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Sample records for mri fetales mrt

  1. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  2. Fetal and maternal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: Value of fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Goel, Reema; Aggarwal, Nishant; Lemmon, Monica E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas in various organ systems of the body. Prenatal screening of fetuses of mothers affected with TSC using ultrasonography (US) may detect cardiac lesions. Fetal US is not sensitive for evaluation of the brain. We describe brain MRI findings in a fetus with cardiac rhabdomyomas identified on prenatal screening US. Postnatal brain MRI at 5 days of age demonstrated fetal MRI findings without significant added information. Fetal MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of cerebral manifestations of TSC. Maternal manifestations of TSC in the abdomen or pelvis may also be demonstrated on fetal MRI. PMID:26838171

  3. Fetal MRI: A Technical Update with Educational Aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Ali; Estroff, Judith A.; Barnewolt, Carol E.; Robertson, Richard L.; Grant, P. Ellen; Gagoski, Borjan; Warfield, Simon K.; Afacan, Onur; Connolly, Susan A.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Wolfberg, Adam; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations have become well-established procedures at many institutions and can serve as useful adjuncts to ultrasound (US) exams when diagnostic doubts remain after US. Due to fetal motion, however, fetal MRI exams are challenging and require the MR scanner to be used in a somewhat different mode than that employed for more routine clinical studies. Herein we review the techniques most commonly used, and those that are available, for fetal MRI with an emphasis on the physics of the techniques and how to deploy them to improve success rates for fetal MRI exams. By far the most common technique employed is single-shot T2-weighted imaging due to its excellent tissue contrast and relative immunity to fetal motion. Despite the significant challenges involved, however, many of the other techniques commonly employed in conventional neuro- and body MRI such as T1 and T2*-weighted imaging, diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging, as well as spectroscopic methods remain of interest for fetal MR applications. An effort to understand the strengths and limitations of these basic methods within the context of fetal MRI is made in order to optimize their use and facilitate implementation of technical improvements for the further development of fetal MR imaging, both in acquisition and post-processing strategies. PMID:26225129

  4. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sahar N.

    2013-01-01

    MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies. PMID:25685519

  5. Fetal MRI on a multi-element digital coil platform.

    PubMed

    Serai, Suraj D; Merrow, Arnold C; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2013-09-01

    Fetal MRI has an increasing list of indications and is most commonly employed when anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography require further characterization. This may occur when sonography is technically challenging or where specific MRI findings will determine pre- and postnatal management, including critical in utero and/or peripartum interventions. In these circumstances, there are high expectations for MRI to sort out complex diagnostic dilemmas through exquisite anatomical imaging that fetal surgeons and obstetricians can comprehend and relay to their patients. These expectations, in light of evolving clinical innovations, continue to drive advances in fetal imaging. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is fundamental to improving MR image quality, and proper coil selection is a key component of this pursuit. Since the introduction of parallel imaging techniques, the numbers of elements in phased-array coils have been continuously increased to achieve high SNR and shorter scan times. With the invention of a digital coil platform, it is now possible to connect combinations of multiple coil elements to enhance SNR beyond the capabilities of the adult eight-channel torso-coil routinely used in fetal imaging. This paper describes the application of multi-element radiofrequency coils on a digital broadband imaging platform with unique coil combinations to perform dedicated fetal MRI. PMID:23649206

  6. Metric optimized gating for fetal cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Jansz, Michael S; Seed, Mike; van Amerom, Joshua F P; Wong, Derek; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2010-11-01

    Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to complement echocardiography for the evaluation of the fetal heart. Cardiac imaging typically requires gating with peripheral hardware; however, a gating signal is not readily available in utero. No successful application of existing technologies to human fetal phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging has been reported to date in the literature. The purpose of this work is to develop a technique for phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal heart that does not require measurement of a gating signal. Metric optimized gating involves acquiring data without gating and retrospectively determining the proper reconstruction by optimizing an image metric. The effects of incorrect gating on phase contrast images were investigated, and the time-entropy of the series of images was found to provide a good measure of the level of corruption. The technique was validated with a pulsatile flow phantom, experiments with adult volunteers, and in vivo application in the fetal population. Images and flow curves from these measurements are presented. Additionally, numerical simulations were used to investigate the degree to which heart rate variability affects the reconstruction process. Metric optimized gating enables imaging with conventional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging sequences in the absence of a gating signal, permitting flow measurements in the great vessels in utero. PMID:20632406

  7. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Estroff, Judy A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine normative ranges for fetal ocular biometrics between 19 and 38 weeks gestational age (GA) using volumetric MRI reconstruction. Method 3D images of 114 healthy fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks GA were created using super-resolution volume reconstructions from MRI slice acquisitions. These 3D images were semi-automatically segmented to measure fetal orbit volume, binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), and ocular diameter (OD). Results All biometry correlated with GA (Volume, CC = 0.9680; BOD, CC = 0.9552; OD, CC = 0.9445; and IOD, CC = 0.8429), and growth curves were plotted against linear and quadratic growth models. Regression analysis showed quadratic models to best fit BOD, IOD and OD, and a linear model to best fit volume. Conclusion Orbital volume had the greatest correlation with GA, though BOD and OD also showed strong correlation. The normative data found in this study may be helpful for the detection of congenital fetal anomalies with more consistent measurements than are currently available. PMID:25601041

  8. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: Prognostic Markers Depicted on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W; Vaught, Arthur J; Poretti, Andrea; Blakemore, Karin J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves a dual role in the prenatal diagnostic work up of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). First, it may confirm the prenatal ultrasound findings and secondly it may identify prognostically important secondary complications of the VGAM. Progressive heart failure with development of fetal hydrops and hemispheric white matter injuries are associated with a poor outcome in children with a VGAM. We present the prenatal findings using both ultrasound and MRI of a fetus with VGAM including bilateral injury of the cerebral hemispheres, severe dilatation of the jugular veins, cardiomegaly, and hydrops fetalis. The neonate died within 30 minutes after delivery. Moreover, fetal MRI revealed complete placenta praevia, uterine fibroids, and wrapping of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck. This additional information is unrelated to the fetal pathology, but could have been of importance to plan the delivery. PMID:25924177

  9. Fetal MRI Characteristics of Exencephaly: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present the fetal MRI characteristics of exencephaly, a rare malformation of the cranium. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as anencephaly at 14 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) and later mislabeled as acrania at 20 weeks of EGA by ultrasound. A confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 29 weeks of EGA demonstrated findings consistent with exencephaly, which was confirmed after birth. To our knowledge, no full fetal MRI characteristics have been described. We hope to use this case to review the key MRI findings in differentiating exencephaly from other cranial vault defects and to help early diagnosis of exencephaly as the appropriate use of correct nomenclature allows better research while giving parents the most accurate and appropriate counseling. PMID:26955498

  10. Fetal MRI Characteristics of Exencephaly: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Ali; Zhou, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    We present the fetal MRI characteristics of exencephaly, a rare malformation of the cranium. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as anencephaly at 14 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) and later mislabeled as acrania at 20 weeks of EGA by ultrasound. A confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 29 weeks of EGA demonstrated findings consistent with exencephaly, which was confirmed after birth. To our knowledge, no full fetal MRI characteristics have been described. We hope to use this case to review the key MRI findings in differentiating exencephaly from other cranial vault defects and to help early diagnosis of exencephaly as the appropriate use of correct nomenclature allows better research while giving parents the most accurate and appropriate counseling. PMID:26955498

  11. Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

  12. Localisation of the brain in fetal MRI using bundled SIFT features.

    PubMed

    Keraudren, Kevin; Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Rutherford, Mary; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Fetal MRI is a rapidly emerging diagnostic imaging tool. Its main focus is currently on brain imaging, but there is a huge potential for whole body studies. We propose a method for accurate and robust localisation of the fetal brain in MRI when the image data is acquired as a stack of 2D slices misaligned due to fetal motion. We first detect possible brain locations in 2D images with a Bag-of-Words model using SIFT features aggregated within Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (called bundled SIFT), followed by a robust fitting of an axis-aligned 3D box to the selected regions. We rely on prior knowledge of the fetal brain development to define size and shape constraints. In a cross-validation experiment, we obtained a median error distance of 5.7mm from the ground truth and no missed detection on a database of 59 fetuses. This 2D approach thus allows a robust detection even in the presence of substantial fetal motion. PMID:24505714

  13. MRI-based methods to detect placental and fetal brain abnormalities in utero.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Guillermina

    2016-04-01

    There are very few methods for screening women for pregnancy complications. Identification of pregnancies at risk would be of enormous clinical significance as would influence decisions made about pregnancy management and delivery. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and preterm birth (PTB), characterized by placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development, in mice and humans have been associated with activation of inflammatory pathways, in particular the complement cascade. Recently, antibodies against C3 activation products conjugated with contrast agent ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles were used to detect non-invasively sites of inflammation within the placenta and the fetal brain in mouse models of APS and PTB. In utero, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with signs of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. In both models, fetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), another non invasive method, is used to identify metabolic abnormalities to predict fetal brain abnormalities. This review describes the recent development of preclinical MRI-based methods for the detection of inflammatory markers of placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development and metabolism to predict pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26187242

  14. Tracheal Agenesis: A Challenging Prenatal Diagnosis—Contribution of Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Bach-Segura, Pascale; Morel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. The prevalence is less than 1 : 50 000 with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. This anomaly may be isolated but, in 93% of cases, it is part of polymalformative syndrome. The most evocative diagnosis situation is the ultrasonographic congenital high airway obstruction syndrome. Dilated airways, enlarged lungs with flattened diaphragm, fetal ascites and severe nonimmune hydrops can be observed. In the absence of a congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, the antenatal diagnosis of tracheal agenesis is difficult. Tracheal agenesis should be suspected in the presence of an unexplained polyhydramnios associated with congenital malformations. The fetal airway exploration should then be systematically performed by fetal thoracic magnetic resonance imaging. A case of Floyd's type II tracheal agenesis, detected during the postnatal period, is reported here. The retrospective reexamination of fetal magnetic resonance images showed that the antenatal diagnosis would have been easy if a systematical examination of upper airways had been performed. Prenatal diagnosis of tracheal agenesis is possible with fetal MRI but the really challenge is to think about this pathology. PMID:25821616

  15. Multivariate analyses applied to fetal, neonatal and pediatric MRI of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levman, Jacob; Takahashi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate analysis (MVA) is a class of statistical and pattern recognition methods that involve the processing of data that contains multiple measurements per sample. MVA can be used to address a wide variety of medical neuroimaging-related challenges including identifying variables associated with a measure of clinical importance (i.e. patient outcome), creating diagnostic tests, assisting in characterizing developmental disorders, understanding disease etiology, development and progression, assisting in treatment monitoring and much more. Compared to adults, imaging of developing immature brains has attracted less attention from MVA researchers. However, remarkable MVA research growth has occurred in recent years. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature focusing on MVA technologies applied to neurodevelopmental disorders in fetal, neonatal and pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a concise review of the state of the scientific literature on studies employing brain MRI and MVA in a pre-adult population. Neurological developmental disorders addressed in the MVA research contained in this review include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia and more. While the results of this review demonstrate considerable interest from the scientific community in applications of MVA technologies in pediatric/neonatal/fetal brain MRI, the field is still young and considerable research growth remains ahead of us. PMID:26640765

  16. Multivariate analyses applied to fetal, neonatal and pediatric MRI of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob; Takahashi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate analysis (MVA) is a class of statistical and pattern recognition methods that involve the processing of data that contains multiple measurements per sample. MVA can be used to address a wide variety of medical neuroimaging-related challenges including identifying variables associated with a measure of clinical importance (i.e. patient outcome), creating diagnostic tests, assisting in characterizing developmental disorders, understanding disease etiology, development and progression, assisting in treatment monitoring and much more. Compared to adults, imaging of developing immature brains has attracted less attention from MVA researchers. However, remarkable MVA research growth has occurred in recent years. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature focusing on MVA technologies applied to neurodevelopmental disorders in fetal, neonatal and pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a concise review of the state of the scientific literature on studies employing brain MRI and MVA in a pre-adult population. Neurological developmental disorders addressed in the MVA research contained in this review include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia and more. While the results of this review demonstrate considerable interest from the scientific community in applications of MVA technologies in pediatric/neonatal/fetal brain MRI, the field is still young and considerable research growth remains ahead of us. PMID:26640765

  17. Construction of a Deformable Spatiotemporal MRI Atlas of the Fetal Brain: Evaluation of Similarity Metrics and Deformation Models

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Ali; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Clancy, Sean; Clouchoux, Cedric; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Estroff, Judy A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    The development and identification of best methods in fetal brain MRI analysis is crucial as we expect an outburst of studies on groupwise and longitudinal analysis of early brain development in the upcoming years. To address this critical need, in this paper, we have developed a mathematical framework for the construction of an unbiased deformable spatiotemporal atlas of the fetal brain MRI and compared it to alternative configurations in terms of similarity metrics and deformation models. Our contributions are twofold: first we suggest a novel approach to fetal brain spatiotemporal atlas construction that shows high capability in capturing anatomic variation between subjects; and second, within our atlas construction framework we evaluate and compare a set of plausible configurations for inter-subject fetal brain MRI registration and identify the most accurate approach that can potentially lead to most accurate results in population atlas construction, atlas-based segmentation, and group analysis. Our evaluation results indicate that symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration with cross correlation similarity metric outperforms other configurations in this application and results in sharp unbiased atlases that can be used in fetal brain MRI analysis. PMID:25485391

  18. Multivariate Analyses Applied to Healthy Neurodevelopment in Fetal, Neonatal, and Pediatric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Levman, Jacob; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate analysis (MVA) is a class of statistical and pattern recognition techniques that involve the processing of data that contains multiple measurements per sample. MVA can be used to address a wide variety of neurological medical imaging related challenges including the evaluation of healthy brain development, the automated analysis of brain tissues and structures through image segmentation, evaluating the effects of genetic and environmental factors on brain development, evaluating sensory stimulation's relationship with functional brain activity and much more. Compared to adult imaging, pediatric, neonatal and fetal imaging have attracted less attention from MVA researchers, however, recent years have seen remarkable MVA research growth in pre-adult populations. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature focusing on MVA applied to healthy subjects in fetal, neonatal and pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. While the results of this review demonstrate considerable interest from the scientific community in applications of MVA technologies in brain MRI, the field is still young and significant research growth will continue into the future. PMID:26834576

  19. In vivo MRI measurement of fetal blood oxygen saturation in cardiac ventricles of fetal sheep: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wedegärtner, Ulrike; Kooijman, Hendrik; Yamamura, Jin; Frisch, Michael; Weber, Christoph; Buchert, Ralph; Huff, Anna; Hecher, Kurt; Adam, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility to determine fetal blood oxygen saturation (sO(2)) with T(2)-weighted MR sequences using a fetal sheep model. T(2) measurements were performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a T(2) preparation pulse in combination with a three-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession sequence repeated at different echo times. Eight sheep fetuses were examined during a control, hypoxic, and recovery phase to perform T(2)-weighted scans of the fetal blood in the heart. Signal intensities in the left and right ventricle were measured to calculate the MR blood sO(2). During each phase, fetal carotid artery sO(2) was directly measured and correlated with MR sO(2). A Bland-Altman plot was performed. Fetal carotid artery sO(2) was 69% sO(2) during control, 16% sO(2) during hypoxemia, and 67% sO(2) during recovery. Mean values of the MR sO(2) were 49% sO(2) and 40% sO(2) for control, 6% sO(2) and 3% sO(2) for hypoxemia, and 51% sO(2) and 43% sO(2) for recovery in left ventricle and right ventricle, respectively. Mean values of fetal carotid artery sO(2) and MR sO(2) were highly correlated (left ventricle: r = 0.87, right ventricle: r = 0.89). According to the Bland-Altman plot, MR sO(2) was lower compared to fetal carotid artery sO(2) (left ventricle: 15%, right ventricle: 20%). Based on our preliminary results, it seems to be possible to assess fetal sO(2) with MR oximetry. PMID:20572133

  20. Gaining insight of fetal brain development with diffusion MRI and histology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Vasung, Lana

    2014-02-01

    Human brain is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Its development during the fetal period is characterized by a series of accurately organized events which underlie the mechanisms of dramatic structural changes during fetal development. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of human fetal brain development provides insight on understanding not only this highly ordered process, but also the neurobiological foundations of cognitive brain disorders such as mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar and language impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology are complementary tools which are capable of delineating the fetal brain structures at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this review, the structural development of the fetal brains has been characterized with DTI and histology. Major components of the fetal brain, including cortical plate, fetal white matter and cerebral wall layer between the ventricle and subplate, have been delineated with DTI and histology. Anisotropic metrics derived from DTI were used to quantify the microstructural changes during the dynamic process of human fetal cortical development and prenatal development of other animal models. Fetal white matter pathways have been traced with DTI-based tractography to reveal growth patterns of individual white matter tracts and corticocortical connectivity. These detailed anatomical accounts of the structural changes during fetal period may provide the clues of detecting developmental and cognitive brain disorders at their early stages. The anatomical information from DTI and histology may also provide reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns. PMID:23796901

  1. Fetal MRI as Complementary Study of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation During Pregnancy: A Single Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Paanakker, Alberto; Gomez-Leal, Paloma; Navarro-Sanchez, Patricia; Bueno-Crespo, Andres; Martinez-Cendan, Juan Pedro; Remezal-Solano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fetal lung masses are rare findings in prenatal ultrasound scanning in general population, of which congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is the most commonly diagnosed type. This paper reports a single case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation detected at our hospital and the subsequent clinical follow-up using ultrasound scanning and fetal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27186452

  2. Sparse Bayesian framework applied to 3D super-resolution reconstruction in fetal brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Laura C.; Velasco Toledo, Nelson; Romero Castro, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fetal Magnetic Resonance (FMR) is an imaging technique that is becoming increasingly important as allows assessing brain development and thus make an early diagnostic of congenital abnormalities, spatial resolution is limited by the short acquisition time and the unpredictable fetus movements, in consequence the resulting images are characterized by non-parallel projection planes composed by anisotropic voxels. The sparse Bayesian representation is a flexible strategy which is able to model complex relationships. The Super-resolution is approached as a regression problem, the main advantage is the capability to learn data relations from observations. Quantitative performance evaluation was carried out using synthetic images, the proposed method demonstrates a better reconstruction quality compared with standard interpolation approach. The presented method is a promising approach to improve the information quality related with the 3-D fetal brain structure. It is important because allows assessing brain development and thus make an early diagnostic of congenital abnormalities.

  3. Comparing consistency of R2* and T2*-weighted BOLD analysis of resting state fetal fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I.; Gatenby, Christopher; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Understanding when and how resting state brain functional activity begins in the human brain is an increasing area of interest in both basic neuroscience and in the clinical evaluation of the brain during pregnancy and after premature birth. Although fMRI studies have been carried out on pregnant women since the 1990's, reliable mapping of brain function in utero is an extremely challenging problem due to the unconstrained fetal head motion. Recent studies have employed scrubbing to exclude parts of the time series and whole subjects from studies in order to control the confounds of motion. Fundamentally, even after correction of the location of signals due to motion, signal intensity variations are a fundamental limitation, due to coil sensitivity and spin history effects. An alternative technique is to use a more parametric MRI signal derived from multiple echoes that provides a level of independence from basic MRI signal variation. Here we examine the use of R2* mapping combined with slice based multi echo geometric distortion correction for in-utero studies. The challenges for R2* mapping arise from the relatively low signal strength of in-utero data. In this paper we focus on comparing activation detection in-utero using T2W and R2* approaches. We make use a subset of studies with relatively limited motion to compare the activation patterns without the additional confound of significant motion. Results at different gestational ages indicate comparable agreement in many activation patterns when limited motion is present, and the detection of some additional networks in the R2* data, not seen in the T2W results.

  4. Mapping Primary Gyrogenesis During Fetal Development in Primate Brains: High-Resolution in Utero Structural MRI of Fetal Brain Development in Pregnant Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Castro, Carlos; Davis, Duff; Dudley, Donald; Brewer, Jordan; Zhang, Yi; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Purdy, David; Fox, Peter T.; Simerly, Calvin; Schatten, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17–25 of 26 weeks total gestation). Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of 10 primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length) axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth) axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r = −0.60; p < 0.10), while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p = 0.3; p = 0.40). These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates. PMID:20631812

  5. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Gorkem, Sureyya Burcu; Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Doganay, Selim; Gunes, Tamer; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Kucukaydin, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p = 0.018) and placenta (p = 0.005) of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies. PMID:27034830

  6. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Doganay, Selim; Gunes, Tamer; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Kucukaydin, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p = 0.018) and placenta (p = 0.005) of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies. PMID:27034830

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Lissencephaly Type 2 using Three-dimensional Ultrasound and Fetal MRI: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Lissencephaly is a genetic heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the classical triad: brain malformations, eye anomalies, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Prenatal diagnosis is feasible by demonstrating abnormal development of sulci and gyri. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may enhance detection of developmental cortical disorders as well as ocular anomalies. We describe a case of early diagnosis of lissencephaly type 2 detected at the time of routine second trimester scan by three-dimensional ultrasound and fetal MRI. Gross pathology confirmed the accuracy of the prenatal diagnosis while histology showed the typical feature of cobblestone cortex. As the disease is associated with poor perinatal prognosis, early and accurate prenatal diagnosis is important for genetic counseling and antenatal care. PMID:27088705

  8. Exploiting geometrical irradiation possibilities in MRT application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Requardt, H.; Régnard, P.; Corde, S.; Siegbahn, E. A.; LeDuc, G.; Blattmann, H.; Laissue, J.; Bravin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) has the potential to treat infantile brain tumors when other kinds of radiotherapy would be excessively toxic to the developing normal brain. MRT uses extraordinarily high doses of X-rays but provides unusual resistance to radioneurotoxicity, presumably from the rapid migration of regenerative endothelial cells from dose "valleys" into dose "peaks", i.e., into directly irradiated micro-slices of tissues. We will present a novel irradiation geometry which results in a tolerable valley dose for the normal tissue and a decreased peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) in the tumor area by applying an innovative cross-firing technique. We propose an MRT technique to orthogonally crossfire two arrays of parallel, nonintersecting, mutually interspersed microbeams that produces tumoricidal doses with small PVDRs where the arrays meet and tolerable radiation doses to normal tissues between the microbeams proximal and distal to the tumor in the paths of the arrays.

  9. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  10. Obstetric MRI.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-07-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for pregnant patients. However, MRI is increasingly utilized in patients in whom the sonographic diagnosis is unclear. These include maternal conditions unique to pregnancy such as ectopic pregnancy, placenta accreta, and uterine dehiscence. MRI is also being increasingly utilized in the assessment of abdominopelvic pain in pregnancy, in particular in assessment for appendicitis. Fetal MRI is performed to assess central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and patients who are considering fetal surgery for conditions such as neural tube defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and masses that obstruct the airway. In the future, functional MRI and fetal volumetry may provide additional information that can aid in our care of complicated pregnancies. PMID:16736491

  11. Assessment of MRI-Based Automated Fetal Cerebral Cortical Folding Measures in Prediction of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Awate, S.P.; Licht, D.J.; Clouchoux, C.; du Plessis, A.J.; Avants, B.B.; Vossough, A.; Gee, J.C.; Limperopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging. We compared the accuracy of the prediction of gestational age by these cortical folding measureswiththeaccuracyofpredictionbybrainvolumemeasurementandbyapreviouslyreportedsemiquantitativevisualscaleofbrain maturity. Regression models were constructed, and measurement biases and variances were determined via a cross-validation procedure. RESULTS The cortical folding measures are accurate in the estimation and prediction of gestational age (mean of the absolute error, 0.43 ± 0.45 weeks) and perform better than (P = .024) brain volume (mean of the absolute error, 0.72 ± 0.61 weeks) or sonography measures (SDs approximately 1.5 weeks, as reported in literature). Prediction accuracy is comparable with that of the semiquantitative visual assessment score (mean, 0.57 ± 0.41 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative cortical folding measures such as global average curvedness can be an accurate and reliable estimator of gestational age and brain maturity for healthy fetuses in the third trimester and have the potential to be an indicator of brain-growth delays for at-risk fetuses and preterm neonates. PMID:26045578

  12. Construction of a fetal spatio-temporal cortical surface atlas from in utero MRI: Application of spectral surface matching.

    PubMed

    Wright, R; Makropoulos, A; Kyriakopoulou, V; Patkee, P A; Koch, L M; Rutherford, M A; Hajnal, J V; Rueckert, D; Aljabar, P

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we construct a spatio-temporal surface atlas of the developing cerebral cortex, which is an important tool for analysing and understanding normal and abnormal cortical development. In utero Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of 80 healthy fetuses was performed, with a gestational age range of 21.7 to 38.9 weeks. Topologically correct cortical surface models were extracted from reconstructed 3D MRI volumes. Accurate correspondences were obtained by applying a joint spectral analysis to cortices for sets of subjects close to a specific age. Sulcal alignment was found to be accurate in comparison to spherical demons, a state of the art registration technique for aligning 2D cortical representations (average Fréchet distance≈0.4 mm at 30 weeks). We construct consistent, unbiased average cortical surface templates, for each week of gestation, from age-matched groups of surfaces by applying kernel regression in the spectral domain. These were found to accurately capture the average cortical shape of individuals within the cohort, suggesting a good alignment of cortical geometry. Each spectral embedding and its corresponding cortical surface template provide a dual reference space where cortical geometry is aligned and a vertex-wise morphometric analysis can be undertaken. PMID:26070259

  13. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  14. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  15. Fetal Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  16. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wataganara, Tuangsit; Ebrashy, Alaa; Aliyu, Labaran Dayyabu; Moreira de Sa, Renato Augusto; Pooh, Ritsuko; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Adra, Abdallah; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly adopted in obstetrics practice in the past three decades. MRI aids prenatal ultrasound and improves diagnostic accuracy for selected maternal and fetal conditions. However, it should be considered only when high-quality ultrasound cannot provide certain information that affects the counseling, prenatal intervention, pregnancy course, and delivery plan. Major indications of fetal MRI include, but are not restricted to, morbidly adherent placenta, selected cases of fetal brain anomalies, thoracic lesions (especially in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia), and soft tissue tumors at head and neck regions of the fetus. For fetal anatomy assessment, a 1.5-Tesla machine with a fast T2-weighted single-shot technique is recommended for image requisition of common fetal abnormalities. Individual judgment needs to be applied when considering usage of a 3-Tesla machine. Gadolinium MRI contrast is not recommended during pregnancy. MRI should be avoided in the first half of pregnancy due to small fetal structures and motion artifacts. Assessment of fetal cerebral cortex can be achieved with MRI in the third trimester. MRI is a viable research tool for noninvasive interrogation of the fetus and the placenta. PMID:27092644

  17. Fetal development

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002398.htm Fetal development To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Fetal growth and development. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et ...

  18. Fetal endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Krishna, S. V. S.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Successful outcome of pregnancy depends upon genetic, cellular, and hormonal interactions, which lead to implantation, placentation, embryonic, and fetal development, parturition and fetal adaptation to extrauterine life. The fetal endocrine system commences development early in gestation and plays a modulating role on the various physiological organ systems and prepares the fetus for life after birth. Our current article provides an overview of the current knowledge of several aspects of this vast field of fetal endocrinology and the role of endocrine system on transition to extrauterine life. We also provide an insight into fetal endocrine adaptations pertinent to various clinically important situations like placental insufficiency and maternal malnutrition. PMID:23961471

  19. Fetal Diagnostics and Fetal Intervention.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ericka S; Schlosser, Brian A; Border, William L

    2016-03-01

    Advances in ultrasound technology and specialized training have allowed clinicians to diagnose congenital heart disease in utero and counsel families on perinatal outcomes and management strategies, including fetal cardiac interventions and fetal surgery. This article gives a detailed approach to fetal cardiac assessment and provides the reader with accompanying figures and video clips to illustrate unique views and sweeps invaluable to diagnosing congenital heart disease. We demonstrate that using a sequential segmental approach to evaluate cardiac anatomy enables one to decipher the most complex forms of congenital heart disease. Also provided is a review of fetal cardiac intervention and surgery from the fetal cardiologist's perspective. PMID:26876119

  20. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice

    PubMed Central

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan. PMID:24591956

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan. PMID:24591956

  2. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism. PMID:8305691

  3. Fetal ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Garmel, S H; D'Alton, M E

    1993-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, ultrasonography in pregnancy has been helpful in determining gestational age, detecting multiple pregnancies, locating placentas, diagnosing fetal anomalies, evaluating fetal well-being, and guiding obstetricians with in utero treatment. We review current standards and controversies regarding the indications, safety, accuracy, and limitations of ultrasonography in pregnancy. Images PMID:8236969

  4. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  5. [Fetal programming].

    PubMed

    Lang, U; Fink, D; Kimmig, R

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment not only influences fetal well-being and behaviour during pregnancy, but also predisposes the fetus in many health aspects of later life. The terms 'fetal programming' and 'developmental origins of health and disease' reflect the enormous impact of pregnancy-related factors on the individual and the health. PMID:19096216

  6. Fetal development

    MedlinePlus

    Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Fetal growth and development. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; ... and fetal physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, ...

  7. Fetal echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) to evaluate the baby's heart for problems ... over the area. The probe sends out sound waves, which bounce off the baby's heart and create ...

  8. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  9. A Comparison of Multiphase LBGK and MRT LBE Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Luo, Li-Shi

    2009-11-01

    One undesirable feature of LBE methods as diffuse interface methods is the existence of parasitic currents. Recently, Lee and Fischer have shown that if the potential form of the intermolecular force is used, the parasitic currents can be eliminated. In their study, the LBGK collision model is used. As we know that multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision model has a number of advantages over the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model. In this study, we will replace the LBGK with MRT collision model. We compared the stability and Galilean invariance of the two models. The test case is a circular bubble. We found that LBGK is very sensitive to the initial given density values. For the Galilean invariance property, we first get the converged equilibrium solution. Then we add an external velocity. We found that LBGK scheme diverges even a very small velocity is given. From these comparisons, we conclude that MRT is more stable and preserve Galilean invariance better than LBGK.

  10. Modeling MRT for well-characterized thermal imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Garner, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Predicting an accurate Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) for a thermal imaging system is often hindered by inaccurate measurements of system gain and display characteristics. Variations in these terms are often blamed for poor agreement between model predictions and measured MRTD. By averaging over repeated human measurements, and carefully recording all system parameters affecting image quality, it should be possible to make an accurate prediction of MRTD performance for any resolvable frequency. Utilizing the latest NVESD performance models with updates for noise, apparent target angle, and human vision, predicted MRT are compared with measured curves. We present results for one well characterized mid-wave thermal staring system.

  11. TU-F-BRF-09: Feasibility Study of Spatial and Temporal Fractionation Using a Table-Top Image-Guided MRT System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Inscoe, C; Yuan, H; Burk, L; Ger, R; Chtcheprov, P; Lu, J; Chang, S; Zhou, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy is a promising experimental radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron studies have shown that MRT can preferentially ablate tumors while mostly preserving the surrounding normal tissues. Our purpose is to develop a compact microbeam irradiator that can be accessible for laboratory research on MRT's therapeutic mechanism, with the ultimate goal of translating this technique for clinical applications. Utilizing a carbon nanotube field emission X-ray source array, our lab has developed a first of its kind table-top microbeam irradiator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of increasing the total dose to the tumor region using spatial and temporal fractionation. Methods: MRI and CT scans were acquired and registered to locate both the target region and the landmark in the treatment coordinate space. A crossbeam treatment configuration was planned to achieve the desired dosage and tumor coverage. One array of 300 μm-thick microbeams was delivered to the target on the first day. Another array, perpendicular to the first one, was delivered the next day targeting the same region. The feasibility of this image-guided MRT procedure was evaluated using a phantom. Gafchromic EBT2 film was employed to characterize the targeting accuracy and the delivered tumor dose. Results: The preliminary phantom study showed that a cross-pattern of microbeam arrays was successfully delivered with sub-millimeter targeting accuracy. The delivered dose in the target region was doubled. The fraction of tumor volume that received the peak dose was increased. Conclusion: Temporal fractionation of crosspatterned microbeams can be delivered to the same target region. The feasibility of this procedure was investigated with a phantom study. Once implemented, this procedure has the potential of increasing the tumor control effect of MRT and of achieving better normal tissue recovery.

  12. Practising Mental Rotation Using Interactive Desktop Mental Rotation Trainer (iDeMRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafi, Ahmad; Samsudin, Khairulanuar

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study involving 30 undergraduates (mean age = 20.5 years) in mental rotation (MR) training was conducted in an interactive Desktop Mental Rotation Trainer (iDeMRT). Stratified random sampling assigned students into one experimental group and one control group. The former trained in iDeMRT and the latter trained in conventional…

  13. Validating machine vision MRT performance against trained observer performance for linear shift invariant sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate have added the functionality of Machine Vision MRT (MV-MRT) to the NVLabCap software package. While the original calculations of MV-MRT were compared to human observers performance using digital imagery in a previous effort,1 the technical approach was not tested on 8-bit imagery using a variety of sensors in a variety of gain and level settings. Now that it is more simple to determine the MV-MRT for a sensor in multiple gain settings, it is prudent to compare the results of MV-MRT in multiple gain settings to the performance of human observers for thermal imaging systems that are linear and shift invariant. Here, a comparison of the results for a LWIR system to trained human observers is presented.

  14. Fetal electrocardiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Heriberto; Andrade, Armando; Puente, Ernestina; Lizana, Pablo R.; Mendoza, Diego

    2002-11-01

    The high intra-uterine death rate is due to failure in appropriately diagnosing some problems in the cardiobreathing system of the fetus during pregnancy. The electrocardiograph is one apparatus which might detect problems at an early stage. With electrodes located near the womb and uterus, in a way similar to the normal technique, the detection of so-called biopotential differences, caused by concentrations of ions, can be achieved. The fetal electrocardiograph is based on an ultrasound technique aimed at detecting intrauterine problems in pregnant women, because it is a noninvasive technique due to the very low level of ultrasound power used. With this system, the following tests can be done: Heart movements from the ninth week onwards; Rapid and safe diagnosis of intrauterine fetal death; Location and size of the placenta. The construction of the fetal electrocardiograph requires instrument level components directly mounted on the printed circuit board, in order to avoid stray capacitance in the cabling which prevents the detection of the E.C.G. activity. The low cost of the system makes it affordable to low budget institutions; in contrast, available commercial systems are priced in U.S. Dollars. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  15. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  17. Intrapartum fetal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D B

    1980-08-30

    Fetal distress is defined. The pathophysiology of fetal distress is discussed and tretment is recommended. The principles of intrapartum fetal resuscitation are proposed, with particular reference to the inhibition of uterine activity. PMID:7404260

  18. Imaging the fetal central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    De Keersmaecker, B.; Claus, F.; De Catte, L.

    2011-01-01

    The low prevalence of fetal central nervous system anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure and limited experience for most of the obstetricians involved in prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way will probably increase the detection rate and enhance a correct referral to a tertiary care center, offering the patient a multidisciplinary approach of the condition. This paper aims to elaborate on prenatal sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis and outcome of various central nervous system malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3D ultrasound modalities e.g. ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation anomalies and disorders of the gray and white matter. PMID:24753859

  19. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  20. Fetal syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding. PMID:25092126

  1. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  2. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  3. SNR analysis of 3D magnetic resonance tomosynthesis (MRT) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    In conventional 3D Fourier transform (3DFT) MR imaging, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is governed by the well-known relationship of being proportional to the voxel size and square root of the imaging time. Here, we introduce an alternative 3D imaging approach, termed MRT (Magnetic Resonance Tomosynthesis), which can generate a set of tomographic MR images similar to multiple 2D projection images in x-ray. A multiple-oblique-view (MOV) pulse sequence is designed to acquire the tomography-like images used in tomosynthesis process and an iterative back-projection (IBP) reconstruction method is used to reconstruct 3D images. SNR analysis is performed and shows that resolution and SNR tradeoff is not governed as with typical 3DFT MR imaging case. The proposed method provides a higher SNR than the conventional 3D imaging method with a partial loss of slice-direction resolution. It is expected that this method can be useful for extremely low SNR cases.

  4. Adaptation of an articulated fetal skeleton model to three-dimensional fetal image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinder, Tobias; Wendland, Hannes; Wachter-Stehle, Irina; Roundhill, David; Lorenz, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    The automatic interpretation of three-dimensional fetal images poses specific challenges compared to other three-dimensional diagnostic data, especially since the orientation of the fetus in the uterus and the position of the extremities is highly variable. In this paper, we present a comprehensive articulated model of the fetal skeleton and the adaptation of the articulation for pose estimation in three-dimensional fetal images. The model is composed out of rigid bodies where the articulations are represented as rigid body transformations. Given a set of target landmarks, the model constellation can be estimated by optimization of the pose parameters. Experiments are carried out on 3D fetal MRI data yielding an average error per case of 12.03+/-3.36 mm between target and estimated landmark positions.

  5. Anesthesia for fetal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cauldwell, Charles B

    2002-03-01

    Fetal surgery is the antenatal treatment of fetal malformations that cannot be adequately corrected after birth. Anesthesia for fetal surgery involves two patients, and issues of maternal safety, avoidance of fetal asphyxia, adequate fetal anesthesia and monitoring, and uterine relaxation are important. Communication with the surgeon to determine the surgical approach and need for uterine relaxation allows the anesthesiologist the ability to vary the anesthetic technique. Lessons learned from fetal surgery may help other neonates with life-threatening anomalies and may help understand the complex issues related to preterm labor. PMID:11892506

  6. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Death Data File and Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, National Vital Statistics System The magnitude of fetal ... Death Data File and Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, NVSS. The vital statistics Fetal Death Data File ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  9. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  10. MRI Based Diagnostics for Temperature Measurements in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Lauren Sascha; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the thermal diffusion in the complex turbulent flows related to cooling high temperature gas turbine blades is critical to optimize the performance and predict the lifetime of the blades. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques for temperature measurement in simple but related flows are being developed in an effort to obtain full field thermal measurements to better understand diffusion processes and support the development of more accurate computational models in these flows. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) utilizes the temperature dependence of the hydrogen proton resonant frequency (PRF) in water. MRT is now routinely used to measure tissue temperatures during medical procedures, and a few previous studies have made velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent pipe flows. In this study, MRT is applied to the flow of a heated single hole film cooling jet (Reynolds number 3000) inclined at 30 degrees injected into a cold developing turbulent channel flow (Reynolds number 25,000 based on bulk velocity and channel height.) The jet fluid temperature is 30 degrees Celsius above the temperature in the channel. The temperature measurements compare well to previously published results for measured passive scalar concentration in the same flow although the temperature measurements show higher uncertainties of 5--10 % of the temperature difference. Techniques for reducing this uncertainty will be presented as well as procedures for applying MRT to quantify the turbulent heat transfer coefficient in turbulent internal flows.

  11. Hemodynamics in fetal arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Sven-Erik; Acharya, Ganesh

    2016-06-01

    Fetal arrhythmias are among the few conditions that can be managed in utero. However, accurate diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. Ultrasound-based imaging methods can be used to study fetal heart structure and function noninvasively and help to understand fetal cardiovascular pathophysiology, and they remain the mainstay of evaluating fetuses with arrhythmias in clinical settings. Hemodynamic evaluation using Doppler echocardiography allows the elucidation of the electrophysiological mechanism and helps to make an accurate diagnosis. It can also be used as a tool to understand fetal cardiac pathophysiology, for assessing fetal condition and monitoring the effect of antiarrhythmic treatment. This narrative review describes Doppler techniques that are useful for evaluating fetal cardiac rhythms to refine diagnosis and provides an overview of hemodynamic changes observed in different types of fetal arrhythmia. PMID:26660845

  12. [The diagnosis of inflammatory muscular and vascular diseases using MRT with STIR sequences].

    PubMed

    Beese, M S; Winkler, G; Nicolas, V; Maas, R; Kress, D; Kunze, K; Bücheler, E

    1993-06-01

    The role of MRT in the prebiopsy diagnosis of muscular and vascular inflammatory conditions was evaluated prospectively and an optimal method of examination was investigated. 92 patients with a suspected diagnosis of myositis (60 cases) or vasculitis (32 cases) were examined, in each case two extremities were studied using transverse T1 and T2 weighted SE sequences and double echo STIR sequences on a 0.5 Tesla (56 patients) or 1.5 Tesla magnet (36 patients; T5/S15 Gyroscan, Philips). The site of the biopsy depended on the MRT findings. In 41 patients the suspected diagnosis was confirmed histologically, in two patients an infective myositis was diagnosed on clinical grounds despite negative histology. MRT demonstrated muscle oedema in 86% of patients. There were negative findings after immuno-suppressive therapy (two patients), in focal myositis (3 out of 4 patients) and in one of 7 patients with untreated vasculitis. Amongst 49 patients in whom the suspected diagnosis could not be confirmed there was muscle oedema in 11 cases (9 neuropathies out of 22, two myopathies out of 10). Oedema indicated inflammatory muscular or vascular disease with a sensitivity of 97% (except in treated patients and for focal myositis). The number of false negative biopsies can be greatly reduced by the use of MRT. PMID:8507845

  13. Fetal Health and Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  14. [Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The value of MRT in its early diagnosis and the assessment of its course].

    PubMed

    Rix, J; Maas, R; Eggers-Stroeder, G; Bruns, J

    1992-01-01

    We report on the value of MRT in diagnosis and follow-up of Perthes' disease. 38 children who were clinically suspect of suffering from Perthes' disease were examined by conventional x-ray and MRT. 25 children were proven to have Perthes' disease, 12 of them in an early stage. During the onset of the disease MRT showed a higher sensitivity (58% vs 50%) and accuracy (74% vs 71%) than conventional x-ray while specificity was equal (83% for both). Additionally, MRT in combination with the still obligatory x-ray gave no false-positive results. In some cases, the diagnosis may be found up to 6 weeks earlier using MRT. Conservative therapeutic regimens obviously will not profit from this. Although excluding other diseases is certainly helpful, the value of MRT as a primary diagnostic procedure is limited. During follow-up, MRT helps to reduce the number of x-ray examinations since it can easily assess the containment of the hip and the bone marrow revitalisation. Scintigraphy, another valuable method to judge revitalisation, should remain limited to selected cases, as it requires significant amounts of radiation. PMID:1733479

  15. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the ontogeny of fetal autonomic, motoric, state, and interactive functioning in 31 healthy fetuses from 20 weeks through term. Found that male fetuses were more active than female fetuses, and that greater maternal stress appraisal was associated with reduced fetal heart rate variability. Found that an apparent period of…

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Timing of MRI in pregnancy, repeat exams, access, and physician qualifications.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This review addresses specific questions regarding performance and utility of fetal MR. The specific issues addressed are (1) physician qualifications; (2) MR safety; (3) access to fetal MR; (4) timing of MRI in pregnancy; (5) repeat exams; and (6) when MRI is most effective for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal MRI is a problem-solving tool used for specific indications that are driven by ultrasound or at times by family history. Fetal MR should always be performed with knowledge of the sonographic findings from prior targeted scan. The best evidence for utility of MR is in assessment of CNS anomalies and assessment of the fetus with airway obstruction requiring decisions regarding mode of therapy. The type of information provided by MR can profoundly impact patient counseling and management. We recommend a team approach including specialists in obstetric imaging, fetal MRI, and postnatal care in interpreting MR so that the best information can be given to the pregnant patient. PMID:24176157

  19. Antenatal MRI diagnosis of massive subchorionic hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rohini; Sharma, Raju; Jain, Tarun; Vashisht, Sushma

    2007-01-01

    Massive subchorionic hematoma is a large maternal blood clot, which separates the chorionic plate from the villous chorion [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. It is an uncommon condition associated with poor perinatal prognosis and intrauterine growth retardation [Tan WH, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 1997;76:381-383, Nishijima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2005;20:23-26]. Ultrasound may not be able to differentiate this condition from other placental abnormalities [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. We report a case of massive subchorionic hematoma where the antenatal diagnosis was made on MRI. PMID:17652925

  20. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  1. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe kidney problems. People have been harmed in MRI machines when they did not remove metal objects from their clothes or when metal objects were left in the room by others. MRI is most often not recommended for traumatic injuries. ...

  2. The fetal urinoma revisited.

    PubMed

    Yitta, Silaja; Saadai, Payam; Filly, Roy A

    2014-01-01

    The fetal urinoma is a rare but important diagnosis, as it indicates substantial underlying obstruction with implications for the functionality of the affected kidney. This case series describes a single center's experience with the diagnosis and management of fetal urinomas. All 25 cases were diagnosed or referred to our medical center over an 11-year period. Most cases were secondary to either posterior urethral valves or ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Fetal interventions, including percutaneous drainage of the urinoma and cystoscopic alleviation of bladder outlet obstruction, were performed in 4 cases. PMID:24371112

  3. The GEANT4 toolkit for microdosimetry calculations: application to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT).

    PubMed

    Spiga, J; Siegbahn, E A; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Randaccio, P; Bravin, A

    2007-11-01

    Theoretical dose distributions for microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) are computed in this paper using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit. MRT is an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique carried out using an array of parallel microbeams of synchrotron-wiggler-generated x rays. Although the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of microbeams are still largely unknown, the effectiveness of MRT can be traced back to the natural ability of normal tissues to rapidly repair small damages to the vasculature, and on the lack of a similar healing process in tumoral tissues. Contrary to conventional therapy, in which each beam is at least several millimeters wide, the narrowness of the microbeams allows a rapid regeneration of the blood vessels along the beams' trajectories. For this reason the calculation of the "valley" dose is of crucial importance and the correct use of MC codes for such purposes must be understood. GEANT4 offers, in addition to the standard libraries, a specialized package specifically designed to deal with electromagnetic interactions of particles with matter for energies down to 250 eV. This package implements two different approaches for electron and photon transport, one based on evaluated data libraries, the other adopting analytical models. These features are exploited to cross-check theoretical computations for MRT. The lateral and depth dose profiles are studied for the irradiation of a 20 cm diameter, 20 cm long cylindrical phantom, with cylindrical sources of different size and energy. Microbeam arrays are simulated with the aid of superposition algorithms, and the ratios of peak-to-valley doses are computed for typical cases used in preclinical assays. Dose profiles obtained using the GEANT4 evaluated data libraries and analytical models are compared with simulation results previously obtained using the PENELOPE code. The results show that dose profiles computed with GEANT4's analytical model are almost

  4. The GEANT4 toolkit for microdosimetry calculations: Application to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, J.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Randaccio, P.; Bravin, A.

    2007-11-15

    Theoretical dose distributions for microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) are computed in this paper using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit. MRT is an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique carried out using an array of parallel microbeams of synchrotron-wiggler-generated x rays. Although the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of microbeams are still largely unknown, the effectiveness of MRT can be traced back to the natural ability of normal tissues to rapidly repair small damages to the vasculature, and on the lack of a similar healing process in tumoral tissues. Contrary to conventional therapy, in which each beam is at least several millimeters wide, the narrowness of the microbeams allows a rapid regeneration of the blood vessels along the beams' trajectories. For this reason the calculation of the 'valley' dose is of crucial importance and the correct use of MC codes for such purposes must be understood. GEANT4 offers, in addition to the standard libraries, a specialized package specifically designed to deal with electromagnetic interactions of particles with matter for energies down to 250 eV. This package implements two different approaches for electron and photon transport, one based on evaluated data libraries, the other adopting analytical models. These features are exploited to cross-check theoretical computations for MRT. The lateral and depth dose profiles are studied for the irradiation of a 20 cm diameter, 20 cm long cylindrical phantom, with cylindrical sources of different size and energy. Microbeam arrays are simulated with the aid of superposition algorithms, and the ratios of peak-to-valley doses are computed for typical cases used in preclinical assays. Dose profiles obtained using the GEANT4 evaluated data libraries and analytical models are compared with simulation results previously obtained using the PENELOPE code. The results show that dose profiles computed with GEANT4's analytical model are almost

  5. Computer-assisted surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in fetal surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rosalind; Deprest, Jan; Vercauteren, Tom; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L

    2015-12-01

    Fetal surgery has become a clinical reality, with interventions for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and spina bifida demonstrated to improve outcome. Fetal imaging is evolving, with the use of 3D ultrasound and fetal MRI becoming more common in clinical practise. Medical imaging analysis is also changing, with technology being developed to assist surgeons by creating 3D virtual models that improve understanding of complex anatomy, and prove powerful tools in surgical planning and intraoperative guidance. We introduce the concept of computer-assisted surgical planning, and present the results of a systematic review of image reconstruction for fetal surgical planning that identified six articles using such technology. Indications from other specialities suggest a benefit of surgical planning and guidance to improve outcomes. There is therefore an urgent need to develop fetal-specific technology in order to improve fetal surgical outcome. PMID:26235960

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink other beverages instead, such as water, fruit juices or milk. Questions to Ask Your Doctor If your baby was born with fetal alcohol syndrome: What health problems does my baby have? Does my baby ...

  7. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  8. Fetal Health and Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... fetus grows and develops. There are specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems ...

  9. Fetal Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Pogledic, Ivana; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde; Mitter, Christian; Brugger, Peter C; Langs, Georg; Schöpf, Veronika; Kasprian, Gregor; Prayer, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The recent technological advancement of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allowed the inclusion of diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy in prenatal imaging protocols. These methods provide information beyond morphology and hold the key to improving several fields of human neuroscience and clinical diagnostics. Our review introduces the fundamental works that enabled these imaging techniques, and also highlights the most recent contributions to this emerging field of prenatal diagnostics, such as the structural and functional connectomic approach. We introduce the advanced image processing approaches that are extensively used to tackle fetal or maternal movement-related image artifacts, and which are necessary for the optimal interpretation of such imaging data. PMID:26614130

  10. Fetal medicine and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Fetal medicine covers a broad spectrum of conditions that can be diagnosed before birth. Different disorders will require different treatment strategies and there is often an important ontogenetic aspect on how and when treatment can be implemented. Due to the limited availability there is a general lack of knowledge on how pharmacotherapy can be provided in the most efficient way. Until recently most knowledge about how different drugs are transferred and metabolized in the human fetus is based on very limited observational studies on concentrations of drugs in fetal blood and other fetal compartments. It might be that the rapid development of other non-invasive methods for fetal diagnostics such as isolation of fetal DNA and RNA in maternal serum, NMR imaging and other techniques could in the future be explored in fetal pharmacotherapy. Introduction of new treatment strategies are often based on extrapolation from experience in neonates and adults. However some fetal conditions are very specific for this time period in life. This especially entails disturbances in development as malformations, early growth restriction and several congenital disorders. Here it might be required to introduce new treatment strategies without any previous experience in humans. Example of this ethical dilemma is gene therapy for lung growth in severe cases of diaphragmatic hernia and early growth restriction. The risk-benefit issues need to be discussed in all these alternatives. However, it is likely that the concept of the human fetus as a potential patient is still in its infancy and with an improved understanding about fetal patho-physiology there will be a continued need for better knowledge of pharmacotherapy during this crucial time period in life. PMID:21882116

  11. Management of fetal malpresentation.

    PubMed

    Sharshiner, Rita; Silver, Robert M

    2015-06-01

    Fetal malpresentation is an important cause of the high cesarean delivery rate in the United States and around the world. This includes breech, face, brow, and compound presentations as well as transverse lie. Risk factors include multiparity, previously affected pregnancy, polyhydramnios, and fetal and uterine anomalies. Appropriate management can reduce the need for cesarean delivery in some cases. This review discusses management options and focuses specifically on external cephalic version and vaginal breech delivery. PMID:25811125

  12. SU-C-BRE-04: Microbeam-Radiation-Therapy (MRT): Characterizing a Novel MRT Device Using High Resolution 3D Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q; Juang, T; Bache, S; Chang, S; Oldham, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindrical dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D

  13. ALTERATIONS IN MATERNAL-FETAL CELLULAR TRAFFICKING AFTER FETAL SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Saadai, Payam; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Bautista, Geoanna; Gonzales, Kelly D.; Nijagal, Amar; Busch, Michael P.; Kim, CJ; Romero, Roberto; Lee, Hanmin; Hirose, Shinjiro; Rand, Larry; Miniati, Douglas; Farmer, Diana L.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose Bi-directional trafficking of cells between the mother and the fetus is routine in pregnancy and a component of maternal-fetal tolerance. Changes in fetal-to-maternal cellular trafficking have been reported in prenatal complications, but maternal-to-fetal trafficking has never been studied in the context of fetal intervention. We hypothesized that patients undergoing open fetal surgery would have altered maternal-fetal cellular trafficking. Methods Cellular trafficking was analyzed in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) who underwent open fetal surgical repair (n=5), MMC patients who had routine postnatal repair (n=6), and normal term patients (n=9). As a control for the fetal operation, trafficking was also analyzed in patients who were delivered by an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure (n=6). Microchimerism in maternal and cord blood was determined using quantitative real-time PCR for non-shared alleles. Results Maternal-to-fetal trafficking was significantly increased in patients who underwent open fetal surgery for MMC compared to normal controls, postnatal MMC repair, and EXIT patients. There were no differences in fetal-to-maternal cell trafficking between groups. Conclusion Patients undergoing open fetal surgery for MMC have elevated levels of maternal microchimerism. These results suggest altered trafficking and/or increased proliferation of maternal cells in fetal blood and may have important implications for preterm labor. PMID:22703775

  14. Modeling the biomechanics of fetal movements.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Loo, Jessica H W; Hayat, Tayyib T A; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A; Phillips, Andrew T M; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2016-08-01

    Fetal movements in the uterus are a natural part of development and are known to play an important role in normal musculoskeletal development. However, very little is known about the biomechanical stimuli that arise during movements in utero, despite these stimuli being crucial to normal bone and joint formation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a series of computational steps by which the forces generated during a kick in utero could be predicted from clinically observed fetal movements using novel cine-MRI data of three fetuses, aged 20-22 weeks. A custom tracking software was designed to characterize the movements of joints in utero, and average uterus deflection of [Formula: see text] mm due to kicking was calculated. These observed displacements provided boundary conditions for a finite element model of the uterine environment, predicting an average reaction force of [Formula: see text] N generated by a kick against the uterine wall. Finally, these data were applied as inputs for a musculoskeletal model of a fetal kick, resulting in predicted maximum forces in the muscles surrounding the hip joint of approximately 8 N, while higher maximum forces of approximately 21 N were predicted for the muscles surrounding the knee joint. This study provides a novel insight into the closed mechanical environment of the uterus, with an innovative method allowing elucidation of the biomechanical interaction of the developing fetus with its surroundings. PMID:26534772

  15. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart sounds. It is designed to transmit the fetal heart sounds not only through sound channels by...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart sounds. It is designed to transmit the fetal heart sounds not only through sound channels by...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart sounds. It is designed to transmit the fetal heart sounds not only through sound channels by...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart sounds. It is designed to transmit the fetal heart sounds not only through sound channels by...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart sounds. It is designed to transmit the fetal heart sounds not only through sound channels by...

  20. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  1. Magnesium and fetal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  2. Maternal-fetal thyroid hormone relationships and the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregon, M J; Escobar del Rey, F

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transferred from the mother to the fetus. Thus, despite the deiodinating enzymes of the placenta (26), some T4 and T3 is transferred, both before and after onset of fetal thyroid function, at least in those cases where fetal thyroid function is impaired. It is also possible that transfer occurs under normal conditions. Maternal to fetal transfer of T3 and T4 is partially limited. But it might be enough to mitigate severe fetal T4 and T3 deficiencies. However, the mitigating effects of both hormones are not equivalent for all fetal tissues. 1) Maternal T4 mitigates T4 and T3 deficiency of most fetal tissues, the brain included. 2) Maternal T3 mitigates T3 deficiency only in some fetal tissues, the brain being excluded. It does not mitigate cerebral T3 deficiency even at doses which are toxic for the mother, and it does not depress fetal plasma TSH. 3) Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. Maternal hypothyroxinemia is damaging to the developing fetal brain early in gestation. It might also later have adverse effects in gestation, if the fetal thyroid is impaired. Normal maternal T3 levels might avoid overt hypothyroidism of some fetal tissues, but is of no benefit to the brain. PMID:3176827

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FASD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that ...

  4. Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations Associated with Heterotaxy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parinda H; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an investigation during fetal life, particularly for assessment of intracranial masses, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, myelomeningocele, and abdominal masses. As the number of scans increases, so is the variety of congenital malformations being recognized. It is axiomatic that interpretation of the findings is enhanced when attention is paid to the likely findings in the setting of known syndromes, this information then dictating the need for additional acquisition of images. One such syndrome is so-called “visceral heterotaxy”, in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations. In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.  PMID:26180693

  5. Influence of polarization and a source model for dose calculation in MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lerch, Michael; Petasecca, Marco; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), an alternative preclinical treatment strategy using spatially modulated synchrotron radiation on a micrometer scale, has the great potential to cure malignant tumors (e.g., brain tumors) while having low side effects on normal tissue. Dose measurement and calculation in MRT is challenging because of the spatial accuracy required and the arising high dose differences. Dose calculation with Monte Carlo simulations is time consuming and their accuracy is still a matter of debate. In particular, the influence of photon polarization has been discussed in the literature. Moreover, it is controversial whether a complete knowledge of phase space trajectories, i.e., the simulation of the machine from the wiggler to the collimator, is necessary in order to accurately calculate the dose. Methods: With Monte Carlo simulations in the Geant4 toolkit, the authors investigate the influence of polarization on the dose distribution and the therapeutically important peak to valley dose ratios (PVDRs). Furthermore, the authors analyze in detail phase space information provided byMartínez-Rovira et al. [“Development and commissioning of a Monte Carlo photon model for the forthcoming clinical trials in microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 119–131 (2012)] and examine its influence on peak and valley doses. A simple source model is developed using parallel beams and its applicability is shown in a semiadjoint Monte Carlo simulation. Results are compared to measurements and previously published data. Results: Polarization has a significant influence on the scattered dose outside the microbeam field. In the radiation field, however, dose and PVDRs deduced from calculations without polarization and with polarization differ by less than 3%. The authors show that the key consequences from the phase space information for dose calculations are inhomogeneous primary photon flux, partial absorption due to inclined beam incidence outside

  6. An Unusual Origin of Fetal Lymphangioma Filling Right Axilla.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks' gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery. PMID:27134953

  7. An Unusual Origin of Fetal Lymphangioma Filling Right Axilla

    PubMed Central

    Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks’ gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery. PMID:27134953

  8. Computer‐assisted surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in fetal surgery: a systematic review†

    PubMed Central

    Deprest, Jan; Vercauteren, Tom; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fetal surgery has become a clinical reality, with interventions for twin‐to‐twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and spina bifida demonstrated to improve outcome. Fetal imaging is evolving, with the use of 3D ultrasound and fetal MRI becoming more common in clinical practise. Medical imaging analysis is also changing, with technology being developed to assist surgeons by creating 3D virtual models that improve understanding of complex anatomy, and prove powerful tools in surgical planning and intraoperative guidance. We introduce the concept of computer‐assisted surgical planning, and present the results of a systematic review of image reconstruction for fetal surgical planning that identified six articles using such technology. Indications from other specialities suggest a benefit of surgical planning and guidance to improve outcomes. There is therefore an urgent need to develop fetal‐specific technology in order to improve fetal surgical outcome. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26235960

  9. Fetal blood testing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing is performed during labor to test the blood pH of the baby which can determine its well- ... puncture is made in the scalp and fetal blood droplets are collected in a thin glass tube. Testing the scalp pH can help your doctor decide if your fetus ...

  10. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. Musculoskeletal MRI.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jaime E; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    MRI has the unique ability to detect abnormal fluid content, and is therefore unparalleled in its role of detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and follow-up evaluation of musculoskeletal disease. MRI in companion animals should be considered in the following circumstances: a definitive diagnosis cannot be made on radiographs; a patient is nonresponsive to medical or surgical therapy; prognostic information is desired; assessing surgical margins and traumatic and/or infectious joint and bone disease; ruling out subtle developmental or early aggressive bone lesions. The MRI features of common disorders affecting the shoulder, elbow, stifle, carpal, and tarsal joints are included in this chapter. PMID:26928749

  13. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging method that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the heart. It does ... radiation involved in MRI. The magnetic fields and radio waves used during the scan have not been shown ...

  14. Persistent fetal circulation.

    PubMed

    Saucier, P H

    1980-01-01

    A review of persistent fetal circulation, which involves the presence of a right to left extrapulmonary shunt that is sustained into neonatal life, is presented. Clinical signs exhibited by the infant often resemble those of respiratory distress. Treatment is accomplished with hyperventilation and/or pharmacologically with tolazoline which, in addition to the usual attention to the overall condition of the infant, requires intensive monitoring by the nurse. PMID:6898712

  15. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Hall, Earl T.; Baker, Donald A.; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1992-08-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  16. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  17. Maternal-fetal conflict.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-03-01

    Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  19. Intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Alison G; Spain, Janine

    2015-06-01

    Intrapartum fetal monitoring to assess fetal well-being during the labor and delivery process has been a central component of intrapartum care for decades. Today, electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the most common method used to assess the fetus during labor without substantial evidence to suggest a benefit. A Cochrane review of 13 trials, which included over 37,000 women, found that continuous EFM provided no significant improvement in perinatal death rate [risk ratio (RR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-1.23] or cerebral palsy rate (RR 1.75; 95% CI, 0.84-3.63) as compared with intermittent auscultation; however, there was a significant decrease in neonatal seizures (RR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.80). In addition, there was a significant increase in cesarean delivery (RR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07) and operative vaginal delivery (RR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33). Despite the lack of scientific support to suggest that EFM reduces adverse neonatal outcomes, its use is almost universal in the hospital setting and very likely has contributed to the rise in cesarean rate. PMID:25811127

  20. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    PubMed

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. PMID:26043881

  1. Neurocysticercosis in pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Rebecca F; Ng, Sher M; Dassan, Pooja

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection with the larvae of Taenia solium from contaminated pork. It is a leading cause of seizures in the developing world. Symptoms may be secondary to live or degenerating cysts, or previous infection causing calcification or gliosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, radiological confirmation of intracranial lesions and immunological testing. Management involves symptom control with antiepileptics and antiparasitic agents. Few cases have been described of maternal NCC during pregnancy. We describe a 25-year-old female presenting to a London hospital with secondary generalized seizures. MRI of the brain confirmed a calcified lesion in the right parietal lobe, and she gave a corroborative history of NCC during her childhood in India. She was stabilized initially on antiepileptics, but during her pregnancy presented with breakthrough seizures and radiological evidence of NCC reactivation. She was managed symptomatically with antiepileptics and completed the pregnancy to term with no fetal complications. PMID:27471595

  2. Neurocysticercosis in pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Rebecca F.; Ng, Sher M.; Dassan, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection with the larvae of Taenia solium from contaminated pork. It is a leading cause of seizures in the developing world. Symptoms may be secondary to live or degenerating cysts, or previous infection causing calcification or gliosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, radiological confirmation of intracranial lesions and immunological testing. Management involves symptom control with antiepileptics and antiparasitic agents. Few cases have been described of maternal NCC during pregnancy. We describe a 25-year-old female presenting to a London hospital with secondary generalized seizures. MRI of the brain confirmed a calcified lesion in the right parietal lobe, and she gave a corroborative history of NCC during her childhood in India. She was stabilized initially on antiepileptics, but during her pregnancy presented with breakthrough seizures and radiological evidence of NCC reactivation. She was managed symptomatically with antiepileptics and completed the pregnancy to term with no fetal complications. PMID:27471595

  3. Robust motion correction and outlier rejection of in vivo functional MR images of the fetal brain and placenta during maternal hyperoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wonsang; Serag, Ahmed; Evangelou, Iordanis E.; Andescavage, Nickie; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Subject motion is a major challenge in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) of the fetal brain and placenta during maternal hyperoxia. We propose a motion correction and volume outlier rejection method for the correction of severe motion artifacts in both fetal brain and placenta. The method is optimized to the experimental design by processing different phases of acquisition separately. It also automatically excludes high-motion volumes and all the missing data are regressed from ROI-averaged signals. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in enhancing motion correction in fetal fMRI without large data loss, compared to traditional motion correction methods.

  4. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  5. Assessment of fetal heart disorder by means of fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łozińska, Maria; Dunajski, Zbigniew

    2006-10-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is new method for investigations of electrical activity of the fetal heart. The idea and build of system for magnetic signal registration is described. Two cases of premature atrial contraction and complete AV block diagnosis by means of magnetic field recording system are described.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  7. Fetal and Neonatal Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Edgar; Öhman, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an important aspect of fetal and neonatal medicine. Premature complexes of atrial or ventricular origin are the main cause of an irregular heart rhythm. The finding is typically unrelated to an identifiable cause and no treatment is required. Tachyarrhythmia most commonly relates to supraventricular reentrant tachycardia, atrial flutter, and sinus tachycardia. Several antiarrhythmic agents are available for the perinatal treatment of tachyarrhythmias. Enduring bradycardia may result from sinus node dysfunction, complete heart block and nonconducted atrial bigeminy as the main arrhythmia mechanisms. The management and outcome of bradycardia depend on the underlying mechanism. PMID:26876124

  8. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  9. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  10. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. PMID:22044604

  11. Fetal nuchal translucency thickness.

    PubMed

    Witters, I; Fryns, J R

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s Nicolaides introduced screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency thickness measurement with ultrasound between 11-13(+6) weeks. Already in 1866 L. Down noted that common features of patients with trisomy 21 are a skin being too large for the body and a flat face with a small nose. While detection rates for trisomy 21, given an invasive testing rate of 5%, were only 30% for screening by maternal age and 65% for screening by maternal serum triple test, the detection rate for screening by nuchal translucency combined with maternal age was 75% and this could be increased to 90% in combination with maternal serum screening (serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) at 11-13(+6) weeks. The additional soft markers in the first trimester are the fetal nasal bone, the Doppler velocity waveform in the ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation and these markers can be used to further increase the detection rate of trisomy 21. In addition increased nuchal translucency thickness can also identify other chromosomal defects (mainly trisomy 13 and 18 and monosomy X) and major congenital malformations (mainly cardiac defects) and genetic syndromes. PMID:17515296

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  13. [Fetal microchimerism in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Huerta Sil, Gabriela; Medrano Ramírez, Gabriel

    2006-07-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the presence of fetal cells inmaternal tissues and vice versa, i.e., the coexistence of2 different cellular populations from genetically differentindividuals within a single person. The most frequentcause of microchimerism is pregnancy, in which there is abi-directional fetal-maternal interchange of cells duringpregnancy and delivery. Fetal cells have been demonstrated in the tissues ofpatients with rheumatic, endocrine or infectious diseases,as well as in those of healthy individuals. Microchimerism has been most extensively studied insystemic sclerosis. It seems that during pregnancyallogenic fetal or maternal cells cross the placenta bidirectionallyand persist in the systemic circulation andtissues of both mother and child. Subsequently, they areactivated, resulting in is a graft-against-host reactionassociated with the onset of clinical manifestations.Microchimerism has been also studied in otherconnective tissue diseases. PMID:21794328

  14. Best practice guidelines: fetal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, Nada; Sothinathan, Uma; Patel, Shailesh

    2012-01-01

    Fetal intervention encompasses a range of procedures on the fetus with congenital structural anomalies, whilst still on the placental circulation. The concept of fetal surgery was conceived in order to prevent fetal or early postnatal death, or to prevent permanent irreversible organ damage. The benefit of these procedures has to be balanced with risks to both the mother and the fetus. Open fetal surgery, more commonly conducted in North American centres, involves open surgery to the uterus in order to operate on the fetus. Fetal intervention centres in Europe more commonly use minimally invasive fetoscopic surgery. This paper elaborates on the various strategies used in dealing with anomalies of different organ systems of the fetus. PMID:22196142

  15. Towards a new era in fetal medicine in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Sitras, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient. In this commentary, we provide a description of some organizational and educational aspects of fetal medicine in the Nordic countries, using examples of the management of specific conditions such as aneuploidy screening, red cell allo-immunization and fetal interventions. Clearly, there are several cultural, legal, organizational and practical differences between the Nordic countries; these are not necessarily negative, given the high standards of care in all Nordic countries. The scope of the newly founded Nordic Network of Fetal Medicine is to enhance cooperation in clinical practice, education and research between the participant countries. Hopefully, this initiative will find the necessary political and economic support from the national authorities and bring a new era in the field of fetal medicine in the Nordic region. PMID:27124273

  16. Battlefield MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  17. Fetal malposition: impact and management.

    PubMed

    Caughey, Aaron B; Sharshiner, Rita; Cheng, Yvonne W

    2015-06-01

    Fetal malposition, either occiput posterior or transverse (OT), leads to greater risk of cesarean delivery, prolonged labor, and increased perinatal morbidity. Historically, there is a known association between epidural use and malposition that was assumed to be due to the increased discomfort of laboring with a fetus in the occiput posterior position. However, evidence now suggests that the epidural itself may contribute to fetal malposition by impacting the probability of internal rotation. Fetal malposition may be impacted by manual rotation. Manual rotation has been associated with greater rates of delivering in the occiput anterior position and lower rates of cesarean delivery. PMID:25851845

  18. Passive Fetal Heart Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Mowrey, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fetal heart monitoring system and method for detecting and processing acoustic fetal heart signals transmitted by different signal transmission modes. One signal transmission mode, the direct contact mode, occurs in a first frequency band when the fetus is in direct contact with the maternal abdominal wall. Another signal transmission mode, the fluid propagation mode, occurs in a second frequency band when the fetus is in a recessed position with no direct contact with the maternal abdominal wall. The second frequency band is relatively higher than the first frequency band. The fetal heart monitoring system and method detect and process acoustic fetal heart signals that are in the first frequency band and in the second frequency band.

  19. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  20. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor wants to perform a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam, there is a possibility that your ...

  1. Long-term developmental outcome of children with a fetal diagnosis of isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tarui, Tomo; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Sullivan, Nancy R; Robertson, Richard L; du Plessis, Adre J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia (iiVH) is one of the most common fetal cerebellar anomalies presenting for fetal neurological counselling with controversial postnatal neurodevelopmental outcome. In the present study, we characterised the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of prenatally diagnosed iiVH at school age. Design and patients We prospectively followed 20 children with fetal MRI diagnosis of iiVH including their postnatal MRI result and developmental outcome at school age (mean 6.1 years±1.9 years SD) using a comprehensive age-appropriate developmental testing battery, which encompassed cognitive, language, social and behavioural domains. Parental stress level and socioeconomic status were also evaluated. Results All children with postnatally confirmed iiVH had a normal neurodevelopmental outcome. A subgroup of children (2/20) who demonstrated cognitive delays and behavioural impairments had more extensive cerebellar malformation. Despite a normal developmental outcome, the parents of children with postnatally confirmed iiVH had higher parental stress compared with those parents whose children had normal postnatal MRI. Conclusions Children with postnatally confirmed iiVH show age appropriate functioning at school age. Postnatal MRI is important to confirm the diagnosis of iiVH and to exclude associated anomalies that impact neurodevelopmental outcome. A diagnosis of iiVH is associated with persistent elevated parental stress despite normal developmental outcomes in these children suggesting the need for ongoing parental support. PMID:23964086

  2. Uterine artery blood flow, fetal hypoxia and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Vaughn A.; Julian, Colleen G.; Toledo-Jaldin, Lillian; Cioffi-Ragan, Darleen; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary trade-offs required for bipedalism and brain expansion influence the pregnancy rise in uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and, in turn, reproductive success. We consider the importance of UtA blood flow by reviewing its determinants and presenting data from 191 normotensive (normal, n = 125) or hypertensive (preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH), n = 29) Andean residents of very high (4100–4300 m) or low altitude (400 m, n = 37). Prior studies show that UtA blood flow is reduced in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but whether the IUGR is due to resultant fetal hypoxia is unclear. We found higher UtA blood flow and Doppler indices of fetal hypoxia in normotensive women at high versus low altitude but similar fetal growth. UtA blood flow was markedly lower in early-onset PE versus normal high-altitude women, and their fetuses more hypoxic as indicated by lower fetal heart rate, Doppler indices and greater IUGR. We concluded that, despite greater fetal hypoxia, fetal growth was well defended by higher UtA blood flows in normal Andeans at high altitude but when compounded by lower UtA blood flow in early-onset PE, exaggerated fetal hypoxia caused the fetus to respond by decreasing cardiac output and redistributing blood flow to help maintain brain development at the expense of growth elsewhere. We speculate that UtA blood flow is not only an important supply line but also a trigger for stimulating the metabolic and other processes regulating feto-placental metabolism and growth. Studies using the natural laboratory of high altitude are valuable for identifying the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in human reproductive success. PMID:25602072

  3. Uterine artery blood flow, fetal hypoxia and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Browne, Vaughn A; Julian, Colleen G; Toledo-Jaldin, Lillian; Cioffi-Ragan, Darleen; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary trade-offs required for bipedalism and brain expansion influence the pregnancy rise in uterine artery (UtA) blood flow and, in turn, reproductive success. We consider the importance of UtA blood flow by reviewing its determinants and presenting data from 191 normotensive (normal, n = 125) or hypertensive (preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH), n = 29) Andean residents of very high (4100-4300 m) or low altitude (400 m, n = 37). Prior studies show that UtA blood flow is reduced in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but whether the IUGR is due to resultant fetal hypoxia is unclear. We found higher UtA blood flow and Doppler indices of fetal hypoxia in normotensive women at high versus low altitude but similar fetal growth. UtA blood flow was markedly lower in early-onset PE versus normal high-altitude women, and their fetuses more hypoxic as indicated by lower fetal heart rate, Doppler indices and greater IUGR. We concluded that, despite greater fetal hypoxia, fetal growth was well defended by higher UtA blood flows in normal Andeans at high altitude but when compounded by lower UtA blood flow in early-onset PE, exaggerated fetal hypoxia caused the fetus to respond by decreasing cardiac output and redistributing blood flow to help maintain brain development at the expense of growth elsewhere. We speculate that UtA blood flow is not only an important supply line but also a trigger for stimulating the metabolic and other processes regulating feto-placental metabolism and growth. Studies using the natural laboratory of high altitude are valuable for identifying the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in human reproductive success. PMID:25602072

  4. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body.

  5. Screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment. PMID:26725144

  6. Persistent fetal circulation

    PubMed Central

    D’cunha, Chrysal; Sankaran, Koravangattu

    2001-01-01

    Persistent fetal circulation (PFC), also known as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, is defined as postnatal persistence of right-to-left ductal or atrial shunting, or both in the presence of elevated right ventricular pressure. It is a relatively rare condition that is usually seen in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, overwhelming sepsis, meconium and other aspiration syndromes, intrauterine hypoxia and ischemia, and/or neonatal hypoxia and ischemia. This condition causes severe hypoxemia, and, as a result, has significant morbidity and mortality. Improved antenatal and neonatal care; the use of surfactant; continuous monitoring of oxygenation, blood pressure and other vital functions; and early recognition and intervention have made this condition even more rare. In modern neonatal intensive care units, anticipation and early treatment of PFC and its complications in sick newborns are commonplace. Thus, severe forms of PFC are only seen on isolated occasions. Consequently, it is even more imperative to revisit PFC compared with the time when there were occasional cases of PFC seen in neonatal intensive care units, and to discuss evolving treatment and management issues that pertain to this syndrome. PMID:20084150

  7. Fetal sex and race modify the predictors of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Simone A; Roberts, James M; Bodnar, Lisa M; Haggerty, Catherine L; Youk, Ada O; Catov, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is unknown if fetal sex and race modify the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and smoking on fetal growth. The authors studied markers of fetal growth in singleton offspring of 8,801 primiparous, normotensive women, enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. The authors tested for departures from additivity between sex/race and each predictor. The head-to-chest circumference ratio (HCC) decreased more, while birthweight and ponderal index (PI) increased more for each 1 kg/m(2) increase in pre-pregnancy BMI among term females versus males (P = 0.07, P < 0.01 and P = 0.08, interaction respectively). For term offspring of White compared with Black women, smoking independent of "dose" was associated with larger reductions in growth (165 g vs. 68 g reduction in birthweight, P < 0.01, interaction), greater reduction in fetal placental ratio (P < 0.01, interaction), PI (P < 0.01, interaction), and greater increase in HCC (P = 0.02), respectively. The association of BMI and smoking with fetal size appeared to be reversed in term versus preterm infants. Our study provides evidence that the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking are not constant across sex and race. This finding may be relevant to sex and race differences in neonatal and long term health outcomes. PMID:25030701

  8. Maternal Iodine Exposure: A Case of Fetal Goiter and Neonatal Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Rachael T; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L; Hull, Andrew D; Ramos, Gladys A

    2016-04-01

    A 27-year-old gravid 1 at 27 weeks 6 days with a history of hypothyroidism had an ultrasound that demonstrated a 3.9 × 3.2 × 3.3-cm well-circumscribed anterior neck mass, an extended fetal head, and polyhydramnios. Further characterization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a fetal goiter. During her evaluation for the underlying cause of the fetal goiter, the patient revealed she was taking nutritional iodine supplements for treatment of her hypothyroidism. She was ingesting 62.5 times the recommended amount of daily iodine in pregnancy. The excessive iodine consumption caused suppression of the fetal thyroid hormone production, resulting in hypothyroidism and goiter formation. After the iodine supplement was discontinued, the fetal goiter decreased in size. At delivery, the airway was not compromised. The infant was found to have reversible hypothyroidism and bilateral hearing loss postnatally. This case illustrates the importance of examining for iatrogenic causes for fetal anomalies, especially in unregulated nutritional supplements. PMID:27006474

  9. Statistical model of laminar structure for atlas-based segmentation of the fetal brain from in utero MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Chandramohan, Dharshan; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in MR and image analysis allow for reconstruction of high-resolution 3D images from clinical in utero scans of the human fetal brain. Automated segmentation of tissue types from MR images (MRI) is a key step in the quantitative analysis of brain development. Conventional atlas-based methods for adult brain segmentation are limited in their ability to accurately delineate complex structures of developing tissues from fetal MRI. In this paper, we formulate a novel geometric representation of the fetal brain aimed at capturing the laminar structure of developing anatomy. The proposed model uses a depth-based encoding of tissue occurrence within the fetal brain and provides an additional anatomical constraint in a form of a laminar prior that can be incorporated into conventional atlas-based EM segmentation. Validation experiments are performed using clinical in utero scans of 5 fetal subjects at gestational ages ranging from 20.5 to 22.5 weeks. Experimental results are evaluated against reference manual segmentations and quantified in terms of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The study demonstrates that the use of laminar depth-encoded tissue priors improves both the overall accuracy and precision of fetal brain segmentation. Particular refinement is observed in regions of the parietal and occipital lobes where the DSC index is improved from 0.81 to 0.82 for cortical grey matter, from 0.71 to 0.73 for the germinal matrix, and from 0.81 to 0.87 for white matter.

  10. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  11. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  12. On Methods for the Analysis of Indefinite Stimuli Perception Characteristics: an fMRT Study of Gender-Specific Differences.

    PubMed

    Fyodorov, A A; Pervushina, O N; Bliznyuk, M V; Khoroshilov, B M; Melnikov, M E; Mazhirina, K G; Stark, M B; Savelov, A A; Petrovsky, E D; Kozlova, L I

    2016-07-01

    Comparative identification of cerebral regions activated in men and women during perception of indefinite images was carried out by fMRT and psychological testing. Nine men and nine women aged 20-26 years took part in the study. The volunteers examined simple geometric figures, slightly structurized images (tables from Rorschach's test), and images of impossible figures. Activation in the cerebellum and visual cortex (bilateral) was more pronounced in women in response to all types of images and less so in the right G. temporalis medius. The right frontal regions (G. precentralis, G. frontalis superior, G. frontalis medius) were also stronger activated in women in response to indefinite stimuli. PMID:27492400

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  14. Fetal Programming and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rinaudo, Paolo; Wang, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in developing countries. In this review, we explore the concept—based on the developmental-origin-of-health-and-disease hypothesis—that reprogramming during critical times of fetal life can lead to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Specifically, we summarize the epidemiological evidence linking prenatal stress, manifested by low birth weight, to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. We also review animal studies that suggest potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of fetal reprogramming, including the cellular response to stress and both organ- and hormone-specific alterations induced by stress. Although metabolic syndrome in adulthood is undoubtedly caused by multiple factors, including modifiable behavior, fetal life may provide a critical window in which individuals are predisposed to metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:21910625

  15. Passive Fetal Heart Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor); Wynkoop, Mark W. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. H. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A fetal heart monitoring system preferably comprising a backing plate having a generally concave front surface and a generally convex back surface, and at least one sensor element attached to the concave front surface for acquiring acoustic fetal heart signals produced by a fetus within a body. The sensor element has a shape that conforms to the generally concave back surface of the backing plate. In one embodiment, the at least one sensor element comprises an inner sensor, and a plurality of outer sensors surrounding the inner sensor. The fetal heart monitoring system can further comprise a web belt, and a web belt guide movably attached to the web belt. The web belt guide being is to the convex back surface of the backing plate.

  16. [Fetal macrosomia: mode of delivery].

    PubMed

    Tatarova, S; Popov, I; Khristova, P

    2004-01-01

    This study was provided among 1847 deliveries from January, 1 to December, 31, 2003. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between antenatal diagnosis "fetal macrosomia" and the mode of delivery. We found that among the cases with birth weight > or = 4000 g and antenatal diagnosis "fetal macrosomia" the rate of cesarean section was fourfold higher than among the cases without such a diagnosis. There weren't statistically significant correlation between the cases with antenatal diagnosis "fetal macrosomia " and the cases with estimated birth weight < or = 3999g in reference to the mother's age and weight, parity, fundal height and abdominal circumference. There are insignificant differences between both of groups in reference to gestacional age and birth. PMID:15669645

  17. High resolution MR imaging of the fetal heart with cardiac triggering: a feasibility study in the sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jin; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Kooijmann, Hendrik; Frisch, Michael; Hecher, Kurt; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegärtner, Ulrike

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with triggering of the fetal heart beat in utero in a sheep model. All experimental protocols were reviewed and the usage of ewes and fetuses was approved by the local animal protection authorities. Images of the hearts of six pregnant ewes were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR system (Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The fetuses were chronically instrumented with a carotid catheter to measure the fetal heart frequency for the cardiac triggering. Pulse wave triggered, breath-hold cine-MRI with steady-state free precession (SSFP) was achieved in short axis, two-, four- and three-chamber views. The left ventricular volume and thus the function were measured from the short axis. The fetal heart frequencies ranged between 130 and 160 bpm. The mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves could be clearly observed. The foramen ovale could be visualized. Myocardial contraction was shown in cine sequences. The average blood volume at the end systole was 3.4 + or - 0.2 ml (+ or - SD). The average volume at end diastole was 5.2 + or - 0.2 ml; thus the stroke volumes of the left ventricle in the systole were between 1.7 and 1.9 ml with ejection fractions of 38.6% and 39%, respectively. The pulse wave triggered cardiac MRI of the fetal heart allowed evaluation of anatomical structures and functional information. This feasibility study demonstrates the applicability of MRI for future evaluation of fetuses with complex congenital heart defects, once a noninvasive method has been developed to perform fetal cardiac triggering. PMID:19430796

  18. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... fetal heart rate. The other belt measures the length of contractions and the time between them. How ... uterus. Doppler Transducer: A device that uses sound waves to reflect motion—such as the fetal heartbeat— ...

  19. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  20. Fetal MR Imaging Analysis of Sirenomelia with Clinico Radiographic Correlation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Raghavendra G.; Reddy, Arvind K; Cheguri, Sandeep Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a social curiosity, a medical and diagnostic challenge prenatally compounded by varied diagnostic difficulties. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia was and continues to be a challenge although von klippel et al., described a case at 10 weeks of gestational age. However, they needed a second imaging at 12th week for confirmation. First trimester or early second trimester anatomic survey on ultrasound and MRI is accurate for the diagnosis thereby avoiding unnecessary complex pregnancy. We report a case of second trimester diagnosed sirenomelia, with detailed analysis of image findings on ultrasound and fetal MRI. PMID:27504380

  1. Diagnostic Imaging of Fetal and Neonatal Abdominal and Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Usha D; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and staging of prenatal and neonatal tumors, and is essential in treatment planning. Though obstetrical ultrasound is the first choice prenatally, fetal MRI continues to play an increasing role as experience with this imaging modality increases. In the neonate, in addition to ultrasound and MRI, CT and nuclear medicine studies can also play an important role. We describe the prenatal and neonatal imaging findings of some of the most common congenital abdominal and soft tissue neoplasms including neuroblastoma, renal, liver and soft tissue tumors. PMID:26168940

  2. Verification of fetal brain responses by coregistration of fetal ultrasound and fetal magnetoencephalography data

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, C.; McCubbin, J.; Murphy, P.; Eswaran, H.; Lowery, C. L.; Ortiz, E.; Preissl, H.

    2009-01-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is used to study neurological functions of the developing fetus by measuring magnetic signals generated by electrical sources within the fetal brain. For this aim either auditory or visual stimuli are presented and evoked brain activity or spontaneous activity is measured at the sensor level. However a limiting factor of this approach is the low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of recorded signals. To overcome this limitation, advanced signal processing techniques such as spatial filters (e.g. beamformer) can be used to increase SNR. One crucial aspect of this technique is the forward model and, in general, a simple spherical head model is used. This head model is an integral part of a model search approach to analyze the data due to the lack of exact knowledge about the location of the fetal head. In the present report we overcome this limitation by a coregistration of volumetric ultrasound images with fMEG data. In a first step we validated the ultrasound to fMEG coregistration with a phantom and were able to show that the coregistration error is below 2 cm. In the second step we compared the results gained by the model search approach to the exact location of the fetal head determined on pregnant mothers by ultrasound. The results of this study clearly show that the results of the model search approach are in accordance with the location of the fetal head. PMID:19778620

  3. Neuromyelitis Optica in Pregnancy Complicated by Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Eclampsia and Fetal Death

    PubMed Central

    Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable. PMID:25584107

  4. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Woods, K J; Meintjes, E M; Molteno, C D; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2015-01-01

    Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task. PMID:26199871

  5. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Woods, K.J.; Meintjes, E.M.; Molteno, C.D.; Jacobson, S.W.; Jacobson, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task. PMID:26199871

  6. Fetal assessment in postterm pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boylan, P; McParland, P

    1991-02-01

    There is considerable disagreement over the management of postterm pregnancies. The main controversy is whether to adopt a policy of routine induction or one of selective induction allied to frequent fetal surveillance. Current evidence suggests that routine induction at 42 weeks' gestation does not increase the risk of instrumental delivery or cesarean section. To adopt the former approach, it is important that gestation is confirmed by early ultrasound examination, which has reduced the true incidence of postterm pregnancy to less than 6%. There have been no recent significant advances regarding methods of fetal surveillance in the postterm pregnancy. PMID:1878496

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  8. Human Fetal Behavior: 100 Years of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Low, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews literature on human fetal behavior. Includes descriptions of coupling of body movements and fetal heart rate and behavior maturation from conception to term. Discusses use of stimulus-induced behavior to examine sensory and cognitive development, and spontaneous and stimulus-induced behavior to assess fetal well-being. Notes research focus…

  9. Investigation of multichannel phased array performance for fetal MR imaging on 1.5T clinical MR system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel; Glenn, Orit; Xu, Duan; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Fetal MRI on 1.5T clinical scanner has been increasingly becoming a powerful imaging tool for studying fetal brain abnormalities in vivo. Due to limited availability of dedicated fetal phased arrays, commercial torso or cardiac phased arrays are routinely used for fetal scans, which are unable to provide optimized SNR and parallel imaging performance with a small number coil elements, and insufficient coverage and filling factor. This poses a demand for the investigation and development of dedicated and efficient radiofrequency (RF) hardware to improve fetal imaging. In this work, an investigational approach to simulate the performance of multichannel flexible phased arrays is proposed to find a better solution to fetal MR imaging. A 32 channel fetal array is presented to increase coil sensitivity, coverage and parallel imaging performance. The electromagnetic field distribution of each element of the fetal array is numerically simulated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The array performance, including B(1) coverage, parallel reconstructed images and artifact power, is then theoretically calculated and compared with the torso array. Study results show that the proposed array is capable of increasing B(1) field strength as well as sensitivity homogeneity in the entire area of uterus. This would ensure high quality imaging regardless of the location of the fetus in the uterus. In addition, the paralleling imaging performance of the proposed fetal array is validated by using artifact power comparison with torso array. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the 32 channel flexible array for fetal MR imaging at 1.5T. PMID:22408747

  10. Modelling Escherichia coli concentration in a wastewater reservoir using an operational parameter MRT%FE and first order kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Consoli, Simona; Juanicó, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The operational parameter MRT%FE, representing the mean residence time of different ages fractions of effluent within a completely mixed reactor, was evaluated and integrated with first order kinetics. The parameter was used to model Escherichia coli concentrations in a municipal wastewater reservoir managed under different operating conditions (continuous and discontinuous). The study was conducted during 2004-2005 in a reservoir receiving effluents from the activated sludge treatment plant of Caltagirone (Eastern Sicily - Italy). The analytical approach is applied to the hydraulic state variables of the system (daily stored volumes, inlet and outlet flows), and the physical-chemical (pH, temperature, EC, TSS, BOD(5), COD) and bacteriological wastewater parameters (E. coli, FC, FS). In order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed approach, predicted E. coli concentrations within the reservoir were compared with measured ones by the correlation coefficient, F-test and Sperman's index. The study included the evaluation of die-off coefficient K(T) (d(-1)), light extinction coefficient K (m(-1)) and their relationships with climatic factors. Results of the study confirm that E. coli removal is related to the fractions of fresh effluent remaining each day within the reservoir with MRT%FE of about 5-8d, significantly lower than the nominal detention time (about 27d). The E. coli die-off coefficient (K(T)) was higher during system discontinuous operations and correlated with incident solar radiation and water temperature. PMID:18222594

  11. Reconstruction of a geometrically correct diffusion tensor image of a moving human fetal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A.; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. J.; Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Robinson, Ashley J.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Miller, Steven P.; Studholme, Colin

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies reported the development of methods for rigid registration of 2D fetal brain imaging data to correct for unconstrained fetal and maternal motion, and allow the formation of a true 3D image of conventional fetal brain anatomy from conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging provides additional valuable insight into the developing brain anatomy, however the correction of motion artifacts in clinical fetal diffusion imaging is still a challenging problem. This is due to the challenging problem of matching lower signal-to-noise ratio diffusion weighted EPI slice data to recover between-slice motion, compounded by the presence of possible geometric distortions in the EPI data. In addition, the problem of estimating a diffusion model (such as a tensor) on a regular grid that takes into account the inconsistent spatial and orientation sampling of the diffusion measurements needs to be solved in a robust way. Previous methods have used slice to volume registration within the diffusion dataset. In this work, we describe an alternative approach that makes use of an alignment of diffusion weighted EPI slices to a conventional structural MRI scan which provides a geometrically correct reference image. After spatial realignment of each diffusion slice, a tensor field representing the diffusion profile is estimated by weighted least squared fitting. By qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results, we confirm the proposed algorithm successfully corrects the motion and reconstructs the diffusion tensor field.

  12. An event-related analysis of P300 by simultaneous EEG/fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-qun; Wang, Mingshi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, P300 that induced by visual stimuli was examined with simultaneous EEG/fMRI. For the purpose of combine the best temporary resolution with the best special resolution together to estimate the brain function, event-related analysis contributed to this methodological trial. A 64 channel MRT-compatible MR EEG amplifier (BrainAmp: made of Brain Production GmbH, Gennany) was used in the measurement simultaneously with fMRI scanning. The reference channel is between Fz, Cz and Pz. Sampling rate of raw EEG was 5 kHz, and the MRT noise reduction was performed. EEG recording synchronized with MRI scan by our original stimulus system, and an oddball paradigm (four-oriented Landolt Ring presentation) was performed in the official manner. After P300 segmentation, the timing of P300 was exported to event-related analysis of fMRI data with SPM99 software. In single subject study, the significant activations appear in the left superior frontal, Broca's area and on both sides of the parietal lobule when P300 occurred. It is suggest that P300 may be an integration carried out by top-down signal from frontal to the parietal lobule, which regulates an Attention-Logical Judgment process. Compared with other current methods, the event related analysis by simultaneous EEG/IMRI is excellent in the point that can describe the cognitive process with reality unifying further temporary and spatial information. It is expected that examination and demonstration of the obtained result will supply with the promotion of this powerful methods.

  13. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  14. Efficient Gene Transfer Into the Mouse Lung by Fetal Intratracheal Injection of rAAV2/6.2

    PubMed Central

    Carlon, Marianne; Toelen, Jaan; Van der Perren, Anke; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Reumers, Veerle; Sbragia, Lourenço; Gijsbers, Rik; Baekelandt, Veerle; Himmelreich, Uwe; Wilson, James M; Deprest, Jan; Debyser, Zeger

    2010-01-01

    Fetal gene therapy is one of the possible new therapeutic strategies for congenital or perinatal diseases with high mortality or morbidity. We developed a novel delivery strategy to inject directly into the fetal mouse trachea. Intratracheal (i.t.) injection at embryonic day 18 (E18) was more efficient in targeting the fetal lung than conventional intra-amniotic (i.a.) delivery. Viral vectors derived from adeno-associated virus serotype 6.2, with tropism for the airway epithelium and not earlier tested in the fetal mouse lung, were injected into the fetal trachea. Bioluminescence (BL) imaging (BLI) was combined with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) for noninvasive and accurate localization of transgene expression in vivo. Histological analysis for β-galactosidase (β-gal) revealed 17.5% of epithelial cells transduced in the conducting airways and 1.5% in the alveolar cells. Stable gene expression was observed up to 1 month after injection. This study demonstrates that direct injection of rAAV2/6.2 in the fetal mouse trachea is superior to i.a. delivery for transducing the lung. Second, as stable gene transfer was detected up to 1 postnatal month, this approach may be useful to evaluate fetal gene therapy for pulmonary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, requiring both substantial numbers of transduced cells as well as prolonged gene expression to obtain a stable phenotypic effect. PMID:20664525

  15. Tissue engineering a fetal membrane.

    PubMed

    Mi, Shengli; David, Anna L; Chowdhury, Bipasha; Jones, Roanne Razalia; Hamley, Ian William; Squires, Adam M; Connon, Che John

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an artificial fetal membrane (FM) by combination of human amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) and a mechanically enhanced collagen scaffold containing encapsulated human amniotic stromal fibroblasts (hASFs). Such a tissue-engineered FM may have the potential to plug structural defects in the amniotic sac after antenatal interventions, or to prevent preterm premature rupture of the FM. The hAESCs and hASFs were isolated from human fetal amniotic membrane (AM). Magnetic cell sorting was used to enrich the hAESCs by positive ATP-binding cassette G2 selection. We investigated the use of a laminin/fibronectin (1:1)-coated compressed collagen gel as a novel scaffold to support the growth of hAESCs. A type I collagen gel was dehydrated to form a material mimicking the mechanical properties and ultra-structure of human AM. hAESCs successfully adhered to and formed a monolayer upon the biomimetic collagen scaffold. The resulting artificial membrane shared a high degree of similarity in cell morphology, protein expression profiles, and structure to normal fetal AM. This study provides the first line of evidence that a compacted collagen gel containing hASFs could adequately support hAESCs adhesion and differentiation to a degree that is comparable to the normal human fetal AM in terms of structure and maintenance of cell phenotype. PMID:21919796

  16. Hypoxia and fetal heart development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, A J; Zhang, L

    2010-10-01

    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not the only gene involved in adaptation to hypoxia, its role places it as a central figure in orchestrating events needed for adaptation to hypoxic stress. Although "normal" hypoxia (lower oxygen tension in the fetus as compared with the adult) is essential in heart formation, further abnormal hypoxia in utero adversely affects cardiogenesis. Prenatal hypoxia alters myocardial structure and causes a decline in cardiac performance. Not only are the effects of hypoxia apparent during the perinatal period, but prolonged hypoxia in utero also causes fetal programming of abnormality in the heart's development. The altered expression pattern of cardioprotective genes such as protein kinase c epsilon, heat shock protein 70, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, likely predispose the developing heart to increased vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury later in life. The events underlying the long-term changes in gene expression are not clear, but likely involve variation in epigenetic regulation. PMID:20712587

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa

    This resource guide provides information on programs, publications, organizations, and other resources related to prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The purpose of this guide is to assist health care providers to comply with Indian Health Service (IHS) FAS goals and objectives. It gives examples of community approaches to FAS prevention,…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The guide was developed to assist professionals working with American Indian people as a resource in obtaining printed and non-printed materials on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The resource guide is divided into the following sections: films (4), books (5), bibliographies (2), pamphlets (16), posters (5), slides (2), training curriculum (3), and…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  20. Development of the human fetal testis.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. PMID:24746112

  1. Visualising uncertainty: Examining women's views on the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kate; Kochetkova, Inna; Whitby, Elspeth

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal screening occupies a prominent role within sociological debates on medical uncertainty. A particular issue concerns the limitations of routine screening which tends to be based on risk prediction. Computer assisted visual technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now starting to be applied to the prenatal realm to assist in the diagnosis of a range of fetal and maternal disorders (from problems with the fetal brain to the placenta). MRI is often perceived in popular and medical discourse as a technology of certainty and truth. However, little is known about the use of MRI as a tool to confirm or refute the diagnosis of a range of disorders in pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research with pregnant women attending a fetal medicine clinic in the North of England this paper examines the potential role that MRI can play in mediating pregnancy uncertainty. The paper will argue that MRI can create and manage women's feelings of uncertainty during pregnancy. However, while MRI may not always provide women with unequivocal answers, the detailed information provided by MR images combined with the interpretation and communication skills of the radiologist in many ways enables women to navigate the issue. Our analysis of empirical data therefore highlights the value of this novel technological application for women and their partners. It also seeks to stress the merit of taking a productive approach to the study of diagnostic uncertainty, an approach which recognises the concepts dual nature. PMID:27451338

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Strasburger, Janette F.; Cuneo, Bettina F.; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and careful stratification of fetal heart rate (FHR) is extremely important in all pregnancies. The most lethal cardiac rhythm disturbances occur during apparently normal pregnancies where FHR and rhythmare regular and within normal or low-normal ranges. These hidden depolarization and repolarization abnormalities, associated with genetic ion channelopathies cannot be detected by echocardiography, and may be responsible for up to 10% of unexplained fetal demise, prompting a need for newer and better fetal diagnostic techniques. Other manifest fetal arrhythmias such as premature beats, tachycardia, and bradycardia are commonly recognized. Heart rhythm diagnosis in obstetrical practice is usually made by M-mode and pulsed Doppler fetal echocardiography, but not all fetal cardiac time intervals are captured by echocardiographic methods. This article reviews different types of fetal arrhythmias, their presentation and treatment strategies, and gives an overview of the present and future diagnostic techniques. PMID:24858320

  3. Movie MRI at five frames a second for evaluation of speech and swallowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Mori, Koichi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nozaki, Seiji

    2001-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging method that is widely used in the medical field. One of the limitations of MRI is its low time-resolution images of MRI are usually obtained as still images. Here we introduced a newly developed method of ``movie'' MRI with high time-resolution at five images a second. Its good application would include study and evaluation of speech and swallowing. Instrument: MRT-2001 XG with Software ver.5.5. (Toshiba). Coil: head QD coil for the tongue; CTL ARRY coil (3ch) for the neck, Imaging condition: sagital FFE2D; TR=2.8 ms TE=1.2 ms FA=10 deg Matrix=64×128 ST=10 mm NAQ=1 AV FOV=23×35 ; ROAFI; sequential acquisition. Maximum imaging length=51 s. A healthy Japanese male (Tokyo dialect speaker, 39 years). Task: Repetitive utterance of /tenten.../ and intentional swallowing of saliva. Results: In the task of /tenten..../, we could detect, in temporal order, velopharyngeal (VP) closure, opening of the tongue-palate (TP) closure, VP opening, TP closure, VP closure, and so on. In the swallowing task of saliva, we could detect movement of the tongue for conveying saliva to the pharynx, VP closure, backward movement of the tongue root, elevation and descent of the larynx in this temporal order. Our ``Movie MRI'' seemed promising for the noninvasive evaluation of speech and deglutition. Appropriate materials for swallowing evaluation will be presented.

  4. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  5. What Is Chest MRI?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive ... creates detailed pictures of the structures in your chest, such as your chest wall, heart, and blood ...

  6. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  7. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast MRI may be done in combination with mammography or ultrasound . It is not a replacement for mammography. ... breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin . 2007;57:75-89. ...

  8. Pelvis MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... The table slides into the middle of the MRI machine. Small devices, called coils, may be placed around ... anxious. Or your provider may suggest an open MRI in which the machine is not as close to the body. Before ...

  9. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the lower part of ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  10. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  11. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  12. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  13. MRI in cranial tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Just, M; Higer, H P; Betting, O; Bockenheimer, S; Pfannenstiel, P

    1987-11-01

    A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas is presented. CT and MRI findings are discussed and compared. MRI showed multiple tuberculomas characterised by the same signal intensity as the surrounding brain parenchyma. Differentiation could be achieved only by the perifocal oedema of high signal intensity. Changes of the lesions during chemotherapy were monitored by CT and MRI and the results are presented. PMID:3691545

  14. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Pitale, Shailesh; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagha

    2011-01-01

    Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke). It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD). These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ‘Barker's Hypothesis’. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological. PMID:22145131

  15. Fetal epigenetic programming of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics generates a considerable interest in the field of research on complex traits, including obesity and diabetes. Recently, we reported a number of epipolymorphisms in the placental leptin and adiponectin genes associated with maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results suggest that DNA methylation could partly explain the link between early exposure to a detrimental fetal environment and an increased risk to develop obesity and diabetes later in life. This brief report discusses the potential importance of adipokine epigenetic changes in fetal metabolic programming. Additionally, preliminary data showing similarities between methylation variations of different tissues and cell types will be presented along with the challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field of research. PMID:23700551

  16. Fetal status: sources and implications.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A

    1997-10-01

    This essay considers the ways in which the various contexts--abortion, prenatal diagnosis, fetal research, and the use of fetuses in transplantation--shape the American debate on the moral standing of the fetus. This discussion gives rise to several philosophical debates on the status of the preimplantation embryo, particularly the debate over when the preimplantation embryo becomes individuated. How that question is resolved has critical ethical and policy implications. PMID:9360195

  17. Completion Report for Multi-Site Incentive MRT 2779 Implement ASC Tripod Initiative by 30SEP08

    SciTech Connect

    East, D; Cerutti, J; Noe, J; Cupps, K; Loncaric, J; Sturtevant, J

    2008-09-22

    This report provides documentation and evidence for the completion of the deployment of the Tripod common operating system (TripodOS, also known as and generally referred to below as TOSS). Background documents for TOSS are provided in Appendices A and B, including the initial TOSS proposal accepted by ASC HQ and Executives in July 2007 and a Governance Model defined by a Tri-Lab working group in September 2007. Appendix C contains a document that clarifies the intent and requirements for the completion criteria associated with MRT 2779. The deployment of TOSS is a Multi-Site Incentive from the ASC FY08-09 Implementation Plan due at the end of Quarter 4 in FY08.

  18. Development and validation of a new LBM-MRT hybrid model with enthalpy formulation for melting with natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda Fuentes, Johann; Kuznik, Frédéric; Johannes, Kévyn; Virgone, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model to simulate melting with natural convection of a phase change material. For the phase change problem, the enthalpy formulation is used. Energy equation is solved by a finite difference method, whereas the fluid flow is solved by the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method. The model is first verified and validated using the data from the literature. Then, the model is applied to a tall brick filled with a fatty acid eutectic mixture and the results are presented. The main results are (1) the spatial convergence rate is of second order, (2) the new model is validated against data from the literature and (3) the natural convection plays an important role in the melting process of the fatty acid mixture considered in our work.

  19. Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    CONSTANTINESCU, Simona; ZAMFIRESCU, Vlad; VLADAREANU, Prof. Radu

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is the commonest cause of severe neonatal thrombocytopenia. FNAIT is usually suspected in neonates with bleeding or severe, unexplained, and/or isolated postnatal thrombocytopenia. Affected fetuses should be managed in referral centers with experience in the ante-natal management of FNAIT. Close collaboration is required between specialists in fetal medicine, obstetrics, hematology/transfusion medicine, and pediatrics. The mother and her partner should be provided with detailed information about FNAIT and its potential clinical consequences, and the benefits and risks of different approaches to ante-natal management. There has been huge progress in the ante-natal management of FNAIT over the last 20 years. However, the ideal effective treatment without significant side effects to the mother or fetus has yet to be determined. Key issues: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a condition that is underdiagnosed. Immunization seldom occurs in the first pregnancy. Immunization takes place in association with delivery in most cases. Anti-HPA-1a level is a predictor for the severity of thrombocytopenia. PMID:23482913

  20. [Fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Díaz, E; Ginovart Galiana, G

    2003-06-01

    Fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is the commonest cause of severe thrombocytopenia in the newborn. This disorder is due to the destruction of fetal platelets by a maternal platelet-specific antibody caused by fetal-maternal incompatibility. The most serious complication is intracranial hemorrhage (10-30 % of newborns), which may cause death (10 % of the reported cases) or irreversible neurological sequelae (20 %). The diagnosis is usually made after birth when most affected neonates have petechiae, purpura or overt bleeding. The degree of severity varies according to platelet count. Current methods allow detection of maternal platelet alloantibodies (usually HPA-1a). Clinical grounds and the exclusion of other causes of neonatal thrombocytopenia are required to establish an accurate diagnosis. Recurrence of this disease is very high and has prompted clinicians to develop antenatal prophylactic programs in subsequent pregnancies. However, the optimal treatment of at-risk pregnancies remains controversial. The early diagnosis of this process allows effective therapy based on the infusion of compatible platelets and IgG immunoglobulins when hemorrhage is not obvious. Antenatal management of subsequent pregnancies can prevent recurrence of thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage. The aim of this review is to draw pediatricians' attention to the importance of this probably under-diagnosed disease in which early diagnosis can prevent potentially severe complications. PMID:12781112

  1. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  2. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  7. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  8. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  9. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  10. PHACE syndrome with lip haemangioma, microphthalmos and persistent fetal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lipika; Nayak, Bhagabat; Sinha, Gautam; Khokhar, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    An 11-month-old baby girl presented with white reflex in her left eye. On examination, there was a 6.5×5 mm(2)haemangioma present over her face involving on her lower lip. Systemic examinations were within normal limits. The left eye was small, with an axial length of 16.08 mm and had a cataract. Ultrasonography of the left eye was suggestive of the presence of a vascular stalk, persistent hyperplasia of a primary vitreous, or persistent fetal vasculature with vitreous haemorrhage. On MRI, the left eye was small with vitreous haemorrhage. Left eye lens aspiration was performed and the bleeding vascular stalk behind the lens was cauterised with diathermy. The right eye was normal. The patient was diagnosed as having PHACE syndrome (Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta and other cardiac defects, and Eye abnormalities syndrome). On follow-up, she was able to follow light with her left eye. PMID:27033295

  11. Fetal outcome in murine Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Silver, R M; Yang, L; Daynes, R A; Branch, D W; Salafia, C M; Weis, J J

    1995-01-01

    Lyme disease is an inflammatory syndrome caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Although this syndrome has important implications for human pregnancy, little is known about gestational infection with B. burgdorferi. Fetal death occurred in 33 of 280 gestational sacs (12%) in 39 C3H/HeN female mice infected by intradermal injection of B. burgdorferi 4 days after mating (acute infection), compared with 0 of 191 sacs in 25 control mice (P = 0.0001). Forty-six percent of acutely infected mice suffered at least one fetal death, compared with none of the control animals (P = 0.0002). There were no fetal deaths in 18 C3H/HeN mice infected 3 weeks prior to mating (chronic infection). A sensitive PCR technique detected B. burgdorferi DNA in the uteri of acutely infected mice but did not detect DNA in the uteri of controls or chronically infected mice. Spirochete DNA was only rarely detected in fetal tissues, and its presence was not required for fetal death. The inclusion of an internal competitive PCR target indicated that the lack of B. burgdorferi sequences in fetal DNA was not due to the presence of a PCR inhibitor. Histologic analysis of gestational tissues from infected animals demonstrated nonspecific pathology consistent with fetal death. These findings indicate an association between murine fetal death and acute infection with B. burgdorferi early in gestation but not with chronic infection. Our data suggest that fetal death is due to a maternal response to infection rather than fetal infection. These findings could provide an explanation for observations in humans in which sporadic cases of fetal death in women infected with B. burgdorferi during pregnancy have been reported, while previous infection has not been associated with fetal death. PMID:7806385

  12. Fetal serine fluxes across fetal liver, hindlimb, and placenta in late gestation.

    PubMed

    Cetin, I; Fennessey, P V; Sparks, J W; Meschia, G; Battaglia, F C

    1992-10-01

    Eleven studies of fetal serine fluxes were performed in chronically catheterized fetal lambs by continuous infusion of [1-13C]- and [U-14C]serine into a fetal brachial vein. At tracer serine steady state, samples were collected from the fetal abdominal aorta, umbilical vein, fetal hepatic vein, and fetal femoral vein and from the maternal femoral artery and uterine vein. Analyses were performed for plasma serine and glycine concentration, for serine and glycine 13C mole percent enrichment, and for whole blood 14CO2 and O2 concentrations. Uterine and umbilical blood flows were also measured. The placenta had a significant net uptake of fetal serine (2.1 +/- 0.5 mumol.min-1.kg-1, P < 0.01). Fetal plasma serine disposal rate (DR) was 42.5 +/- 3.9 mumol.min-1.kg-1.CO2 production from decarboxylation of fetal plasma serine represented 7.9 +/- 0.5% of DR, or 10.1 +/- 1.2 mumol CO2.min-1.kg-1. Fetal plasma glycine enrichment was 59.7 +/- 4.9% of fetal plasma serine enrichment. There was a significant loss of tracer serine from the fetal circulation into the placenta accounting for approximately 45% of infused tracer. Fifteen percent of this was converted to glycine and released into the umbilical circulation. There was a significant uptake of tracer serine by both fetal liver and fetal hindlimb with a significant CO2 production by both sites with serine oxidation predominantly in the carcass. These results indicate a high fetal serine disposal rate in the lamb, with rapid fetoplacental serine exchange, resulting in a net uptake of fetal serine by the placenta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1415701

  13. Fetal movements as a predictor of health.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jonathan; Nowlan, Niamh C; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Shaw, Caroline J; Lees, Christoph C

    2016-09-01

    The key determinant to a fetus maintaining its health is through adequate perfusion and oxygen transfer mediated by the functioning placenta. When this equilibrium is distorted, a number of physiological changes, including reduced fetal growth, occur to favor survival. Technologies have been developed to monitor these changes with a view to prolong intrauterine maturity while reducing the risks of stillbirth. Many of these strategies involve complex interpretation, for example Doppler ultrasound for fetal blood flow and computerized analysis of fetal heart rate changes. However, even with these modalities of fetal assessment to determine the optimal timing of delivery, fetal movements remain integral to clinical decision-making. In high-risk cohorts with fetal growth restriction, the manifestation of a reduction in perceived movements may warrant an expedited delivery. Despite this, there has been little evolution in the development of technologies to objectively evaluate fetal movement behavior for clinical application. This review explores the available literature on the value of fetal movement analysis as a method of assessing fetal wellbeing, and demonstrates how interdisciplinary developments in this area may aid in the improvement of clinical outcomes. PMID:27374723

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Facts and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria; Cook, Martha

    1993-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including characteristics, incidence, current government programs, successful local programs, and implications for school administrators. (DB)

  15. Drug Resistant Fetal Arrhythmia in Obstetric Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Altug, Nahide; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Biberoglu, Ebru; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a pregnancy specific liver disease characterized by increased levels of bile acid (BA) and pruritus. Raised maternal BA levels could be associated with intrauterine death, fetal distress, and preterm labor and also alter the rate and rhythm of cardiomyocyte contraction and may cause fetal arrhythmic events. We report a case of drug resistant fetal supraventricular tachycardia and concomitant OC. Conclusion. If there are maternal OC and concomitant fetal arrhythmia, possibility of the resistance to antiarrhythmic treatment should be kept in mind. PMID:25821617

  16. Fetal Sex Differences in Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Porter, Anne C; Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Tuuli, Methodius; Caughey, Aaron B; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2016-07-01

    Objective The article aimed to estimate differences in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) patterns in term gestations attributable to fetal sex. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive, singleton, nonanomalous, term gestations that labored during admission. EFM characteristics in the 30 minutes prior to delivery were evaluated. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted risks for EFM features by sex. To further estimate the impact of sex, we limited the analysis to gestations without composite morbidity (morbidity defined as arterial cord pH <7.20, 5-minute Apgar <7, or neonatal intensive care unit admission). Results Of 2,639 deliveries, 1,400 (53%) were male. Male fetuses had a higher number of decelerations (median [interquartile range]: 8 [5, 11] vs. 7 [4, 10], p < 0.003) and increased total deceleration area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] :1.04, 1.18). Male fetuses were at increased risk for prolonged decelerations (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42) and repetitive variable decelerations (aOR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.47). Among neonates without composite morbidity (n = 2,446, 92.7%), male sex conferred an increased risk of late decelerations (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.43) and increased total deceleration area (aOR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20). Conclusion There are significant sex differences in EFM patterns at term among pregnancies without evidence of acidemia. This suggests that interpretation of EFM patterns may need to take into account factors such as fetal sex. PMID:26906183

  17. Neutrophil recruitment by fetal procine endothelial cells: Implications in scarless fetal wound healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal dermal wounds heal scarlessly and with a minimal inflammatory response. When a robust inflammatory response is induced at the site of fetal dermal wounds by the application of cytokines, healing results in fibrosis. To test the hypothesis that the reduced inflammatory response in fetal wounds ...

  18. Interpretation of the electronic fetal heart rate during labor.

    PubMed

    Sweha, A; Hacker, T W; Nuovo, J

    1999-05-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is commonly used to assess fetal well-being during labor. Although detection of fetal compromise is one benefit of fetal monitoring, there are also risks, including false-positive tests that may result in unnecessary surgical intervention. Since variable and inconsistent interpretation of fetal heart rate tracings may affect management, a systematic approach to interpreting the patterns is important. The fetal heart rate undergoes constant and minute adjustments in response to the fetal environment and stimuli. Fetal heart rate patterns are classified as reassuring, nonreassuring or ominous. Nonreassuring patterns such as fetal tachycardia, bradycardia and late decelerations with good short-term variability require intervention to rule out fetal acidosis. Ominous patterns require emergency intrauterine fetal resuscitation and immediate delivery. Differentiating between a reassuring and nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern is the essence of accurate interpretation, which is essential to guide appropriate triage decisions. PMID:10323356

  19. Changes in fetal ovine metabolism and oxygen delivery with fetal bypass.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christopher T; Baker, R Scott; Clark, Kenneth E; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2011-07-01

    Since the 1980s, attempts at experimental fetal cardiac bypass for the purpose of correcting severe congenital heart defects in the womb have been hampered by deterioration of placental function. This placental pathophysiology in turn affects transplacental transport of nutrients and gas exchange. To date, the effects of bypass on fetal metabolism and oxygen delivery have not been studied. Nine Suffolk sheep fetuses from 109-121 days gestation were instrumented and placed on fetal bypass for 30 min and followed postbypass for 2 h. Blood gases, glucose, and lactate were serially measured in the fetal arterial and umbilical venous circulations throughout the procedure. Insulin and glucagon levels were serially measured by immunoassay in fetal plasma. Fetal-placental hemodynamics were measured continuously. The expression of glycogen content was examined in fetal liver. Oxygen delivery to the fetus and fetal oxygen consumption were significantly deranged after the conduct of bypass (in-group ANOVA (P = 0.001) and overall contrast (P = 0.072) with planned contrast (P < 0.05) for delivery and consumption, respectively). There were significant alterations in fetal glucose metabolism in the postbypass period; however, insulin and glucagon levels did not change. Fetal liver glycogen content appeared lower after bypass. This is the first report documenting fetal metabolic dysregulation that occurs in response to the conduct of fetal bypass. The significant alterations in fetal oxygen and glucose delivery coupled with hepatic glycogen depletion complicate and impede fetal recovery. These initial findings warrant further investigation of interventions to restore metabolic and hemodynamic homeostasis after fetal bypass. PMID:21508289

  20. Atomic Gradiometers for Fetal Magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, Ibrahim; Deland, Zack; Wahl, Colin; Bulatowicz, Michael; Wakai, Ron; Walker, Thad

    2015-05-01

    We present results on development of 87 Rb atomic magnetometers configured as magnetic field gradiometers for fetal Magnetocardiography (fMCG). Operating in the Spin Exchange Relaxation Free (SERF) regime, the magnetometers have a sensitivity 1 fT /√{ Hz} . Magnetic field gradient measurements significantly reduce the interference of uniform background fields. In fMCG applications, the field from the mother's heart is one such background and cannot be passively shielded. We report schemes for implementing such gradiometers along with recent fMCG measurements. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Transient Fetal Compartments during Prenatal Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Vasung, Lana; Lepage, Claude; Radoš, Milan; Pletikos, Mihovil; Goldman, Jennifer S.; Richiardi, Jonas; Raguž, Marina; Fischi-Gómez, Elda; Karama, Sherif; Huppi, Petra S.; Evans, Alan C.; Kostovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13–40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study. High-resolution T1 weighted MR images were acquired on 19 fetal brain hemispheres. MR images were processed using in-house software (MNI-ACE toolbox). Delineation of fetal compartments was performed semi-automatically by co-registration of MRI with histological sections of the same brains, or with the age-matched brains from Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection. Growth trajectories of transient fetal compartments were reconstructed. The composition of telencephalic wall was quantitatively assessed. Between 13 and 25 PCW, when the intensity of neuronal proliferation decreases drastically, the relative volume of proliferative (ventricular and subventricular) compartments showed pronounced decline. In contrast, synapse- and extracellular matrix-rich subplate compartment continued to grow during the first two trimesters, occupying up to 45% of telencephalon and reaching its maximum volume and thickness around 30 PCW. This developmental maximum coincides with a period of intensive growth of long cortico-cortical fibers, which enter and wait in subplate before approaching the cortical plate. Although we did not find significant age related changes in mean thickness of the cortical plate, the volume, gyrification index, and surface area of the cortical plate continued to exponentially grow during the last phases of prenatal development. This cortical expansion coincides developmentally with the

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Transient Fetal Compartments during Prenatal Human Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Vasung, Lana; Lepage, Claude; Radoš, Milan; Pletikos, Mihovil; Goldman, Jennifer S; Richiardi, Jonas; Raguž, Marina; Fischi-Gómez, Elda; Karama, Sherif; Huppi, Petra S; Evans, Alan C; Kostovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study. High-resolution T1 weighted MR images were acquired on 19 fetal brain hemispheres. MR images were processed using in-house software (MNI-ACE toolbox). Delineation of fetal compartments was performed semi-automatically by co-registration of MRI with histological sections of the same brains, or with the age-matched brains from Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection. Growth trajectories of transient fetal compartments were reconstructed. The composition of telencephalic wall was quantitatively assessed. Between 13 and 25 PCW, when the intensity of neuronal proliferation decreases drastically, the relative volume of proliferative (ventricular and subventricular) compartments showed pronounced decline. In contrast, synapse- and extracellular matrix-rich subplate compartment continued to grow during the first two trimesters, occupying up to 45% of telencephalon and reaching its maximum volume and thickness around 30 PCW. This developmental maximum coincides with a period of intensive growth of long cortico-cortical fibers, which enter and wait in subplate before approaching the cortical plate. Although we did not find significant age related changes in mean thickness of the cortical plate, the volume, gyrification index, and surface area of the cortical plate continued to exponentially grow during the last phases of prenatal development. This cortical expansion coincides developmentally with the

  3. Development of fetal brain renin–angiotensin system and hypertension programmed in fetal origins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Caiping; Shi, Lijun; Xu, Feichao; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2010-01-01

    Since the concept of fetal origins of adult diseases was introduced in 1980s, the development of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in normal and abnormal patterns has attracted attention. Recent studies have shown the importance of the fetal RAS in both prenatal and postnatal development. This review focuses on the functional development of the fetal brain RAS, and ontogeny of local brain RAS components in utero. The central RAS plays an important role in the control of fetal cardiovascular responses, body fluid balance, and neuroendocrine regulation. Recent progress has been made in demonstrating that altered fetal RAS development as a consequence of environmental insults may impact on “programming” of hypertension later in life. Given that the central RAS is of equal importance to the peripheral RAS in cardiovascular regulation, studies on the fetal brain RAS development in normal and abnormal patterns could shed light on “programming” mechanisms of adult cardiovascular diseases in fetal origins. PMID:19428956

  4. Aspects of Fetal Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Jongsma, Henk W.; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-three pregnant women were recruited to assess fetal learning and memory, based on habituation to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation of fetuses of 30-38 weeks gestational age (GA). Each habituation test was repeated 10 min later to estimate the fetal short-term memory. For Groups 30-36, both measurements were replicated in a second session…

  5. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  6. Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

  7. Fetal Pain: Life in Troubled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Johnnye S.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal well-being is the key to fetal well-being. A fetus is highly vulnerable and sensitive to pain and stress, and exposure has the potential for negative developmental consequences. Childbirth educators can help raise parental awareness about the importance of the maternal environment for best outcomes in fetal development. PMID:18311338

  8. Advances in evaluating the fetal skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Ann-Edwidge; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss aspects of the prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal malformations, concentrating on the advantages offered by different imaging techniques and the approaches that are of value in evaluating a suspected skeletal dysplasia. We also briefly address the findings in some of the commoner malformations of the fetal skeleton that may be encountered. PMID:24868173

  9. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  10. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization. PMID:16116864

  11. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SURVEILLANCE NETWORK (FASSNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CDC, in collaboration with four states, has developed the first state-based program specifically designed to monitor trends in the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The program, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet), reports that many children continue t...

  12. [Hypoxaemia, peripheral chemoreceptors and fetal heart rate].

    PubMed

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-02-01

    The perinatal results of the widespread adoption of the continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring during labor remain rather disappointing. This is due in part to a lack of consistent interpretation of the fetal heart tracings. Despite efforts by referral agencies over the past decade the situation has not improved. In defense of practitioners the heterogeneity and complexity of definitions and classifications patterns especially morphological currently proposed should be noted. Whereas with the recent advances in the field of neuroscience, it is now possible to visualize the chain of pathophysiological events that lead from the hypoxemic stimulus of the glomus cell to changes in the morphology of the fetal heart rate tracing. Thus by taking some examples of real situations, we propose a method of analysis that dissects the fetal heart tracing and take into account the functional specifications of the chemoreceptor when exposed to a hypoxic environment. Furthermore we can identify tracings with a "threshold effect" and also "sensitization and desensitization effects" according to the intensity, duration and recurrence of hypoxaemic episodes. This new approach based upon specific research into the mechanism behind the fetal heart rate abnormalities may be useful to complement the morphological study of the fetal heart tracing, to provide a better idea of the fetal status and to better define the indications of fetal blood sampling procedures. PMID:21798673

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An International Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    1987-01-01

    Describes Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in infants, caused by mothers' consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Both disabilities found in relatively high proportions of American Indian children. Discusses impact of disabilities on education. Discusses parent education programs in United States and abroad. (TES)

  14. Fetal Origins of Adult Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Kara; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. David Barker first popularized the concept of fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD). Since its inception, FOAD has received considerable attention. The FOAD hypothesis holds that events during early development have a profound impact on one’s risk for development of future adult disease. Low birth weight, a surrogate marker of poor fetal growth and nutrition, is linked to coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance. Clues originally arose from large 20th century, European birth registries. Today, large, diverse human cohorts and various animal models have extensively replicated these original observations. This review will focus on the pathogenesis related to FOAD and examines Dr. David Barker’s landmark studies, along with additional human and animal model data. Implications of the FOAD extend beyond the low birth weight population and include babies exposed to stress, both nutritional and non-nutritional, during different critical periods of development, which ultimately result in a disease state. By understanding FOAD, health care professionals and policy makers will make this issue a high healthcare priority and implement preventative measures and treatment for those at higher risk for chronic diseases. PMID:21684471

  15. Fetal origins of adult disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Kara; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2011-07-01

    Dr. David Barker first popularized the concept of fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD). Since its inception, FOAD has received considerable attention. The FOAD hypothesis holds that events during early development have a profound impact on one's risk for development of future adult disease. Low birth weight, a surrogate marker of poor fetal growth and nutrition, is linked to coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance. Clues originally arose from large 20th century, European birth registries. Today, large, diverse human cohorts and various animal models have extensively replicated these original observations. This review focuses on the pathogenesis related to FOAD and examines Dr. David Barker's landmark studies, along with additional human and animal model data. Implications of the FOAD extend beyond the low birth weight population and include babies exposed to stress, both nutritional and nonnutritional, during different critical periods of development, which ultimately result in a disease state. By understanding FOAD, health care professionals and policy makers will make this issue a high health care priority and implement preventive measures and treatment for those at higher risk for chronic diseases. PMID:21684471

  16. Routine fetal genitourinary tract screening.

    PubMed

    Arger, P H; Coleman, B G; Mintz, M C; Snyder, H P; Camardese, T; Arenson, R L; Gabbe, S G; Aquino, L

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate routine fetal genitourinary tract obstetrical ultrasound screening, and to determine what size renal pelvis is indicative of significant renal disease, we reviewed 4,832 examinations, which had been performed over 2 years, of 3,530 consecutive obstetrical patients. Any fetus that had a renal pelvis greater than 5 mm or a definable cystic area was identified for follow-up. The fetuses of 39 patients (1.1%) who underwent 112 examinations fulfilled these criteria and constitute the basis of this report. A variety of examination criteria were recorded and analyzed in relationship to the follow-up, which ranged from 2-3 days to 21 months. The fetuses of the 39 patients were grouped into three categories: those with renal pelves between 5 and 9 mm in size; those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm; and those with cystic abnormalities. Those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm had either an obstructing lesion or exceptional extrarenal pelves. The clinical and pathologic aspects of these three groups are detailed, discussed, and analyzed. Criteria for significant fetal renal hydronephrosis and aspects of a loculated appearance are given. PMID:3892578

  17. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room. PMID:16012655

  18. System for objective assessment of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Kaluzynski, K J; Kret, T; Czajkowski, K; Sieńko, J; Zmigrodzki, J

    2011-07-01

    Fetal activity is an important indicator of fetal well-being. It is proposed to assess this activity using the pulsed wave Doppler method to collect fetal activity data and dedicated software for on-line processing. The system, addressed to 3rd trimester pregnancies, provides information on presence of pseudobreathing, the heart rate trace, the fetal movement trace, the movement velocity spectrogram, histograms of the velocity and acceleration of both the body movements and pseudobreathing, parameters of these histograms (mean values, standard deviations, shape descriptors), and cumulative counts of the velocity histograms. These parameters form the feature vector of the fetal activity. The system was validated by simultaneous echographic and cardiotocographic recordings and during oxytocin challenge tests. Feature vectors obtained from 1h recordings in 61 pregnancies were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Activity patterns of physiological cases and "borderline pathologies" were discriminated using reduced feature vectors, containing cumulative counts of velocity histograms. PMID:21277248

  19. MRI Predictive Factors for Tumor Response in Rectal Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy - Implications for Induction Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Stanley K.T.; Tait, Diana

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics at baseline and following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) most strongly associated with histopathologic response were investigated and survival outcomes evaluated in accordance with imaging and pathological response. Methods and Materials: Responders were defined as mrT3c/d-4 downstaged to ypT0-2 on pathology or low at risk mrT2 downstaged to ypT1 or T0. Multivariate logistic regression of baseline and posttreatment MRI: T, N, extramural venous invasion (EMVI), circumferential resection margin, craniocaudal length <5 cm, and MRI tumor height ≤5 cm were used to identify independent predictor(s) for response. An association between induction chemotherapy and EMVI status was analyzed. Survival outcomes for pathologic and MRI responders and nonresponders were analyzed. Results: Two hundred eighty-one patients were eligible; 114 (41%) patients were pathology responders. Baseline MRI negative EMVI (odds ratio 2.94, P=.007), tumor height ≤5 cm (OR 1.96, P=.02), and mrEMVI status change (positive to negative) following CRT (OR 3.09, P<.001) were the only predictors for response. There was a strong association detected between induction chemotherapy and ymrEMVI status change after CRT (OR 9.0, P<.003). ymrT0-2 gave a positive predictive value of 80% and OR of 9.1 for ypT0-2. ymrN stage accuracy of ypN stage was 75%. Three-year disease-free survival for pathology and MRI responders were similar at 80% and 79% and significantly better than poor responders. Conclusions: Tumor height and mrEMVI status are more important than baseline size and stage of the tumor as predictors of response to CRT. Both MRI- and pathologic-defined responders have significantly improved survival. “Good response” to CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer with ypT0-2 carries significantly better 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival. Use of induction chemotherapy for improving mrEMVI status and knowledge of MRI

  20. MRI of the shoulder

    SciTech Connect

    Zlatkin, M.B.; Iannotti, J.P.; Schnall, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating shoulder disorders. The book gives detailed information on MRI techniques and shoulder anatomy, describes and illustrates MRI findings for a wide range of shoulder disorders, and explains how abnormalities seen on MIR images relate to pathophysiology and clinical signs. Special attention is given to imaging of rotator cuff disease and shoulder instability conditions for which MRI is the imaging procedure of choice. Complementing the text are 365 high-quality scans depicting normal shoulder anatomy and showing the wide variety of pathologic findings encountered in practice.

  1. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jing; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK) using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model. Methods Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check. Results A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated. Conclusions For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms

  2. Noninvasive Fetal Sex Determination Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, Stephanie A.; Palomaki, Glenn E.; Scott, Joan A.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Noninvasive prenatal determination of fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA provides an alternative to invasive techniques for some heritable disorders. In some countries this testing has transitioned to clinical care, despite the absence of a formal assessment of performance. Objective To document overall test performance of noninvasive fetal sex determination using cell-free fetal DNA and to identify variables that affect performance. Data Sources Systematic review and meta-analysis with search of PubMed (January 1, 1997–April 17, 2011) to identify English-language human studies reporting primary data. References from review articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction Abstracts were read independently to identify studies reporting primary data suitable for analysis. Covariates included publication year, sample type, DNA amplification methodology, Y chromosome sequence, and gestational age. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers. Results From 57 selected studies, 80 data sets (representing 3524 male-bearing pregnancies and 3017 female-bearing pregnancies) were analyzed. Overall performance of the test to detect Y chromosome sequences had the following characteristics: sensitivity, 95.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.7%–96.1%) and specificity, 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%–99.0%); diagnostic odds ratio (OR), 885; positive predictive value, 98.8%; negative predictive value, 94.8%; area under curve (AUC), 0.993 (95% CI, 0.989–0.995), with significant interstudy heterogeneity. DNA methodology and gestational age had the largest effects on test performance. Methodology test characteristics were AUC, 0.988 (95% CI, 0.979–0.993) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and AUC, 0.996 (95% CI, 0.993–0.998) for real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) (P=.02). Gestational age test characteristics were AUC, 0.989 (95% CI, 0.965–0.998) (<7 weeks); AUC, 0.994 (95% CI, 0.987–0.997) (7–12 weeks); AUC, 0.992 (95% CI, 0.983–0.996) (13

  3. Magnetic Resonance-based imaging in animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Parnell, Scott E.; Lipinski, Robert J.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have recently been applied to the study of both normal and abnormal structure and neurochemistry in small animals. Herein, findings from studies in which these methods have been used for the examination of animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are discussed. Emphasis is placed on results of imaging studies in fetal and postnatal mice that have highlighted the developmental stage dependency of prenatal ethanol exposure-induced CNS defects. Consideration is also given to the promise of methodological advances to allow in vivo studies of aberrant brain and behavior relationships in model animals and to the translational nature of this work. PMID:21445552

  4. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Driggers, Rita W; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Korhonen, Essi M; Kuivanen, Suvi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Smura, Teemu; Rosenberg, Avi; Hill, D Ashley; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Vezina, Gilbert; Timofeev, Julia; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Levanov, Lev; Razak, Jennifer; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew; Kennedy, Richard; Lanciotti, Robert; du Plessis, Adre; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-06-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated. PMID:27028667

  5. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Cerebellum and Eyeblink Conditioning in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, B.S.; Meintjes, E.M.; Anderson, A.W.; Molteno, C.D.; Stanton, M.E.; Dodge, N.C.; Gore, J.C.; Peterson, B.S.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is related to a wide range of neurocognitive effects. Eyeblink conditioning (EBC), which involves temporal pairing of a conditioned with an unconditioned stimulus, has been shown to be a potential biomarker of fetal alcohol exposure. A growing body of evidence suggests that white matter may be a specific target of alcohol teratogenesis, and the neural circuitry underlying EBC is known to involve the cerebellar peduncles. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which has proven useful for assessing central nervous system white matter integrity. This study used DTI to examine the degree to which the fetal alcohol-related deficit in EBC may be mediated by structural impairment in the cerebellar peduncles. Methods 13 children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and 12 matched controls were scanned using DTI and structural MRI sequences. The DTI data were processed using a voxelwise technique, and the structural data were used for volumetric analyses. Prenatal alcohol exposure group and EBC performance were examined in relation to brain volumes and outputs from the DTI analysis. Results FA and perpendicular diffusivity group differences between alcohol-exposed and nonexposed children were identified in the left middle cerebellar peduncle. Alcohol exposure correlated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and greater perpendicular diffusivity in this region, and these correlations remained significant even after controlling for total brain and cerebellar volume. Conversely, trace conditioning performance was related to higher FA and lower perpendicular diffusivity in the left middle peduncle. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on trace conditioning was partially mediated by lower FA in this region. Conclusions This study extends recent findings that have used DTI to reveal microstructural deficits in white matter in children with FASD. This is the first DTI study to demonstrate

  6. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%). A logistic regression model showed bradycardia (OR (odds ratio) 50.34, 95% CI 11.07 – 228.93), and late decelerations (OR 15.13, 3.05 – 74.97), but not abnormal ultrasonographic findings were to be associated with the occurrence of fetal acidemia. The severe abruption score was calculated for the occurrence of fetal acidemia, using 6 items including vaginal bleeding, gestational age, abdominal pain, abnormal ultrasonographic finding, late decelerations, and bradycardia. Conclusions An abnormal FHR pattern, especially bradycardia is the most significant risk factor in placental abruption predicting fetal acidemia, regardless of the presence of abnormal ultrasonographic findings or gestational age. PMID:23915223

  7. Modeling photon transport in transabdominal fetal oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Vishnoi, Gargi; Choe, Regine; Chance, Britton

    2000-07-01

    The possibility of optical oximetry of the blood in the fetal brain measured across the maternal abdomen just prior to birth is under investigated. Such measurements could detect fetal distress prior to birth and aid in the clinical decision regarding Cesarean section. This paper uses a perturbation method to model photon transport through a 8- cm-diam fetal brain located at a constant 2.5 cm below a curved maternal abdominal surface with an air/tissue boundary. In the simulation, a near-infrared light source delivers light to the abdomen and a detector is positioned up to 10 cm from the source along the arc of the abdominal surface. The light transport [W/cm2 fluence rate per W incident power] collected at the 10 cm position is Tm equals 2.2 X 10-6 cm-2 if the fetal brain has the same optical properties as the mother and Tf equals 1.0 X 10MIN6 cm-2 for an optically perturbing fetal brain with typical brain optical properties. The perturbation P equals (Tf - Tm)/Tm is -53% due to the fetal brain. The model illustrates the challenge and feasibility of transabdominal oximetry of the fetal brain.

  8. Atomic Magnetometry for fetal Magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, Ibrahim; Walker, Thad; Wakai, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    We present results of using an array of atomic magnetometers in detecting fetal Magnetocardiograms(fMCG). The array consists of four 87-Rb atomic magnetometers operating in the spin exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. They have a demonstrated sensitivity of 5 - 10 fT /√{ Hz } -limited by the Johnson noise of the magnetic shielding. We report measurements of fMCG on gestational ages as small as 21 weeks and describe the technical challenges and design features that make the measurements possible. We present a method for minimizing the impact of AC Stark Shifts on the magnetometer array performance by relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms from a pumping region to an AC Stark shift free active region. This work was supported by the NIH.

  9. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  10. Fetal Surgery for Myelomeningocele: Trials and Tribulations

    PubMed Central

    Adzick, N.Scott

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for in utero repair of myelomeningocele (MMC) in the context of pathologic observations, animal models, and outcomes from the initial experience with human fetal myelomeningocele repair is presented. This has now culminated in a randomized trial, Management of Myelomeningocele Study (the MOMS Trial), the findings of which are listed. The story is focused on the milestone contributions of members of the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) on the road to successful fetal surgery for spina bifida. This is now performed in selected patients and presents an additional therapeutic alternative for expectant mothers carrying a fetus with MMC. PMID:22325376

  11. Fetal segmental spinal dysgenesis and unusual segmental agenesis of the anterior spinal artery.

    PubMed

    Valdez Quintana, Melissa; Michaud, Jean; El-Chaar, Darine; El Demellawy, Dina; Nikkel, Sarah M; Miller, Elka

    2016-08-01

    Segmental spinal dysgenesis (SSD) is a rare congenital spinal abnormality characterized by segmental dysgenesis or agenesis of the thoracolumbar or lumbar spine, congenital kyphosis, and abnormal configuration of the underlying spinal cord. A unique feature of SSD is that the vertebrae are present above and below the defect, and there is often a lower cord segment in the caudal spinal canal. We report a fetal MRI case of SSD with postmortem and neuropathological correlations. Our report confirms already published findings including the presence of a neurenteric cyst but is the first to document anterior spinal artery segmental agenesis in SSD. PMID:26969176

  12. Fetal cell-free DNA fraction in maternal plasma is affected by fetal trisomy.

    PubMed

    Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Ebara, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Samura, Osamu; Yotsumoto, Junko; Nishiyama, Miyuki; Miura, Kiyonori; Sawai, Hideaki; Murotsuki, Jun; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Hirahara, Fumiki; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) study was to compare the fetal fraction of singleton gestations by gestational age, maternal characteristics and chromosome-specific aneuploidies as indicated by z-scores. This study was a multicenter prospective cohort study. Test data were collected from women who underwent NIPT by the massively parallel sequencing method. We used sequencing-based fetal fraction calculations in which we estimated fetal DNA fraction by simply counting the number of reads aligned within specific autosomal regions and applying a weighting scheme derived from a multivariate model. Relationships between fetal fractions and gestational age, maternal weight and height, and z-scores for chromosomes 21, 18 and 13 were assessed. A total of 7740 pregnant women enrolled in the study, of which 6993 met the study criteria. As expected, fetal fraction was inversely correlated with maternal weight (P<0.001). The median fetal fraction of samples with euploid result (n=6850) and trisomy 21 (n=70) were 13.7% and 13.6%, respectively. In contrast, the median fetal fraction values for samples with trisomies 18 (n=35) and 13 (n=9) were 11.0% and 8.0%, respectively. The fetal fraction of samples with trisomy 21 NIPT result is comparable to that of samples with euploid result. However, the fetal fractions of samples with trisomies 13 and 18 are significantly lower compared with that of euploid result. We conclude that it may make detecting these two trisomies more challenging. PMID:26984559

  13. Gas-liquid Phase Distribution and Void Fraction Measurements Using the MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daidzic, N. E.; Schmidt, E.; Hasan, M. M.; Altobelli, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used a permanent-magnet MRI system to estimate the integral and spatially- and/or temporally-resolved void-fraction distributions and flow patterns in gas-liquid two-phase flows. Air was introduced at the bottom of the stagnant liquid column using an accurate and programmable syringe pump. Air flow rates were varied between 1 and 200 ml/min. The cylindrical non-conducting test tube in which two-phase flow was measured was placed in a 2.67 kGauss MRI with MRT spectrometer/imager. Roughly linear relationship has been obtained for the integral void-fraction, obtained by volume-averaging of the spatially-resolved signals, and the air flow rate in upward direction. The time-averaged spatially-resolved void fraction has also been obtained for the quasi-steady flow of air in a stagnant liquid column. No great accuracy is claimed as this was an exploratory proof-of-concept type of experiment. Preliminary results show that MRI a non-invasive and non-intrusive experimental technique can indeed provide a wealth of different qualitative and quantitative data and is especially well suited for averaged transport processes in adiabatic and diabatic multi-phase and/or multi-component flows.

  14. Fetal research: the question in the states.

    PubMed

    Baron, C H

    1985-04-01

    Baron, a law professor, traces the history of state and federal regulation of fetal research from 1973 to 1983. He explores the dilemmas raised by research on fetuses, particularly aborted fetuses, and the aspects of fetal research that the federal regulations and state laws were enacted to control. While criticizing many of the states' actions for lack of uniformity and blanket prohibitions based on the status of the fetus or abortus, Baron acknowledges that less-than-perfect legislation is the price of rule making in a pluralistic society that is still working toward a consensus on controversial issues such as abortion and fetal research. Using as an example the 1973-1974 debate between researchers and law makers in Massachusetts, he discusses how advocates on both sides of the fetal research question might educate and persuade each other to reach an acceptable regulatory compromise. PMID:4008234

  15. Fetal therapy, ethics and public policies.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of ethical problems in the first generation of experimental fetal therapy and the prevailing approaches to them. The problems include: review of risks/benefits, case selection, informed consent, twin pregnancies, and refusal of proven fetal therapy. The article further discusses ethical and public policy issues in the lack of U.S. federal support for fetal diagnosis, fetal therapy, and human embryo research. An argument is made for such support, beginning with experimental gene therapy in the fetus. Ethical principles are identified that support an obligation to learn to relieve and treat such human suffering at the earliest time. Contradictions of these principles are also identified in terms of research not now supported. PMID:1503651

  16. Fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and maternal intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    PubMed Central

    Giers, Günther; Wenzel, Folker; Stockschläder, Markus; Riethmacher, Regina; Lorenz, Horst; Tutschek, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Background Different therapeutic approaches have been used in fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, but many centers administer immunoglobulin G infusions to the pregnant woman. We studied the effect of maternal antenatal immunoglobulin infusions on fetal platelet counts in pregnancies with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Design and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical courses of fetuses with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia whose mothers were treated with immunoglobulin G infusions in a single center between 1999 and 2005. In a center-specific protocol, weekly maternal immunoglobulin G infusions were given to 25 pregnant women with previously affected neonates and four women with strong platelet antibodies, but no previous history of fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia; before each infusion diagnostic fetal blood sampling was performed to determine fetal platelet counts and immunoglobulin G levels. Results There were 30 fetuses with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, confirmed by initial fetal blood sampling showing fetal platelet counts between 4×109/L and 130×109/L and antibody-coated fetal platelets using a glycoprotein specific assay. Despite weekly antenatal maternal immunoglobulin G infusions fetal platelet counts did not change significantly. Maternal and fetal immunoglobulin G levels, measured before every infusion, increased significantly with the number of maternal immunoglobulin G infusions. Conclusions In this group of fetuses with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia no consistent increase of fetal platelets was achieved as a result of regular maternal immunoglobulin G infusions. PMID:20534698

  17. Methylomic trajectories across human fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Smith, Rebecca; Wong, Chloe C Y; O'Donovan, Michael C; Bray, Nicholas J; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during development. The importance of DNA methylation in fetal brain development is highlighted by the dynamic expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases during the perinatal period and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. However, our knowledge about the temporal changes to the epigenome during fetal brain development has, to date, been limited. We quantified genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation at ∼ 400,000 sites in 179 human fetal brain samples (100 male, 79 female) spanning 23 to 184 d post-conception. We identified highly significant changes in DNA methylation across fetal brain development at >7% of sites, with an enrichment of loci becoming hypomethylated with fetal age. Sites associated with developmental changes in DNA methylation during fetal brain development were significantly underrepresented in promoter regulatory regions but significantly overrepresented in regions flanking CpG islands (shores and shelves) and gene bodies. Highly significant differences in DNA methylation were observed between males and females at a number of autosomal sites, with a small number of regions showing sex-specific DNA methylation trajectories across brain development. Weighted gene comethylation network analysis (WGCNA) revealed discrete modules of comethylated loci associated with fetal age that are significantly enriched for genes involved in neurodevelopmental processes. This is, to our knowledge, the most extensive study of DNA methylation across human fetal brain development to date, confirming the prenatal period as a time of considerable epigenomic plasticity. PMID:25650246

  18. [Disputes and history of fetal heart monitoring].

    PubMed

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Díaz-Sotomayor, Maricela

    2011-01-01

    The concept of fetal heart monitoring to determine the fetal wellbeing state has been employed for almost 300 years, but in the last 50 years it has observed drastic changes due to the incorporation of the electronic devices that has started controversy since the moment of its description and point of start. The purpose of this article is to mention the key points and controversial moments in the history of the cardiotocography PMID:23650679

  19. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.

    2006-10-01

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  20. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = −0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring. PMID:27006859

  1. Implantable medical devices MRI safe.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

  2. [Studies on features of fetal movement and development of human fetus with use of fetal actogram].

    PubMed

    Tatsumura, M

    1991-08-01

    In 167 normal fetuses at 26 to 41 weeks of gestation, features of fetal movement and fetal development were investigated with use of actocardiograph in connection with a microcomputer system. The signals of fetal movement obtained by actocardiograph were stored in a floppy disc every 250 ms for 5 minutes through an AD-converter, and were analyzed every 5 minutes with the computer to reveal 3-dimensional (3-D) histograms. The 3-D histogram of fetal movement was composed of number, amplitude and interval of the signals in 11 voltage steps between 0.05 and 0.55V. The histogram clearly indicated state of fetal behavior, being either resting or active state. Fetal movement such as rolling movement, breathing movement and hiccup could be also identified with the computer analysis. In 68 normal fetuses at 14 to 41 weeks of gestation, the cross-correlation between fetal movement and fetal heart rate (FHR) were examined with the computer analysis. Finally fetal responses to acoustic and light stimulation were evaluated with use of pure-tone generator and flashlight. Acoustic stimulation was carried out in 53 normal fetuses at 28 to 41 weeks and light stimulation was performed in 116 normal fetuses at 18 to 41 weeks of gestation. The fetal responses were evaluated with actocardiogram. As a result, 1) Frequency in active state decreased and resting state increased as gestational weeks advanced, and then the frequencies of both state remained constant after 37 weeks of gestation. Duration of resting state also increased from 26 weeks to 37 weeks. These observations may suggest that fetal behavior can be established by 37 weeks of gestation. 2) Frequency in rolling movement decreased until 37 weeks of gestation, and then the movement increased during 38-41 weeks. Frequency in breathing movement increased to 33 weeks of gestation, then it remained constant. Hiccup occurred most frequently at 30-33 weeks, and it decreased thereafter. The function in fetal respiratory movement may

  3. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  4. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  5. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  6. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  7. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... some MRI exams, intravenous (IV) drugs, such as gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used to change the contrast of the MR image. Gadolinium-based contrast agents are rare earth metals that ...

  8. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  9. Towards MRI microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew; Mundell, Victoria J; Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Bencsik, Martin; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Cave, Gareth W V

    2010-04-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanometre scale particles have been utilised as contrast agents to image staked target binding oligonucleotide arrays using MRI to correlate the signal intensity and T(2)* relaxation times in different NMR fluids. PMID:20379545

  10. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thomsen HS, Reimer P. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ... JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  11. Shoulder MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging test that uses energy from powerful magnets and to create pictures of the shoulder area. ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed in the room ...

  12. Fetal tissue sampling. The San Francisco experience with 190 pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Golbus, M S; McGonigle, K F; Goldberg, J D; Filly, R A; Callen, P W; Anderson, R L

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects was done using fetal blood sampling in 167 at-risk pregnancies, by fetal skin biopsy in 15 pregnancies, and by fetal liver biopsy in 8 pregnancies. Fetal blood sampling was done by fetoscopy through January 1985 and by sonographically directed percutaneous umbilical blood sampling since then. In our series, cytogenetics has become the major indication for fetal blood sampling, increasing from 6% of the cases with fetoscopy to 48% with umbilical blood sampling. Fetoscopy provided pure fetal blood in 61% of cases while umbilical blood sampling provided pure fetal blood 97% of the time. The corrected risk of fetal demise after percutaneous umbilical fetal blood sampling was 2% and after fetoscopy was 4%. Images PMID:2735048

  13. Optogenetic Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  14. Optogenetic Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  15. Preschool Teacher Attitude and Knowledge Regarding Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite R-P.

    The Centers for Disease Control estimate that each year more than 8,000 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) babies are born, and that many more babies go undiagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), a less severe condition. FAS and FAE have been identified as major contributors to poor memory, shorter attention spans, lower IQs, diminished achievement…

  16. Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology.

    PubMed

    Behar, Joachim; Zhu, Tingting; Oster, Julien; Niksch, Alisa; Mah, Douglas Y; Chun, Terrence; Greenberg, James; Tanner, Cassandre; Harrop, Jessica; Sameni, Reza; Ward, Jay; Wolfberg, Adam J; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG) is a promising alternative continuous fetal monitoring method that has the potential to allow morphological analysis of the FECG. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the evaluation of morphological parameters from the NI-FECG, including low signal to noise ratio of the NI-FECG and methodological challenges for getting reference annotations and evaluating the accuracy of segmentation algorithms. This work aims to validate the measurement of the fetal QT interval in term laboring women using a NI-FECG electrocardiogram monitor. Fetal electrocardiogram data were recorded from 22 laboring women at term using the NI-FECG and an invasive fetal scalp electrode simultaneously. A total of 105 one-minute epochs were selected for analysis. Three pediatric electrophysiologists independently annotated individual waveforms and averaged waveforms from each epoch. The intervals measured on the averaged cycles taken from the NI-FECG and the fetal scalp electrode showed a close agreement; the root mean square error between all corresponding averaged NI-FECG and fetal scalp electrode beats was 13.6 ms, which is lower than the lowest adult root mean square error of 16.1 ms observed in related adult QT studies. These results provide evidence that NI-FECG technology enables accurate extraction of the fetal QT interval. PMID:27480078

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  18. Activation of Nod1 Signaling Induces Fetal Growth Restriction and Death through Fetal and Maternal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Hisanori; Takada, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Yasunari; Nanishi, Etsuro; Ochiai, Masayuki; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Chen, Si Jing; Matsui, Toshiro; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and death (IUFD) are both serious problems in the perinatal medicine. Fetal vasculopathy is currently considered to account for a pathogenic mechanism of IUGR and IUFD. We previously demonstrated that an innate immune receptor, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-1 (Nod1), contributed to the development of vascular inflammations in mice at postnatal stages. However, little is known about the deleterious effects of activated Nod1 signaling on embryonic growth and development. We report that administration of FK565, one of the Nod1 ligands, to pregnant C57BL/6 mice induced IUGR and IUFD. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that maternally injected FK565 was distributed to the fetal tissues across placenta. In addition, maternal injection of FK565 induced robust increases in the amounts of CCL2, IL-6, and TNF proteins as well as NO in maternal, placental and fetal tissues. Nod1 was highly expressed in fetal vascular tissues, where significantly higher levels of CCL2 and IL-6 mRNAs were induced with maternal injection of FK565 than those in other tissues. Using Nod1-knockout mice, we verified that both maternal and fetal tissues were involved in the development of IUGR and IUFD. Furthermore, FK565 induced upregulation of genes associated with immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis in fetal vascular tissues. Our data thus provided new evidence for the pathogenic role of Nod1 in the development of IUGR and IUFD at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:26880761

  19. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  20. Hybrid LBM-MRT model coupled with finite difference method for double-diffusive mixed convection in rectangular enclosure with insulated moving lid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettaibi, Soufiene; Kuznik, Frédéric; Sediki, Ezeddine

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of thermosolutal mixed convection in rectangular enclosure with sliding top lid. The fluid flow is solved by the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), whereas the temperature and concentration fields are computed by finite difference method (FDM). The main objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy and the effectiveness of such model to predict thermodynamics for heat and mass transfer in a driven cavity. This model is validated with different numerical methods in the current literature. A good agreement is obtained between our results and previous works. The different comparisons demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach.

  1. Role of fetal breathing movements in control of fetal lung distension.

    PubMed

    Miller, A A; Hooper, S B; Harding, R

    1993-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the role of fetal breathing movements (FBM) in the maintenance of fetal lung liquid volume. Experiments were performed in 14 chronically catheterized fetal sheep. FBM were selectively abolished for 48 h by the infusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) onto the phrenic nerves of five fetuses. Lung liquid volumes and secretion rates were measured before each treatment, 46-48 h after the start of the TTX infusion, and 22-24 h after the end of the infusion. Blockade of the phrenic nerves reduced fetal lung liquid volumes from 27.6 +/- 1.9 to 21.8 +/- 2.6 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 3.8 +/- 0.6 to 6.2 +/- 1.1 ml.h-1.kg-1. Control experiments confirmed the lack of effect of TTX infused intravenously and saline infused intrapleurally on changes in fetal lung liquid volume and secretion rate. To measure the static relaxation volume of the fetal lung, in six fetuses we combined skeletal muscle paralysis with bypass of the upper airway for 48 h. This reduced fetal lung liquid volume from 39.1 +/- 3.1 to 23.0 +/- 2.5 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 4.1 +/- 0.7 to 5.8 +/- 0.9 ml.h-1.kg-1. This experiment demonstrates that the fetal lung is normally maintained at a level of expansion that is much greater than its static relaxation volume. We conclude that the volume of luminal liquid in the fetal lungs is dependent on the diaphragmatic contractions associated with FBM. Their effect is to resist the elastic recoil of the fetal lungs, thereby reducing the loss of liquid from the lungs via the trachea. PMID:8125894

  2. Boy or Girl? Maternal Psychological Correlates of Knowing Fetal Sex

    PubMed Central

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound provides a reliable, convenient way to determine fetal sex, but not all expectant mothers pursue this knowledge. We used logistic regression to investigate whether maternal personality, parenting perfectionism, and gender role beliefs were associated with knowing fetal sex in a recent sample of first-time expectant mothers. We also tested whether conscientiousness and extraversion moderated the association between gender role beliefs and knowing fetal sex. Mothers who were more open to experience were less likely to know fetal sex, whereas mothers high in parenting perfectionism were more likely to know fetal sex. Conscientious mothers who espoused more egalitarian gender role beliefs were less likely to know fetal sex. PMID:26279598

  3. Unusual Complication of Surgical Abortion with Pelvic Extrusion of Fetal Head: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The complications mostly results following unsafe abortion procedure done by unskilled provider with or without minimal medical knowledge in rural part of developing countries. These complications can endanger the life of mother if proper medical or surgical interventions are not offered in time. A majority of these complications remains confidential. The uterine perforation is one of the serious but preventable complications of surgical abortion. A 21-year-old woman G4P2L2A1, presented in the emergency ward with complaints of lower abdominal pain for four days after attempting twice surgical termination of pregnancy at 19 weeks of gestation for an unwanted pregnancy. Transabdominal sonography and MRI revealed uterine rent with pelvic extrusion of fetal head. Emergency laparotomy with removal of fetal head and uterine rent repair was done. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion by the gynaecologist for uterine perforation in patient presenting with abdominal pain a few days after undergoing surgical abortion, also shows the complementary role of sonography and MRI in evaluation of the similar patient and this case also highlights the rampant illegal unsafe abortion procedure in rural India despite of legalization of abortion act. PMID:26675988

  4. A study of cortical morphology in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    De Guio, François; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis; Perrot, Matthieu; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is responsible for a broad range of brain structural malformations, which can be studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI methods have emerged to characterize brain abnormalities, but the teratogenic effects of alcohol on cortical morphology have received little attention to date. Twenty-four 9-year-old children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (9 with fetal alcohol syndrome, 15 heavy exposed nonsyndromal children) and 16 age-matched controls were studied to assess the effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cortical morphology. An automated method was applied to 3D T1-weighted images to assess cortical gyrification using global and regional sulcal indices and two region-based morphological measurements, mean sulcal depth and fold opening. Increasing levels of alcohol exposure were related to reduced cortical folding complexity, even among children with normal brain size, indicating a reduction of buried cortical surface. Fold opening was the strongest anatomical correlate of prenatal alcohol intake, indicating a widening of sulci in all regions that were examined. These data identify cortical morphology as a suitable marker for further investigation of brain damage associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23946151

  5. 3D image display of fetal ultrasonic images by thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Roei; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chang, Fong-Ming; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    1999-05-01

    Due to the properties of convenience and non-invasion, ultrasound has become an essential tool for diagnosis of fetal abnormality during women pregnancy in obstetrics. However, the 'noisy and blurry' nature of ultrasound data makes the rendering of the data a challenge in comparison with MRI and CT images. In spite of the speckle noise, the unwanted objects usually occlude the target to be observed. In this paper, we proposed a new system that can effectively depress the speckle noise, extract the target object, and clearly render the 3D fetal image in almost real-time from 3D ultrasound image data. The system is based on a deformable model that detects contours of the object according to the local image feature of ultrasound. Besides, in order to accelerate rendering speed, a thin shell is defined to separate the observed organ from unrelated structures depending on those detected contours. In this way, we can support quick 3D display of ultrasound, and the efficient visualization of 3D fetal ultrasound thus becomes possible.

  6. Diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy of breast cancer and fetal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Regine

    Diffuse optical techniques utilize light in the near infrared spectral range to measure tissue physiology non-invasively. Based on these measurements, either on average or a three-dimensional spatial map of tissue properties such as total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation and scattering can be obtained using model-based reconstruction algorithms. In this thesis, diffuse optical techniques were applied for in vivo breast cancer imaging and trans-abdominal fetal brain oxygenation monitoring. For in vivo breast cancer imaging, clinical diffuse optical tomography and related instrumentation was developed and used in several contexts. Bulk physiological properties were quantified for fifty-two healthy subjects in the parallel-plate transmission geometry. Three-dimensional images of breast were reconstructed for subjects with breast tumors and, tumor contrast with respect to normal tissue was found in total hemoglobin concentration and scattering and was quantified for twenty-two breast carcinomas. Tumor contrast and tumor volume changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy were tracked for one subject and compared to the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Finally, the feasibility for measuring blood flow of breast tumors using optical methods was demonstrated for seven subjects. In a qualitatively different set of experiments, the feasibility for trans-abdominal fetal brain oxygenation monitoring was demonstrated on pregnant ewes with induced fetal hypoxia. Preliminary clinical experiences were discussed to identify future directions. In total, this research has translated diffuse optical tomography techniques into clinical research environment.

  7. Robust preprocessing for stimulus-based functional MRI of the moving fetus.

    PubMed

    You, Wonsang; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Zun, Zungho; Andescavage, Nickie; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Fetal motion manifests as signal degradation and image artifact in the acquired time series of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We present a robust preprocessing pipeline to specifically address fetal and placental motion-induced artifacts in stimulus-based fMRI with slowly cycled block design in the living fetus. In the proposed pipeline, motion correction is optimized to the experimental paradigm, and it is performed separately in each phase as well as in each region of interest (ROI), recognizing that each phase and organ experiences different types of motion. To obtain the averaged BOLD signals for each ROI, both misaligned volumes and noisy voxels are automatically detected and excluded, and the missing data are then imputed by statistical estimation based on local polynomial smoothing. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pipeline was effective in mitigating the motion-induced artifacts in stimulus-based fMRI data of the fetal brain and placenta. PMID:27081665

  8. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  9. Fetal and infant origins of asthma.

    PubMed

    Duijts, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that asthma, like other common diseases, has at least part of its origin early in life. Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with increased risks of asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and impaired lung function in adults, and increased risks of respiratory symptoms in early childhood. The developmental plasticity hypothesis suggests that the associations between low birth weight and diseases in later life are explained by adaptation mechanisms in fetal life and infancy in response to various adverse exposures. Various pathways leading from adverse fetal and infant exposures to growth adaptations and respiratory health outcomes have been studied, including fetal and early infant growth patterns, maternal smoking and diet, children's diet, respiratory tract infections and acetaminophen use, and genetic susceptibility. Still, the specific adverse exposures in fetal and early postnatal life leading to respiratory disease in adult life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that both environmental and genetic factors in various periods of life, and their epigenetic mechanisms may underlie the complex associations of low birth weight with respiratory disease in later life. New well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to identify the specific underlying mechanisms. This review is focused on specific adverse fetal and infant growth patterns and exposures, genetic susceptibility, possible respiratory adaptations and perspectives for new studies. PMID:22350146

  10. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  11. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  12. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-04-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries, antenatal prophylaxis is combined with postnatal prophylaxis to further minimize the immunization risk. Due to lack of knowledge of the fetal RhD type, antenatal prophylaxis is given to all D-negative women. In the European population, approximately 40% of pregnant women carry a D-negative fetus and are thus at no risk of immunization. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping enables antenatal prophylaxis to be targeted to only those women carrying a D-positive fetus to avoid unnecessary treatment. Based on an analysis of cell-free fetal DNA from the plasma of pregnant women, this approach has recently undergone technical improvements and rapid clinical implementation. As a screening assay, the sensitivity is >99.3% from a gestational age of approximately 10-11 weeks. In addition, fetal RhD genotyping is widely used to assess the risk of HDFN in anti-D immunized women. PMID:24642067

  13. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  14. Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Currie, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In the epidemiological literature, the fetal origins hypothesis associated with David J. Barker posits that chronic, degenerative conditions of adult health, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes, may be triggered by circumstance decades earlier, in utero nutrition in particular. Economists have expanded on this hypothesis, investigating a broader range of fetal shocks and circumstances and have found a wealth of later-life impacts on outcomes including test scores, educational attainment, and income, along with health. In the process, they have provided some of the most credible observational evidence in support of the hypothesis. The magnitude of the impacts is generally large. Thus, the fetal origins hypothesis has not only survived contact with economics, but has flourished. PMID:25152565

  15. Intrapartum sonographic imaging of fetal head asynclitism.

    PubMed

    Ghi, T; Youssef, A; Pilu, G; Malvasi, A; Ragusa, A

    2012-02-01

    Anterior asynclitism was suspected on digital examination of a laboring woman with late arrest of dilatation and no evidence of fetal head progression. Clinical examination revealed a fixed non-engaged fetal head (station −1), with a transverse posterior sagittal suture. A static three-dimensional volume was obtained by translabial ultrasound, offline analysis of which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of anterior asynclitism. Owing to the posterior twisting of the head towards the sacrum, the midline echo could only be obtained by cutting the volume with an oblique line, the direction of which was not perpendicular to the pubis as expected in cases of synclitic head. The sonographic appearance of the midline echo approaching the sacrum in a non-engaged transverse fetal head strongly supports the clinical suspicion of anterior asynclitism. PMID:21523842

  16. Surgery during pregnancy and fetal outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, J.B.; Cohen, E.N.; Brown, B.W.; Wu, M.L.; Whitcher, C.

    1988-01-01

    Information was sought on wives of dentists or female dental assistants who underwent surgery during their pregnancies to determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on fetal outcome. Occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics either directly (dental assistants) or indirectly (wives of exposed male dentists) was associated with a significant increase in spontaneous abortion rate over a comparison group during both trimesters. Anesthesia for surgery was also associated with increased fetal loss when administered during the first or second trimesters. The number of congenital abormalities in children born to women who had surgery during pregnancy was not increased. For women surgically exposed to anesthetics and occupationally exposed as well, either directly or indirectly, the risk of spontaneous abortion increased almost threefold above control lvels. The authors conclude that elective surgery should be deferred during early pregnanacy to minimize potential fetal loss.

  17. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment of premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.

  18. Biomarker tests for fetal lung maturity.

    PubMed

    Leung-Pineda, Van; Gronowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    The production of surfactant is a key step in fetal lung development. Surfactant decreases alveolar surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and allowing efficient gas exchange. The lack of adequate amounts of lung surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome. Tests that assess surfactant concentrations in amniotic fluid are good predictors of infants that will not develop respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used test to assess fetal lung maturity (TDx FLM II) will not be available after December 2011. Therefore, we review the currently available tests for fetal lung maturity including lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, phosphatidyl glycerol, surfactant:albumin ratio and lamellar body counts. Herein, we discuss their clinical utility and consider a suitable replacement for the future. PMID:21133706

  19. Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis*

    PubMed Central

    Almond, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In the epidemiological literature, the fetal origins hypothesis associated with David J. Barker posits that chronic, degenerative conditions of adult health, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes, may be triggered by circumstance decades earlier, in utero nutrition in particular. Economists have expanded on this hypothesis, investigating a broader range of fetal shocks and circumstances and have found a wealth of later-life impacts on outcomes including test scores, educational attainment, and income, along with health. In the process, they have provided some of the most credible observational evidence in support of the hypothesis. The magnitude of the impacts is generally large. Thus, the fetal origins hypothesis has not only survived contact with economics, but has flourished. PMID:25152565

  20. 21 CFR 884.2600 - Fetal cardiac monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ascertain fetal heart activity during pregnancy and labor. The device is designed to separate fetal heart signals from maternal heart signals by analyzing electrocardiographic signals (electrical potentials generated during contraction and relaxation of heart muscle) obtained from the maternal abdomen...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2600 - Fetal cardiac monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ascertain fetal heart activity during pregnancy and labor. The device is designed to separate fetal heart signals from maternal heart signals by analyzing electrocardiographic signals (electrical potentials generated during contraction and relaxation of heart muscle) obtained from the maternal abdomen...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2600 - Fetal cardiac monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ascertain fetal heart activity during pregnancy and labor. The device is designed to separate fetal heart signals from maternal heart signals by analyzing electrocardiographic signals (electrical potentials generated during contraction and relaxation of heart muscle) obtained from the maternal abdomen...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2600 - Fetal cardiac monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ascertain fetal heart activity during pregnancy and labor. The device is designed to separate fetal heart signals from maternal heart signals by analyzing electrocardiographic signals (electrical potentials generated during contraction and relaxation of heart muscle) obtained from the maternal abdomen...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2600 - Fetal cardiac monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ascertain fetal heart activity during pregnancy and labor. The device is designed to separate fetal heart signals from maternal heart signals by analyzing electrocardiographic signals (electrical potentials generated during contraction and relaxation of heart muscle) obtained from the maternal abdomen...

  5. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), Padua, and the fetal "shunts".

    PubMed

    Dunn, P M

    2003-03-01

    Three remarkable medical anatomists working in Padua during the 16th century described the anatomy of the fetal cardiovascular system, thus laying the foundation for William Harvey's discovery and description of the fetal circulation in the following century. PMID:12598509

  6. Prostaglandin E2 decreases fetal breathing movements, but not pulmonary blood flow, in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Kitterman, J A

    1995-04-01

    Fetal breathing movements are vital for normal fetal lung growth. Inhibition of these fetal breathing movements is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Pulmonary hypoplasia also occurs subsequent to alterations in other factors, such as a significant decrease in pulmonary blood flow. The prostaglandin system is known to have profound effects on both fetal breathing movements and on the pulmonary vascular system. We studied six late-gestation chronically instrumented fetal sheep by using an electromagnetic flow transducer around the left pulmonary artery to determine whether a decrease in fetal breathing movements, subsequent to a continuous infusion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is associated with a decrease in pulmonary blood flow. A continuous PGE2 infusion of 0.88 +/- 0.11 microgram.kg-1.min-1 over 120 min led to a significant decrease in fetal breathing movements (control 40.5 +/- 3.6%, infusion 3.3 +/- 1.6%; P < 0.001). In contrast, the PGE2 infusion had no effect on mean left pulmonary artery blood flow (control 27.7 +/- 9.3 ml.min-1.kg-1, infusion 23.8 +/- 7.0 ml.min-1.kg-1. The PGE2 infusion demonstrated central effects in the percentage of time the fetus was in high-voltage electrocortical activity (control 41.9 +/- 2.5%, infusion 56.5 +/- 5.4%; P < 0.05) and in the amount of time spent in low-voltage electrocortical activity without fetal breathing movements (control 17.5 +/- 2.7%, infusion 40.2 +/- 4.8%; P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the fetal heart rate during the infusion was seen with no effect on either the systemic or pulmonary blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7615458

  7. Radiotherapy planning using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Maria A.; Payne, Geoffrey S.

    2015-11-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimized, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT.

  8. Revised response criteria for myelofibrosis: International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) and European LeukemiaNet (ELN) consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben; Passamonti, Francesco; Verstovsek, Srdan; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Gotlib, Jason; Dupriez, Brigitte; Pardanani, Animesh; Harrison, Claire; Hoffman, Ronald; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kröger, Nicolaus; Thiele, Juergen; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The current document is a revision of the International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) criteria for treatment response in myelofibrosis (MF) and represents a collaborative effort by the IWG-MRT and the European LeukemiaNet to objectively assess the value of new drugs in inducing morphologic remission or improvement in MF-associated symptomatic burden (MF-SB). Some of the changes in the current revision include stricter definitions of red cell transfusion dependency and independency and consideration of the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form as a tool to quantify meaningful changes in disease-related symptoms. Six response categories are listed: complete remission (CR) and partial remission signify treatment effects that are consistent with disease modification, whereas drug-induced improvements in MF-SB were annotated as clinical improvement, anemia response, spleen response, or symptoms response. Additional criteria are provided for progressive disease, stable disease, and relapse. The document also includes recommendations for assessing cytogenetic and molecular remissions, without mandating their inclusion for CR assignment. PMID:23838352

  9. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements. PMID:21621759

  10. Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

  11. MRI Catheterization in Cardiopulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognostication in patients with complex cardiopulmonary disease can be a clinical challenge. A new procedure, MRI catheterization, involves invasive right-sided heart catheterization performed inside the MRI scanner using MRI instead of traditional radiographic fluoroscopic guidance. MRI catheterization combines simultaneous invasive hemodynamic and MRI functional assessment in a single radiation-free procedure. By combining both modalities, the many individual limitations of invasive catheterization and noninvasive imaging can be overcome, and additional clinical questions can be addressed. Today, MRI catheterization is a clinical reality in specialist centers in the United States and Europe. Advances in medical device design for the MRI environment will enable not only diagnostic but also interventional MRI procedures to be performed within the next few years. PMID:24394821

  12. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  13. GPU-accelerated nonparametric kinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data from glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Han H; Ferl, Gregory Z; Ng, Chee M

    2013-05-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is often used to examine vascular function in malignant tumors and noninvasively monitor drug efficacy of antivascular therapies in clinical studies. However, complex numerical methods used to derive tumor physiological properties from DCE-MRI images can be time-consuming and computationally challenging. Recent advancement of computing technology in graphics processing unit (GPU) makes it possible to build an energy-efficient and high-power parallel computing platform for solving complex numerical problems. This study develops the first reported fast GPU-based method for nonparametric kinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data using clinical scans of glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin®). In the method, contrast agent concentration-time profiles in arterial blood and tumor tissue are smoothed using a robust kernel-based regression algorithm in order to remove artifacts due to patient motion and then deconvolved to produce the impulse response function (IRF). The area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of the IRF are calculated using statistical moment analysis, and two tumor physiological properties that relate to vascular permeability, volume transfer constant between blood plasma and extravascular extracellular space (K(trans)) and fractional interstitial volume (ve) are estimated using the approximations AUC/MRT and AUC. The most significant feature in this method is the use of GPU-computing to analyze data from more than 60,000 voxels in each DCE-MRI image in parallel fashion. All analysis steps have been automated in a single program script that requires only blood and tumor data as the sole input. The GPU-accelerated method produces K(trans) and ve estimates that are comparable to results from previous studies but reduces computational time by more than 80-fold compared to a previously reported central processing unit-based nonparametric method. Furthermore, it is at

  14. Fetal Pulmonary Arterial Vascular Impedance Reflects Changes in Fetal Oxygenation at Near-Term Gestation in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Arraut, Amaryllis Maria Elpida; Frias, Antonio E.; Hobbs, Theodore R.; McEvoy, Cindy; Spindel, Eliot R.; Rasanen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that fetal pulmonary arterial circulation reacts to changes in fetal oxygenation status at near-term gestation. Study Design: A total of 20 rhesus macaques underwent fetal Doppler ultrasonography at near-term gestation. Right pulmonary artery (RPA), umbilical artery (UA), ductus arteriosus (DA), and ductus venosus (DV) blood velocity waveforms were obtained, and pulsatility index (PI) values were calculated. Fetal right and left ventricular cardiac outputs were determined. Ultrasonographic data were collected during 3 maternal oxygenation states: room air (baseline), hyperoxemia, and hypoxemia. Results: Fetal RPA PI values increased (P < .05) during maternal hypoxemia and decreased (P < .05) during maternal hyperoxemia, compared with baseline. Maternal hyperoxemia increased (P < .05) DA PI values from baseline. Fetal cardiac outputs, UA, and DV PI values were not affected. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that at near-term gestation, fetal pulmonary arterial circulation is a dynamic vascular bed that reflects acute and short-term changes in fetal oxygenation. PMID:22991382

  15. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  16. Fetal Bowel Dilatation: A Sonographic Sign of Uncertain Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia; Reis, Filipa; Alves, Paulo; Farinha, Luís; Gomes, Manuel Sousa; Câmara, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Fetal bowel dilatation is an indirect sonographic sign of mechanical or functional bowel obstruction. The etiology of fetal bowel dilatation is a difficult prenatal diagnosis since ultrasound has limited accuracy for bowel evaluation. The authors describe a case of fetal bowel dilatation diagnosed in the third trimester. PMID:26819789

  17. [The value of current echographic parameters in fetal biometry].

    PubMed

    Sussmann, M; Curie, P; Dreyfus, M; Renaud, R

    1985-05-01

    A review of current literature concerning developments of new parameters in fetal biometry is presented. To be sure, these parameters are very useful for detection of fetal malformations but outside of femoral length they do not contribute more valuable information than the already accepted parameters for determination of gestational age or detection of disorders of fetal growth. PMID:3895364

  18. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  20. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  2. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed “placental infarction hematoma” is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This communication describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma. PMID:24852332

  7. Microgel iron oxide nanoparticles for tracking human fetal mesenchymal stem cells through magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eddy S M; Chan, Jerry; Shuter, Borys; Tan, Lay Geok; Chong, Mark S K; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Dawe, Gavin S; Ding, Jun; Teoh, Swee Hin; Beuf, Olivier; Briguet, Andre; Tam, Kam Chiu; Choolani, Mahesh; Wang, Shih-Chang

    2009-08-01

    Stem cell transplantation for regenerative medicine has made significant progress in various injury models, with the development of modalities to track stem cell fate and migration post-transplantation being currently pursued rigorously. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows serial high-resolution in vivo detection of transplanted stem cells labeled with iron oxide particles, but has been hampered by low labeling efficiencies. Here, we describe the use of microgel iron oxide (MGIO) particles of diameters spanning 100-750 nm for labeling human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSCs) for MRI tracking. We found that MGIO particle uptake by hfMSCs was size dependent, with 600-nm MGIO (M600) particles demonstrating three- to sixfold higher iron loading than the clinical particle ferucarbotran (33-263 versus 9.6-42.0 pg iron/hfMSC; p < .001). Cell labeling with either M600 particles or ferucarbotran did not affect either cellular proliferation or tri-lineage differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, despite differences in gene expression on a genome-wide microarray analysis. Cell tracking in a rat photothrombotic stroke model using a clinical 1.5-T MRI scanner demonstrated the migration of labeled hfMSCs from the contralateral cortex to the stroke injury, with M600 particles achieving a five- to sevenfold higher sensitivity for MRI detection than ferucarbotran (p < .05). However, model-related cellular necrosis and acute inflammation limited the survival of hfMSCs beyond 5-12 days. The use of M600 particles allowed high detection sensitivity with low cellular toxicity to be achieved through a simple incubation protocol, and may thus be useful for cellular tracking using standard clinical MRI scanners. PMID:19544438

  8. MRI driven magnetic microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Kósa, Gábor; Jakab, Péter; Székely, Gábor; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a promising technique for diagnosing diseases in the digestive system. Here we design and characterize a miniature swimming mechanism that uses the magnetic fields of the MRI for both propulsion and wireless powering of the capsule. Our method uses both the static and the radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields inherently available in MRI to generate a propulsive force. Our study focuses on the evaluation of the propulsive force for different swimming tails and experimental estimation of the parameters that influence its magnitude. We have found that an approximately 20 mm long, 5 mm wide swimming tail is capable of producing 0.21 mN propulsive force in water when driven by a 20 Hz signal providing 0.85 mW power and the tail located within the homogeneous field of a 3 T MRI scanner. We also analyze the parallel operation of the swimming mechanism and the scanner imaging. We characterize the size of artifacts caused by the propulsion system. We show that while the magnetic micro swimmer is propelling the capsule endoscope, the operator can locate the capsule on the image of an interventional scene without being obscured by significant artifacts. Although this swimming method does not scale down favorably, the high magnetic field of the MRI allows self propulsion speed on the order of several millimeter per second and can propel an endoscopic capsule in the stomach. PMID:22037673

  9. Teratoma - MRI scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This MRI scan shows a tumor (teratoma) at the base of the spine (seen on the left lower edge of the screen), located in the sacrum and coccyx (sacrococcygeal) area. Teratomas are present at birth and may contain hair, teeth, and other tissues.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  11. The Prenatal Assessment of Fetal Health

    PubMed Central

    Parboosingh, J.; Mousseau, J.; Deacon, J.

    1979-01-01

    This article reviews the objectives, indications and methods currently used to assess fetal health in pregnancies at risk of fetoplacental dysfunction. The graphic display of clinical data encourages the physician to recognize deviations from the norm and assists in the selection of patients for assessment by the more sophisticated tests of fetoplacental function. PMID:21297709

  12. Bacterial infection and human fetal wastage.

    PubMed

    Lessing, J B; Amster, R; Berger, S A; Peyser, M R

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-eight of 57 fetuses delivered after intrauterine death were found to have a variety of aerobic and facultative bacteria in the heart, anus, placenta, brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Subclinical maternal bacteremia, possibly originating in the urinary tract, appears to be a common cause of second- and third-trimester fetal demise. PMID:2695648

  13. Fetal Arrhythmias Associated with Cardiac Rhabdomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Strasburger, Janette F; Cuneo, Bettina; Wiggins, Delonia; Gotteiner, Nina; Wakai, Ronald T

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary heart tumors in fetuses are rare and mainly represent rhabdomyomas. The tumors have a variable expression and can be associated with arrhythmias, including both wide and narrow QRS tachycardia. Although multiple Doppler techniques exist to assess fetal heart rhythm, it can be difficult to record precise electrophysiological pathologies in fetal life. Objective Investigations defining precise electrophysiological diagnosis were performed using fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Methods In addition to routine fetal echocardiography, fMCG was used to investigate electrophysiologic rhythm patterns in a series of 10 fetuses with cardiac rhabdomyomas. Results The mean gestational age of the fetuses was 28.6 weeks (SD ± 4.7 weeks). The multiple rhabdomyomas were mainly located in the right and left ventricles as well as around the AV groove. Arrhythmias or conduction abnormalities were diagnosed in all 10 patients, although only six of them were referred due to that indication. Remarkably, 80% (8/10) had associated Wolff-Parkinson-White pre-excitation. In addition, we found prominent p waves in four fetuses. Conclusion In fetuses with rhabdomyomas, a disease where rhythm pathology is common, precise electrophysiological diagnosis can now be made by fMCG. fMCG is complimentary to echocardiography for rhythm assessment, and can detect conduction abnormalities that are not possible to diagnose prenatally with M-mode or pulsed Doppler ultrasound. Risk factor assessment using fMCG can support pregnancy management and post-natal treatment and follow-up. PMID:24333285

  14. Fetal polyol metabolism in copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Beal, T. )

    1989-02-09

    Since pregnant rats consuming fructose, copper deficient diets fail to give birth, the relationship between maternal copper deficiency, polyol metabolism and fetal mortality was investigated. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed from conception one of the following diets: fructose, copper deficient; fructose, copper adequate; starch, copper deficient or starch, copper adequate. The deficient diets contained 0.6 ug Cu and the adequate 6.0 ug Cu/g diet. Pregnancy was terminated at day 19 of gestation. Glucose, sorbitol and fructose were measured in maternal blood, placenta and fetal liver. Fructose consumption during pregnancy resulted in higher levels of fructose and sorbitol in maternal blood when compared to starch. In the fructose dietary groups, the placenta and fetal liver contained extremely high levels of glucose, fructose and sorbitol compared to the corresponding metabolites from the starch dietary groups. Copper deficiency further elevated fructose and sorbitol concentrations in the placenta and fetal liver respectively. Since high tissue levels of glucose, fructose and sorbitol have been shown to have deleterious effects on cellular metabolism, these data suggest that when fructose was fed during pregnancy the combination of an aberration of carbohydrate metabolism with copper deficiency could be responsible for the pathology and mortality of the developing fetus.

  15. Noninvasive Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Genome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. Christina; Gu, Wei; Wang, Jianbin; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of prenatal genetic testing requires invasive sampling. Since this poses a risk to the fetus, one must make a decision that weighs the desire for genetic information against the risk of an adverse outcome due to hazards of the testing process. These issues are not required to be coupled, and it would be desirable to discover genetic information about the fetus without incurring a health risk. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to noninvasively sequence the entire prenatal genome. Our results show that molecular counting of parental haplotypes in maternal plasma by shotgun sequencing of maternal plasma DNA allows the inherited fetal genome to be deciphered noninvasively. We also applied the counting principle directly to each allele in the fetal exome by performing exome capture on maternal plasma DNA prior to shotgun sequencing. This approach enables noninvasive exome screening of clinically relevant and deleterious alleles that were paternally inherited or had arisen as de novo germline mutations, and complements the haplotype counting approach to provide a comprehensive view of the fetal genome. Noninvasive determination of the fetal genome may ultimately facilitate the diagnosis of all inherited and de novo genetic disease. PMID:22763444

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Ian R.

    1982-01-01

    At least 30 percent of newborn children of alcoholic mothers are affected severely by the fetal alcohol syndrome and 40-45 percent show some stigmata. Risks to offspring of mothers who drink occasionally or binge drink are not clear, but the danger is probably greatest in the first trimester of pregnancy. (CMG)

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Margaret E.

    This paper provides a discussion of definitions, historical precursors, and prevalence figures for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and highlights relevant medical and behavioral characteristics. It also addresses the educational implications of working with children with FAS in terms of instruction and curriculum. Educators are urged…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  1. Estimation of fetal gestational age from ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Valiollah

    1992-06-01

    Estimation of fetal gestational age, weight, and determination of fetal growth from the measurements of certain parameters of fetal head, abdomen, and femur have been well established in prenatal sonography. The measurements are made from the two dimensional, B- mode, ultrasound images of the fetus. The most common parameters measured are, biparietal diameter, occipital frontal diameter, head circumference, femur diaphysis length, and abdominal circumference. Since the fetal head has an elliptical shape and the femur has a linear shape, fitting the ellipse on the image of the fetal head, a line on the image of the femur are the tasks of image processing which are discussed in this paper.

  2. High-quality breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  3. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  4. Fetal Leydig Cells: Progenitor Cell Review Maintenance and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    BARSOUM, IVRAYM B.; YAO, HUMPHREY H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    In most eutherian mammals, sexually dimorphic masculinization is established by androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells in the embryonic testis. Fetal Leydig cells, which lack expression of the testis-determining gene SRY, arise after the appearance of SRY-expressing Sertoli cells. Therefore, the appearance and differentiation of fetal Leydig cells are probably regulated by factors derived from Sertoli cells. Results from mouse genetic models have revealed that maintenance and differentiation of fetal Leydig cell population depends upon a balance between differentiation-promoting and differentiation-suppressing mechanisms. Although paracrine signaling via Sertoli cell–derived Hedgehog ligands is necessary and sufficient for fetal Leydig cell formation, cell-cell interaction via Notch signaling and intracellular transcription factors such as POD1 are implicated as suppressors of fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This review provides a model that summarizes the recent findings in fetal Leydig cell development. PMID:19875489

  5. Automated Fetal Heart Rate Analysis in Labor: Decelerations and Overshoots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, A. E.; Payne, S. J.; Moulden, M.; Redman, C. W. G.

    2010-10-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) recording is a standard way of monitoring fetal health in labor. Decelerations and accelerations usually indicate fetal distress and normality respectively. But one type of acceleration may differ, namely an overshoot that may atypically reflect fetal stress. Here we describe a new method for detecting decelerations, accelerations and overshoots as part of a novel system for computerized FHR analysis (OxSyS). There was poor agreement between clinicians when identifying these FHR features visually, which precluded setting a gold standard of interpretation. We therefore introduced `modified' Sensitivity (SE°) and `modified' Positive Predictive Value (PPV°) as appropriate performance measures with which the algorithm was optimized. The relation between overshoots and fetal compromise in labor was studied in 15 cases and 15 controls. Overshoots showed promise as an indicator of fetal compromise. Unlike ordinary accelerations, overshoots cannot be considered to be reassuring features of fetal health.

  6. Recent advances in fetal near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, Donato; Aldrich, Clive J.; O'Brien, Patrick; Lawrence, Sally; Delpy, David T.; Wyatt, John S.

    1997-01-01

    Fetal brain injury resulting from hypoxia and ischemia during labor remains an important cause of death and long- term disability. However, little is known about fetal brain oxygenation and hemodynamics. There are currently no satisfactory clinical techniques for fetal monitoring and there remains a need for a new method to assess brain oxygenation. Fetal near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new technique that allows noninvasive observation of changes in the cerebral concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to be made during labor. A specially designed optical probe is inserted through the dilated cervix and placed against the fetal head. It is then possible to compare changes in NIRS data with other observations of fetal conditions, such as fetal heart rate and acid-base status.

  7. Automated Fetal Heart Rate Analysis in Labor: Decelerations and Overshoots

    SciTech Connect

    Georgieva, A. E.; Payne, S. J.; Moulden, M.; Redman, C. W. G.

    2010-10-25

    Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) recording is a standard way of monitoring fetal health in labor. Decelerations and accelerations usually indicate fetal distress and normality respectively. But one type of acceleration may differ, namely an overshoot that may atypically reflect fetal stress. Here we describe a new method for detecting decelerations, accelerations and overshoots as part of a novel system for computerized FHR analysis (OxSyS). There was poor agreement between clinicians when identifying these FHR features visually, which precluded setting a gold standard of interpretation. We therefore introduced 'modified' Sensitivity (SE deg.) and 'modified' Positive Predictive Value (PPV deg.) as appropriate performance measures with which the algorithm was optimized. The relation between overshoots and fetal compromise in labor was studied in 15 cases and 15 controls. Overshoots showed promise as an indicator of fetal compromise. Unlike ordinary accelerations, overshoots cannot be considered to be reassuring features of fetal health.

  8. Large-sized Fetal Striatal Grafts in Huntington's Disease Do Stop Growing: Long-term Monitoring in the Florence Experience.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Paganini, Marco; Bianchi, Andrea; Ginestroni, Andrea; Lombardini, Letizia; Porfirio, Berardino; Conti, Renato; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Gallina, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Development of six large nodules of solid tissue after bilateral human fetal striatal transplantation in four Huntington's disease patients has raised concern about the safety of this experimental therapy in our setting. We investigated by serial MRI-based volumetric analysis the growth behaviour of such grafts. After 33-73 months from transplantation the size of five grafts was stable and one graft showed a mild decrease in size. Signs neither of intracranial hypertension nor of adjuctive focal neurological deficit have ever been observed. This supports long-term safety of the grafting procedure at our Institution. PMID:25642368

  9. MRI of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, A

    2012-01-01

    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T2 sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis. PMID:23118102

  10. Heart rate variability parameters and fetal movement complement fetal behavioral states detection via magnetography to monitor neurovegetative development

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, Johanna; Preissl, Hubert; Draganova, Rossitza; Ortiz, Erick; Kagan, Karl O.; Abele, Harald; Brucker, Sara Y.; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal behavioral states are defined by fetal movement and heart rate variability (HRV). At 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) the distinction of four fetal behavioral states represented by combinations of quiet or active sleep or awakeness is possible. Prior to 32 weeks, only periods of fetal activity and quiesence can be distinguished. The increasing synchronization of fetal movement and HRV reflects the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) control. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) detects fetal heart activity at high temporal resolution, enabling the calculation of HRV parameters. This study combined the criteria of fetal movement with the HRV analysis to complete the criteria for fetal state detection. HRV parameters were calculated including the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal R–R interval (SDNN), the mean square of successive differences of the R–R intervals (RMSSD, SDNN/RMSSD ratio, and permutation entropy (PE) to gain information about the developing influence of the ANS within each fetal state. In this study, 55 magnetocardiograms from healthy fetuses of 24–41 weeks’ GA were recorded for up to 45 min using a fetal biomagnetometer. Fetal states were classified based on HRV and movement detection. HRV parameters were calculated for each state. Before GA 32 weeks, 58.4% quiescence and 41.6% activity cycles were observed. Later, 24% quiet sleep state (1F), 65.4% active sleep state (2F), and 10.6% active awake state (4F) were observed. SDNN increased over gestation. Changes of HRV parameters between the fetal behavioral states, especially between 1F and 4F, were statistically significant. Increasing fetal activity was confirmed by a decrease in PE complexity measures. The fHRV parameters support the differentiation between states and indicate the development of autonomous nervous control of heart rate function. PMID:25904855

  11. Occupational exposure in MRI.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B(0), imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B(0) fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2-0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42 ± 24% of B(0), with time-averaged exposures of 5.2 ± 2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6-4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B(0) fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s(-1). Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  12. [MRI in coma survivors].

    PubMed

    Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Bruno, M A; Boly, M; Soddu, A; Laureys, S; Moonen, G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic and non-traumatic brain injured disorders of consciousness patients are still challenging for diagnosis, prognosis, ethical and socio-economic reasons. Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers, et al. 2009). Recent advances in MRI techniques (diffusion tensor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional imaging) provide data that could improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and management of these patients. PMID:20085015

  13. MRI Anatomy of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Frumin, Melissa; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Levitt, James J.; Fischer, Iris A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ventricle enlargement in 67%. The temporal lobe was the brain parenchymal region with the most consistently documented abnormalities. Volume decreases were found in 62% of 37 studies of whole temporal lobe, and in 81% of 16 studies of the superior temporal gyrus (and in 100% with gray matter separately evaluated). Fully 77% of the 30 studies of the medial temporal lobe reported volume reduction in one or more of its constituent structures (hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Despite evidence for frontal lobe functional abnormalities, structural MRI investigations less consistently found abnormalities, with 55% describing volume reduction. It may be that frontal lobe volume changes are small, and near the threshold for MRI detection. The parietal and occipital lobes were much less studied; about half of the studies showed positive findings. Most studies of cortical gray matter (86%) found volume reductions were not diffuse, but more pronounced in certain areas. About two thirds of the studies of subcortical structures of thalamus, corpus callosum and basal ganglia (which tend to increase volume with typical neuroleptics), show positive findings, as do almost all (91%) studies of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Most data were consistent with a developmental model, but growing evidence was compatible also with progressive, neurodegenerative features, suggesting a “two– hit” model of schizophrenia, for which a cellular hypothesis is discussed. The relationship of

  14. Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Cell-Free Total DNA Levels in Spontaneous Abortion with Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Min Hyoung; Han, You Jung; Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yeon; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Methodology/Principal Findings A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both). The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001) than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002) and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037). The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852–0.945) and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903–0.975), respectively. Conclusions Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA with fetal

  15. MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2∗WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

  16. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:25908097

  17. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:25908097

  18. A Literature Update on Maternal-Fetal Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. Data Sources EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000–2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause no change in level of maternal-fetal attachment. Keyword searches included maternal-fetal attachment, parental attachment, and prenatal attachment. Study Selection Twenty-two studies were selected that met the inclusion criteria of original research, clear delineation of the measurement of maternal-fetal attachment, measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy, and inclusion of women or couples, or both. Data Extraction Studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment included a broad range of variables as potential risk or protective factors, or both. Factors associated with higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment included family support, greater psychological well-being, and having an ultrasound performed. Factors such as depression, substance abuse, and higher anxiety levels were associated with lower levels of maternal-fetal attachment. Data Synthesis The large majority of studies reviewed were limited by small, homogenous samples deemed insufficient to detect significant differences, inconsistent measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during gestational periods, and cross-sectional designs. Conclusions Further research is essential to identify factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment. Specifically, research needs to be conducted on larger sample sizes of greater racial and ethnic diversity. PMID:18507602

  19. Fetal echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Renner, Michael; Clough, Patricia; Levine, Gregg; Campbell, Michelle; Stone, Rae; Schmitt, Todd; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Shannon-Rodriguez, Jayne

    2010-03-01

    In humans, fetal echocardiography represents the most important tool for the assessment of the cardiovascular well-being of the fetus. However, because of logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges, detailed fetal echocardiographic evaluation of marine mammals has not been previously described. Because the application of fetal echocardiography to cetaceans could have both clinical and academic importance, an approach to evaluating the fetal dolphin's cardiovascular status was developed with conventional, fetal echocardiographic techniques developed in humans. Eight singleton fetal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were evaluated, each between 6 and 11 mo gestation; six fetuses underwent two fetal echocardiographic evaluations each, four at 3-mo intervals, and two at 0.5-mo intervals. Evaluations were performed without sedation, using conventional, portable ultrasound systems. Multiple transducers, probes, and maternal dolphin positions were used to optimize image quality. Fetal echocardiography included two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping of the heart and great arteries, as well as pulsed Doppler evaluation of the umbilical artery and vein. Thorough evaluations of the fetal dolphins' cardiovascular status were performed, with the greatest resolution between 8 and 9 mo gestation. With the use of published human fetal echocardiographic findings for comparison, fetal echocardiography demonstrated normal structure and function of the heart and great arteries, including the pulmonary veins, inferior vena cava, right and left atria, foramen ovale, tricuspid and mitral valves, right and left ventricles, ventricular septum, pulmonary and aortic valves, main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, and ductus arteriosus. Pulsed Doppler techniques demonstrated normal umbilical arterial and venous waveforms, and color flow mapping demonstrated absence of significant valvar regurgitation. Fetal echocardiography, particularly between 8 and 9 mo gestation, can

  20. An interdisciplinary fetal/neonatal neurology program.

    PubMed

    Scher, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    A fetal/neonatal neurology program should encompass interdisciplinary service, educational and research objectives, merging curricula concerning maternal, placental, fetal and neonatal contributions to brain health and disease. This approach is anchored by research in early life programming that demonstrates that prenatal and postnatal factors influence long-term neurologic health. This concept also supports the design of neuroprotective interventions during critical periods of brain development when brain circuitries more optimally adapt to maturational challenges. Preventive, rescue and repair protocols will transform pediatric medical practices, to promote improved childhood outcomes. Inclusion of life-course science and research will identify medical and socioeconomic factors that favorably or adversely affect quality of life into adulthood. Greater awareness of the convergence of developmental origins of brain health and disease and developmental aging theories will influence public health policies, to encourage financial support for programs that will improve the quality of life for the child and adult. PMID:22290854

  1. Litigation related to intrapartum fetal surveillance.

    PubMed

    Schifrin, Barry S; Soliman, Mohamed; Koos, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The role of intrapartum care including cardiotocography (CTG) monitoring in cases of perinatal neurological injury receives considerable debate in both clinical and medicolegal settings. The debate, however, has distracted attention from fundamental questions about the timing, mechanism, and preventability of perinatal injury. CTG tracings are used as a surrogate for asphyxia with the timing of intervention ("rescue") predicated on the presumed severity of asphyxia. Using CTG in this way has prevented intrapartum stillbirth, but it has not reduced the long-term injury in part, because, contrary to popular belief, the majority of intrapartum fetal injuries are unassociated with severe hypoxia or severe neonatal depression. This article describes the timing and mechanisms, including mechanical factors, of intrapartum perinatal injury and the benefit of using the CTG, not for the purpose of "rescue", but for identifying risk factors for fetal injury and keeping the fetus out of harm's way. PMID:26227999

  2. O/sup 6/-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase in human fetal tissues: fetal and maternal factors

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, S.M.; Samuel, M.J.; Dutta-Choudhury, T.A.; Wani, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    O/sup 6/-Methylguanine methyltransferase (O/sup 6/-MT) was measured and compared in extracts of 7 human fetal tissues obtained from 21 different fetal specimens as a function of fetal age and race, and maternal smoking and drug usage. Activity was determined from the proteinase-K solubilized radioactivity transferred from the DNA to the O/sup 6/-MT. S9 homogenates were incubated with a heat depurinated (/sup 3/H)-methylnitrosourea alkylated DNA. Liver exhibited the highest activity followed by kidney, lung, small intestine, large intestine, skin and brain. Each of the tissues exhibited a 3- to 5-fold level of interindividual variation of O/sup 6/-MT. There did not appear to be any significant difference of O/sup 6/-MT in the tissues obtained from mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. Also, fetal race and age did not appear to account for the level of variation of O/sup 6/-MT. The fetal tissues obtained from an individual using phenobarbital and smoking exhibited 4-fold increases in O/sup 6/-MT activity. The tissues obtained from another individual on kidney dialysis were 2- to 3-fold higher than the normal population. These data suggest that the variation in human O/sup 6/-MT can not be explained by racial or smoking factors, but may be modulated by certain drugs.

  3. Ultrasound of the Fetal Veins Part 3: The Fetal Intracerebral Venous System.

    PubMed

    Karl, K; Heling, K S; Chaoui, R

    2016-02-01

    The study of the intracerebral venous system in the fetus can only be achieved by means of high-resolution ultrasound equipment with sensitive color Doppler. In the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the ultrasound examination of the fetal brain with few studies reporting on the brain vasculature during various stages of gestation. In comparison to other fetal venous systems, reports on the assessment of the fetal cerebral venous system are still scarce. This article presents a review on the fetal intracranial venous system with detailed discussions on the anatomy of the superficial and deep cerebral veins. Color Doppler of the main fetal cerebral veins to include the superior sagittal sinus, the straight sinus, the vein of Galen, the internal cerebral veins, the transverse sinuses and others is also discussed. Furthermore, this article highlights abnormal clinical conditions such as aneurysm of the vein of Galen, thrombosis of the dural sinus and variation in the course of some veins such as the straight sinus and falcine sinus. The role of pulsed Doppler examination in normal and growth-restricted fetuses is also discussed. PMID:26114342

  4. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    PubMed

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  5. Heating of fetal bone by diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doody, Claire

    Most pregnant women in the Western world undergo an ultrasound examination and so it is important to ensure that exposure of the embryo or fetus does not produce unwanted effects. It is known that ultrasound can heat tissue, especially bone, and so this thesis explores the degree to which fetal bone might be heated during a pulsed Doppler examination. This is done both by carrying out measurements and by developing computer models. Thermal measurements on human fetal thoracic vertebrae of gestational age ranging from 14 to 39 weeks are reported. The bone samples were insonated in vitro with an ultrasound beam which had power and intensity values typical of those from a clinical scanner operating in pulsed Doppler mode. Temperature rises ranging from 0.6°C to 1.8°C were observed after five minutes, with approximately 75% of the temperature rise occurring in the first minute. Two approaches to computer modelling are described. These are the heated disc technique, which is commonly used to model the temperature rise generated by an ultrasound beam, and finite element modelling, a more general approach used to obtain solutions to differential equations. The degree to which our limited knowledge of the properties of fetal tissue affect our ability to make accurate predictions of in vivo heating is explored. It is shown that the present uncertainty in the value of the thermal conductivity and attenuation coefficient of fetal bone can lead to significant uncertainty in predictions of heating. The degree to which the simplifications inherent in the heated disc model affect the results will also be discussed. The results from the models are compared with the experimental measurements in order to estimate the attenuation coefficient of the bone.

  6. Organization of the human fetal subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Marie-Christin; Döbrössy, Máté D.; Nikkhah, Guido; Winkler, Christian; Piroth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The subpallium comprises large parts of the basal ganglia including striatum and globus pallidus. Genes and factors involved in the development of the subpallium have been extensively studied in most vertebrates, including amphibians, birds, and rodents. However, our knowledge on patterning of the human subpallium remains insufficient. Using double fluorescent immunohistochemistry, we investigated the protein distribution of transcription factors involved in patterning of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the human forebrain at late embryonic development. Furthermore, we compared the development of cortical and striatal precursors between human fetal brain and E14 and E16 fetal rat brains. Our results reveal that DLX2 marks SVZ precursors in the entire subpallium. Individual subpallial subdomains can be identified based on co-expression of DLX2 with either PAX6 or NKX2-1. SVZ precursors in the dorsal LGE and preopto-hypothalamic boundary are characterized by DLX2/PAX6 co-expression, while precursors in the MGE and preoptic region co-express DLX2/NKX2-1. SVZ precursors in the ventral LGE are DLX2(+)/PAX6(-)/NKX2-1(-). In terms of staging comparisons, the development of the corpus striatum in the human fetal brain during late embryonic stages corresponds well with the development of the striatum observed in E14 fetal rat brains. Our study demonstrates that the pattern underlying the development of the subpallium is highly conserved between rodents and humans and suggests a similar function for these factors in human brain development. Moreover, our data directly influence the application of ganglionic eminence derived human tissue for cell therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. PMID:24474906

  7. Feasibility of a fetal measurement electrode system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Findings of the study are summarized and conclude that all monitoring requirements are not currently satisfied. An approach is presented to provide a multiparametric monitoring system through combinations of existing transducers. This monitoring system would be appropriate, not only for intrapartum monitoring, but also for neonatal and adult blood gas evaluations. A literature search was conducted to provide an insight into current state-of-the-art in fetal monitoring.

  8. Facial Dysmorphism Across the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Michael; Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Khaole, Nathaniel; Robinson, Luther K.; Riley, Edward P.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classic facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are shortened palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, and thin upper vermillion. We aim to help pediatricians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum, especially among nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE) individuals without classic facial characteristics. METHODS: Of 192 Cape Coloured children recruited, 69 were born to women who reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. According to multifaceted criteria, the remainder were allocated clinically to the FAS (n = 22), partial FAS (n = 26) or nonsyndromal HE (n = 75) categories. We used dense surface modeling and signature analyses of 3-dimensional facial photographs to determine agreement between clinical categorization and classifications induced from face shape alone, to visualize facial differences, and to consider predictive links between face shape and neurobehavior. RESULTS: Face classification achieved significant agreement with clinical categories for discrimination of nonexposed from FAS alone (face: 0.97–1.00; profile: 0.92) or with the addition of partial FAS (face: 0.90; profile: 0.92). Visualizations of face signatures delineated dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum and in half of the nonsyndromal HE category face signature graphs detected facial characteristics consistent with prenatal alcohol exposure. This subgroup performed less well on IQ and learning tests than did nonsyndromal subjects without classic facial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Heat maps and morphing visualizations of face signatures may help clinicians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum. Face signature graphs show potential for identifying nonsyndromal heavily exposed children who lack the classic facial phenotype but have cognitive impairment. PMID:23439907

  9. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  10. Fetal growth: a review of terms, concepts and issues relevant to obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Joseph, K S

    2013-02-01

    The perinatal literature includes several potentially confusing and controversial terms and concepts related to fetal size and growth. This article discusses fetal growth from an obstetric perspective and addresses various issues including the physiologic mechanisms that determine fetal growth trajectories, known risk factors for abnormal fetal growth, diagnostic and prognostic issues related to restricted and excessive growth and temporal trends in fetal growth. Also addressed are distinctions between fetal growth 'standards' and fetal growth 'references', and between fetal growth charts based on estimated fetal weight vs those based on birth weight. Other concepts discussed include the incidence of fetal growth restriction in pregnancy (does the frequency of fetal growth restriction increase or decrease with increasing gestation?), the obstetric implications of studies showing associations between fetal growth and adult chronic illnesses (such as coronary heart disease) and the need for customizing fetal growth standards. PMID:22648955

  11. Fetal autopsy and closing the gap.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Kilcullen, Meegan; Watson, David

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 30 years, the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Australia has been reduced to almost a quarter of that observed in the 1970s. To a large extent, this decline in the PMR has been driven by a reduction in neonatal mortality. Stillbirth rates have, however, remained relatively unchanged, and stillbirth rates for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers have remained approximately twice that for non-Indigenous women over the last 10 years. The causes for this difference remain to be fully established. Fetal autopsy is the single most important investigative tool to determine the cause of fetal demise. While facilitators and barriers to gaining consent for autopsy have been identified in a non-Indigenous context, these are yet to be established for Indigenous families. In order to address the gap in stillbirths between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers, it is essential to identify culturally appropriate ways when approaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families for consent after fetal death. Culturally safe and appropriate counselling at this time provides the basis for respectful care to families while offering an opportunity to gain knowledge to reduce the PMR. Identifying the cause of preventable stillbirth is an important step in narrowing the disparity in stillbirth rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. PMID:27250705

  12. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-03-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  13. Gestational dexamethasone alters fetal neuroendocrine axis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested whether the maternal transport of dexamethasone (DEXA) may affect the development of the neuroendocrine system. DEXA (0.2mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injection) was administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In the DEXA-treated group, a decrease in maternal serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and increase in thyrotropin (TSH) levels (hypothyroid status) were observed at GDs 15 & 20 with respect to control group. The reverse pattern (hyperthyroid status) was observed in their fetuses at embryonic days (EDs) 15 & 20. Although the maternal body weight was diminished, the weight of the thyroid gland was increased at studied GDs as compared to the control group. The fetal growth retardation, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinism, and cytokines distortions (transforming growth factor-beta; TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-α, and interferon-γ; IFN-γ) were noticed at examined EDs if compared to the control group. Alternatively, the maternofetal thyroid dysfunctions due to the maternal DEXA administration attenuated the levels of fetal cerebral norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), and elevated the levels of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at considered days. These alterations were age-dependent and might damage the nerve transmission. Finally, maternal DEXA might act as neuroendocrine disruptor causing dyshormonogenesis and fetal cerebral dysfunction. PMID:27220267

  14. Fetal and perinatal consequences of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Chakrapani; Renfrew, Mary; McGuire, William

    2011-09-01

    In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube and structural cardiac defects, appears to be higher in infants of obese mothers. Fetal macrosomia associated with maternal obesity and gestational diabetes predisposes infants to birth injuries, perinatal asphyxia and transitional problems such as neonatal respiratory distress and metabolic instability. Maternal obesity may also result in long-term health problems for offspring secondary to perinatal problems and to intrauterine and postnatal programming effects. Currently, the available interventions to prevent and treat maternal obesity are of limited proven utility and further research is needed to define the effects of maternal weight management interventions on fetal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:20530101

  15. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus. PMID:17509146

  16. Remodeling of the Fetal Collecting Duct Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Michael J.; Ivanova, Larissa; Toran, Nuria; Tarantal, Alice F.; Matsell, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital urinary tract obstruction induces changes to the renal collecting duct epithelium, including alteration and depletion of intercalated cells. To study the effects of obstruction on the ontogeny of intercalated cell development, we examined normal and obstructed human fetal and postnatal kidneys. In the normal human fetal kidney, intercalated cells originated in the medullary collecting duct at 8 weeks gestation and remained most abundant in the inner medulla throughout gestation. In the cortex, intercalated cells were rare at 18 and 26 weeks gestation and observed at low abundance at 36 weeks gestation. Although early intercalated cells exhibit an immature phenotype, Type A intercalated cells predominated in the inner and outer medullae at 26 and 36 weeks gestation with other intercalated cell subtypes observed rarely. Postnatally, the collecting duct epithelium underwent a remodeling whereby intercalated cells become abundant in the cortex yet absent from the inner medulla. In 18-week obstructed kidneys with mild to moderate injury, the intercalated cells became more abundant and differentiated than the equivalent age-matched normal kidney. In contrast, more severely injured ducts of the late obstructed kidney exhibited a significant reduction in intercalated cells. These studies characterize the normal ontogeny of human intercalated cell development and suggest that obstruction induces premature remodeling and differentiation of the fetal collecting duct epithelium. PMID:20035053

  17. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  18. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: prenatal interventions.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Marije M; Oepkes, Dick

    2011-07-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a potentially devastating condition, which may lead to intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in the fetus or neonate, often with death or major neurological damage as consequence. In the absence of screening, preventive measures are only possible in the next pregnancy of women with an affected child. Controversy exists on the best intervention to minimise the risk of ICH. Most centres have abandoned treatment with serial fetal blood sampling (FBS) and platelet transfusions, because of a high rate of complications and the availability of quite effective non-invasive alternatives. In pregnancies with FNAIT and a previous affected child without ICH, weekly intravenous administration of immunoglobulins to the mother appears close to 100% effective to prevent fetal or neonatal ICH. Some centres add prednisone; this combination leads to slightly higher platelet counts at birth. In pregnant women with a previous child with ICH, the recurrence risk seems particularly high, and more aggressive maternal medical treatment is recommended, starting earlier with immunoglobulins. Whether a higher intravenous immunoglobulin dose or the addition of prednisone is really necessary is unclear. What does seem to be clear is that the use of FBS should be minimised, possibly even abandoned completely. PMID:21618560

  19. Differentiation of xenografted human fetal lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Floros, Joanna; Phelps, David S.; Wigdahl, Brian; Welsh, Patricia; Weisz, Judith; Shearer, Debra A.; Pree, Alphonse Leure du; Myers, Roland; Howett, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize xenografted human fetal lung tissue with respect to developmental stage-specific cytodifferentiation. Human fetal lung tissue (pseudoglandular stage) was grafted either beneath the renal capsule or the skin of athymic mice (NCr-nu). Tissues were analyzed from 3 to 42 days post-engraftment for morphological alterations by light and electron microscopy (EM), and for surfactant protein mRNA and protein by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry (ICC), respectively. The changes observed resemble those seen in human lung development in utero in many respects, including the differentiation of epithelium to the saccular stage. Each stage occurred over approximately one week in the graft in contrast to the eight weeks of normal in utero development. At all time points examined, all four surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) were detected in the epithelium by ICC. Lamellar bodies were first identified by EM in 14 day xenografts. By day 21, a significant increase in lamellar body expression was observed. Cellular proliferation, as marked by PCNA ICC and elastic fiber deposition resembled those of canalicular and saccular in utero development. This model in which xenografted lung tissue in different stages of development is available may facilitate the study of human fetal lung development and the impact of various pharmacological agents on this process. PMID:17555893

  20. The fetal imaging workstation demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Lee, W

    1996-01-01

    Congenital birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality. Early detection of fetal anomalies by prenatal ultrasound may improve clinical outcome in selected cases. However, many training programs are hindered by curriculum weaknesses which include: (1) limited physician exposure to ultrasound anomalies; (2) inadequate postnatal correlation with prenatal findings; (3) constraints imposed by static images for ultrasound training; and (4) difficulty with understanding complex three-dimensional anatomy. The Fetal Imaging Workstation Demonstration Project addresses these problems by illustrating how computers can supplement traditional prenatal ultrasound training through interactive multimedia. The project uses a laserdisc library of ultrasound video images as source material for a variety of interactive software tutorials. An educational testing module has been developed that can evaluate diagnostic skills through simulated ultrasound studies provided by the laserdisc library. An interactive three-dimensional fetal heart model also provides a new way for physicians to better understand their two-dimensional ultrasound studies. A survey suggests that this prototype has been widely accepted by housestaff physicians and that there is a perceived need for this supplementary training. Future work will address the educational effectiveness of these materials and will consider cost-effective ways to disseminate the software for other institutions. However, future development must be implemented against a background of rapidly emerging technologies involving faster computers, digital video, and virtual reality applications. PMID:9007213

  1. Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Infection, and Fetal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) (delivery before 37 weeks’ gestation) is a leading cause of neonatal death and disease in industrialized and developing countries alike. Infection (most notably in high-risk deliveries occurring before 28 weeks’ gestation) is hypothesized to initiate an intrauterine inflammatory response that plays a key role in the premature initiation of labor as well as a host of the pathologies associated with prematurity. As such, a better understanding of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy is critical to our understanding of preterm labor and fetal injury, as well as on-going efforts to prevent PTB. Focusing on the fetal innate immune system responses to intrauterine infection, the present paper will review clinical and experimental studies to discuss the capacity for a fetal contribution to the intrauterine inflammation associated with PTB. Evidence from experimental studies to suggest that the fetus has the capacity to elicit a pro-inflammatory response to intrauterine infection is highlighted, with reference to the contribution of the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The paper will conclude that pathological intrauterine inflammation is a complex process that is modified by multiple factors including time, type of agonist, host genetics, and tissue. PMID:25520716

  2. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA methylation landscape using the 450k array of four human tissues (amnion, muscle, adrenal and pancreas) during the first and second trimester of gestation (9,18 and 22 weeks). We show that a tissue-specific signature, constituted by tissue-specific hypomethylated CpG sites, was already present at 9 weeks of gestation (W9). Furthermore, we report large-scale remodelling of DNA methylation from W9 to W22. Gain of DNA methylation preferentially occurred near genes involved in general developmental processes, whereas loss of DNA methylation mapped to genes with tissue-specific functions. Dynamic DNA methylation was associated with enhancers, but not promoters. Comparison of our data with external fetal adrenal, brain and liver revealed striking similarities in the trajectory of DNA methylation during fetal development. The analysis of gene expression data indicated that dynamic DNA methylation was associated with the progressive repression of developmental programs and the activation of genes involved in tissue-specific processes. The DNA methylation landscape of human fetal development provides insight into regulatory elements that guide tissue specification and lead to organ functionality. PMID:26492326

  3. Fetal radiation dose in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, Anna; Kaasalainen, Touko; Seuri, Raija; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The connection between recorded volumetric CT dose index (CTDI vol) and determined mean fetal dose (Df) was examined from metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dose measurements on an anthropomorphic female phantom in four stages of pregnancy in a 64-slice CT scanner. Automated tube current modulation kept the mean Df fairly constant through all pregnancy stages in trauma (4.4-4.9 mGy) and abdomino-pelvic (2.1-2.4 mGy) protocols. In pulmonary angiography protocol, the mean Df increased exponentially as the distance from the end of the scan range decreased (0.01-0.09 mGy). For trauma protocol, the relative mean Df as a function of gestational age were in the range 0.80-0.97 compared with the mean CTDI vol. For abdomino-pelvic protocol, the relative mean Df was 0.57-0.79 and for pulmonary angiography protocol, 0.01-0.05 compared with the mean CTDI vol, respectively. In conclusion, if the fetus is in the primary beam, the CTDI vol can be used as an upper estimate of the fetal dose. If the fetus is not in the primary beam, the fetal dose can be estimated by considering also the distance of the fetus from the scan range. PMID:25836690

  4. Assessment and control of fetal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, R.; Swinth, K.L.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    The assessment and control of fetal exposure to radiation in the workplace is an issue that is complicated by both biological and political/social ramifications. As a result of the dramatic increase in the number of women employed as radiation workers during the past 10 years, many facilities using radioactive materials have instituted fetal protection programs with special requirements for female radiation workers. It is necessary, however, to ensure that any fetal protection program be developed in such a way as to be nondiscriminatory. A study has been initiated whose purpose is to balance the political/social and the biological ramifications associated with occupational protection of the developing embryo/fetus. Several considerations are involved in properly balancing these factors. These considerations include appropriate methods of declaring the pregnancy, training workers, controlling the dose to the embryo/fetus, measuring and calculating the dose to the embryo/fetus, and recording the pertinent information. Alternative strategies for handling these factors while ensuring maximum protection of the embryo/fetus and the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers are discussed.

  5. In utero development of the fetal intestine: Sonographic evaluation and correlation with gestational age and fetal maturity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gil, Elaine M U; Garcia, Daniela A A; Froes, Tilde R

    2015-09-15

    Modern high-resolution ultrasound images enable earlier assessment of measures of fetal development, including identification of the bowel. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic development of fetal bowel and correlate this with gestational age; define whether ultrasonographic visualization of fetal intestinal peristalsis in utero is associated with fetal maturation and determine whether there is a difference in fetal intestinal peristalsis detection time between fetuses delivered by normal delivery and cesarean. A cohort study was conducted in pregnant bitches presented to a veterinary hospital, to assess fetal bowel development. Statistical analysis was used to establish the correlation of the stage of fetal bowel development, as recorded by ultrasound, with outcomes of normal delivery and cesarean section. The study was broken down into three stages: the first stage was a descriptive analysis of fetal bowel development by ultrasound; the second stage compared time (in days) of bowel development between groups (normal delivery vs. cesarean); and the third stage was correlated survival probability for fetuses born on any day after detection of intestinal peristalsis with fetal maturity. All statistical analyses were significant. It is possible to monitor pregnancy progression using ultrasonographic evaluation of bowel development and this can reliably identify the end of fetal organogenesis. However, ultrasonographic detection of bowel segments with visualization of wall layers and associated peristalsis should not be used as the sole indicator for cesarean section planning because it is not possible to determine ultrasonographically whether the bowel is functional (mature). PMID:26025243

  6. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  7. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  8. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Eto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements. PMID:25258662

  9. A review of contemporary modalities for identifying abnormal fetal growth.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C; Stuart, B; Fitzpatrick, C; Turner, M J; Kennelly, M M

    2013-04-01

    Detecting aberrant fetal growth has long been an important goal of modern obstetrics. Failure to diagnose abnormal fetal growth results in perinatal morbidity or mortality. However, the erroneous diagnosis of abnormal growth may lead to increased maternal anxiety and unnecessary obstetric interventions. We review the aetiology of deviant fetal growth and its implications both for the neonatal period and later in adult life. We examine maternal factors that may influence fetal growth such as obesity, glycaemic control and body composition. We discuss novel ways to improve our detection of abnormal fetal growth with a view to optimising antenatal care and clinical outcomes. These include using customised centiles or individualised growth assessment methods to improve accuracy. The role of fetal subcutaneous measurements as a surrogate marker of the nutritional status of the baby is also discussed. Finally, we investigate the role of Doppler measurements in identifying growth-restricted babies. PMID:23550849

  10. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Melissa; Bricker, Leanne; Neilson, James P; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic ultrasound is a sophisticated electronic technology, which utilises pulses of high frequency sound to produce an image. Diagnostic ultrasound examination may be employed in a variety of specific circumstances during pregnancy such as after clinical complications, or where there are concerns about fetal growth. Because adverse outcomes may also occur in pregnancies without clear risk factors, assumptions have been made that routine ultrasound in all pregnancies will prove beneficial by enabling earlier detection and improved management of pregnancy complications. Routine screening may be planned for early pregnancy, late gestation, or both. The focus of this review is routine early pregnancy ultrasound. Objectives To assess whether routine early pregnancy ultrasound for fetal assessment (i.e. its use as a screening technique) influences the diagnosis of fetal malformations, multiple pregnancies, the rate of clinical interventions, and the incidence of adverse fetal outcome when compared with the selective use of early pregnancy ultrasound (for specific indications). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009). Selection criteria Published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials that compared outcomes in women who experienced routine versus selective early pregnancy ultrasound (i.e. less than 24 weeks’ gestation). We have included quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for each included study. We used the Review Manager software to enter and analyse data. Main results Routine/revealed ultrasound versus selective ultrasound/concealed: 11 trials including 37505 women. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy reduces the failure to detect multiple pregnancy by 24 weeks’ gestation (risk ratio (RR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.17). Routine scan is associated with a reduction in

  11. The Ontogenesis of Human Fetal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S. L.; Grumbach, M. M.; Shepard, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The content and concentration of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) were measured in 117 human fetal pituitary glands from 68 days of gestation to term and in the pituitary glands of 20 children 1 month to 9 yr of age. Physicochemical and immunochemical properties of GH of fetal pituitary glands and GH from adult pituitary glands were indistinguishable by disc gel electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, starch gel electrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay techniques. In the fetal pituitary gland, the GH content rose from mean levels of 0.44±0.2 μg at 10-14 wk of gestation, to 9.21±2.31 μg at 15-19 wk, to 59.38±11.08 μg at 20-24 wk, to 225.93±40.49 μg at 25-29 wk, to 577.67±90 μg at 30-34 wk, and to 675.17±112.33 μg at 35-40 wk. There was a significant positive correlation between growth hormone content of the pituitary and gestational age, crown-rump length, and the weight of the pituitary gland. The content and concentration (micrograms/milligram) of human growth hormone (HGH) in the fetal pituitary showed significant increments (P < 0.001) for each 4 wk period of gestation until 35 wk. Further increases in the HGH content were noted in pituitaries of children aged 1-9 yr (range of 832 to 11.211 μg). Immunoreactive GH was detected in fetal serum at a concentration of 14.5 ng/ml as early as 70 days gestation, the youngest fetus assayed. At 10-14 wk, the mean concentration of serum growth hormone was 65.2±7.6 ng/ml; at 15-19 wk 114.9±12.5 ng/ml; at 20-24 wk 119.3±19.8 ng/ml; at 25-29 wk 72.0±11.5 ng/ml; and 33.5±4.2 ng/ml at term. A significant negative correlation of serum growth hormone with advancing gestational age after 20-24 wk was observed (P < 0.001). In 17 fetuses paired serum and pituitary samples were assayed; no significant correlation between the concentration of serum GH and the pituitary content or concentration of GH was demonstrable. The serum concentration of chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) in the fetus was unrelated to gestational

  12. Iron shielded MRI optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, C. A.; Fabbri, M.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the main current systems of an actively shielded and of an iron shielded MRI device for nuclear resonance imaging, is considered. The model for the analysis of the magnetic induction produced by the current system, is based on the combination of a Boundary Element technique and of the integration of two Fredholm integral equations of the first and the second kind. The equivalent current magnetization model is used for the calculation of the magnetization produced by the iron shield. High field uniformity in a spherical region inside the device, and a low stray field in the neighborhood of the device are required. In order to meet the design requirements a multi-objective global minimization problem is solved. The minimization method is based on the combination of the filled function technique and the (1+1) evolution strategy algorithm. The multi-objective problem is treated by means of a penalty method. The actively shielded MRI system results to utilize larger amount of conductor and produce higher magnetic energy than the iron shield device. On veut étudier le projet du système des courants principaux d'un MRI à écran en fer et d'un MRI à écran actif. Le modèle d'analyse du champ magnétique produit par le système de courants est basé sur la combinaison d'une technique Boundary Element et de l'intégration de deux équations intégrales de Fredholm de première et de seconde sorte. On utilise pour calculer la magnétisation produite par l'écran en fer le modèle à cou rants de magné ti sa tion équivalents. On exige une élévation uniforme du champ dans une région sphérique au cœur de l'appareil et un bas champ magnétique dispersé à proximité de l'appareil. Dans le but de répondre aux impératifs du projet, on va résoudre un problème multiobjectif de minimisation globale. On utilise une technique de minimisation obtenue par la combinaison des méthodes “Filled Function” et “(1+1) Evolution Strategy”. Le probl

  13. Fetal dosimetry from pulmonary imaging in pregnancy. Revised estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Fetal dose estimates from Tc-99m MAA and Tc-99m DTPA aerosol were calculated using two methods. These calculations show that the average fetal dose decreases as gestational age (or fetal size) increases. Although the resultant dose estimates exceed those previously reported by severalfold, the risk to mother and fetus from undiagnosed pulmonary embolism far outweighs the risk to the fetus from the radiation exposure.

  14. Fetal Circulatory Variation in an Acute Incident Causing Bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Olgan, Safak; Sakinci, Mehmet; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Cagliyan, Erkan; Altunyurt, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical artery\\vein, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry were performed at 33 weeks of gestation in the settings of an intrauterine growth restricted fetus during a heart rate deceleration. Interestingly, we recorded a sudden onset redistribution of fetal blood flow with fetal bradycardia. Spontaneous normalization of waveforms was observed once fetal heart rate returned to normal. Our case provides evidence to circulatory variation of a human fetus resulting from an acute incident causing bradycardia. PMID:25580322

  15. Fetal electrocardiogram: ST waveform analysis in intrapartum surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Amer-Wahlin, I; Arulkumaran, S; Hagberg, H; Maršál, K; Visser, GHA

    2007-01-01

    ST waveform analysis of fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for intrapartum surveillance (STAN) is a newly introduced method for fetal surveillance. The purpose of this commentary is to assist in the proper use of fetal ECG in combination with cardiotocography (CTG) during labour. Guidelines and recommendations concerning CTG and ST waveform interpretation and classification are stated that were agreed on by the European experts on ST waveform analysis for intrapartum surveillance during a meeting in Utretcht, the Netherlands in January 2007. PMID:17877671

  16. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Jakab, András; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 26–29 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity. PMID:25374531

  17. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 26-29 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity. PMID:25374531

  18. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  19. The fetal brain sparing response to hypoxia: physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Dino A

    2016-03-01

    How the fetus withstands an environment of reduced oxygenation during life in the womb has been a vibrant area of research since this field was introduced by Joseph Barcroft, a century ago. Studies spanning five decades have since used the chronically instrumented fetal sheep preparation to investigate the fetal compensatory responses to hypoxia. This defence is contingent on the fetal cardiovascular system, which in late gestation adopts strategies to decrease oxygen consumption and redistribute the cardiac output away from peripheral vascular beds and towards essential circulations, such as those perfusing the brain. The introduction of simultaneous measurement of blood flow in the fetal carotid and femoral circulations by ultrasonic transducers has permitted investigation of the dynamics of the fetal brain sparing response for the first time. Now we know that major components of fetal brain sparing during acute hypoxia are triggered exclusively by a carotid chemoreflex and that they are modified by endocrine agents and the recently discovered vascular oxidant tone. The latter is determined by the interaction between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. The fetal brain sparing response matures as the fetus approaches term, in association with the prepartum increase in fetal plasma cortisol, and treatment of the preterm fetus with clinically relevant doses of synthetic steroids mimics this maturation. Despite intense interest into how the fetal brain sparing response may be affected by adverse intrauterine conditions, this area of research has been comparatively scant, but it is likely to take centre stage in the near future. PMID:26496004

  20. Implantable Ultralow Pulmonary Pressure Monitoring System for Fetal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Heller, J. Alex; Schecter, Samuel C.; Shue, Eveline H.; Miniati, Doug; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary hypoplasia is a devastating condition affecting fetal and newborn pulmonary physiology, resulting in great morbidity and mortality. The fetal lung develops in a fluid-filled environment. In this paper, we describe a novel, implantable pressure sensing and recording device which we use to study the pressures present in the fetal pulmonary tree throughout gestation. The system achieves 0.18 cm H2O resolution and can record for 21 days continuously at 256 Hz. Sample tracings of in vivo fetal lamb recordings are shown. PMID:22801521

  1. Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood – An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Larsen, Nanna; Christensen, Britta; Hougaard, David M.; Kølvraa, Steen; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11–14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment and subsequent identification. Results Participants carrying male fetuses had a higher median number of fetal cells in maternal blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p = 0.04). Certain cytokines (RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5) were significantly associated with the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Conclusion The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated with certain cytokines and fetal gender. PMID:25188498

  2. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  3. Recognizing and Managing Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects: A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Brenda

    A family counselor and mother of adopted children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects (FAS/E) offers practical advice and information on dealing with FAS/E's lifelong effects on behavior and learning. The book begins by discussing the historical, medical, and social aspects of FAS/E, and details common behavioral characteristics associated with…

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol and Other Drug Effects. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    This curriculum guide on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is intended to help meet New Jersey secondary-level learning objectives in the area of chemical health education. The guide is organized into six sections, each with a conceptual statement, content outline, specific objectives, and lesson plans. The six sections and corresponding major concepts…

  5. Studies in Fetal Behavior: Revisited, Renewed, and Reimagined

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the earliest volumes of this Monograph series was a report by Lester Sontag and colleagues, of the esteemed Fels Institute, on the heart rate of the human fetus as an expression of the developing nervous system. Here, some 75 years later, we commemorate this work and provide historical and contemporary context on knowledge regarding fetal development, as well as results from our own research. These are based on synchronized monitoring of maternal and fetal parameters assessed between 24 and 36 weeks gestation on 740 maternal-fetal pairs compiled from eight separate longitudinal studies, which commenced in the early 1990s. Data include maternal heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and electrodermal activity and fetal heart rate, motor activity, and their integration. Hierarchical linear modeling of developmental trajectories reveals that the fetus develops in predictable ways consistent with advancing parasympathetic regulation. Findings also include: within-fetus stability (i.e., preservation of rank ordering over time) for heart rate, motor, and coupling measures; a transitional period of decelerating development near 30 weeks gestation; sex differences in fetal heart rate measures but not in most fetal motor activity measures; modest correspondence in fetal neurodevelopment among siblings as compared to unrelated fetuses; and deviations from normative fetal development in fetuses affected by intrauterine growth restriction and other conditions. Maternal parameters also change during this period of gestation and there is evidence that fetal sex and individual variation in fetal neurobehavior influence maternal physiological processes and the local intrauterine context. Results are discussed within the framework of neuromaturation, the emergence of individual differences, and the bidirectional nature of the maternal-fetal relationship. We pose a number of open questions for future research. Although the human fetus remains just out of reach, new

  6. MRI Risk Stratification for Tumor Relapse in Rectal Cancer Achieving Pathological Complete Remission after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy and Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Honsoul; Myoung, Sungmin; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Ahn, Joong Bae; Hur, Hyuk; Lim, Joon Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rectal cancer patients achieving pCR are known to have an excellent prognosis, yet no widely accepted consensus on risk stratification and post-operative management (e.g., adjuvant therapy) has been established. This study aimed to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) high-risk factors for tumor relapse in pathological complete remission (pCR) achieved by rectal cancer patients who have undergone neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and curative resection. Materials and Methods We analyzed 88 (male/female = 55/33, median age, 59.5 years [range 34–78]) pCR-proven rectal cancer patients who had undergone pre-CRT MRI, CRT, post-CRT MRI and curative surgery between July 2005 and December 2012. Patients were observed for post-operative tumor relapse. We analyzed the pre/post-CRT MRIs for parameters including mrT stage, mesorectal fascia (mrMRF) status, tumor volume, tumor regression grade (mrTRG), nodal status (mrN), and extramural vessel invasion (mrEMVI). We performed univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Post-operative tumor relapse occurred in seven patients (8.0%, n = 7/88) between 5.7 and 50.7 (median 16.8) months. No significant relevance was observed between tumor volume, volume reduction rate, mrTRG, mrT, or mrN status. Meanwhile, positive mrMRF (Ppre-CRT = 0.018, Ppre/post-CRT = 0.006) and mrEMVI (Ppre-CRT = 0.026, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.008) were associated with higher incidence of post-operative tumor relapse. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a higher risk of tumor relapse in patients with positive mrMRF (Ppre-CRT = 0.029, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.009) or mrEMVI (Ppre-CRT = 0.024, Ppre-/post-CRT = 0.003). Conclusion Positive mrMRF and mrEMVI status was associated with a higher risk of post-operative tumor relapse of pCR achieved by rectal cancer patients, and therefore, can be applied for risk stratification and to individualize treatment plans. PMID:26730717

  7. Biotelemeters for Space Flights and Fetal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.

  8. Clinical course of fetal hydrocephalus: 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, D H; Davis, K; Manco-Johnson, M L; Manchester, D; Meier, P R; Clewell, W H

    1985-04-01

    The clinical course and outcome of hydrocephalus diagnosed in utero is not well understood. To approach this problem 40 cases were reviewed of intrauterine fetal hydrocephalus diagnosed with sonography, and follow-up information was obtained regarding them. Sonograms were evaluated for cerebral dimensions, biparietal diameter, brain mantle size, ventricular ratio, amount of amniotic fluid, and associated abnormalities. Neonatal brain sonograms and computed tomographic (CT) scans were reviewed also. Clinical charts were reviewed for maternal age and parity, referral source, family history, fetal age at diagnosis and delivery, mode of delivery, physical examination and/or autopsy findings, karyotype, amniotic alpha 1 fetoprotein level, cause of death, shunt placement after birth, and status of live infants. The observations indicate that the prognosis for fetal hydrocephalus is poor. Only six infants (15%) were alive after an average follow-up of 13 months. Three children were normal and the other three had neurologic abnormalities ranging from severe (paralysis and incontinence) to minimal (2-3 months delayed motor development). Thirty-four fetuses or neonates died. Nine families elected to terminate pregnancy. Ten opted for decompression at delivery for progressive hydrocephalus. Neural tube defects were present in 12 of 23 infants at delivery. Fourteen other infants had additional significant congenital abnormalities. Other abnormal sonographic findings included polyhydramnios (13 of 38), oligohydramnios or decreased fluid (nine of 38), neural tube defect (nine of 40), and other congenital abnormalities (nine of 40). These findings indicate that hydrocephalus diagnosed in utero by sonography is caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders. In general, the prognosis for normal development is poor. Individual prognoses, however, depend on the specific malformations and the interventions used. PMID:3883714

  9. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Shannon E.; Caudill, Marie A.; Malysheva, Olga; MacFarlane, Amanda J.; Behan, Nathalie A.; Harnett, Brian; MacMillan, Luke; Pongnopparat, Theerawat; Brosnan, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119–121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as well as in normal full-term lambs. Plasma formate levels were much higher in fetal lamb plasma and in amniotic fluid (191 ± 62 and 296 ± 154 μM, respectively) than in maternal plasma (33 ± 13 μM). Measurements of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine showed that these high formate levels could not be due to vitamin deficiencies. Elevated formate levels were also found in newborn lambs and persisted to about 8 wk of age. Formate was also found in sheep milk. Potential precursors of one-carbon groups were also measured in fetal and maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. There were very high concentrations of serine in the fetus (∼1.6 mM in plasma and 3.5 mM in the amniotic fluid) compared with maternal plasma (0.19 mM), suggesting increased production of formate; however, we cannot rule out decreased formate utilization. Dimethylglycine, a choline metabolite, was also 30 times higher in the fetus than in the mother. PMID:25805190

  10. Lifetime consequences of abnormal fetal pancreatic development

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, K; Aerts, L; Van Assche, F A

    2003-01-01

    There is ample evidence that an adverse intrauterine environment has harmful consequences for health in later life. Maternal diabetes and experimentally induced hyperglycaemia result in asymmetric overgrowth, which is associated with an increased insulin secretion and hyperplasia of the insulin-producing B-cells in the fetuses. In adult life, a reduced insulin secretion is found. In contrast, intrauterine growth restriction is associated with low insulin secretion and a delayed development of the insulin-producing B-cells. These perinatal alterations may induce a deficient adaptation of the endocrine pancreas and insulin resistance in later life. Intrauterine growth restriction in human pregnancy is mainly due to a reduced uteroplacental blood flow or to maternal undernutrition or malnutrition. However, intrauterine growth restriction can be present in severe diabetes complicated by vasculopathy and nephropathy. In animal models, intrauterine growth retardation can be obtained through pharmacological (streptozotocin), dietary (semi-starvation, low protein diet) or surgical (intrauterine artery ligation) manipulation of the maternal animal. The endocrine pancreas and more specifically the insulin-producing B-cells play an important role in the adaptation to an adverse intrauterine milieu and the consequences in later life. The long-term consequences of an unfavourable intrauterine environment are of major importance worldwide. Concerted efforts are needed to explore how these long-term effects can be prevented. This review will consist of two parts. In the first part, we discuss the long-term consequences in relation to the development of the fetal endocrine pancreas and fetal growth in the human; in the second part, we focus on animal models with disturbed fetal and pancreatic development and the consequences for later life. PMID:12562919

  11. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Behan, Nathalie A; Harnett, Brian; MacMillan, Luke; Pongnopparat, Theerawat; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2015-05-15

    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119-121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as well as in normal full-term lambs. Plasma formate levels were much higher in fetal lamb plasma and in amniotic fluid (191 ± 62 and 296 ± 154 μM, respectively) than in maternal plasma (33 ± 13 μM). Measurements of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine showed that these high formate levels could not be due to vitamin deficiencies. Elevated formate levels were also found in newborn lambs and persisted to about 8 wk of age. Formate was also found in sheep milk. Potential precursors of one-carbon groups were also measured in fetal and maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. There were very high concentrations of serine in the fetus (∼1.6 mM in plasma and 3.5 mM in the amniotic fluid) compared with maternal plasma (0.19 mM), suggesting increased production of formate; however, we cannot rule out decreased formate utilization. Dimethylglycine, a choline metabolite, was also 30 times higher in the fetus than in the mother. PMID:25805190

  12. Electronic fetal monitoring: a Canadian survey.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, B L; Niday, P A; Nimrod, C A; Drake, E R; Sprague, A E; Trépanier, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the current status of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in Canadian teaching and nonteaching hospitals, to review the medical and nursing standards of practice for EFM and to determine the availability of EFM educational programs. DESIGN: National survey in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: The directors of nursing at the 737 hospitals providing obstetric care were sent a questionnaire and asked to have it completed by the most appropriate staff member. The response rate was 80.5% (593/737); 44 hospitals did not have deliveries in 1988 and were excluded. The remaining hospitals varied in size from 8 to 1800 (mean 162.1) beds and had 1 to 7500 (mean 617.1) births in 1988; 18.8% were teaching hospitals. RESULTS: Of the 549 hospitals 419 (76.3%) reported having at least 1 monitor (range 1 to 30; mean 2.6); the mean number of monitors per hospital was higher in the teaching hospitals than in the nonteaching hospitals (6.2 v. 1.7). Manitoba had the lowest mean number of monitors per hospital (1.1) and Ontario the highest (3.7). In 71.8% of the hospitals with monitors almost all of the obstetric patients were monitored at some point during labour. However, 21.6% of the hospitals with monitors had no policy on EFM practice. The availability of EFM educational programs for physicians and nurses varied according to hospital size, type and region. CONCLUSIONS: Most Canadian hospitals providing obstetric services have electronic fetal monitors and use them frequently. Although substantial research has questioned the benefits of EFM, further definitive research is required. In the meantime, a national committee should be established to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for intrapartum fetal assessment. PMID:8485677

  13. Hyperreactio Luteinalis: Maternal and Fetal Effects.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Ann Kinga; Sen, Jonathan; Sermer, Mathew

    2015-08-01

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare condition in which there is massive cystic enlargement of the ovaries, mimicking malignancy, during pregnancy. When confronted with this condition, the fear of missing a cancer diagnosis often leads the physician to react with unnecessary surgical intervention, potentially resulting in impaired future fertility. The literature on the subject contains mainly case reports and one small case series. A recent review attempted to summarize what is currently known, but there has not yet been a pervasive change in the approach to the management of this condition. In order to define the natural history of the condition and its maternal and fetal effects, we examined all case reports available in the English literature from 1993 to 2014, in addition to another as yet unpublished case report. Our analysis suggests that, despite its impressive presentation with ovarian enlargement and hyperandrogenism, hyperreactio luteinalis tends to be self-limiting, with spontaneous postpartum resolution and without untoward maternal or fetal sequelae. In particular, fetal virilization is rare, and dependent on the timing of hyperandrogenism. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely a consequence of the abnormally high hCG levels observed in many of these gestations, and the subset of women with these abnormal values should be considered for enhanced surveillance. Vaginal delivery is preferred, and strategies to sustain the potential for breastfeeding must be introduced while maternal androgen levels fall, allowing lactation to be established. Considering its benign nature and postpartum resolution, management of HL must be conservative, and continued education of health care professionals who may encounter this entity is vital. PMID:26474228

  14. Intrapartum fetal monitoring: liability and documentation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Litigation in obstetrics is common, and evidence suggests that a disturbingly high number of poor outcomes are preventable. Risk management related to fetal monitoring must include both the creation of systems to provide safer care and the mitigation of liability exposure through the use of protocols and documentation strategies that are designed to provide evidence of clinicians' attentive and appropriate care. A simplified approach to documentation is reviewed, along with suggestions for frequency of documentation, standardization of common abbreviations, and samples of concise but inclusive progress notes. PMID:21278501

  15. Fetal MCG with Atomic Magnetometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, Zack; Bulatowicz, Michael D.; Sulai, Ibrahim A.; Wahl, Colin P.; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2016-05-01

    We present results on the development of 87Rb atomic magnetometers for the detection of a fetal magnetocardiogram (fMCG). Operating in the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime, the magnetometers' sensitivities are reported at the 1 fT /√{ Hz } level. Environmental common-mode noise, including the field from the maternal heart, can be suppressed by operating the magnetometers in a gradiometric configuration. We report on schemes from implementing such gradiometers along with recent fMCG measurements. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  16. Ascorbic acid in fetal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, B. P. F.; De Souza, S. W.; Moon, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Ascorbic acid concentrations in fetal human forebrain in the period 11 to 19 weeks' gestational age were 4 to 11 times higher than those of adults. Levels fell progressively with increasing gestational age but, in term babies dying within 4 weeks of birth, were still at least 3 times those of adults. It was confirmed that, in women delivering at term, ascorbic acid concentrations are approximately 4 times higher in cord blood plasma than in maternal blood plasma. The possible importance of ascorbic acid for normal human brain development is discussed. PMID:4830116

  17. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    PubMed

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. PMID:27116922

  18. MRI-guided gas bubble enhanced ultrasound heating in in vivo rabbit thigh.

    PubMed

    Sokka, S D; King, R; Hynynen, K

    2003-01-21

    In this study, we propose a focused ultrasound surgery protocol that induces and then uses gas bubbles at the focus to enhance the ultrasound absorption and ultimately create larger lesions in vivo. MRI and ultrasound visualization and monitoring methods for this heating method are also investigated. Larger lesions created with a carefully monitored single ultrasound exposure could greatly improve the speed of tumour coagulation with focused ultrasound. All experiments were performed under MRI (clinical, 1.5 T) guidance with one of two eight-sector, spherically curved piezoelectric transducers. The transducer, either a 1.1 or 1.7 MHz array, was driven by a multi-channel RF driving system. The transducer was mounted in an MRI-compatible manual positioning system and the rabbit was situated on top of the system. An ultrasound detector ring was fixed with the therapy transducer to monitor gas bubble activity during treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery exposures were delivered to the thighs of seven New Zealand while rabbits. The experimental, gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures consisted of a high amplitude 300 acoustic watt, half second pulse followed by a 7 W, 14 W or 21 W continuous wave exposure for 19.5 s. The respective control sonications were 20 s exposures of 14 W, 21 W and 28 W. During the exposures, MR thermometry was obtained from the temperature dependency of the proton resonance frequency shift. MRT2-enhanced imaging was used to evaluate the resulting lesions. Specific metrics were used to evaluate the differences between the gas-bubble-enhanced exposures and their respective control sonications: temperatures with respect to time and space, lesion size and shape, and their agreement with thermal dose predictions. The bubble-enhanced exposures showed a faster temperature rise within the first 4 s and higher overall temperatures than the sonications without bubble formation. The spatial temperature maps and the thermal dose maps derived from the MRI

  19. Effects of Intra-Amniotic Lipopolysaccharide and Maternal Betamethasone on Brain Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ophelders, Daan R. M. G.; Dudink, Jeroen; Nikiforou, Maria; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are unknown. We hypothesized that antenatal glucocorticoids would modulate inflammation in the brain and prevent hippocampal and white matter injury after intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Methods Time-mated ewes received saline (control), an intra-amniotic injection of 10 mg LPS at 106d GA or 113d GA, maternal intra-muscular betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg maternal weight) alone at 113d GA, betamethasone at 106d GA before LPS or betamethasone at 113d GA after LPS. Animals were delivered at 120d GA (term=150d). Brain structure volumes were measured on T2-weighted MRI images. The subcortical white matter (SCWM), periventricular white matter (PVWM) and hippocampus were analyzed for microglia, astrocytes, apoptosis, proliferation, myelin and pre-synaptic vesicles. Results LPS and/or betamethasone exposure at different time-points during gestation did not alter brain structure volumes on MRI. Betamethasone alone did not alter any of the measurements. Intra-amniotic LPS at 106d or 113d GA induced inflammation as indicated by increased microglial and astrocyte recruitment which was paralleled by increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in the SCWM and decreased synaptophysin density in the hippocampus. Betamethasone before the LPS exposure at 113d GA prevented microglial activation and the decrease in synaptophysin. Betamethasone after LPS exposure increased microglial infiltration and apoptosis. Conclusion Intra-uterine LPS exposure for 7d or 14d before delivery induced inflammation and injury in the fetal white matter and hippocampus. Antenatal glucocorticoids aggravated the inflammatory changes in the brain caused by pre-existing intra-amniotic inflammation. Antenatal

  20. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  5. Cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda; Ungar, Wendy J.; Stevens, Bonnie; Beyen, Joseph; Koren, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION I have heard that thousands of Canadian kids are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Has there been any attempt to estimate what it costs our society? ANSWER In a recent Canadian study, the lifetime cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders was estimated at $1 million per case. With an estimated 4000 new cases yearly, this translates to $4 billion annually. PMID:17872844

  6. Fetal heart rate changes associated with general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fedorkow, D M; Stewart, T J; Parboosingh, J

    1989-07-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability was noted 90 seconds after the induction of general anesthesia with sodium thiopentone and fentanyl in a patient undergoing basket extraction of a renal calculus at 30 weeks' gestation. The fetal sleep pattern lasted for 105 minutes after the anesthetic was discontinued, 45 minutes after the mother was fully awake. PMID:2730732

  7. Growth and development symposium: Fetal programming in animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal programming is the ability to improve animal production and well-being by altering the maternal environment and holds enormous challenges and great opportunities for researchers and the animal industry. A symposium was held to provide an overview of current knowledge of fetal programming in re...

  8. Isolation and characterization of multipotent cells from human fetal dermis.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Cinzia Maria; Amico, Giandomenico; Monti, Marcello; Motta, Stefania; Casalone, Rosario; Petri, Sergio Li; Spada, Marco; Gridelli, Bruno; Conaldi, Pier Giulio

    2014-01-01

    We report that cells from human fetal dermis, termed here multipotent fetal dermal cells, can be isolated with high efficiency by using a nonenzymatic, cell outgrowth method. The resulting cell population was consistent with the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. As multipotent fetal dermal cells proliferate extensively, with no loss of multilineage differentiation potential up to passage 25, they may be an ideal source for cell therapy to repair damaged tissues and organs. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were not recognized as targets by T lymphocytes in vitro, thus supporting their feasibility for allogenic transplantation. Moreover, the expansion protocol did not affect the normal phenotype and karyotype of cells. When compared with adult dermal cells, fetal cells displayed several advantages, including a greater cellular yield after isolation, the ability to proliferate longer, and the retention of differentiation potential. Interestingly, multipotent fetal dermal cells expressed the pluripotency marker SSEA4 (90.56 ± 3.15% fetal vs. 10.5 ± 8.5% adult) and coexpressed mesenchymal and epithelial markers (>80% CD90(+)/CK18(+) cells), coexpression lacking in the adult counterparts isolated under the same conditions. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were able to form capillary structures, as well as differentiate into a simple epithelium in vitro, indicating skin regeneration capabilities. PMID:23768775

  9. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Fetal Heart Rate and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A relationship between fetal heart rate (HR) and cognition is explored within the context of infant, child and adult studies where the association is well established. Lack of direct access to the fetus and maturational changes limit research paradigms and response measures for fetal studies. Nevertheless, neural regulation of HR shows a number of…

  15. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development: A Tale of Two Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Caulfield, Laura; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Merialdi, Mario; Nguyen, Ruby H. N.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Gurewitsch, Edith D.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal neurobehavioral development was examined in 237 fetuses of low-risk pregnancies from 2 distinct populations-Baltimore, Maryland, and Lima, Peru-at 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, and 38 weeks gestation. Data were based on digitized Doppler-based fetal heart rate (FHR) and fetal movement (FM). In both groups, FHR declined while variability,…

  16. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Kheifets, L.; Obrinsky, D.L.; Whorton, M.D.; Foliart, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception.

  17. Influence of Infection During Pregnancy on Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; McAdams, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Infection by bacteria, viruses and parasites may lead to fetal death, organ injury or limited sequelae depending on the pathogen. Here we consider the role of infection during pregnancy on fetal development including placental development and function, which can lead to fetal growth restriction. The classic group of teratogenic pathogens are referred to as “TORCH” (Toxoplasma gondii, Others like Treponema pallidum, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus), but should include a much broader group of pathogens including Parvovirus B19, Varicella zoster virus, and Plasmodium falciparum to name a few. In this review, we describe the influence of different infections in utero on fetal development and the short- and long-term outcomes for the neonate. In some cases, the mechanisms used by these pathogens to disrupt fetal development are well known. Bacterial infection of the developing fetal lungs and brain begins with inflammatory cascade resulting in cytokine injury and oxidative stress. For some pathogens like P. falciparum, the mechanisms involve oxidative stress and apoptosis to disrupt placental and fetal growth. An in utero infection may also impact the long-term health of the infant; in many cases, a viral infection in utero increases the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes in childhood. Understanding the varied mechanisms employed by these pathogens may enable therapies to attenuate changes in fetal development, decrease preterm birth, and improve survival. PMID:23884862

  18. Adopting and Fostering Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... clinical diagnosis. It refers to conditions such as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol- related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and alcohol- ... Gossage, J.P. 2001. Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome: A summary. Alcohol Research & Health 25(3):159– ...

  19. [Pathogenetic percularities of fetal distress in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Lakhno, I V

    2013-10-01

    It was performed the investigation of the fetal regulatory systems condition with the heart rate variability method application in 94 women with preeclampsia. It was established that preeclamptic patients had thrombophilia that was accompanied by increased reversible aggregation of platelets in response to low doses of ADP and collagen stimulation. The fetal deterioration in this group was characterized by decreased fetal heart rate variability fractal components with a relative predominance of the central sympathetic control circuit. The augmented sympathetic tone played the significant role in fetal rigid rhythm and decelerations appearance and has formed the fetal myocardium hypoxic injury and the suppressed sinus node response. The usage of semisynthetic diosmin 1 tablet (600 mg) 2 times daily in preeclamptic ladies has a pronounced disaggregant effect and improved fetal autonomic nervous regulation in its projections on hemodynamics. The restoration of the fetal cardiorespiratory synchronization periods has made it possible to consider that diosmine has neuroprotective effect that was directed on the fetal regulatory systems condition optimization. PMID:24214586

  20. 21 CFR 884.2620 - Fetal electroencephalographic monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal electroencephalographic monitor. 884.2620 Section 884.2620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... potentials produced by the fetal brain. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2620 - Fetal electroencephalographic monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal electroencephalographic monitor. 884.2620 Section 884.2620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... potentials produced by the fetal brain. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2620 - Fetal electroencephalographic monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal electroencephalographic monitor. 884.2620 Section 884.2620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... potentials produced by the fetal brain. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  3. Fetal Intrahepatic Cholestasis Secondary to BO Hemolytic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raju, T. N. K.; Javed, Durr-I-Shahwar

    1981-01-01

    A rare occurrence of severe, direct hyperbilirubinemia in an infant with BO incompatibility was noted at four hours of age. Severe fetal hemolysis and markedly elevated indirect bilirubin levels might have caused induction of conjugating enzymes during fetal life in this case. Intrahepatic cholestasis was responsible for persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia after birth. This responded favorably to cholestyramine therapy. PMID:7196459

  4. Educating Health Professionals about Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Individuals exposed to alcohol during fetal development can have physical, mental, behavioral, and learning disabilities, with lifelong implications. These conditions are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Health care…

  5. Behavioral Aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Mountain Plains Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Karen Stuut

    This paper discusses the symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). It then presents information from biological and adopted parents of 14 individuals (ages 4-23 years) diagnosed with FAS or FAE, based on a parent survey concerning behavioral and educational histories of their children.…

  6. Bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…

  7. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  8. Sex differences in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Objective This review examines the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic adult disease, with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a sub-optimal fetal environment. Methods This is a selective review that focuses on current findings regarding sex differences in fetal programming and the mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Results The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and involve alterations in the regulatory systems involved in the long-term control of arterial pressure. Sex differences are observed in animal models of fetal programming and recent studies suggests sex hormones modulate activity of regulatory systems leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared to males. Conclusions Animal models of fetal programming demonstrate that female offspring are protected from the adverse effects of fetal insult, and are providing insight into the mechanisms by which sex hormones contribute to sexual dimorphism in adult disease. PMID:18395678

  9. Fetal tissue research: an ongoing story of professionally responsible success.

    PubMed

    Gelber, Shari E; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-12-01

    Therapies derived from fetal tissue research are some of the greatest success stories in medicine. Research using fetal tissue has allowed for development of vaccines for numerous diseases including polio, rubella, and measles. These vaccines have saved countless lives, improved quality of life, and decreased the need for induced abortion secondary to congenital infection. Research using cell lines derived from fetal tissue has assisted in better understanding disease pathogenesis and has served to produce human proteins as research reagents and therapies. Ongoing research points to the potential for fetal tissue to be used to cure debilitating diseases such as Parkinson disease. These scientific and medical advances are dependent on the use of fetal tissue from aborted fetuses. While the practice of induced abortion despite societal benefit may be theologically objectionable to some, these practices are professionally responsible. Federal regulations exist to discourage patients from being influenced by the societal benefit of fetal research in arriving at the decision to terminate as well as to prevent researchers from influencing a patient's decision. After a patient has chosen termination of pregnancy, it is consistent with professional responsibility to allow her to choose the disposition of the cadaveric fetal tissue. While some may view induced abortion and societal benefit from this practice as an ethical burden, the principle of justice makes it ethically obligatory to bear this ethical burden. The success story of cadaveric fetal tissue research and treatment should continue unhindered, to fulfill professional responsibility to current and future patients. PMID:26432465

  10. Circulation and Chemotaxis of Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The major site of hematopoiesis transitions from the fetal liver to the spleen and bone marrow late in fetal development. To date, experiments have not been performed to evaluate functionally the migration and seeding of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during this period in ontogeny. It has been proposed that developmentally timed waves of HSCs enter the bloodstream only during distinct windows to seed the newly forming hematopoietic organs. Using competitive reconstitution assays to measure HSC activity, we determined the localization of HSCs in the mid-to-late gestation fetus. We found that multilineage reconstituting HSCs are present at low numbers in the blood at all timepoints measured. Seeding of fetal bone marrow and spleen occurred over several days, possibly while stem cell niches formed. In addition, using dual-chamber migration assays, we determined that like bone marrow HSCs, fetal liver HSCs migrate in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α); however, unlike bone marrow HSCs, the migratory response of fetal liver HSCs to SDF-1α is greatly increased in the presence of Steel factor (SLF), suggesting an important role for SLF in HSC homing to and seeding of the fetal hematopoietic tissues. Together, these data demonstrate that seeding of fetal organs by fetal liver HSCs does not require large fluxes of HSCs entering the fetal bloodstream, and that HSCs constitutively circulate at low levels during the gestational period from 12 to 17 days postconception. Newly forming hematopoietic tissues are seeded gradually by HSCs, suggesting initial seeding is occurring as hematopoietic niches in the spleen and bone marrow form and become capable of supporting HSC self-renewal. We demonstrate that fetal and adult HSCs exhibit specific differences in chemotactic behavior. While both migrate in response to SDF-1α, fetal HSCs also respond significantly to the cytokine SLF. In addition, the combination of SDF-1α and SLF results in substantially enhanced

  11. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  12. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies. PMID:26703375

  13. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the “thrifty” phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  14. Lewy body pathology in fetal grafts.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yaping; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Although fetal nigral transplants have been shown to survive grafting into the striatum, increased [(18)F]6-fluroro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) uptake and improved motor function in open-label assessments have failed to establish any clinical benefits in double-blind, sham-controlled studies. To understand morphological and neurochemical alterations of grafted neurons, we performed postmortem analyses on six Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who had received fetal tissue transplantation 18-19 months, 4 years, and 14 years previously. These studies revealed robust neuronal survival with normal dopaminergic phenotypes in 18-month-old grafts and decreased dopamine transporter and increased cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein in 4-year-old grafts. We also found a decline of both dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase and the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions in 14-year-old grafts, which stained positive for alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin proteins. These pathological changes suggest that PD is an ongoing process that affects grafted cells in the striatum in a manner similar to how resident dopamine neurons are affected in the substantia nigra. PMID:20146690

  15. Fetal malnutrition and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fall, Caroline H D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that lower birthweight is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes in later life, including poorer 'human capital' (shorter stature, lower cognitive performance), increased risk factors for later disease (higher blood pressure and reduced glucose tolerance, and lung, kidney and immune function), clinical disease (diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic lung and kidney disease), and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Higher birthweight is associated with an increased risk of cancer and (if caused by gestational diabetes) obesity and diabetes. The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes that fetal nutrition has permanent effects on growth, structure and metabolism ('programming'). This is supported by studies in animals showing that maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy can produce similar abnormalities in the adult offspring. Common chronic diseases could potentially be prevented by achieving optimal fetal nutrition, and this could have additional benefits for survival and human capital. Recent follow-up of children born after randomized nutritional interventions in pregnancy provides weak evidence of beneficial effects on growth, vascular function, lipid concentrations, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Animal studies indicate that epigenetic phenomena may be an important mechanism underlying programming, and that nutritional interventions may need to start preconceptionally. PMID:23887100

  16. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    PubMed

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Human Fetal Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lapan, Ariya D.; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Dissociated human fetal skeletal muscle contains myogenic cells, as well as non-myogenic cells such as adipocytes, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes. It is therefore important to determine an efficient and reliable isolation method to obtain a purer population of myoblasts. Toward this end, fluorescence-activated cell sorting in conjunction with robust myogenic cell surface markers can be utilized to enrich for myoblasts in dissociated muscle. In this chapter, we describe a method to significantly enrich for myoblasts using melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), which we have determined to be an excellent marker of human fetal myoblasts. The myoblasts resulting from this isolation method can then be expanded in vitro and still retain significant myogenic activity as shown by an in vitro fusion assay. The ability to isolate a highly myogenic population from dissociated muscle facilitates the in vitro study of skeletal muscle development and muscle diseases. Furthermore, robust expansion of these cells will lead to new insights in the development of cell-based therapies for human muscle disorders. PMID:22130828

  18. High affinity of lead for fetal haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Lee, W R

    1980-01-01

    In-vitro experiments using 203Pb were performed to identify lead-binding components in human haemoglobin. Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange chromatography of haemolysate showed that different types of haemoglobin had different affinities for lead. For the haemolysate from adults, lead was present in both Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2) and Hb A2 (alpha 2 delta 2), whereas, in the haemolysate from new-born infants, the haemoglobin of fetal origin, Hb F (alpha 2 gamma 2) showed a much greater affinity for 203Pb than the adult haemoglobin Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2), obtained from maternal blood. Analysis of the 203 Pb-labelled haemoglobin suggested that about 82% of 203Pb was in the globin polypeptide. Further analysis with carboxylmethyl (CM) cellulose chromatography indicated that the gamma globin of fetal origin had a higher affinity for 203Pb than the beta globin, whereas alpha globin appeared to be unimportant in lead binding. The results of the different affinities for lead of different Hb types are discussed with regard to the effect of lead upon haemoglobin synthesis. PMID:6158989

  19. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-07-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  20. Amniotic fluid embolism after intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl; Langdana, Fali; Clentworth, Howard; Hansby, Chu; Dalley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of the successful treatment of severe amniotic fluid embolism in a 41-year-old woman undergoing emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation for placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. The treatment included prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergency hysterectomy, re-operation with intra-abdominal packing and intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. The patient made a remarkable recovery and to date has minimal residual morbidity. Amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES) is a rare and often fatal obstetric condition that remains one of the main causes of maternal mortality in developed countries. The incidence varies from 2 to 6 per 100,000 and suggested mortality rates exceed 60%.1-2 The classic triad of sudden hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy with acute onset during labour or immediately after delivery forms the hallmark of the AFES diagnosis, however AFES is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. We present a case of successful maternal outcome following severe amniotic fluid embolism after placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27607089

  1. [Autologous transfusion in obstetrics and fetal safety].

    PubMed

    Rech, F; Patella, A; Cecchi, A; Ippolito, M; Indraccolo, S R

    1994-06-01

    It is common knowledge that for modern medicine transfusion therapy represents a precious resource and an often mandatory option. It is equally known that autohemotransfusion (or autologous transfusion) provides further advantages: certainty of blood availability when necessary, absence of transfusion reactions, elimination of the risk of infections that is still associated with the traditional homologous transfusions. In its most widespread application, autotransfusion provides for the donation of one or more units of autologous blood, mostly before elective surgery. Even in obstetrics the practice of autologous blood donation with the aim of autotransfusion is finding increasing employment. However, there are still controversial aspects and the need is pointed out for more authoritative verifications as refers to the alleged innocuity to the fetus of acute maternal blood loss. The present study was performed to contribute personal experience to a better definition of the possible interactions between autologous blood donation during pregnancy and unborn child welfare. To this end, 80 term pregnant women underwent fetal heart rate electronic monitoring before, during and after the donation of one unit of autologous blood. Both during and after the phlebotomy there were no cardiotocographic signs of fetal hypo-oxygenation. Even the non stress tests performed at a distance of 24 hours and those that were periodically repeated afterwards were normal, confirming the safety of autologous predonation during pregnancy. However, the authors think that in obstetrics it is still premature to consider the experimental phase of autotransfusion as definitively exhausted. PMID:7936387

  2. [Fetal uropathies. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    PubMed

    Avni, E F; Rodesch, F; Schulman, C C

    1985-01-01

    Based on the experience of 63 antenatal diagnosis of fetal uropathies, the authors discuss the diagnostic problems, practical implications of antenatal diagnosis and potential indications of in utero interventions. A correct diagnosis was established in 43 out of the 63 cases (70%). Diagnostic problems were encountered in differentiating between multicystic dysplastic kidneys and uretero-pelvic junction obstruction, dilatation due to reflux or from obstruction and from the lack of visualisation of small hypoplastic kidneys. Transitory urinary tract dilatations were found in 14 cases (22%) and can be responsible for additional false positive findings. Evaluation of the thoracic development and amniotic fluid must be part of the examination since they are related to severe obstructive uropathy. Repeated examinations are necessary in these cases. In evaluating the eventual benefit of an in utero decompression one should keep in mind the diagnostic difficulties but mainly the time of diagnosis of most uropathies when related to the time of its onset during morphogenesis and the absence of any reliable method of evaluation of fetal renal function. This leads the authors to consider that at the present time there are no real indication for in utero intervention. The major benefit of prenatal echography is to allow early recognition of major uropathies before postnatal infection worsens it prognosis. PMID:3912074

  3. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Akinsheye, Idowu; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Solovieff, Nadia; Ngo, Duyen; Baldwin, Clinton T; Sebastiani, Paola; Chui, David H K; Steinberg, Martin H

    2011-07-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the major genetic modulator of the hematologic and clinical features of sickle cell disease, an effect mediated by its exclusion from the sickle hemoglobin polymer. Fetal hemoglobin genes are genetically regulated, and the level of HbF and its distribution among sickle erythrocytes is highly variable. Some patients with sickle cell disease have exceptionally high levels of HbF that are associated with the Senegal and Saudi-Indian haplotype of the HBB-like gene cluster; some patients with different haplotypes can have similarly high HbF. In these patients, high HbF is associated with generally milder but not asymptomatic disease. Studying these persons might provide additional insights into HbF gene regulation. HbF appears to benefit some complications of disease more than others. This might be related to the premature destruction of erythrocytes that do not contain HbF, even though the total HbF concentration is high. Recent insights into HbF regulation have spurred new efforts to induce high HbF levels in sickle cell disease beyond those achievable with the current limited repertory of HbF inducers. PMID:21490337

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects of fetal antiepileptic drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Velez-Ruiz, Naymee J; Meador, Kimford J

    2015-03-01

    Many studies investigating cognitive outcomes in children of women with epilepsy report an increased risk of mental impairment. Verbal scores on neuropsychometric measures may be selectively more involved. While a variety of factors contribute to the cognitive problems of children of women with epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) appear to play a major role. The mechanisms by which AEDs affect neurodevelopmental outcomes remain poorly defined. Animal models suggest that AED-induced apoptosis, altered neurotransmitter environment, and impaired synaptogenesis are some of the mechanisms responsible for cognitive and behavioral teratogenesis. AEDs that are known to induce apoptosis, such as valproate, appear to affect children's neurodevelopment in a more severe fashion. Fetal valproate exposure has dose-dependent associations with reduced cognitive abilities across a range of domains, and these appear to persist at least until the age of 6. Some studies have shown neurodevelopmental deficiencies associated with the use of phenobarbital and possibly phenytoin. So far, most of the investigations available suggest that fetal exposures to lamotrigine or levetiracetam are safer with regard to cognition when compared with other AEDs. Studies on carbamazepine show contradictory results, but most information available suggests that major poor cognitive outcomes should not be attributed to this medication. Overall, children exposed to polytherapy prenatally appear to have worse cognitive and behavioral outcomes compared with children exposed to monotherapy, and with the unexposed. There is an increase risk of neurodevelopmental deficits when polytherapy involves the use of valproate versus other agents. PMID:25693658

  5. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2014-09-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122

  6. Nutrition implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer K; Giesbrecht, Heather E; Eskin, Michael N; Aliani, Michel; Suh, Miyoung

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption. It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because there is a lack of information on the role of nutrients and prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD, the focus of this review is to provide an overview of nutrients (vitamin A, docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, zinc, choline, vitamin E, and selenium) that may prevent or alleviate the development of FASD. Results from various nutrient supplementation studies in animal models and FASD-related research conducted in humans provide insight into the plausibility of prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of multiple-nutrient supplementation. PMID:25398731

  7. Fetal adaptations for viviparity in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wake, Marvalee H

    2015-08-01

    Live-bearing has evolved in all three orders of amphibians--frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Developing young may be either yolk dependent, or maternal nutrients may be supplied after yolk is resorbed, depending on the species. Among frogs, embryos in two distantly related lineages develop in the skin of the maternal parents' backs; they are born either as advanced larvae or fully metamorphosed froglets, depending on the species. In other frogs, and in salamanders and caecilians, viviparity is intraoviductal; one lineage of salamanders includes species that are yolk dependent and born either as larvae or metamorphs, or that practice cannibalism and are born as metamorphs. Live-bearing caecilians all, so far as is known, exhaust yolk before hatching and mothers provide nutrients during the rest of the relatively long gestation period. The developing young that have maternal nutrition have a number of heterochronic changes, such as precocious development of the feeding apparatus and the gut. Furthermore, several of the fetal adaptations, such as a specialized dentition and a prolonged metamorphosis, are homoplasious and present in members of two or all three of the amphibian orders. At the same time, we know little about the developmental and functional bases for fetal adaptations, and less about the factors that drive their evolution and facilitate their maintenance. PMID:24643944

  8. Spontaneous Resolution of Fetal and Neonatal Ascites after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Mohamed; Alsinani, Siham; Al-Balushi, Zenab; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Abuanza, Mazen; Al-Riyami, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Fetal ascites is an uncommon abnormality usually reported in relation to non- immunological causes. The prospect for fetal and neonatal mortality is high, particularly when the ascites develops before 24 weeks of gestation. The diminution of severe fetal ascites without intrauterine management, especially with an uncomplicated neonatal outcome, is unusual. We report a case of isolated fetal ascites detected at 20 weeks' gestation. All investigations carried out were normal. Consecutive ultrasound examination showed ascites at 20 weeks’ gestation. A follow-up ultrasound examination at 6 months of age revealed complete recovery from the ascites. Spontaneous resolution of fetal ascites, with a good prognosis, can occur in cases with an idiopathic aetiology. PMID:23573403

  9. Prenatal pharmacotherapy for fetal anomalies: a 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2011-07-01

    Fetal therapy can be defined as any prenatal treatment administered to the mother with the primary indication to improve perinatal or long-term outcomes for the fetus or newborn. This review provides an update of the pharmacological therapies that are solely directed at the fetus with anomalies and outlines a future transcriptomic approach. Fetal anomalies targeted with prenatal pharmacotherapy are a heterogeneous group of structural, endocrine, and metabolic conditions, including congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital heart block, fetal tachyarrhythmias, inborn errors of metabolism, fetal thyroid disorders, and polyhydramnios. To date, the majority of pharmacotherapies for fetal anomalies have been evaluated only in retrospective, uncontrolled studies. The way forward will be with an evidence-based approach to prenatal pharmacological interventions. PMID:21638296

  10. MRI Meets MPI: a bimodal MPI-MRI tomograph.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrick; Lother, Steffen; Rückert, Martin A; Kullmann, Walter H; Jakob, Peter M; Fidler, Florian; Behr, Volker C

    2014-10-01

    While magnetic particle imaging (MPI) constitutes a novel biomedical imaging technique for tracking superparamagnetic nanoparticles in vivo, unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it cannot provide anatomical background information. Until now these two modalities have been performed in separate scanners and image co-registration has been hampered by the need to reposition the sample in both systems as similarly as possible. This paper presents a bimodal MPI-MRI-tomograph that combines both modalities in a single system.MPI and MRI images can thus be acquired without moving the sample or replacing any parts in the setup. The images acquired with the presented setup show excellent agreement between the localization of the nanoparticles in MPI and the MRI background data. A combination of two highly complementary imaging modalities has been achieved. PMID:25291350

  11. Fetal in vivo continuous cardiovascular function during chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Allison, B J; Brain, K L; Niu, Y; Kane, A D; Herrera, E A; Thakor, A S; Botting, K J; Cross, C M; Itani, N; Skeffington, K L; Beck, C; Giussani, D A

    2016-03-01

    Although the fetal cardiovascular defence to acute hypoxia and the physiology underlying it have been established for decades, how the fetal cardiovascular system responds to chronic hypoxia has been comparatively understudied. We designed and created isobaric hypoxic chambers able to maintain pregnant sheep for prolonged periods of gestation under controlled significant (10% O2) hypoxia, yielding fetal mean P(aO2) levels (11.5 ± 0.6 mmHg) similar to those measured in human fetuses of hypoxic pregnancy. We also created a wireless data acquisition system able to record fetal blood flow signals in addition to fetal blood pressure and heart rate from free moving ewes as the hypoxic pregnancy is developing. We determined in vivo longitudinal changes in fetal cardiovascular function including parallel measurement of fetal carotid and femoral blood flow and oxygen and glucose delivery during the last third of gestation. The ratio of oxygen (from 2.7 ± 0.2 to 3.8 ± 0.8; P < 0.05) and of glucose (from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.6; P < 0.05) delivery to the fetal carotid, relative to the fetal femoral circulation, increased during and shortly after the period of chronic hypoxia. In contrast, oxygen and glucose delivery remained unchanged from baseline in normoxic fetuses. Fetal plasma urate concentration increased significantly during chronic hypoxia but not during normoxia (Δ: 4.8 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 1.4 μmol l(-1), P<0.05). The data support the hypotheses tested and show persisting redistribution of substrate delivery away from peripheral and towards essential circulations in the chronically hypoxic fetus, associated with increases in xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26926316

  12. Fetal oxygenation measurement using wireless near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, Andrew; Shadgan, Babak; Janssen, Patricia; Rurak, Dan

    2012-03-01

    Background: Fetal well-being is determined in large part by how well the placenta is able to supply oxygen and nutrients, but current technology is unable to directly measure how well a placenta functions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) utilizes optical methods to measure tissue oxygenation. This pilot project evaluated the feasibility of NIRS for fetal monitoring through the maternal abdominal wall using a sheep model. Methods: A miniature wireless 2-wavelength NIRS device was placed on the abdominal skin over the placenta of a pregnant ewe whose fetus had been chronically catheterized to allow arterial sampling for measurement of arterial oxygen saturation. The NIRS device has 3-paired light emitting diodes and a single photodiode detector; allowing measurement of an index of tissue oxygen saturation (TSI%). Fetal limb TSI% values were compared before and during fetal breathing movements. Correlation was made during these events between arterial values and placental TSI% monitored continuously in real time. Results: Serial measurements were obtained in a single experiment. The correlation between transcutaneous NIRS derived TSI% and direct arterial oxygen saturation was very high (R2=0.86). Measures of fetal limb TSI% were declined after episodes of fetal breathing (P<0.005). Conclusions: This correlation suggests that NIRS is sensitive enough to detect changes in fetal tissue oxygenation noninvasively through the maternal abdominal wall in real-time in a sheep model. NIRS data confirmed that fetal breathing movements decrease arterial oxygen saturation in fetal lambs. If validated by further study this optical methodology could be applied as means of monitoring fetal wellbeing in humans.

  13. The effect of Ramadan fasting on fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Atilla; Kaplanoglu, Mustafa; Avci, Fazil; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Baloglu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on fetal development and outcomes of pregnancy. Methods: We performed this study in Antakya State Hospital of Obstetrics and Child Care, between 28 June 2014 and 27 July 2014 (during the month of Ramadan). A total of two hundred forty healthy pregnant women who were fasting during Ramadan, were included in the groups. The three groups were divided according to the trimesters. The each group was consisted of 40 healthy pregnant women with fasting and 40 healthy pregnant women without fasting. For evaluating the effects of Ramadan on fetus, ultrasonography was performed on all pregnant women in the beginning and the end of Ramadan. We used the essential parameters for the following measurements: increase of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), increase of fetal femur length (FL), increase of estimated fetal body weight (EFBW), fetal biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), and umbilical artery systole/diastole (S/D) ratio. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups for the fetal age, maternal weight gain (kilogram), estimated fetal weight gain (EFWG), fetal BPP, AFI, and umbilical artery S/D ratio. On the other hand, a statistically significant increase was observed in maternal weight in the second and third trimesters and a significant increase was observed in the amniotic fluid index in second trimester. Conclusion: In Ramadan there was no bad fetal outcome between pregnant women with fasting and pregnant women without fasting. Pregnant women who want to be with fast, should be examined by doctors, adequately get breakfast before starting to fast and after the fasting take essential calori and hydration. More comprehensive randomized studies are needed to explain the effects of fasting on the pregnancy and fetal outcomes. PMID:26870085

  14. Breast MRI: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Day, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    In 2007, the American Cancer Society published guidelines for using breast MRI to screen women who were at high risk for breast cancer. Although breast MRI, which is typically used as an adjunctto mammography, is highly sensitive for detecting breast cancers, its use is somewhat controversial for a number of reasons including its cost and lack of specificity. This article describes the indications for breast MRI and discusses the pros and cons of using it to screen women for cancer and evaluate the extent of disease in women who are newly diagnosed. PMID:20092173

  15. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  16. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  17. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Lindie; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Robertson, Frances C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC), an elemental form of learning, is among the most sensitive indicators of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum plays a key role in maintaining timed movements with millisecond accuracy required for EBC. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify cerebellar regions that mediate timing in healthy controls and the degree to which these areas are also recruited in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Experimental design fMRI data were acquired during an auditory rhythmic/non-rhythmic finger tapping task. We present results for 17 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS, 17 heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children and 16 non- or minimally exposed controls. Principal observations Controls showed greater cerebellar blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation in right crus I, vermis IV–VI, and right lobule VI during rhythmic than non-rhythmic finger tapping. The alcohol-exposed children showed smaller activation increases during rhythmic tapping in right crus I than the control children and the most severely affected children with either FAS or PFAS showed smaller increases in vermis IV–V. Higher levels of maternal alcohol intake per occasion during pregnancy were associated with reduced activation increases during rhythmic tapping in all four regions associated with rhythmic tapping in controls. Conclusions The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing. PMID:25844307

  18. Increased fetal myocardial sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during ovine fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Barry, James S; Rozance, Paul J; Brown, Laura D; Anthony, Russell V; Thornburg, Kent L; Hay, William W

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other visceral organs, myocardial weight is maintained in relation to fetal body weight in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetal sheep despite hypoinsulinemia and global nutrient restriction. We designed experiments in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and restricted growth to determine basal and insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose and oxygen metabolism and test the hypothesis that myocardial insulin sensitivity would be increased in the IUGR heart. IUGR was induced by maternal hyperthermia during gestation. Control (C) and IUGR fetal myocardial metabolism were measured at baseline and under acute hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp conditions at 128-132 days gestation using fluorescent microspheres to determine myocardial blood flow. Fetal body and heart weights were reduced by 33% (P = 0.008) and 30% (P = 0.027), respectively. Heart weight to body weight ratios were not different. Basal left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flow per gram of LV tissue was maintained in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Insulin increased LV myocardial blood flow by ∼38% (P < 0.01), but insulin-stimulated LV myocardial blood flow in IUGR fetuses was 73% greater than controls. Similar to previous reports testing acute hypoxia, LV blood flow was inversely related to arterial oxygen concentration (r(2 )= 0.71) in both control and IUGR animals. Basal LV myocardial glucose delivery and uptake rates were not different between IUGR and control fetuses. Insulin increased LV myocardial glucose delivery (by 40%) and uptake (by 78%) (P < 0.01), but to a greater extent in the IUGR fetuses compared to controls. During basal and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions LV myocardial oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction efficiency were not different between groups. These novel results demonstrate that the fetal heart exposed to nutrient and oxygen deprivation from placental insufficiency appears to maintain myocardial energy supply

  19. Calculation of friction coefficient and analysis of fluid flow in a stepped micro-channel for wide range of Knudsen number using Lattice Boltzmann (MRT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshan, Younes; Omidvar, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Micro scale gas flows have attracted significant research interest in the last two decades. In this research, the fluid flow of gases in a stepped micro-channel has been conducted. Wide range of Knudsen number has been implemented using the Lattice Boltzmann (MRT) method in this study. A modified second-order slip boundary condition and a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity are used to consider the velocity slip at the boundaries and to cover the slip and transition regimes of flow to obtain an accurate simulation of rarefied gases. The flow specifications such as pressure loss, velocity profile, stream lines and friction coefficient at different conditions have been presented. The results show, good agreement with available experimental data. The calculation shows, that the friction coefficient decreases with increasing the Knudsen number and stepping the micro-channel has an inverse effect on the friction coefficient value. Furthermore, a new correlation is suggested for calculation of the friction coefficient in the stepped micro-channel flows as below;

  20. Regulation of Baboon Fetal Pituitary Prolactin Expression by Estrogen1

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Gerald J.; Lynch, Terrie J.; Davies, William A.; Albrecht, Eugene D.

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that fetal adrenal fetal zone growth was increased and the number of follicles in the fetal ovary reduced in baboons in which estradiol was suppressed by treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole between mid and late gestation periods. Because adrenal/ovarian development was restored in animals treated with letrozole and estradiol, and both tissues express estrogen receptor, we proposed that estrogen regulates fetal adrenal/ovary development via a direct action. However, because prolactin can modulate fetal adrenal and adult pituitary/ovarian function, the current study determined whether estrogen action involved estradiol-regulated changes in fetal prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH) expression. Fetal prolactin levels and the number of prolactin-positive fetal pituitary cells (per 0.37 mm2) were increased (P < 0.01) between mid (6 ± 1 ng/ml; 15.8 ± 2.4) and late (257 ± 28 ng/ml; 57.3 ± 5.1) gestation, reduced (P < 0.01) in late-gestation fetuses in which estradiol was suppressed (>95%) by letrozole (61 ± 11 ng/ml; 19.3 ± 2.0), and minimally but not significantly increased by letrozole and estradiol (99 ± 11 ng/ml; 32.7 ± 5.2). In contrast, the number of LH-positive fetal pituitary cells decreased (P < 0.01) between mid (48.8 ± 9.5) and late (17.4 ± 3.2) gestation, remained elevated (P < 0.01) in estrogen-suppressed animals (56.6 ± 5.1), and was partially but not significantly decreased by letrozole-estradiol (28.8 ± 5.2). We conclude that estrogen regulates fetal pituitary prolactin and LH expression and fetal prolactin levels. However, because prolactin and LH expressions in estrogen-suppressed fetuses were inversely related to previously demonstrated changes in adrenal/ovarian development, we propose that estrogen regulates the fetal ovary and adrenal gland directly and not via action on the fetal pituitary gland. PMID:19176882

  1. Scientists attack European MRI rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    A report by the European Science Foundation (ESF) has sharply criticized a European Union (EU) directive on electromagnetic fields, arguing that limits on workers' exposure will have "potentially disastrous" consequences for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  2. BOLD MRI of the Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu-Ping; Halter, Sarah; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Oxygenation status plays a major role in renal physiology and pathophysiology and hence has attracted considerable attention in recent years. While much of the early work and a significant amount of present work is based on invasive methods or ex vivo analysis and hence restricted to animal models, BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) MRI has been shown to extend these findings to humans. BOLD MRI is most useful in monitoring effects of physiological or pharmacological maneuvers. Several teams around the world have demonstrated reproducible data and have illustrated several useful applications. Studies supporting the use of renal BOLD MRI in characterizing disease with prognostic value have also been reported. Here, an overview of the current state-of-the art of renal BOLD MRI is provided. PMID:18926426

  3. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications. PMID:23376346

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary ...

  5. Quantitative pharmacologic MRI in mice.

    PubMed

    Perles-Barbacaru, Teodora-Adriana; Procissi, Daniel; Demyanenko, Andrey V; Jacobs, Russell E

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacologic MRI (phMRI) uses functional MRI techniques to provide a noninvasive in vivo measurement of the hemodynamic effects of drugs. The cerebral blood volume change (ΔCBV) serves as a surrogate for neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling mechanisms. By assessing the location and time course of brain activity in mouse mutant studies, phMRI can provide valuable insights into how different behavioral phenotypes are expressed in deferring brain activity response to drug challenge. In this report, we evaluate the utility of three different intravascular ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents for phMRI using a gradient-echo technique, with temporal resolution of one min at high magnetic field. The tissue half-life of the USPIOs was studied using a nonlinear detrending model. The three USPIOs are candidates for CBV weighted phMRI experiments, with r(2)/r(1) ratios ≥ 20 and apparent half-lives ≥ 1.5 h at the described doses. An echo-time of about 10 ms or longer results in a functional contrast to noise ratio (fCNR) > 75 after USPIO injection, with negligible decrease between 1.5-2 h. phMRI experiments were conducted at 7 T using cocaine as a psychotropic substance and acetazolamide, a global vasodilator, as a positive control. Cocaine acts as a dopamine-serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, increasing extracellular concentrations of these neurotransmitters, and thus increasing dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. phMRI results showed that CBV was reduced in the normal mouse brain after cocaine challenge, with the largest effects in the nucleus accumbens, whereas after acetazolamide, blood volume was increased in both cerebral and extracerebral tissue. PMID:21793079

  6. Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments?

    PubMed

    Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that fetal nutrition triggers permanent adjustments in a wide range of systems and health outcomes is stimulating interest in the evolutionary significance of these responses. This review evaluates the postnatal adaptive significance of fetal developmental plasticity from the perspective of life history theory and evolutionary models of energy partitioning. Birthweight is positively related to multiple metabolically costly postnatal functions, suggesting that the fetus has the capacity to distribute the burden of energy insufficiency when faced with a nutritionally challenging environment. Lowering total requirements may reduce the risk of negative energy balance, which disproportionately impacts functions that are not essential for survival but that are crucial for reproductive success. The long-term benefit of these metabolic adjustments is contingent upon the fetus having access to a cue that is predictive of its future nutritional environment, a problem complicated in a long-lived species by short-term ecologic fluctuations like seasonality. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that the flow of nutrients reaching the fetus provides an integrated signal of nutrition as experienced by recent matrilineal ancestors, which effectively limits the responsiveness to short-term ecologic fluctuations during any given pregnancy. This capacity for fetal nutrition to minimize the growth response to transient ecologic fluctuations is defined here as intergenerational "phenotypic inertia," and is hypothesized to allow the fetus to cut through the "noise" of seasonal or other stochastic influences to read the "signal" of longer-term ecologic trends. As a mode of adaptation, phenotypic inertia may help the organism cope with ecologic trends too gradual to be tracked by conventional developmental plasticity, but too rapid to be tracked by natural selection. From an applied perspective, if a trait like fetal growth is designed to minimize the effects of short

  7. Bio-magnetic signatures of fetal breathing movement.

    PubMed

    Ulusar, U D; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Govindan, R B; Preissl, H; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is to record and analyze fetal brain activity. Unavoidably, these recordings consist of a complex mixture of bio-magnetic signals from both mother and fetus. The acquired data include biological signals that are related to maternal and fetal heart function as well as fetal gross body and breathing movements. Since fetal breathing generates a significant source of bio-magnetic interference during these recordings, the goal of this study was to identify and quantify the signatures pertaining to fetal breathing movements (FBM). The fMEG signals were captured using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) The existence of FBM was verified and recorded concurrently by an ultrasound-based video technique. This simultaneous recording is challenging since SQUIDs are extremely sensitive to magnetic signals and highly susceptible to interference from electronic equipment. For each recording, an ultrasound-FBM (UFBM) signal was extracted by tracing the displacement of the boundary defined by the fetal thorax frame by frame. The start of each FBM was identified by using the peak points of the UFBM signal. The bio-magnetic signals associated with FBM were obtained by averaging the bio-magnetic signals time locked to the FBMs. The results showed the existence of a distinctive sinusoidal signal pattern of FBM in fMEG data. PMID:21252416

  8. Bio-magnetic signatures of fetal breathing movement

    PubMed Central

    Ulusar, U D; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Govindan, R B; Preissl, H; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is to record and analyze fetal brain activity. Unavoidably, these recordings consist of a complex mixture of bio-magnetic signals from both mother and fetus. The acquired data include biological signals that are related to maternal and fetal heart function as well as fetal gross body and breathing movements. Since fetal breathing generates a significant source of bio-magnetic interference during these recordings, the goal of this study was to identify and quantify the signatures pertaining to fetal breathing movements (FBM). The fMEG signals were captured using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) The existence of FBM was verified and recorded concurrently by an ultrasound-based video technique. This simultaneous recording is challenging since SQUIDs are extremely sensitive to magnetic signals and highly susceptible to interference from electronic equipment. For each recording, an ultrasound-FBM (UFBM) signal was extracted by tracing the displacement of the boundary defined by the fetal thorax frame by frame. The start of each FBM was identified by using the peak points of the UFBM signal. The bio-magnetic signals associated with FBM were obtained by averaging the bio-magnetic signals time locked to the FBMs. The results showed the existence of a distinctive sinusoidal signal pattern of FBM in fMEG data. PMID:21252416

  9. The fetal glucose steal: an underappreciated phenomenon in diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Desoye, Gernot; Nolan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Adverse neonatal outcomes continue to be high for mothers with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and are far from eliminated in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. This is often despite seemingly satisfactory glycaemic control in the latter half of pregnancy. Here we argue that this could be a consequence of the early establishment of fetal hyperinsulinaemia, a driver that exaggerates the fetal glucose steal. Essentially, fetal hyperinsulinaemia, through its effect on lowering fetal glycaemia, will increase the glucose concentration gradient across the placenta and consequently the glucose flux to the fetus. While the steepness of this gradient and glucose flux will be greatest at times when maternal hyperglycaemia and fetal hyperinsulinaemia coexist, fetal hyperinsulinaemia will favour a persistently high glucose flux even at times when maternal blood glucose is normal. The obvious implication is that glycaemic control needs to be optimised very early in pregnancy to prevent the establishment of fetal hyperinsulinaemia, further supporting the need for pre-pregnancy planning and early establishment of maternal glycaemic control. An exaggerated glucose steal by a hyperinsulinaemic fetus could also attenuate maternal glucose levels during an OGTT, providing an explanation for why some mothers with fetuses with all the characteristics of diabetic fetopathy have 'normal' glucose tolerance. PMID:26995651

  10. Tracking fetal development through molecular analysis of maternal biofluids☆

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Andrea G.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of fetal development includes fetal ultrasonography, chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for chromosome analysis, and maternal serum biochemical screening for analytes associated with aneuploidy and open neural tube defects. Over the last 15 years, significant advances in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) via cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids in maternal plasma have resulted in the ability to determine fetal sex, RhD genotype, and aneuploidy. Cff nucleic acids in the maternal circulation originate primarily from the placenta. This contrasts with cff nucleic acids in amniotic fluid, which derive from the fetus, and are present in significantly higher concentrations than in maternal blood. The fetal origin of cff nucleic acids in the amniotic fluid permits the acquisition of real-time information about fetal development and gene expression. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive summary of the molecular analysis of cff nucleic acids in maternal biofluids to elucidate mechanisms of fetal development, physiology, and pathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular Genetics of Human Reproductive Failure. PMID:22542507

  11. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-08-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26738115

  12. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts mouse fetal lung development.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ayten; Guan, Haiyan; Cernea, Maria; Yang, Kaiping

    2015-12-01

    Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. The present study addressed this important question by examining the effects of BPA on fetal lung development. BPA was administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to E18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure and expression of key molecular markers of lung maturation. Our main findings were as follows: BPA severely retards fetal lung maturation, as evidenced by diminished alveolar airspace (15% of control) and thickened septa, hallmarks of lung immaturity; this immaturity is characterized by aberrant alveolar epithelial type I cell differentiation because expression of the type I cell marker, aquaporin 5, but not type II cell markers, is dramatically reduced (16% of control); and the effects of BPA are likely mediated through the glucocorticoid signaling pathway because the expression of epithelial sodium channel γ and glutathione peroxidase, 2 well-known glucocorticoid target genes, is down-regulated in BPA-exposed fetal lungs, and, importantly, maternal dexamethasone administration rescues the lung immaturity phenotype. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BPA disrupts fetal lung maturation, thus suggesting a fetal origin for BPA-induced lung diseases. PMID:26283537

  13. Atrial natriuretic factor in maternal and fetal sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.Y.; Gibbs, D.M.; Brace, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    To determine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentrations in the circulation and body fluids of adult pregnant sheep and their fetuses, pregnant ewes were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and the fetuses were exteriorized for sampling. ANF concentration, as measured by radioimmunoassay, was 47 +/- 6 (SE) pg/ml in maternal plasma, which was significantly higher than the 15 +/- 3 pg/ml in maternal urine. In the fetus, plasma ANF concentration was 265 +/- 49 pg/ml, 5.6 times that in maternal plasma. No umbilical arterial and venous difference in ANF concentration was observed. Fetal urine ANF concentration was significantly lower than that in fetal plasma, and was similar to that measured in amniotic and allantoic fluid. In chronically catheterized maternal and fetal sheep, fetal plasma ANF was again 5.1 times that in maternal plasma, and these levels were not different from those measured in acutely anesthetized animals. These results demonstrate that immunoreactive ANF is present in the fetal circulation at levels higher than those found in the mother. The low concentration of ANF in fetal urine suggests that ANF is probably metabolized and/or reabsorbed by the fetal kidney.

  14. Heart disease link to fetal hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Dino A; Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Richter, Hans G; Camm, Emily J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Kane, Andrew D; Hansell, Jeremy A; Brain, Kirsty L; Skeffington, Katie L; Itani, Nozomi; Wooding, F B Peter; Cross, Christine M; Allison, Beth J

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the intrauterine environment interacts with our genetic makeup to shape the risk of developing disease in later life. Fetal chronic hypoxia is a common complication of pregnancy. This chapter reviews how fetal chronic hypoxia programmes cardiac and endothelial dysfunction in the offspring in adult life and discusses the mechanisms via which this may occur. Using an integrative approach in large and small animal models at the in vivo, isolated organ, cellular and molecular levels, our programmes of work have raised the hypothesis that oxidative stress in the fetal heart and vasculature underlies the mechanism via which prenatal hypoxia programmes cardiovascular dysfunction in later life. Developmental hypoxia independent of changes in maternal nutrition promotes fetal growth restriction and induces changes in the cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine systems of the adult offspring, which are normally associated with disease states during ageing. Treatment with antioxidants of animal pregnancies complicated with reduced oxygen delivery to the fetus prevents the alterations in fetal growth, and the cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine dysfunction in the fetal and adult offspring. The work reviewed offers both insight into mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for clinical intervention against the early origin of cardiometabolic disease in pregnancy complicated by fetal chronic hypoxia. PMID:25015802

  15. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  16. Fetal cardiac arrhythmia detection and in utero therapy

    PubMed Central

    Strasburger, Janette F.; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    The human fetal heart develops arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in response to ischemia, inflammation, electrolyte disturbances, altered load states, structural defects, inherited genetic conditions, and many other causes. Yet sinus rhythm is present without altered rate or rhythm in some of the most serious electrophysiological diseases, which makes detection of diseases of the fetal conduction system challenging in the absence of magnetocardiographic or electrocardiographic recording techniques. Life-threatening changes in QRS or QT intervals can be completely unrecognized if heart rate is the only feature to be altered. For many fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography alone can assess important clinical parameters for diagnosis. Appropriate treatment of the fetus requires awareness of arrhythmia characteristics, mechanisms, and potential associations. Criteria to define fetal bradycardia specific to gestational age are now available and may allow detection of ion channelopathies, which are associated with fetal and neonatal bradycardia. Ectopic beats, once thought to be entirely benign, are now recognized to have important pathologic associations. Fetal tachyarrhythmias can now be defined precisely for mechanism-specific therapy and for subsequent monitoring of response. This article reviews the current and future diagnostic techniques and pharmacologic treatments for fetal arrhythmia. PMID:20418904

  17. Transplantation of electively aborted human fetal tissue: physicians' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, M A; Williams, J I; Lowy, F H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide empirical data on the attitudes of Ontario family physicians and gynecologists toward the use of electively aborted fetal tissue for transplantation (FTT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Random samples of 300 physicians from the membership list of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and 300 from the membership list of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada; 248 family physicians and 186 gynecologists responded, for an overall response rate of 72%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' attitudes toward incentives to collect fetal tissue at abortion, patient-management issues, consent issues and potential conflicts in the supply and demand of fetal tissue. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 75% agreed that there should be no incentives to collect fetal tissue at abortion, 90% believed that decisions to abort must be separate from decisions to donate fetal tissue, 94% agreed that an option to donate fetal tissue should be discussed only after a firm decision to abort has been made, and 88% stated that the demand for fetal tissue should not hinder the availability of new abortion technology such as the abortifacient pill (RU 486). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that there is general approval for FTT. Apparent variations between responses to global statements and to practice-oriented statements suggest strategies for effective Canadian public policy regarding FTT. PMID:8039086

  18. Psychological and psychophysiological considerations regarding the maternal-fetal relationship

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest relationship does not begin with birth. Pregnant women construct mental representations of the fetus, and feelings of affiliation or “maternal-fetal attachment” generally increase over the course of gestation. While there is a fairly substantial literature on the development and moderation of psychological features of the maternal-fetal relationship, including the role of ultrasound imaging, relatively little is known about the manner in which maternal psychological functioning influences the fetus. Dispositional levels of maternal stress and anxiety are modestly associated with aspects of fetal heart rate and motor activity. Both induced maternal arousal and relaxation generate fairly immediate alterations to fetal neurobehaviors; the most consistently observed fetal response to changes in maternal psychological state involves suppression of motor activity. These effects may be mediated, in part, by an orienting response of the fetus to changes in the intrauterine environment. Conversely, there is evidence that fetal behaviors elicit maternal physiological responses. Integration of this finding into a more dynamic model of the maternal-fetal dyad, and implications for the postnatal relationship are discussed. Research on the period before birth affords tremendous opportunity for developmental scientists to advance understanding of the origins of human attachment. PMID:20228872

  19. Fetal ACL Fibroblasts Exhibit Enhanced Cellular Properties Compared with Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stalling, Simone S.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal tendons and skin heal regeneratively without scar formation. Cells isolated from these fetal tissues exhibit enhanced cellular migration and collagen production in comparison to cells from adult tissue. We determined whether fetal and adult fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a tissue that does not heal regeneratively, exhibit differences in cell migration rates and collagen elaboration. An in vitro migration assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts migrated twice as fast as adult ACL fibroblasts at a rate of 38.90 ± 7.69 μm per hour compared with 18.88 ± 4.18 μm per hour, respectively. Quantification of Type I collagen elaboration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts produced four times the amount of Type I collagen compared with adult ACL fibroblasts after 7 days in culture. We observed no differences in Type III collagen with time for adult or fetal ACL fibroblasts. Our findings indicate fetal ACL fibroblasts are intrinsically different from adult ACL fibroblasts, suggesting the healing potential of the ACL may be age-dependent. PMID:18648900

  20. Maternal and Fetal Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Shy, Kirk K.; Brown, Zane A.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnancy outcomes can be improved by following modern recommendations for personal health maintenance. Adequate caloric intake, reflected by a weight gain of about 10 to 12.3 kg (22 to 27 lb) for women of average build, is associated with the lowest rate of perinatal mortality. Maternal dietary protein supplementation should generally be avoided because it may be associated with low-birth-weight pregnancies. Abstinence from social drugs offers the greatest positive opportunity to modify the health of a fetus. Serious perinatal infection can be prevented by preconception immunization (rubella), food hygiene (toxoplasmosis) and attention to the expression of virus in the mother (herpes simplex). Available data do not correlate exercise programs begun before pregnancy and continued during pregnancy with adverse fetal effects. Athletic capacity need not diminish postpartum. Most employment may safely continue until delivery. Routine recommendations for prolonged maternal disability leaves are not medically warranted. PMID:6395495