in the spring was significantly greater than hypothesized (Student's T-test, p < 0.05). Fall adult nearest neighbor distance was not different than predicted by the random distribution hypothesis.

  13. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  14. The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (δ2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n = 191 individuals) records variation in δ2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n = 88) would come from based on their keratin δ2H. Across non-migratory species, δ2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin δ2H of extant E. helvum (n = 76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago. PMID

  15. Semidiurnal temperature changes caused by tidal front movements in the warm season in seabed habitats on the georges bank northern margin and their ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincent G; Valentine, Page C; Gallea, Leslie B

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed "frontal zone", where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This "frontal boundary zone" was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (-2.48°C hr(-1)) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  16. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats’ impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. Principal Findings During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5–36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1–87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Conclusions and Significance Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation. PMID:26465139

  17. The Value of the Rational World and Narrative Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    Considers Walter Fisher's criticisms of the "rational-world" paradigm, as well as his defense of the narrative paradigm. Concludes that a useful argumentative tradition, best represented by the informal logic movement, avoids the dangers identified by narrative proponents. Notes that the narrative paradigm largely fails to fulfill its aims. (MM)

  18. Semidiurnal Temperature Changes Caused by Tidal Front Movements in the Warm Season in Seabed Habitats on the Georges Bank Northern Margin and Their Ecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Vincent G.; Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed “frontal zone”, where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This “frontal boundary zone” was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (−2.48°C hr−1) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  19. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  20. Personal and Planetary Well-Being: Mindfulness Meditation, Pro-Environmental Behavior and Personal Quality of Life in a Survey from the Social Justice and Ecological Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Jeffrey; Jovic, Emily; Brinkerhoff, Merlin B.

    2009-01-01

    Employing data from a mailed survey of a sample of ecologically and spiritually aware respondents (N = 829), the study tests the hypothesized relationship between ecologically sustainable behavior (ESB) and subjective well-being (SWB). The proposed link between ESB and SWB is the spiritual practice of mindfulness meditation (MM). In multiple…

  1. Eco-Philosophy and Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolimowski, Henryk

    1988-01-01

    Criticizes the Deep Ecology Movement as a new ecological world view. Discusses the limits of this philosophy including its views of destiny, evolution and cosmology. Concludes that although its intentions are admirable, Deep Ecology leaves too much unanswered. (CW)

  2. Clarifying the Narrative Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    Replies to Rowland's article (same issue) on Fisher's views of the narrative paradigm. Clarifies the narrative paradigm by discussing three senses in which "narration" can be understood, and by indicating what the narrative paradigm is not. (SR)

  3. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  4. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism. PMID:24878596

  5. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  6. What Effective Classroom? Towards a Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Mok, Magdalena M. C.

    2008-01-01

    The initiatives for educational effectiveness experienced 3 waves of movements. Each wave had its own paradigm in conceptualizing the nature of education and its effectiveness and formulating related initiatives for improvement of educational practice in the classroom. This article aims to discuss how the conceptualization and characteristics of…

  7. Paradigms Past and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Maureen

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates past paradigms (conceptual frameworks) such as the belief in the unlimited resources of the earth for humanity's particular benefit and the paradigm of the infallibility of technology. Illustrates how we are generally moving toward the new paradigm that small and simple is not only beautiful, but also more efficient, reliable, practical,…

  8. Predictive systems ecology

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew R.; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mace, Georgina M.; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K. J.; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M. J.; Benton, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive. PMID:24089332

  9. Dark Energy: Anatomy of a Paradigm Shift in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocutt, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Science is defined by its ability to shift its paradigm on the basis of observation and data. Throughout history, the worldviews of the scientific community have been drastically changed to fit that which was scientifically determined to be fact. One of the latest paradigm shifts happened over the shape and fate of the universe. This research details the progression from the early paradigm of a decelerating expanding universe to the discovery of dark energy and the movement to the current paradigm of a universe that is not only expanding but is also accelerating. Advisor: Dr. Kristine Larsen.

  10. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  11. Organizational Paradigm Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This collection of essays explores a new paradigm of higher education. The first essay, "Beyond Re-engineering: Changing the Organizational Paradigm" (L. Edwin Coate), suggests a model of quality process management and a structure for managing organizational change. "Thinking About Consortia" (Mary Jo Maydew) discusses cooperative effort and…

  12. An Integrative Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  13. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  14. The Ecology of the Gym: Reconceptualized and Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Tischler, Amy; Flory, Sara B.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological paradigm has become a powerful framework for understanding how teachers and students negotiate the learning environment. This article articulates the ecological paradigm into a more cohesive framework and expands it using influential work from the sociology of physical education. First, we explain several core concepts of ecological…

  15. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  16. Eye movements during listening reveal spontaneous grammatical processing

    PubMed Central

    Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H.; Spivey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension. PMID:24904450

  17. The fictionalist paradigm.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2011-01-01

    The fictionalist paradigm is introduced, and differentiated from other paradigms, using the Lincoln & Guba template. Following an initial overview, the axioms of fictionalism are delineated by reference to standard metaphysical categories: the nature of reality, the relationship between knower and known, the possibility of generalization, the possibility of causal linkages, and the role of values in inquiry. Although a paradigm's 'basic beliefs' are arbitrary and can be assumed for any reason, in this paper the fictionalist axioms are supported with philosophical considerations, and the key differences between fictionalism, positivism, and constructivism are briefly explained. Paradigm characteristics are then derived, focusing particularly on the methodological consequences. Towards the end of the paper, various objections and misunderstandings are discussed. PMID:21143578

  18. Deep Ecology: Beyond Mere Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the principles of deep ecology, a movement that questions the societal values that have resulted in damage to the earth's life-supporting biosphere. In contrast to shallow reform, deep ecology encourages individuals to examine their values and relationship to nature to address the environmental crisis. (LP)

  19. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  1. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  2. Ecological Schoolyards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  3. Paradigms of School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This short paper points to some paradigm issues in the field of school development (leadership, effectiveness, improvement) and their relationship to social justice. It contextualises the dominant School Effectiveness and School Improvement models within neo-liberal marketisation, paying attention to their transformation through a "marriage of…

  4. The "New Environmental Paradigm"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Riley E.; Van Liere, Kent D.

    2008-01-01

    The "New Environmental Paradigm" or NEP appears to have gained considerable popularity in academic and intellectual circles, as well as among many college students; however, very little is known concerning the degree to which the general public has come to accept the ideas embodied in it. Thus, although there have been dozens of studies of…

  5. Alternative Evaluation Research Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a description and analysis of two contrasting paradigms: one…

  6. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  7. Telemedicine: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Denton, I

    1993-11-01

    Technological innovations sometimes compel paradigm shifts. Two decades ago the CT scanner was one such phenomenon: It quickly and absolutely transformed medical practice. A marriage of medicine and telecommunications could engender a similar transformation. The timing surely is favorable, as pressing requirements of healthcare reform coincide with the flowering of telecommunications technologies. PMID:10130474

  8. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-01

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof. PMID:25114256

  9. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  10. The Nature of Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaiotidi, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to extend the paradigm approach into the philosophy of music education and to build upon this basis a model for structuring music education discourse. The author begins with an examination of Peter Abbs' account of paradigms and paradigm shifts in arts education. Then she turns to Kuhn's conception and to his…

  11. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    PubMed

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability. PMID:19046362

  12. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  13. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  14. Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

  15. The Spiritual and Educational Dimensions of The New Science Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz-Michaels, Gerda

    With the emergence in physics of relativity and quantum theories in the first decade of this century a paradigm shift took place from a predominantly mechanistic to a dynamic world view. This shift formed the basis of the New Science Movement, including the new physics, in the 1970s. The movement is international, interdisciplinary, dynamic, and…

  16. Ecological Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  17. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  18. Backyard Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  19. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. PMID:23454431

  20. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  1. Metabolic ecology.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  2. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    ... leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements ... The slow twisting movements of muscles (athetosis) or jerky muscle ... including: Cerebral palsy Drug side effects Encephalitis ...

  3. The Peter Pan paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J Craig; Larson, Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis."You may delay, but time will not" Benjamin Franklin, USA Founding Father. PMID:18182112

  4. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  5. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  6. Spatial paradigms of lotic diatom distribution: A landscape ecology perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passy, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Spatial distributional patterns of benthic diatoms and their relation to current velocity were investigated in an unshaded cobble-bottom reach of White Creek (Washington County, NY). On 27 August 1999, diatoms were sampled and current velocity and depth were measured on a regular square sampling grid with a grain size of 0.01 m2, interval of 0.5 m, and extent of 16 m2. The relative abundance of the 18 common diatom species enumerated in the 81 samples was subjected to detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first axis (DCA1) explained 51% of the variance in diatom data and separated the samples according to current regimes. The spatial autocorrelation of DCA1 sample scores in deposition and erosion regions of White Creek was determined by Moran's I statistic to indicate patch size. In White Creek the patch length of all diatom communities was more than 3.1 m, whereas the patch width was 1 m in the deposition region and 0.5 m in the erosion region. There were 5 dominant diatom taxa, Achnanthes minutissima Ku??tz. et vars, Fragilaria capucina Dezmazie??res et vars, F. crotonensis Kitt., Diatoma vulgaris Bory, and Synedra ulna (Nitz.) Ehr. et vars. The patch length of the dominant species varied from 1 to more than 4.1 m, whereas the patch width, if defined, was 0.5 m. Achnanthes minutissima and F. capucina, the two diatom species with the highest relative abundance, displayed spatially structured patches of low abundance and comparatively random patches of high abundance, suggesting broad scale abiotic control of species performance in low abundance regions and finer scale biotic control of high abundance areas. Another objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher current velocities, which generally impede immigration, would increase randomness and complexity (i.e. homogeneity of diatom distributional patterns). The spatial complexity in low versus high velocity transects was determined by calculating the respective fractal dimension (D) of DCA1 scores. D of DCA1 was higher in the higher current velocity transects, suggesting that spatial complexity and homogeneity of diatom communities increased in faster currents. Partial canonical correspondence analysis was conducted on diatom, environmental, and spatial data to assess how much of the variance in species distribution could be attributed to environmental (current velocity and depth) versus spatial factors. The variance of species data, explained by the environment (exclusively current velocity), was 38%; whereas space alone contributed only 10%, indicating that 1) current velocity was the major factor that controlled diatom distribution in streams and 2) there were other spatially dependent variables, most likely biotic, but their role in shaping diatom communities was minor.

  7. Naturalistic Inquiry: Paradigm and Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Linda S.

    Despite the rhetoric acclaiming it as a new paradigm, educational researchers have tended to treat naturalistic inquiry as a new or alternative method employed within the dominant, rationalistic paradigm. Spokespersons for naturalistic inquiry tend to concentrate on what one does differently rather than how one perceives what one is doing…

  8. [Two paradigms of mathematical population biology. Attempting to synthesise].

    PubMed

    Logofet, D O; Ulanova, N G; Belova, I N

    2011-01-01

    Whatever popular the slogan of nonlinear ecological interactions has been in theory, practical ecology professes the projection matrix paradigm, which is essentially linear, i.e., the linear matrix model paradigm for discrete-structured population dynamics. The dominant eigenvalue lamda1, of the projection matrix L is considered as a growth potential of the population. It provides for a quantitative measure of the fitness at which the species is adapted to the given environment, the measure being adequate and accurate, given the data of"identified individuals" type. The case of"identified individuals with unknown parents" bears uncertainty in the status-specific reproduction rates, which eliminates in a unique way (for a broad class of structures and life cycle graphs) by maximizing lamda1(L) under the constraints ensuing from the data and knowledge of species biology. The paradigm of linearity gives way to nonlinear models when modeled are species interactions, such as competition for shared resources, and where the outcome of interaction depends on the population structure of the competitors. This circumstance dictates a need for the synthesis of two paradigms, which is achieved in nonlinear matrix operators as models of interaction between the species whose populations are discrete-structured. PMID:22121575

  9. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. PMID:25326612

  10. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C.; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject’s own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual “teacher.” We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof. PMID:25114256

  11. Ecological Consultancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

  12. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  13. Policy-Making Structures and Their Biases Towards Political Economy and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar

    The author suggests that the ecology movement in Western Europe has reached the limits of reactive politics and cannot achieve more unless it adopts a different strategy. Surveys and referenda show that the public has an overwhelmingly good opinion of the ecology movement but that few will vote on it in elections. Thus, the movement has had little…

  14. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  15. Environmental Popular Education and Indigenous Social Movements in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2003-01-01

    Environmental popular education helps shape indigenous social movements in India through a continual process of reflection and action that connects concerns about ecological degradation, subsistence, and marginalization. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  16. Educational Reforms that Foster Ecological Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    There are powerful forces of resistance that must be acknowledged when introducing educational reforms that foster ecological intelligence. The foremost source of resistance is the paradigm gap that now separates generations. That is, the vast majority of university professors, classroom teachers--and thus the general public that has been educated…

  17. The Ecological Approach to Text Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents both theoretical and technical bases on which to build a "science of text visualization." The Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration (SPIRE) text-visualization system, which images information from free-text documents as natural terrains, serves as an example of the "ecological approach" in its visual metaphor, its…

  18. Ecological Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  19. The Narrative Paradigm: Another Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Claims that the narrative paradigm recently proposed as a model for rhetorical criticism is problematic because of internal contradictions and inconsistencies. Argues that independent sources are lacking for judging the adequacy of a critic's claims about a text. (JD)

  20. Stroke parameters identification algorithm in handwriting movements analysis by synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Guo, Xuemei; Wang, Guoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to identify the stroke parameters in handwriting movement data understanding. A two-step analysis by synthesis paradigm is employed to facilitate the coarse-to-fine parameter identification for all strokes. One is the stroke data extraction, the other is the coarse-to-fine stroke parameter identification. The new consideration of using this two-step paradigm is that the nonnegative primitive factorization technique is incorporated to decouple the overlapped strokes from the measurement data. In comparison to the existing paradigms of using the heuristic stroke data decoupling techniques, our paradigm presented here contributes to alleviating the difficulty of local optimum traps with the well-shaped initializations in the global optimization for jointly identifying stroke parameters. Moreover, our paradigm excludes the iteration between two steps, which contributes to the enhancement of computational efficiency. Experimental results are reported to validate the proposed approach. PMID:24771598

  1. Computational ecology as an emerging science

    PubMed Central

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that numerical modelling and computer simulations can be used as a powerful research tool to understand, and sometimes to predict, the tendencies and peculiarities in the dynamics of populations and ecosystems. It has been, however, much less appreciated that the context of modelling and simulations in ecology is essentially different from those that normally exist in other natural sciences. In our paper, we review the computational challenges arising in modern ecology in the spirit of computational mathematics, i.e. with our main focus on the choice and use of adequate numerical methods. Somewhat paradoxically, the complexity of ecological problems does not always require the use of complex computational methods. This paradox, however, can be easily resolved if we recall that application of sophisticated computational methods usually requires clear and unambiguous mathematical problem statement as well as clearly defined benchmark information for model validation. At the same time, many ecological problems still do not have mathematically accurate and unambiguous description, and available field data are often very noisy, and hence it can be hard to understand how the results of computations should be interpreted from the ecological viewpoint. In this scientific context, computational ecology has to deal with a new paradigm: conventional issues of numerical modelling such as convergence and stability become less important than the qualitative analysis that can be provided with the help of computational techniques. We discuss this paradigm by considering computational challenges arising in several specific ecological applications. PMID:23565336

  2. Ecological Approaches to Studying Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Loh, Elizabeth H; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rostal, Melinda K; Karesh, William B; Daszak, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Concern over emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and a better understanding of their causes has resulted in increasing recognition of the linkages among human, animal, and ecosystem health. It is now well recognized that human activities can promote the emergence of infectious diseases through the large-scale modification of natural environments and inadvertent vectoring (e.g., international trade and travel). These perturbations can alter the ecological and evolutionary relationships among humans, wildlife, and the pathogens that move between them, resulting in disease emergence. In recent years, the rise in zoonotic EIDs has not only increased our awareness of the need for cross-sectoral collaborations, but has also highlighted the disconnect between current ecological theory and biological reality. As the One Health movement continues to gain steam, further integration of ecological approaches into the One Health framework will be required. We discuss the importance of ecological methods and theory to the study of zoonotic diseases by (i) discussing key ecological concepts and approaches, (ii) reviewing methods of studying wildlife diseases and their potential applications for zoonoses, and (iii) identifying future directions in the One Health movement. PMID:26184965

  3. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  4. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  5. Movement and Meaning-Making in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Trent D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the meaning of movement of which embodied knowing, somatic understanding and ecological subjectivity are central tenets, has not received due recognition in the current discourses of physical education. While the interest in the meaning and meaning-making of movement within the physical education discourse has existed…

  6. Applications and implications of ecological energetics.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sean; Arnall, Sophie G; Munn, Adam; Bradshaw, S Don; Maloney, Shane K; Dixon, Kingsley W; Didham, Raphael K

    2014-05-01

    The ecological processes that are crucial to an animal's growth, survival, and reproductive fitness have energetic costs. The imperative for an animal to meet these costs within the energetic constraints of the environment drives many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, yet has largely been overlooked in traditional ecological paradigms. The field of 'ecological energetics' is bringing comparative physiology out of the laboratory and, for the first time, is becoming broadly accessible to field ecologists addressing real-world questions at many spatial and temporal scales. In an era of unprecedented global environmental challenges, ecological energetics opens up the tantalising prospect of a more predictive, mechanistic understanding of the drivers of threatened species decline, delivering process-based modelling approaches to natural resource management. PMID:24725438

  7. Reflecting on Environmental Education: Where Is Our Place in the Green Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strife, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Recently the environmental movement has seen much success and progress under a newly-framed green paradigm. Yet, despite the proliferation of national attention to, and public interest in, the go-green mentality, environmental education still seems to be stuck within the old environmental paradigm. This critical essay shares lessons that…

  8. Attending to Eye Movements and Retinal Eccentricity: Evidence for the Activity Distribution Model of Attention Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Pratt, Jay

    2005-01-01

    When testing between spotlight and activity distribution models of visual attention, D. LaBerge, R. L. Carlson, J. K. Williams, and B. G. Bunney (1997) used an experimental paradigm in which targets are embedded in 3 brief displays. This paradigm, however, may be confounded by retinal eccentricity effects and saccadic eye movements. When the…

  9. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  10. Ecological niche

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The ecological niche of an organism is the set of environmental conditions under which the particular functions of the organism could be expected to assure its survival. It comprises both the set of conditions where the organism lives (often termed the habitat of the organism) and the functional role of the organism in the ecosystem. Recent works in niche theory have enabled ecologists to develop predictions and actual applications. The history of the niche concept, applications of niche theory, and ecological differences between similar species are discussed.

  11. Paradigms for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinbarough, Immanuel A.; Wells, Wayne E.

    2004-12-01

    There are several stories involving the industries that pledge themselves for the environmentally conscious manufacturing practices. Paradigms for environmentally conscious manufacturing are associated with one of the aspects of environmental quality, protection, resource management, commitment or sustainability. The engineering rules of thumb that can easily be adopted by aspiring companies need identification. The underlying thread that unifies the efforts of environmentally conscious manufacturing companies, in offering the environmentally safe products to the world, is grouped and presented in the paper as paradigms for successful practices. The various ways in which a start up company, that wants to excel in environmentally conscious manufacturing, can position itself based on the paradigms is also discussed in the paper.

  12. The Synthesis Paradigm in Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics—and other fields of biology—are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous “-omics” data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time. PMID:24496401

  13. Predictive eye movements in natural vision

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Travis; Chajka, Kelly; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2012-01-01

    In the natural world, the brain must handle inherent delays in visual processing. This is a problem particularly during dynamic tasks. A possible solution to visuo-motor delays is prediction of a future state of the environment based on the current state and properties of the environment learned from experience. Prediction is well known to occur in both saccades and pursuit movements and is likely to depend on some kind of internal visual model as the basis for this prediction. However, most evidence comes from controlled laboratory studies using simple paradigms. In this study, we examine eye movements made in the context of demanding natural behavior, while playing squash. We show that prediction is a pervasive component of gaze behavior in this context. We show in addition that these predictive movements are extraordinarily precise and operate continuously in time across multiple trajectories and multiple movements. This suggests that prediction is based on complex dynamic visual models of the way that balls move, accumulated over extensive experience. Since eye, head, arm, and body movements all co-occur, it seems likely that a common internal model of predicted visual state is shared by different effectors to allow flexible coordination patterns. It is generally agreed that internal models are responsible for predicting future sensory state for control of body movements. The present work suggests that model-based prediction is likely to be a pervasive component in natural gaze control as well. PMID:22183755

  14. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  15. Trash Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Georgia J.

    2004-01-01

    A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

  16. Defending Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

  17. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-05-15

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  18. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  19. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

    2003-03-27

    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  20. Perceptual Specificity Effects in Rereading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiments examined perceptual specificity effects using a rereading paradigm. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either presenting the target word in the same distortion typography…

  1. Alternative Paradigms of Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1983-01-01

    Four paradigms have dominated the debate on teacher education in recent years: (1) the "behavioristic" orientation; (2) the "personalistic" mode; (3) the "traditional-craft" approach; and (4) the "inquiry" orientation. A heuristic device for organizing discussion about desirable teacher education practices is presented, which permits consideration…

  2. [The female paradigm in psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Rohde-Dachser, C

    1990-01-01

    According to the author, the necessary change to a new psychoanalytic paradigm of femininity can only take place if the patriarchal discourse of psychoanalytic metatheory is systematically deconstructed. Only then can a reconstruction of this discourse occur with a view toward the emancipation of both genders. PMID:2406796

  3. Paradigms, Exemplars and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers' social-cultural organization influences the scope, quality, quantity, coherence, dissemination, utilization and impact of research-based, theoretically sound knowledge. Five concepts--paradigm, exemplar, segment, network and gatekeeper--are salient to research on researchers' organization. Autobiographical reflections signal these…

  4. Paradigms of Justice and Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patick H.

    This paper examines the philosophy behind the Pulse Program of Boston College and its attempt at integrating theory and practice and transforming student's paradigms of justice and love. The basic idea of the program, begun in the fall of 1969, is that students receive academic credit for participation in off-campus field projects which have a…

  5. Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Terry B.

    2013-01-01

    During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics. PMID:23676457

  6. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  7. The Eyes Know Time: A Novel Paradigm to Reveal the Development of Temporal Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Temporal memory in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and young adults (N = 78) was examined introducing a novel eye-movement paradigm. Participants learned object sequences and were tested under three conditions: temporal order, temporal context, and recognition. Age-related improvements in accuracy were found across conditions; accuracy in the temporal…

  8. Science-Technology-Society (STS): A New Paradigm in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the past two decades of goals for science education in schools have induced new orientations in science education worldwide. One of the emerging complementary approaches was the science-technology-society (STS) movement. STS has been called the current megatrend in science education. Others have called it a paradigm shift for the field…

  9. Selection and Inhibition in Infancy: Evidence from the Spatial Negative Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, D.; Johnson, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a spatial negative priming (SNP) paradigm to examine visual selective attention in infants and adults using eye movements as the motor selection measure. In SNP, when a previously ignored location becomes the target to be selected, responses to it are impaired, providing a measure of inhibitory selection. Each trial consisted of a prime…

  10. Is there symmetry in motor imagery? Exploring different versions of the mental chronometry paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery and motor execution share similar processes. However, only some factors that affect motor execution affect motor imagery in the same way. We investigated whether bimanual coordination constraints (parallel movements are performed slower than symmetric movements) are observed in motor imagery and whether the way of implementing the mental chronometry paradigm, which is used to investigate motor imagery, influences the results. Participants imagined and executed repetitive symmetric and parallel bimanual movements in three different tasks. Participants performed a certain number of movement repetitions (number task), repeated movements for a fixed duration (duration task), and performed movements in synchrony with pacing sounds (synchronization task). In both, imagination and execution, inter-response intervals were longer with parallel movements than with symmetric movements (number task and duration task), and the percentage of correct movements was lower with parallel than with symmetric movements (synchronization task). Performance of imagined and executed movements was correlated in all tasks. However, imagination took longer or was rated as less accurate than execution, and in the synchronization task the coordination constraint affected accuracy more in execution than in imagination. Thus, motor imagery and overt execution involve shared and unique processes. The synchronization task offers a promising alternative to investigate motor imagery, because the speed-accuracy trade-off is taken into account, different tempi can be used, and psychometric functions can be calculated. PMID:27173486

  11. Mitonuclear Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes were born of a chimeric union between two prokaryotes—the progenitors of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Early in eukaryote evolution, most mitochondrial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus, but a core set of genes that code exclusively for products associated with the electron transport system remained in the mitochondrion. The products of these mitochondrial genes work in intimate association with the products of nuclear genes to enable oxidative phosphorylation and core energy production. The need for coadaptation, the challenge of cotransmission, and the possibility of genomic conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have profound consequences for the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic life. An emerging interdisciplinary field that I call “mitonuclear ecology” is reassessing core concepts in evolutionary ecology including sexual reproduction, two sexes, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation in light of the interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25931514

  12. Activist Forest Monks, Adult Learning and the Buddhist Environmental Movement in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In the tradition of grassroots environmental movements worldwide, activist Buddhist monks in rural Thailand have, since the late 1980s, led a popular movement to protect local forest, water and land resources while at the same time challenging dominant state and corporate "economist" development paradigms. Most famously, these "development monks"…

  13. Validity of Eye Movement Methods and Indices for Capturing Semantic (Associative) Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odekar, Anshula; Hallowell, Brooke; Kruse, Hans; Moates, Danny; Lee, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the usefulness of eye movement methods and indices as a tool for studying priming effects by verifying whether eye movement indices capture semantic (associative) priming effects in a visual cross-format (written word to semantically related picture) priming paradigm. Method: In the…

  14. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space. PMID:22442569

  15. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  16. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  17. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  18. Crossing regimes of temperature dependence in animal movement.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Jean P; Chelini, Marie-Claire; Rosenthal, Malcolm F; DeLong, John P

    2016-05-01

    A pressing challenge in ecology is to understand the effects of changing global temperatures on food web structure and dynamics. The stability of these complex ecological networks largely depends on how predator-prey interactions may respond to temperature changes. Because predators and prey rely on their velocities to catch food or avoid being eaten, understanding how temperatures may affect animal movement is central to this quest. Despite our efforts, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how the effect of temperature on metabolic processes scales up to animal movement and beyond. Here, we merge a biomechanical approach, the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and empirical data to show that animal movement displays multiple regimes of temperature dependence. We also show that crossing these regimes has important consequences for population dynamics and stability, which depend on the parameters controlling predator-prey interactions. We argue that this dependence upon interaction parameters may help explain why experimental work on the temperature dependence of interaction strengths has so far yielded conflicting results. More importantly, these changes in the temperature dependence of animal movement can have consequences that go well beyond ecological interactions and affect, for example, animal communication, mating, sensory detection, and any behavioral modality dependent on the movement of limbs. Finally, by not taking into account the changes in temperature dependence reported here we might not be able to properly forecast the impact of global warming on ecological processes and propose appropriate mitigation action when needed. PMID:26854767

  19. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  20. The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article, the third in a series of four installments, begins by discussing the need for paradigm change in education and for a critical systems approach to paradigm change, and examines current progress toward paradigm change. Then it explores what a learner-centered, Information-Age educational system should be like, including the APA…

  1. Two Essays on the Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    This document contains two essays, both of which discuss the ascendancy of the learning paradigm over the teaching paradigm. "Philosophy and the Learning Paradigm" reviews the effects of post-modernism on student learning with regard to loss of authority in the classroom, lack of academic standards in writing, and perceptions of professors as…

  2. The Composition Curriculum: A Paradigm of Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    The process paradigm for teaching writing has been the dominant curricular model for the past 20 years, but by anatomizing various dimensions of this paradigm, it becomes clear why it, like any other paradigmatic model, will not last forever. To be adopted and become normative, any new paradigm has to appeal to salient features of the prevailing…

  3. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  4. Industrial ecology.

    PubMed

    Patel, C K

    1992-02-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  5. A Review of Techniques for Detection of Movement Intention Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Aqsa; Navid, Muhammad Samran; Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Mazhar, Suleman; Jochumsen, Mads; Niazi, Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG) recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal's acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients. PMID:26881008

  6. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  7. Ecological Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  8. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Brian R; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-11-17

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775

  9. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775

  10. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  11. Movement-related potentials in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Dejan; Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Kopp, Bruno; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2016-06-01

    To date, many different approaches have been used to study the impairment of motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) are averaged amplitude fluctuations of the ongoing EEG activity that are time locked to specific sensory, motor or cognitive events, and as such can be used to study different brain processes with an excellent temporal resolution. Movement-related potentials (MRPs) are ERPs associated with processes of voluntary movement preparation and execution in different paradigms. In this review we concentrate on MRPs in PD. We review studies recording the Bereitschaftspotential, the Contingent Negative Variation, and the lateralized readiness potential in PD to highlight the contributions they have made to further understanding motor deficits in PD. Possible directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:27178872

  12. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  13. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  14. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  15. Testing paradigms of ecosystem change under climate warming in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Constable, Andrew; Wotherspoon, Simon; Raymond, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations-or "paradigms of change"-that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of Earth's most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields. PMID:23405116

  16. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  17. Exploring the Ecological Approach Used by RTLBs in Interventions for Students with Learning and Behaviour Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebestian, Sandiyao

    2013-01-01

    The ecological approach, based on the RTLB Toolkit that guides RTLBs in New Zealand, is one of the seven principles used for interventions for students with learning and behaviour concerns. As a result of a paradigm shift moving from a functional limitations perspective to a more inclusive/ecological perspective in 1999, RTLBs have been trained…

  18. Deep Ecology and Subjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Grover

    1988-01-01

    Describes Deep Ecology and criticizes its limitations. Discusses mysticism, the bomb, freedom, subjectivity and power as they are addressed by Deep Ecology. Stresses the need to teach ecological balance. (CW)

  19. The New Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bioscience, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Describes new techniques and approaches to ecology, including the systems approach, behavioral studies, the use of of radioistopes to investigate ecological cycles and energetics, and evolutionary ecology, all leading to a more sophisticated understanding of complex natural systems. (EB)

  20. Designing for multi-lifecycle to promote industrial ecology philosophy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a design concept originally developed to suit the needs of the agro-industrial sector in the developing economies. It also highlights how this concept fits into other green design paradigms and to the goals of industrial ecology. The need to design for multi-lifecycles arose fro...

  1. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  2. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  3. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  4. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  5. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  6. Detection of movement intention from single-trial movement-related cortical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Imran Khan; Jiang, Ning; Tiberghien, Olivier; Feldbæk Nielsen, Jørgen; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2011-10-01

    Detection of movement intention from neural signals combined with assistive technologies may be used for effective neurofeedback in rehabilitation. In order to promote plasticity, a causal relation between intended actions (detected for example from the EEG) and the corresponding feedback should be established. This requires reliable detection of motor intentions. In this study, we propose a method to detect movements from EEG with limited latency. In a self-paced asynchronous BCI paradigm, the initial negative phase of the movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), extracted from multi-channel scalp EEG was used to detect motor execution/imagination in healthy subjects and stroke patients. For MRCP detection, it was demonstrated that a new optimized spatial filtering technique led to better accuracy than a large Laplacian spatial filter and common spatial pattern. With the optimized spatial filter, the true positive rate (TPR) for detection of movement execution in healthy subjects (n = 15) was 82.5 ± 7.8%, with latency of -66.6 ± 121 ms. Although TPR decreased with motor imagination in healthy subject (n = 10, 64.5 ± 5.33%) and with attempted movements in stroke patients (n = 5, 55.01 ± 12.01%), the results are promising for the application of this approach to provide patient-driven real-time neurofeedback.

  7. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    SciTech Connect

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H.J.; Nelson, W.J.; Brick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-05-15

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over 1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale.

  8. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over ???1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  9. Connectivity Among Salt Marsh Subhabitats: Residency and Movements of the Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined connectivity among marsh subhabitats to determine the structural limits and important components of a polyhaline salt marsh by studying the patterns of abundance, residency, and movement of a numerically and ecologically dominant nektonic fish (mummichog, Fundulus het...

  10. Quantitative studies of bird movement: a methodological review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kaiser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The past several years have seen development of a number of statistical models and methods for drawing inferences about bird movement using data from marked individuals. It can be difficult to keep up with this rapid development of new methods, so our purpose here is to categorize and review methods for drawing inferences about avian movement. We also outline recommendations about future work dealing both with methods development and actual studies directed at hypotheses about bird movement of interest from conservation, management, or ecological perspectives.

  11. Seabird movement reveals the ecological footprint of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Bodey, Thomas W; Jessopp, Mark J; Votier, Stephen C; Gerritsen, Hans D; Cleasby, Ian R; Hamer, Keith C; Patrick, Samantha C; Wakefield, Ewan D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Exploitation of the seas is currently unsustainable, with increasing demand for marine resources placing intense pressure on the Earth's largest ecosystem [1]. The scale of anthropogenic effects varies from local to entire ocean basins [1-3]. For example, discards of commercial capture fisheries can have both positive and negative impacts on scavengers at the population and community-level [2-6], although this is driven by individual foraging behaviour [3,7]. Currently, we have little understanding of the scale at which individual animals initiate such behaviours. We use the known interaction between fisheries and a wide-ranging seabird, the Northern gannet Morus bassanus[3], to investigate how fishing vessels affect individual birds' behaviours in near real-time. We document the footprint of fishing vessels' (≥15 m length) influence on foraging decisions (≤11 km), and a potential underlying behavioural mechanism, by revealing how birds respond differently to vessels depending on gear type and activity. Such influences have important implications for fisheries, including the proposed discard ban [8]), and wider marine management. PMID:24892908

  12. Biomedicine's Electronic Publishing Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Barry P.

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature. PMID:10833158

  13. Paradigm change in evolutionary microbiology.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Boucher, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Thomas Kuhn had little to say about scientific change in biological science, and biologists are ambivalent about how applicable his framework is for their disciplines. We apply Kuhn's account of paradigm change to evolutionary microbiology, where key Darwinian tenets are being challenged by two decades of findings from molecular phylogenetics. The chief culprit is lateral gene transfer, which undermines the role of vertical descent and the representation of evolutionary history as a tree of life. To assess Kuhn's relevance to this controversy, we add a social analysis of the scientists involved to the historical and philosophical debates. We conclude that while Kuhn's account may capture aspects of the pattern (or outcome) of an episode of scientific change, he has little to say about how the process of generating new understandings is occurring in evolutionary microbiology. Once Kuhn's application is limited to that of an initial investigative probe into how scientific problem-solving occurs, his disciplinary scope becomes broader. PMID:16120264

  14. Contesting the paradigm of chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrati, Efi

    2012-02-01

    In 1893 Lord Kelvin coined the term chirality, and stated what is to become the elementary paradigm of chirality: 'I call any geometrical figure, or any group of points, chiral, and say it has chirality, if its image in a plane mirror , ideally realized cannot be brought to coincide with itself'. While the notion of chirality has greatly advanced our understanding of the structures of molecules and crystals, it has been shown to be inconsistent with every pseudo-scalar quantification. In this talk I will present a tabletop demonstration of a chiral structure which is constructed through the achiral summation of identical elementary units which are symmetric under reflection. The seeming contradiction to the definition of chirality is reconciled by proposing an alternative definition, relying on the physicist interpretation of the right hand rule.

  15. Pollinators, pests, and predators: Recognizing ecological trade-offs in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Manu E; Peisley, Rebecca K; Rader, Romina; Luck, Gary W

    2016-02-01

    Ecological interactions between crops and wild animals frequently result in increases or declines in crop yield. Yet, positive and negative interactions have mostly been treated independently, owing partly to disciplinary silos in ecological and agricultural sciences. We advocate a new integrated research paradigm that explicitly recognizes cost-benefit trade-offs among animal activities and acknowledges that these activities occur within social-ecological contexts. Support for this paradigm is presented in an evidence-based conceptual model structured around five evidence statements highlighting emerging trends applicable to sustainable agriculture. The full range of benefits and costs associated with animal activities in agroecosystems cannot be quantified by focusing on single species groups, crops, or systems. Management of productive agroecosystems should sustain cycles of ecological interactions between crops and wild animals, not isolate these cycles from the system. Advancing this paradigm will therefore require integrated studies that determine net returns of animal activity in agroecosystems. PMID:26373855

  16. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  17. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. PMID:26467664

  18. The Development of Coordinated Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanaro, Silvana Quattrocchi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses stages of movement in the first 3 years of life with a philosophical dimension regarding evolutionary aspects of movement as first manifestation of "will." Describes how the early childhood environment is prepared to allow for movement and the connection between movement and brain development. Discusses the contribution of movement to…

  19. Narrative: Mode of Discourse or Paradigm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Walter Fisher's work on the "narrative paradigm." Considers Fisher's definition of narrative too broad and advocates a more limited definition. Rejects Fisher's view that there is an independent standard of narrative rationality distinguishable from the "rational world paradigm," and his idea that the role of the expert in the public…

  20. Shifting Paradigms: From Flexner to Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraccio, Carol; Wolfsthal, Susan D.; Englander, Robert; Ferentz, Kevin; Martin, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on competency-based medical education to: (1) understand the evolution of this educational paradigm; (2) assess the evidence to date of the efficacy of competency-based education; and (3) provide practical insights into how to accomplish full implementation and evaluation of the paradigm shift. (EV)

  1. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  2. Paradigm Lost: The Human Chromosome Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Lawrence; Blystone, Robert V.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses whether the discovery in 1956 that humans have a chromosome number of 46, as opposed to 47 or 48 as previously thought, fits into a paradigm shift of the Kuhnian type. Concludes that Kuhn probably would not have considered the chromosome number shift to be large enough to be a focus for one of his paradigms. (AIM)

  3. Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

  4. Dissociating Movement from Movement Timing in the Rat Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric B.; Powers, Marissa E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural encoding of the passage of time to produce temporally precise movements remains an open question. Neurons in several brain regions across different experimental contexts encode estimates of temporal intervals by scaling their activity in proportion to the interval duration. In motor cortex the degree to which this scaled activity relies upon afferent feedback and is guided by motor output remains unclear. Using a neural reward paradigm to dissociate neural activity from motor output before and after complete spinal transection, we show that temporally scaled activity occurs in the rat hindlimb motor cortex in the absence of motor output and after transection. Context-dependent changes in the encoding are plastic, reversible, and re-established following injury. Therefore, in the absence of motor output and despite a loss of afferent feedback, thought necessary for timed movements, the rat motor cortex displays scaled activity during a broad range of temporally demanding tasks similar to that identified in other brain regions. PMID:25411486

  5. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms in a dynamic complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chao; Zhang, Mei

    2013-01-01

    We study the idea spreading process by extending a recent model proposed by Bornholdt [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.058701 106, 058701 (2011)] to the population on a two-dimensional square area either in the presence of static topological randomness or in which agents are allowed to freely move. We find that the static topological randomness induced by the random distribution of agents in the square area disfavors the common pattern of scientific paradigms, which is characterized by quick rise and slow decline of an arbitrary dominant idea. However, the common pattern of scientific paradigms is recovered when the movement of agents is enabled. In addition, we find that, when the moving speed of agents is low, the average lifetime of a dominant idea displays an optimal behavior. In contrast, the evolution of the model is no more sensitive to the movement speed once it is high enough.

  6. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  7. Stomatal development and movement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kun; Liu, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Mao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Stomata are epidermal pores on plant surface used for gas exchange with the atmosphere. Stomatal development and movement are regulated by environmental and internal signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal transducers of extracellular signals among all eukaryotes. In plant, MAPK cascades regulate diverse cellular processes occurring during the whole ontogenetic plant life and ranging from normal cell proliferation to stress-inducing plant-to-environment interactions. Recent reports reveal that MAPK signaling is involved in both stomatal development and movement. This mini-review summarizes the roles of MAPK signaling in stomatal development and movement. How MAPK specificity is maintained in stomatal development and movement is also discussed. PMID:20855958

  8. Social Indicators for Policy Research and Democratic Action: A Paradigm and Some Examples. Report-73-119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sismondo, Sergio

    The primary purpose of this paper is to present a possible means to establish a new social indicators intelligence system that embodies a relations testing capacity. Major ideas defined and described include social indicators, theory, model, policy research, and democratic action. A paradigm covers the movement from theory to model and action.…

  9. Sitting and standing intention can be decoded from scalp EEG recorded prior to movement execution.

    PubMed

    Bulea, Thomas C; Prasad, Saurabh; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency signals recorded from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), in particular movement-related cortical potentials (MRPs), are associated with preparation and execution of movement and thus present a target for use in brain-machine interfaces. We investigated the ability to decode movement intent from delta-band (0.1-4 Hz) EEG recorded immediately before movement execution in healthy volunteers. We used data from epochs starting 1.5 s before movement onset to classify future movements into one of three classes: stand-up, sit-down, or quiet. We assessed classification accuracy in both externally triggered and self-paced paradigms. Movement onset was determined from electromyography (EMG) recordings synchronized with EEG signals. We employed an artifact subspace reconstruction (ASR) algorithm to eliminate high amplitude noise before building our time-embedded EEG features. We applied local Fisher's discriminant analysis to reduce the dimensionality of our spatio-temporal features and subsequently used a Gaussian mixture model classifier for our three class problem. Our results demonstrate significantly better than chance classification accuracy (chance level = 33.3%) for the self-initiated (78.0 ± 2.6%) and triggered (74.7 ± 5.7%) paradigms. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the self-paced and cued paradigms when using the full set of non-peripheral electrodes. However, accuracy was significantly increased for self-paced movements when only electrodes over the primary motor area were used. Overall, this study demonstrates that delta-band EEG recorded immediately before movement carries discriminative information regarding movement type. Our results suggest that EEG-based classifiers could improve lower-limb neuroprostheses and neurorehabilitation techniques by providing earlier detection of movement intent, which could be used in robot-assisted strategies for motor training and recovery of function

  10. Sitting and standing intention can be decoded from scalp EEG recorded prior to movement execution

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Prasad, Saurabh; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency signals recorded from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), in particular movement-related cortical potentials (MRPs), are associated with preparation and execution of movement and thus present a target for use in brain-machine interfaces. We investigated the ability to decode movement intent from delta-band (0.1–4 Hz) EEG recorded immediately before movement execution in healthy volunteers. We used data from epochs starting 1.5 s before movement onset to classify future movements into one of three classes: stand-up, sit-down, or quiet. We assessed classification accuracy in both externally triggered and self-paced paradigms. Movement onset was determined from electromyography (EMG) recordings synchronized with EEG signals. We employed an artifact subspace reconstruction (ASR) algorithm to eliminate high amplitude noise before building our time-embedded EEG features. We applied local Fisher's discriminant analysis to reduce the dimensionality of our spatio-temporal features and subsequently used a Gaussian mixture model classifier for our three class problem. Our results demonstrate significantly better than chance classification accuracy (chance level = 33.3%) for the self-initiated (78.0 ± 2.6%) and triggered (74.7 ± 5.7%) paradigms. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the self-paced and cued paradigms when using the full set of non-peripheral electrodes. However, accuracy was significantly increased for self-paced movements when only electrodes over the primary motor area were used. Overall, this study demonstrates that delta-band EEG recorded immediately before movement carries discriminative information regarding movement type. Our results suggest that EEG-based classifiers could improve lower-limb neuroprostheses and neurorehabilitation techniques by providing earlier detection of movement intent, which could be used in robot-assisted strategies for motor training and recovery of function