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Sample records for movie sound effects

  1. Movie Ratings and Their Effect on Movie Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A study was conducted to examine how the motion picture Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating system (G-PG-R-X) affects movie attendance. The study also tested the validity of two behavioral theories: (1) reactance theory, which predicts that when a behavioral freedom is restricted or eliminated an individual is motivated to restore…

  2. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

  3. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  4. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  5. Are There Side Effects to Watching 3D Movies? A Prospective Crossover Observational Study on Visually Induced Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Solimini, Angelo G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. Methods and Findings A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Conclusions Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators. PMID:23418530

  6. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  7. Effect of movie violence on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a random population.

    PubMed

    Mattar, L; Zeeni, N; Bassil, M

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about media violence and its effect on appetite and eating behavior. The present study aims at investigating the immediate acute effect of violence in movies on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a real-life setting. A total of 447 subjects (F = 202; M = 239) completed a validated visual analog scale to record their subjective feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat immediately at their way out of any of the three types of movies (horror, romance/comedy and drama/action). There was a significant difference between the three movie categories for the tensed feeling (P = 0.003), anxiety (P = 0.021), the sleepy feeling (P = 0.000) and a preference to eat something sweet (P = 0.019). Horror/violence movie types affected the subject by making him feel more stressed and anxious; however, romance made him feel sleepier and less tensed. Movie types did not seem to affect hunger or appetite directly, but rather triggered some food preferences. PMID:25491496

  8. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  9. Learning Science via Animated Movies: Its Effect on Students' Thinking and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…

  10. Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of watching a closed-captioned movie clip on incidental vocabulary learning in a pre-test post-test experimental design. 120 college students from a college preparatory class, who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL), participated in the study. Two weeks before the treatment, all of the…

  11. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  12. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking. PMID:16446255

  13. Effect of accommodation training by stereoscopic movie presentation on myopic youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, A.; Takada, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyao, M.

    2010-02-01

    The abnormal contraction of ciliary muscles due to the performance of a near visual task for several hours causes various vision problems such as asthenopia and visual loss. However, these problems can be resolved by activating the muscles by alternately repeating negative and positive accommodation. In this study, we have verified the effect of accommodation training that uses the strategy of presenting a stereoscopic movie to myopic youth and measuring the uncorrected distant visual acuity, spherical diopter (SPH), and subjective index of asthenopia obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS). Stereoscopic movies are prepared by using the POWER 3D method (Olympus Visual Communications Co., Ltd.), which reduces the inconsistency between the experienced and the actual senses. Thirty two myopic students aged 20 +/- 1 years (16 males and 16 females) were chosen as the subjects. One group performed the accommodation training for 6 min, and the other group underwent a near visual task during the same period as the control group. We concluded the following from each item of verification: (a) The accommodation training using a stereoscopic movie had temporarily improved visual acuity. (b) This training led to a decrease in asthenopia. (c) The training improved the near-point accommodation function.

  14. Making Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tabata, Yuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2016-04-01

    Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues has been examined in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by characterizing pulsatile intensities with different regions of interest (ROIs). The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point in pediatric diagnosis of brain tissue, was detected from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in a movie fragment. The averages of pulsatile intensity and power were evaluated in two ROIs: common fan-shape and individual cranial-shape. The area of pulsatile region was also evaluated as the number of pixels where the pulsatile intensity exceeds a proper threshold. The extracranial pulsatile region was found mainly in the sections where mirror image was dominant echo artifact. There was significant difference of pulsatile area between two ROIs especially in the specific sections where mirror image was included, suggesting the suitability of cranial-shape ROI for statistical study on pulsatile tissues in brain. The normalized average of pulsatile power in the cranial-shape ROI exhibited most similar tendency to the normalized pulsatile area which was treated as a conventional measure in spite of its requirement of thresholding. It suggests the potential of pulsatile power as an alternative measure for pulsatile area in further statistical study of pulsatile tissues because it was neither affected by echo artifacts nor threshold.

  16. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  17. The Effect of School and Teacher Themed Movies on Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Attitudes and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaskaya, Alper; Unlu, Ihsan; Akar, M. Said; Ozturan Sagirli, Meryem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of school and teacher themed movies on pre-service teachers' attitudes towards their profession and their perceived self-efficacy. As qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed during data collection procedure, mixed methodology was adopted in this study. In the study, one of…

  18. Tvashtar Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for QuickTime movie of Tvashtar Movie

    Using its Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), the New Horizons spacecraft captured the two frames in this 'movie' of the 330-kilometer (200-mile) high Tvashtar volcanic eruption plume on Jupiter's moon Io on February 28, 2007, from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The two images were taken 50 minutes apart, at 03:50 and 04:40 Universal Time, and because particles in the plume take an estimated 30 minutes to fall back to the surface after being ejected by the central volcano, each image likely shows an entirely different set of particles. The details of the plume structure look quite different in each frame, though the overall brightness and size of the plume remain constant.

    Surface details on the nightside of Io, faintly illuminated by Jupiter, show the 5-degree change in Io's central longitude, from 22 to 27 degrees west, between the two frames.

  19. Computer-Generated Movies for Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. H., Jr.; vanDillen, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated movies help the viewer to understand mission dynamics and get quantitative details. Sample movie frames demonstrate the uses and effectiveness of movies in mission planning. Tools needed for movie-making include computer programs to generate images on film and film processing to give the desired result. Planning scenes to make an effective product requires some thought and experience. Viewpoints and timing are particularly important. Lessons learned so far and problems still encountered are discussed.

  20. [Allotransplantation, literature and movie].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2007-10-01

    Writers and movie makers have always dreamed of creating a human being, changing completely a face or giving new hands. The legend of Saint Come and Saint Damien is the first example of miraculous allotransplantation. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is considered as founder work of modern science fiction. In the 19th and 20th century, authors used the advances in medicine to imagine diabolic practitioners or brilliant surgeons to transplant entire faces or hands. Cinema uses special effects to show spectacular operations. The author presents examples of books and movies treating directly or indirectly with composite allotransplantations. PMID:17850947

  1. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  2. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  3. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man, man vs.…

  4. Movie Books: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item annotated bibliography lists books dealing with various aspects of children's films: monsters, television production, filmmaking, kids of the movies, animation, movie stunts, magic, movie animals, and photography. Publisher, publication date, and intended grade level are included. (EJS)

  5. Visual Presentation Effects on Identification of Multiple Environmental Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Masakura, Yuko; Ichikawa, Makoto; Shimono, Koichi; Nakatsuka, Reio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either: (a) for 5 s simultaneously with the sound; (b) for 5 s, 1 s before the sound (SOA between the audio and visual stimuli was 6 s); or (c) for 33 ms, 1 s before the sound (SOA was 1033 ms). Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio–visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set. Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the

  6. Visual Presentation Effects on Identification of Multiple Environmental Sounds.

    PubMed

    Masakura, Yuko; Ichikawa, Makoto; Shimono, Koichi; Nakatsuka, Reio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either: (a) for 5 s simultaneously with the sound; (b) for 5 s, 1 s before the sound (SOA between the audio and visual stimuli was 6 s); or (c) for 33 ms, 1 s before the sound (SOA was 1033 ms). Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio-visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set. Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the conceptual

  7. Millikan Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xueli; Dietz, Eric; McGuire, Trevor; Fox, Louise; Norris, Tiara; Diamond, Brendan; Chavez, Ricardo; Cheng, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Since Robert Millikan discovered the quantization of electric charge and measured its fundamental value over 90 years ago, his oil-drop experiment has become essential in physics laboratory classes at both the high school and college level. As physics instructors, however, many of us have used the traditional setup and experienced the tedium of collecting data and the frustration of students who obtain disappointing results for the charges on individual oil drops after two or three hours of hard work. Some novel approaches have been developed to make the data collection easier and more accurate. One method is to attach a CCD (charge coupled device) camera to the microscope of the traditional setup.1,2 Through the CCD camera, the motion of an oil drop can be displayed on a TV monitor and/or on a computer.2 This allows several students to view the image of a droplet simultaneously instead of taking turns squinting through the tiny microscope eyepiece on the traditional setup. Furthermore, the motion of an oil drop can be captured and analyzed using software such as VideoPoint,3 which enhances the accuracy of the measurement of the charge on each oil drop.2 While these innovative methods improve the convenience and efficiency with which data can be collected, an instructor has to invest a considerable amount of money and time so as to adapt the new techniques to his or her own classroom. In this paper, we will report on the QuickTime movies we made, which can be used to analyze the motions of 16 selected oil drops. These digital videos are available on the web4 for teachers to download and use with their own students. We will also share the procedure for analyzing the videos using Logger Pro,5 as well as our results for the charges on the oil drops and some pedagogical aspects of using the movies with students.

  8. Meteorological effects on long-range outdoor sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klug, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time signals. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.

  9. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Binnerts, Bas; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of this assumption is investigated for ship generated sound in the Dutch North Sea, for realistic ship and wind distributions. Sound maps are generated for zero, negative and positive gradients for selected frequency bands (56 Hz to 3.6 kHz). The effect of sound speed profile for the decidecade centred at 125 Hz is less than 1.7 dB. PMID:27475218

  10. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  11. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Text Size Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  12. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  13. Perception while watching movies: Effects of physical screen size and scene type

    PubMed Central

    Troscianko, Tom; Meese, Timothy S.; Hinde, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, television screens and display monitors have increased in size considerably, but has this improved our televisual experience? Our working hypothesis was that the audiences adopt a general strategy that “bigger is better.” However, as our visual perceptions do not tap directly into basic retinal image properties such as retinal image size (C. A. Burbeck, 1987), we wondered whether object size itself might be an important factor. To test this, we needed a task that would tap into the subjective experiences of participants watching a movie on different-sized displays with the same retinal subtense. Our participants used a line bisection task to self-report their level of “presence” (i.e., their involvement with the movie) at several target locations that were probed in a 45-min section of the movie “The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly.” Measures of pupil dilation and reaction time to the probes were also obtained. In Experiment 1, we found that subjective ratings of presence increased with physical screen size, supporting our hypothesis. Face scenes also produced higher presence scores than landscape scenes for both screen sizes. In Experiment 2, reaction time and pupil dilation results showed the same trends as the presence ratings and pupil dilation correlated with presence ratings, providing some validation of the method. Overall, the results suggest that real-time measures of subjective presence might be a valuable tool for measuring audience experience for different types of (i) display and (ii) audiovisual material. PMID:23145293

  14. Movies in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    Two main themes of motion picture development in America are presented in this comprehensive historical guide to movies. The sophistication and broadening of the movies as an art form and the complex relationships between a period and the movies of that period are fully explored. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the director.…

  15. Choice and Effects of Instrument Sound in Aural Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    A musical note produced through the vibration of a single string is psychoacoustically simpler/purer than that produced via multiple-strings vibration. Does the psychoacoustics of instrument sound have any effect on learning outcomes in music instruction? This study investigated the effect of two psychoacoustically distinct instrument sounds on…

  16. Determining the Speed of Sound Using the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Richard.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple but effective experiment that uses ultrasonic transducers and some basic electronics to study the speed of sound using the Doppler effect. Eliminates the noise problems associated with most sound experiments. Discusses the theory, and describes the apparatus and procedure. (JRH)

  17. Effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Ruiqian; Wang, Di; Guan, Qinghua; Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Jin, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The current researches of wheel vibration and sound radiation mainly focus on the low noise damped wheel. Compared with the traditional research, the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact is difficulty and worth studying. However, there are few studies on the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation. In this paper, laboratory test carried out in a semi-anechoic room investigates the effect of wheel load on wheel natural frequencies, damping ratios, wheel vibration and its sound radiation. The laboratory test results show that the vibration of the wheel and total sound radiation decrease significantly with the increase of the wheel load from 0 t to 1 t. The sound energy level of the wheel decreases by 3.7 dB. When the wheel load exceeds 1 t, the attenuation trend of the vibration and sound radiation of the wheel becomes slow. And the increase of the wheel load causes the growth of the wheel natural frequencies and the mode damping ratios. Based on the finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM), a rolling noise prediction model is developed to calculate the influence of wheel load on the wheel vibration and sound radiation. In the calculation, the used wheel/rail excitation is the measured wheel/rail roughness. The calculated results show that the sound power level of the wheel decreases by about 0.4 dB when the wheel load increases by 0.5 t. The sound radiation of the wheel decreases slowly with wheel load increase, and this conclusion is verified by the field test. This research systematically studies the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation, gives the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact and analyzes the reasons, therefore, it provides a reference for further research.

  18. Cloning goes to the movies.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2006-10-01

    Public attitude research conducted by Biotechnology Australia shows that one of the major sources of information on human reproductive cloning is movies. Traditionally, understanding of new and emerging technologies has come through the mass media but human cloning, being so widely addressed through the popular culture of movies, is more effectively defined by Hollywood than the news media or science media. But how well are the science and social issues of cloning portrayed in box office hits such as The Island, Multiplicity, Star Wars: Attack of the Clones and Jurassic Park? These movies have enormous reach and undoubted influence, and are therefore worth analyzing in some detail. This study looks at 33 movies made between 1971 and 2005 that address human reproductive cloning, and it categorizes the films based on their genre and potential influence. Yet rather than simply rating the quality of the science portrayed, the study compares the key messages in these movies with public attitudes towards cloning, to examine the correlations. PMID:17214211

  19. A Look at the Movies by Baldwin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Notes that James Baldwin's new book--The Devil Finds Work--is a look by Baldwin at the movies, and that it is also a look by Baldwin at Baldwin, and the conflicting and contradictory effects the movies have had on his life and all of ours. (Author/AM)

  20. Effects of multiple congruent cues on concurrent sound segregation during passive and active listening: an event-related potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, István; Szalárdy, Orsolya; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    In two experiments, we assessed the effects of combining different cues of concurrent sound segregation on the object-related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potential components. Participants were presented with sequences of complex tones, half of which contained some manipulation: one or two harmonic partials were mistuned, delayed, or presented from a different location than the rest. In separate conditions, one, two, or three of these manipulations were combined. Participants watched a silent movie (passive listening) or reported after each tone whether they perceived one or two concurrent sounds (active listening). ORN was found in almost all conditions except for location difference alone during passive listening. Combining several cues or manipulating more than one partial consistently led to sub-additive effects on the ORN amplitude. These results support the view that ORN reflects a combined, feature-unspecific assessment of the auditory system regarding the contribution of two sources to the incoming sound. PMID:24816158

  1. The Effect of an Education-Themed Movie on the Academic Motivation of Teacher Candidates and Their Attitude Towards Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was carried out in the fall term in 2014-2015 academic year with the participation of 89 teacher candidates (53 in experimental group and 36 for control group).…

  2. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27099959

  3. "Life" in Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    As biology teachers, we should embrace the ever-increasing appearance of biology in movies and other media as an opportunity to engage students in active learning and to facilitate critical-thinking and investigative skills in the classroom. In this article, the author provides examples and strategies from his experience using popular movies in…

  4. SteroMoviePlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Steve; Pugmire, Dave

    2005-03-14

    StereoMoviePlayer StereoMoviePlayer (SMP) is a software package for creating and displaying stereo movies on a variety of computer architectures and display configuations. SMP is capable of running in serial, or in parallel to facilitate multiple computers driving a collection of display surfaces. SMP utilizes the standatd openGL gaphics library for display of both monoscopic and stereoscopic images and MPI for parallel communication and sychronization between multiple computers. SMP uses standard IO methods for loading movie files into memory and, when compressed movies are being displayed uses zLIB (which is standard in most Linux/Unix;/IRIX distributions) for decompression. A movie file is simply a concatenation of each frame. Each frame is a raw red/green/blue encoding. For stereoscopic movies, concatenation is left followed by right, as follows; Frame0-Left, Frame0-Right, Frame1-Left, Frame1-Right .... FrameN-Left, FrameN-Right To enhance performance, this concatenation of frames can be compressed using the aforementioned zLib compression/decompression library. ConvertMovie is a utility that converts between compressed and uncompressed movie formats. ConvertMovie uses zLib, which is included in most standard Linux/Unix/IRIX distributions for compression and decompression. StereoMoviePlayer consists of 3 main parts: 1-Initialization. Information is parsed from a configuration script that specifies machines on which to run, the movie file and the parameters for each graphics display. MPI is then used to instantiate a movie player on each specified computer. 2-Per-node initialization. Each parallel node creates 2 threads of execution, an IO thread and a display and communication thread. 3-Execution: The IO thread reads movie frames from disk, decompresses if necessary and places the frames in main memory. The display thread copies fromes from main memory to the graphics card for display. The display thread also handles synchronization among the other nodes

  5. Watching and drinking: Expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media with adolescent alcohol use. Design Structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally-representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Results Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior. PMID:19594272

  6. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    pleasant than the same sound lacking an HFC. These results suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized response to complex sound containing particular types of high frequencies above the audible range. We term this phenomenon the "hypersonic effect." PMID:10848570

  7. SteroMoviePlayer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-14

    StereoMoviePlayer StereoMoviePlayer (SMP) is a software package for creating and displaying stereo movies on a variety of computer architectures and display configuations. SMP is capable of running in serial, or in parallel to facilitate multiple computers driving a collection of display surfaces. SMP utilizes the standatd openGL gaphics library for display of both monoscopic and stereoscopic images and MPI for parallel communication and sychronization between multiple computers. SMP uses standard IO methods for loading moviemore » files into memory and, when compressed movies are being displayed uses zLIB (which is standard in most Linux/Unix;/IRIX distributions) for decompression. A movie file is simply a concatenation of each frame. Each frame is a raw red/green/blue encoding. For stereoscopic movies, concatenation is left followed by right, as follows; Frame0-Left, Frame0-Right, Frame1-Left, Frame1-Right .... FrameN-Left, FrameN-Right To enhance performance, this concatenation of frames can be compressed using the aforementioned zLib compression/decompression library. ConvertMovie is a utility that converts between compressed and uncompressed movie formats. ConvertMovie uses zLib, which is included in most standard Linux/Unix/IRIX distributions for compression and decompression. StereoMoviePlayer consists of 3 main parts: 1-Initialization. Information is parsed from a configuration script that specifies machines on which to run, the movie file and the parameters for each graphics display. MPI is then used to instantiate a movie player on each specified computer. 2-Per-node initialization. Each parallel node creates 2 threads of execution, an IO thread and a display and communication thread. 3-Execution: The IO thread reads movie frames from disk, decompresses if necessary and places the frames in main memory. The display thread copies fromes from main memory to the graphics card for display. The display thread also handles synchronization among the other

  8. Collaborative Movie Annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zad, Damon Daylamani; Agius, Harry

    In this paper, we focus on metadata for self-created movies like those found on YouTube and Google Video, the duration of which are increasing in line with falling upload restrictions. While simple tags may have been sufficient for most purposes for traditionally very short video footage that contains a relatively small amount of semantic content, this is not the case for movies of longer duration which embody more intricate semantics. Creating metadata is a time-consuming process that takes a great deal of individual effort; however, this effort can be greatly reduced by harnessing the power of Web 2.0 communities to create, update and maintain it. Consequently, we consider the annotation of movies within Web 2.0 environments, such that users create and share that metadata collaboratively and propose an architecture for collaborative movie annotation. This architecture arises from the results of an empirical experiment where metadata creation tools, YouTube and an MPEG-7 modelling tool, were used by users to create movie metadata. The next section discusses related work in the areas of collaborative retrieval and tagging. Then, we describe the experiments that were undertaken on a sample of 50 users. Next, the results are presented which provide some insight into how users interact with existing tools and systems for annotating movies. Based on these results, the paper then develops an architecture for collaborative movie annotation.

  9. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trávníček, Z.; Fedorchenko, A. I.; Pavelka, M.; Hrubý, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present an experimental and a theoretical analysis of the hot chocolate effect. The sound effect is evaluated using time-frequency signal processing, resulting in a quantitative visualization by spectrograms. This method allows us to capture the whole phenomenon, namely to quantify the dynamics of the rising pitch. A general form of the time dependence volume fraction of the bubbles is proposed. We show that the effect occurs due to the nonlinear dependence of the speed of sound in the gas/liquid mixture on the volume fraction of the bubbles and the nonlinear time dependence of the volume fraction of the bubbles.

  10. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-06-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

  11. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.

  12. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

  13. Displaying Data As Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  14. The Lexical Coverage of Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The scripts of 318 movies were analyzed in this study to determine the vocabulary size necessary to understand 95% and 98% of the words in movies. The movies consisted of 2,841,887 running words and had a total running time of 601 hours and 33 minutes. The movies were classified as either American or British, and then put into the following…

  15. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience. PMID:19445637

  16. Politics and the Movie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Explains how the use of feature-length motion pictures, combined with interesting readings, can generate enthusiasm, discussion, and analysis of basic political ideas, concepts, and values. Reviews costs and identifies specific movies and readings on various political topics. (AV)

  17. Co-articulation effects on sound /r/ in cluster words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S. S.; Dhiman, Deepak

    2001-05-01

    In this study the coarticulatory effects on the formant frequencies of sound /r/, one of the most context dependent sounds of Hindi, have been investigated, by taking combinations of the cluster sounds of the forms C1r, rC2 and C3C4r. In these cluster combinations C1 is one of the con- sonants from (/k/,/p/,/g/,/t/,/d/,/m/,/n/,/h/,/bh/,/w/,/b/,/ph/), C2 is one of the consonants from (/y/,/n~/,/th/,/t/,/squflg/,/m/,/dh/,/k/,/w/,/n/,/g/,/j/,/bh/,/tsquflg/, /dz/,/ph/,/d/,/s/) and C3C4 is one of the combination from (/squflgt/,/st/,/nd/,/n:r/, /ndh/). A database of 438 cluster words spoken by three male speakers has been prepared. The sound /r/ has been perceptually segmented from these utterances and the first three formants and their corresponding bandwidths have been measured. For C1r combination, the deviations of the formant frequencies become larger with the order of the formants. The deviations in the formants for rC2 case are also large and it is nasalized if C2 is some nasal sound like /n~/ and /m/. For the third case (C1C2r), the formant frequencies do not deviate much as in the earlier two cases but the effect of the frication of the combination /squflgt/ makes it fricative. These results are being used in improving the quality of Hindi Klatt Synthesizer.

  18. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  19. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  20. Effect of preceding speech on nonspeech sound perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Joseph D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Data from Japanese quail suggest that the effect of preceding liquids (/l/ or /r/) on response to subsequent stops (/g/ or /d/) arises from general auditory processes sensitive to the spectral structure of sound [A. J. Lotto, K. R. Kluender, and L. L. Holt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1134-1140 (1997)]. If spectral content is key, appropriate nonspeech sounds should influence perception of speech sounds and vice versa. The former effect has been demonstrated [A. J. Lotto and K. R. Kluender, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 602-619 (1998)]. The current experiment investigated the influence of speech on the perception of nonspeech sounds. Nonspeech stimuli were 80-ms chirps modeled after the F2 and F3 transitions in /ga/ and /da/. F3 onset was increased in equal steps from 1800 Hz (/ga/ analog) to 2700 Hz (/da/ analog) to create a ten-member series. During AX discrimination trials, listeners heard chirps that were three steps apart on the series. Each chirp was preceded by a synthesized /al/ or /ar/. Results showed context effects predicted from differences in spectral content between the syllables and chirps. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that spectral contrast influences context effects in speech perception. [Work supported by ONR, NOHR, and CNBC.

  1. Math Sense: The Look, Sound, and Feel of Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    How is that you can walk into a classroom and gain an overall sense of the quality of math instruction taking place there? What contributes to getting that sense? In "Math Sense," Chris Moynihan explores some of the components that comprise the look, sound, and feel of effective teaching and learning. Does the landscape of the classroom feature…

  2. The stream of experience when watching artistic movies. Dynamic aesthetic effects revealed by the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP)

    PubMed Central

    Muth, Claudia; Raab, Marius H.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research in perception and appreciation is often focused on snapshots, stills of experience. Static approaches allow for multidimensional assessment, but are unable to catch the crucial dynamics of affective and perceptual processes; for instance, aesthetic phenomena such as the “Aesthetic-Aha” (the increase in liking after the sudden detection of Gestalt), effects of expectation, or Berlyne's idea that “disorientation” with a “promise of success” elicits interest. We conducted empirical studies on indeterminate artistic movies depicting the evolution and metamorphosis of Gestalt and investigated (i) the effects of sudden perceptual insights on liking; that is, “Aesthetic Aha”-effects, (ii) the dynamics of interest before moments of insight, and (iii) the dynamics of complexity before and after moments of insight. Via the so-called Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP) enabling analogous evaluation in a continuous way, participants assessed the material on two aesthetic dimensions blockwise either in a gallery or a laboratory. The material's inherent dynamics were described via assessments of liking, interest, determinacy, and surprise along with a computational analysis on the variable complexity. We identified moments of insight as peaks in determinacy and surprise. Statistically significant changes in liking and interest demonstrated that: (i) insights increase liking, (ii) interest already increases 1500 ms before such moments of insight, supporting the idea that it is evoked by an expectation of understanding, and (iii) insights occur during increasing complexity. We propose a preliminary model of dynamics in liking and interest with regard to complexity and perceptual insight and discuss descriptions of participants' experiences of insight. Our results point to the importance of systematic analyses of dynamics in art perception and appreciation. PMID:25873907

  3. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O’Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Methods and Results Activation recovery intervals (ARI) measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady state pacing while subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Haemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (p=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, eg for global RV ARI at end of film clip 193.8ms (SD 14) vs 198.0ms (SD13) during the matched breathing control (end film LV 199.8ms (SD16) vs control 201.6ms (SD15), p=0.004. Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths/minute), and was well matched in the respective control period without any haemodynamic or ARI changes. Conclusions Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular action potential duration in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally-induced altered respiration or heart rate. PMID:24833641

  4. Developing Effective and Legally Sound Alcohol Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulland, Eugene D.

    This booklet examines the risks that college and universities face due to student alcohol use and abuse, and outlines procedures that institutions can use to develop effective alcohol policies. Although legal precedents have recognized that colleges and universities do not have a duty to supervise student conduct under principles of in loco…

  5. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a young age.…

  6. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  7. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  8. Galileo and the Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  9. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  10. Effects of high sound speed confiners on ANFO detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyanda, Charles; Jackson, Scott; Short, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between high explosive (HE) detonations and high sound speed confiners, where the confiner sound speed exceeds the HE's detonation speed, has not been thoroughly studied. The subsonic nature of the flow in the confiner allows stress waves to travel ahead of the main detonation front and influence the upstream HE state. The interaction between the detonation wave and the confiner is also no longer a local interaction, so that the confiner thickness now plays a significant role in the detonation dynamics. We report here on larger scale experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminium confiners with varying charge diameter and confiner thickness. The results of these large-scale experiments are compared with previous large-scale ANFO experiments in cardboard, as well as smaller-scale aluminium confined ANFO experiments, to characterize the effects of confiner thickness.

  11. A Collection of The Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video contains computer-generated animation made from still data sets processed by computer to give the illusion of flying around the objects. 'Earth - The Movie' uses cloud data from satellites and geographical data from maps. 'L.A. - The Movie' was taken from Landsat data of the Los Angeles area. This was the first experimental demonstration of the technology. 'Mars - The Movie' was taken from Viking orbiter data. 'Miranda - The Movie' was made from a mosaic of 9 frames taken by Voyager of the Uranium moon, Miranda. The last movie is 'Monterey - The Bay.'

  12. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787

  13. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  14. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.

    Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  15. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  16. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  17. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

  18. 75 FR 45478 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River... filming of this movie. DATES: Effective Date: this rule is effective in the CFR from August 3, 2010 until...; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL (a) Safety Zones. (1) The first safety...

  19. Theoretical basis of comfortable, tolerable and destructive effects of sounds and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Evgeny L.; Ivanov, Vladislav V.

    2011-07-01

    The methodology of theoretical base of sound dosimetry is offered. The physiological approach to a problem is considered, is constructed bio- and psychophysical model of sound effects on human hearing, and values of comfortable, tolerable and destructive sound pressure and establishment its maximal levels.

  20. 77 FR 20817 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of the proposed rate reduction by Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Puget Sound Energy, Inc., 138 FERC ] 61,236 (2012). The refund effective date in Docket No....

  1. Effects of seawater temperature on sound characteristics in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae).

    PubMed

    Kéver, L; Boyle, K S; Parmentier, E

    2015-08-01

    Although the sound production mechanisms of male and female Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) differ significantly, temperature affects them in the same manner. In both sexes, temperature correlated negatively with pulse period and positively with sound frequencies but had no, or weak effects on other sound characteristics. PMID:26177590

  2. 75 FR 73960 - Safety Zone; “Contagion” Movie Filming, Calumet River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR PART 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; ``Contagion'' Movie Filming, Calumet River... restrict vessels from a portion of the Calumet River due to the filming of a movie involving high speed... on the river during the filming of this movie. DATES: This rule is effective from 7 a.m. on...

  3. Characterization of SiO/sub 2/-supported Mo(VI): the effect of calcination and exposure to water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.; Diehl, J.R.; D'Este, J.R.; Makovsky, L.E.; Rodrigo, L.; Marcinkowska, K.; Adnot, A.; Roberge, P.C.; Kaliaguine, S.

    1986-09-25

    Surface structural speciation of SiO/sub 2/-supported Mo(VI) as a function of Mo impregnation technique, Mo loading, and hydration-calcination cycles is investigated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), ion scattering spectrometry (ISS), and laser Raman spectroscopy. More Mo is surface segregated by use of aqueous impregnation techniques than by use of allyl fixation. In both cases, the surface species, which are dependent upon Mo loading, include crystalline MoO/sub 3/, highly dispersed surface molybdate, and silicomolybdic acid. The symmetry within the silicomolybdic acid is destroyed by 500/sup 0/C O/sub 2/ calcination and is subsequently restored by rehydration. Consequences of the presence of such surface species with respect to the photocatalytic conversion of propane are discussed.

  4. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in

  5. Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  7. Superconductor as movie star

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-12-03

    Japanese researchers have succeeded in producing a movie of changes in the magnetic flux lattice of a high-Tc superconductor as it is warmed. They used a technique called electron holography, in which electrons are passed through a superconductor, and flux lines are visualized as interference patterns induced by the electrons as they undergo a phase change as they pass to one side or another of the flux lines. The technique will have application in designing superconductors so that they do not lose their superconductivity when exposed to magnetic fields.

  8. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Matz; Ekström, Seth Reino; Ranjbar, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal (“just follow conversation” or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps. PMID:26168953

  9. Europa Tide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Europa Tide Movie

    In this movie Europa is seen in a cutaway view through two cycles of its 3.5 day orbit about the giant planet Jupiter. Like Earth, Europa is thought to have an iron core, a rocky mantle and a surface ocean of salty water. Unlike on Earth, however, this ocean is deep enough to cover the whole moon, and being far from the sun, the ocean surface is globally frozen over. Europa's orbit is eccentric, which means as it travels around Jupiter, large tides, raised by Jupiter, rise and fall. Jupiter's position relative to Europa is also seen to librate, or wobble, with the same period. This tidal kneading causes frictional heating within Europa, much in the same way a paper clip bent back and forth can get hot to the touch, as illustrated by the red glow in the interior of Europa's rocky mantle and in the lower, warmer part of its ice shell. This tidal heating is what keeps Europa's ocean liquid and could prove critical to the survival of simple organisms within the ocean, if they exist.

  10. Tracking word frequency effects through 130 years of sound change.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Walker, Abby J; LaShell, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary New Zealand English has distinctive pronunciations of three characteristic vowels. Did the evolution of these distinctive pronunciations occur in all words at the same time or were different words affected differently? We analyze the changing pronunciation of New Zealand English in a large set of recordings of speakers born over a 130 year period. We show that low frequency words were at the forefront of these changes and higher frequency words lagged behind. A long-standing debate exists between authors claiming that high frequency words lead regular sound change and others claiming that there are no frequency effects. The leading role of low frequency words is surprising in this context. It can be elucidated in models of lexical processing that include detailed word-specific memories. PMID:25813345

  11. Movie Palaces: Renaissance and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; Friedman, Daniel

    This book explores the potential of U.S. movie theaters as an important national asset. Each of the 4,000 movie palaces constructed during Hollywood's Golden Age, as well as the countless smaller theaters modeled after the grander showcases, has a role to play in the life of today's cities. The first section of the book explores the social and…

  12. All-optical encrypted movie.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Fabian; Barrera, John Fredy; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-03-14

    We introduce for the first time the concept of an all-optical encrypted movie. This movie joints several encrypted frames corresponding to a time evolving situation employing the same encoding mask. Thanks to a multiplexing operation we compact the encrypted movie information into a single package. But the decryption of this single package implies the existence of cross-talk if we do not adequately pre-process the encoded information before multiplexing. In this regard, we introduce a grating modulation to each encoded image, and then we proceed to multiplexing. After appropriate filtering and synchronizing procedures applied to the multiplexing, we are able to decrypt and to reproduce the movie. This movie is only properly decoded when in possession of the right decoding key. The concept development is carried-out in virtual optical systems, both for the encrypting and the filtering-decrypting stages. Experimental results are shown to confirm our approach. PMID:21445211

  13. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  14. Planetwide Color Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The first color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map, and watch its atmosphere evolve with time.

    The brief movie clip spans 24 Jupiter rotations between Oct. 31 and Nov. 9, 2000.

    Various patterns of motion are apparent all across Jupiter at the cloudtop level seen here. The Great Red Spot shows its counterclockwise rotation, and the uneven distribution of its high haze is obvious. To the east (right) of the Red Spot, oval storms, like ball bearings, roll over and pass each other. Horizontal bands adjacent to each other move at different rates. Strings of small storms rotate around northern-hemisphere ovals. The large grayish-blue 'hot spots' at the northern edge of the white Equatorial Zone change over the course of time as they march eastward across the planet. Ovals in the north rotate counter to those in the south. Small, very bright features appear quickly and randomly in turbulent regions, candidates for lightning storms.

    The clip consists of 14 unevenly spaced timesteps, each a true color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. The maps are made by first assembling mosaics of six images taken by Cassini's narrow-angle camera in the same spectral filter over the course of one Jupiter rotation and, consequently, covering the whole planet. Three such global maps -- in red, green and blue filters -- are combined to make one color map showing Jupiter during one Jovian rotation. Fourteen such maps, spanning 24 Jovian rotations at uneven time intervals comprise the movie. The maps were reduced in scale by a factor of two to make them accessible on the Internet at reasonable rates. Occasional appearances of Io, Europa, and their shadows have not been removed.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles

  15. Effect of temperature on acoustic communication: sound production in the croaking gourami (labyrinth fishes).

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schleinzer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Sound communication comprising the production and detection of acoustic signals is affected by ambient temperature in ectothermic animals. In the present study we investigated the effects of temperature on sound production and characteristics in the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata, a freshwater fish from Southeast Asia possessing a highly specialized sound-generating mechanism found only in a single genus. The croaking gourami produces pulsed sounds by stretching and plucking two enhanced pectoral fin tendons during rapid pectoral fin beating. Croaking sounds typically consist of a series of double-pulsed bursts with main energies between 1 and 1.5 kHz. Sounds were recorded during dyadic contests between two males at three different temperatures (25°, 30° and 35°C). The mean dominant frequency increased with rising temperature from 1.18 to 1.33 kHz, whereas temporal characteristics decreased. The sound interval dropped from 492 to 259 ms, the burst period from 51 to 35 ms and the pulse period from 5.8 to 5.1 ms. In contrast, the number of sounds and number of bursts within a sound were not affected by temperature. The current study shows that spectral and temporal characteristics of sounds are affected in different ways by temperature in the croaking gourami, whereas the numbers of sounds and bursts remain unaffected. We conclude that acoustic communication in gouramis is affected by changes in ambient temperature. PMID:25433336

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  17. IO Rotation Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.

    Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.

  18. Personalized Movie Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakos, George; Charami, Matina; Caravelas, Petros

    This article proposes a movie recommender system, named MoRe, which follows a hybrid approach that combines content-based and collaborative filtering. MoR's performance is empirically evaluated upon the predictive accuracy of the algorithms as well as other important indicators such as the percentage of items that the system can actually predict (called prediction coverage) and the time required for generating predictions. The remainder of this article is organized as follows. The next section is devoted to the fundamental background of recommender systems describing the main recommendation techniques along with their advantages and limitations. Right after, we illustrate the MoRe system overview and in the section following, we describe in detail the algorithms implemented. The empirical evaluation results are then presented, while the final section provides a discussion about conclusions and future research.

  19. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  20. Sound Effects for Children's Comprehension of Variably-Paced Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Scott, M. Catherine

    In this study, children's selective attention to, and comprehension of, variably-paced television programs were examined as a function of sound effects. Sixty-four children, equally distributed by sex and by preschool and fourth grades, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions which crossed two levels of sound effects (presence…

  1. The Influence of Electronic Sound Effects on Learning from Televised and Live Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Wyss, Nancy; Somanader, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infants rapidly accrue information via imitation from multiple sources, including television and electronic toys. In two experiments, we examined whether adding sound effects to video or live demonstrations would influence imitation by 6-, 12-, and 18-month-olds. In Experiment 1, we added matching and mismatching sound effects to target actions…

  2. Effect of Gender and Sound Spatialization on Speech Intelligibility in Multiple Speaker Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Iyer, M.; Gupta, N.; Barreto, A.

    In multiple speaker environments such as teleconferences we observe a loss of intelligibility, particularly if the sound is monaural in nature. In this study, we exploit the "Cocktail Party Effect", where a person can isolate one sound above all others using sound localization and gender cues. To improve clarity of speech, each speaker is assigned a direction using Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) which creates an auditory map of multiple conversations. A mixture of male and female voices is used to improve comprehension.

  3. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown....

  4. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown....

  5. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown....

  6. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown....

  7. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown....

  8. Sill effects on physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Jia, Yan; McManus, Pearse M.; Kunz, Christopher J.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates how Mattituck Sill influences circulation patterns and physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound, a major estuary on the U.S. east coast. Observations show there is pronounced across-estuary transport in the area and suggest there may be subtidal anticyclonic flow around the sill. Model runs, with and without sill bathymetry, exhibit this across-estuary transport and anticyclonic circulation. Comparison between these runs indicates that the sill intensifies the anticyclonic circulation. This study finds the sill does not exert internal hydraulic control during neap, mean, or spring tidal conditions. Nevertheless, along-estuary exchange is reduced over the sill and across-estuary fluxes are increased. The Connecticut River plume enters close to the estuary mouth. The sill deflects more of the plume waters towards the mouth, causing less freshwater to take the long looping route through the estuary. The subtidal circulation balance around the sill indicates a barotropic balance between the tidal advection of tidal vorticity and friction. The subtidal vorticity balance indicates the net effect of tidal advection of relative vorticity is balanced with frictional curl associated with lateral speed gradients and vorticity dissipation. Previously developed scalings based on the circulation balance (Nature 290:549-555, 1981), frictional vorticity generation mechanisms (Deep-Sea Res 28:195-212, 1981), and tidal diffusion of potential vorticity (J Phys Oceanogr 29:821-827, 1999) are applicable to Mattituck Sill and predict circulation with a similar magnitudes to model results.

  9. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF DIVERSE SOUNDS ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Haruka; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    With the goal of facilitating the creation of relaxing sound environments in stressful places, such as offices, we examined differences in the heart rate fluctuations of men and women induced by different sounds. Twenty-three healthy students (13 males and 10 females) aged between 18 and 23 listened to seven different sounds while we collected electrocardiogram data. We extracted the high frequency component (HF) and low frequency component (LF) of the signals using the wavelet method, and calculated LF/HF. We found no statistically significant differences between males and females in the frequency distribution of a no change group, increased group, and decreased group for any sound. However, certain sounds had somewhat similar patterns for men and women for all three groups. Additionally, the pairs of experimental sounds with highly similar effects on individuals were different for men and women. PMID:27501540

  10. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  11. Still from Planetwide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This single frame from a color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to unpeel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map.

    The image is a color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. It was produced from six images taken by Cassini's narrow-band camera on Oct. 31, 2000, in each of three filters: red, green and blue.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles) across. In a map of this type, the most extreme northern and southern latitudes are unnaturally stretched out.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Long Island Sound: Distributions, trends, and effects of chemical contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, D.D.; O'Connor, T.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Trace metals and organic contaminants concentrations are monitored annually in surface sediments, blue mussel tissue, and winter flounder livers at multiple sites in Long Island Sound by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends (NS and T) program for Marine Environmental Quality. The NS and T program is also conducting various studies on the bioeffects of contaminants in the sound. Three years of monitoring results indicate organic and elemental contaminants concentrations in sediments and biota at sites in the western portion of the sound are high on a national scale. Possible decreasing trends in cadmium and chlordane in the second are suggested by the 1986-1988 data for their concentrations in mussels. A comparison between NS and T Mussel Watch results and those of the Environmental Protection Agency's Mussel Watch, conducted from 1976 through 1978, indicated a decadal increase in copper concentrations and a decrease in lead in the sound. Bioeffects studies in the sound have revealed responses in contamination only in localized zones where contaminant levels are very high.

  13. Effects of sounding temperature assimilation on weather forecasting - Model dependence studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Halem, M.; Atlas, R.

    1979-01-01

    In comparing various methods for the assimilation of remote sounding information into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the problem of model dependence for the different results obtained becomes important. The paper investigates two aspects of the model dependence question: (1) the effect of increasing horizontal resolution within a given model on the assimilation of sounding data, and (2) the effect of using two entirely different models with the same assimilation method and sounding data. Tentative conclusions reached are: first, that model improvement as exemplified by increased resolution, can act in the same direction as judicious 4-D assimilation of remote sounding information, to improve 2-3 day numerical weather forecasts. Second, that the time continuous 4-D methods developed at GLAS have similar beneficial effects when used in the assimilation of remote sounding information into NWP models with very different numerical and physical characteristics.

  14. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deymier, P. A.; Swinteck, N.; Runge, K.; Deymier-Black, A.; Hoying, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  15. [Smoking in movies -- a new way of promotion].

    PubMed

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Smoking in movies is a neglected aspect, even in Romania. The tobacco industry find out earlier what could be the impact of smoking on the initiation on smoking in teenagers. Later, we had reactions. In this article I am reviewing, from a epidemiological point of view, the effect of smoking in movies and I am analyzing the modalities of fighting and the actions for winning, also for teenagers, this battle in tobacco control. PMID:22545490

  16. Dynamics of movie competition and popularity spreading in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C H; Cimini, G; Jin, C-H

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to study movie competition in recommender systems. Movies of heterogeneous quality compete against each other through viewers' reviews and generate interesting dynamics at the box office. By assuming mean-field interactions between the competing movies, we show that the runaway effect of popularity spreading is triggered by defeating the average review score, leading to box-office hits: Popularity rises and peaks before fade-out. The average review score thus characterizes the critical movie quality necessary for transition from box-office bombs to blockbusters. The major factors affecting the critical review score are examined. By iterating the mean-field dynamical equations, we obtain qualitative agreements with simulations and real systems in the dynamical box-office forms, revealing the significant role of competition in understanding box-office dynamics. PMID:21405742

  17. Dynamics of movie competition and popularity spreading in recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, C. H.; Cimini, G.; Jin, C.-H.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to study movie competition in recommender systems. Movies of heterogeneous quality compete against each other through viewers’ reviews and generate interesting dynamics at the box office. By assuming mean-field interactions between the competing movies, we show that the runaway effect of popularity spreading is triggered by defeating the average review score, leading to box-office hits: Popularity rises and peaks before fade-out. The average review score thus characterizes the critical movie quality necessary for transition from box-office bombs to blockbusters. The major factors affecting the critical review score are examined. By iterating the mean-field dynamical equations, we obtain qualitative agreements with simulations and real systems in the dynamical box-office forms, revealing the significant role of competition in understanding box-office dynamics.

  18. Slide identification for lecture movies by matching characters and images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Noriaki; Takebe, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi; Yokota, Haruo

    2003-12-01

    Slide identification is very important when creating e-Learning materials as it detects slides being changed during lecture movies. Simply detecting the change would not be enough for e-Learning purposes. Because, which slide is now displayed in the frame is also important for creating e-Learning materials. A matching technique combined with a presentation file containing answer information is very useful in identifying slides in a movie frame. We propose two methods for slide identification in this paper. The first is character-based, which uses the relationship between the character code and its coordinates. The other is image-based, which uses normalized correlation and dynamic programming. We used actual movies to evaluate the performance of these methods, both independently and in combination, and the experimental results revealed that they are very effective in identifying slides in lecture movies.

  19. Effect of species-specific sound stimulation on the development and hatching of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Bahr, C; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; Demmers, T

    2015-04-01

    1. Previous research has reported that chicken embryos develop a functionary auditory system during incubation and that prenatal sound may play an important role in embryo development and alter the hatch time. In this study the effects of prenatal auditory stimulation on hatch process, hatch performance, the development of embryo and blood parameters were investigated. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler breeder eggs were incubated either in control or in sound-stimulated groups. The sound-stimulated embryos were exposed to a discontinuous sound of species-specific calls by means of a speaker at 72 dB for 16 h a day: maternal calls from d 10 to d 19 of incubation time and embryo/chick calls from d 19 until hatching. The species-specific sound was excluded from the control group. 3. The onset of hatch was delayed in the sound-stimulated group compared to the controls. This was also supported by comparison of the exact hatching time of individual focal chicks within the two groups. However, the sound-stimulated embryos had a lower hatchability than the control group, mainly due to significantly increased numbers of late deaths. 4. The embryos exhibited a similar growth pattern between the sound-stimulated group and the control group. Although sound exposure decreased body weight at d 16, no consistent effect of sound on body weight at incubation stage was observed. Species-specific sound stimulation also had no impact on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone concentrations during hatch. PMID:25559058

  20. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

  2. Aircraft overflight study. Effect of aircraft altitude upon sound levels at the ground

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.S.; Horonjeff, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    The report summarizes that literature review, discussing sound divergence, atmospheric absorption, attenuation due to intervening hills and heavily wooded areas, soft-ground attenuation, and the acoustical descriptors that are of potential concern to the Park Service as the aircraft flies by. Finally, the report concludes with a summary of the effect of aircraft altitude upon sound levels on the ground, taking all these factors into account. Included in the summary is a discussion of the potential acoustical effectiveness of using altitude as a mitigation measure for any adverse effects of aircraft sound within the National Park System.

  3. 76 FR 29006 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Inv. No. 337-TA-773 In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image... of certain motion-sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components and... importation of certain motion- sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components...

  4. Contextual effects on preattentive processing of sound motion as revealed by spatial MMN.

    PubMed

    Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Vaitulevich, S Ph; Nikitin, N I

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude of spatial distance between sound stimuli is critically important for their preattentive discrimination, yet the effect of stimulus context on auditory motion processing is not clear. This study investigated the effects of acoustical change and stimulus context on preattentive spatial change detection. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for stationary midline noises and two patterns of sound motion produced by linear or abrupt changes of interaural time differences. Each of the three types of stimuli was used as standard or deviant in different blocks. Context effects on mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by stationary and moving sound stimuli were investigated by reversing the role of standard and deviant stimuli, while the acoustical stimulus parameters were kept the same. That is, MMN amplitudes were calculated by subtracting ERPs to identical stimuli presented as standard in one block and deviant in another block. In contrast, effects of acoustical change on MMN amplitudes were calculated by subtracting ERPs of standards and deviants presented within the same block. Preattentive discrimination of moving and stationary sounds indexed by MMN was strongly dependent on the stimulus context. Higher MMNs were produced in oddball configurations where deviance represented increments of the sound velocity, as compared to configurations with velocity decrements. The effect of standard-deviant reversal was more pronounced with the abrupt sound displacement than with gradual sound motion. PMID:25707867

  5. When Movies Matter: Exposure to Smoking in Movies and Changes in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between exposure to smoking in movies and the initiation and progression of adolescent smoking over time among 6,522 U.S. adolescents (between the ages of 10 and 14 years, at baseline) in a nationally representative, 4-wave random-digit-dial telephone survey. They conducted a hazard (survival) analysis testing whether exposure to movie smoking and demographic, personality, social, and structural factors predict (a) earlier smoking onset and (b) faster transition to experimental (1–99 cigarettes/lifetime) and established smoking (>100 cigarettes/lifetime). Results suggest that higher exposure to movie smoking is associated with less time to trying cigarettes for the first time (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI [1.37, 2.01]) but not with faster escalation of smoking behavior following initiation (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI [0.84, 2.79]). In contrast, age, peer smoking, parenting style, and availability of cigarettes in the home were predictors of earlier onset and faster transition to established smoking. Thus, the authors concluded that the effect of exposure to mass-mediated images of smoking in movies may decline once adolescents have started to smoke, whereas peers and access to tobacco remain influential. PMID:22085232

  6. Using Science Fiction Movies in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the use of science fiction movies in introductory physics courses at Spelman College. There are several reasons to use these movies in the classroom environment. Movies are a visual learning aid. Introductory physics students show a strong interest in participating in movie-related activities compared to standard group problem-solving sessions. Finally, these activities encourage creative thinking and can be used to develop writing skills. The students involved with these movie-based activities have included biology and pre-medical majors taking general physics. In the introductory level courses, physics, chemistry, and engineering majors worked on movie-based activities.

  7. Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten; Schliewe, Sanna; Thomsen, Rasmus R

    2005-01-01

    Background Tools for training professionals in rating personality disorders are few. We present one such tool: rating of fictional persons. However, before ratings of fictional persons can be useful, we need to know whether raters get the same results, when rating fictional characters. Method Psychology students at the University of Copenhagen (N = 8) rated four different movie characters from four movies based on three systems: Global rating scales representing each of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-IV, a criterion list of all criteria for all DSM-IV personality disorders in random order, and the Ten Item Personality Inventory for rating the five-factor model. Agreement was estimated based on intraclass-correlation. Results Agreement for rating scales for personality disorders ranged from 0.04 to 0.54. For personality disorder features based on DSM-IV criteria, agreement ranged from 0.24 to 0.89, and agreement for the five-factor model ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The largest multivariate effect was observed for criteria count followed by the TIPI, followed by rating scales. Raters experienced personality disorder criteria as the easiest, and global personality disorder scales as the most difficult, but with significant variation between movies. Conclusion Psychology students with limited or no clinical experience can agree well on the personality traits of movie characters based on watching the movie. Rating movie characters may be a way to practice assessment of personality. PMID:16336663

  8. Effects of indoor rattle sounds on annoyance caused by sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    To expand national air transportation capabilities, NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is working to make supersonic flight practical for commercial passengers. As an aid in designing and certifying quiet supersonic aircraft, a noise metric is sought that will correspond to indoor annoyance caused by sonic booms, including the effects of indoor rattle sounds. This study examines how well several common aircraft noise metrics predict indoor annoyance based on the indoor and outdoor sound fields. The results suggest notional community annoyance models that include the effects of indoor rattle sounds. PMID:26233059

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  10. Effect of Intense Sound Waves on a Stationary Gas Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahnemann, H; Ehret, L

    1950-01-01

    Intense sound waves with a resonant frequency of 5000 cycles per second were imposed on a stationary propane-air flame issuing from a nozzle. In addition to a slight increase of the flame velocity, a fundamental change both in the shape of the burning zone and in the flow pattern could be observed. An attempt is made to explain the origin of the variations in the flame configuration on the basis of transition at the nozzle from jet flow to potential flow.

  11. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  12. The N1-suppression effect for self-initiated sounds is independent of attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background If we initiate a sound by our own motor behavior, the N1 component of the auditory event-related brain potential (ERP) that the sound elicits is attenuated compared to the N1 elicited by the same sound when it is initiated externally. It has been suggested that this N1 suppression results from an internal predictive mechanism that is in the service of discriminating the sensory consequences of one’s own actions from other sensory input. As the N1-suppression effect is becoming a popular approach to investigate predictive processing in cognitive and social neuroscience, it is important to exclude an alternative interpretation not related to prediction. According to the attentional account, the N1 suppression is due to a difference in the allocation of attention between self- and externally-initiated sounds. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the allocation of attention to the sounds in different blocks: Attention was directed either to the sounds, to the own motor acts or to visual stimuli. If attention causes the N1-suppression effect, then manipulating attention should affect the effect for self-initiated sounds. Results We found N1 suppression in all conditions. The N1 per se was affected by attention, but there was no interaction between attention and self-initiation effects. This implies that self-initiation N1 effects are not caused by attention. Conclusions The present results support the assumption that the N1-suppression effect for self-initiated sounds indicates the operation of an internal predictive mechanism. Furthermore, while attention had an influence on the N1a, N1b, and N1c components, the N1-suppression effect was confined to the N1b and N1c subcomponents suggesting that the major contribution to the auditory N1-suppression effect is circumscribed to late N1 components. PMID:23281832

  13. Effects of sound exposure on the growth and intracellular macromolecular synthesis of E. coli k-12

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Microbes, as one of the primary producers of the biosphere, play an important role in ecosystems. Exploring the mechanism of adaptation and resistance of microbial population to various environmental factors has come into focus in the fields of modern microbial ecology and molecular ecology. However, facing the increasingly serious problem of acoustic pollution, very few efforts have been put forth into studying the relation of single cell organisms and sound field exposure. Herein, we studied the biological effects of sound exposure on the growth of E. coli K-12 with different acoustic parameters. The effects of sound exposure on the intracellular macromolecular synthesis and cellular morphology of E. coli K-12 were also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that E. coli K-12 exposed to sound waves owned a higher biomass and a faster specific growth rate compared to the control group. Also, the average length of E. coli K-12 cells increased more than 27.26%. The maximum biomass and maximum specific growth rate of the stimulation group by 8000 Hz, 80dB sound wave was about 1.7 times and 2.5 times that of the control group, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that E. coli K-12 can respond rapidly to sound stress at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by promoting the synthesis of intracellular RNA and total protein. Some potential mechanisms may be involved in the responses of bacterial cells to sound stress. PMID:27077011

  14. Effects of sound exposure on the growth and intracellular macromolecular synthesis of E. coli k-12.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shaobin; Zhang, Yongzhu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Microbes, as one of the primary producers of the biosphere, play an important role in ecosystems. Exploring the mechanism of adaptation and resistance of microbial population to various environmental factors has come into focus in the fields of modern microbial ecology and molecular ecology. However, facing the increasingly serious problem of acoustic pollution, very few efforts have been put forth into studying the relation of single cell organisms and sound field exposure. Herein, we studied the biological effects of sound exposure on the growth of E. coli K-12 with different acoustic parameters. The effects of sound exposure on the intracellular macromolecular synthesis and cellular morphology of E. coli K-12 were also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that E. coli K-12 exposed to sound waves owned a higher biomass and a faster specific growth rate compared to the control group. Also, the average length of E. coli K-12 cells increased more than 27.26%. The maximum biomass and maximum specific growth rate of the stimulation group by 8000 Hz, 80dB sound wave was about 1.7 times and 2.5 times that of the control group, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that E. coli K-12 can respond rapidly to sound stress at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by promoting the synthesis of intracellular RNA and total protein. Some potential mechanisms may be involved in the responses of bacterial cells to sound stress. PMID:27077011

  15. Effect of temporal decay on perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ho; Ryu, Jong Kwan; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of temporal decay on perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds through auditory experiments. Heavy-weight impact sounds were recorded in apartment buildings with a box-framed type reinforced concrete structure using a rubber ball. Temporal decay was quantified by using the decay rate (DR), defined as the sound pressure level (SPL) decrease per second [dB/s], and the distribution of DR for heavy-weight impact sounds was calculated. An auditory experiment was conducted in order to examine the just noticeable difference (JND) of DR, which was determined by the criteria of 75% correct answers by subjects. It was found that the JND of DR is around 11 dB/s. Based on the distribution and JND of DR, another experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of DR on annoyance perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds in relation to the level differences. The results indicate that SPL and DR significantly influence annoyance perception; the scale value of annoyance increases with decreasing DR and increasing SPL. It was also found that the degree of satisfaction with regards to impact sounds can be improved by increasing DR, by controlling the sound field of the receiving room. PMID:24116411

  16. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  17. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method. PMID:26627793

  18. Estimating the effective sound speed in the bottom in shallow water areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkov, A. A.; Petnikov, V. G.; Chernousov, A. D.

    2015-11-01

    Techniques are proposed for estimating the effective sound speed in sediments in shallow water areas with a soft bottom. The techniques are oriented toward determining this physical quantity for relatively small range intervals on the order of ten depths. The estimates are based on comparison of the experimental results and calculations of the characteristics of low-frequency sound fields propagating in these water areas. It is proposed to find this sound speed quantity by calculating its value for which the best agreement between experiment and calculation occurs. We present the results of testing the proposed techniques in experiments in the Klyaz'ma reservoir.

  19. New considerations for the cognitive locus of impairment in the irrelevant-sound effect.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kirk A; Arnell, Karen M

    2012-08-01

    The finding that serial recall performance for visually presented items is impaired by concurrently presented task-irrelevant speech or sounds is referred to as the irrelevant-speech/-sound effect (ISE). Substantial evidence has indicated that the impairment of serial rehearsal can result in an ISE, and this may be explained by several models. The present series of experiments has demonstrated an ISE in surprise nonserial recognition tasks in which participants were unaware of the need to maintain a large number of visual items for a later memory test, suggesting that neither the rehearsal nor maintenance of order information is necessary for observing the ISE. This effect was observed for both steady-state and changing-state irrelevant sounds, suggesting that the present results do not derive from a confusion of order information, but instead provide evidence that identity representations can also be impaired by irrelevant sound. PMID:22371164

  20. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  1. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool. PMID:22726432

  2. Beyond the Movie Screen: An Antarctic Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajigal, Aris Reynold V.; Chamrat, Suthida; Tippins, Deborah; Mueller, Mike; Thomson, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Movies depicting science-related issues often capture the attention of today's youth. As an instructional tool, movies can take us beyond the drama and action and thrilling scenes. In this article we share our experiences of using the movie "Eight Below" as a centerpiece for developing high school students' understanding of basic chemistry…

  3. VHS Movies: Perturbations for Morphogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Danny L.

    This paper discusses the concept of a family system in terms of an interactive system of interrelated, interdependent parts and suggests that VHS movies can act as perturbations, i.e., change promoting agents, for certain dysfunctional family systems. Several distinct characteristics of a family system are defined with particular emphasis on…

  4. Grasping the Social through Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Nilgun Fehim; Senses, Nazli; Ayan, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    In Turkey, one of the major challenges that university education faces is the indifference of young people towards social issues. The aim of this article is to contribute to the "practice" of critical pedagogy by proposing that showing movies is an important critical teaching method with the power both to give pleasure to the students and to…

  5. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals--Acoustic Threshold Levels for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold... the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal species under NOAA's jurisdiction. The guidance... anthropogenic sound sources. NOAA solicits public comment on the draft guidance. DATES: Comments must...

  6. Sound localization in reverberant environments: physiological bases of the precedence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Miles Andrew McLean

    Localization dominance, a phenomenon of the precedence effect, refers to the dominance of directional cues conveyed by sound arriving directly from the source over cues conveyed by reflected copies on the perception of sound source location. One theory of localization dominance is that leading sounds suppress neural responses to lagging sounds (Yin, 1994 Litovsky & Yin, 1998 a, b). Neurons in auditory nuclei respond best to a leading sound and have a reduced response to a lagging sound, supporting this hypothesis. It has been proposed that GABA-ergic or glycinergic inhibition suppresses neural responses to lagging sounds (Yin, 1994 Fitzpatrick et al. 1995 Pollack & Burger, 2002). An alternative hypothesis states that cochlear processing in low-frequency hearing animals alters directional cues conveyed by the leading and lagging sound, emphasising those present in the leading sound (Tollin, 1998 Hartung & Trahiotis 2001). Responses of single neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anaesthetised guinea pigs were recorded to binaural click pair stimuli. Responses of some neurons were recorded before, during, and after iontophoresis of either the GABAa receptor antagonist gabazine, or the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine. Blocking glycine did not decrease neural suppression of the lagging click in 8/10 neurons. Blocking GAB A did not decrease neural suppression of the lagging click in 11/16 neurons. The neural representation of directional cues in the output of low-frequency neurons to the leading click of a binaural click pair differed from those actually conveyed by the stimulus in 20/20 neurons. Examination of the responses of several such neurons indicated responses to the leading click represented a direction between that conveyed by the leading and lagging click. The results supported the hypothesis that cochlear processing of binaural click pairs alters directional cues conveyed by the stimulus. Limited support was also found for the hypothesis that

  7. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. The Effects of Viewing R-Rated Movie Scenes That Objectify Women on Perceptions of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael A.; Mather, Roxanne; Conrad, Sheree D.

    2000-01-01

    Tested the effects of viewing R-rated films on perceptions of female responsibility for and enjoyment of date or stranger rape. Participants viewed nonviolent scenes objectifying and degrading women sexually or animated film scenes. They read a fictitious magazine account of a date or stranger rape. The study showed that males who viewed the…

  9. Variation in Cutoff Effect and Sound Field Caused by Geometrical Structures near the Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Jun; Iwase, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Mizutani, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    The mysterious mass stranding of whales often arises in specific areas in the world. Moreover, vibrational noise, suspected to originate from large-scale construction in coastal areas, is problem. These problems could be considered to be related to sound propagation near coastal areas with a special geometrical structure and an ambient noise environment. We set up a propagation model in a coastal area, and simulated low-frequency sound propagation near the coast using the parabolic equation method (PE method) and the normal mode method. It has been shown that low-frequency sound cannot propagate from the ocean to the coast owing to the cutoff effect of shallow water that occurs when there is a water layer with a basement half space. However, when the water layer has a sediment layer, mode coupling occurs between the water layer and the sediment layer and propagation attenuation rapidly decreases. Sound can propagate to the coast in this case.

  10. Effects of irrelevant sounds on phonological coding in reading comprehension and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R; Coltheart, V

    1996-05-01

    The effects of irrelevant sounds on reading comprehension and short-term memory were studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adults judged the acceptability of written sentences during irrelevant speech, accompanied and unaccompanied singing, instrumental music, and in silence. Sentences varied in syntactic complexity: Simple sentences contained a right-branching relative clause (The applause pleased the woman that gave the speech) and syntactically complex sentences included a centre-embedded relative clause (The hay that the farmer stored fed the hungry animals). Unacceptable sentences either sounded acceptable (The dog chased the cat that eight up all his food) or did not (The man praised the child that sight up his spinach). Decision accuracy was impaired by syntactic complexity but not by irrelevant sounds. Phonological coding was indicated by increased errors on unacceptable sentences that sounded correct. These errors rates were unaffected by irrelevant sounds. Experiment 2 examined effects of irrelevant sounds on ordered recall of phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists. Phonological similarity impaired recall. Irrelevant speech reduced recall but did not interact with phonological similarity. The results of these experiments question assumptions about the relationship between speech input and phonological coding in reading and the short-term store. PMID:8685391

  11. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey–controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Results Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. Discussion In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents’ reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving

  12. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  13. Yaw and spin effects on high intensity sound generation and on drag of training projectiles with ring cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Projectiles containing axisymmetric ring cavities constitute aeroacoustic sources. These produce high intensity tones which are used for coding in the SAWE (Simulation of Area Weapons Effects) system. Experimental data obtained in a free jet facility are presented describing the effects of yaw, spin and geometric projectile parameters on sound pressure and drag. In general, the sound pressure decreases with increasing yaw angle whereas the drag increases. Spin tends to increase sound pressure levels because of a reduction in asymmetry of flow. Drag increases at zero yaw approximately as the 1.5 power of sound wavelength. A significant part of the drag increase appears to be due to energy loss by sound radiation.

  14. Holographic movie: the first step to holographic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1992-05-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. With this in mind, we have developed an experimental holographic movie system and produced a short duration 3D movie. A number of dolls and moving objects were positioned within a background and illuminated with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). Conventional film-making techniques were used during holographic recording to create a more attractive sequence. The techniques included stop-motion, tracking, enhanced depth perception, up-shots, and overlaps. A series of 300 Fresnel type holograms was recorded on standard holographic films. An interesting technical point is that the film was 10 mm high by 200 mm wide. After developing, the films were sandwiched between two rigid acrylic drums (about 1 m in diameter). The drum is rotated and the films illuminated with the He-Ne laser. The display speed can be varied from 6 to 24 frames per second. The films are viewed through a window. Even though this prototype is relatively primitive the resulting holographic movie is quite effective. Several interesting effects were noted. For example, it was found that objects in the movie must not rapidly shift their depth because the human eye cannot track them is they do.

  15. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  16. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity. PMID:25883580

  17. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity. PMID:25883580

  18. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic-Raznatovic, Svetlana; Dragojevic-Dikic, Svetlana; Rakic, Snezana; Nikolic, Branka; Plesinac, Snezana; Tasic, Lidija; Perisic, Zivko; Sovilj, Mirjana; Adamovic, Tatjana; Koruga, Djuro

    2014-01-01

    Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS) and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB) and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1) shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2) shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction. PMID:24719851

  19. Meteorological effects of ionospheric disturbances from vertical radio sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Shpynev, B. G.; Ratovsky, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    We studied ionospheric disturbances caused by the wave-like processes in the middle atmosphere. The ionospheric data were obtained from continuous measurements with the DPS-4 vertical sounding ionosondes in Irkutsk and Norilsk over 2008-2010. The ionospheric disturbances were considered as deviations of the F2 layer peak density variations from the daily average values. We also used ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the middle atmosphere dynamics analysis, and the Aura MLS data on the atmospheric temperature at the stratosphere and upper mesosphere heights obtained within the above period. The analysis allowed us to reveal periods of middle-scale wave motions in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere during winter seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. The wave motions observed in the study were associated with the jet streams at the stratosphere/lower mesosphere heights localized mainly between 50 and 80°N. The middle-scale waves in the stratosphere were compared with ionospheric disturbances over two ionosonde stations in Irkutsk and Norilsk. A noticeable increase in the wave activity was found at the F2 layer heights during the periods of stratospheric wave activity. For both stations, the maximal variability in the ionosphere F2 layer parameters was observed in winter with the minimal variability observed in summer. The summer-winter difference was more pronounced in the case of the high-latitude ionosonde in Norilsk.

  20. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  1. Enhancing Soundtracks From Old Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system enhances soundtracks of old movies. Signal on optical soundtrack of film digitized and processed to reduce noise and improve quality; timing signals added, and signal recorded on compact disk. Digital comparator and voltage-controlled oscillator synchronizes speed of film-drive motor and compact disk motor. Frame-coded detector reads binary frame-identifying marks on film. Digital comparator generates error signal if marks on film do not match those on compact disk.

  2. Effect of Pile-Driving Sounds on the Survival of Larval Fish.

    PubMed

    Bolle, Loes J; de Jong, Christ A F; Bierman, Stijn M; van Beek, Pieter J G; Wessels, Peter W; Blom, Ewout; van Damme, Cindy J G; Winter, Hendrik V; Dekeling, René P A

    2016-01-01

    Concern exists about the potential effects of pile-driving sounds on fish, but evidence is limited, especially for fish larvae. A device was developed to expose larvae to accurately reproduced pile-driving sounds. Controlled exposure experiments were carried out to examine the lethal effects in common sole larvae. No significant effects were observed at zero-to-peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1 μPa(2) and cumulative sound exposure levels up to 206 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s, which is well above the US interim criteria for nonauditory tissue damage in fish. Experiments are presently being carried out for European sea bass and herring larvae. PMID:26610948

  3. Influence of scattering, atmospheric refraction, and ground effect on sound propagation through a pine forest.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Michelle E; White, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Sound propagation through a forest is affected by the microclimate in the canopy, scattering by trunks and stems, and ground reflection. Each of these effects is such a strong contributor to the attenuation of sound that mutual interactions between the phenomena could become important. A sound propagation model for use in a forest has been developed that incorporates scattering from trunks and branches and atmospheric refraction by modifying the effective wave number in the Green's function parabolic equation model. The ground effect for a hard-backed pine straw layer is approximated as a local reaction impedance condition. Comparisons to experimental data are made for frequencies up to 4,200 Hz. Cumulative influences of the separate phenomena are examined. The method developed in this paper is compared to previously published methods. The overall comparison with spectral transmission data is good, suggesting that the model captures the necessary details. PMID:17614470

  4. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-02-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a

  5. Effects of sound level fluctuations on annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of variations in the rate and magnitude of sound level fluctuations on the annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover noise. The effects of tonal content, noise duration, and sound pressure level on annoyance were also studied. An aircraft-noise synthesis system was used to synthesize 32 aircraft-flyover noise stimuli representing the factorial combinations of 2 tone conditions, 2 noise durations, 2 sound pressure levels, 2 level fluctuation rates, and 2 level fluctuation magnitudes. Thirty-two test subjects made annoyance judgements on a total of 64 stimuli in a subjective listening test facility simulating an outdoor acoustic environment. Variations in the rate and magnitude of level fluctuations were found to have little, if any, effect on annoyance. Tonal content, noise duration, sound pressure level, and the interaction of tonal content with sound pressure level were found to affect the judged annoyance significantly. The addition of tone corrections and/or duration corrections significantly improved the annoyance prediction ability of noise rating scales.

  6. The effect of sound intensity on the audiotactile crossmodal dynamic capture effect.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the effect of varying sound intensity on the audiotactile crossmodal dynamic capture effect. Participants had to discriminate the direction of a target stream (tactile, Experiment 1; auditory, Experiment 2) while trying to ignore the direction of a distractor stream presented in a different modality (auditory, Experiment 1; tactile, Experiment 2). The distractor streams could either be spatiotemporally congruent or incongruent with respect to the target stream. In half of the trials, the participants were presented with auditory stimuli at 75 dB(A) while in the other half of the trials they were presented with auditory stimuli at 82 dB(A). Participants' performance on both tasks was significantly affected by the intensity of the sounds. Namely, the crossmodal capture of tactile motion by audition was stronger with the more intense (vs. less intense) auditory distractors (Experiment 1), whereas the capture effect exerted by the tactile distractors was stronger for less intense (than for more intense) auditory targets (Experiment 2). The crossmodal dynamic capture was larger in Experiment 1 than in Experiment 2, with a stronger congruency effect when the target streams were presented in the tactile (vs. auditory) modality. Two explanations are put forward to account for these results: an attentional biasing toward the more intense auditory stimuli, and a modulation induced by the relative perceptual weight of, respectively, the auditory and the tactile signals. PMID:19011842

  7. Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty: Developing a Course on Disney and Fairytale Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    I developed and taught a course titled The Psychology of Disney and Fairytale Movies. This course examined the psychological effects of mass communication on behavior and thought, specifically the stereotyping of women and men and the concept of true love as portrayed in Disney and Fairytale movies. This paper describes the (a) development of the…

  8. Effect of Disorder on Bulk Sound Wave Speed : A Multiscale Spectral Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rohit; Luding, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Disorder in the form of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements/particles in a disordered media (a granular matter like soil) have numerous effects on it's sound propagation characteristics [1,2]. The influence of disorder on the sound wave speed and it's frequency filtering characteristics is the subject of investigation. The study will assist in understanding the connection between particle-scale dynamics and system-scale behavior of wave propagation which can be further used for modeling during non-destructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. Studying the wave propagation characteristics through Discrete Element Models with varying polydispersity and mass of discrete elements in real-time, frequency space as well as through dispersion curves (ω (frequency) v/s k (wavenumber)) can shed light on this aspect by providing better microscopic understanding. To isolate the P-wave from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of elements/particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder on bulk sound wave speed through ensemble averaging of signals. Increasing polydispersity/disorder decreases the sound wave speed because of decrease in the number of contacts between particles [2] but, in contrast, increasing mass disorder increases the sound wave speed (in 1 D chains). Thus we conclude that a competition exists between these two kinds of disorder for their influence on the bulk sound wave speed. References [1] Brian P. Lawney and Stefan Luding. Frequency filtering in disordered granular chains. Acta Mechanica, 225(8):2385-2407, 2014. [2] O. Mouraille and S. Luding. Sound wave propagation in weakly polydisperse granular materials. Ultrasonics, 48(6-7):498 - 505, 2008. Selected Papers from ICU 2007.

  9. Drift and geodesic effects on the ion sound eigenmode in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, A. G.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Melnikov, A. V.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2016-05-01

    A kinetic treatment of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), taking into account ion parallel dynamics, drift and the second poloidal harmonic effects is presented. It is shown that first and second harmonics of the ion sound modes, which have respectively positive and negative radial dispersion, can be coupled due to the geodesic and drift effects. This coupling results in the drift geodesic ion sound eigenmode with a frequency below the standard GAM continuum frequency. Such eigenmode may be able to explain the split modes observed in some experiments.

  10. Effective isolation of primo vessels in lymph using sound- and ultrasonic-wave stimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Do-Young; Lee, Hye-Rie; Rho, Min-Suk; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2014-12-01

    The effects of stimulation with sound and ultrasonic waves of a specific bandwidth on the microdissection of primo vessels in lymphatic vessels of rabbit were investigated. The primo vessels stained with alcian-blue dye injected in the lymph nodes were definitely visualized and more easily isolated by sound-wave vibration and ultrasonic stimulation applied to rabbits at various frequencies and intensities. With sound wave at 7 Hz and ultrasonic waves at 2 MHz, the probability of detecting the primo vessels was improved to 90%; however, without wave stimulation the probability of discovering primo vessels was about 50% only. Sound and ultrasonic waves at specific frequency bands should be effective for microdissection of the primo vessels in the abdominal lymph of rabbit. We suggest that oscillation of the primo vessels by sound and ultrasonic waves may be useful to visualize specific primo structure, and wave vibration can be a very supportive process for observation and isolation of the primo vessels of rabbits. PMID:25499563

  11. Effects of changing in the neck circumference during sleep on snoring sound characteristics.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shumit; Taheri, Mahsa; Mossuavi, Zahra; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Rostral fluid shift during sleep from the lower body part into the neck can increase neck circumference (NC) and narrow the upper airway. Such narrowing in the upper airway may increase turbulence of airflow passing through the upper airway; thus, induce snoring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in NC during sleep on snoring sound characteristics. Fifteen non-obese men slept supine, and their sleep was monitored by a regular polysomnography. Snoring sounds were recorded with a microphone attached to the neck. NC was measured before and after sleep with a measuring tape. Snoring sounds' average power was calculated in different frequency ranges of 100 - 4000 Hz, 100 - 150 Hz, 150 - 450 Hz, 450 - 600 Hz, 600 - 1200 Hz, 1200 - 1800 Hz, 1800 - 2500 Hz and 2500 - 4000 Hz. Statistical analysis showed that increases in NC after sleep were strongly correlated with higher average power of the snoring sounds in the frequency ranges of 100-4000 Hz (r=0.74, P=0.004), 100-150 Hz (r=0.70, P=0.008), 150-450 Hz (r=0.73, P=0.005), and 450 - 600 Hz (r= 0.65, P=0.025). These results encourage the use of snoring sound analysis for monitoring the effects of fluid accumulation in the neck in relation to sleep apnea. PMID:26736736

  12. Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.

    PubMed

    Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated. PMID:22280689

  13. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  14. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-03-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s(-1) for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry. PMID:26883097

  15. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  16. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  17. Effect of Tide on Sound Propagation in the Shelf Zone of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', L. F.; Bugaeva, L. K.; Rutenko, A. N.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of the effect of surface and internal tides on 315-Hz sound waves propagating along fixed paths, 260 m to 23 km in lengths, oriented across the shelf of the Sea of Japan, are discussed. The measurements are performed using self-contained radio-hydroacoustic receiving stations, which are equipped with hydrophones and scalar-vector receivers, and two vertical acoustic-hydrophysical measuring systems. For the sound signals propagating along the longer paths, the intensity fluctuations are shown to loose their linear relation to the tide-caused changes in the waveguide parameters because of the refraction by the sound speed inhomogeneities induced by different hydrodynamic processes. However, it is established that the phase variations can serve as quantitative indicators of the integral changes in the waveguide parameters.

  18. Reconnaissance survey of chemical contamination and biological effects in southern Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the results of a field survey south of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in southern Puget Sound. Environmental conditions were evaluated in two urban embayments, eight nonurban embayments and three areas of the main channel in the southern Sound. Stations were located in depositional areas where chemical contaminants would be expected to accumulate in the sediments. All stations were located away from known contaminant sources in order to provide integrative assessments of contamination over relatively large areas. Chemical contamination of the south Sound was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in subtidal bottom sediments. Bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in flatfish muscle tissues and littleneck clam meats. Chemical-related biological effects were evaluated by conducting amphipod sediment bioassays and histopathological analyses on livers of English sole.

  19. The effect of two different rooms on acoustical and perceptual measures of SATB choir sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hom, Kathryn S.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two different rooms (choir rehearsal room, performance hall) on acoustical (LTAS, one-third octave bands) and perceptual (singer [N = 11] survey, listener [N = 33] survey, Pitch Analyzer 2.1) measures of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir sound. Primary findings of this investigation indicated: (a) significant differences in spectral energy comparisons of choir sound between rooms, (b) choristers' perceptions of hearing and monitoring their own voices differed significantly depending on room, (c) most choristers (82%) perceived that the choir performed best within the Performance Hall, (d) perceived pitch of selected sung vowels within recordings differed significantly based on room conditions, (e) 97% of listeners perceived a difference in choir sound between room recordings, and (f) most listeners (91%) indicated preference for the Rehearsal Room recording.

  20. Analyzing Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Effects on Preferences for Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carp, Charlotte L.; Matthies, Derek W.; Esch, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated effects of stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) on children's vocalizations, but numerous treatment failures have also been reported. The present study attempted to isolate procedural variables related to failures of SSP to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. Three boys diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders…

  1. Movie Portrayals of Juvenile Delinquency: Part 1-Epidemiology and Criminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the epidemiology and criminology of delinquency and how they have been reflected in American films. Analyses show that when movies mimic certain aspects of the viewer's environment, an interactive or "resonating" effect may occur, such that young viewers may be more likely to commit delinquent acts. (RJM)

  2. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  3. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects’ visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  4. Effect of initial condition on the sound generation by flow past a rotary-oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Effects of forced rotary oscillation on the generation of the sound from a circular cylinder in a uniform flow are investigated by direct solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results show that the effect on the sound generation of rotary oscillation with frequency f is equivalent to that of periodic blowing and suction with frequency 2f; the sound field is determined by the interaction between the monopole generated by rotary oscillation and the dipole generated by vortex shedding from the cylinder. Results also show that, depending on initial conditions, different sound fields as well as flow fields can be generated for same flow parameters.

  5. Effects of later-occurring nonlinguistic sounds on speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Wade, Travis; Holt, Lori L

    2005-09-01

    Nonspeech stimuli influence phonetic categorization, but effects observed so far have been limited to precursors' influence on perception of following speech. However, both preceding and following speech affect phonetic categorization. This asymmetry raises questions about whether general auditory processes play a role in context-dependent speech perception. This study tested whether the asymmetry stems from methodological issues or genuine mechanistic limitations. To determine whether and how backward effects of nonspeech context on speech may occur, one experiment examined perception of CVC words with [ga]-[da] series onsets followed by one of two possible embedded tones and one of two possible final consonants. When the tone was separated from the target onset by 100 ms, contrastive effects of tone frequency similar to those of previous studies were observed; however, when the tone was moved closer to the target segment assimilative effects were observed. In another experiment, contrastive effects of a following tone were observed in both CVC words and CV nonwords, although the size of the effects depended on syllable structure. Results are discussed with respect to contrastive mechanisms not speech-specific but operating at a relatively high level, taking into account spectrotemporal patterns occurring over extended periods before and after target events. PMID:16240828

  6. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  7. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... sounds by listening to the abdomen with a stethoscope ( auscultation ). Most bowel sounds are normal. However, there ... sounds can sometimes be heard even without a stethoscope. Hyperactive bowel sounds mean there is an increase ...

  8. Nonlinear effects on sound propagation through high subsonic Mach number flows in variable area ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callegari, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A nonlinear theory for sound propagation in variable area ducts carrying a nearly sonic flow is presented. Linear acoustic theory is shown to be singular and the detailed nature of the singularity is used to develop the correct nonlinear theory. The theory is based on a quasi-one dimensional model. It is derived by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. In a nearly chocked flow, the theory indicates the following processes to be acting: a transonic trapping of upstream propagating sound causing an intensification of this sound in the throat region of the duct; generation of superharmonics and an acoustic streaming effect; development of shocks in the acoustic quantities near the throat. Several specific problems are solved analytically and numerical parameter studies are carried out. Results indicate that appreciable acoustic power is shifted to higher harmonics as shocked conditions are approached. The effect of the throat Mach number on the attenuation of upstream propagating sound excited by a fixed source is also determined.

  9. Tidal residual eddies and their effect on water exchange in Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2013-08-01

    Tidal residual eddies are one of the important hydrodynamic features in tidally dominant estuaries and coastal bays, and they could have significant effects on water exchange in a tidal system. This paper presents a modeling study of tides and tidal residual eddies in Puget Sound, a tidally dominant fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast, using a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model. Mechanisms of vorticity generation and asymmetric distribution patterns around an island/headland were analyzed using the dynamic vorticity transfer approach and numerical experiments. Model results of Puget Sound show that a number of large twin tidal residual eddies exist in the Admiralty Inlet because of the presence of major headlands in the inlet. Simulated residual vorticities near the major headlands indicate that the clockwise tidal residual eddy (negative vorticity) is generally stronger than the anticlockwise eddy (positive vorticity) because of the effect of Coriolis force. The effect of tidal residual eddies on water exchange in Puget Sound and its subbasins was evaluated by simulations of dye transport. It was found that the strong transverse variability of residual currents in the Admiralty Inlet results in a dominant seaward transport along the eastern shore and a dominant landward transport along the western shore of the inlet. A similar transport pattern in Hood Canal is caused by the presence of tidal residual eddies near the entrance of the canal. Model results show that tidal residual currents in Whidbey Basin are small in comparison to other subbasins. A large clockwise residual circulation is formed around Vashon Island near entrance of South Sound, which can potentially constrain the water exchange between the Central Basin and South Sound.

  10. Tidal Residual Eddies and their Effect on Water Exchange in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2013-08-30

    Tidal residual eddies are one of the important hydrodynamic features in tidally dominant estuaries and coastal bays, and they could have significant effects on water exchange in a tidal system. This paper presents a modeling study of tides and tidal residual eddies in Puget Sound, a tidally dominant fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast, using a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model. Mechanisms of vorticity generation and asymmetric distribution patterns around an island/headland were analyzed using the dynamic vorticity transfer approach and numerical experiments. Model results of Puget Sound show that a number of large twin tidal residual eddies exist in the Admiralty Inlet because of the presence of major headlands in the inlet. Simulated residual vorticities near the major headlands indicate that the clockwise tidal residual eddy (negative vorticity) is generally stronger than the anticlockwise eddy (positive vorticity) because of the effect of Coriolis force. The effect of tidal residual eddies on water exchange in Puget Sound and its sub-basins were evaluated by simulations of dye transport. It was found that the strong transverse variability of residual currents in the Admiralty Inlet results in a dominant seaward transport along the eastern shore and a dominant landward transport along the western shore of the Inlet. A similar transport pattern in Hood Canal is caused by the presence of tidal residual eddies near the entrance of the canal. Model results show that tidal residual currents in Whidbey Basin are small in comparison to other sub-basins. A large clockwise residual circulation is formed around Vashon Island near entrance of South Sound, which can potentially constrain the water exchange between the Central Basin and South Sound.

  11. Using Movies to Teach Family Systems Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudock, Anthony M., Jr.; Warden, Sherry A. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    This article reflects a review of research relevant to family systems training and the use of films in the teaching of family systems theory. Advantages and disadvantages of using movies in an introductory-level graduate family therapy course are discussed. An outline of family therapy training objectives, as well as examples of a movie-based…

  12. Machines and Human Beings in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, many movies have presented on-screen a struggle between machines and human beings. Typically, the machines have come to rule and threaten the existence of humanity. They must be conquered to ensure the survival of and to secure the freedom of the human race. Although these movies appear to expose the dangers of an autonomous and…

  13. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  14. 8mm/16mm Movie-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provisor, Henry

    The materials, techniques, and attitudes needed to make professional-quality movies using 8mm., super 8mm., and 16mm. amateur equipment are covered in this guide to movie-making. The pros and cons are discussed of the various makes and models of cameras and lenses. Other topics discussed are: exposure and lighting, choosing film, camera speed and…

  15. Beyond Film: Exploring the Content of Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scacco, John

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the use of movies in the language-learning classroom. The author promotes the use of the movie "To Kill a Mockingbird" due to its content, which involves poverty, racial inequality and mental illness, and to the availability of websites related to its use in English classrooms. The author highlights six scenes for…

  16. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  17. Using Movies To Teach Students about Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using movies to teach students about disabilities. It addresses considerations in choosing movies, gauging the accuracy of the portrayal, and identifying positive images and negative stereotypes. A checklist for evaluating positive and negative representations is provided, along with a format to assess disability portrayal…

  18. Making Movies Active: Lessons from Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Sheri; Rothermel, Jonathan C.; Lusk, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Movies have a long and distinguished history in the political science and international relations classrooms; they provide connections between abstract theories and concepts and concrete everyday practices. However, traditional approaches to teaching movies in the political science and international relations classrooms allow for passive student…

  19. Analysis and correction of ground reflection effects in measured narrowband sound spectra using cepstral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.; Stevens, G. H.; Leininger, G. G.

    1975-01-01

    Ground reflections generate undesirable effects on acoustic measurements such as those conducted outdoors for jet noise research, aircraft certification, and motor vehicle regulation. Cepstral techniques developed in speech processing are adapted to identify echo delay time and to correct for ground reflection effects. A sample result is presented using an actual narrowband sound pressure level spectrum. The technique can readily be adapted to existing fast Fourier transform type spectrum measurement instrumentation to provide field measurements/of echo time delays.

  20. Inscapes: A movie paradigm to improve compliance in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Vanderwal, Tamara; Kelly, Clare; Eilbott, Jeffrey; Mayes, Linda C; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-11-15

    The examination of functional connectivity in fMRI data collected during task-free "rest" has provided a powerful tool for studying functional brain organization. Limitations of this approach include susceptibility to head motion artifacts and participant drowsiness or sleep. These issues are especially relevant when studying young children or clinical populations. Here we introduce a movie paradigm, Inscapes, that features abstract shapes without a narrative or scene-cuts. The movie was designed to provide enough stimulation to improve compliance related to motion and wakefulness while minimizing cognitive load during the collection of functional imaging data. We compare Inscapes to eyes-open rest and to age-appropriate movie clips in healthy adults (Ocean's Eleven, n=22) and a pilot sample of typically developing children ages 3-7 (Fantasia, n=13). Head motion was significantly lower during both movies relative to rest for both groups. In adults, movies decreased the number of participants who self-reported sleep. Intersubject correlations, used to quantify synchronized, task-evoked activity across movie and rest conditions in adults, involved less cortex during Inscapes than Ocean's Eleven. To evaluate the effect of movie-watching on intrinsic functional connectivity networks, we examined mean functional connectivity using both whole-brain functional parcellation and network-based approaches. Both inter- and intra-network metrics were more similar between Inscapes and Rest than between Ocean's Eleven and Rest, particularly in comparisons involving the default network. When comparing movies to Rest, the mean functional connectivity of somatomotor, visual and ventral attention networks differed significantly across various analyses. We conclude that low-demand movies like Inscapes may represent a useful intermediate condition between task-free rest and typical narrative movies while still improving participant compliance. Inscapes is publicly available for

  1. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce. PMID:20562770

  2. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  3. Saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the acoustic wave field radiated by a time-harmonic point source in a homogeneous, isotropic turbulent medium is presented. The smoothing method is used to study the incoherent, or randomly fluctuating, component of the wave field. The analysis considers the effect on the wave of the velocity fluctuations, as well as the index-of-refraction fluctuations, of the medium. An approximate expression for the second moment of the incoherent wave is obtained for the case in which the wavelenght is much less than the minimum correlation length of the medium. This expression shows that the fluctuations of the wave increase initially in proportion to the propagation distance, but that at larger distances they tend to a limiting, or saturation, value. These results agree with observations of waves propagating in real media. It is also found that the mean square of the total (i.e., coherent plus incoherent) acoustic pressure is unaffected by the randomness of the medium.

  4. Effects of small variations of speed of sound in optoacoustic tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Speed of sound difference in the imaged object and surrounding coupling medium may reduce the resolution and overall quality of optoacoustic tomographic reconstructions obtained by assuming a uniform acoustic medium. In this work, the authors investigate the effects of acoustic heterogeneities and discuss potential benefits of accounting for those during the reconstruction procedure. Methods: The time shift of optoacoustic signals in an acoustically heterogeneous medium is studied theoretically by comparing different continuous and discrete wave propagation models. A modification of filtered back-projection reconstruction is subsequently implemented by considering a straight acoustic rays model for ultrasound propagation. The results obtained with this reconstruction procedure are compared numerically and experimentally to those obtained assuming a heuristically fitted uniform speed of sound in both full-view and limited-view optoacoustic tomography scenarios. Results: The theoretical analysis showcases that the errors in the time-of-flight of the signals predicted by considering the straight acoustic rays model tend to be generally small. When using this model for reconstructing simulated data, the resulting images accurately represent the theoretical ones. On the other hand, significant deviations in the location of the absorbing structures are found when using a uniform speed of sound assumption. The experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms and a mouse postmortem are found to be consistent with the numerical simulations. Conclusions: Accurate analysis of effects of small speed of sound variations demonstrates that accounting for differences in the speed of sound allows improving optoacoustic reconstruction results in realistic imaging scenarios involving acoustic heterogeneities in tissues and surrounding media.

  5. Hearing mouth shapes: Sound symbolism and the reverse McGurk effect

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2012-01-01

    In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012) demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height) varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional) effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011), these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929) once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences. PMID:23145309

  6. Effects of instructed timing and tempo on snare drum sound in drum kit performance.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Anne; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Sundt, Henrik G; Witek, Maria A G

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on an experiment investigating the expressive means with which performers of groove-based musics signal the intended timing of a rhythmic event. Ten expert drummers were instructed to perform a rock pattern in three different tempi and three different timing styles: "laid-back," "on-the-beat," and "pushed." The results show that there were systematic differences in the intensity and timbre (i.e., sound-pressure level, temporal centroid, and spectral centroid) of series of snare strokes played with these different timing styles at the individual level. A common pattern was found across subjects concerning the effect of instructed timing on sound-pressure level: a majority of the drummers played laid-back strokes louder than on-the-beat strokes. Furthermore, when the tempo increased, there was a general increase in sound-pressure level and a decrease in spectral centroid across subjects. The results show that both temporal and sound-related features are important in order to indicate that a rhythmic event has been played intentionally early, late, or on-the-beat, and provide insight into the ways in which musicians communicate at the microrhythmic level in groove-based musics. PMID:26520311

  7. Effect of musician's earplugs on sound level and spectrum during musical performances.

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Emil; Zera, Jan; Młyński, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    In this study, change in A-weighted and 1/3 octave sound pressure levels (SPLs) was used to assess the influence of wearing earplugs by musicians on their musical performances. Seven soloists and 3 music assembles performed 4 pieces of music with musician's earplugs donned and doffed. They used silicon custom moulded earplugs with acoustic filters designed to attenuate sound by 9, 15 or 25 dB. Results showed that the use of earplugs affected the sound level and the spectrum of played sounds. This effect was the greatest for brass players. The difference between SPLs in high-frequency 1/3-octave bands and A-weighted SPLs with and without earplugs exceeded 5 and 15 dB, respectively. Similar changes for woodwind, percussion and string instruments were less noticeable than for brass instruments; they were more than 5 dB for 1/3-octave spectra and no more than 2 dB for A-weighted SPL. PMID:21939597

  8. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  9. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  10. The effects of pressure and temperature on sound velocity and density of Ni-S liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H. G.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Kuwabara, S.; Takubo, Y.; Shimoyama, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2013-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of the core material are indispensable properties to estimate a composition in the terrestrial core comparing with the observed seismic data. Here, we report these properties of Ni-S, which corresponds to the end-member of possible core composition Fe-Ni-S, at high pressure and temperature. These properties were measured based on simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique. The experiments were carried out at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamlines (BL20XU, BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV passed through the sample cell and detected as a radiography image using CCD camera. X-ray radiography images from 0 to 180o were measured for CT measurement by rotating the press. An 80-ton uni-axial press was used to generate high pressure with using opposed-type cupped anvils (Urakawa et al. 2010). Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method obtained from the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. The sample density was also determined from the volume of the sample at high pressure and temperature. P-wave sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method using LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully measured the sound velocity and density of Ni-S up to 1.5 GPa. Comparing with the previous results of liquid Fe-S, the effect of Ni on the sound velocity is minor but that on the density can not be negligible.

  11. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie Blowup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Persistent polar storms and zonal winds on Jupiter can be seen in this magnified quadrant from a movie projecting images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    Like the accompanying full-circle movie of polar winds, this zoomed-inversion shows that the polar region has coherent flows, despite its chaotic, mottled appearance. There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar in size to the largest storms on Earth. The spots occasionally change latitude or merge with each other, but usually they last for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of those storms was unknown.

    The mystery of Jupiter's weather is why the storms last so long. Storms on Earth last for a week before they break up and are replaced by other storms. This movie heightens the mystery because it shows long-lived storms at the highest latitudes, where the weather patterns are more disorganized than at low latitudes.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six images or more of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. Images from each rotation were assembled first into a cylindrical map. The 84 resulting cylindrical maps, spanning 70 Earth days or 168 Jupiter rotations, were transformed to polar stereographic

  12. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Pisano, Dominic V.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability is not fully understood. We use intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Simultaneous measurement of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) quantifies the complex differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the partition. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure are measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. At low frequencies (<600 Hz) our results show that SCD decreases the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects become more pronounced as dehiscence size is increased. For frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence can have the larger effect on the differential pressure in some ears. These effects due to SCD are reversible by patching the dehiscence.

  13. Sound Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Linguist Rosina Lippi-Green concludes in her book, "English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States," "Accent discrimination can be found everywhere in our daily lives. In fact, such behavior is so commonly accepted, so widely perceived as appropriate, that it must be seen as the last back door to…

  14. Speech sound acquisition, coarticulation, and rate effects in a neural network model of speech production.

    PubMed

    Guenther, F H

    1995-07-01

    This article describes a neural network model of speech motor skill acquisition and speech production that explains a wide range of data on variability, motor equivalence, coarticulation, and rate effects. Model parameters are learned during a babbling phase. To explain how infants learn language-specific variability limits, speech sound targets take the form of convex regions, rather than points, in orosensory coordinates. Reducing target size for better accuracy during slower speech leads to differential effects for vowels and consonants, as seen in experiments previously used as evidence for separate control processes for the 2 sound types. Anticipatory coarticulation arises when targets are reduced in size on the basis of context; this generalizes the well-known look-ahead model of coarticulation. Computer simulations verify the model's properties. PMID:7624456

  15. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  16. On the attenuating effect of permeability on the low frequency sound of an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenfeld, M.; Manela, A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of structure permeability on the far-field radiation of a thin airfoil is studied. Assuming low-Mach and high-Reynolds number flow, the near- and far-field descriptions are investigated at flapping-flight and unsteady flow conditions. Analysis is carried out using thin-airfoil theory and compact-body-based calculations for the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields, respectively. Airfoil porosity is modeled via Darcy's law, governed by prescribed distribution of surface intrinsic permeability. Discrete vortex model is applied to describe airfoil wake evolution. To assess the impact of penetrability, results are compared to counterpart predictions for the sound of an impermeable airfoil. Considering the finite-chord airfoil as "acoustically transparent", the leading-order contribution of surface porosity is obtained in terms of an acoustic dipole. It is shown that, at all flow conditions considered, porosity causes attenuation in outcome sound level. This is accompanied by a time-delay in the pressure signal, reflecting the mediating effect of permeability on the interaction of fluid flow with airfoil edge points. To the extent that thin-airfoil theory holds (requiring small normal-to-airfoil flow velocities), the results indicate on a decrease of ~ 10 percent and more in the total energy radiated by a permeable versus an impermeable airfoil. This amounts to a reduction in system sound pressure level of 3 dB and above at pitching flight conditions, where the sound-reducing effect of the seepage dipole pressure becomes dominant. The applicability of Darcy's law to model the effect of material porosity is discussed in light of existing literature.

  17. A survey of visually induced symptoms and associated factors in spectators of three dimensional stereoscopic movies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) computer generated images has raised concern about image safety and possible side effects on population health. This study aims to (1) quantify the occurrence of visually induced symptoms suffered by the spectators during and after viewing a commercial 3D movie and (2) to assess individual and environmental factors associated to those symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a paper based, self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire includes individual and movie characteristics and selected visually induced symptoms (tired eyes, double vision, headache, dizziness, nausea and palpitations). Symptoms were queried at 3 different times: during, right after and after 2 hours from the movie. Results We collected 953 questionnaires. In our sample, 539 (60.4%) individuals reported 1 or more symptoms during the movie, 392 (43.2%) right after and 139 (15.3%) at 2 hours from the movie. The most frequently reported symptoms were tired eyes (during the movie by 34.8%, right after by 24.0%, after 2 hours by 5.7% of individuals) and headache (during the movie by 13.7%, right after by 16.8%, after 2 hours by 8.3% of individuals). Individual history for frequent headache was associated with tired eyes (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.01-1.79), double vision (OR = 1.96; 95%CI = 1.13-3.41), headache (OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.41-3.10) during the movie and of headache after the movie (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.16-2.32). Individual susceptibility to car sickness, dizziness, anxiety level, movie show time, animation 3D movie were also associated to several other symptoms. Conclusions The high occurrence of visually induced symptoms resulting from this survey suggests the need of raising public awareness on possible discomfort that susceptible individuals may suffer during and after the vision of 3D movies. PMID:22974235

  18. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    . Neutron scattering is used in soil science to assess the moisture content of soil. The technique relies on observing the effects of collisions between source neutrons and the H atoms in the material under test. Such a system maybe useful in assessing ice content-from within a borehole. Sounding of a several-kilometer-deep ice cap presents some considerable obstacles. There are, however, several methods that could be used to sound the upper meters of the ice cap in considerable detail.

  19. Approaches for evaluating the effects of bivalve filter feeding on nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Marine bivalves such as clams, mussels, and oysters are an important component of the food web, which influence nutrient dynamics and water quality in many estuaries. The role of bivalves in nutrient dynamics and, particularly, the contribution of commercial shellfish activities, are not well understood in Puget Sound, Washington. Numerous approaches have been used in other estuaries to quantify the effects of bivalves on nutrient dynamics, ranging from simple nutrient budgeting to sophisticated numerical models that account for tidal circulation, bioenergetic fluxes through food webs, and biochemical transformations in the water column and sediment. For nutrient management in Puget Sound, it might be possible to integrate basic biophysical indicators (residence time, phytoplankton growth rates, and clearance rates of filter feeders) as a screening tool to identify places where nutrient dynamics and water quality are likely to be sensitive to shellfish density and, then, apply more sophisticated methods involving in-situ measurements and simulation models to quantify those dynamics.

  20. A precedence effect resolves phantom sound source illusions in the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Norman; Elias, Damian O.; Mason, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Localizing individual sound sources under reverberant environmental conditions can be a challenge when the original source and its acoustic reflections arrive at the ears simultaneously from different paths that convey ambiguous directional information. The acoustic parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea (Diptera: Tachinidae) relies on a pair of ears exquisitely sensitive to sound direction to localize the 5-kHz tone pulsatile calling song of their host crickets. In nature, flies are expected to encounter a complex sound field with multiple sources and their reflections from acoustic clutter potentially masking temporal information relevant to source recognition and localization. In field experiments, O. ochracea were lured onto a test arena and subjected to small random acoustic asymmetries between 2 simultaneous sources. Most flies successfully localize a single source but some localize a ‘phantom’ source that is a summed effect of both source locations. Such misdirected phonotaxis can be elicited reliably in laboratory experiments that present symmetric acoustic stimulation. By varying onset delay between 2 sources, we test whether hyperacute directional hearing in O. ochracea can function to exploit small time differences to determine source location. Selective localization depends on both the relative timing and location of competing sources. Flies preferred phonotaxis to a forward source. With small onset disparities within a 10-ms temporal window of attention, flies selectively localize the leading source while the lagging source has minimal influence on orientation. These results demonstrate the precedence effect as a mechanism to overcome phantom source illusions that arise from acoustic reflections or competing sources. PMID:19332794

  1. Effects of coordination and pressure on sound attenuation, boson peak and elasticity in amorphous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGiuli, Eric; Laversanne-Finot, Adrien; Düring, Gustavo; Lerner, Edan; Wyart, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    Connectedness and applied stress strongly affect elasticity in solids. In various amorphous solids, mechanical stability can be lost either by reducing connectedness or by increasing pressure. We present an effective medium theory of elasticity that extends previous approaches by incorporating the effect of compression, of amplitude $e$, allowing one to describe quantitative features of sound propagation, transport, the boson peak, and elastic moduli near the elastic instability occurring at a compression $e_c$. The theory disentangles several frequencies characterizing the vibrational spectrum: the onset frequency $\\omega_0\\sim \\sqrt{e_c-e}$ where strongly-scattered modes appear in the vibrational spectrum, the pressure-independent frequency $\\omega_*$ where the density of states displays a plateau, the boson peak frequency $\\omega_{BP}$, and the Ioffe-Regel frequency $\\omega_{IR}$ where scattering length and wavelength become equal. We predict that sound attenuation crosses over from $\\omega^4$ to $\\omega^2$ behaviour at $\\omega_0$. We predict that a frequency-dependent length scale $l_s(\\omega)$ and speed of sound $\

  2. Effect of hydrochloric acid on sound absorption and relaxation frequency in magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F. H.

    2002-05-01

    The epic work of Kurtze and Tamm on sound absorption spectroscopy in divalent sulfate electrolyte solutions (1953) from the low-kHz region up to over 200 MHz revealed astonishing variability at frequencies below 10 MHz and a common relaxation frequency at about 200 MHz. For magnesium sulfate [Epsom salts] solutions, the salt producing 30× the absorption of fresh water below the 100-kHz region in the oceans at low concentrations [~0.02 moles/liter], Kurtze and Tamm investigated the effects of adding HC1 or H2SO4. They found that as formal pH increased, the results were different for these acids in reducing the sound absorption. Fisher (1983) found that if the absorption was plotted against free hydrogen, ion concentration was the same. We used the 100-liter titanium sphere, a spare ballast tank from the WHOI submarine ALVIN. With precise temperature control, we found an increase in the relaxation frequency as HC1 was added in conjunction with the reduction in sound absorption. The results will be presented and an explanation will be proposed in the context of the Eigen and Tamm multistate dissociation model for MgSO4 (1962) which explains the effects of pressure on both absorption and conductance. [Work supported by ONR.] The author acknowledges C. C. Hsu for his work on this project.

  3. The effect of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient on sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    It is observed in some experimental studies on canine vocal folds (VFs) that the inferior aspect of the vocal fold (VF) is much stiffer than the superior aspect under relatively large strain. Such vertical difference is supposed to promote the convergent-divergent shape during VF vibration and consequently facilitate the production of sound. In this study, we investigate the effect of vertical variation of VF stiffness on sound production using a numerical model. The vertical variation of stiffness is produced by linearly increasing the Young's modulus and shear modulus from the superior to inferior aspects in the cover layer, and its effect on phonation is examined in terms of aerodynamic and acoustic quantities such as flow rate, open quotient, skewness of flow wave form, sound intensity and vocal efficiency. The flow-induced vibration of the VF is solved with a finite element solver coupled with 1D Bernoulli equation, which is further coupled with a digital waveguide model. This study is designed to find out whether it's beneficial to artificially induce the vertical stiffness gradient by certain implanting material in VF restoring surgery, and if it is beneficial, what gradient is the most favorable.

  4. Effect of respiration on Korotkoff sounds and oscillometric cuff pressure pulses during blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dingchang; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Murray, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement accuracy depends on consistent changes in Korotkoff sounds (KorS) for manual measurement and oscillometric pulses for automated measurement, yet little is known about the direct effect of respiration on these physiological signals. The aim of this research was to quantitatively assess the modulation effect of respiration on Korotkoff sounds and oscillometric pulses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually from 30 healthy subjects (age 41 ± 12 years). Three static cuff pressure conditions were studied for two respiratory rates. Cuff pressure [with oscillometric pulses (OscP)], ECG, chest motion respiration [respiration signal (Resp), from magnetometer] and Korotkoff sounds (KorS, from digital stethoscope) were recorded twice for 20 s. The physiological data were evenly resampled. Respiratory frequency was calculated from Resp (fR), OscP (fO) and KorS (fK) from peak spectral frequency. There was no statistically significant difference between fR and fO or fK. Respiratory modulation was observed in all subjects. OscP amplitude modulation changed significantly between the two respiratory rates (p < 0.05) and between the three cuff pressures (p < 0.0001), and decreased significantly with decreasing cuff pressure (p < 0.05). The phase shift between Resp and modulation of OscP was statistically significant with respiratory rates (p < 0.05), but not with cuff pressures. It is accepted that BP in individuals is variable and that this relates to respiration; we now show that this respiration modulates oscillometric pulse and Korotkoff sound amplitudes from which BP is measured. PMID:24668326

  5. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic stressors on Puget Sound flatfish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lyndal L.; Landahl, John T.; Kubin, Leslie A.; Horness, Beth H.; Myers, Mark S.; Collier, Tracy K.; Stein, John E.

    1998-03-01

    Puget Sound is an estuary in the northwestern United States which serves as the habitat for a number of recreationally and commercially important species of flatfish. Over the past 100 years, there has been substantial urban and industrial development within this region, resulting in heavy inputs of chemical contaminants at selected sites, as well as significant loss or alteration of marine habitat. Studies show that feral flatfish in Puget Sound are experiencing a range of biological effects due to chemical contaminant exposure, including reproductive dysfunction, altered immune competence, and development of toxicopathic diseases, and there is some evidence of reduced survival in fish from urban areas of Puget Sound from increased infectious and toxicopathic disease. Puget Sound sole are also subject to other anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing pressure or alteration of nearshore nursery habitats. The cumulative impact of these stressors on flatfish abundance in Puget Sound, however, is poorly understood. In a series of field and laboratory studies, we determined vital rates and other life history parameters in English sole ( Pleuronectes vetulus) subpopulations from urban and non-urban sites in Puget Sound, and are using this information to estimate potential population level impacts of anthropogenic stressors, with age and stage-based Leslie-matrix models. Initial results suggest that declines in the fecundity component of the model, as observed in field studies of fish from contaminated sites, could reduce the size of sub-populations in these areas if the loss of recruits is not offset by density-dependent changes in recruitment, immigration, or other compensating mechanisms. Studies on flatfish species from a variety of sites in Europe and North America suggest that contaminant-related disease and reproductive impairment are widespread in this group of fish, although substantial differences in sensitivity have been observed, even among closely related

  6. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  7. Longitudinal study of parental movie restriction on teen smoking and drinking in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis; Tanski, Susanne E.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To determine if adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing movies based on rating have a lower risk of trying smoking and drinking alcohol in the future. Design Prospective observational study. A cohort of 2110 German adolescents younger than 15 years who had never smoked or drunk alcohol at baseline were surveyed 12–13 months later to determine smoking and binge drinking initiation. Risk of substance use was assessed as a function of parental restriction on viewing FSK-16 movies (movies that only those aged 16 years and over would be allowed to see in theaters). Findings The percentage of students who tried smoking was 16.3%, 10.9% initiated binge drinking and 5.0% used both substances during the follow-up period. There was a significant effect of parental movie restriction on each substance use outcome measure after controlling for covariates. Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view FSK-16 movies, the adjusted relative risk [(RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)] for use of both substances were 1.64 (1.05–2.58) for adolescents allowed to view them once in a while, 2.30 (1.53–3.45) for sometimes and 2.92 (1.83–4.67) for all the time. FSK-16 restrictions were associated with lower viewership of all classes of movies, but especially FSK-16/18 movies; in addition, FSK-16 restrictions were associated with substantially lower exposure to movie depiction of tobacco and alcohol use, suggesting a mediational mechanism for the association. Conclusions Among young adolescents, parental restriction from viewing movies rated for older adolescents/adults decreases the risk of substance use in the future. PMID:18821879

  8. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  9. Effects of Hurricane Floyd Inland Flooding, September-October 1999, on Tributaries to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 caused disastrous flooding from South Carolina to Massachusetts in the United States, with particularly severe and prolonged flooding in eastern North Carolina resulting in record flood-flow loadings of freshwater and contaminants to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. The inland flooding, water quality, and loadings to Pamlico Sound were determined as part of a multi-agency response to the floods and in an effort to understand the effects of the floods on the greater Pamlico Sound Basin. All major river basins draining to Pamlico Sound experienced floods at the 500-yr recurrence level. The volume of flood waters entering Pamlico Sound during September-October 1999 was estimated to be equivalent to about 95% of the volume of Pamlico Sound, meaning that flood waters could have essentially displaced most of the water present in Pamlico Sound. Nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Pamlico River estuary and Neuse River estuary, the two principal estuaries draining to Pamlico Sound, in a 36-d period during the flooding were between 50-90% of the long term average annual loads. Pesticide concentrations in flood waters were surprisingly high, given the amount of dilution produced by the floodwaters.

  10. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marlon; Calvão, Angelo M; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics. PMID:26322899

  11. Movies, Books, Music, and Adult Fantasy Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlwraith, Robert D.; Josephson, Wendy L.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the relationship between fantasy and media use by examining the fantasy styles of college students and the kinds of movies they attend, recorded music they listen to, and books they read. (PD)

  12. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people’s preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics. PMID:26322899

  13. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  14. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  15. Modeling of Effects of Climate and Land Cover Change on Thermal Loading to Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Q.; Sun, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    We apply an integrated hydrology-stream temperature modeling system, DHSVM-RBM to examine the response of riverine thermal loading to Puget Sound as affected by land cover and climate change. We represent the 15 major river basins and the discharge and temperature of the streams that drain them. DHSVM-RBM integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) which represents the hydrologic response (river discharge) of the basins with the distributed stream temperature model RBM, which represents thermal dynamics of the streams at high temporal and spatial resolutions. We first show that the model construct is able to represent observed historic streamflow and stream temperature variations at sub-daily, seasonal, and interannual time scales. We find that the thermal load to Puget Sound varies season to season, increasing in fall and winter and decreasing in spring and summer compared with long-term base temperature. The estimated annual thermal load is around 2791 cms·K, accounted for mostly by the Skagit and Snohomish Rivers. We also explore the relative effect of projected future climate and land cover change on Puget Sound riverine thermal loadings.

  16. Representation of Sound Objects within Early-Stage Auditory Areas: A Repetition Effect Study Using 7T fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Sandra; Bourquin, Nathalie M.-P.; Knebel, Jean-François; Saenz, Melissa; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sounds are highly complex stimuli whose recognition depends on the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in the brain. Their semantic representations were shown to yield repetition suppression effects, i. e. a decrease in activity during exposure to a sound that is perceived as belonging to the same source as a preceding sound. Making use of the high spatial resolution of 7T fMRI we have investigated the representations of sound objects within early-stage auditory areas on the supratemporal plane. The primary auditory cortex was identified by means of tonotopic mapping and the non-primary areas by comparison with previous histological studies. Repeated presentations of different exemplars of the same sound source, as compared to the presentation of different sound sources, yielded significant repetition suppression effects within a subset of early-stage areas. This effect was found within the right hemisphere in primary areas A1 and R as well as two non-primary areas on the antero-medial part of the planum temporale, and within the left hemisphere in A1 and a non-primary area on the medial part of Heschl’s gyrus. Thus, several, but not all early-stage auditory areas encode the meaning of environmental sounds. PMID:25938430

  17. Effect of sound intensity on tonotopic fMRI maps in the unanesthetized monkey

    PubMed Central

    Tanji, Kazuyo; Leopold, David; Ye, Frank; Zhu, Charles; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    The monkey’s auditory cortex includes a core region on the supratemporal plane (STP) made up of the tonotopically organized areas A1, R, and RT, together with a surrounding belt and a lateral parabelt region. The functional studies that yielded the tonotopic maps and corroborated the anatomical division into core, belt, and parabelt typically used low-amplitude pure tones that were often restricted to threshold-level intensities. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rhesus monkeys to determine whether, and if so how, the tonotopic maps and the pattern of activation in core, belt, and parabelt are affected by systematic changes in sound intensity. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to groups of low- and high-frequency pure tones 3-4 octaves apart were measured at multiple sound intensity levels. The results revealed tonotopic maps in the auditory core that reversed at the putative areal boundaries between A1 and R and between R and RT. Although these reversals of the tonotopic representations were present at all intensity levels, the lateral spread of activation depended on sound amplitude, with increasing recruitment of the adjacent belt areas as the intensities increased. Tonotopic organization along the STP was also evident in frequency-specific deactivation (i.e. “negative BOLD”), an effect that was intensity-specific as well. Regions of positive and negative BOLD were spatially interleaved, possibly reflecting lateral inhibition of high frequency areas during activation of adjacent low frequency areas, and vice versa. These results, which demonstrate the strong influence of tonal amplitude on activation levels, identify sound intensity as an important adjunct parameter for mapping the functional architecture of auditory cortex. PMID:19631273

  18. Effect of sound intensity on tonotopic fMRI maps in the unanesthetized monkey.

    PubMed

    Tanji, Kazuyo; Leopold, David A; Ye, Frank Q; Zhu, Charles; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-01-01

    The monkey's auditory cortex includes a core region on the supratemporal plane (STP) made up of the tonotopically organized areas A1, R, and RT, together with a surrounding belt and a lateral parabelt region. The functional studies that yielded the tonotopic maps and corroborated the anatomical division into core, belt, and parabelt typically used low-amplitude pure tones that were often restricted to threshold-level intensities. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rhesus monkeys to determine whether, and if so how, the tonotopic maps and the pattern of activation in core, belt, and parabelt are affected by systematic changes in sound intensity. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to groups of low- and high-frequency pure tones 3-4 octaves apart were measured at multiple sound intensity levels. The results revealed tonotopic maps in the auditory core that reversed at the putative areal boundaries between A1 and R and between R and RT. Although these reversals of the tonotopic representations were present at all intensity levels, the lateral spread of activation depended on sound amplitude, with increasing recruitment of the adjacent belt areas as the intensities increased. Tonotopic organization along the STP was also evident in frequency-specific deactivation (i.e. "negative BOLD"), an effect that was intensity-specific as well. Regions of positive and negative BOLD were spatially interleaved, possibly reflecting lateral inhibition of high-frequency areas during activation of adjacent low-frequency areas, and vice versa. These results, which demonstrate the strong influence of tonal amplitude on activation levels, identify sound intensity as an important adjunct parameter for mapping the functional architecture of auditory cortex. PMID:19631273

  19. Sound waves induce Volkov-like states, band structure and collimation effect in graphene.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Leyva, M; Naumis, Gerardo G

    2016-01-20

    We find exact states of graphene quasiparticles under a time-dependent deformation (sound wave), whose propagation velocity is smaller than the Fermi velocity. To solve the corresponding effective Dirac equation, we adapt the Volkov-like solutions for relativistic fermions in a medium under a plane electromagnetic wave. The corresponding electron-deformation quasiparticle spectrum is determined by the solutions of a Mathieu equation resulting in band tongues warped in the surface of the Dirac cones. This leads to a collimation effect of electron conduction due to strain waves. PMID:26682732

  20. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  1. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  2. Cosmic origins: experiences making a stereoscopic 3D movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, Nick

    2010-02-01

    Context: Stereoscopic 3D movies are gaining rapid acceptance commercially. In addition our previous experience with the short 3D movie "Cosmic Cookery" showed that there is great public interest in the presentation of cosmology research using this medium. Objective: The objective of the work reported in this paper was to create a three-dimensional stereoscopic movie describing the life of the Milky way galaxy. This was a technical and artistic exercise to take observed and simulated data from leading scientists and produce a short (six minute) movie that describes how the Milky Way was created and what happens in its future. The initial target audience was the visitors to the Royal Society's 2009 Summer Science Exhibition in central London, UK. The movie is also intended to become a presentation tool for scientists and educators following the exhibition. Apparatus: The presentation and playback systems used consisted of off-the shelf devices and software. The display platform for the Royal Society presentation was a RealD LP Pro switch used with a DLP projector to rear project a 4 metre diagonal image. The LP Pro enables the use of cheap disposable linearly polarising glasses so that the high turnover rate of the audience (every ten minutes at peak times) could be sustained without needing delays to clean the glasses. The playback system was a high speed PC with an external 8Tb RAID driving the projectors at 30Hz per eye, the Lightspeed DepthQ software was used to decode and generate the video stream. Results: A wide range of tools were used to render the image sequences, ranging from commercial to custom software. Each tool was able to produce a stream of 1080p images in stereo at 30fps. None of the rendering tools used allowed precise calibration of the stereo effect at render time and therefore all sequences were tuned extensively in a trial and error process until the stereo effect was acceptable and supported a comfortable viewing experience. Conclusion: We

  3. Stimulus-specific effects of noradrenaline in auditory cortex: implications for the discrimination of communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Gaucher, Quentin; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The alterations exerted by neuromodulators on neuronal selectivity have been the topic of a vast literature in the visual, somatosensory, auditory and olfactory cortices. However, very few studies have investigated to what extent the effects observed when testing these functional properties with artificial stimuli can be transferred to responses evoked by natural stimuli. Here, we tested the effect of noradrenaline (NA) application on the responses to pure tones and communication sounds in the guinea-pig primary auditory cortex. When pure tones were used to assess the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) of cortical cells, NA triggered a transient reduction of the STRFs in both the spectral and the temporal domain, an effect replicated by the α1 agonist phenylephrine whereas α2 and β agonists induced STRF expansion. When tested with communication sounds, NA application did not produce significant effects on the firing rate and spike timing reliability, despite the fact that α1, α2 and β agonists by themselves had significant effects on these measures. However, the cells whose evoked responses were increased by NA application displayed enhanced discriminative abilities. These cells had initially smaller STRFs than the rest of the population. A principal component analysis revealed that the variations of parameters extracted from the STRF and those extracted from the responses to natural stimuli were not correlated. These results suggest that probing the action of neuromodulators on cortical cells with artificial stimuli does not allow us to predict their action on responses to natural stimuli. PMID:25398527

  4. Effects of natural sounds on the perception of road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Coensel, Bert De; Vanwetswinkel, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies show that introducing sound from water features in urban open spaces may reduce the loudness of road traffic noise, but it is not clear in which situations this measure also improves overall soundscape quality. This work describes a listening experiment on loudness, pleasantness, and eventfulness of stimuli that combine road traffic noise with fountain or bird sound at different sound levels. Adding fountain sound reduced the loudness of road traffic noise only if the latter had low temporal variability. Conversely, adding bird sound significantly enhanced soundscape pleasantness and eventfulness, more than what was achieved by adding fountain sound. PMID:21476622

  5. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  6. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  7. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  8. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study. PMID:20008155

  9. Where people look when watching movies: do all viewers look at the same place?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Robert B; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2007-07-01

    Magnification around the most important point of a movie scene (center of interest-COI) might aid people with visual impairments that cause resolution loss. This will be effective only if most people look at the same place when watching a movie. We recorded the eye movements of 20 normally sighted subjects as each watched six movie clips, totaling 37.5 min. More than half of the time the distribution of subject gaze points fell within an area statistic that was less than 12% of the movie scene. Male and older subjects were more likely to look in the same place than female and younger subjects, respectively. We conclude that the between-subject agreement is sufficient to make the approach practical. PMID:17010963

  10. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957