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Sample records for mrna secondary structure

  1. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Bartholomäus, Alexander; Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-10-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  2. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  3. Leader length and secondary structure modulate mRNA function under conditions of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.

    1988-07-01

    Simina virus 40-based plasmids that direct the synthesis of preproinsulin in cultured monkey cells were used to study the effects of mRNA structure on translational efficiency. Lengthening the leader sequence enhanced translation in this system. The enhancement was most obvious when an unstructured sequence (two, four, or eight copies of the oligonculeotide AGCTAAGTAAGTAAGTA) was inserted upstream from a region of deliberate secondary structure; the degree of enhancement was proportional to the number of copies of the inserted oligonucleotide. Lengthening the leader sequence on the 3' side of a stem-and-loop structure, in contrast, did not offset the potentially inhibitory effect of the hairpin structure. Both the facilitating effect of length and the inhibitory effect of secondary structure were demonstrated most easily under conditions of mRNA competition, which was brought about by an abrupt shift in the tonicity of the culture medium. These experiments suggest a simple structural basis for the long-recognized differential response of viral and cellular mRNAs to hypertonic stress. The fact that the translatability of structure-prone mRNAs varies with changes in the environment may also have general implications for gene expression in eucaryotic cells.

  4. Secondary structure of splice sites in adenovirus mRNA precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, S H

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible role of RNA secondary structure in determining the efficiency and specificity of mRNA splicing, the structures of sequences at three acceptor splice sites in adenovirus were studied. Transcripts spanning intron-exon junctions were synthesized using SP6 RNA polymerase and analyzed using single and double-strand specific nucleases. Distinctive patterns of nuclease cleavage were observed for each of the 3 sites examined. At both sites in the E2a region sequences adjacent to the splice sites were particularly susceptible to digestion with T1 and S1 nucleases. In contrast, a splice site for hexon mRNA was largely resistant to these nucleases. The results obtained suggest that the conformation of the RNA at some, but not all, acceptor sites may enhance the accessibility of these sites to factors involved in splicing nuclear RNA and confirm the presence of a large, previously predicted hairpin structure centered on the acceptor site at 67 map units. Images PMID:6095200

  5. A MYLK variant regulates asthmatic inflammation via alterations in mRNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Saadat, Laleh; Garcia, Joe G N

    2015-06-01

    Myosin light-chain kinase (MYLK) is a gene known to be significantly associated with severe asthma in African Americans. Here we further examine the molecular function of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), located in the non-muscle myosin light-chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK), in asthma susceptibility and pathobiology. We identified nmMLCK variant (reference SNP: rs9840993, NM_053025: 721C>T, c.439C>T) with a distinct mRNA secondary structure from the other variants. The nmMLCK variant (721C) secondary structure exhibits increased stability with an elongated half-life in the human endothelial cell, and greater efficiency in protein translation initiation owing to an increased accessibility to translation start site. Finally, nmMLCK expression of 721C- and 721T-containing MYLK transgenes were compared in nmMLCK(-/-) mice and confirmed deleterious effects of nmMLCK expression on asthmatic indices and implicated the augmented influence of MYLK 721C>T (c.439C>T) SNP on asthma severity. The confirmation of the novel mechanism of the regulation of asthmatic inflammation by a MYLK advances knowledge of the genetic basis for asthma disparities, and further suggests the potential of nmMLCK as a therapeutic target. Our study suggests that in addition to altering protein structure and function, non-synonymous SNPs may also lead to phenotypic disparity by altering protein expression. PMID:25271083

  6. hiCLIP reveals the in vivo atlas of mRNA secondary structures recognized by Staufen 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Yoichiro; Vigilante, Alessandra; Darbo, Elodie; Zirra, Alexandra; Militti, Cristina; D’Ambrogio, Andrea; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    mRNA structure is important for post-transcriptional regulation, largely because it affects binding of trans-acting factors1. However, little is known about the in vivo structure of full-length mRNAs. Here we present hiCLIP, a high-throughput technique to identify RNA secondary structures interacting with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in vivo. Using this technique to investigate RNA structures bound by Staufen 1 (STAU1), we uncover a dominance of intra-molecular RNA duplexes, a depletion of duplexes from coding regions of highly translated mRNAs, an unforeseen prevalence of long-range duplexes in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), and a decreased incidence of SNPs in duplex-forming regions. We also discover a duplex spanning 858nts in the 3′ UTR of the X-box binding Protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA that regulates its cytoplasmic splicing and stability. Our study reveals the fundamental role of mRNA secondary structures in gene regulation and introduces hiCLIP as a widely applicable method for discovering novel, especially long-range, RNA duplexes. PMID:25799984

  7. Compilation of mRNA Polyadenylation Signals in Arabidopsis Revealed a New Signal Element and Potential Secondary Structures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Johnny C.; Stahlberg, Eric A.; Strenski, David G.; Haas, Brian J.; Wood, Paul Chris; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Using a novel program, SignalSleuth, and a database containing authenticated polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites, we analyzed the composition of mRNA poly(A) signals in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and reevaluated previously described cis-elements within the 3′-untranslated (UTR) regions, including near upstream elements and far upstream elements. As predicted, there are absences of high-consensus signal patterns. The AAUAAA signal topped the near upstream elements patterns and was found within the predicted location to only approximately 10% of 3′-UTRs. More importantly, we identified a new set, named cleavage elements, of poly(A) signals flanking both sides of the cleavage site. These cis-elements were not previously revealed by conventional mutagenesis and are contemplated as a cluster of signals for cleavage site recognition. Moreover, a single-nucleotide profile scan on the 3′-UTR regions unveiled a distinct arrangement of alternate stretches of U and A nucleotides, which led to a prediction of the formation of secondary structures. Using an RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold, we identified three main types of secondary structures on the sequences analyzed. Surprisingly, these observed secondary structures were all interrupted in previously constructed mutations in these regions. These results will enable us to revise the current model of plant poly(A) signals and to develop tools to predict 3′-ends for gene annotation. PMID:15965016

  8. Secondary Structure of a Conserved Domain in an Intron of Influenza A M1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus utilizes RNA throughout infection. Little is known, however, about the roles of RNA structures. A previous bioinformatics survey predicted multiple regions of influenza A virus that are likely to generate evolutionarily conserved and stable RNA structures. One predicted conserved structure is in the pre-mRNA coding for essential proteins, M1 and M2. This structure starts 79 nucleotides downstream of the M2 mRNA 5′ splice site. Here, a combination of biochemical structural mapping, mutagenesis, and NMR confirms the predicted three-way multibranch structure of this RNA. Imino proton NMR spectra reveal no change in secondary structure when 80 mM KCl is supplemented with 4 mM MgCl2. Optical melting curves in 1 M NaCl and in 100 mM KCl with 10 mM MgCl2 are very similar, with melting temperatures ∼14 °C higher than that for 100 mM KCl alone. These results provide a firm basis for designing experiments and potential therapeutics to test for function in cell culture. PMID:25026548

  9. A Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in ΔF508 CFTR Alters the Secondary Structure of the mRNA and the Expression of the Mutant Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Bartoszewski, Rafal A.; Jablonsky, Michael; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Stevenson, Lauren; Dai, Qun; Kappes, John; Collawn, James F.; Bebok, Zsuzsa

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of translational dynamics indicate that codon usage and mRNA secondary structure influence translation and protein folding. The most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the deletion of three nucleotides (CTT) from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that includes the last cytosine (C) of isoleucine 507 (Ile507ATC) and the two thymidines (T) of phenylalanine 508 (Phe508TTT) codons. The consequences of the deletion are the loss of phenylalanine at the 508 position of the CFTR protein (ΔF508), a synonymous codon change for isoleucine 507 (Ile507ATT), and protein misfolding. Here we demonstrate that the ΔF508 mutation alters the secondary structure of the CFTR mRNA. Molecular modeling predicts and RNase assays support the presence of two enlarged single stranded loops in the ΔF508 CFTR mRNA in the vicinity of the mutation. The consequence of ΔF508 CFTR mRNA “misfolding” is decreased translational rate. A synonymous single nucleotide variant of the ΔF508 CFTR (Ile507ATC), that could exist naturally if Phe-508 was encoded by TTC, has wild type-like mRNA structure, and enhanced expression levels when compared with native ΔF508 CFTR. Because CFTR folding is predominantly cotranslational, changes in translational dynamics may promote ΔF508 CFTR misfolding. Therefore, we propose that mRNA “misfolding” contributes to ΔF508 CFTR protein misfolding and consequently to the severity of the human ΔF508 phenotype. Our studies suggest that in addition to modifier genes, SNPs may also contribute to the differences observed in the symptoms of various ΔF508 homozygous CF patients. PMID:20628052

  10. Specific temperature-induced perturbations of secondary mRNA structures are associated with the cold-adapted temperature-sensitive phenotype of influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Chursov, Andrey; Kopetzky, Sebastian J.; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Kondofersky, Ivan; Theis, Fabian J.; Frishman, Dmitrij; Shneider, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    For decades, cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive (ca/ts) strains of influenza A virus have been used as live attenuated vaccines. Due to their great public health importance it is crucial to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of cold adaptation and temperature sensitivity that are currently unknown. For instance, secondary RNA structures play important roles in influenza biology. Thus, we hypothesized that a relatively minor change in temperature (32–39°C) can lead to perturbations in influenza RNA structures and, that these structural perturbations may be different for mRNAs of the wild type (wt) and ca/ts strains. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel in silico method that enables assessing whether two related RNA molecules would undergo (dis)similar structural perturbations upon temperature change. The proposed method allows identifying those areas within an RNA chain where dissimilarities of RNA secondary structures at two different temperatures are particularly pronounced, without knowing particular RNA shapes at either temperature. We identified such areas in the NS2, PA, PB2 and NP mRNAs. However, these areas are not identical for the wt and ca/ts mutants. Differences in temperature-induced structural changes of wt and ca/ts mRNA structures may constitute a yet unappreciated molecular mechanism of the cold adaptation/temperature sensitivity phenomena. PMID:22995831

  11. Effect of 3′UTR RET Variants on RET mRNA Secondary Structure and Disease Presentation in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin, Lucieli; Romitti, Mirian; Rodrigues Siqueira, Débora; Vaz Ferreira, Carla; Oliboni Scapineli, Jessica; Assis-Brazil, Beatriz; Vieira Maximiano, Rodolfo; Dias Amarante, Tauanne; de Souza Nunes, Miriam Celi; Weber, Gerald; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Background The RET S836S variant has been associated with early onset and increased risk for metastatic disease in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). However, the mechanism by which this variant modulates MTC pathogenesis is still open to discuss. Of interest, strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between RET S836S and 3'UTR variants has been reported in Hirschsprung's disease patients. Objective To evaluate the frequency of the RET 3’UTR variants (rs76759170 and rs3026785) in MTC patients and to determine whether these variants are in LD with S836S polymorphism. Methods Our sample comprised 152 patients with sporadic MTC. The RET S836S and 3’UTR (rs76759170 and rs3026785) variants were genotyped using Custom TaqMan Genotyping Assays. Haplotypes were inferred using the phase 2.1 program. RET mRNA structure was assessed by Vienna Package. Results The mean age of MTC diagnosis was 48.5±15.5 years and 57.9% were women. The minor allele frequencies of RET polymorphisms were as follows: S836S, 5.6%; rs76759170, 5.6%; rs3026785, 6.2%. We observed a strong LD among S836S and 3’UTR variants (|D’| = -1, r2 = 1 and |D’| = -1, r2 = 0,967). Patients harboring the S836S/3’UTR variants presented a higher percentage of lymph node and distant metastasis (P = 0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). Accordingly, RNA folding analyses demonstrated different RNA secondary structure predictions for WT(TCCGT), S836S(TTCGT) or 3’UTR(GTCAC) haplotypes. The S836S/3’UTR haplotype presented a greater number of double helices sections and lower levels of minimal free energy when compared to the wild-type haplotype, suggesting that these variants provides the most thermodynamically stable mRNA structure, which may have functional consequences on the rate of mRNA degradation. Conclusion The RET S836S polymorphism is in LD with 3’UTR variants. In silico analysis indicate that the 3’UTR variants may affect the secondary structure of RET mRNA, suggesting that these variants might play a

  12. Secondary structure prediction and in vitro accessibility of mRNA as tools in the selection of target sites for ribozymes

    PubMed Central

    Amarzguioui, Mohammed; Brede, Gaute; Babaie, Eshrat; Grøtli, Morten; Sproat, Brian; Prydz, Hans

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the relative merits of two commonly used methods for target site selection for ribozymes: secondary structure prediction (MFold program) and in vitro accessibility assays. A total of eight methylated ribozymes with DNA arms were synthesized and analyzed in a transient co-transfection assay in HeLa cells. Residual expression levels ranging from 23 to 72% were obtained with anti-PSKH1 ribozymes compared to cells transfected with an irrelevant control ribozyme. Ribozyme efficacy depended on both ribozyme concentration and the steady state expression levels of the target mRNA. Allylated ribozymes against a subset of the target sites generally displayed poorer efficacy than their methylated counterparts. This effect appeared to be influenced by in vivo accessibility of the target site. Ribozymes designed on the basis of either selection method displayed a wide range of efficacies with no significant differences in the average activities of the two groups of ribozymes. While in vitro accessibility assays had limited predictive power, there was a significant correlation between certain features of the predicted secondary structure of the target sequence and the efficacy of the corresponding ribozyme. Specifically, ribozyme efficacy appeared to be positively correlated with the presence of short stem regions and helices of low stability within their target sequences. There were no correlations with predicted free energy or loop length. PMID:11058107

  13. The requirement for eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (elF4A) in translation is in direct proportion to the degree of mRNA 5' secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Y V; Pause, A; Haghighat, A; Pyronnet, S; Witherell, G; Belsham, G J; Sonenberg, N

    2001-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor (elF) 4A functions as a subunit of the initiation factor complex elF4F, which mediates the binding of mRNA to the ribosome. elF4A possesses ATPase and RNA helicase activities and is the prototype for a large family of putative RNA helicases (the DEAD box family). It is thought that the function of elF4A during translation initiation is to unwind the mRNA secondary structure in the 5' UTR to facilitate ribosome binding. However, the evidence to support this hypothesis is rather indirect, and it was reported that elF4A is also required for the translation of mRNAs possessing minimal 5' UTR secondary structure. Were this hypothesis correct, the requirement for elF4A should correlate with the degree of mRNA secondary structure. To test this hypothesis, the effect of a dominant-negative mutant of mammalian elF4A on translation of mRNAs with various degrees of secondary structure was studied in vitro. Here, we show that mRNAs containing stable secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region are more susceptible to inhibition by the elF4A mutant. The mutant protein also strongly inhibits translation from several picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES), although to different extents. UV crosslinking of elF4F subunits and elF4B to the mRNA cap structure is dramatically reduced by the elF4A mutant and RNA secondary structure. Finally, the elF4A mutant forms a more stable complex with elF4G, as compared to the wild-type elF4A, thus explaining the mechanism by which substoichiometric amounts of mutant elF4A inhibit translation. PMID:11333019

  14. Exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA, alone or within its surrounding sequences, interacts with 14-3-3; role of cis-elements and secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Noutsios, Georgios T.; Silveyra, Patricia; Bhatti, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A, an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The 5′ untranslated (5′UTR) splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not of SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB), which is an enhancer for transcription and translation. We investigated whether eB contains cis-regulatory elements that bind trans-acting factors in a sequence-specific manner as well as the role of the eB mRNA secondary structure. Binding of cytoplasmic NCI-H441 proteins to wild-type eB, eB mutant, AD, and ABD 5′UTR mRNAs were studied by RNA electromobility shift assays (REMSAs). The bound proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy and specific antibodies (Abs). We found that 1) proteins bind eB mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, with two cis-elements identified within eB to be important; 2) eB secondary structure is necessary for binding; 3) mass spectroscopy and specific Abs in REMSAs identified 14-3-3 proteins to bind (directly or indirectly) eB and the natural SP-A2 (ABD) splice variant but not the SP-A1 (AD) splice variant; 4) other ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, and translation factors, are also present in the eB mRNA-protein complex; 5) knockdown of 14-3-3 β/α isoform resulted in a downregulation of SP-A2 expression. In conclusion, proteins including the 14-3-3 family bind two cis-elements within eB of hSP-A2 mRNA in a sequence- and secondary structure-specific manner. Differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 is mediated by the 14-3-3 protein family as well as by a number of other proteins that bind UTRs with or without eB mRNA. PMID:23525782

  15. Conserved Secondary Structures in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Galagan, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the number and variety of functional RNAs (ncRNAs as well as cis-acting RNA elements within mRNAs ) is much higher than previously thought; thus, the ability to computationally predict and analyze RNAs has taken on new importance. We have computationally studied the secondary structures in an alignment of six Aspergillus genomes. Little is known about the RNAs present in this set of fungi, and this diverse set of genomes has an optimal level of sequence conservation for observing the correlated evolution of base-pairs seen in RNAs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the results of a whole-genome search for evolutionarily conserved secondary structures, as well as the results of clustering these predicted secondary structures by structural similarity. We find a total of 7450 predicted secondary structures, including a new predicted ∼60 bp long hairpin motif found primarily inside introns. We find no evidence for microRNAs. Different types of genomic regions are over-represented in different classes of predicted secondary structures. Exons contain the longest motifs (primarily long, branched hairpins), 5′ UTRs primarily contain groupings of short hairpins located near the start codon, and 3′ UTRs contain very little secondary structure compared to other regions. There is a large concentration of short hairpins just inside the boundaries of exons. The density of predicted intronic RNAs increases with the length of introns, and the density of predicted secondary structures within mRNA coding regions increases with the number of introns in a gene. Conclusions/Sigificance There are many conserved, high-confidence RNAs of unknown function in these Aspergillus genomes, as well as interesting spatial distributions of predicted secondary structures. This study increases our knowledge of secondary structure in these aspergillus organisms. PMID:18665251

  16. CFTR mRNA expression is regulated by an upstream open reading frame and RNA secondary structure in its 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Samuel W; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Trezise, Ann E O

    2015-02-15

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-encoded cis-acting elements is an important mechanism for the control of protein expression levels. Through controlling specific aspects of translation initiation, expression can be tightly regulated while remaining responsive to cellular requirements. With respect to cystic fibrosis (CF), the overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein trafficking mutants, such as delta-F508, is of great biological and clinical interest. By understanding the post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate CFTR expression, new procedures can be developed to enhance CFTR expression in homozygous delta-F508 CF patients. We have identified the key elements of a complex negative regulatory mechanism that is encoded within the human CFTR 5'UTR and show how these elements act in combination to restrict CFTR gene expression to a consistently low level in a transcript-specific manner. This study shows, for the first time, that endogenous human CFTR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated through a 5'UTR-mediated mechanism. We show that the very low levels of endogenous CFTR expression, compared with other low expression genes, are maintained through the co-operative inhibitory effects of an upstream open reading frame and a thermodynamically stable RNA secondary structure. PMID:25274779

  17. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth. PMID:21725008

  18. Secondary Structure Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    Neurogenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease involve a transformation between two peptide and protein structures of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, where the peptide backbone can also participate in metal ion binding in addition to histidine residues. However, the complete absence of change in conformation of Coiled…

  19. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The precise temporal and spatial coordination of gene activity, based on the integration of internal and external signals, is crucial for the accurate functioning of all biological processes. Although the basic principles of gene expression were established some 60 years ago, recent research has revealed a surprising complexity in the control of gene activity. Many of these gene regulatory mechanisms occur at the level of the mRNA, including sophisticated gene control tasks mediated by structured mRNA elements. We now know that mRNA folds can serve as highly specific receptors for various types of molecules, as exemplified by metabolite-binding riboswitches, and interfere with pro- and eukaryotic gene expression at the level of transcription, translation, and RNA processing. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements comprises versatile strategies including self-cleaving ribozymes, RNA-folding-mediated occlusion or presentation of cis-regulatory sequences, and sequestration of trans-acting factors including other RNAs and proteins. PMID:24780087

  20. Structure of an RNA dimer of a regulatory element from human thymidylate synthase mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrov, Sergey; McLean, Jaime; Hermann, Thomas

    2011-09-27

    A sequence around the start codon of the mRNA of human thymidylate synthase (TS) folds into a secondary-structure motif in which the initiation site is sequestered in a metastable hairpin. Binding of the protein to its own mRNA at the hairpin prevents the production of TS through a translation-repression feedback mechanism. Stabilization of the mRNA hairpin by other ligands has been proposed as a strategy to reduce TS levels in anticancer therapy. Rapidly proliferating cells require high TS activity to maintain the production of thymidine as a building block for DNA synthesis. The crystal structure of a model oligonucleotide (TS1) that represents the TS-binding site of the mRNA has been determined. While fluorescence studies showed that the TS1 RNA preferentially adopts a hairpin structure in solution, even at high RNA concentrations, an asymmetric dimer of two hybridized TS1 strands was obtained in the crystal. The TS1 dimer contains an unusual S-turn motif that also occurs in the 'off' state of the human ribosomal decoding site RNA.

  1. Vitellogenin mRNA expression in Cherax quadricarinatus during secondary vitellogenic at first maturation females.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Landais, Igor; Ogliastro, Marie-Helene; Gutiérrez-Ayala, Meliza; Mejía-Ruíz, Humberto; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Vázquez-Boucard, Celia

    2004-09-01

    PCR products of 1.1 and 0.9 kb were generated using Cherax quadricarinatus genomic DNA in the first case, and hepatopancreas and ovary cDNAs in the second case. These PCR products were cloned and analyzed for nucleotide sequences. The 1.1 kb fragment was used as a probe for Northern hybridization, revealing a transcript of approximately 8 kb in both tissues. Results from both Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the mRNA enconding the 3' end of the vitellogenin cDNA was present simultaneously in both hepatopancreas and ovary tissues in secondary vitellogenic at first maturation females, but was not detected in male hepatopancreas. The deduced amino acid sequences of Vitellogenin (Vg) cDNAs from ovary and hepatopancreas confirmed the existence at least two different Vg genes, and two different sites of synthesis. PMID:15278899

  2. Combinatorics of saturated secondary structures of RNA.

    PubMed

    Clote, P

    2006-11-01

    Following Zuker (1986), a saturated secondary structure for a given RNA sequence is a secondary structure such that no base pair can be added without violating the definition of secondary structure, e.g., without introducing a pseudoknot. In the Nussinov-Jacobson energy model (Nussinov and Jacobson, 1980), where the energy of a secondary structure is -1 times the number of base pairs, saturated secondary structures are local minima in the energy landscape, hence form kinetic traps during the folding process. Here we present recurrence relations and closed form asymptotic limits for combinatorial problems related to the number of saturated secondary structures. In addition, Python source code to compute the number of saturated secondary structures having k base pairs can be found at the web servers link of bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/. PMID:17147486

  3. Genome-wide probing of RNA structure reveals active unfolding of mRNA structures in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rouskin, Silvi; Zubradt, Meghan; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2014-01-30

    RNA has a dual role as an informational molecule and a direct effector of biological tasks. The latter function is enabled by RNA's ability to adopt complex secondary and tertiary folds and thus has motivated extensive computational and experimental efforts for determining RNA structures. Existing approaches for evaluating RNA structure have been largely limited to in vitro systems, yet the thermodynamic forces which drive RNA folding in vitro may not be sufficient to predict stable RNA structures in vivo. Indeed, the presence of RNA-binding proteins and ATP-dependent helicases can influence which structures are present inside cells. Here we present an approach for globally monitoring RNA structure in native conditions in vivo with single-nucleotide precision. This method is based on in vivo modification with dimethyl sulphate (DMS), which reacts with unpaired adenine and cytosine residues, followed by deep sequencing to monitor modifications. Our data from yeast and mammalian cells are in excellent agreement with known messenger RNA structures and with the high-resolution crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosome. Comparison between in vivo and in vitro data reveals that in rapidly dividing cells there are vastly fewer structured mRNA regions in vivo than in vitro. Even thermostable RNA structures are often denatured in cells, highlighting the importance of cellular processes in regulating RNA structure. Indeed, analysis of mRNA structure under ATP-depleted conditions in yeast shows that energy-dependent processes strongly contribute to the predominantly unfolded state of mRNAs inside cells. Our studies broadly enable the functional analysis of physiological RNA structures and reveal that, in contrast to the Anfinsen view of protein folding whereby the structure formed is the most thermodynamically favourable, thermodynamics have an incomplete role in determining mRNA structure in vivo. PMID:24336214

  4. Alternate rRNA secondary structures as regulators of translation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Li, Heng; Zhao, Jing; Pervushin, Konstantin; Lowenhaupt, Ky; Schwartz, Thomas U; Dröge, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Structural dynamics of large molecular assemblies are intricately linked to function. For ribosomes, macromolecular changes occur especially during mRNA translation and involve participation of ribosomal RNA. Without suitable probes specific to RNA secondary structure, however, elucidation of more subtle dynamic ribosome structure-function relationships, especially in vivo, remains challenging. Here we report that the Z-DNA- and Z-RNA-binding domain Zα, derived from the human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1-L, binds with high stability to specific rRNA segments of Escherichia coli and human ribosomes. Zα impaired in Z-RNA recognition does not associate with ribosomes. Notably, Zα(ADAR1)-ribosome interaction blocks translation in vitro and in vivo, with substantial physiological consequences. Our study shows that ribosomes can be targeted by a protein that specifically recognizes an alternate rRNA secondary structure, and suggests a new mechanism of translational regulation on the ribosome. PMID:21217697

  5. Coupling of mRNA Structure Rearrangement to Ribosome Movement during Bypassing of Non-coding Regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Coakley, Arthur; O'Connor, Michelle; Petrov, Alexey; O'Leary, Seán E; Atkins, John F; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2015-11-19

    Nearly half of the ribosomes translating a particular bacteriophage T4 mRNA bypass a region of 50 nt, resuming translation 3' of this gap. How this large-scale, specific hop occurs and what determines whether a ribosome bypasses remain unclear. We apply single-molecule fluorescence with zero-mode waveguides to track individual Escherichia coli ribosomes during translation of T4's gene 60 mRNA. Ribosomes that bypass are characterized by a 10- to 20-fold longer pause in a non-canonical rotated state at the take-off codon. During the pause, mRNA secondary structure rearrangements are coupled to ribosome forward movement, facilitated by nascent peptide interactions that disengage the ribosome anticodon-codon interactions for slippage. Close to the landing site, the ribosome then scans mRNA in search of optimal base-pairing interactions. Our results provide a mechanistic and conformational framework for bypassing, highlighting a non-canonical ribosomal state to allow for mRNA structure refolding to drive large-scale ribosome movements. PMID:26590426

  6. Combinatorics of locally optimal RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Fusy, Eric; Clote, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is a classical result of Stein and Waterman that the asymptotic number of RNA secondary structures is 1.104366∙n-3/2∙2.618034n. Motivated by the kinetics of RNA secondary structure formation, we are interested in determining the asymptotic number of secondary structures that are locally optimal, with respect to a particular energy model. In the Nussinov energy model, where each base pair contributes -1 towards the energy of the structure, locally optimal structures are exactly the saturated structures, for which we have previously shown that asymptotically, there are 1.07427∙n-3/2∙2.35467n many saturated structures for a sequence of length n. In this paper, we consider the base stacking energy model, a mild variant of the Nussinov model, where each stacked base pair contributes -1 toward the energy of the structure. Locally optimal structures with respect to the base stacking energy model are exactly those secondary structures, whose stems cannot be extended. Such structures were first considered by Evers and Giegerich, who described a dynamic programming algorithm to enumerate all locally optimal structures. In this paper, we apply methods from enumerative combinatorics to compute the asymptotic number of such structures. Additionally, we consider analogous combinatorial problems for secondary structures with annotated single-stranded, stacking nucleotides (dangles). PMID:23263300

  7. Sequence and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sroubek, Jakub; Krishnan, Yamini; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-gogo-related gene (HERG) encodes a potassium channel that is highly susceptible to deleterious mutations resulting in susceptibility to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Most mutations adversely affect HERG channel assembly and trafficking. Why the channel is so vulnerable to missense mutations is not well understood. Since nothing is known of how mRNA structural elements factor in channel processing, we synthesized a codon-modified HERG cDNA (HERG-CM) where the codons were synonymously changed to reduce GC content, secondary structure, and rare codon usage. HERG-CM produced typical IKr-like currents; however, channel synthesis and processing were markedly different. Translation efficiency was reduced for HERG-CM, as determined by heterologous expression, in vitro translation, and polysomal profiling. Trafficking efficiency to the cell surface was greatly enhanced, as assayed by immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, and surface labeling. Chimeras of HERG-NT/CM indicated that trafficking efficiency was largely dependent on 5′ sequences, while translation efficiency involved multiple areas. These results suggest that HERG translation and trafficking rates are independently governed by noncoding information in various regions of the mRNA molecule. Noncoding information embedded within the mRNA may play a role in the pathogenesis of hereditary arrhythmia syndromes and could provide an avenue for targeted therapeutics.—Sroubek, J., Krishnan, Y., McDonald, T V. Sequence- and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency. PMID:23608144

  8. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  9. Current perspectives on RNA secondary structure probing.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Julia; Prestwood, Liam; Lever, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The range of roles played by structured RNAs in biological systems is vast. At the same time as we are learning more about the importance of RNA structure, recent advances in reagents, methods and technology mean that RNA secondary structural probing has become faster and more accurate. As a result, the capabilities of laboratories that already perform this type of structural analysis have increased greatly, and it has also become more widely accessible. The present review summarizes established and recently developed techniques. The information we can derive from secondary structural analysis is assessed, together with the areas in which we are likely to see exciting developments in the near future. PMID:25110033

  10. Secondary structures in long compact polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberdorf, Richard; Ferguson, Allison; Jacobsen, Jesper L.; Kondev, Jané

    2006-11-01

    Compact polymers are self-avoiding random walks that visit every site on a lattice. This polymer model is used widely for studying statistical problems inspired by protein folding. One difficulty with using compact polymers to perform numerical calculations is generating a sufficiently large number of randomly sampled configurations. We present a Monte Carlo algorithm that uniformly samples compact polymer configurations in an efficient manner, allowing investigations of chains much longer than previously studied. Chain configurations generated by the algorithm are used to compute statistics of secondary structures in compact polymers. We determine the fraction of monomers participating in secondary structures, and show that it is self-averaging in the long-chain limit and strictly less than 1. Comparison with results for lattice models of open polymer chains shows that compact chains are significantly more likely to form secondary structure.

  11. Secondary structures in long compact polymers.

    PubMed

    Oberdorf, Richard; Ferguson, Allison; Jacobsen, Jesper L; Kondev, Jané

    2006-11-01

    Compact polymers are self-avoiding random walks that visit every site on a lattice. This polymer model is used widely for studying statistical problems inspired by protein folding. One difficulty with using compact polymers to perform numerical calculations is generating a sufficiently large number of randomly sampled configurations. We present a Monte Carlo algorithm that uniformly samples compact polymer configurations in an efficient manner, allowing investigations of chains much longer than previously studied. Chain configurations generated by the algorithm are used to compute statistics of secondary structures in compact polymers. We determine the fraction of monomers participating in secondary structures, and show that it is self-averaging in the long-chain limit and strictly less than 1. Comparison with results for lattice models of open polymer chains shows that compact chains are significantly more likely to form secondary structure. PMID:17279930

  12. Hfq assists small RNAs in binding to the coding sequence of ompD mRNA and in rearranging its structure

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Zuzanna; Olejniczak, Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial protein Hfq participates in the regulation of translation by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of Hfq in the regulation by sRNAs binding to the 5′-untranslated mRNA regions. However, it remains unknown how Hfq affects those sRNAs that target the coding sequence. Here, the contribution of Hfq to the annealing of three sRNAs, RybB, SdsR, and MicC, to the coding sequence of Salmonella ompD mRNA was investigated. Hfq bound to ompD mRNA with tight, subnanomolar affinity. Moreover, Hfq strongly accelerated the rates of annealing of RybB and MicC sRNAs to this mRNA, and it also had a small effect on the annealing of SdsR. The experiments using truncated RNAs revealed that the contributions of Hfq to the annealing of each sRNA were individually adjusted depending on the structures of interacting RNAs. In agreement with that, the mRNA structure probing revealed different structural contexts of each sRNA binding site. Additionally, the annealing of RybB and MicC sRNAs induced specific conformational changes in ompD mRNA consistent with local unfolding of mRNA secondary structure. Finally, the mutation analysis showed that the long AU-rich sequence in the 5′-untranslated mRNA region served as an Hfq binding site essential for the annealing of sRNAs to the coding sequence. Overall, the data showed that the functional specificity of Hfq in the annealing of each sRNA to the ompD mRNA coding sequence was determined by the sequence and structure of the interacting RNAs. PMID:27154968

  13. Protein secondary structural types are differentially coded on messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Thanaraj, T. A.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    Tricodon regions on messenger RNAs corresponding to a set of proteins from Escherichia coli were scrutinized for their translation speed. The fractional frequency values of the individual codons as they occur in mRNAs of highly expressed genes from Escherichia coli were taken as an indicative measure of the translation speed. The tricodons were classified by the sum of the frequency values of the constituent codons. Examination of the conformation of the encoded amino acid residues in the corresponding protein tertiary structures revealed a correlation between codon usage in mRNA and topological features of the encoded proteins. Alpha helices on proteins tend to be preferentially coded by translationally fast mRNA regions while the slow segments often code for beta strands and coil regions. Fast regions correspondingly avoid coding for beta strands and coil regions while the slow regions similarly move away from encoding alpha helices. Structural and mechanistic aspects of the ribosome peptide channel support the relevance of sequence fragment translation and subsequent conformation. A discussion is presented relating the observation to the reported kinetic data on the formation and stabilization of protein secondary structural types during protein folding. The observed absence of such strong positive selection for codons in non-highly expressed genes is compatible with existing theories that mutation pressure may well dominate codon selection in non-highly expressed genes. PMID:8897597

  14. PEGylated nanoparticles: protein corona and secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runa, Sabiha; Hill, Alexandra; Cochran, Victoria L.; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticles have important biological and biomedical applications ranging from drug and gene delivery to biosensing. In the presence of extracellular proteins, a "corona" of proteins adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles, altering their interaction with cells, including immune cells. Nanoparticles are often functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce this non-specific adsorption of proteins. To understand the change in protein corona that occurs following PEGylation, we first quantified the adsorption of blood serum proteins on bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles using gel electrophoresis. We find a threefold decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed on PEGylated gold nanoparticles compared to the bare gold nanoparticles, showing that PEG reduces, but does not prevent, corona formation. To determine if the secondary structure of corona proteins was altered upon adsorption onto the bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles, we use CD spectroscopy to characterize the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin following incubation with the nanoparticles. Our results show no significant change in protein secondary structure following incubation with bare or PEGylated nanoparticles. Further examination of the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin, α2-macroglobulin, and transferrin in the presence of free PEG showed similar results. These findings provide important insights for the use of PEGylated gold nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

  15. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  16. Sequence and structure analysis of a mirror tRNA located upstream of the cytochrome oxidase I mRNA in mouse mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Okui, Saya; Ushida, Chisato; Kiyosawa, Hidenori; Kawai, Gota

    2016-03-01

    RNA fragments corresponding to the mirror tRNA that is located upstream of the cytochrome oxidase I (COXI) gene in the mouse mitochondrial genome were found in the sequences obtained from the mouse brain by the next generation sequencing. RNA fragments corresponding to the 5' terminal of COXI mRNA were also found and it was suggested that the precursor of the COXI mRNA is processed at three residues upstream of the first AUG codon. The mirror tRNA fragment has poly(A) in its 3' terminal and variable 5' terminal, suggesting that this RNA is produced during the 5' processing of COXI mRNA. Secondary structure prediction and NMR analysis indicated that the mirror tRNA is folded into a tRNA-like secondary structure, suggesting that the tRNA-like conformation of the 5' adjacent sequence of COXI mRNA is involved in the COXI mRNA maturation in the mouse mitochondria. PMID:26519737

  17. The structure of the SOLE element of oskar mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Bernd; Masiewicz, Pawel; Ephrussi, Anne; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    mRNA localization by active transport is a regulated process that requires association of mRNPs with protein motors for transport along either the microtubule or the actin cytoskeleton. oskar mRNA localization at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte requires a specific mRNA sequence, termed the SOLE, which comprises nucleotides of both exon 1 and exon 2 and is assembled upon splicing. The SOLE folds into a stem–loop structure. Both SOLE RNA and the exon junction complex (EJC) are required for oskar mRNA transport along the microtubules by kinesin. The SOLE RNA likely constitutes a recognition element for a yet unknown protein, which either belongs to the EJC or functions as a bridge between the EJC and the mRNA. Here, we determine the solution structure of the SOLE RNA by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. We show that the SOLE forms a continuous helical structure, including a few noncanonical base pairs, capped by a pentanucleotide loop. The helix displays a widened major groove, which could accommodate a protein partner. In addition, the apical helical segment undergoes complex dynamics, with potential functional significance. PMID:26089324

  18. Statistical evidence for conserved, local secondary structure in the coding regions of eukaryotic mRNAs and pre-mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Irmtraud M.; Miklós, István

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the degeneracy of the genetic code, protein-coding regions of mRNA sequences can harbour more than only amino acid information. We search the mRNA sequences of 11 human protein-coding genes for evolutionarily conserved secondary structure elements using RNA-Decoder, a comparative secondary structure prediction program that is capable of explicitly taking the known protein-coding context of the mRNA sequences into account. We detect well-defined, conserved RNA secondary structure elements in the coding regions of the mRNA sequences and show that base-paired codons strongly correlate with sparse codons. We also investigate the role of repetitive elements in the formation of secondary structure and explain the use of alternate start codons in the caveolin-1 gene by a conserved secondary structure element overlapping the nominal start codon. We discuss the functional roles of our novel findings in regulating the gene expression on mRNA level. We also investigate the role of secondary structure on the correct splicing of the human CFTR gene. We study the wild-type version of the pre-mRNA as well as 29 variants with synonymous mutations in exon 12. By comparing our predicted secondary structures to the experimentally determined splicing efficiencies, we find with weak statistical significance that pre-mRNAs with high-splicing efficiencies have different predicted secondary structures than pre-mRNAs with low-splicing efficiencies. PMID:16275783

  19. RNA secondary structure prediction using soft computing.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of RNA structure is invaluable in creating new drugs and understanding genetic diseases. Several deterministic algorithms and soft computing-based techniques have been developed for more than a decade to determine the structure from a known RNA sequence. Soft computing gained importance with the need to get approximate solutions for RNA sequences by considering the issues related with kinetic effects, cotranscriptional folding, and estimation of certain energy parameters. A brief description of some of the soft computing-based techniques, developed for RNA secondary structure prediction, is presented along with their relevance. The basic concepts of RNA and its different structural elements like helix, bulge, hairpin loop, internal loop, and multiloop are described. These are followed by different methodologies, employing genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic. The role of various metaheuristics, like simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, and tabu search is also discussed. A relative comparison among different techniques, in predicting 12 known RNA secondary structures, is presented, as an example. Future challenging issues are then mentioned. PMID:23702539

  20. Secondary flow structures in large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, H.; Devauchelle, O.; Metivier, F.; Limare, A.; Lajeunesse, E.

    2012-04-01

    Measuring the velocity field in large rivers remains a challenge, even with recent measurement techniques such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Indeed, due to the diverging angle between its ultrasonic beams, an ADCP cannot detect small-scale flow structures. However, when the measurements are limited to a single location for a sufficient period of time, averaging can reveal large, stationary flow structures. Here we present velocity measurements in a straight reach of the Seine river in Paris, France, where the cross-section is close to rectangular. The transverse modulation of the streamwise velocity indicates secondary flow cells, which seem to occupy the entire width of the river. This observation is reminiscent of the longitudinal vortices observed in laboratory experiments (e.g. Blanckaert et al., Advances in Water Resources, 2010, 33, 1062-1074). Although the physical origin of these secondary structures remains unclear, their measured velocity is sufficient to significantly impact the distribution of streamwise momentum. We propose a model for the transverse profile of the depth-averaged velocity based on a crude representation of the longitudinal vortices, with a single free parameter. Preliminary results are in good agreement with field measurements. This model also provides an estimate for the bank shear stress, which controls bank erosion.

  1. Capped mRNAs with reduced secondary structure can function in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sonenberg, N.; Guertin, D.; Lee, K.A.W.

    1982-12-01

    Extracts form poliovirus-infected HeLa cells were used to study ribosome binding of native and denatured reovirus mRNAs and translation of capped mRNAs with different degrees of secondary structure. Here, the authors demonstrate that ribosomes in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells could form initiation complexes with denatured reovirus mRNA, in contrast to their inability to bind native reovirus mRNA. Furthermore, the capped alfalfa mosiac virus 4 RNA, which is most probable devoid of stable secondary structure at its 5' end, could be translated at much higher efficiency than could other capped mRNAs in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells.

  2. Computing folding pathways between RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Dotu, Ivan; Lorenz, William A; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Clote, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Given an RNA sequence and two designated secondary structures A, B, we describe a new algorithm that computes a nearly optimal folding pathway from A to B. The algorithm, RNAtabupath, employs a tabu semi-greedy heuristic, known to be an effective search strategy in combinatorial optimization. Folding pathways, sometimes called routes or trajectories, are computed by RNAtabupath in a fraction of the time required by the barriers program of Vienna RNA Package. We benchmark RNAtabupath with other algorithms to compute low energy folding pathways between experimentally known structures of several conformational switches. The RNApathfinder web server, source code for algorithms to compute and analyze pathways and supplementary data are available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNApathfinder. PMID:20044352

  3. Enumeration of Secondary Structure Element Bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2004-10-26

    A deterministic algorithm for enumeration of transmembrane protein folds is implemented. Using a set of sparse pairwise atomic distance constraints (such as those obtained from chemical cross-linking, FRET, or dipolar EPR experiments), the algorithm performs an exhaustive search of secondary structure element packing conformations distributed throughout the entire conformational space. The end result is a set of distinct protein conformations which can be scored and refined as part of a process designed for computational elucidation of transmembrane protein structures. Algorithm Overview: The ESSEB algorithm works by dividing the conforrnational space of each secondary structure element (SSE) into a set of cells. For each cell there is a representative conformation and for each atom in the SSE for which a distance restraint is available, there is an associated internal error, The internal error for a distance restraint is the maximum distance that the atom, when positioned in any conformation within a cell, can be from the atom in the representative conformation. The algorithm works recursively by positioning one representative conformation of an SSE. AdI distance restraints are checked with a tolerance that includes both the experimental and internal error. If all restraints are satisfied, every representative conformation of the next SSE is checked, otherwise, the program moves on to the next representative conformation of the current SSE. In addition to the distance restraints, other constraints on protein conformation can be enforced. These include the distance of closest approach between SSE axes, a restraint which prevents the crossover of loops connecting adjacent SSEs, and a restriction on the minimum and maximum distances between axis end-points. Any protein conformation satisfying all of the restraints is enumerated for later scoring and possible refinement. Additionally, in order to make run-times feasible, a divide-and-conquer approach is used in which

  4. Maximum expected accuracy structural neighbors of an RNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since RNA molecules regulate genes and control alternative splicing by allostery, it is important to develop algorithms to predict RNA conformational switches. Some tools, such as paRNAss, RNAshapes and RNAbor, can be used to predict potential conformational switches; nevertheless, no existent tool can detect general (i.e., not family specific) entire riboswitches (both aptamer and expression platform) with accuracy. Thus, the development of additional algorithms to detect conformational switches seems important, especially since the difference in free energy between the two metastable secondary structures may be as large as 15-20 kcal/mol. It has recently emerged that RNA secondary structure can be more accurately predicted by computing the maximum expected accuracy (MEA) structure, rather than the minimum free energy (MFE) structure. Results Given an arbitrary RNA secondary structure S0 for an RNA nucleotide sequence a = a1,..., an, we say that another secondary structure S of a is a k-neighbor of S0, if the base pair distance between S0 and S is k. In this paper, we prove that the Boltzmann probability of all k-neighbors of the minimum free energy structure S0 can be approximated with accuracy ε and confidence 1 - p, simultaneously for all 0 ≤ k < K, by a relative frequency count over N sampled structures, provided that N>N(ε,p,K)=Φ-1p2K24ε2, where Φ(z) is the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the standard normal distribution. We go on to describe the algorithm RNAborMEA, which for an arbitrary initial structure S0 and for all values 0 ≤ k < K, computes the secondary structure MEA(k), having maximum expected accuracy over all k-neighbors of S0. Computation time is O(n3 · K2), and memory requirements are O(n2 · K). We analyze a sample TPP riboswitch, and apply our algorithm to the class of purine riboswitches. Conclusions The approximation of RNAbor by sampling, with rigorous bound on accuracy, together with the computation of

  5. A folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    zu Siederdissen, Christian Höner; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Stadler, Peter F.; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: RNA secondary structure contains many non-canonical base pairs of different pair families. Successful prediction of these structural features leads to improved secondary structures with applications in tertiary structure prediction and simultaneous folding and alignment. Results: We present a theoretical model capturing both RNA pair families and extended secondary structure motifs with shared nucleotides using 2-diagrams. We accompany this model with a number of programs for parameter optimization and structure prediction. Availability: All sources (optimization routines, RNA folding, RNA evaluation, extended secondary structure visualization) are published under the GPLv3 and available at www.tbi.univie.ac.at/software/rnawolf/. Contact: choener@tbi.univie.ac.at PMID:21685061

  6. The Impact of mRNA Structure on Guide RNA Targeting in Kinetoplastid RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Reifur, Larissa; Yu, Laura E.; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; vanHartesvelt, Michelle; Koslowsky, Donna J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei requires the specific interaction of a guide RNA with its cognate mRNA. Hundreds of gRNAs are involved in the editing process, each needing to target their specific editing domain within the target message. We hypothesized that the structure surrounding the mRNA target may be a limiting factor and involved in the regulation process. In this study, we selected four mRNAs with distinct target structures and investigated how sequence and structure affected efficient gRNA targeting. Two of the mRNAs, including the ATPase subunit 6 and ND7-550 (5′ end of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7) that have open, accessible anchor binding sites show very efficient gRNA targeting. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that the cognate gRNA for ND7-550 had 10-fold higher affinity for its mRNA than the A6 pair. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that the difference in affinity was due to a four-fold faster association rate. As expected, mRNAs with considerable structure surrounding the anchor binding sites were less accessible and had very low affinity for their cognate gRNAs. In vitro editing assays indicate that efficient pairing is crucial for gRNA directed cleavage. However, only the A6 substrate showed gRNA-directed cleavage at the correct editing site. This suggests that different gRNA/mRNA pairs may require different “sets” of accessory factors for efficient editing. By characterizing a number of different gRNA/mRNA interactions, we may be able to define a “bank” of RNA editing substrates with different putative chaperone and other co-factor requirements. This will allow the more efficient identification and characterization of transcript specific RNA editing accessory proteins. PMID:20808932

  7. RNA-SSPT: RNA Secondary Structure Prediction Tools.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Freed; Mahboob, Shahid; Gulzar, Tahsin; Din, Salah U; Hanif, Tanzeela; Ahmad, Hifza; Afzal, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of RNA structure is useful for understanding evolution for both in silico and in vitro studies. Physical methods like NMR studies to predict RNA secondary structure are expensive and difficult. Computational RNA secondary structure prediction is easier. Comparative sequence analysis provides the best solution. But secondary structure prediction of a single RNA sequence is challenging. RNA-SSPT is a tool that computationally predicts secondary structure of a single RNA sequence. Most of the RNA secondary structure prediction tools do not allow pseudoknots in the structure or are unable to locate them. Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm has been implemented in RNA-SSPT. The current studies shows only energetically most favorable secondary structure is required and the algorithm modification is also available that produces base pairs to lower the total free energy of the secondary structure. For visualization of RNA secondary structure, NAVIEW in C language is used and modified in C# for tool requirement. RNA-SSPT is built in C# using Dot Net 2.0 in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional edition. The accuracy of RNA-SSPT is tested in terms of Sensitivity and Positive Predicted Value. It is a tool which serves both secondary structure prediction and secondary structure visualization purposes. PMID:24250115

  8. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  9. Notch Transmembrane Domain: Secondary Structure and Topology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical in development, neuronal maintenance, and hematopoiesis. An obligate step in the activation of this pathway is cleavage of its transmembrane (TM) domain by γ-secretase. While the soluble domains have been extensively studied, little has been done to characterize its TM and flanking juxtamembrane (JM) segments. Here, we present the results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the human Notch1 TM/JM domain. The TM domain is largely α-helical. While the flanking JM segments do not adopt regular secondary structure, they interact with the membrane surface, suggesting membrane interactions may play a role in modulating its cleavage by γ-secretase and subsequent NOTCH signaling function. PMID:26023825

  10. Translation with secondary structure: Dynamic blockages in totally asymmetric simple exclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Leah

    2011-03-01

    The totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) is often used as a model for protein synthesis, with the lattice and particles representing the mRNA and ribosomes, respectively. Here we model the effect of secondary structure (folding) of the mRNA by introducing a dynamic blockage region in the lattice. If the region is unoccupied by particles, the blockage can close and prevent upstream particles from moving into it, representing the folding of that section of mRNA. Reopening of the blockage, allowing particles to pass, represents unfolding. We study the effects of the blockage size, closing/opening probabilities, and TASEP parameters on the particle current and blockage switching rates.

  11. Co-evolution of Bacterial Ribosomal Protein S15 with Diverse mRNA Regulatory Structures

    PubMed Central

    Slinger, Betty L.; Newman, Hunter; Lee, Younghan; Pei, Shermin; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein interactions are critical in many biological processes, yet how such interactions affect the evolution of both partners is still unknown. RNA and protein structures are impacted very differently by mechanisms of genomic change. While most protein families are identifiable at the nucleotide level across large phylogenetic distances, RNA families display far less nucleotide similarity and are often only shared by closely related bacterial species. Ribosomal protein S15 has two RNA binding functions. First, it is a ribosomal protein responsible for organizing the rRNA during ribosome assembly. Second, in many bacterial species S15 also interacts with a structured portion of its own transcript to negatively regulate gene expression. While the first interaction is conserved in most bacteria, the second is not. Four distinct mRNA structures interact with S15 to enable regulation, each of which appears to be independently derived in different groups of bacteria. With the goal of understanding how protein-binding specificity may influence the evolution of such RNA regulatory structures, we examine whether examples of these mRNA structures are able to interact with, and regulate in response to, S15 homologs from organisms containing distinct mRNA structures. We find that despite their shared RNA binding function in the rRNA, S15 homologs have distinct RNA recognition profiles. We present a model to explain the specificity patterns observed, and support this model by with further mutagenesis. After analyzing the patterns of conservation for the S15 protein coding sequences, we also identified amino acid changes that alter the binding specificity of an S15 homolog. In this work we demonstrate that homologous RNA-binding proteins have different specificity profiles, and minor changes to amino acid sequences, or to RNA structural motifs, can have large impacts on RNA-protein recognition. PMID:26675164

  12. Co-evolution of Bacterial Ribosomal Protein S15 with Diverse mRNA Regulatory Structures.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Betty L; Newman, Hunter; Lee, Younghan; Pei, Shermin; Meyer, Michelle M

    2015-12-01

    RNA-protein interactions are critical in many biological processes, yet how such interactions affect the evolution of both partners is still unknown. RNA and protein structures are impacted very differently by mechanisms of genomic change. While most protein families are identifiable at the nucleotide level across large phylogenetic distances, RNA families display far less nucleotide similarity and are often only shared by closely related bacterial species. Ribosomal protein S15 has two RNA binding functions. First, it is a ribosomal protein responsible for organizing the rRNA during ribosome assembly. Second, in many bacterial species S15 also interacts with a structured portion of its own transcript to negatively regulate gene expression. While the first interaction is conserved in most bacteria, the second is not. Four distinct mRNA structures interact with S15 to enable regulation, each of which appears to be independently derived in different groups of bacteria. With the goal of understanding how protein-binding specificity may influence the evolution of such RNA regulatory structures, we examine whether examples of these mRNA structures are able to interact with, and regulate in response to, S15 homologs from organisms containing distinct mRNA structures. We find that despite their shared RNA binding function in the rRNA, S15 homologs have distinct RNA recognition profiles. We present a model to explain the specificity patterns observed, and support this model by with further mutagenesis. After analyzing the patterns of conservation for the S15 protein coding sequences, we also identified amino acid changes that alter the binding specificity of an S15 homolog. In this work we demonstrate that homologous RNA-binding proteins have different specificity profiles, and minor changes to amino acid sequences, or to RNA structural motifs, can have large impacts on RNA-protein recognition. PMID:26675164

  13. Metastable structures and refolding kinetics in hok mRNA of plasmid R1.

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, J H; Gultyaev, A P; Gerdes, K; Pleij, C W

    1999-01-01

    Programmed cell death by hok/sok of plasmid R1 and pnd/pndB of R483 mediates plasmid maintenance by killing of plasmid-free cells. It has been previously suggested that premature translation of the plasmid-mediated toxin is prevented during transcription of the hok and pnd mRNAs by the formation of metastable hairpins in the mRNA at the 5' end. Here, experimental evidence is presented for the existence of metastable structures in the 5' leader of the hok and pnd mRNAs in vitro. The kinetics of refolding from the metastable to the stable structure in the isolated fragments of the 5' ends of both the hok and pnd mRNAs could be estimated, in agreement with the structural rearrangement in this region, as predicted to occur during transcription and mRNA activation. The refolding rates of hok and pnd structures are slow enough to allow for the formation of downstream hairpin structures during elongation of the mRNAs, which thereby helps to stabilize the metastable structures. Thus, the kinetic refolding parameters of the hok and pnd mRNAs are consistent with the proposal that the metastable structures prevent premature translation and/or antisense RNA binding during transcription. PMID:10580469

  14. Prediction of protein folding rates from simplified secondary structure alphabet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Protein folding is a very complicated and highly cooperative dynamic process. However, the folding kinetics is likely to depend more on a few key structural features. Here we find that secondary structures can determine folding rates of only large, multi-state folding proteins and fails to predict those for small, two-state proteins. The importance of secondary structures for protein folding is ordered as: extended β strand > α helix > bend > turn > undefined secondary structure>310 helix > isolated β strand > π helix. Only the first three secondary structures, extended β strand, α helix and bend, can achieve a good correlation with folding rates. This suggests that the rate-limiting step of protein folding would depend upon the formation of regular secondary structures and the buckling of chain. The reduced secondary structure alphabet provides a simplified description for the machine learning applications in protein design. PMID:26247139

  15. Enumeration of Secondary Structure Element Bundles

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-26

    A deterministic algorithm for enumeration of transmembrane protein folds is implemented. Using a set of sparse pairwise atomic distance constraints (such as those obtained from chemical cross-linking, FRET, or dipolar EPR experiments), the algorithm performs an exhaustive search of secondary structure element packing conformations distributed throughout the entire conformational space. The end result is a set of distinct protein conformations which can be scored and refined as part of a process designed for computational elucidationmore » of transmembrane protein structures. Algorithm Overview: The ESSEB algorithm works by dividing the conforrnational space of each secondary structure element (SSE) into a set of cells. For each cell there is a representative conformation and for each atom in the SSE for which a distance restraint is available, there is an associated internal error, The internal error for a distance restraint is the maximum distance that the atom, when positioned in any conformation within a cell, can be from the atom in the representative conformation. The algorithm works recursively by positioning one representative conformation of an SSE. AdI distance restraints are checked with a tolerance that includes both the experimental and internal error. If all restraints are satisfied, every representative conformation of the next SSE is checked, otherwise, the program moves on to the next representative conformation of the current SSE. In addition to the distance restraints, other constraints on protein conformation can be enforced. These include the distance of closest approach between SSE axes, a restraint which prevents the crossover of loops connecting adjacent SSEs, and a restriction on the minimum and maximum distances between axis end-points. Any protein conformation satisfying all of the restraints is enumerated for later scoring and possible refinement. Additionally, in order to make run-times feasible, a divide-and-conquer approach is used

  16. Secondary structure adventures with Carl Woese.

    PubMed

    Noller, Harry F

    2014-01-01

    Not long after my arrival at UCSC as an assistant professor, I came across Carl Woese's paper "Molecular Mechanics of Translation: A Reciprocating Ratchet Mechanism." (1) In the days before the crystal structure of tRNA was known, Fuller and Hodgson (2) had proposed two alternative conformations for its anticodon loop; one was stacked on the 3' side (as later found in the crystal structure) and the other on the 5' side. In an ingenious and elegant model, Woese proposed that the conformation of the loop flips between Fuller and Hodgson's 5'- and 3'-stacked forms during protein synthesis, changing the local direction of the mRNA such that the identities of the tRNA binding sites alternated between binding aminoacyl-tRNA and peptidyl-tRNA. The model predicted that there are no A and P sites, only two binding sites whose identities changed following translation of each codon, and that there would be no translocation of tRNAs in the usual sense--only binding and release. I met Carl in person the following year when he presented a seminar on his ratchet model in Santa Cruz. He was chatting in my colleague Ralph Hinegardner's office in what Carl termed a "Little Jack Horner appointment" (the visitor sits and listens to his host describing "What a good boy am I"). He was of compact stature, and bore a striking resemblance to Oskar Werner in Truffaut's film "Jules and Jim." He projected the impression of a New-Age guru--a shiny black amulet suspended over the front of his black turtleneck sweater and a crown of prematurely white hair. Ralph asked me to explain to Carl what we were doing with ribosomes. I quickly summarized our early experiments that were pointing to a functional role for 16S rRNA. Carl regarded me silently, with a penetrating stare. He then turned to Ralph and said, in an ominous low voice, "I'm going to have some more tanks made as soon as I get back." Carl's beautiful model was, unfortunately, wrong--it was simpler and more elegant than the complex

  17. Secondary structure adventures with Carl Woese

    PubMed Central

    Noller, Harry F

    2014-01-01

    Not long after my arrival at UCSC as an assistant professor, I came across Carl Woese's paper “Molecular Mechanics of Translation: A Reciprocating Ratchet Mechanism.”1 In the days before the crystal structure of tRNA was known, Fuller and Hodgson2 had proposed two alternative conformations for its anticodon loop; one was stacked on the 3′ side (as later found in the crystal structure) and the other on the 5′ side. In an ingenious and elegant model, Woese proposed that the conformation of the loop flips between Fuller and Hodgson's 5′- and 3′-stacked forms during protein synthesis, changing the local direction of the mRNA such that the identities of the tRNA binding sites alternated between binding aminoacyl-tRNA and peptidyl-tRNA. The model predicted that there are no A and P sites, only two binding sites whose identities changed following translation of each codon, and that there would be no translocation of tRNAs in the usual sense—only binding and release. I met Carl in person the following year when he presented a seminar on his ratchet model in Santa Cruz. He was chatting in my colleague Ralph Hinegardner's office in what Carl termed a “Little Jack Horner appointment” (the visitor sits and listens to his host describing “What a good boy am I”). He was of compact stature, and bore a striking resemblance to Oskar Werner in Truffaut's film “Jules and Jim.” He projected the impression of a New-Age guru—a shiny black amulet suspended over the front of his black turtleneck sweater and a crown of prematurely white hair. Ralph asked me to explain to Carl what we were doing with ribosomes. I quickly summarized our early experiments that were pointing to a functional role for 16S rRNA. Carl regarded me silently, with a penetrating stare. He then turned to Ralph and said, in an ominous low voice, “I'm going to have some more tanks made as soon as I get back.” Carl's beautiful model was, unfortunately, wrong—it was simpler and more

  18. Regulation of cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected secondary plant metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Klausen, Christina Lindgaard; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has been shown to induce enzymes of pharmacokinetic relevance (cytochrome P450; CYP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selected secondary plant metabolites with a global extract of chicory root, on the expression of hepatic CYP mRNA (1A2, 2A19, 2C33, 2D25, 2E1 and 3A29), using primary porcine hepatocytes. Of the tested secondary plant metabolites, artemisinin, scoparone, lactucin and esculetin all induced increased expression of specific CYPs, while esculin showed no effect. In contrast, a global extract of chicory root decreased the expression of CYP1A2, 2C33, 2D25 and 3A29 at high concentrations. The results suggest that purified secondary metabolites from chicory affect CYP expression and thereby might affect detoxification in general, and that global extracts of plants can have effects different from individual components. PMID:24176340

  19. RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by Using Discrete Mathematics: An Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems. PMID:20810968

  20. RNA secondary structure prediction by using discrete mathematics: an interdisciplinary research experience for undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James; Nkwanta, Asamoah

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses discrete mathematical techniques and identifies specified base pairs as parameters. The goal of the REU was to introduce upper-level undergraduate students to the principles and challenges of interdisciplinary research in molecular biology and discrete mathematics. At the beginning of the project, students from the biology and mathematics departments of a mid-sized university received instruction on the role of secondary structure in the function of eukaryotic RNAs and RNA viruses, RNA related to combinatorics, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information resources. The student research projects focused on RNA secondary structure prediction on a regulatory region of the yellow fever virus RNA genome and on an untranslated region of an mRNA of a gene associated with the neurological disorder epilepsy. At the end of the project, the REU students gave poster and oral presentations, and they submitted written final project reports to the program director. The outcome of the REU was that the students gained transferable knowledge and skills in bioinformatics and an awareness of the applications of discrete mathematics to biological research problems. PMID:20810968

  1. Neural network definitions of highly predictable protein secondary structure classes

    SciTech Connect

    Lapedes, A. |; Steeg, E.; Farber, R.

    1994-02-01

    We use two co-evolving neural networks to determine new classes of protein secondary structure which are significantly more predictable from local amino sequence than the conventional secondary structure classification. Accurate prediction of the conventional secondary structure classes: alpha helix, beta strand, and coil, from primary sequence has long been an important problem in computational molecular biology. Neural networks have been a popular method to attempt to predict these conventional secondary structure classes. Accuracy has been disappointingly low. The algorithm presented here uses neural networks to similtaneously examine both sequence and structure data, and to evolve new classes of secondary structure that can be predicted from sequence with significantly higher accuracy than the conventional classes. These new classes have both similarities to, and differences with the conventional alpha helix, beta strand and coil.

  2. Widespread signatures of local mRNA folding structure selection in four Dengue virus serotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is known that mRNA folding can affect and regulate various gene expression steps both in living organisms and in viruses. Previous studies have recognized functional RNA structures in the genome of the Dengue virus. However, these studies usually focused either on the viral untranslated regions or on very specific and limited regions at the beginning of the coding sequences, in a limited number of strains, and without considering evolutionary selection. Results Here we performed the first large scale comprehensive genomics analysis of selection for local mRNA folding strength in the Dengue virus coding sequences, based on a total of 1,670 genomes and 4 serotypes. Our analysis identified clusters of positions along the coding regions that may undergo a conserved evolutionary selection for strong or weak local folding maintained across different viral variants. Specifically, 53-66 clusters for strong folding and 49-73 clusters for weak folding (depending on serotype) aggregated of positions with a significant conservation of folding energy signals (related to partially overlapping local genomic regions) were recognized. In addition, up to 7% of these positions were found to be conserved in more than 90% of the viral genomes. Although some of the identified positions undergo frequent synonymous / non-synonymous substitutions, the selection for folding strength therein is preserved, and thus cannot be trivially explained based on sequence conservation alone. Conclusions The fact that many of the positions with significant folding related signals are conserved among different Dengue variants suggests that a better understanding of the mRNA structures in the corresponding regions may promote the development of prospective anti- Dengue vaccination strategies. The comparative genomics approach described here can be employed in the future for detecting functional regions in other pathogens with very high mutations rates. PMID:26449467

  3. A novel approach to represent and compare RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Eugenio; Ausiello, Gabriele; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Structural information is crucial in ribonucleic acid (RNA) analysis and functional annotation; nevertheless, how to include such structural data is still a debated problem. Dot-bracket notation is the most common and simple representation for RNA secondary structures but its simplicity leads also to ambiguity requiring further processing steps to dissolve. Here we present BEAR (Brand nEw Alphabet for RNA), a new context-aware structural encoding represented by a string of characters. Each character in BEAR encodes for a specific secondary structure element (loop, stem, bulge and internal loop) with specific length. Furthermore, exploiting this informative and yet simple encoding in multiple alignments of related RNAs, we captured how much structural variation is tolerated in RNA families and convert it into transition rates among secondary structure elements. This allowed us to compute a substitution matrix for secondary structure elements called MBR (Matrix of BEAR-encoded RNA secondary structures), of which we tested the ability in aligning RNA secondary structures. We propose BEAR and the MBR as powerful resources for the RNA secondary structure analysis, comparison and classification, motif finding and phylogeny. PMID:24753415

  4. Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and up-regulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Grünewald, K; Eckert, M; Hirschberg, J; Hagen, C

    2000-04-01

    The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is known for its massive accumulation of ketocarotenoids under various stress conditions. Therefore, this microalga is one of the favored organisms for biotechnological production of these antioxidative compounds. Astaxanthin makes up the main part of the secondary carotenoids and is accumulated mostly in an esterified form in extraplastidic lipid vesicles. We have studied phytoene desaturase, an early enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. The increase in the phytoene desaturase protein levels that occurs following induction is accompanied by a corresponding increase of its mRNA during the accumulation period, indicating that phytoene desaturase is regulated at the mRNA level. We also investigated the localization of the enzyme by western-blot analysis of cell fractions and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections for electron microscopy. In spite of the fact that secondary carotenoids accumulate outside the chloroplast, no extra pathway specific for secondary carotenoid biosynthesis in H. pluvialis was found, at least at this early stage in the biosynthesis. A transport process of carotenoids from the site of biosynthesis (chloroplast) to the site of accumulation (cytoplasmatic located lipid vesicles) is implicated. PMID:10759523

  5. Crystal Structure of the Lysine Riboswitch Regulatory mRNA Element*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Garst, Andrew D.; Héroux, Annie; Rambo, Robert P.; Batey, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Riboswitches are metabolite-sensitive elements found in mRNAs that control gene expression through a regulatory secondary structural switch. Along with regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes, mutations within the lysine-responsive riboswitch (L-box) play a role in the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobial lysine analogs. To understand the structural basis for lysine binding, we have determined the 2.8Å resolution crystal structure of lysine bound to the Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals a complex architecture scaffolding a binding pocket completely enveloping lysine. Mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance cluster around this site as well as highly conserved long range interactions, indicating that they disrupt lysine binding or proper folding of the RNA. Comparison of the free and bound forms by x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and chemical probing reveals almost identical structures, indicating that lysine induces only limited and local conformational changes upon binding. PMID:18593706

  6. Crystal structure of the lysine riboswitch regulatory mRNA element.

    PubMed

    Garst, Andrew D; Héroux, Annie; Rambo, Robert P; Batey, Robert T

    2008-08-15

    Riboswitches are metabolite-sensitive elements found in mRNAs that control gene expression through a regulatory secondary structural switch. Along with regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes, mutations within the lysine-responsive riboswitch (L-box) play a role in the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobial lysine analogs. To understand the structural basis for lysine binding, we have determined the 2.8 angstroms resolution crystal structure of lysine bound to the Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals a complex architecture scaffolding a binding pocket completely enveloping lysine. Mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance cluster around this site as well as highly conserved long range interactions, indicating that they disrupt lysine binding or proper folding of the RNA. Comparison of the free and bound forms by x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and chemical probing reveals almost identical structures, indicating that lysine induces only limited and local conformational changes upon binding. PMID:18593706

  7. Crystal Structure of the Lysine Riboswitch Regulatory mRNA Element

    SciTech Connect

    Garst, A.; Heroux, A; Rambo, R; Batey, R

    2008-01-01

    Riboswitches are metabolite-sensitive elements found in mRNAs that control gene expression through a regulatory secondary structural switch. Along with regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes, mutations within the lysine-responsive riboswitch (L-box) play a role in the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobial lysine analogs. To understand the structural basis for lysine binding, we have determined the 2.8{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of lysine bound to the Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals a complex architecture scaffolding a binding pocket completely enveloping lysine. Mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance cluster around this site as well as highly conserved long range interactions, indicating that they disrupt lysine binding or proper folding of the RNA. Comparison of the free and bound forms by x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and chemical probing reveals almost identical structures, indicating that lysine induces only limited and local conformational changes upon binding.

  8. Resistance of mRNAs with AUG-proximal nonsense mutations to nonsense-mediated decay reflects variables of mRNA structure and translational activity

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco J.C.; Teixeira, Alexandre; Kong, Jian; Barbosa, Cristina; Silva, Ana Luísa; Marques-Ramos, Ana; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Romão, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that recognizes and selectively degrades mRNAs carrying premature termination codons (PTCs). The level of sensitivity of a PTC-containing mRNA to NMD is multifactorial. We have previously shown that human β-globin mRNAs carrying PTCs in close proximity to the translation initiation AUG codon escape NMD. This was called the ‘AUG-proximity effect’. The present analysis of nonsense codons in the human α-globin mRNA illustrates that the determinants of the AUG-proximity effect are in fact quite complex, reflecting the ability of the ribosome to re-initiate translation 3′ to the PTC and the specific sequence and secondary structure of the translated ORF. These data support a model in which the time taken to translate the short ORF, impacted by distance, sequence, and structure, not only modulates translation re-initiation, but also impacts on the exact boundary of AUG-proximity protection from NMD. PMID:26068473

  9. Protein secondary structure classification revisited: processing DSSP information with PSSC.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Jan; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2014-07-28

    A first step toward three-dimensional protein structure description is the characterization of secondary structure. The most widely used program for secondary structure assignment remains DSSP, introduced in 1983, with currently more than 400 citations per year. DSSP output is in a one-letter representation, where much of the information on DSSP's internal description is lost. Recently it became evident that DSSP overlooks most π-helical structures, which are more prevalent and important than anticipated before. We introduce an alternative concept, representing the internal structure characterization of DSSP as an eight-character string that is human-interpretable and easy to parse by software. We demonstrate how our protein secondary structure characterization (PSSC) code allows for inspection of complicated structural features. It recognizes ten times more π-helical residues than does the standard DSSP. The plausibility of introduced changes in interpreting DSSP information is demonstrated by better clustering of secondary structures in (φ, ψ) dihedral angle space. With a sliding sequence window (SSW), helical assignments with PSSC remain invariant compared with an assignment based on the complete structure. In contrast, assignment with DSSP can be changed by residues in the neighborhood that are in fact not interacting with the residue under consideration. We demonstrate how one can easily define new secondary structure classification schemes with PSSC and perform the classifications. Our approach works without changing the DSSP source code and allows for more detailed protein characterization. PMID:24866861

  10. Unified approach to partition functions of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    RNA secondary structure formation is a field of considerable biological interest as well as a model system for understanding generic properties of heteropolymer folding. This system is particularly attractive because the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties of RNA secondary structure ensembles can be calculated numerically in polynomial time for arbitrary sequences and homopolymer models admit analytical solutions. Such solutions for many different aspects of the combinatorics of RNA secondary structure formation share the property that the final solution depends on differences of statistical weights rather than on the weights alone. Here, we present a unified approach to a large class of problems in the field of RNA secondary structure formation. We prove a generic theorem for the calculation of RNA folding partition functions. Then, we show that this approach can be applied to the study of the molten-native transition, denaturation of RNA molecules, as well as to studies of the glass phase of random RNA sequences. PMID:24177391

  11. Combinatorics of RNA Secondary Structures with Base Triples.

    PubMed

    Müller, Robert; Nebel, Markus E

    2015-07-01

    The structure of RNA has been the subject of intense research over the last decades due to its importance for the correct functioning of RNA molecules in biological processes. Hence, a large number of models for RNA folding and corresponding algorithms for structure prediction have been developed. However, previous models often only consider base pairs, although every base is capable of up to three edge-to-edge interactions with other bases. Recently, Höner zu Siederdissen et al. presented an extended model of RNA secondary structure, including base triples together with a folding algorithm-the first thermodynamics-based algorithm that allows the prediction of secondary structures with base triples. In this article, we investigate the search space processed by this new algorithm, that is, the combinatorics of extended RNA secondary structures with base triples. We present generalized definitions for structural motifs like hairpins, stems, bulges, or interior loops occurring in structures with base triples. Furthermore, we prove precise asymptotic results for the number of different structures (size of search space) and expectations for various parameters associated with structural motifs (typical shape of folding). Our analysis shows that the asymptotic number of secondary structures of size n increases exponentially to [Formula: see text] compared to the classic model by Stein and Waterman for which [Formula: see text] structures exist. A comparison with the classic model reveals large deviations in the expected structural appearance, too. The inclusion of base triples constitutes a significant refinement of the combinatorial model of RNA secondary structure, which, by our findings, is quantitatively characterized. Our results are of special theoretical interest, because a closer look at the numbers involved suggests that extended RNA secondary structures constitute a new combinatorial class not bijective with any other combinatorial objects studied so far. PMID

  12. BRASERO: A Resource for Benchmarking RNA Secondary Structure Comparison Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Allali, Julien; Saule, Cédric; Chauve, Cédric; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Denise, Alain; Drevet, Christine; Ferraro, Pascal; Gautheret, Daniel; Herrbach, Claire; Leclerc, Fabrice; de Monte, Antoine; Ouangraoua, Aida; Sagot, Marie-France; Termier, Michel; Thermes, Claude; Touzet, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The pairwise comparison of RNA secondary structures is a fundamental problem, with direct application in mining databases for annotating putative noncoding RNA candidates in newly sequenced genomes. An increasing number of software tools are available for comparing RNA secondary structures, based on different models (such as ordered trees or forests, arc annotated sequences, and multilevel trees) and computational principles (edit distance, alignment). We describe here the website BRASERO that offers tools for evaluating such software tools on real and synthetic datasets. PMID:22675348

  13. Higher plant Ca(2+)-ATPase: primary structure and regulation of mRNA abundance by salt.

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, L E; Ewing, N N; Bennett, A B

    1992-01-01

    Calcium-dependent regulatory mechanisms participate in diverse developmentally, hormonally, and environmentally regulated processes, with the precise control of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration being critical to such mechanisms. In plant cells, P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases localized in the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum are thought to play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity has been identified in isolated plant cell membranes, but the protein has not been characterized at the molecular level. We have isolated a partial-length cDNA (LCA1) and a complete genomic clone (gLCA13) encoding a putative endoplasmic reticulum-localized Ca(2+)-ATPase in tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a protein (Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase) of 1048 amino acids with a molecular mass of 116 kDa, eight probable transmembrane domains, and all of the highly conserved functional domains common to P-type cation-translocating ATPases. In addition, the protein shares approximately 50% amino acid sequence identify with animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases but less than 30% identity with other P-type ATPases. Genomic DNA blot hybridization analysis indicates that the Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase is encoded by a single gene. RNA blot hybridization analysis indicates the presence of three transcript sizes in root tissue and a single, much less abundant, transcript in leaves. Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase mRNA levels increase dramatically upon a 1-day exposure to 50 mM NaCl. Thus this report describes the primary structure of a higher-plant Ca(2+)-ATPase and the regulation of its mRNA abundance by salt stress. Images PMID:1384045

  14. The RNA Structure of cis-acting Translational Elements of the Chloroplast psbC mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Mir Munir A.; Vigneault, Frederic; Zerges, William

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II is the first of two light-driven oxidoreductase complexes in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of photosystem II requires the synthesis of polypeptide subunits encoded by the genomes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. In the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the synthesis of each subunit requires interactions between the 5′ UTR of the mRNA encoding it and gene-specific translation factors. Here, we analyze the sequences and structures in the 5′ UTR of the psbC mRNA, which are known to be required to promote translation and genetic interaction with TBC1, a nuclear gene required specifically for psbC translation. Results of enzymatic probing in vitro and chemical probing in vivo and in vitro support three secondary structures and reveal that one participates in a pseudoknot structure. Analyses of the effects of mutations affecting pseudoknot sequences, by structural mapping and thermal gradient gel electrophoresis, reveal that flexibility at the base of the major stem-loop is required for translation and higher order RNA conformation, and suggest that this conformation is stabilized by TBC1. This RNA pseudoknot tertiary structure is analogous to the internal ribosome entry sites that promote translation of certain viruses and cellular mRNAs in the nuclear-cytoplasmic systems of eukaryotes. PMID:27379123

  15. The RNA Structure of cis-acting Translational Elements of the Chloroplast psbC mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Mir Munir A; Vigneault, Frederic; Zerges, William

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II is the first of two light-driven oxidoreductase complexes in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of photosystem II requires the synthesis of polypeptide subunits encoded by the genomes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. In the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the synthesis of each subunit requires interactions between the 5' UTR of the mRNA encoding it and gene-specific translation factors. Here, we analyze the sequences and structures in the 5' UTR of the psbC mRNA, which are known to be required to promote translation and genetic interaction with TBC1, a nuclear gene required specifically for psbC translation. Results of enzymatic probing in vitro and chemical probing in vivo and in vitro support three secondary structures and reveal that one participates in a pseudoknot structure. Analyses of the effects of mutations affecting pseudoknot sequences, by structural mapping and thermal gradient gel electrophoresis, reveal that flexibility at the base of the major stem-loop is required for translation and higher order RNA conformation, and suggest that this conformation is stabilized by TBC1. This RNA pseudoknot tertiary structure is analogous to the internal ribosome entry sites that promote translation of certain viruses and cellular mRNAs in the nuclear-cytoplasmic systems of eukaryotes. PMID:27379123

  16. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1–3 and 7–8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4–6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so. PMID:19901328

  17. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.

    2011-11-02

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1-3 and 7-8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4-6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so.

  18. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.

    2010-08-19

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1-3 and 7-8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4-6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so.

  19. Predicting RNA secondary structures from sequence and probing data.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Ronny; Wolfinger, Michael T; Tanzer, Andrea; Hofacker, Ivo L

    2016-07-01

    RNA secondary structures have proven essential for understanding the regulatory functions performed by RNA such as microRNAs, bacterial small RNAs, or riboswitches. This success is in part due to the availability of efficient computational methods for predicting RNA secondary structures. Recent advances focus on dealing with the inherent uncertainty of prediction by considering the ensemble of possible structures rather than the single most stable one. Moreover, the advent of high-throughput structural probing has spurred the development of computational methods that incorporate such experimental data as auxiliary information. PMID:27064083

  20. Principles for Predicting RNA Secondary Structure Design Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Lee, Jeff; Fisker, Eli; Kosaraju, Vineet; Wu, Michelle; Kong, Justin; Lee, Jeehyung; Lee, Minjae; Zada, Mathew; Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2016-02-27

    Designing RNAs that form specific secondary structures is enabling better understanding and control of living systems through RNA-guided silencing, genome editing and protein organization. Little is known, however, about which RNA secondary structures might be tractable for downstream sequence design, increasing the time and expense of design efforts due to inefficient secondary structure choices. Here, we present insights into specific structural features that increase the difficulty of finding sequences that fold into a target RNA secondary structure, summarizing the design efforts of tens of thousands of human participants and three automated algorithms (RNAInverse, INFO-RNA and RNA-SSD) in the Eterna massive open laboratory. Subsequent tests through three independent RNA design algorithms (NUPACK, DSS-Opt and MODENA) confirmed the hypothesized importance of several features in determining design difficulty, including sequence length, mean stem length, symmetry and specific difficult-to-design motifs such as zigzags. Based on these results, we have compiled an Eterna100 benchmark of 100 secondary structure design challenges that span a large range in design difficulty to help test future efforts. Our in silico results suggest new routes for improving computational RNA design methods and for extending these insights to assess "designability" of single RNA structures, as well as of switches for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26902426

  1. Probing dimensionality beyond the linear sequence of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-05-01

    mRNA is a nexus entity between DNA and translating ribosomes. Recent developments in deep sequencing technologies coupled with structural probing have revealed new insights beyond the classic role of mRNA and place it more centrally as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation, cellular localization, and mRNA degradation. Here, we highlight emerging approaches to probe mRNA secondary structure on a global transcriptome-wide level and compare their potential and resolution. Combined approaches deliver a richer and more complex picture. While our understanding on the effect of secondary structure for various cellular processes is quite advanced, the next challenge is to unravel more complex mRNA architectures and tertiary interactions. PMID:26650615

  2. Structure-function Studies of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport of Retroviral Genomic RNA by mRNA Export Factor TAP

    SciTech Connect

    M Teplova; L Wohlbold; N Khin; E Izaurralde; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    mRNA export is mediated by the TAP-p15 heterodimer, which belongs to the family of NTF2-like export receptors. TAP-p15 heterodimers also bind to the constitutive transport element (CTE) present in simian type D retroviral RNAs, and they mediate the export of viral unspliced RNAs to the host cytoplasm. We have solved the crystal structure of the RNA recognition and leucine-rich repeat motifs of TAP bound to one symmetrical half of the CTE RNA. L-shaped conformations of protein and RNA are involved in a mutual molecular embrace on complex formation. We have monitored the impact of structure-guided mutations on binding affinities in vitro and transport assays in vivo. Our studies define the principles by which CTE RNA subverts the mRNA export receptor TAP, thereby facilitating the nuclear export of viral genomic RNAs, and, more generally, provide insights on cargo RNA recognition by mRNA export receptors.

  3. Secondary Structure and Secondary Structure Dynamics of DNA Hairpins Complexed with HIV-1 NC Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth J.; Zeng, Yining; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; O'Connor, Donald B.; Eta-Hosokawa, Chie; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several complex nucleic acid rearrangement steps that are catalyzed by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC), including for example, the annealing of the transactivation response (TAR) region of the viral RNA to the complementary region (TAR DNA) in minus-strand strong-stop DNA. We report herein single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements on single immobilized TAR DNA hairpins and hairpin mutants complexed with NC (i.e., TAR DNA/NC). Using this approach we have explored the conformational distribution and dynamics of the hairpins in the presence and absence of NC protein. The data demonstrate that NC shifts the equilibrium secondary structure of TAR DNA hairpins from a fully “closed” conformation to essentially one specific “partially open” conformation. In this specific conformation, the two terminal stems are “open” or unwound and the other stems are closed. This partially open conformation is arguably a key TAR DNA intermediate in the NC-induced annealing mechanism of TAR DNA. PMID:15454467

  4. The Structural Basis for mRNA Recognition and Cleavage by the Ribosome-Dependent Endonuclease RelE

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Cajetan; Gao, Yong-Gui; Andersen, Kasper R.; Dunham, Christine M.; Kelley, Ann C.; Hentschel, Jendrik; Gerdes, Kenn; Ramakrishnan, V.; Brodersen, Ditlev E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Translational control is widely used to adjust gene expression levels. During the stringent response in bacteria, mRNA is degraded on the ribosome by the ribosome-dependent endonuclease, RelE. The molecular basis for recognition of the ribosome and mRNA by RelE and the mechanism of cleavage are unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of E. coli RelE in isolation (2.5 Å) and bound to programmed Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosomes before (3.3 Å) and after (3.6 Å) cleavage. RelE occupies the A site and causes cleavage of mRNA after the second nucleotide of the codon by reorienting and activating the mRNA for 2′-OH-induced hydrolysis. Stacking of A site codon bases with conserved residues in RelE and 16S rRNA explains the requirement for the ribosome in catalysis and the subtle sequence specificity of the reaction. These structures provide detailed insight into the translational regulation on the bacterial ribosome by mRNA cleavage. PMID:20005802

  5. The 5'-3' distance of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Yoffe and colleagues observed that the average distances between 5'-3' ends of RNA molecules are very small and largely independent of sequence length. This observation is based on numerical computations as well as theoretical arguments maximizing certain entropy functionals. In this article, we compute the exact distribution of 5'-3' distances of RNA secondary structures for any finite n. Furthermore, we compute the limit distribution and show that for n = 30 the exact distribution and the limit distribution are very close. Our results show that the distances of random RNA secondary structures are distinctively lower than those of minimum free energy structures of random RNA sequences. PMID:22731624

  6. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure-function relationship. PMID:26978354

  7. SRP-RNA sequence alignment and secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Zwieb, C

    1991-01-01

    The secondary structures of the RNAs from the signal recognition particle, termed SRP-RNA, were derived buy comparative analyses of an alignment of 39 sequences. The models are minimal in that only base pairs are included for which there is comparative evidence. The structures represent refinements of earlier versions and include a new short helix. PMID:1707519

  8. Functional and Structural Analysis of the Internal Ribosome Entry Site Present in the mRNA of Natural Variants of the HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Carvajal, Felipe; Pino, Karla; Navarrete, Camilo; Ferres, Marcela; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The 5′untranslated regions (UTR) of the full length mRNA of the HIV-1 proviral clones pNL4.3 and pLAI, harbor an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study we extend this finding by demonstrating that the mRNA 5′UTRs of natural variants of HIV-1 also exhibit IRES-activity. Cap-independent translational activity was demonstrated using bicistronic mRNAs in HeLa cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The possibility that expression of the downstream cistron in these constructs was due to alternative splicing or to cryptic promoter activity was ruled out. The HIV-1 variants exhibited significant 5′UTR nucleotide diversity with respect to the control sequence recovered from pNL4.3. Interestingly, translational activity from the 5′UTR of some of the HIV-1 variants was enhanced relative to that observed for the 5′UTR of pNL4.3. In an attempt to explain these findings we probed the secondary structure of the variant HIV-1 5′UTRs using enzymatic and chemical approaches. Yet subsequent structural analyses did not reveal significant variations when compared to the pNL4.3-5′UTR. Thus, the increased IRES-activity observed for some of the HIV-1 variants cannot be ascribed to a specific structural modification. A model to explain these findings is proposed. PMID:22496887

  9. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure–function relationship. PMID:26978354

  10. Mechanical tuning of elastomers via peptide secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanasekara, Nandula; Johnson, J. Casey; Korley, Lashanda T. J.

    2014-03-01

    Nature utilizes an array of design tools for engineering materials with multiple functions and tunable mechanical properties. The precise control of hierarchical structure, self-assembly, and secondary structure is essential to achieve the desired properties in bio-inspired materials design. We have developed a series of peptidic-poyurea hybrids to determine the effects of peptide secondary structure and hydrogen bonding arrangement on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties. These materials were fabricated by incorporating peptide segments containing either poly(β-benzyl-L-aspartate) or poly(ɛ-carbobenzyloxy-L-lysine) into non-chain extended polyureas to form either β-sheets or α-helix conformations based on peptide length. Infrared analysis proved the retention of peptide secondary structure when incorporated into peptidic-polyureas. The polymers containing β-sheet forming peptide blocks exhibited higher modulus and toughness due to intermolecular H-bonding. Additionally, higher peptide weight fractions lead to higher plateau moduli due to a transition of continuous domain morphology from a soft segment continuous to a fibrous and interconnected stiffer peptide domain. All the polymers exhibited microphase separated morphology with nanofibrous or ribbon-like structures. It is observed that fiber aspect ratio and percolation were influenced by the peptide secondary structure and the weight fraction.

  11. Quantifying variances in comparative RNA secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the advancement of next-generation sequencing and transcriptomics technologies, regulatory effects involving RNA, in particular RNA structural changes are being detected. These results often rely on RNA secondary structure predictions. However, current approaches to RNA secondary structure modelling produce predictions with a high variance in predictive accuracy, and we have little quantifiable knowledge about the reasons for these variances. Results In this paper we explore a number of factors which can contribute to poor RNA secondary structure prediction quality. We establish a quantified relationship between alignment quality and loss of accuracy. Furthermore, we define two new measures to quantify uncertainty in alignment-based structure predictions. One of the measures improves on the “reliability score” reported by PPfold, and considers alignment uncertainty as well as base-pair probabilities. The other measure considers the information entropy for SCFGs over a space of input alignments. Conclusions Our predictive accuracy improves on the PPfold reliability score. We can successfully characterize many of the underlying reasons for and variances in poor prediction. However, there is still variability unaccounted for, which we therefore suggest comes from the RNA secondary structure predictive model itself. PMID:23634662

  12. Statistical mechanics of secondary structures formed by random RNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2003-03-01

    In addition to its importance for the biological function of RNA molecules RNA secondary structure formation is an interesting system from the statistical physics point of view. The ensemble of secondary structures of random RNA sequences shows a rich phase diagram with distinct native, denatured, molten, and glassy phases separated by thermodynamical phase transitions. These phase transitions are driven by the competition between thermal fluctuations, the disorder frozen into the specific sequence of a given RNA molecule, and the evolutionary bias towards the formation of some biologically relevant structure. Yet, in contrast to the protein folding problem which is driven by very similar principles and shows a similar phase diagram RNA secondary structure formation can be represented by a simple diagrammatic language which allows the application of various analytical and numerical methods. This makes RNA secondary structure formation an ideal model system for heteropolymer folding. In the talk, I will characterize and explain the complex behaviour of RNA folding using several simple models and discuss possible implications to biological processes.

  13. A novel fold recognition method using composite predicted secondary structures.

    PubMed

    An, Yuling; Friesner, Richard A

    2002-08-01

    In this work, we introduce a new method for fold recognition using composite secondary structures assembled from different secondary structure prediction servers for a given target sequence. An automatic, complete, and robust way of finding all possible combinations of predicted secondary structure segments (SSS) for the target sequence and clustering them into a few flexible clusters, each containing patterns with the same number of SSS, is developed. This program then takes two steps in choosing plausible homologues: (i) a SSS-based alignment excludes impossible templates whose SSS patterns are very different from any of those of the target; (ii) a residue-based alignment selects good structural templates based on sequence similarity and secondary structure similarity between the target and only those templates left in the first stage. The secondary structure of each residue in the target is selected from one of the predictions to find the best match with the template. Truncation is applied to a target where different predictions vary. In most cases, a target is also divided into N-terminal and C-terminal fragments, each of which is used as a separate subsequence. Our program was tested on the fold recognition targets from CASP3 with known PDB codes and some available targets from CASP4. The results are compared with a structural homologue list for each target produced by the CE program (Shindyalov and Bourne, Protein Eng 1998;11:739-747). The program successfully locates homologues with high Z-score and low root-mean-score deviation within the top 30-50 predictions in the overwhelming majority of cases. PMID:12112702

  14. JPred4: a protein secondary structure prediction server.

    PubMed

    Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Cole, Christian; Procter, James; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2015-07-01

    JPred4 (http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/jpred4) is the latest version of the popular JPred protein secondary structure prediction server which provides predictions by the JNet algorithm, one of the most accurate methods for secondary structure prediction. In addition to protein secondary structure, JPred also makes predictions of solvent accessibility and coiled-coil regions. The JPred service runs up to 94 000 jobs per month and has carried out over 1.5 million predictions in total for users in 179 countries. The JPred4 web server has been re-implemented in the Bootstrap framework and JavaScript to improve its design, usability and accessibility from mobile devices. JPred4 features higher accuracy, with a blind three-state (α-helix, β-strand and coil) secondary structure prediction accuracy of 82.0% while solvent accessibility prediction accuracy has been raised to 90% for residues <5% accessible. Reporting of results is enhanced both on the website and through the optional email summaries and batch submission results. Predictions are now presented in SVG format with options to view full multiple sequence alignments with and without gaps and insertions. Finally, the help-pages have been updated and tool-tips added as well as step-by-step tutorials. PMID:25883141

  15. JPred4: a protein secondary structure prediction server

    PubMed Central

    Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Cole, Christian; Procter, James; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    JPred4 (http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/jpred4) is the latest version of the popular JPred protein secondary structure prediction server which provides predictions by the JNet algorithm, one of the most accurate methods for secondary structure prediction. In addition to protein secondary structure, JPred also makes predictions of solvent accessibility and coiled-coil regions. The JPred service runs up to 94 000 jobs per month and has carried out over 1.5 million predictions in total for users in 179 countries. The JPred4 web server has been re-implemented in the Bootstrap framework and JavaScript to improve its design, usability and accessibility from mobile devices. JPred4 features higher accuracy, with a blind three-state (α-helix, β-strand and coil) secondary structure prediction accuracy of 82.0% while solvent accessibility prediction accuracy has been raised to 90% for residues <5% accessible. Reporting of results is enhanced both on the website and through the optional email summaries and batch submission results. Predictions are now presented in SVG format with options to view full multiple sequence alignments with and without gaps and insertions. Finally, the help-pages have been updated and tool-tips added as well as step-by-step tutorials. PMID:25883141

  16. Small Molecule Ligands for Bulged RNA Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, S. Todd; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A class of wedge-shaped small molecules has been designed, synthesized, and shown to bind bulged RNA secondary structures. These minimally cationic ligands exhibit good affinity and selectivity for certain RNA bulges as demonstrated in a fluorescent intercalator displacement assay. PMID:19678613

  17. Refinement by shifting secondary structure elements improves sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Pei, Jimin; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-03-01

    Constructing a model of a query protein based on its alignment to a homolog with experimentally determined spatial structure (the template) is still the most reliable approach to structure prediction. Alignment errors are the main bottleneck for homology modeling when the query is distantly related to the template. Alignment methods often misalign secondary structural elements by a few residues. Therefore, better alignment solutions can be found within a limited set of local shifts of secondary structures. We present a refinement method to improve pairwise sequence alignments by evaluating alignment variants generated by local shifts of template-defined secondary structures. Our method SFESA is based on a novel scoring function that combines the profile-based sequence score and the structure score derived from residue contacts in a template. Such a combined score frequently selects a better alignment variant among a set of candidate alignments generated by local shifts and leads to overall increase in alignment accuracy. Evaluation of several benchmarks shows that our refinement method significantly improves alignments made by automatic methods such as PROMALS, HHpred and CNFpred. The web server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/sfesa. PMID:25546158

  18. Refinement by shifting secondary structure elements improves sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jing; Pei, Jimin; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing a model of a query protein based on its alignment to a homolog with experimentally determined spatial structure (the template) is still the most reliable approach to structure prediction. Alignment errors are the main bottleneck for homology modeling when the query is distantly related to the template. Alignment methods often misalign secondary structural elements by a few residues. Therefore, better alignment solutions can be found within a limited set of local shifts of secondary structures. We present a refinement method to improve pairwise sequence alignments by evaluating alignment variants generated by local shifts of template-defined secondary structures. Our method SFESA is based on a novel scoring function that combines the profile-based sequence score and the structure score derived from residue contacts in a template. Such a combined score frequently selects a better alignment variant among a set of candidate alignments generated by local shifts and leads to overall increase in alignment accuracy. Evaluation of several benchmarks shows that our refinement method significantly improves alignments made by automatic methods such as PROMALS, HHpred and CNFpred. The web server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/sfesa. PMID:25546158

  19. Protein structure prediction: assembly of secondary structure elements by basin-hopping.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Falk; Vancea, Ioan; Kamat, Sanjay G; Strodel, Birgit

    2014-10-20

    The prediction of protein tertiary structure from primary structure remains a challenging task. One possible approach to this problem is the application of basin-hopping global optimization combined with an all-atom force field. In this work, the efficiency of basin-hopping is improved by introducing an approach that derives tertiary structures from the secondary structure assignments of individual residues. This approach is termed secondary-to-tertiary basin-hopping and benchmarked for three miniproteins: trpzip, trp-cage and ER-10. For each of the three miniproteins, the secondary-to-tertiary basin-hopping approach successfully and reliably predicts their three-dimensional structure. When it is applied to larger proteins, correctly folded structures are obtained. It can be concluded that the assembly of secondary structure elements using basin-hopping is a promising tool for de novo protein structure prediction. PMID:25056272

  20. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Green, James R; Korenberg, Michael J; Aboul-Magd, Mohammed O

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures) from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI), a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at . In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input protein sequence data and also to encode the resulting

  1. Computation of statistical secondary structure of nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K; Kitamura, Y; Yoshikura, H

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a computer analysis of statistical secondary structure of nucleic acids. For a given single stranded nucleic acid, we generated "structure map" which included all the annealing structures in the sequence. The map was transformed into "energy map" by rough approximation; here, the energy level of every pairing structure consisting of more than 2 successive nucleic acid pairs was calculated. By using the "energy map", the probability of occurrence of each annealed structure was computed, i.e., the structure was computed statistically. The basis of computation was the 8-queen problem in the chess game. The validity of our computer programme was checked by computing tRNA structure which has been well established. Successful application of this programme to small nuclear RNAs of various origins is demonstrated. PMID:6198622

  2. Beta-integrin of Anopheles gambiae: mRNA cloning and analysis of structure and expression.

    PubMed

    Mahairaki, V; Lycett, G; Blass, C; Louis, C

    2001-06-01

    We have isolated an mRNA encoding a beta integrin subunit of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Our analysis predicts a protein that is very similar to betaPS, the fruitfly orthologue. The gene is expressed during all developmental stages and it is found in all body parts, including the midgut. Finally, the expression of the gene does not seem to be modulated during blood meals, except for a substantial increase 48 h posthaematophagy, when digestion is nearly complete. PMID:11437913

  3. Structural basis for Pan3 binding to Pan2 and its function in mRNA recruitment and deadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jana; Valkov, Eugene; Allen, Mark D; Meineke, Birthe; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Olsen, Tayla M; Robinson, Carol V; Bycroft, Mark; Stewart, Murray; Passmore, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic Pan2–Pan3 deadenylation complex shortens cytoplasmic mRNA 3′ polyA tails to regulate mRNA stability. Although the exonuclease activity resides in Pan2, efficient deadenylation requires Pan3. The mechanistic role of Pan3 is unclear. Here, we show that Pan3 binds RNA directly both through its pseudokinase/C-terminal domain and via an N-terminal zinc finger that binds polyA RNA specifically. In contrast, isolated Pan2 is unable to bind RNA. Pan3 binds to the region of Pan2 that links its N-terminal WD40 domain to the C-terminal part that contains the exonuclease, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. The crystal structure of the Pan2 linker region bound to a Pan3 homodimer shows how the unusual structural asymmetry of the Pan3 dimer is used to form an extensive high-affinity interaction. This binding allows Pan3 to supply Pan2 with substrate polyA RNA, facilitating efficient mRNA deadenylation by the intact Pan2–Pan3 complex. PMID:24872509

  4. Structural basis for binding the TREX2 complex to nuclear pores, GAL1 localisation and mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Jani, Divyang; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2014-06-01

    The conserved Sac3:Thp1:Sem1:Sus1:Cdc31 (TREX2) complex binds to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and, in addition to integrating mRNA nuclear export with preceding steps in the gene expression pathway, facilitates re-positioning of highly regulated actively transcribing genes (such as GAL1) to NPCs. Although TREX2 is thought to bind NPC protein Nup1, defining the precise role of this interaction has been frustrated by the complex pleiotropic phenotype exhibited by nup1Δ strains. To provide a structural framework for understanding the binding of TREX2 to NPCs and its function in the gene expression pathway, we have determined the structure of the Nup1:TREX2 interaction interface and used this information to engineer a Sac3 variant that impairs NPC binding while not compromising TREX2 assembly. This variant inhibited the NPC association of both de-repressed and activated GAL1 and also produced mRNA export and growth defects. These results indicate that the TREX2:Nup1 interaction facilitates the efficient nuclear export of bulk mRNA together with the re-positioning of GAL1 to NPCs that is required for transcriptional control that is mediated by removal of SUMO from repressors by NPC-bound Ulp1. PMID:24705649

  5. Structure and expression of the human L-myc gene reveal a complex pattern of alternative mRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, F.; Battey, J.; Nau, M.; Brooks, B.; Seifter, E.; De Greve, J.; Birrer, M.; Sausville, E.; Minna, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors' analyzed in detail the structure of the L-myc gene isolated from human placental DNA and characterized its expression in several small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The gene is composed of three exons and two introns spanning 6.6 kilobases in human DNA. Several distinct mRNA species are produced in all small-cell lung cancer cell lines that express L-myc. These transcripts are generated from a single gene by alternative splicing of introns 1 and 2 and by use of alternative polyadenylation signals. In some mRNAs that is a long open reading frame with a predicted translated protein of 364 residues. Amino acid sequence comparison with c-myc and N-myc demonstrated multiple discrete regions with extensive homology. In contrast, other mRNA transcripts, generated by alternative processing, could encode a truncated protein with a novel carboxy-terminal end.

  6. Secondary Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves Trapped in Randomly Structured Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Li, Bo; Walsh, Robert W.

    2016-09-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves are an important tool for inferring parameters of the solar atmosphere. We numerically simulate the propagation of fast wave pulses in randomly structured plasmas that mimic the highly inhomogeneous solar corona. A network of secondary waves is formed by a series of partial reflections and transmissions. These secondary waves exhibit quasi-periodicities in both time and space. Since the temporal and spatial periods are related simply through the speed of the fast wave, we quantify the properties of secondary waves by examining the dependence of the average temporal period (\\bar{p}) on the initial pulse width (w 0) and studying the density contrast ({δ }ρ ) and correlation length (L c ) that characterize the randomness of the equilibrium density profiles. For small-amplitude pulses, {δ }ρ does not alter \\bar{p} significantly. Large-amplitude pulses, on the other hand, enhance the density contrast when {δ }ρ is small but have a smoothing effect when {δ }ρ is sufficiently large. We found that \\bar{p} scales linearly with L c and that the scaling factor is larger for a narrower pulse. However, in terms of the absolute values of \\bar{p}, broader pulses generate secondary waves with longer periods, and this effect is stronger in random plasmas with shorter correlation lengths. Secondary waves carry the signatures of both the leading wave pulse and the background plasma. Our study may find applications in magnetohydrodynamic seismology by exploiting the secondary waves detected in the dimming regions after coronal mass ejections or extreme ultraviolet waves.

  7. Distinct circular dichroism spectroscopic signatures of polyproline II and unordered secondary structures: Applications in secondary structure analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jose L S; Miles, Andrew J; Whitmore, Lee; Wallace, B A

    2014-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a valuable method for defining canonical secondary structure contents of proteins based on empirically-defined spectroscopic signatures derived from proteins with known three-dimensional structures. Many proteins identified as being “Intrinsically Disordered Proteins” have a significant amount of their structure that is neither sheet, helix, nor turn; this type of structure is often classified by CD as “other”, “random coil”, “unordered”, or “disordered”. However the “other” category can also include polyproline II (PPII)-type structures, whose spectral properties have not been well-distinguished from those of unordered structures. In this study, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate the spectral properties of collagen and polyproline, which both contain PPII-type structures. Their native spectra were compared as representatives of PPII structures. In addition, their spectra before and after treatment with various conditions to produce unfolded or denatured structures were also compared, with the aim of defining the differences between CD spectra of PPII and disordered structures. We conclude that the spectral features of collagen are more appropriate than those of polyproline for use as the representative spectrum for PPII structures present in typical amino acid-containing proteins, and that the single most characteristic spectroscopic feature distinguishing a PPII structure from a disordered structure is the presence of a positive peak around 220nm in the former but not in the latter. These spectra are now available for inclusion in new reference data sets used for CD analyses of the secondary structures of soluble proteins. PMID:25262612

  8. PDZ Binding Domains, Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation: A Menage-a-trois Tailing Dcp2 mRNA Decapping Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Diverse cellular activities are mediated through the interaction of protein domains and their binding partners. One such protein domain widely distributed in the higher metazoan world is the PDZ domain, which facilitates abundant protein-protein interactions. The PDZ domain-PDZ binding domain interaction has been implicated in several pathologies including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Down syndrome. PDZ domains bind to C-terminal peptides/proteins which have either of the following combinations: S/T-X-hydrophobic-COOH for type I, hydrophobic-Xhydrophobic- COOH for type II, and D/E-X-hydrophobic-COOH for type III, although hydrophobicity in the termini form the key characteristic of the PDZ-binding domains. We identified and characterized a Dcp2 type mRNA decapping enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, a protein containing a putative PDZ-binding domain using mutagenesis and protein biochemistry. Now we are using bioinformatics to study the Cterminal end of mRNA decapping enzymes from complex metazoans with the aim of (1) identifying putative PDZ-binding domains (2) Correlating structural disorder with PDZ binding domains and (3) Demonstrating the presence of phosphorylation sites in C-terminal extremities of Dcp2 type mRNA decapping enzymes. It is proposed here that the trinity of PDZbinding domains, structural disorder and phosphorylation-susceptible sites are a feature of the Dcp2 family of decapping enzymes and perhaps is a wider trick in protein evolution where scaffolding/tethering is a requirement for localization and function. It is critical though laboratory-based supporting evidence is sought to back-up this bioinformatics exploration into tail regions of mRNA decapping enzymes. PMID:27151193

  9. Coating concrete secondary containment structures exposed to agrichemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    Concrete has traditionally been the material of choice for building secondary containment structures because it is relatively inexpensive and has structural properties which make it ideal for supporting the loads of vehicles and large tanks. However, concrete`s chemical properties make it susceptible to corrosion by some common fertilizers. Though fairly impervious to water movement, concrete is easily penetrated by vapors and solvents. It is also prone to cracking. For these reasons, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) believes that concrete alone may not provide an effective barrier to pesticide movement and has proposed that concrete in pesticide secondary containment structures be sealed or coated to reduce its permeability. Some state secondary containment regulations require that concrete exposed to fertilizers and pesticides be sealed or protected with a coating. Lacking guidelines, some retailers have used penetrating sealants to satisfy the law, even though these products provide little protection from chemical attack nor do they prevent pesticide egress. Other retailers who have applied thick film coatings which were properly selected have had disastrous results because the application was poorly done. Consequently, much skepticism exists regarding the performance and benefit of protective coatings.

  10. Secondary electron emission from surfaces with small structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhanoev, A. R.; Spahn, F.; Yaroshenko, V.; Lühr, H.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-09-01

    It is found that for objects possessing small surface structures with differing radii of curvature the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield may be significantly higher than for objects with smooth surfaces of the same material. The effect is highly pronounced for surface structures of nanometer scale, often providing a more than 100 % increase of the SEE yield. The results also show that the SEE yield from surfaces with structure does not show a universal dependence on the energy of the primary, incident electrons as it is found for flat surfaces in experiments. We derive conditions for the applicability of the conventional formulation of SEE using the simplifying assumption of universal dependence. Our analysis provides a basis for studying low-energy electron emission from nanometer structured surfaces under a penetrating electron beam important in many technological applications.

  11. A protein structural classes prediction method based on predicted secondary structure and PSI-BLAST profile.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyan; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhuoxing; Yan, Shoujiang

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of protein secondary structural classes plays an important role in understanding protein folding patterns. In this paper, 25 features based on position-specific scoring matrices are selected to reflect evolutionary information. In combination with other 11 rational features based on predicted protein secondary structure sequences proposed by the previous researchers, a 36-dimensional representation feature vector is presented to predict protein secondary structural classes for low-similarity sequences. ASTRALtraining dataset is used to train and design our method, other three low-similarity datasets ASTRALtest, 25PDB and 1189 are used to test the proposed method. Comparisons with other methods show that our method is effective to predict protein secondary structural classes. Stand alone version of the proposed method (PSSS-PSSM) is written in MATLAB language and it can be downloaded from http://letsgob.com/bioinfo_PSSS_PSSM/. PMID:24067326

  12. Data-directed RNA secondary structure prediction using probabilistic modeling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Ledda, Mirko; Vaziri, Sana; Aviran, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structure dictates the function of many RNAs, but secondary RNA structure analysis is either labor intensive and costly or relies on computational predictions that are often inaccurate. These limitations are alleviated by integration of structure probing data into prediction algorithms. However, existing algorithms are optimized for a specific type of probing data. Recently, new chemistries combined with advances in sequencing have facilitated structure probing at unprecedented scale and sensitivity. These novel technologies and anticipated wealth of data highlight a need for algorithms that readily accommodate more complex and diverse input sources. We implemented and investigated a recently outlined probabilistic framework for RNA secondary structure prediction and extended it to accommodate further refinement of structural information. This framework utilizes direct likelihood-based calculations of pseudo-energy terms per considered structural context and can readily accommodate diverse data types and complex data dependencies. We use real data in conjunction with simulations to evaluate performances of several implementations and to show that proper integration of structural contexts can lead to improvements. Our tests also reveal discrepancies between real data and simulations, which we show can be alleviated by refined modeling. We then propose statistical preprocessing approaches to standardize data interpretation and integration into such a generic framework. We further systematically quantify the information content of data subsets, demonstrating that high reactivities are major drivers of SHAPE-directed predictions and that better understanding of less informative reactivities is key to further improvements. Finally, we provide evidence for the adaptive capability of our framework using mock probe simulations. PMID:27251549

  13. Study of coal structure using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Lytle, J.M.; Baer, D.R.; Thomas, M.T.

    1980-12-01

    Secondary-ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is examined as a tool for studying the chemical structure of coal. SIMS has potential for analysis of coal because of the following characteristics: sensitivity to chemical structure; high sensitivity to all masses; application to solids; excellent depth resolution; and reasonable spatial resolution. SIMS spectra of solid coals show differences with respect to coal rank, the spectra of high rank coal being similar to that of graphite, and the spectra of low rank coal being similar to that of wood. Some functional group analysis is also possible using SIMS. Low rank coals show a larger peak at 15 amu indicating more methyl groups than found in the higher rank coals. Fragments with two and three carbon atoms have also been examined; much larger fragments are undoubtedly present but were not evaluated in this study. Examination of these groups, which are expected to contain valuable information on coal structure, is planned for future work. It has been observed that mineral atoms present in the coal have large secondary ion yields which complicate the interpretation of the spectra. Studies on mineral-free coals and model compounds are therefore recommended to facilitate determination of organic coal structure. In addition, mass spectrometry with much greater mass resolution will aid in distinguishing between various ion species.

  14. HOTAIR forms an intricate and modular secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Somarowthu, Srinivas; Legiewicz, Michal; Chillón, Isabel; Marcia, Marco; Liu, Fei; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as key players in fundamental cellular processes and diseases, but their functions are poorly understood. HOTAIR is a 2,148-nucleotide-long lncRNA molecule involved in physiological epidermal development and in pathogenic cancer progression, where it has been demonstrated to repress tumor and metastasis suppressor genes. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of HOTAIR, we purified it in a stable and homogenous form in vitro and we determined its functional secondary structure through chemical probing and phylogenetic analysis. The HOTAIR structure reveals a degree of structural organization comparable to well-folded RNAs, like the group II intron, rRNA or lncRNA steroid receptor activator. It is composed of four independently-folding modules, two of which correspond to predicted protein-binding domains. Secondary structure elements that surround protein-binding motifs are evolutionarily conserved. Our work serves as a guide for “navigating” through the lncRNA HOTAIR and ultimately for understanding its function. PMID:25866246

  15. Flexibility in the site of exon junction complex deposition revealed by functional group and RNA secondary structure alterations in the splicing substrate

    PubMed Central

    Mishler, Dennis M.; Christ, Alexander B.; Steitz, Joan A.

    2008-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is critical for mammalian nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and translational regulation, but the mechanism of its stable deposition on mRNA is unknown. To examine requirements for EJC deposition, we created splicing substrates containing either DNA nucleotides or RNA secondary structure in the 5′ exon. Using RNase H protection, toeprinting, and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we found that EJC location shifts upstream when a stretch of DNA or RNA secondary structure appears at the canonical deposition site. These upstream shifts occur prior to exon ligation and are often accompanied by decreases in deposition efficiency. Although the EJC core protein eIF4AIII contacts four ribose 2′OH groups in crystal structures, we demonstrate that three 2′OH groups are sufficient for deposition. Thus, the site of EJC deposition is more flexible than previously appreciated and efficient deposition appears spatially limited. PMID:18952819

  16. RNA secondary structures of the bacteriophage phi6 packaging regions.

    PubMed Central

    Pirttimaa, M J; Bamford, D H

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi6 genome consists of three segments of double-stranded RNA. During maturation, single-stranded copies of these segments are packaged into preformed polymerase complex particles. Only phi6 RNA is packaged, and each particle contains only one copy of each segment. An in vitro packaging and replication assay has been developed for phi6, and the packaging signals (pac sites) have been mapped to the 5' ends of the RNA segments. In this study, we propose secondary structure models for the pac sites of phi6 single-stranded RNA segments. Our models accommodate data from structure-specific chemical modifications, free energy minimizations, and phylogenetic comparisons. Previously reported pac site deletion studies are also discussed. Each pac site possesses a unique architecture, that, however, contains common structural elements. PMID:10864045

  17. Protein secondary structure prediction using logic-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, S; King, R D; Sternberg, M J

    1992-10-01

    Many attempts have been made to solve the problem of predicting protein secondary structure from the primary sequence but the best performance results are still disappointing. In this paper, the use of a machine learning algorithm which allows relational descriptions is shown to lead to improved performance. The Inductive Logic Programming computer program, Golem, was applied to learning secondary structure prediction rules for alpha/alpha domain type proteins. The input to the program consisted of 12 non-homologous proteins (1612 residues) of known structure, together with a background knowledge describing the chemical and physical properties of the residues. Golem learned a small set of rules that predict which residues are part of the alpha-helices--based on their positional relationships and chemical and physical properties. The rules were tested on four independent non-homologous proteins (416 residues) giving an accuracy of 81% (+/- 2%). This is an improvement, on identical data, over the previously reported result of 73% by King and Sternberg (1990, J. Mol. Biol., 216, 441-457) using the machine learning program PROMIS, and of 72% using the standard Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson method. The best previously reported result in the literature for the alpha/alpha domain type is 76%, achieved using a neural net approach. Machine learning also has the advantage over neural network and statistical methods in producing more understandable results. PMID:1480619

  18. Secondary Structure of Rat and Human Amylin across Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  19. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin wasmore » determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states

  20. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  1. Secondary Structure of Rat and Human Amylin across Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; de Pablo, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  2. Mutational analysis of the 5' non-coding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effects of secondary structure on translation.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, N T; Cohen, E A; Darveau, A; Rosen, C; Haseltine, W; Sonenberg, N

    1988-01-01

    The first 111 nt from the 5' end of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNAs are shown to have a strong inhibitory effect on the translation of mRNA in in vitro translation extracts as well as in Xenopus oocytes. Mutations in the sequence of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) designed to disrupt predicted secondary structure of this region relieve the inhibition. Inhibition is restored by mutations that reconstruct the predicted secondary structure. The accessibility of the 5'-terminal cap structure was also found to be increased by some of these mutations. We conclude that secondary structure in the 5' UTR of HIV-1 mRNAs and resultant inaccessibility of the cap structure is responsible for the inhibition of translation. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the life cycle of HIV-1 are discussed. Images PMID:3181141

  3. RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by Using Discrete Mathematics: An Interdisciplinary Research Experience for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Roni; Wachira, James; Nkwanta, Asamoah

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project was on RNA secondary structure prediction by using a lattice walk approach. The lattice walk approach is a combinatorial and computational biology method used to enumerate possible secondary structures and predict RNA secondary structure from RNA sequences. The method uses…

  4. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 (melanotransferrin) deduced from the mRNA sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, T M; Plowman, G D; Teplow, D B; Dreyer, W J; Hellström, K E; Brown, J P

    1986-01-01

    p97 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is present in most human melanomas but only in trace amounts in normal adult tissues. To determine the structure of this tumor-associated antigen and to identify its functional domains, we have purified and cloned p97 mRNA and determined its nucleotide sequence. The mRNA encodes a 738-residue precursor, which contains the previously determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of p97. After removal of a 19-residue signal peptide, the mature p97 molecule comprises extracellular domains of 342 and 352 residues and a C-terminal 25-residue stretch of predominantly uncharged and hydrophobic amino acids, which we believe acts as a membrane anchor. Each extracellular domain contains 14 cysteine residues, which form seven intradomain disulfide bridges, and one or two potential N-glycosylation sites. Protease digestion studies show that the three major antigenic determinants of p97 are present on the N-terminal domain. The domains are strikingly homologous to each other (46% amino acid sequence homology) and to the corresponding domains of human serum transferrin (39% homology). Conservation of disulfide bridges and of amino acids thought to compose the iron binding pockets suggests that p97 is also related to transferrin in tertiary structure and function. We propose that p97 be renamed melanotransferrin to denote its original identification in melanoma cells and its evolutionary relationship to serotransferrin and lactotransferrin, the other members of the transferrin superfamily. Images PMID:2419904

  5. Structure of influenza virus RNP. I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein melts secondary structure in panhandle RNA and exposes the bases to the solvent.

    PubMed Central

    Baudin, F; Bach, C; Cusack, S; Ruigrok, R W

    1994-01-01

    The influenza virus genome consists of eight segments of negative-sense RNA, i.e. the viral (v) RNA forms the template for the mRNA. Each segment is encapsidated by the viral nucleoprotein to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particle and each RNP carries its own polymerase complex. We studied the interaction of purified nucleoprotein with RNA in vitro, by using a variety of enzymatic and chemical probes for RNA conformation. Our results suggest that the nucleoprotein binds to the vRNA backbone without apparent sequence specificity, exposing the bases to the outside and melting all secondary structure. In this way, the viral polymerase may transcribe the RNA without the need for dissociating the nucleoprotein and without being stopped by RNA secondary structure, and the viral RNPs are ready to start transcription as soon as they enter the host cell. Images PMID:8039508

  6. A grid-enabled protein secondary structure predictor.

    PubMed

    Mirto, Maria; Cafaro, Massimo; Fiore, Sandro Luigi; Tartarini, Daniele; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    We present an integrated Grid system for the prediction of protein secondary structures, based on the frequent automatic update of proteins in the training set. The predictor model is based on a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network which is trained with the back-propagation algorithm; the design reuses existing legacy software and exploits novel grid components. The predictor takes into account the evolutionary information found in multiple sequence alignment (MSA); the information is obtained running an optimized parallel version of the PSI-BLAST tool, based on the MPI Master-Worker paradigm. The training set contains proteins of known structure. Using Grid technologies and efficient mechanisms for running the tools and extracting the data, the time needed to train the neural network is dramatically reduced, whereas the results are comparable to a set of well-known predictor tools. PMID:17695746

  7. Peptoid nanosheets exhibit a new secondary-structure motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannige, Ranjan V.; Haxton, Thomas K.; Proulx, Caroline; Robertson, Ellen J.; Battigelli, Alessia; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    A promising route to the synthesis of protein-mimetic materials that are capable of complex functions, such as molecular recognition and catalysis, is provided by sequence-defined peptoid polymers--structural relatives of biologically occurring polypeptides. Peptoids, which are relatively non-toxic and resistant to degradation, can fold into defined structures through a combination of sequence-dependent interactions. However, the range of possible structures that are accessible to peptoids and other biological mimetics is unknown, and our ability to design protein-like architectures from these polymer classes is limited. Here we use molecular-dynamics simulations, together with scattering and microscopy data, to determine the atomic-resolution structure of the recently discovered peptoid nanosheet, an ordered supramolecular assembly that extends macroscopically in only two dimensions. Our simulations show that nanosheets are structurally and dynamically heterogeneous, can be formed only from peptoids of certain lengths, and are potentially porous to water and ions. Moreover, their formation is enabled by the peptoids' adoption of a secondary structure that is not seen in the natural world. This structure, a zigzag pattern that we call a Σ(`sigma')-strand, results from the ability of adjacent backbone monomers to adopt opposed rotational states, thereby allowing the backbone to remain linear and untwisted. Linear backbones tiled in a brick-like way form an extended two-dimensional nanostructure, the Σ-sheet. The binary rotational-state motif of the Σ-strand is not seen in regular protein structures, which are usually built from one type of rotational state. We also show that the concept of building regular structures from multiple rotational states can be generalized beyond the peptoid nanosheet system.

  8. RNAex: an RNA secondary structure prediction server enhanced by high-throughput structure-probing data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Qu, Rihao; Huang, Yiming; Shi, Binbin; Liu, Mengrong; Li, Yang; Lu, Zhi John

    2016-07-01

    Several high-throughput technologies have been developed to probe RNA base pairs and loops at the transcriptome level in multiple species. However, to obtain the final RNA secondary structure, extensive effort and considerable expertise is required to statistically process the probing data and combine them with free energy models. Therefore, we developed an RNA secondary structure prediction server that is enhanced by experimental data (RNAex). RNAex is a web interface that enables non-specialists to easily access cutting-edge structure-probing data and predict RNA secondary structures enhanced by in vivo and in vitro data. RNAex annotates the RNA editing, RNA modification and SNP sites on the predicted structures. It provides four structure-folding methods, restrained MaxExpect, SeqFold, RNAstructure (Fold) and RNAfold that can be selected by the user. The performance of these four folding methods has been verified by previous publications on known structures. We re-mapped the raw sequencing data of the probing experiments to the whole genome for each species. RNAex thus enables users to predict secondary structures for both known and novel RNA transcripts in human, mouse, yeast and Arabidopsis The RNAex web server is available at http://RNAex.ncrnalab.org/. PMID:27137891

  9. RNAex: an RNA secondary structure prediction server enhanced by high-throughput structure-probing data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Qu, Rihao; Huang, Yiming; Shi, Binbin; Liu, Mengrong; Li, Yang; Lu, Zhi John

    2016-01-01

    Several high-throughput technologies have been developed to probe RNA base pairs and loops at the transcriptome level in multiple species. However, to obtain the final RNA secondary structure, extensive effort and considerable expertise is required to statistically process the probing data and combine them with free energy models. Therefore, we developed an RNA secondary structure prediction server that is enhanced by experimental data (RNAex). RNAex is a web interface that enables non-specialists to easily access cutting-edge structure-probing data and predict RNA secondary structures enhanced by in vivo and in vitro data. RNAex annotates the RNA editing, RNA modification and SNP sites on the predicted structures. It provides four structure-folding methods, restrained MaxExpect, SeqFold, RNAstructure (Fold) and RNAfold that can be selected by the user. The performance of these four folding methods has been verified by previous publications on known structures. We re-mapped the raw sequencing data of the probing experiments to the whole genome for each species. RNAex thus enables users to predict secondary structures for both known and novel RNA transcripts in human, mouse, yeast and Arabidopsis. The RNAex web server is available at http://RNAex.ncrnalab.org/. PMID:27137891

  10. The secondary structure of guide RNA molecules from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, B; Riley, G R; Stuart, K; Göringer, H U

    1995-01-01

    RNA editing in kinetoplastid organisms is a mitochondrial RNA processing phenomenon that is characterized by the insertion and deletion of uridine nucleotides into incomplete mRNAs. Key molecules in the process are guide RNAs which direct the editing reaction by virtue of their primary sequences in an RNA-RNA interaction with the pre-edited mRNAs. To understand the molecular details of this reaction, especially potential RNA folding and unfolding processes as well as assembly phenomena with mitochondrial proteins, we analyzed the secondary structure of four different guide RNAs from Trypanosoma brucei at physiological conditions. By using structure-sensitive chemical and enzymatic probes in combination with spectroscopic techniques we found that the four molecules despite their different primary sequences, fold into similar structures consisting of two imperfect hairpin loops of low thermodynamic stability. The molecules melt in two-state monomolecular transitions with Tms between 33 and 39 degrees C and transition enthalpies of -32 to -38 kcal/mol. Both terminal ends of the RNAs are single-stranded with the 3' ends possibly adopting a single-stranded, helical conformation. Thus, it appears that the gRNA structures are fine tuned to minimize stability for an optimal annealing reaction to the pre-mRNAs while at the same time maximizing higher order structural features to permit the assembly with other mitochondrial components into the editing machinery. Images PMID:7667084

  11. Methylation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mRNA 5'-cap structures in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, D.C.; Lesnaw, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Monocistronic VSV mRNAs synthesized by subviral particles in vitro display the methylated 5'-cap structure m'G(5')ppp(5')Am. The authors have detected both monomethylated cap structures, m/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')A and G(5')Am, in reactions containing suboptimal concentrations of AdoMet. To assess the putative precursor roles of these cap structures the authors devised dual label pulse-chase analyses employing S-(CH/sub 3/-/sup 3/H)-AdoMet and (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GTP. The labeled cap structures were analyzed by HPLC. The simultaneous chasing of both radiolabeled substrates allowed 1) the isolation of a specific set of caps labeled as (..beta..-/sup 32/P)-R/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')AR (R=H or CH/sub 3/) and 2) the determination of the transcriptive fate of each intermediate cap structure within the set. The results demonstrated that both monomethylated cap structures serve as intermediates for the dimethylated cap and that the order of cap methylation is non-compulsory. These data, coupled with previous observations of hypomethylated cap structures in polyadenylated RNAs, have suggested that methylation occurs in a chain length dependent window.

  12. p53 mRNA and p53 Protein Structures Have Evolved Independently to Interact with MDM2.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Ponnuswamy, Anand; Fusée, Leïla T S; Bailly, Xavier; Laguerre, Laurent; Worall, Erin; Vojtesek, Borek; Nylander, Karin; Fåhraeus, Robin

    2016-05-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor and its key regulator MDM2 play essential roles in development, ageing, cancer, and cellular stress responses in mammals. Following DNA damage, MDM2 interacts with p53 mRNA in an ATM kinase-dependent fashion and stimulates p53 synthesis, whereas under normal conditions, MDM2 targets the p53 protein for degradation. The peptide- and RNA motifs that interact with MDM2 are encoded by the same conserved BOX-I sequence, but how these interactions have evolved is unknown. Here, we show that a temperature-sensitive structure in the invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Ci) p53 mRNA controls its interaction with MDM2. We also show that a nonconserved flanking region of Ci-BOX-I domain prevents the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction. These results indicate that the temperature-regulated p53 mRNA-MDM2 interaction evolved to become kinase regulated in the mammalian DNA damage response. The data also suggest that the negative regulation of p53 by MDM2 via protein-protein interaction evolved in vertebrates following changes in the BOX-I flanking sequence. PMID:26823446

  13. Gene structure, chromosomal location, and basis for alternative mRNA splicing of the human VCAM1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cybulsky, M.I.; Fries, J.W.U.; Williams, A.J.; Sultan, P.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Collins, T. ); Eddy, R.; Byers, M.; Shows, T. )

    1991-09-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein adhesive for certain blood leukocytes and tumor cells, which is expressed by activated endothelium in a variety of pathologic conditions including atherosclerosis. Genomic clones encoding the VCAM1 gene were isolated and the organization of the gene was determined. The gene, which is present in a single copy in the human genome, contains 9 exons spanning {approx}25 kilobases of DNA. Exons 2-8 contain C2 or H-type immunoglobulin domains. At least two different VCAM-1 precursors can be generated from the human gene as a result of alternative mRNA splicing events, which include or exclude exon 5. A consensus TATAA element is located upstream of the transcriptional start site. The VCAM1 promoter contains consensus binding sites for NF-{kappa}B, the GATA family of transcription factors, as well as an AP1 site. The VCAM1 gene was assigned to the 1p31-32 region of chromosome 1 based on the analysis of human-mouse hybrid cell lines and in situ hybridization. Structural analysis of the human VCAM1 gene provides the basis for alternative mRNA splicing and an initial approach to elucidating the regulation of VCAM-1 expression.

  14. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Peng, Jian; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and shallow neural networks. DeepCNF can model not only complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent SS labels, so it is much more powerful than CNF. Experimental results show that DeepCNF can obtain ~84% Q3 accuracy, ~85% SOV score, and ~72% Q8 accuracy, respectively, on the CASP and CAMEO test proteins, greatly outperforming currently popular predictors. As a general framework, DeepCNF can be used to predict other protein structure properties such as contact number, disorder regions, and solvent accessibility. PMID:26752681

  15. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Peng, Jian; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and shallow neural networks. DeepCNF can model not only complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent SS labels, so it is much more powerful than CNF. Experimental results show that DeepCNF can obtain ~84% Q3 accuracy, ~85% SOV score, and ~72% Q8 accuracy, respectively, on the CASP and CAMEO test proteins, greatly outperforming currently popular predictors. As a general framework, DeepCNF can be used to predict other protein structure properties such as contact number, disorder regions, and solvent accessibility. PMID:26752681

  16. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Peng, Jian; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and shallow neural networks. DeepCNF can model not only complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent SS labels, so it is much more powerful than CNF. Experimental results show that DeepCNF can obtain ~84% Q3 accuracy, ~85% SOV score, and ~72% Q8 accuracy, respectively, on the CASP and CAMEO test proteins, greatly outperforming currently popular predictors. As a general framework, DeepCNF can be used to predict other protein structure properties such as contact number, disorder regions, and solvent accessibility.

  17. An RNA secondary structure prediction method based on minimum and suboptimal free energy structures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haoyue; Yang, Lianping; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-09-01

    The function of an RNA-molecule is mainly determined by its tertiary structures. And its secondary structure is an important determinant of its tertiary structure. The comparative methods usually give better results than the single-sequence methods. Based on minimum and suboptimal free energy structures, the paper presents a novel method for predicting conserved secondary structure of a group of related RNAs. In the method, the information from the known RNA structures is used as training data in a SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier. Our method has been tested on the benchmark dataset given by Puton et al. The results show that the average sensitivity of our method is higher than that of other comparative methods such as CentroidAlifold, MXScrana, RNAalifold, and TurboFold. PMID:26100179

  18. [Primary structure of mRNA and translation strategy of eukaryotes].

    PubMed

    Ugarova, T Iu

    1987-01-01

    The diversity of primary structures of cellular and virus mRNAs was considered from the standpoint of their functioning at the initial stops of translation. The number and reciprocal localization of the open translational frames along the mRNAs, and also the number, localization and nucleotides surroundings the initiation codons were analysed. The structural organizations of the polycistronic and other non-canonical forms of native mRNAs, translated in eukaryotic cells, were considered and classified. The possible mechanisms of translation initiation by different forms of mRNAs are discussed. PMID:3309622

  19. FMRP interacts with G-quadruplex structures in the 3’-UTR of its dendritic target Shank1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Gaetano, Christian M; Williams, Kathryn R; Bassell, Gary J; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, which regulates the transport and translation of specific mRNAs, uses its RGG box domain to bind mRNA targets that form G-quadruplex structures. One of the FMRP in vivo targets, Shank1 mRNA, encodes the master scaffold proteins of the postsynaptic density (PSD) which regulate the size and shape of dendritic spines because of their capacity to interact with many different PSD components. Due to their effect on spine morphology, altered translational regulation of Shank1 transcripts may contribute to the FXS pathology. We hypothesized that the FMRP interactions with Shank1 mRNA are mediated by the recognition of the G quadruplex structure, which has not been previously demonstrated. In this study we used biophysical techniques to analyze the Shank1 mRNA 3’-UTR and its interactions with FMRP and its phosphorylated mimic FMRP S500D. We found that the Shank1 mRNA 3 ′ -UTR adopts two very stable intramolecular G-quadruplexes which are bound specifically and with high affinity by FMRP both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest a role of G-quadruplex RNA motif as a structural element in the common mechanism of FMRP regulation of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:25692235

  20. The global structures of a wild-type and poorly functional plant luteoviral mRNA pseudoknot are essentially identical.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Peter V; Stammler, Suzanne N; Giedroc, David P

    2006-11-01

    The helical junction region of a -1 frameshift stimulating hairpin-type mRNA pseudoknot from sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) is characterized by a novel C27.(G7-C14) loop 2-stem 1 minor groove base triple, which is stacked on a C8+.(G12-C28) loop 1-stem 2 major groove base triple. Substitution of C27 with adenosine reduces frameshifting efficiency to a level just twofold above the slip-site alone. Here, we show that the global structure of the C27A ScYLV RNA is nearly indistinguishable from the wild-type counterpart, despite the fact that the helical junction region is altered and incorporates the anticipated isostructural A27.(G7-C14) minor groove base triple. This interaction mediates a 2.3-A displacement of C8+ driven by an A27 N6-C8+ O2 hydrogen bond as part of an A(n-1).C+.G-Cn base quadruple. The helical junction regions of the C27A ScYLV and the beet western yellows virus (BWYV) pseudoknots are essentially superimposable, the latter of which contains an analogous A25.(G7-C14) minor groove base triple. These results reveal that the global ground-state structure is not strongly correlated with frameshift stimulation and point to a reduced thermodynamic stability and/or enhanced kinetic lability that derives from an altered helical junction architecture in the C27A ScYLV RNA as a significant determinant for setting frameshifting efficiencies in plant luteoviral mRNA pseudoknots. PMID:17000902

  1. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3'-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Payne, David E; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2012-05-15

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-7) M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA. Sequential substitution mutagenesis of the 7.6S region indicates that a 90-nt region is required for DEX-mediated stabilization and maintenance of intrinsic stability. In this region, one 30-nt-long element (002), predicted to form a stem-loop structure, is sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA and intrinsic mRNA stability. Cytosolic proteins specifically bind element 002, and binding activity is unaffected whether proteins are isolated from cells incubated in the absence or presence of DEX. While loop sequences of element 002 have no role in regulation of SP-B mRNA stability, the proximal stem sequences are required for DEX-mediated stabilization and specific binding of proteins. Mutation of the sequences that comprise the proximal or distal arm of the stem negates the destabilizing activity of element 002 on intrinsic SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that cytosolic proteins bind a single hairpin structure that mediates intrinsic and hormonal regulation of SP-B mRNA stability via mechanisms that involve sequences of the stems of the hairpin structure. PMID:22367784

  2. PSRna: Prediction of small RNA secondary structures based on reverse complementary folding method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xu, Chengzhen; Wang, Lei; Liang, Hong; Feng, Weixing; Cai, Zhongxi; Wang, Ying; Cong, Wang; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of RNA secondary structures is an important problem in computational biology and bioinformatics, since RNA secondary structures are fundamental for functional analysis of RNA molecules. However, small RNA secondary structures are scarce and few algorithms have been specifically designed for predicting the secondary structures of small RNAs. Here we propose an algorithm named "PSRna" for predicting small-RNA secondary structures using reverse complementary folding and characteristic hairpin loops of small RNAs. Unlike traditional algorithms that usually generate multi-branch loops and 5[Formula: see text] end self-folding, PSRna first estimated the maximum number of base pairs of RNA secondary structures based on the dynamic programming algorithm and a path matrix is constructed at the same time. Second, the backtracking paths are extracted from the path matrix based on backtracking algorithm, and each backtracking path represents a secondary structure. To improve accuracy, the predicted RNA secondary structures are filtered based on their free energy, where only the secondary structure with the minimum free energy was identified as the candidate secondary structure. Our experiments on real data show that the proposed algorithm is superior to two popular methods, RNAfold and RNAstructure, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). PMID:27045556

  3. Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cet1-Ceg1 mRNA Capping Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meigang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-05-04

    The 5{prime} guanine-N7 cap is the first cotranscriptional modification of messenger RNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first two steps in capping are catalyzed by the RNA triphosphatase Cet1 and RNA guanylyltransferase Ceg1, which form a complex that is directly recruited to phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAP IIo), primarily via contacts between RNAP IIo and Ceg1. A 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cet1-Ceg1 revealed a 176 kDa heterotetrameric complex composed of one Cet1 homodimer that associates with two Ceg1 molecules via interactions between the Ceg1 oligonucleotide binding domain and an extended Cet1 WAQKW amino acid motif. The WAQKW motif is followed by a flexible linker that would allow Ceg1 to achieve conformational changes required for capping while maintaining interactions with both Cet1 and RNAP IIo. The impact of mutations as assessed through genetic analysis in S. cerevisiae is consonant with contacts observed in the Cet1-Ceg1 structure.

  4. Expected distance between terminal nucleotides of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Clote, Peter; Ponty, Yann; Steyaert, Jean-Marc

    2012-09-01

    In "The ends of a large RNA molecule are necessarily close", Yoffe et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 39(1):292-299, 2011) used the programs RNAfold [resp. RNAsubopt] from Vienna RNA Package to calculate the distance between 5' and 3' ends of the minimum free energy secondary structure [resp. thermal equilibrium structures] of viral and random RNA sequences. Here, the 5'-3' distance is defined to be the length of the shortest path from 5' node to 3' node in the undirected graph, whose edge set consists of edges {i, i + 1} corresponding to covalent backbone bonds and of edges {i, j} corresponding to canonical base pairs. From repeated simulations and using a heuristic theoretical argument, Yoffe et al. conclude that the 5'-3' distance is less than a fixed constant, independent of RNA sequence length. In this paper, we provide a rigorous, mathematical framework to study the expected distance from 5' to 3' ends of an RNA sequence. We present recurrence relations that precisely define the expected distance from 5' to 3' ends of an RNA sequence, both for the Turner nearest neighbor energy model, as well as for a simple homopolymer model first defined by Stein and Waterman. We implement dynamic programming algorithms to compute (rather than approximate by repeated application of Vienna RNA Package) the expected distance between 5' and 3' ends of a given RNA sequence, with respect to the Turner energy model. Using methods of analytical combinatorics, that depend on complex analysis, we prove that the asymptotic expected 5'-3' distance of length n homopolymers is approximately equal to the constant 5.47211, while the asymptotic distance is 6.771096 if hairpins have a minimum of 3 unpaired bases and the probability that any two positions can form a base pair is 1/4. Finally, we analyze the 5'-3' distance for secondary structures from the STRAND database, and conclude that the 5'-3' distance is correlated with RNA sequence length. PMID:21984358

  5. RNAsoft: a suite of RNA secondary structure prediction and design software tools

    PubMed Central

    Andronescu, Mirela; Aguirre-Hernández, Rosalía; Condon, Anne; Hoos, Holger H.

    2003-01-01

    DNA and RNA strands are employed in novel ways in the construction of nanostructures, as molecular tags in libraries of polymers and in therapeutics. New software tools for prediction and design of molecular structure will be needed in these applications. The RNAsoft suite of programs provides tools for predicting the secondary structure of a pair of DNA or RNA molecules, testing that combinatorial tag sets of DNA and RNA molecules have no unwanted secondary structure and designing RNA strands that fold to a given input secondary structure. The tools are based on standard thermodynamic models of RNA secondary structure formation. RNAsoft can be found online at http://www.RNAsoft.ca. PMID:12824338

  6. Changes in secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Analía V.; Ferrer, Evelina G.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2013-02-01

    Changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy. The protein folding induced by 0.25% SSL (Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate) (GS0.25, Gluten + 0.25% SSL) included an increase in α-helix conformation and a decrease in β-sheet, turns and random coil. The same behavior, although in a less degree, was observed for 0.5% gluten-DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides) system. The low burial of Tryptophan residues to a more hydrophobic environment and the low percentage area of the C-H stretching band for GS0.25 (Gluten + 0.25% SSL), could be related to the increased in α-helix conformation. This behavior was also confirmed by changes in stretching vibrational modes of disulfide bridges (S-S) and the low exposure of Tyrosine residues. High levels of SSL (0.5% and 1.0%) and DATEM (1.0%) led to more disordered protein structures, with different gluten networks. SSL (1.0%) formed a more disordered and opened gluten matrix than DATEM, the last one being laminar and homogeneous.

  7. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observed when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.

  8. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore » when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  9. Boundary Layer Dynamical Structure During Secondary Eyewall Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, S. F.; Montgomery, M. T.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary eyewall formation (SEF) is widely recognized as an important research problem in the dynamics of mature tropical cyclones. It has been shown that the development of the wind maxima in SEF occurs within the boundary layer and that it follows a chain of events initiated by a substantial radial expansion of the tangential wind field. In this context, there is not yet a consensus on the phenomenon's essential physics. It has been proposed that the boundary-layer dynamics of a maturing hurricane vortex is an important controlling element in SEF. However, recent literature also argues that hurricane boundary layers and the related coupling with the interior flow can be described through an Ekman-like balance and that shock-like structures are relevant in the swirling boundary layer of the inner core of mature storms. We analyze the radial and vertical structure of the specific forces and accelerations in in the boundary layer in a mature hurricane that includes a canonical eyewall replacement cycle. The case occurred in a mesoscale, convection-permitting numerical simulation of a tropical cyclone, integrated from an initial weak mesoscale vortex in an idealized quiescent environment. The simulation has been studied extensively in the literature. We find that momentum advection is almost everywhere important (some of it is associated with asymmetric eddies). We discuss the implication of our findings on the proposed importance of Ekman-like balance dynamics during SEF. Finally, our analysis does not support the recently proposed idea that the radial advection of radial momentum, and shock-like structures, are closely related to the supergradient wind phenomena observed during SEF.

  10. Characterization of a Trifunctional Mimivirus mRNA Capping Enzyme and Crystal Structure of the RNA Triphosphatase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Benarroch,D.; Smith, P.; Shuman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) components of the mRNA capping apparatus are a bellwether of eukaryal taxonomy. Fungal and protozoal RTPases belong to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) family, exemplified by yeast Cet1. Several large DNA viruses encode metal-dependent RTPases unrelated to the cysteinyl-phosphatase RTPases of their metazoan host organisms. The origins of DNA virus RTPases are unclear because they are structurally uncharacterized. Mimivirus, a giant virus of amoeba, resembles poxviruses in having a trifunctional capping enzyme composed of a metal-dependent RTPase module fused to guanylyltransferase (GTase) and guanine-N7 methyltransferase domains. The crystal structure of mimivirus RTPase reveals a minimized tunnel fold and an active site strikingly similar to that of Cet1. Unlike homodimeric fungal RTPases, mimivirus RTPase is a monomer. The mimivirus TTM-type RTPase-GTase fusion resembles the capping enzymes of amoebae, providing evidence that the ancestral large DNA virus acquired its capping enzyme from a unicellular host.

  11. Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure and solvent accessibility by consensus combiners of sequence and structure information

    PubMed Central

    Pollastri, Gianluca; Martin, Alberto JM; Mooney, Catherine; Vullo, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Structural properties of proteins such as secondary structure and solvent accessibility contribute to three-dimensional structure prediction, not only in the ab initio case but also when homology information to known structures is available. Structural properties are also routinely used in protein analysis even when homology is available, largely because homology modelling is lower throughput than, say, secondary structure prediction. Nonetheless, predictors of secondary structure and solvent accessibility are virtually always ab initio. Results Here we develop high-throughput machine learning systems for the prediction of protein secondary structure and solvent accessibility that exploit homology to proteins of known structure, where available, in the form of simple structural frequency profiles extracted from sets of PDB templates. We compare these systems to their state-of-the-art ab initio counterparts, and with a number of baselines in which secondary structures and solvent accessibilities are extracted directly from the templates. We show that structural information from templates greatly improves secondary structure and solvent accessibility prediction quality, and that, on average, the systems significantly enrich the information contained in the templates. For sequence similarity exceeding 30%, secondary structure prediction quality is approximately 90%, close to its theoretical maximum, and 2-class solvent accessibility roughly 85%. Gains are robust with respect to template selection noise, and significant for marginal sequence similarity and for short alignments, supporting the claim that these improved predictions may prove beneficial beyond the case in which clear homology is available. Conclusion The predictive system are publicly available at the address . PMID:17570843

  12. IFNL3 mRNA structure is remodeled by a functional non-coding polymorphism associated with hepatitis C virus clearance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Fan; Mauger, David M.; Goldstein, David B.; Urban, Thomas J.; Weeks, Kevin M.; Bradrick, Shelton S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphisms near the interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) gene strongly predict clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We analyzed a variant (rs4803217 G/T) located within the IFNL3 mRNA 3′ untranslated region (UTR); the G allele (protective allele) is associated with elevated therapeutic HCV clearance. We show that the IFNL3 3′ UTR represses mRNA translation and the rs4803217 allele modulates the extent of translational regulation. We analyzed the structures of IFNL3 variant mRNAs at nucleotide resolution by SHAPE-MaP. The rs4803217 G allele mRNA forms well-defined 3′ UTR structure while the T allele mRNA is more dynamic. The observed differences between alleles are among the largest possible RNA structural alterations that can be induced by a single nucleotide change and transform the UTR from a single well-defined conformation to one with multiple dynamic interconverting structures. These data illustrate that non-coding genetic variants can have significant functional effects by impacting RNA structure. PMID:26531896

  13. Distributions of amino acids suggest that certain residue types more effectively determine protein secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, S; Fernández-Martínez, J L; Koliński, A; Jernigan, R L; Kloczkowski, A

    2013-10-01

    Exponential growth in the number of available protein sequences is unmatched by the slower growth in the number of structures. As a result, the development of efficient and fast protein secondary structure prediction methods is essential for the broad comprehension of protein structures. Computational methods that can efficiently determine secondary structure can in turn facilitate protein tertiary structure prediction, since most methods rely initially on secondary structure predictions. Recently, we have developed a fast learning optimized prediction methodology (FLOPRED) for predicting protein secondary structure (Saraswathi et al. in JMM 18:4275, 2012). Data are generated by using knowledge-based potentials combined with structure information from the CATH database. A neural network-based extreme learning machine (ELM) and advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) are used with this data to obtain better and faster convergence to more accurate secondary structure predicted results. A five-fold cross-validated testing accuracy of 83.8 % and a segment overlap (SOV) score of 78.3 % are obtained in this study. Secondary structure predictions and their accuracy are usually presented for three secondary structure elements: α-helix, β-strand and coil but rarely have the results been analyzed with respect to their constituent amino acids. In this paper, we use the results obtained with FLOPRED to provide detailed behaviors for different amino acid types in the secondary structure prediction. We investigate the influence of the composition, physico-chemical properties and position specific occurrence preferences of amino acids within secondary structure elements. In addition, we identify the correlation between these properties and prediction accuracy. The present detailed results suggest several important ways that secondary structure predictions can be improved in the future that might lead to improved protein design and engineering. PMID:23907551

  14. Energy-based RNA consensus secondary structure prediction in multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Washietl, Stefan; Bernhart, Stephan H; Kellis, Manolis

    2014-01-01

    Many biologically important RNA structures are conserved in evolution leading to characteristic mutational patterns. RNAalifold is a widely used program to predict consensus secondary structures in multiple alignments by combining evolutionary information with traditional energy-based RNA folding algorithms. Here we describe the theory and applications of the RNAalifold algorithm. Consensus secondary structure prediction not only leads to significantly more accurate structure models, but it also allows to study structural conservation of functional RNAs. PMID:24639158

  15. Structure and expression of c-fgr protooncogene mRNA in Epstein-Barr virus converted cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Brickell, P. M.; Patel, M.

    1988-01-01

    The c-fgr protooncogene is a member of the c-src family of tyrosine kinases. Expression of c-fgr was studied in a series of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and their EBV-converted derivatives. Two transcripts, of 2.9 kb and 3.5 kb, were present at dramatically elevated levels following EBV-conversion. The structure of the c-fgr transcripts was studied by the isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA clones. This indicated that the c-fgr protein encoded by the mature mRNA would contain 529 amino acids and have a molecular weight of approximately 58,000. The N-terminus of the predicted c-fgr protein has low amino acid homology with the N-termini of other members of this family of proteins, suggesting a cell specific function for the N-terminal domain. Analysis of the c-fgr cDNA clones also revealed the presence of alternative functional polyadenylation signals, although the use of these does not account for the size difference between the two major c-fgr transcripts. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:2852026

  16. Ire1-mediated decay in mammalian cells relies on mRNA sequence, structure, and translational status

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristin; Hollien, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins overwhelm the capacity of the ER, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Ire1, an ER transmembrane nuclease and conserved transducer of the UPR, cleaves the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1 at a dual stem-loop (SL) structure, leading to Xbp1 splicing and activation. Ire1 also cleaves other mRNAs localized to the ER membrane through regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD). We find that during acute ER stress in mammalian cells, Xbp1-like SLs within the target mRNAs are necessary for RIDD. Furthermore, depletion of Perk, a UPR transducer that attenuates translation during ER stress, inhibits RIDD in a substrate-specific manner. Artificially blocking translation of the SL region of target mRNAs fully restores RIDD in cells depleted of Perk, suggesting that ribosomes disrupt SL formation and/or Ire1 binding. This coordination between Perk and Ire1 may serve to spatially and temporally regulate RIDD. PMID:26108623

  17. Rtools: a web server for various secondary structural analyses on single RNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Michiaki; Ono, Yukiteru; Kiryu, Hisanori; Sato, Kengo; Kato, Yuki; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Mori, Ryota; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    The secondary structures, as well as the nucleotide sequences, are the important features of RNA molecules to characterize their functions. According to the thermodynamic model, however, the probability of any secondary structure is very small. As a consequence, any tool to predict the secondary structures of RNAs has limited accuracy. On the other hand, there are a few tools to compensate the imperfect predictions by calculating and visualizing the secondary structural information from RNA sequences. It is desirable to obtain the rich information from those tools through a friendly interface. We implemented a web server of the tools to predict secondary structures and to calculate various structural features based on the energy models of secondary structures. By just giving an RNA sequence to the web server, the user can get the different types of solutions of the secondary structures, the marginal probabilities such as base-paring probabilities, loop probabilities and accessibilities of the local bases, the energy changes by arbitrary base mutations as well as the measures for validations of the predicted secondary structures. The web server is available at http://rtools.cbrc.jp, which integrates software tools, CentroidFold, CentroidHomfold, IPKnot, CapR, Raccess, Rchange and RintD. PMID:27131356

  18. G quadruplex RNA structures in PSD-95 mRNA: potential regulators of miR-125a seed binding site accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability caused by the CGG trinucleotide expansion in the 3′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, that silences the expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP has been shown to bind to a G-rich region within the PSD-95 mRNA which encodes for the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and together with the microRNA miR-125a, to play an important role in the reversible inhibition of the PSD-95 mRNA translation in neurons. The loss of FMRP in Fmr1 KO mice disables this translation control in the production of the PSD-95 protein. Interestingly, the miR-125a binding site on PSD-95 mRNA is embedded in the G-rich region bound by FMRP and postulated to adopt one or more G quadruplex structures. In this study, we have used different biophysical techniques to validate and characterize the formation of parallel G quadruplex structures and binding of miR-125a to its complementary sequence located within the 3′ UTR of PSD-95 mRNA. Our results indicate that the PSD-95 mRNA G-rich region folds into alternate G quadruplex conformations that coexist in equilibrium. miR-125a forms a stable complex with PSD-95 mRNA, as evident by characteristic Watson–Crick base-pairing that coexists with one of the G quadruplex forms, suggesting a novel mechanism for G quadruplex structures to regulate the access of miR-125a to its binding site. PMID:25406362

  19. Structural analysis of human 2'-O-ribose methyltransferases involved in mRNA cap structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietanski, Miroslaw; Werner, Maria; Purta, Elzbieta; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Nowotny, Marcin; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2014-01-01

    The 5' cap of human messenger RNA contains 2'-O-methylation of the first and often second transcribed nucleotide that is important for its processing, translation and stability. Human enzymes that methylate these nucleotides, termed CMTr1 and CMTr2, respectively, have recently been identified. However, the structures of these enzymes and their mechanisms of action remain unknown. In the present study, we solve the crystal structures of the active CMTr1 catalytic domain in complex with a methyl group donor and a capped oligoribonucleotide, thereby revealing the mechanism of specific recognition of capped RNA. This mechanism differs significantly from viral enzymes, thus providing a framework for their specific targeting. Based on the crystal structure of CMTr1, a comparative model of the CMTr2 catalytic domain is generated. This model, together with mutational analysis, leads to the identification of residues involved in RNA and methyl group donor binding.

  20. Structural analysis of human 2′-O-ribose methyltransferases involved in mRNA cap structure formation

    PubMed Central

    Smietanski, Miroslaw; Werner, Maria; Purta, Elzbieta; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Nowotny, Marcin; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2014-01-01

    The 5′ cap of human messenger RNA contains 2′-O-methylation of the first and often second transcribed nucleotide that is important for its processing, translation and stability. Human enzymes that methylate these nucleotides, termed CMTr1 and CMTr2, respectively, have recently been identified. However, the structures of these enzymes and their mechanisms of action remain unknown. In the present study, we solve the crystal structures of the active CMTr1 catalytic domain in complex with a methyl group donor and a capped oligoribonucleotide, thereby revealing the mechanism of specific recognition of capped RNA. This mechanism differs significantly from viral enzymes, thus providing a framework for their specific targeting. Based on the crystal structure of CMTr1, a comparative model of the CMTr2 catalytic domain is generated. This model, together with mutational analysis, leads to the identification of residues involved in RNA and methyl group donor binding. PMID:24402442

  1. CSI 3.0: a web server for identifying secondary and super-secondary structure in proteins using NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Hafsa, Noor E; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    The Chemical Shift Index or CSI 3.0 (http://csi3.wishartlab.com) is a web server designed to accurately identify the location of secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains using only nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) backbone chemical shifts and their corresponding protein sequence data. Unlike earlier versions of CSI, which only identified three types of secondary structure (helix, β-strand and coil), CSI 3.0 now identifies total of 11 types of secondary and super-secondary structures, including helices, β-strands, coil regions, five common β-turns (type I, II, I', II' and VIII), β hairpins as well as interior and edge β-strands. CSI 3.0 accepts experimental NMR chemical shift data in multiple formats (NMR Star 2.1, NMR Star 3.1 and SHIFTY) and generates colorful CSI plots (bar graphs) and secondary/super-secondary structure assignments. The output can be readily used as constraints for structure determination and refinement or the images may be used for presentations and publications. CSI 3.0 uses a pipeline of several well-tested, previously published programs to identify the secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains. Comparisons with secondary and super-secondary structure assignments made via standard coordinate analysis programs such as DSSP, STRIDE and VADAR on high-resolution protein structures solved by X-ray and NMR show >90% agreement between those made with CSI 3.0. PMID:25979265

  2. Secondary Impacts on Structures on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is being designed for the planned return to the Moon by 2020. Since it is hoped that lander components will be re-used by later missions, studies are underway to examine the exposure threat to the lander sitting on the Lunar surface for extended periods. These threats involve both direct strikes of meteoroids on the vehicle as well as strikes from Lunar regolith and rock thrown by nearby meteorite strikes. Currently, the lander design is comprised of up to 10 different types of pressure vessels. These vessels included the manned habitation module, fuel, cryogenic fuel and gas storage containers, and instrument bays. These pressure vessels have various wall designs, including various aluminum alloys, honeycomb, and carbon-fiber composite materials. For some of the vessels, shielding is being considered. This program involved the test and analysis of six pressure vessel designs, one of which included a Whipple bumper shield. In addition to the pressure vessel walls, all the pressure vessels are wrapped in multi-layer insulation (MLI). Two variants were tested without the MLI to better understand the role of the MLI in the impact performance. The tests of performed were to examine the secondary impacts on these structures as they rested on the Lunar surface. If a hypervelocity meteor were to strike the surface nearby, it would throw regolith and rock debris into the structure at a much lower velocity. Also, when the manned module departs for the return to Earth, its rocket engines throw up debris that can impact the remaining lander components and cause damage. Glass spheres were used as a stimulant for the regolith material. Impact tests were performed with a gas gun to find the V50 of various sized spheres striking the pressure vessels. The impacts were then modeled and a fast-running approximate model for the V50 data was developed. This model was for performing risk analysis to assist in the vessel design and in the identification of ideal

  3. Secondary RNA structure and nucleotide specificity contribute to internal initiation mediated by the human tau 5′ leader

    PubMed Central

    Veo, Bethany L.; Krushel, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms by which eukaryotic internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) initiate translation have not been well described. Viral IRESs utilize a combination of secondary/tertiary structure concomitant with sequence specific elements to initiate translation. Eukaryotic IRESs are proposed to utilize the same components, although it appears that short sequence specific elements are more common. In this report we perform an extensive analysis of the IRES in the human tau mRNA. We demonstrate that the tau IRES exhibits characteristics similar to viral IRESs. It contains two main structural domains that exhibit secondary interactions, which are essential for internal initiation. Moreover, the tau IRES is extremely sensitive to small nucleotide substitutions. Our data also indicates that the 40S ribosome is recruited to the middle of the IRES, but whether it scans to the initiation codon in a linear fashion is questioned. Overall, these results identify structural and sequence elements critical for tau IRES activity and consequently, provide a novel target to regulate tau protein expression in disease states including Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. PMID:22995835

  4. Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure mapping data for secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain

    2010-06-01

    Structure mapping experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the predictions. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure mapping data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure prediction algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic mapping data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure mapping data and reconcile multiple data sets. PMID:20413617

  5. Visualizing the global secondary structure of a viral RNA genome with cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Garmann, Rees F.; Gopal, Ajaykumar; Athavale, Shreyas S.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.; Harvey, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    The lifecycle, and therefore the virulence, of single-stranded (ss)-RNA viruses is regulated not only by their particular protein gene products, but also by the secondary and tertiary structure of their genomes. The secondary structure of the entire genomic RNA of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was recently determined by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). The SHAPE analysis suggested a single highly extended secondary structure with much less branching than occurs in the ensemble of structures predicted by purely thermodynamic algorithms. Here we examine the solution-equilibrated STMV genome by direct visualization with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), using an RNA of similar length transcribed from the yeast genome as a control. The cryo-EM data reveal an ensemble of branching patterns that are collectively consistent with the SHAPE-derived secondary structure model. Thus, our results both elucidate the statistical nature of the secondary structure of large ss-RNAs and give visual support for modern RNA structure determination methods. Additionally, this work introduces cryo-EM as a means to distinguish between competing secondary structure models if the models differ significantly in terms of the number and/or length of branches. Furthermore, with the latest advances in cryo-EM technology, we suggest the possibility of developing methods that incorporate restraints from cryo-EM into the next generation of algorithms for the determination of RNA secondary and tertiary structures. PMID:25752599

  6. A novel predictor for protein structural class based on integrated information of the secondary structure sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Zhao, Xiqiang; Kong, Liang; Liu, Shuxia

    2014-08-01

    The structural class has become one of the most important features for characterizing the overall folding type of a protein and played important roles in many aspects of protein research. At present, it is still a challenging problem to accurately predict protein structural class for low-similarity sequences. In this study, an 18-dimensional integrated feature vector is proposed by fusing the information about content and position of the predicted secondary structure elements. The consistently high accuracies of jackknife and 10-fold cross-validation tests on different low-similarity benchmark datasets show that the proposed method is reliable and stable. Comparison of our results with other methods demonstrates that our method is an effective computational tool for protein structural class prediction, especially for low-similarity sequences. PMID:24859536

  7. A survey of machine learning methods for secondary and supersecondary protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hui Kian; Zhang, Lei; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri; Martin, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a survey of protein secondary and supersecondary structure prediction using methods from machine learning. Our focus is on machine learning methods applicable to β-hairpin and β-sheet prediction, but we also discuss methods for more general supersecondary structure prediction. We provide background on the secondary and supersecondary structures that we discuss, the features used to describe them, and the basic theory behind the machine learning methods used. We survey the machine learning methods available for secondary and supersecondary structure prediction and compare them where possible. PMID:22987348

  8. Situational Interest: Its Multifaceted Structure in the Secondary Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mathew

    Classroom boredom in the secondary mathematics classroom is a problem that can be addressed from knowledge of the intrinsic motivational variable of "interestingness." The lack of a theoretical model of interest is an obstacle in research that investigates this variable. This paper describes the three stages in the development of a model of…

  9. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Zareh A.; Karapetian, Armen T.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed. PMID:26345143

  10. Quantifying the energetic interplay of RNA tertiary and secondary structure interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, S K; Zheng, M; Wu, M; Tinoco, I; Cech, T R

    1999-01-01

    To understand the RNA-folding problem, we must know the extent to which RNA structure formation is hierarchical (tertiary folding of preformed secondary structure). Recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to show that Mg2+-dependent tertiary interactions force secondary structure rearrangement in the 56-nt tP5abc RNA, a truncated subdomain of the Tetrahymena group I intron. Here we combine mutagenesis with folding computations, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, and chemical-modification experiments to probe further the energetic interplay of tertiary and secondary interactions in tP5abc. Point mutations predicted to destabilize the secondary structure of folded tP5abc greatly disrupt its Mg2+-dependent folding, as monitored by nondenaturing gels. Imino proton assignments and sequential NOE walks of the two-dimensional NMR spectrum of one of the tP5abc mutants confirm the predicted secondary structure, which does not change in the presence of Mg2+. In contrast to these data on tP5abc, the same point mutations in the context of the P4-P6 domain (of which P5abc is a subdomain) shift the Mg2+ dependence of P4-P6 folding only moderately, and dimethyl sulfate (DMS) modification experiments demonstrate that Mg2+ does cause secondary structure rearrangement of the P4-P6 mutants' P5abc subdomains. Our data provide experimental support for two simple conclusions: (1) Even single point mutations at bases involved only in secondary structure can be enough to tip the balance between RNA tertiary and secondary interactions. (2) Domain context must be considered in evaluating the relative importance of tertiary and secondary contributions. This tertiary/secondary interplay is likely relevant to the folding of many large RNA and to bimolecular snRNA-snRNA and snRNA-intron RNA interactions. PMID:10606276

  11. The Structure of Secondary School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Attrition and Work Enthusiasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiqi, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This study used the results of a questionnaire survey of 230 secondary school teachers to analyze the factors constituting job satisfaction and its effects on teacher attrition and work enthusiasm. The results show that (a) the structure of secondary school teacher job satisfaction is made up of ten components and is consistent with the model put…

  12. Testing Mediation Using Multiple Regression and Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in Secondary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Spencer D.

    2011-01-01

    Mediation analysis in child and adolescent development research is possible using large secondary data sets. This article provides an overview of two statistical methods commonly used to test mediated effects in secondary analysis: multiple regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). Two empirical studies are presented to illustrate the…

  13. Determination of Secondary School Students' Cognitive Structure, and Misconception in Ecological Concepts through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, Elif Özata; Özkan, Mulis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined cognitive structures and misconceptions about basic ecological concepts by using "word association" tests on secondary school students, age between 12-14 years. Eighty-nine students participated in this study. Before WAT was generated, basic ecological concepts that take place in the secondary science…

  14. Non-B DNA Secondary Structures and Their Resolution by RecQ Helicases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the canonical B-form structure first described by Watson and Crick, DNA can adopt a number of alternative structures. These non-B-form DNA secondary structures form spontaneously on tracts of repeat sequences that are abundant in genomes. In addition, structured forms of DNA with intrastrand pairing may arise on single-stranded DNA produced transiently during various cellular processes. Such secondary structures have a range of biological functions but also induce genetic instability. Increasing evidence suggests that genomic instabilities induced by non-B DNA secondary structures result in predisposition to diseases. Secondary DNA structures also represent a new class of molecular targets for DNA-interactive compounds that might be useful for targeting telomeres and transcriptional control. The equilibrium between the duplex DNA and formation of multistranded non-B-form structures is partly dependent upon the helicases that unwind (resolve) these alternate DNA structures. With special focus on tetraplex, triplex, and cruciform, this paper summarizes the incidence of non-B DNA structures and their association with genomic instability and emphasizes the roles of RecQ-like DNA helicases in genome maintenance by resolution of DNA secondary structures. In future, RecQ helicases are anticipated to be additional molecular targets for cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21977309

  15. Putative secondary structures of unusually long strepsipteran SSU rRNAs and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Choe, C P; Hwang, U W; Kim, W

    1999-04-30

    We constructed the putative secondary structures of the small subunit rRNAs (SSU rRNA) from three strepsipteran insects. The primary sequences of the strepsipteran SSU rRNAs are unusually long due to unique and long insertions. In spite of these insertions, the basic shapes of their secondary structures are well maintained as shown in those of other eukaryotes, because these insertions appear mainly in the variable regions. The secondary structures for the V1, V3, V5, V8, and V9 regions are well conserved, even though the primary structures of V1, V5, and V8 regions are quite variable. However, the predicted secondary structures for the V2, V4, and V7 regions are quite different from those of other insects. In the V4 and V7 regions, helices specific to the Strepsiptera exist. These helices have not been reported in other organisms so far. Similarly, four eukaryotic specific helices (E8-1, E10-2, E23-4 and E45-1) not reported in insects exist in the V2, V4, and V8 regions. These helices are formed by the inserted sequences. The secondary structures of the expanded segments of the strepsipteran SSU rRNA were applied to infer the phylogenetic position of Strepsiptera, one of the most enigmatic problems in insect phylogeny. Only the secondary structure of the V7 region showed the weak Strepsiptera/Diptera sister-group relationship. PMID:10340475

  16. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3′-Untranslated Region of NR2B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A.; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R.; Bassell, Gary J.; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the Post Synaptic Density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3′-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3′-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  17. RNAVLab: A virtual laboratory for studying RNA secondary structures based on grid computing technology

    PubMed Central

    Taufer, Michela; Leung, Ming-Ying; Solorio, Thamar; Licon, Abel; Mireles, David; Araiza, Roberto; Johnson, Kyle L.

    2009-01-01

    As ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation, their secondary structures have been the focus of many recent studies. Despite the computing power of supercomputers, computationally predicting secondary structures with thermodynamic methods is still not feasible when the RNA molecules have long nucleotide sequences and include complex motifs such as pseudoknots. This paper presents RNAVLab (RNA Virtual Laboratory), a virtual laboratory for studying RNA secondary structures including pseudoknots that allows scientists to address this challenge. Two important case studies show the versatility and functionalities of RNAVLab. The first study quantifies its capability to rebuild longer secondary structures from motifs found in systematically sampled nucleotide segments. The extensive sampling and predictions are made feasible in a short turnaround time because of the grid technology used. The second study shows how RNAVLab allows scientists to study the viral RNA genome replication mechanisms used by members of the virus family Nodaviridae. PMID:19885376

  18. A secondary copulatory structure in a female insect: a clasp for a nuptial meal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    2002-03-01

    Secondary copulatory structures are well-known in male dragonflies and spiders. Here I report a secondary copulatory organ in female ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis (Ensifera, Orthoptera - crickets and allies). The organ, located on the underside of the abdomen, appears to secure the male's genitalia during the transfer of a spermatophylax nuptial meal to this location, an area quite separate from the female's primary copulatory structures, where the sperm ampulla is attached.

  19. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  20. Exploring accessibility of structural elements of the mammalian 40S ribosomal mRNA entry channel at various steps of translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Sharifulin, Dmitri E; Bartuli, Yulia S; Meschaninova, Maria I; Ven'yaminova, Aliya G; Graifer, Dmitri M; Karpova, Galina G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we studied how the accessibility of structural elements of the mammalian 40S ribosomal mRNA entry channel, ribosomal protein (rp) uS3 and helix (h) 16 of the 18S rRNA, changes upon the translation initiation. In particular, we examined the accessibility of rp uS3 for binding of unstructured RNAs and of riboses in h16 towards attack with benzoyl cyanide (BzCN) in complexes assembled in rabbit reticulocyte lysate utilizing synthetic oligoribonucleotides as well as full-length and truncated up to the initiation AUG codon hepatitis C virus IRES as model mRNAs. With both mRNA types, the rp uS3 peptide recognizing single-stranded RNAs was shown to become shielded only in those 48S preinitiation complexes (PICs) that contained eIF3j bound to 40S subunit in the area between the decoding site and the mRNA entry channel. Chemical probing with BzCN revealed that h16 in the 48S PICs containing eIF3j or scanning factor DHX29 is strongly shielded; the effect was observed with all the mRNAs used, and h16 remained protected as well in 80S post-initiation complexes lacking these factors. Altogether, the obtained results allowed us to suggest that eIF3j bound at the 48S PICs makes the rp uS3 inaccessible for binding of RNAs and this factor subunit is responsible for the decrease of h16 conformational flexibility; the latter is manifested as reduced accessibility of h16 to BzCN. Thus, our findings provide new insights into how eIF3j is implicated in ensuring the proper conformation of the mRNA entry channel, thereby facilitating mRNA loading. PMID:27346718

  1. Role of Adducin-like (hu-li tai shao) mRNA and protein localization in regulating cytoskeletal structure and function during Drosophila Oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaccai, M; Lipshitz, H D

    1996-01-01

    Adducin is a cytoskeletal protein that can function in vitro to bundle F-actin and to control the assembly of the F-actin/spectrin cytoskeletal network. We previously reported cloning of the Drosophila Adducin-like (Add) locus [Ding et al., 1993] also referred to as hu-li tai shao (hts) [Yue and Spradling, 1992], and identification of two adducin-related protein isoforms: a 95 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-95) and an 87 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-87) [Zaccai and Lipshitz, 1996]. ADD-87 protein is present throughout the oocyte cortex at stages 9 and 10 of oogenesis but is restricted to its anterior pole from stage 11 onward. This ADD-87 protein localization is preceded by localization of Add-hts mRNA first to the cortex and then to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Mutation of the swallow gene results in delocalization of Add-hts mRNA and ADD-87 protein from the cortex of stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and from the anterior pole of later stage oocytes. Early embryos produced by swallow or Add-hts mutant females have severe defects in the distribution of F-actin and spectrin as well as abnormalities in nuclear division, nuclear migration, and cellularization. In addition to their cytoskeletal defects, embryos produced by swallow females have an abnormal anterior pattern because bicoid mRNA is delocalized from the anterior pole. In contrast, bicoid mRNA is still found at the anterior of embryos produced by Add-hts mothers. Thus swallow functions to restrict bicoid mRNA and Add-hts mRNA to the cortex of the oocyte. Cortical restriction of Add-hts mRNA and protein is required for the normal structure and function of the early embryonic F-actin/spectrin cytoskeleton. A defective embryonic cytoskeleton can be induced in either of two ways: (1) by delocalization of functional ADD from the oocyte cortex (as in swallow mutants), or (2) by reduction of ADD function while retaining its normal cortical localization during oogenesis (as in Add-hts mutants). PMID:8952067

  2. RNACluster: An integrated tool for RNA secondary structure comparison and clustering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Olman, V; Liu, Huiqing; Ye, Xiuzi; Qiu, Shilun; Xu, Ying

    2008-07-15

    RNA structure comparison is a fundamental problem in structural biology, structural chemistry, and bioinformatics. It can be used for analysis of RNA energy landscapes, conformational switches, and facilitating RNA structure prediction. The purpose of our integrated tool RNACluster is twofold: to provide a platform for computing and comparison of different distances between RNA secondary structures, and to perform cluster identification to derive useful information of RNA structure ensembles, using a minimum spanning tree (MST) based clustering algorithm. RNACluster employs a cluster identification approach based on a MST representation of the RNA ensemble data and currently supports six distance measures between RNA secondary structures. RNACluster provides a user-friendly graphical interface to allow a user to compare different structural distances, analyze the structure ensembles, and visualize predicted structural clusters. PMID:18271070

  3. Insights into mRNA export-linked molecular mechanisms of human disease through a Gle1 structure-function analysis

    PubMed Central

    Folkmann, Andrew W.; Dawson, T. Renee; Wente, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    A critical step during gene expression is the directional export of nuclear messenger (m)RNA through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to the cytoplasm. During export, Gle1 in conjunction with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially regulates the activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5 at the NPC cytoplasmic face. GLE1 mutations are causally linked to the human diseases lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1) and lethal arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease (LAAHD). Here, structure prediction and functional analysis provide strong evidence to suggest that the LCCS1 and LAAHD disease mutations disrupt the function of Gle1 in mRNA export. Strikingly, direct fluorescence microscopy in living cells reveals a dramatic loss of steady-state NPC localization for GFP-gle1 proteins expressed from human gle1 genes harboring LAAHD and LCCS1 mutations. The potential significance of these residues is further clarified by analyses of sequence and predicted structural conservation. This work offers insights into the perturbed mechanisms underlying human LCCS-1 and LAAHD disease states and emphasizes the potential impact of altered mRNA transport and gene expression in human disease. PMID:24275432

  4. The Role of Structural Elements of the 5'-Terminal Region of p53 mRNA in Translation under Stress Conditions Assayed by the Antisense Oligonucleotide Approach

    PubMed Central

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Zydowicz, Paulina; Gorska, Agnieszka; Suchacka, Julia; Dutkiewicz, Mariola; Ciesiołka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The p53 protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and stress response. In the 5’-terminal region of p53 mRNA, an IRES element has been found which takes part in the translational regulation of p53 expression. Two characteristic hairpin motifs are present in this mRNA region: G56-C169, with the first AUG codon, and U180-A218, which interacts with the Hdm2 protein (human homolog of mouse double minute 2 protein). 2′-OMe modified antisense oligomers hybridizing to the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA were applied to assess the role of these structural elements in translation initiation under conditions of cellular stress. Structural changes in the RNA target occurring upon oligomers’ binding were monitored by the Pb2+-induced cleavage method. The impact of antisense oligomers on the synthesis of two proteins, the full-length p53 and its isoform Δ40p53, was analysed in HT-29, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, under normal conditions and under stress, as well as in vitro conditions. The results revealed that the hairpin U180-A218 and adjacent single-stranded region A219-A228 were predominantly responsible for high efficacy of IRES-mediated translation in the presence of stress factors. These motifs play a role of cis-acting elements which are able to modulate IRES activity, likely via interactions with protein factors. PMID:26513723

  5. The role of a metastable RNA secondary structure in hepatitis delta virus genotype III RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Kasprzak, Wojciech K.; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Casey, John L.

    2006-01-01

    RNA editing plays a critical role in the life cycle of hepatitis delta virus (HDV). The host editing enzyme ADAR1 recognizes specific RNA secondary structure features around the amber/W site in the HDV antigenome and deaminates the amber/W adenosine. A previous report suggested that a branched secondary structure is necessary for editing in HDV genotype III. This branched structure, which is distinct from the characteristic unbranched rod structure required for HDV replication, was only partially characterized, and knowledge concerning its formation and stability was limited. Here, we examine the secondary structures, conformational dynamics, and amber/W site editing of HDV genotype III RNA using a miniaturized HDV genotype III RNA in vitro. Computational analysis of this RNA using the MPGAfold algorithm indicated that the RNA has a tendency to form both metastable and stable unbranched secondary structures. Moreover, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that this RNA forms both branched and unbranched rod structures when transcribed in vitro. As predicted, the branched structure is a metastable structure that converts readily to the unbranched rod structure. Only branched RNA was edited at the amber/W site by ADAR1 in vitro. The structural heterogeneity of HDV genotype III RNA is significant because not only are both conformations of the RNA functionally important for viral replication, but the ratio of the two forms could modulate editing by determining the amount of substrate RNA available for modification. PMID:16790843

  6. An image processing approach to computing distances between RNA secondary structures dot plots

    PubMed Central

    Ivry, Tor; Michal, Shahar; Avihoo, Assaf; Sapiro, Guillermo; Barash, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Background Computing the distance between two RNA secondary structures can contribute in understanding the functional relationship between them. When used repeatedly, such a procedure may lead to finding a query RNA structure of interest in a database of structures. Several methods are available for computing distances between RNAs represented as strings or graphs, but none utilize the RNA representation with dot plots. Since dot plots are essentially digital images, there is a clear motivation to devise an algorithm for computing the distance between dot plots based on image processing methods. Results We have developed a new metric dubbed 'DoPloCompare', which compares two RNA structures. The method is based on comparing dot plot diagrams that represent the secondary structures. When analyzing two diagrams and motivated by image processing, the distance is based on a combination of histogram correlations and a geometrical distance measure. We introduce, describe, and illustrate the procedure by two applications that utilize this metric on RNA sequences. The first application is the RNA design problem, where the goal is to find the nucleotide sequence for a given secondary structure. Examples where our proposed distance measure outperforms others are given. The second application locates peculiar point mutations that induce significant structural alternations relative to the wild type predicted secondary structure. The approach reported in the past to solve this problem was tested on several RNA sequences with known secondary structures to affirm their prediction, as well as on a data set of ribosomal pieces. These pieces were computationally cut from a ribosome for which an experimentally derived secondary structure is available, and on each piece the prediction conveys similarity to the experimental result. Our newly proposed distance measure shows benefit in this problem as well when compared to standard methods used for assessing the distance similarity

  7. Heterogeneity in gamma-glutamyltransferase mRNA expression and glycan structures. Search for tumor-specific variants in human liver metastases and colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Ingvild; Andersen, Jeanette Hammer; Bjornland, Kristin; Mathisen, Øystein; Bremnes, Roy; Wellman, Maria; Visvikis, Athanase; Huseby, Nils-Erik

    2003-05-30

    The enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells and tissues and has significant utility as a cancer marker. Significant heterogeneity of the enzyme has been described due to both transcriptional and post-translational variations. For possible use in diagnosis and follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer, a search was performed for specific mRNA subtypes and glycan structures of the enzyme in liver metastases. We found no differences in the distribution of three GGT mRNA subtypes (fetal liver, HepG2, placenta) in metastatic tissue and normal liver tissue. Furthermore, the three subtypes were present in leukocytes isolated from both normal individuals and cancer patients. Two colon carcinoma cell lines (Colo 205 and HCC 2998) also displayed the three forms and no consistent changes in mRNA composition were noted after butyrate-induced differentiation of the cells. Thus, neither of the GGT mRNA subforms appear to be tumor-specific, although some qualitative and quantitative variations were noted. Two distinct glycosylation features were detected for GGT in metastatic tissue in contrast to normal liver GGT; an extreme sialic acid heterogeneity and a significant increase in beta1,6GlcNAc branching. The GGT glycans from the two colon carcinoma cell lines also possessed these features. As butyrate treatment of the cells resulted in an increased sialic acid content and a reduced beta1,6GlcNAc branching, the described carbohydrate structures appear to be part of a tumor-related pattern. We were, however, unable to identify such GGT isoforms in serum from patients with advanced colorectal cancer. This indicates that their usefulness in diagnostic use is doubtful. PMID:12758164

  8. Structural evolution of gold nanorods during controlled secondary growth.

    PubMed

    Keul, Heidrun A; Möller, Martin; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2007-09-25

    Single-crystalline gold nanorods synthesized by the Ag(I)-mediated seeded-growth method (see: El-Sayed, M. A.; Nikoobakht, B. Chem. Mater. 2003, 15, 1957) were used as seeds for the preferential overgrowth of gold on particular crystallographic facets by systematic variation of the conditions during overgrowth. The results support previous reports about the relevance of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Ag(I) in stabilizing anisotropic particle shapes and demonstrate that the regulation of the amount of ascorbic acid facilitates the preferential overgrowth of {111} crystal facets to form Xi-type particle shapes. Interestingly, secondary overgrowth is found to inevitably result in a loss of particle shape anisotropy. A mechanism based on surface reconstruction is proposed to rationalize the "shape-reversal" that is generally observed in the nanorod growth process, that is, the initial increase and subsequent decrease of particle anisotropy with increasing reaction time. High-resolution electron microscopy analysis of gold nanorods reveals clear evidence for (1 x 2) missing row surface reconstruction of high energetic {110} facets that form during the initial phase during particle growth. PMID:17713936

  9. GTfold: Enabling parallel RNA secondary structure prediction on multi-core desktops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate and efficient RNA secondary structure prediction remains an important open problem in computational molecular biology. Historically, advances in computing technology have enabled faster and more accurate RNA secondary structure predictions. Previous parallelized prediction programs achieved significant improvements in runtime, but their implementations were not portable from niche high-performance computers or easily accessible to most RNA researchers. With the increasing prevalence of multi-core desktop machines, a new parallel prediction program is needed to take full advantage of today’s computing technology. Findings We present here the first implementation of RNA secondary structure prediction by thermodynamic optimization for modern multi-core computers. We show that GTfold predicts secondary structure in less time than UNAfold and RNAfold, without sacrificing accuracy, on machines with four or more cores. Conclusions GTfold supports advances in RNA structural biology by reducing the timescales for secondary structure prediction. The difference will be particularly valuable to researchers working with lengthy RNA sequences, such as RNA viral genomes. PMID:22747589

  10. Aspects of the secondary and tertiary structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, G

    1983-11-21

    DNA is the primary genetic material of most organisms. A wide variety of naturally occurring duplex DNA's are known to exist as covalently closed circles. This covalent continuity introduces a topological constraint, and consequently these molecules possess aspects of tertiary and even higher-order structure. Virtually every physical, chemical and biological property of DNA - its transcription, hydrodynamic behaviour, energetics, enzymology and so on - are related to these structural features. We describe the parameters describing the topology and conformation of covalently-closed, duplex DNA's (form I DNA's), the conservation relationship between them and its implications. PMID:6316054

  11. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  12. The vitellogenin of the bumblebee, Bombus hypocrita: studies on structural analysis of the cDNA and expression of the mRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Jilian; Huang, Jiaxing; Cai, Wanzhi; Zhao, Zhangwu; Peng, Wenjun; Wu, Jie

    2010-02-01

    In this present study, the cDNA of Bombus hypocrita vitellogenin (Vg) was cloned and sequenced. It is composed of 5,478 bp and contains an ORF of 1,772 amino acids within a putative signal peptide of 16 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant similarity with Bombus ignitus (95%) and Apis mellifera (52%) and a high number of conserved motifs. Close to the C terminus there is a GL/ICG motif followed by nine cysteines, and a DGXR motif is located 18 residues upstream from the GL/ICG motif. Moreover, we predicted the 3D structure of B. hypocrita Vg. Furthermore, the Vg mRNA of B. hypocrita was spatio-temporally analyzed in different castes (such as queen, worker and drone) from pupae to adult. The Vg mRNA was found in the white-eyed pupal (Pw) stage in queens, and the expression increased during the entire pupal development and attained its peak in the dark brown pupal stage. It also had a high expression in the adult fat body. In workers, the Vg expression was detected in the Pw stage, and its levels increased with age with the highest in 15 days. Afterward, it decreased progressively. Vg mRNA was also observed in drones, with a higher level of expression shown in only freshly molted adult drones. PMID:20012056

  13. Argumentation in Secondary School Students' Structured and Unstructured Chat Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Timo; Marttunen, Miika; Laurinen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Joint construction of new knowledge demands that persons can express their statements in a convincing way and explore other people's arguments constructively. For this reason, more knowledge on different means to support collaborative argumentation is needed. This study clarifies whether structured interaction supports students' critical and…

  14. Charge‐Induced Unzipping of Isolated Proteins to a Defined Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    González Flórez, Ana Isabel; Mucha, Eike; Ahn, Doo‐Sik; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Pagel, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the secondary structure of isolated proteins as a function of charge state. In infrared spectra of the proteins ubiquitin and cytochrome c, amide I (C=O stretch) and amide II (N–H bend) bands can be found at positions that are typical for condensed‐phase proteins. For high charge states a new band appears, substantially red‐shifted from the amide II band observed at lower charge states. The observations are interpreted in terms of Coulomb‐driven transitions in secondary structures from mostly helical to extended C5‐type hydrogen‐bonded structures. Support for this interpretation comes from simple energy considerations as well as from quantum chemical calculations on model peptides. This transition in secondary structure is most likely universal for isolated proteins that occur in mass spectrometric experiments. PMID:26847383

  15. A parallel strategy for predicting the secondary structure of polycistronic microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Han, Dianwei; Tang, Guiliang; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The biogenesis of a functional microRNA is largely dependent on the secondary structure of the microRNA precursor (pre-miRNA). Recently, it has been shown that microRNAs are present in the genome as the form of polycistronic transcriptional units in plants and animals. It will be important to design efficient computational methods to predict such structures for microRNA discovery and its applications in gene silencing. In this paper, we propose a parallel algorithm based on the master-slave architecture to predict the secondary structure from an input sequence. We conducted some experiments to verify the effectiveness of our parallel algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithm is able to produce the optimal secondary structure of polycistronic microRNAs. PMID:23467060

  16. Charge-Induced Unzipping of Isolated Proteins to a Defined Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    González Flórez, Ana Isabel; Mucha, Eike; Ahn, Doo-Sik; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Pagel, Kevin; von Helden, Gert

    2016-03-01

    Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the secondary structure of isolated proteins as a function of charge state. In infrared spectra of the proteins ubiquitin and cytochrome c, amide I (C=O stretch) and amide II (N-H bend) bands can be found at positions that are typical for condensed-phase proteins. For high charge states a new band appears, substantially red-shifted from the amide II band observed at lower charge states. The observations are interpreted in terms of Coulomb-driven transitions in secondary structures from mostly helical to extended C5 -type hydrogen-bonded structures. Support for this interpretation comes from simple energy considerations as well as from quantum chemical calculations on model peptides. This transition in secondary structure is most likely universal for isolated proteins that occur in mass spectrometric experiments. PMID:26847383

  17. Improving protein secondary structure prediction using a multi-modal BP method.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wu; Sui, Haifeng; Yang, Bingru; Qian, Wenbin

    2011-10-01

    Methods for predicting protein secondary structures provide information that is useful both in ab initio structure prediction and as additional restraints for fold recognition algorithms. Secondary structure predictions may also be used to guide the design of site directed mutagenesis studies, and to locate potential functionally important residues. In this article, we propose a multi-modal back propagation neural network (MMBP) method for predicting protein secondary structures. Using a Knowledge Discovery Theory based on Inner Cognitive Mechanism (KDTICM) method, we have constructed a compound pyramid model (CPM), which is composed of three layers of intelligent interface that integrate multi-modal back propagation neural network (MMBP), mixed-modal SVM (MMS), modified Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD(⁎)) process and so on. The CPM method is both an integrated web server and a standalone application that exploits recent advancements in knowledge discovery and machine learning to perform very accurate protein secondary structure predictions. Using a non-redundant test dataset of 256 proteins from RCASP256, the CPM method achieves an average Q(3) score of 86.13% (SOV99=84.66%). Extensive testing indicates that this is significantly better than any other method currently available. Assessments using RS126 and CB513 datasets indicate that the CPM method can achieve average Q(3) score approaching 83.99% (SOV99=80.25%) and 85.58% (SOV99=81.15%). By using both sequence and structure databases and by exploiting the latest techniques in machine learning it is possible to routinely predict protein secondary structure with an accuracy well above 80%. A program and web server, called CPM, which performs these secondary structure predictions, is accessible at http://kdd.ustb.edu.cn/protein_Web/. PMID:21880310

  18. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors’ approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a ‘still-life’, but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein’s true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases. PMID:25610631

  19. Rapid increase of Nurr1 mRNA expression in limbic and cortical brain structures related to coping with depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Patricia; Joodmardi, Eliza; Perlmann, Thomas; Ogren, Sven Ove

    2010-08-01

    The immediate-early gene Nurr1 is a member of the inducible orphan nuclear receptor family. Nurr1 is essential to the differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and is expressed in different brain regions. We have reported that adult mice with reduced Nurr1 expression displayed an increase in immobility response to acute stress. These mice were also deficient in the retention of emotional memory. Thus, Nurr1 expression seems to be relevant to normal cognitive processes. To investigate the response of Nurr1 to a stress stimulus, Nurr1 mRNA expression was examined by in situ hybridization in adult mice using a depression-like behavior paradigm, the forced swim test. The Nurr1 gene was rapidly and widely up-regulated throughout the brain, including cortical areas (i.e., prefrontal cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex, and secondary somatosensory cortex), hippocampus (dentate gyrus, CA1, CA2, and CA3), and midbrain (substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area) at 30 min and 3 hr after the forced swim test. Dopamine content was reduced in prefrontal cortex and midbrain following swim stress. These results suggest that the increase in Nurr1 expression might be a compensatory mechanism to counteract the changes in forebrain dopamine transmission in coping with acute stress. PMID:20175204

  20. Fast and accurate determination of sites along the FUT2 in vitro transcript that are accessible to antisense oligonucleotides by application of secondary structure predictions and RNase H in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Angelika; Krebs, Stefan; Seichter, Doris; Förster, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Alteration of gene expression by use of antisense oligonucleotides has considerable potential for therapeutic purposes and scientific studies. Although applied for almost 25 years, this technique is still associated with difficulties in finding antisense-effective regions along the target mRNA. This is mainly due to strong secondary structures preventing binding of antisense oligonucleotides and RNase H, playing a major role in antisense-mediated degradation of the mRNA. These difficulties make empirical testing of a large number of sequences complementary to various sites in the target mRNA a very lengthy and troublesome procedure. To overcome this problem, more recent strategies to find efficient antisense sites are based on secondary structure prediction and RNase H-dependent mechanisms. We were the first who directly combined these two strategies; antisense oligonucleotides complementary to predicted unpaired target mRNA regions were designed and hybridized to the corresponding RNAs. Incubation with RNase H led to cleavage of the RNA at the respective hybridization sites. Analysis of the RNA fragments by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which has not been used in this context before, allowed exact determination of the cleavage site. Thus the technique described here is very promising when searching for effective antisense sites. PMID:12888531

  1. A Multi-faceted Secondary Structure Mimic Based On Piperidine-piperidinones

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Dongyue; Perez, Lisa M.; Ioerger, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Minimalist secondary structure mimics are typically made to resemble one interface in a protein-protein interaction (PPI), and thus perturb it. We recently proposed suitable chemotypes can be matched with interface regions directly, without regard for secondary structures. This communication describes a modular synthesis of a new chemotype 1, simulation of its solution-state conformational ensemble, and correlation of that with ideal secondary structures and real interface regions in PPIs. Scaffold 1 presents amino acid side-chains that are quite separated from each other, in orientations that closely resemble ideal sheet or helical structures, similar non-ideal structures at PPI interfaces, and regions of other PPI interfaces where the mimic conformation does not resemble any secondary structure. Sixty-eight different PPIs where conformations of 1 matched well were identified. A new method is also presented to determine the relevance of a minimalist mimic crystal structure to its solution conformations. Thus DLD-1faf crystallized in a conformation that is estimated to be 0.91 kcal•mol−1 above the minimum energy solution state. PMID:24591004

  2. Structuring Free-text Microbiology Culture Reports For Secondary Use

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Wen-wai; Evans, Heather L.; Yetisgen, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology lab culture reports are a frequently used diagnostic tool for clinical providers. However, their incorporation into clinical surveillance applications and evidence-based medicine can be severely hindered by the free-text nature of these reports. In this work, we (1) created a microbiology culture template to structure free-text microbiology reports, (2) generated an annotated microbiology report corpus, and (3) built a microbiology information extraction system. Specifically, we combined rule-based, hybrid, and statistical techniques to extract microbiology entities and fill templates for structuring data. System performances were favorable, with entity f1-score 0.889 and relation f1-score 0.795. We plan to incorporate these extractions as features for our ongoing ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance project, though this tool can be used as an upstream process in other applications. Our newly created corpus includes 1442 unique gram stain and culture microbiology reports generated from a cohort of 715 patients at the University of Washington Medical Facilities. PMID:26306288

  3. Structural class prediction of protein using novel feature extraction method from chaos game representation of predicted secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Kong, Liang; Han, Xiaodong; Lv, Jinfeng

    2016-07-01

    Protein structural class prediction plays an important role in protein structure and function analysis, drug design and many other biological applications. Extracting good representation from protein sequence is fundamental for this prediction task. In recent years, although several secondary structure based feature extraction strategies have been specially proposed for low-similarity protein sequences, the prediction accuracy still remains limited. To explore the potential of secondary structure information, this study proposed a novel feature extraction method from the chaos game representation of predicted secondary structure to mainly capture sequence order information and secondary structure segments distribution information in a given protein sequence. Several kinds of prediction accuracies obtained by the jackknife test are reported on three widely used low-similarity benchmark datasets (25PDB, 1189 and 640). Compared with the state-of-the-art prediction methods, the proposed method achieves the highest overall accuracies on all the three datasets. The experimental results confirm that the proposed feature extraction method is effective for accurate prediction of protein structural class. Moreover, it is anticipated that the proposed method could be extended to other graphical representations of protein sequence and be helpful in future research. PMID:27084358

  4. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase transcription by hnRNP K and DNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kasturi; Wang, Meng; Cai, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Nana; Baker, Harriet; Cave, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene (Th) transcription is critical for specifying and maintaining the dopaminergic neuronal phenotype. Here we define a molecular regulatory mechanism for Th transcription conserved in tetrapod vertebrates. We show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is a transactivator of Th transcription. It binds to previously unreported and evolutionarily conserved G:C-rich regions in the Th proximal promoter. hnRNP K directly binds C-rich single DNA strands within these conserved regions and also associates with double-stranded sequences when proteins, such as CREB, are bound to an adjacent cis-regulatory element. The single DNA strands within the conserved G:C-rich regions adopt either G-quadruplex or i-motif secondary structures. We also show that small molecule-mediated stabilization of these secondary structures represses Th promoter activity. These data suggest that these secondary structures are targets for pharmacological modulation of the dopaminergic phenotype. PMID:25493445

  5. Relationship between chain collapse and secondary structure formation in a partially folded protein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kanako; Yamada, Yoshiteru; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Tsukamoto, Seiichi; Yamamoto-Ohtomo, Mio; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Okabe, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Ikeguchi, Masamichi

    2014-06-01

    Chain collapse and secondary structure formation are frequently observed during the early stages of protein folding. Is the chain collapse brought about by interactions between secondary structure units or is it due to polymer behavior in a poor solvent (coil-globule transition)? To answer this question, we measured small-angle X-ray scattering for a series of β-lactoglobulin mutants under conditions in which they assume a partially folded state analogous to the folding intermediates. Mutants that were designed to disrupt the secondary structure units showed the gyration radii similar to that of the wild type protein, indicating that chain collapse is due to coil-globule transitions. PMID:25100622

  6. Dynamics of beta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen sliding clamps in traversing DNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Yao, N; Hurwitz, J; O'Donnell, M

    2000-01-14

    Chromosomal replicases of cellular organisms utilize a ring shaped protein that encircles DNA as a mobile tether for high processivity in DNA synthesis. These "sliding clamps" have sufficiently large linear diameters to encircle duplex DNA and are perhaps even large enough to slide over certain DNA secondary structural elements. This report examines the Escherichia coli beta and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamps for their ability to slide over various DNA secondary structures. The results show that these clamps are capable of traversing a 13-nucleotide ssDNA loop, a 4-base pair stem-loop, a 4-nucleotide 5' tail, and a 15-mer bubble within the duplex. However, upon increasing the size of these structures (20-nucleotide loop, 12-base pair stem-loop, 28-nucleotide 5' tail, and 20-nucleotide bubble) the sliding motion of the beta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen over these elements is halted. Studies of the E. coli replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, in chain elongation with the beta clamp demonstrate that upon encounter with an oligonucleotide annealed in its path, it traverses the duplex and resumes synthesis on the 3' terminus of the oligonucleotide. This sliding and resumption of synthesis occurs even when the oligonucleotide contains a secondary structure element, provided the beta clamp can traverse the structure. However, upon encounter with a downstream oligonucleotide containing a large internal secondary structure, the holoenzyme clears the obstacle by strand displacing the oligonucleotide from the template. Implications of these protein dynamics to DNA transactions are discussed. PMID:10625694

  7. RNAmutants: a web server to explore the mutational landscape of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Waldispühl, Jerome; Devadas, Srinivas; Berger, Bonnie; Clote, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The history and mechanism of molecular evolution in DNA have been greatly elucidated by contributions from genetics, probability theory and bioinformatics--indeed, mathematical developments such as Kimura's neutral theory, Kingman's coalescent theory and efficient software such as BLAST, ClustalW, Phylip, etc., provide the foundation for modern population genetics. In contrast to DNA, the function of most noncoding RNA depends on tertiary structure, experimentally known to be largely determined by secondary structure, for which dynamic programming can efficiently compute the minimum free energy secondary structure. For this reason, understanding the effect of pointwise mutations in RNA secondary structure could reveal fundamental properties of structural RNA molecules and improve our understanding of molecular evolution of RNA. The web server RNAmutants provides several efficient tools to compute the ensemble of low-energy secondary structures for all k-mutants of a given RNA sequence, where k is bounded by a user-specified upper bound. As we have previously shown, these tools can be used to predict putative deleterious mutations and to analyze regulatory sequences from the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency genomes. Web server is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAmutants/, and downloadable binaries at http://rnamutants.csail.mit.edu/. PMID:19531740

  8. Fabrication of experimental three-meter space telescope primary and secondary mirror support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishler, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication of prototype titanium alloy primary and secondary mirror support structures for a proposed experimental three-meter space telescope is discussed. The structure was fabricated entirely of Ti-6Al-4V tubing and plate. Fabrication included the development of procedures including welding, forming, and machining. Most of the structures was fabricated by gas-shielding tungsten-arc (GTA) welding with several major components fabricated by high frequency resistance (HFR) welding.

  9. New charge-bearing amino acid residues that promote β-sheet secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Stacy J; Almeida, Aaron M; Yoshimi, Yasuharu; Gellman, Samuel H

    2014-11-26

    Proteinogenic amino acid residues that promote β-sheet secondary structure are hydrophobic (e.g., Ile or Val) or only moderately polar (e.g., Thr). The design of peptides intended to display β-sheet secondary structure in water typically requires one set of residues to ensure conformational stability and an orthogonal set, with charged side chains, to ensure aqueous solubility and discourage self-association. Here we describe new amino acids that manifest substantial β-sheet propensity, by virtue of β-branching, and also bear an ionizable group in the side chain. PMID:25393077

  10. FASTR: A novel data format for concomitant representation of RNA sequence and secondary structure information.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tungadri; Dutta, Anirban; Mh, Mohammed; Gandhi, Hemang; Mande, Sharmila S

    2015-09-01

    Given the importance of RNA secondary structures in defining their biological role, it would be convenient for researchers seeking RNA data if both sequence and structural information pertaining to RNA molecules are made available together. Current nucleotide data repositories archive only RNA sequence data. Furthermore, storage formats which can frugally represent RNA sequence as well as structure data in a single file, are currently unavailable. This article proposes a novel storage format, 'FASTR', for concomitant representation of RNA sequence and structure. The storage efficiency of the proposed FASTR format has been evaluated using RNA data from various microorganisms. Results indicate that the size of FASTR formatted files (containing both RNA sequence as well as structure information) are equivalent to that of FASTA-format files, which contain only RNA sequence information. RNA secondary structure is typically represented using a combination of a string of nucleotide characters along with the corresponding dot-bracket notation indicating structural attributes. 'FASTR' - the novel storage format proposed in the present study enables a frugal representation of both RNA sequence and structural information in the form of a single string. In spite of having a relatively smaller storage footprint, the resultant 'fastr' string(s) retain all sequence as well as secondary structural information that could be stored using a dot-bracket notation. An implementation of the 'FASTR' methodology is available for download at http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/compression/fastr. PMID:26333403

  11. Secondary Structural Change Can Occur Diffusely and Not Modularly during Protein Folding and Unfolding Reactions.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2016-05-11

    A major goal of protein folding studies is to understand the structural basis of the coupling between stabilizing interactions, which leads to cooperative conformational change. The goal is challenging because of the difficulty in simultaneously measuring global cooperativity by determining population distributions of the conformations present, and the structures of these conformations. Here, hydrogen exchange (HX) into the small protein monellin was carried out under conditions where structure-opening is rate limiting for most backbone amide sites. Detection by mass spectrometry allowed characterization of not only segment-specific structure-opening rates but also the cooperativity of unfolding of the different secondary structural segments of the protein. The segment-specific pattern of HX reveals that the backbone hydrogen-bonding network disassembles in a structurally diffuse, asynchronous manner. A comparison of the site-specific transient opening rates of secondary and tertiary structure in the protein provides a structural rationale for the observation that unfolding is hierarchical and describable by exponential kinetics, despite being diffuse. Since unfolding was studied in native conditions, the sequence of events during folding in the same conditions will be the reverse of the sequence of events observed during unfolding. Hence, the formation of secondary structural units during folding would also occur in a non-cooperative, diffuse, and asynchronous manner. PMID:27093885

  12. Crystal structure of Ski8p, a WD-repeat protein with dual roles in mRNA metabolism and meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhihong; Liu, Yuying; Wang, Chernhoe; Parker, Roy; Song, Haiwei

    2004-10-01

    Ski8p is a WD-repeat protein with an essential role for the Ski complex assembly in an exosome-dependent 3'-to-5' mRNA decay. In addition, Ski8p is involved in meiotic recombination by interacting with Spo11p protein. We have determined the crystal structure of Ski8p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.2 A resolution. The structure reveals that Ski8p folds into a seven-bladed beta propeller. Mapping sequence conservation and hydrophobicities of amino acids on the molecular surface of Ski8p reveals a prominent site on the top surface of the beta propeller, which is most likely involved in mediating interactions of Ski8p with Ski3p and Spo11p. Mutagenesis combined with yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays identified the top surface of the beta propeller as being required for Ski8p binding to Ski3p and Spo11p. The functional implications for Ski8p function in both mRNA decay and meiotic recombination are discussed. PMID:15340168

  13. Direct-Coupling Analysis of nucleotide coevolution facilitates RNA secondary and tertiary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    De Leonardis, Eleonora; Lutz, Benjamin; Ratz, Sebastian; Cocco, Simona; Monasson, Rémi; Schug, Alexander; Weigt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the biological importance of non-coding RNA, their structural characterization remains challenging. Making use of the rapidly growing sequence databases, we analyze nucleotide coevolution across homologous sequences via Direct-Coupling Analysis to detect nucleotide-nucleotide contacts. For a representative set of riboswitches, we show that the results of Direct-Coupling Analysis in combination with a generalized Nussinov algorithm systematically improve the results of RNA secondary structure prediction beyond traditional covariance approaches based on mutual information. Even more importantly, we show that the results of Direct-Coupling Analysis are enriched in tertiary structure contacts. By integrating these predictions into molecular modeling tools, systematically improved tertiary structure predictions can be obtained, as compared to using secondary structure information alone. PMID:26420827

  14. Computer-aided nucleic acid secondary structure modeling incorporating enzymatic digestion data.

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, G J; Gehrke, L; Roth, D A; Auron, P E

    1984-01-01

    We present a computer-aided method for determining nucleic acid secondary structure. The method utilizes a program which has the capability to filter matrix diagonal data on the basis of diagonal length, stabilization energy, and chemical and enzymatic data. The program also allows the user to assign selected regions of the structure as uniquely single-stranded or paired, and to filter out "trade-off" structures on the basis of such pairing. In order to demonstrate the utility of the program we present a preliminary secondary structure for the 3' end of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 (AMV-4 RNA). This structure is based on an analysis which includes the use of in vitro partial enzymatic digestion of the RNA. Images PMID:6320093

  15. The four ingredients of single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction. A unifying perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Any method for RNA secondary structure prediction is determined by four ingredients. The architecture is the choice of features implemented by the model (such as stacked basepairs, loop length distributions, etc.). The architecture determines the number of parameters in the model. The scoring scheme is the nature of those parameters (whether thermodynamic, probabilistic, or weights). The parameterization stands for the specific values assigned to the parameters. These three ingredients are referred to as “the model.” The fourth ingredient is the folding algorithms used to predict plausible secondary structures given the model and the sequence of a structural RNA. Here, I make several unifying observations drawn from looking at more than 40 years of methods for RNA secondary structure prediction in the light of this classification. As a final observation, there seems to be a performance ceiling that affects all methods with complex architectures, a ceiling that impacts all scoring schemes with remarkable similarity. This suggests that modeling RNA secondary structure by using intrinsic sequence-based plausible “foldability” will require the incorporation of other forms of information in order to constrain the folding space and to improve prediction accuracy. This could give an advantage to probabilistic scoring systems since a probabilistic framework is a natural platform to incorporate different sources of information into one single inference problem. PMID:23695796

  16. The internal transcribed spacer 2 exhibits a common secondary structure in green algae and flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Mai, J C; Coleman, A W

    1997-03-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) regions of the nuclear rDNA repeats from 111 organisms of the family Volvocaceae (Chlorophyta) and unicellular organisms of the Volvocales, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were determined. The use of thermodynamic energy optimization to generate secondary structures and phylogenetic comparative analysis of the spacer regions revealed a common secondary structure that is conserved despite wide intra- and interfamilial primary sequence divergence. The existence of this conserved higher-order structure is supported by the presence of numerous compensating basepair changes as well as by an evolutionary history of insertions and deletions that nevertheless maintains major aspects of the overall structure. Furthermore, this general structure is preserved across broad phylogenetic lines, as it is observed in the ITS-2s of other chlorophytes, including flowering plants; previous reports of common ITS-2 secondary structures in other eukaryotes were restricted to the order level. The reported ITS-2 structure possesses important conserved structural motifs which may help to mediate cleavages in the ITS-2 that occur during rRNA transcript processing. Their recognition can guide further studies of eukaryotic rRNA processing, and their application to sequence alignments may contribute significantly to the value of ITS-2 sequences in phylogenetic analyses at several taxonomic levels, but particularly in characterizing populations and species. PMID:9060392

  17. [Establishment of industry promotion technology system in Chinese medicine secondary exploitation based on "component structure theory"].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the secondary exploitation of Chinese medicine is to improve the quality of Chinese medicine products, enhance core competitiveness, for better use in clinical practice, and more effectively solve the patient suffering. Herbs, extraction, separation, refreshing, preparation and quality control are all involved in the industry promotion of Chinese medicine secondary exploitation of industrial production. The Chinese medicine quality improvement and industry promotion could be realized with the whole process of process optimization, quality control, overall processes improvement. Based on the "component structure theory", "multi-dimensional structure & process dynamic quality control system" and systematic and holistic character of Chinese medicine, impacts of whole process were discussed. Technology systems of Chinese medicine industry promotion was built to provide theoretical basis for improving the quality and efficacy of the secondary development of traditional Chinese medicine products. PMID:25751964

  18. Characterization of primary structure and tissue expression profile of the chicken apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter mRNA.

    PubMed

    Nakao, N; Kaneda, H; Tsushima, N; Ohta, Y; Tanaka, M

    2015-04-01

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (ASBT) plays an essential role in the absorption of bile acids from intestinal lumina. ASBT cDNA has been cloned from mammalian and fish species, and the primary structure of the protein and expression properties of the mRNA have been characterized. In this study, we identified chicken ASBT mRNA by cDNA cloning. Chicken ASBT cDNA consisted of 91 bp of the 5'-untranslated region, 1,083 bp of the coding region, and 1,896 bp of the 3'-untranslated region. The cDNA encoded a protein of 360 amino acids showing significant sequence identity with mammalian and fish ASBT. The amino acid residues known to participate in the functions of mammalian ASBT were conserved in chicken ASBT. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that chicken ASBT mRNA was expressed at markedly higher levels in the ileum and proximal colon/rectum, relatively lower levels in the kidney, and very low levels in the jejunum and cecum. Expression levels in the ileum markedly increased after hatching, reached the highest levels on day 7 posthatching, and then decreased to adult levels. A similar expression pattern was observed in the proximal colon/rectum except for the significant decrease from day 7 posthatching to day 21 posthatching. These results suggest that chicken ASBT functions as a bile acid transporter in the ileum and proximal colon/rectum, particularly during the early posthatching period. PMID:25681609

  19. The coat protein of the yeast double-stranded RNA virus L-A attaches covalently to the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, A; Goyer, C; Sonenberg, N

    1992-01-01

    The eukaryotic mRNA 5' cap structure m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide) interacts with a number of cellular proteins. Several of these proteins were studied in mammalian, yeast, and drosophila cells and found to be involved in translation initiation. Here we describe a novel cap-binding protein, the coat protein of L-A, a double-stranded RNA virus that is persistently maintained in many Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The results also suggest that the coat protein of a related double-stranded RNA virus (L-BC) is likewise a cap-binding protein. Strikingly, in contrast to the cellular cap-binding proteins, the interaction between the L-A virus coat protein and the cap structure is through a covalent bond. Images PMID:1630453

  20. Reactivity of molybdovanadophosphoric acids: Influence of the presence of vanadium in the primary and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Casarini, D.; Centi, G.; Lena, V.; Tvaruzkova, Z. ); Jiru, P. )

    1993-10-01

    The catalytic behavior in butadiene and n-butane oxidation of molybdovanadophosphoric acids with vanadium localized inside the primary (oxoanion) and/or the secondary structure is reported. The samples are characterized by infrared, [sup 31]P-NMR, [sup 51]V-NMR, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopies in order to obtain information on the nature and localization of vanadium in the samples before reaction and the possible changes occurring during the course of the catalytic reaction. In particular, it is shown that vanadium localized initially in the secondary structure can exchange with the molybdenum atoms of the oxoanion during the catalytic reaction. Introduction of vanadium in the molybdophosphoric acid structure enhances the selective formation of maleic anhydride from the butadiene when vanadium is present both inside the oxoanion or localized in the secondary structure (before the catalytic tests), but the maximum in catalytic performance is found for different amounts of vanadium, depending on where the vanadium is localized initially. However, when present in the secondary structure, vanadium also has a negative influence on the activity of the heteropoly acid. On the contrary, in n-butane oxidation, the presence of vanadium enhances the rate of alkane activation due to the different rate-determining step. The presence of V ions also affects the maximum selectivity and yield to maleic anhydride from butane. V ions in the secondary structure are more selective at low conversion, while V ions inside the oxoanion are more selective at higher conversions and thus allow better maximum yields to maleic anhydride. 40 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A statistical learning approach to the modeling of chromatographic retention of oligonucleotides incorporating sequence and secondary structure data

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Marc; Quinten, Sascha; Huber, Christian G.; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new model for predicting the retention time of oligonucleotides. The model is based on ν support vector regression using features derived from base sequence and predicted secondary structure of oligonucleotides. Because of the secondary structure information, the model is applicable even at relatively low temperatures where the secondary structure is not suppressed by thermal denaturing. This makes the prediction of oligonucleotide retention time for arbitrary temperatures possible, provided that the target temperature lies within the temperature range of the training data. We describe different possibilities of feature calculation from base sequence and secondary structure, present the results and compare our model to existing models. PMID:17567619

  2. RNA secondary structure modeling at consistent high accuracy using differential SHAPE

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Greggory M.; Leonard, Christopher W.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structure modeling is a challenging problem, and recent successes have raised the standards for accuracy, consistency, and tractability. Large increases in accuracy have been achieved by including data on reactivity toward chemical probes: Incorporation of 1M7 SHAPE reactivity data into an mfold-class algorithm results in median accuracies for base pair prediction that exceed 90%. However, a few RNA structures are modeled with significantly lower accuracy. Here, we show that incorporating differential reactivities from the NMIA and 1M6 reagents—which detect noncanonical and tertiary interactions—into prediction algorithms results in highly accurate secondary structure models for RNAs that were previously shown to be difficult to model. For these RNAs, 93% of accepted canonical base pairs were recovered in SHAPE-directed models. Discrepancies between accepted and modeled structures were small and appear to reflect genuine structural differences. Three-reagent SHAPE-directed modeling scales concisely to structurally complex RNAs to resolve the in-solution secondary structure analysis problem for many classes of RNA. PMID:24742934

  3. RNA secondary structures in a polymer-zeta model how foldings should be shaped for sparsification to establish a linear speedup.

    PubMed

    Jin, Emma Yu; Nebel, Markus E

    2016-02-01

    Various tools used to predict the secondary structure for a given RNA sequence are based on dynamic programming used to compute a conformation of minimum free energy. For structures without pseudoknots, a worst-case runtime proportional to n3, with n being the length of the sequence, results since a table of dimension n2 has to be filled in while a single entry gives rise to a linear computational effort. However, it was recently observed that reformulating the corresponding dynamic programming recursion together with the bookkeeping of potential folding alternatives (a technique called sparsification) may reduce the runtime to n2 on average, assuming that nucleotides of distance d form a hydrogen bond (i..e., are paired) with probability b/d(c) for some constants b > 0, c > 1. The latter is called the polymer-zeta model and plays a crucial role in speeding up the above mentioned algorithm. In this paper we discuss the application of the polymer-zeta property for the analysis of sparsification, showing that it must be applied conditionally on first and last positions to pair. Afterwards, we will investigate the combinatorics of RNA secondary structures assuming that the corresponding conditional probabilities behave according to a polymer-zeta probability model. We show that even if some of the structural parameters exhibit an almost realistic behavior on average, the expected shape of a folding in that model must be assumed to highly differ from those observed in nature. More precisely, we prove our polymer-zeta model to be appropriate for mRNA molecules but to fail in connection with almost every other family of RNA. Those findings explain the huge speedup of the dynamic programming algorithm observed empirically by Wexler et al. when applying sparsification in connection with mRNA data. PMID:26001743

  4. Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding specificity for m7G and m2,2,7G mRNA caps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weizhi; Zhao, Rui; McFarland, Craig; Kieft, Jeffrey; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2009-11-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E recognizes the mRNA cap, a key step in translation initiation. Here we have characterized eIF4E from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Schistosome mRNAs have either the typical monomethylguanosine (m(7)G) or a trimethylguanosine (m(2,2,7)G) cap derived from spliced leader trans-splicing. Quantitative fluorescence titration analyses demonstrated that schistosome eIF4E has similar binding specificity for both caps. We present the first crystal structure of an eIF4E with similar binding specificity for m(7)G and m(2,2,7)G caps. The eIF4E.m(7)GpppG structure demonstrates that the schistosome protein binds monomethyl cap in a manner similar to that of single specificity eIF4Es and exhibits a structure similar to other known eIF4Es. The structure suggests an alternate orientation of a conserved, key Glu-90 in the cap-binding pocket that may contribute to dual binding specificity and a position for mRNA bound to eIF4E consistent with biochemical data. Comparison of NMR chemical shift perturbations in schistosome eIF4E on binding m(7)GpppG and m(2,2,7)GpppG identified key differences between the two complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated significant thermodynamics differences for the binding process with the two caps (m(7)G versus m(2,2,7)G). Overall the NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest the importance of intrinsic conformational flexibility in the schistosome eIF4E that enables binding to m(2,2,7)G cap. PMID:19710013

  5. The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Validating Factorial Structure and Invariance across Intermediate, Secondary, and University Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    1991-01-01

    The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the equivalence of factorial measurements and structure across groups were studied for 163 intermediate-grade teachers, 162 secondary school teachers, and 218 university teachers in Canada. Reasons why the MBI may not be appropriate for university educators are discussed. (SLD)

  6. conSSert: Consensus SVM Model for Accurate Prediction of Ordered Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Kieslich, Chris A; Smadbeck, James; Khoury, George A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2016-03-28

    Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure remains a crucial step in most approaches to the protein-folding problem, yet the prediction of ordered secondary structure, specifically beta-strands, remains a challenge. We developed a consensus secondary structure prediction method, conSSert, which is based on support vector machines (SVM) and provides exceptional accuracy for the prediction of beta-strands with QE accuracy of over 0.82 and a Q2-EH of 0.86. conSSert uses as input probabilities for the three types of secondary structure (helix, strand, and coil) that are predicted by four top performing methods: PSSpred, PSIPRED, SPINE-X, and RAPTOR. conSSert was trained/tested using 4261 protein chains from PDBSelect25, and 8632 chains from PISCES. Further validation was performed using targets from CASP9, CASP10, and CASP11. Our data suggest that poor performance in strand prediction is likely a result of training bias and not solely due to the nonlocal nature of beta-sheet contacts. conSSert is freely available for noncommercial use as a webservice: http://ares.tamu.edu/conSSert/ . PMID:26928531

  7. Chinese American Post-Secondary Achievement and Attainment: A Cultural and Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard R.; Lin, Zeng

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare Chinese American post-secondary educational attainment with that of White Americans and, in identifying those factors that most strongly account for success, argue that commonalities exist among social structural factors, while distinct differences are evident among cultural capital factors. The article rejects…

  8. [Conserved motifs in the primary and secondary ITS1 structures in bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatov, M S

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ITS1 nucleotide sequences of 1000 moss species of 62 families, 11 liverwort species from five orders, and one hornwort Anthoceros agrestis identified five highly conserved motifs (CM1-CM5), which are presumably involved in pre-rRNA processing. Although the ITS1 sequences substantially differ in length and the extent of divergence, the conserved motifs are found in all of them. ITS1 secondary structures were constructed for 76 mosses, and main regularities at conserved motif positioning were observed. The positions of processing sites in the ITS1 secondary structure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be similar to the positions of the conserved motifs in the ITS1 secondary structures of mosses and liverworts. In addition, a potential hairpin formation in the putative secondary structure of a pre-rRNA fragment was considered for the region between ITS1 CM4-CM5 and a highly conserved region between hairpins 49 and 50 (H49 and H50) of the 18S rRNA. PMID:26107892

  9. Classroom Structure and Teacher Efficacy in Serving Students with Disabilities: Differences in Elementary and Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Flores, Margaret M.; Crites, Steven A.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Ramsey, Michelle L.; Houchins, David E.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential classroom structure and efficacy reported by general and special educators at the elementary and secondary level. General and special educators (n = 774, return rate of 37%) from a large school district in the southeast US participated in the study. The participants completed a modified…

  10. EFFECT OF SOLVENT AND TEMPERATURE ON SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF ZEIN BY CIRCULAR DICHROISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circular dichroism studies were performed on various samples of commercial zein to determine how the secondary and tertiary structure changes with different solvents, temperatures or pH. It was found that alcoholic solvent type and common denaturants, such as SDS and low amounts of urea, had little...

  11. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFONATED AZO DYES USING LIQUID SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight monosulfonated and disulfonated azo dyes were analyzed using liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry, in the negative ion mode, under low-energy conditions (110-150 eV). any structurally characteristic fragment ions were obtained, several of which ha...

  12. Derivation of the Secondary Structure of the ITS-1 Transcript in Volvocales and its Taxonomic Correlations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A W; Maria Preparata, R; Mehrotra, B; Mai, J C

    1998-05-01

    Knowledge of secondary structure, formed by the gene spacer regions of the primary transcript of nuclear rDNA cistrons, is lacking for most phyla of eukaryotes. We have sequenced the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) of multiple representatives of the Volvocales, and from comparisons of these, derived a secondary structure common to the entire group. The secondary structure model is supported by numerous compensating base pair changes located within the paired regions of the stem-loops. Within the morphological species, such as those of Astrephomene and Gonium, the three basal nucleotide pairs of helices are highly conserved in primary sequence, and the single stranded region rich in CCAA is identical in sequence, even when isolates come from all continents of the earth. In other Volvocacean species known to include many pairs of mating types, this same level of conservation is found to correlate with the mating subgroups of the species. Thus a comparable degree of sequence similarity appears to characterize all isolates of a "biological" species; this is valid for taxonomic species only where the biological and taxonomic species levels coincide. In addition, the ITS-1 contains information useful for population analyses, and spacer secondary structure may have additional phylogenetic utility at the level of class or subclass when that information becomes available for other protistan groups. PMID:23196163

  13. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Mathematical Induction: Structural Characteristics and the Process of Proof Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Marina; Potari, Despina; Spyrou, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the meaning students attribute to the structure of mathematical induction (MI) and the process of proof construction using mathematical induction in the context of a geometric recursion problem. Two hundred and thirteen 17-year-old students of an upper secondary school in Greece participated in the study. Students'…

  14. Assessing the impact of secondary structure and solvent accessibility on protein evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N; Thorne, J L; Jones, D T

    1998-01-01

    Empirically derived models of amino acid replacement are employed to study the association between various physical features of proteins and evolution. The strengths of these associations are statistically evaluated by applying the models of protein evolution to 11 diverse sets of protein sequences. Parametric bootstrap tests indicate that the solvent accessibility status of a site has a particularly strong association with the process of amino acid replacement that it experiences. Significant association between secondary structure environment and the amino acid replacement process is also observed. Careful description of the length distribution of secondary structure elements and of the organization of secondary structure and solvent accessibility along a protein did not always significantly improve the fit of the evolutionary models to the data sets that were analyzed. As indicated by the strength of the association of both solvent accessibility and secondary structure with amino acid replacement, the process of protein evolution-both above and below the species level-will not be well understood until the physical constraints that affect protein evolution are identified and characterized. PMID:9584116

  15. The Turn of the Screw: An Exercise in Protein Secondary Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikaart, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An exercise using simple paper strips to illustrate protein helical and sheet secondary structures is presented. Drawing on the rich historical context of the use of physical models in protein biochemistry by early practitioners, in particular Linus Pauling, the purpose of this activity is to cultivate in students a hands-on, intuitive sense of…

  16. Secondary flow structure in a model curved artery: 3D morphology and circulation budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rate of change of circulation within control regions encompassing the large-scale vortical structures associated with secondary flows, i.e. deformed Dean-, Lyne- and Wall-type (D-L-W) vortices at planar cross-sections in a 180° curved artery model (curvature ratio, 1/7). Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number, 4.2) and using Newtonian blood-analog fluids. The MRV-technique performed at Stanford University produced phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields. Secondary flow field comparisons of MRV-data to PIV-data at various cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were made. A wavelet-decomposition-based approach was implemented to characterize various secondary flow morphologies. We hypothesize that the persistence and decay of arterial secondary flow vortices is intrinsically related to the influence of the out-of-plane flow, tilting, in-plane convection and diffusion-related factors within the control regions. Evaluation of these factors will elucidate secondary flow structures in arterial hemodynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE). The MRV data were acquired at Stanford University in collaboration with Christopher Elkins and John Eaton.

  17. Detection of Secondary and Supersecondary Structures of Proteins from Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Goswami, Samrat; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) have enabled the quantitative visualization of the structural building blocks of proteins at improved resolutions. We provide algorithms to detect the secondary structures (α-helices and β-sheets) from proteins for which the volumetric maps are reconstructed at 6–10Å resolution. Additionally, we show that when the resolution is coarser than 10Å, some of the super-secondary structures can be detected from 3D EM maps. For both these algorithms, we employ tools from computational geometry and differential topology, specifically the computation of stable/unstable manifolds of certain critical points of the distance function induced by the molecular surface. Our results connect mathematically well-defined constructions with bio-chemically induced structures observed in proteins. PMID:22186625

  18. Shape and secondary structure prediction for ncRNAs including pseudoknots based on linear SVM

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate secondary structure prediction provides important information to undefirstafinding the tertiary structures and thus the functions of ncRNAs. However, the accuracy of the native structure derivation of ncRNAs is still not satisfactory, especially on sequences containing pseudoknots. It is recently shown that using the abstract shapes, which retain adjacency and nesting of structural features but disregard the length details of helix and loop regions, can improve the performance of structure prediction. In this work, we use SVM-based feature selection to derive the consensus abstract shape of homologous ncRNAs and apply the predicted shape to structure prediction including pseudoknots. Results Our approach was applied to predict shapes and secondary structures on hundreds of ncRNA data sets with and without psuedoknots. The experimental results show that we can achieve 18% higher accuracy in shape prediction than the state-of-the-art consensus shape prediction tools. Using predicted shapes in structure prediction allows us to achieve approximate 29% higher sensitivity and 10% higher positive predictive value than other pseudoknot prediction tools. Conclusions Extensive analysis of RNA properties based on SVM allows us to identify important properties of sequences and structures related to their shapes. The combination of mass data analysis and SVM-based feature selection makes our approach a promising method for shape and structure prediction. The implemented tools, Knot Shape and Knot Structure are open source software and can be downloaded at: http://www.cse.msu.edu/~achawana/KnotShape. PMID:23369147

  19. Secondary structures of rRNAs from all three domains of life.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton S; Bernier, Chad R; Gulen, Burak; Waterbury, Chris C; Hershkovits, Eli; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Harvey, Stephen C; Hud, Nicholas V; Fox, George E; Wartell, Roger M; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    Accurate secondary structures are important for understanding ribosomes, which are extremely large and highly complex. Using 3D structures of ribosomes as input, we have revised and corrected traditional secondary (2°) structures of rRNAs. We identify helices by specific geometric and molecular interaction criteria, not by co-variation. The structural approach allows us to incorporate non-canonical base pairs on parity with Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting rRNA 2° structures are up-to-date and consistent with three-dimensional structures, and are information-rich. These 2° structures are relatively simple to understand and are amenable to reproduction and modification by end-users. The 2° structures made available here broadly sample the phylogenetic tree and are mapped with a variety of data related to molecular interactions and geometry, phylogeny and evolution. We have generated 2° structures for both large subunit (LSU) 23S/28S and small subunit (SSU) 16S/18S rRNAs of Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, Haloarcula marismortui (LSU rRNA only), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. We provide high-resolution editable versions of the 2° structures in several file formats. For the SSU rRNA, the 2° structures use an intuitive representation of the central pseudoknot where base triples are presented as pairs of base pairs. Both LSU and SSU secondary maps are available (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery). Mapping of data onto 2° structures was performed on the RiboVision server (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RiboVision). PMID:24505437

  20. Secondary Structures of rRNAs from All Three Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton S.; Bernier, Chad R.; Gulen, Burak; Waterbury, Chris C.; Hershkovits, Eli; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Harvey, Stephen C.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Fox, George E.; Wartell, Roger M.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    Accurate secondary structures are important for understanding ribosomes, which are extremely large and highly complex. Using 3D structures of ribosomes as input, we have revised and corrected traditional secondary (2°) structures of rRNAs. We identify helices by specific geometric and molecular interaction criteria, not by co-variation. The structural approach allows us to incorporate non-canonical base pairs on parity with Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting rRNA 2° structures are up-to-date and consistent with three-dimensional structures, and are information-rich. These 2° structures are relatively simple to understand and are amenable to reproduction and modification by end-users. The 2° structures made available here broadly sample the phylogenetic tree and are mapped with a variety of data related to molecular interactions and geometry, phylogeny and evolution. We have generated 2° structures for both large subunit (LSU) 23S/28S and small subunit (SSU) 16S/18S rRNAs of Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, Haloarcula marismortui (LSU rRNA only), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. We provide high-resolution editable versions of the 2° structures in several file formats. For the SSU rRNA, the 2° structures use an intuitive representation of the central pseudoknot where base triples are presented as pairs of base pairs. Both LSU and SSU secondary maps are available (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery). Mapping of data onto 2° structures was performed on the RiboVision server (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RiboVision). PMID:24505437

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of the Interaction Between the Nucleoporin Nup98 and the mRNA Export Facto Rae1

    SciTech Connect

    Y Ren; H Seo; G Blobel; A Hoelz

    2011-12-31

    The export of mRNAs is a multistep process, involving the packaging of mRNAs into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), their transport through nuclear pore complexes, and mRNP remodeling events prior to translation. Ribonucleic acid export 1 (Rae1) and Nup98 are evolutionarily conserved mRNA export factors that are targeted by the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein to inhibit host cell nuclear export. Here, we present the crystal structure of human Rae1 in complex with the Gle2-binding sequence (GLEBS) of Nup98 at 1.65 {angstrom} resolution. Rae1 forms a seven-bladed {beta}-propeller with several extensive surface loops. The Nup98 GLEBS motif forms an {approx}50-{angstrom}-long hairpin that binds with its C-terminal arm to an essentially invariant hydrophobic surface that extends over the entire top face of the Rae1 {beta}-propeller. The C-terminal arm of the GLEBS hairpin is necessary and sufficient for Rae1 binding, and we identify a tandem glutamate element in this arm as critical for complex formation. The Rae1 {center_dot} Nup98{sup GLEBS} surface features an additional conserved patch with a positive electrostatic potential, and we demonstrate that the complex possesses single-stranded RNA-binding capability. Together, these data suggest that the Rae1 {center_dot} Nup98 complex directly binds to the mRNP at several stages of the mRNA export pathway.

  2. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus argonaute, a site-specific DNA-guided endoribonuclease, provides insights into RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,Y.; Pei, Y.; Ma, J.; Kuryavyi, V.; Zhadina, M.; Meister, G.; Chen, H.; Dauter, Z.; Tuschi, T.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins constitute a key component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We report the crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus Ago (Aa-Ago) together with binding and cleavage studies, which establish this eubacterial Ago as a bona fide guide DNA strand-mediated site-specific RNA endonuclease. We have generated a stereochemically robust model of the complex, where the guide DNA-mRNA duplex is positioned within a basic channel spanning the bilobal interface, such that the 5' phosphate of the guide strand can be anchored in a basic pocket, and the mRNA can be positioned for site-specific cleavage by RNase H-type divalent cation-coordinated catalytic Asp residues of the PIWI domain. Domain swap experiments involving chimeras of human Ago (hAgo1) and cleavage-competent hAgo2 reinforce the role of the PIWI domain in 'slicer' activity. We propose a four-step Ago-mediated catalytic cleavage cycle model, which provides distinct perspectives into the mechanism of guide strand-mediated mRNA cleavage within the RISC.

  3. A permutation based simulated annealing algorithm to predict pseudoknotted RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Herbert H; Wiese, Kay C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoknots are RNA tertiary structures which perform essential biological functions. This paper discusses SARNA-Predict-pk, a RNA pseudoknotted secondary structure prediction algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA). The research presented here extends previous work of SARNA-Predict and further examines the effect of the new algorithm to include prediction of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. An evaluation of the performance of SARNA-Predict-pk in terms of prediction accuracy is made via comparison with several state-of-the-art prediction algorithms using 20 individual known structures from seven RNA classes. We measured the sensitivity and specificity of nine prediction algorithms. Three of these are dynamic programming algorithms: Pseudoknot (pknotsRE), NUPACK, and pknotsRG-mfe. One is using the statistical clustering approach: Sfold and the other five are heuristic algorithms: SARNA-Predict-pk, ILM, STAR, IPknot and HotKnots algorithms. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that SARNA-Predict-pk can out-perform other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy. This supports the use of the proposed method on pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure prediction of other known structures. PMID:26558299

  4. Protein secondary-structure description with a coarse-grained model.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Gerald R; Hinsen, Konrad

    2015-07-01

    A coarse-grained geometrical model for protein secondary-structure description and analysis is presented which uses only the positions of the C(α) atoms. A space curve connecting these positions by piecewise polynomial interpolation is constructed and the folding of the protein backbone is described by a succession of screw motions linking the Frenet frames at consecutive C(α) positions. Using the ASTRAL subset of the SCOPe database of protein structures, thresholds are derived for the screw parameters of secondary-structure elements and demonstrate that the latter can be reliably assigned on the basis of a C(α) model. For this purpose, a comparative study with the widely used DSSP (Define Secondary Structure of Proteins) algorithm was performed and it was shown that the parameter distribution corresponding to the ensemble of all pure C(α) structures in the RCSB Protein Data Bank matches that of the ASTRAL database. It is expected that this approach will be useful in the development of structure-refinement techniques for low-resolution data. PMID:26143913

  5. RNApdbee—a webserver to derive secondary structures from pdb files of knotted and unknotted RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Maciej; Zok, Tomasz; Popenda, Mariusz; Lukasiak, Piotr; Adamiak, Ryszard W.; Blazewicz, Jacek; Szachniuk, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In RNA structural biology and bioinformatics an access to correct RNA secondary structure and its proper representation is of crucial importance. This is true especially in the field of secondary and 3D RNA structure prediction. Here, we introduce RNApdbee—a new tool that allows to extract RNA secondary structure from the pdb file, and presents it in both textual and graphical form. RNApdbee supports processing of knotted and unknotted structures of large RNAs, also within protein complexes. The method works not only for first but also for high order pseudoknots, and gives an information about canonical and non-canonical base pairs. A combination of these features is unique among existing applications for RNA structure analysis. Additionally, a function of converting between the text notations, i.e. BPSEQ, CT and extended dot-bracket, is provided. In order to facilitate a more comprehensive study, the webserver integrates the functionality of RNAView, MC-Annotate and 3DNA/DSSR, being the most common tools used for automated identification and classification of RNA base pairs. RNApdbee is implemented as a publicly available webserver with an intuitive interface and can be freely accessed at http://rnapdbee.cs.put.poznan.pl/. PMID:24771339

  6. Secondary Structure Transition and Critical Stress for a Model of Spider Silk Assembly.

    PubMed

    Giesa, Tristan; Perry, Carole C; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Spiders spin their silk from an aqueous solution to a solid fiber in ambient conditions. However, to date, the assembly mechanism in the spider silk gland has not been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to model Nephila clavipes MaSp1 dragline silk formation under shear flow and determine the secondary structure transitions leading to the experimentally observed fiber structures. While no experiments are performed on the silk fiber itself, insights from this polypeptide model can be transferred to the fiber scale. The novelty of this study lies in the calculation of the shear stress (300-700 MPa) required for fiber formation and identification of the amino acid residues involved in the transition. This is the first time that the shear stress has been quantified in connection with a secondary structure transition. By study of molecules containing varying numbers of contiguous MaSp1 repeats, we determine that the smallest molecule size giving rise to a "silk-like" structure contains six polyalanine repeats. Through a probability analysis of the secondary structure, we identify specific amino acids that transition from α-helix to β-sheet. In addition to portions of the polyalanine section, these amino acids include glycine, leucine, and glutamine. The stability of β-sheet structures appears to arise from a close proximity in space of helices in the initial spidroin state. Our results are in agreement with the forces exerted by spiders in the silking process and the experimentally determined global secondary structure of spidroin and pulled MaSp1 silk. Our study emphasizes the role of shear in the assembly process of silk and can guide the design of microfluidic devices that attempt to mimic the natural spinning process and predict molecular requirements for the next generation of silk-based functional materials. PMID:26669270

  7. An Adaptive Defect Weighted Sampling Algorithm to Design Pseudoknotted RNA Secondary Structures.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Kasra; Butler, Gregory; Kharma, Nawwaf

    2016-01-01

    Computational design of RNA sequences that fold into targeted secondary structures has many applications in biomedicine, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. An RNA molecule is made of different types of secondary structure elements and an important RNA element named pseudoknot plays a key role in stabilizing the functional form of the molecule. However, due to the computational complexities associated with characterizing pseudoknotted RNA structures, most of the existing RNA sequence designer algorithms generally ignore this important structural element and therefore limit their applications. In this paper we present a new algorithm to design RNA sequences for pseudoknotted secondary structures. We use NUPACK as the folding algorithm to compute the equilibrium characteristics of the pseudoknotted RNAs, and describe a new adaptive defect weighted sampling algorithm named Enzymer to design low ensemble defect RNA sequences for targeted secondary structures including pseudoknots. We used a biological data set of 201 pseudoknotted structures from the Pseudobase library to benchmark the performance of our algorithm. We compared the quality characteristics of the RNA sequences we designed by Enzymer with the results obtained from the state of the art MODENA and antaRNA. Our results show our method succeeds more frequently than MODENA and antaRNA do, and generates sequences that have lower ensemble defect, lower probability defect and higher thermostability. Finally by using Enzymer and by constraining the design to a naturally occurring and highly conserved Hammerhead motif, we designed 8 sequences for a pseudoknotted cis-acting Hammerhead ribozyme. Enzymer is available for download at https://bitbucket.org/casraz/enzymer. PMID:27499762

  8. An Adaptive Defect Weighted Sampling Algorithm to Design Pseudoknotted RNA Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Kasra; Butler, Gregory; Kharma, Nawwaf

    2016-01-01

    Computational design of RNA sequences that fold into targeted secondary structures has many applications in biomedicine, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. An RNA molecule is made of different types of secondary structure elements and an important RNA element named pseudoknot plays a key role in stabilizing the functional form of the molecule. However, due to the computational complexities associated with characterizing pseudoknotted RNA structures, most of the existing RNA sequence designer algorithms generally ignore this important structural element and therefore limit their applications. In this paper we present a new algorithm to design RNA sequences for pseudoknotted secondary structures. We use NUPACK as the folding algorithm to compute the equilibrium characteristics of the pseudoknotted RNAs, and describe a new adaptive defect weighted sampling algorithm named Enzymer to design low ensemble defect RNA sequences for targeted secondary structures including pseudoknots. We used a biological data set of 201 pseudoknotted structures from the Pseudobase library to benchmark the performance of our algorithm. We compared the quality characteristics of the RNA sequences we designed by Enzymer with the results obtained from the state of the art MODENA and antaRNA. Our results show our method succeeds more frequently than MODENA and antaRNA do, and generates sequences that have lower ensemble defect, lower probability defect and higher thermostability. Finally by using Enzymer and by constraining the design to a naturally occurring and highly conserved Hammerhead motif, we designed 8 sequences for a pseudoknotted cis-acting Hammerhead ribozyme. Enzymer is available for download at https://bitbucket.org/casraz/enzymer. PMID:27499762

  9. The role of G-quadruplex/i-motif secondary structures as cis-acting regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Samantha; Hurley, Laurence H.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of DNA has captivated scientists for more than fifty years. The discovery of the double-helix model of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953 not only established the primary structure of DNA, but also provided the mechanism behind DNA function. Since then, researchers have continued to further the understanding of DNA structure and its pivotal role in transcription. The demonstration of DNA secondary structure formation has allowed for the proposal that the dynamics of DNA itself can function to modulate transcription. This review presents evidence that DNA can exist in a dynamic equilibrium between duplex and secondary conformations. In addition, data demonstrating that intracellular proteins as well as small molecules can shift this equilibrium in either direction to alter gene transcription will be discussed, with a focus on the modulation of proto-oncogene expression. PMID:21796223

  10. Male secondary sexual structures and the systematics of the Thereus oppia species group (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini)

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Robert K.; Heredia, María Dolores; Busby, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Thereus oppia species group includes species with and without a scent pad, which is a histologically and morphologically characterized male secondary sexual structure on the dorsal surface of the forewing. To assess the hypothesis that these structures are lost evolutionarily, but not regained (Dollo’s Law), the taxonomy of this species group is revised. Thereus lomalarga sp. n., and Thereus brocki sp. n., are described. Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated. Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species. Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae. An inferred phylogeny is consistent with the hypothesis that scent pads in the Thereus oppia species group have been lost evolutionarily twice (in allopatry), and not re-gained. PMID:26448715

  11. Secondary Structural Preferences of Some Antibacterial Cyclooctapeptides in the Presence of Calcium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Tarshona; McNeil, Nykia; Lin, Xiuli; Ngu-Schwemlein, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the interactions of some antibacterial cationic amphipathic cyclooctapeptides with calcium(II) and their secondary structural preferences. The thermodynamic parameters associated with calcium(II) interactions, between the antibacterial active cyclooctapeptides (COP 1–6) and those that did not exhibit significant activities (COP 7–9), were studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Calcium(II) binding in the absence and presence of micellar dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), a membrane mimicking detergent, was conducted by circular dichroism (CD). Both groups of cyclopeptides showed weak binding affinities for calcium(II) (Kb ca. 10−3 M−1). However, CD data showed that the antimicrobial peptides COP 1–6 adopted a twisted beta-sheet structure (positive CD absorption band at ca. 203 nm) in the presence of calcium(II) in micellar DPC. In contrast, COP 7–9, which lacked antibacterial activity, adopted a different conformational structure (negative CD absorption band at ca. 203 nm). These results indicate that these cyclopeptides could adopt secondary structural preferences in the presence of calcium(II) amidst a hydrophobic environment to elicit their antibacterial activity. These findings could be useful in facilitating the design of cyclopeptide derivatives that can adopt this beta-sheet-like secondary structure and, thereby, provide a useful molecular template for crafting antibacterial compounds. PMID:25379288

  12. Rigidity of poly-L-glutamic acid scaffolds: Influence of secondary and supramolecular structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nickels, Jonathan D.; Perticaroli, Stefania; Ehlers, Georg; Feygenson, Mikhail; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2015-03-06

    Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) is a widely used biomaterial, with applications ranging from drug delivery and biological glues to food products and as a tissue engineering scaffold. A biodegradable material with flexible conjugation functional groups, tunable secondary structure, and mechanical properties, PGA has potential as a tunable matrix material in mechanobiology. Some recent studies in proteins connecting dynamics, nanometer length scale rigidity, and secondary structure suggest a new point of view from which to analyze and develop this promising material. Our paper characterizes the structure, topology, and rigidity properties of PGA prepared with different molecular weights and secondary structures through variousmore » techniques including scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, light, and neutron scattering spectroscopy. On the length scale of a few nanometers, rigidity is determined by hydrogen bonding interactions in the presence of neutral species and by electrostatic interactions when the polypeptide is negatively charged. Finally, when probed over hundreds of nanometers, the rigidity of these materials is modified by long range intermolecular interactions that are introduced by the supramolecular structure.« less

  13. Rigidity of poly-L-glutamic acid scaffolds: Influence of secondary and supramolecular structure.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Jonathan D; Perticaroli, Stefania; Ehlers, Georg; Feygenson, Mikhail; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2015-09-01

    Poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) is a widely used biomaterial, with applications ranging from drug delivery and biological glues to food products and as a tissue engineering scaffold. A biodegradable material with flexible conjugation functional groups, tunable secondary structure, and mechanical properties, PGA has potential as a tunable matrix material in mechanobiology. Recent studies in proteins connecting dynamics, nanometer length scale rigidity, and secondary structure suggest a new point of view from which to analyze and develop this promising material. We have characterized the structure, topology, and rigidity properties of PGA prepared with different molecular weights and secondary structures through various techniques including scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, light, and neutron scattering spectroscopy. On the length scale of a few nanometers, rigidity is determined by hydrogen bonding interactions in the presence of neutral species and by electrostatic interactions when the polypeptide is negatively charged. When probed over hundreds of nanometers, the rigidity of these materials is modified by long range intermolecular interactions that are introduced by the supramolecular structure. PMID:25690698

  14. Conserved RNA secondary structures and long-range interactions in hepatitis C viruses.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Markus; Dünnes, Nadia; Zayas, Margarita; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Niepmann, Michael; Marz, Manja

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus with a plus-strand RNA genome of ∼9.600 nt. Due to error-prone replication by its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) residing in nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), HCV isolates are grouped into seven genotypes with several subtypes. By using whole-genome sequences of 106 HCV isolates and secondary structure alignments of the plus-strand genome and its minus-strand replication intermediate, we established refined secondary structures of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the cis-acting replication element (CRE) in NS5B, and the 3' UTR. We propose an alternative structure in the 5' UTR, conserved secondary structures of 5B stem-loop (SL)1 and 5BSL2, and four possible structures of the X-tail at the very 3' end of the HCV genome. We predict several previously unknown long-range interactions, most importantly a possible circularization interaction between distinct elements in the 5' and 3' UTR, reminiscent of the cyclization elements of the related flaviviruses. Based on analogy to these viruses, we propose that the 5'-3' UTR base-pairing in the HCV genome might play an important role in viral RNA replication. These results may have important implications for our understanding of the nature of the cis-acting RNA elements in the HCV genome and their possible role in regulating the mutually exclusive processes of viral RNA translation and replication. PMID:25964384

  15. Rigidity of poly-L-glutamic acid scaffolds: Influence of secondary and supramolecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, Jonathan D.; Perticaroli, Stefania; Ehlers, Georg; Feygenson, Mikhail; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2015-03-06

    Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) is a widely used biomaterial, with applications ranging from drug delivery and biological glues to food products and as a tissue engineering scaffold. A biodegradable material with flexible conjugation functional groups, tunable secondary structure, and mechanical properties, PGA has potential as a tunable matrix material in mechanobiology. Some recent studies in proteins connecting dynamics, nanometer length scale rigidity, and secondary structure suggest a new point of view from which to analyze and develop this promising material. Our paper characterizes the structure, topology, and rigidity properties of PGA prepared with different molecular weights and secondary structures through various techniques including scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, light, and neutron scattering spectroscopy. On the length scale of a few nanometers, rigidity is determined by hydrogen bonding interactions in the presence of neutral species and by electrostatic interactions when the polypeptide is negatively charged. Finally, when probed over hundreds of nanometers, the rigidity of these materials is modified by long range intermolecular interactions that are introduced by the supramolecular structure.

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid can support the formation of membranous structures and an increase in MBP mRNA levels in differentiating oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nogaroli, Luciana; Yuelling, Larra M.; Dennis, Jameel; Gorse, Karen; Payne, Shawn G.; Fuss, Babette

    2009-01-01

    During development, differentiating oligodendrocytes progress in distinct maturation steps from premyelinating to myelinating cells. Such maturing oligodendrocytes express both receptors mediating signaling via extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the major enzyme generating extracellular LPA, namely phosphodiesterase-Iα/autotaxin (PD-Iα/ATX). However, the biological role of extracellular LPA during the maturation of differentiating oligodendrocytes is currently unclear. Here, we demonstrate that application of exogenous LPA induced an increase in the area occupied by the oligodendrocytes’ process network, but only when PD-Iα/ATX expression was down-regulated. This increase in network area was caused primarily by the formation of membranous structures. In addition, LPA increased the number of cells positive for myelin basic protein (MBP). This effect was associated by an increase in the mRNA levels coding for MBP but not myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Taken together, these data suggest that LPA may play a crucial role in regulating the later stages of oligodendrocyte maturation. PMID:18594965

  17. Assessing the influence of electrostatic schemes on molecular dynamics simulations of secondary structure forming peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticelli, Luca; Simões, Carlos; Belvisi, Laura; Colombo, Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    Electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in determining the structure and dynamics of biomolecules in solution. However the accurate representation of electrostatics in classical mechanics based simulation approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) is a challenging task. Given the growing importance that MD simulation methods are taking on in the study of protein folding, protein stability and dynamics, and in structure prediction and design projects, it is important to evaluate the influence that different electrostatic schemes have on the results of MD simulations. In this paper we performed long timescale simulations (500 ns) of two peptides, beta3 and RN24 forming different secondary structures, using for each peptide four different electrostatic schemes (namely PME, reaction field correction, and cut-off schemes with and without neutralizing counterions) for a total of eight 500 ns long MD runs. The structural and conformational features of each peptide under the different conditions were evaluated in terms of the time dependence of the flexibility, secondary structure evolution, hydrogen-bonding patterns, and several other structural parameters. The degree of sampling for each simulation as a function of the electrostatic scheme was also critically evaluated. Our results suggest that, while in the case of the short peptide RN24 the performances of the four methods are comparable, PME and RF schemes perform better in maintaining the structure close to the native one for the β-sheet peptide beta3, in which long range contacts are mostly responsible for the definition of the native structure.

  18. Isolation, Structure Elucidation, Biosynthesis, and Synthesis of Antalid, a Secondary Metabolite from Polyangium species.

    PubMed

    Tautz, Thomas; Hoffmann, Judith; Hoffmann, Thomas; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Washausen, Peter; Kunze, Brigitte; Huch, Volker; Kitsche, Andreas; Reichenbach, Hans; Höfle, Gerhard; Müller, Rolf; Kalesse, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of antalid (1), a novel secondary metabolite from Polyangium sp., is described herein. The structure elucidation of 1 was performed with the aid of mass spectrometry, high field NMR experiments, and crystal structure analysis. The absolute configuration of antalid was confirmed through the Mosher ester method and ultimately by total synthesis. In addition, the biosynthetic origin of this hybrid PKS-NRPS natural product was unraveled by the in silico analysis of its biosynthetic gene cluster. PMID:27220069

  19. Sizing up long non-coding RNAs: do lncRNAs have secondary and tertiary structure?

    PubMed

    Novikova, Irina V; Hennelly, Scott P; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in many important areas of epigenetics, stem cell biology, cancer, signaling and brain function. This emerging class of RNAs constitutes a large fraction of the transcriptome, with thousands of new lncRNAs reported each year. The molecular mechanisms of these RNAs are not well understood. Currently, very little structural data exist. We review the available lncRNA sequence and secondary structure data. Since almost no tertiary information is available for lncRNAs, we review crystallographic structures for other RNA systems and discuss the possibilities for lncRNAs in the context of existing constraints. PMID:23267412

  20. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal RNA Recognition Motif of mRNA Decay Regulator AUF1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    AU-rich element binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1) plays a role in destabilizing mRNAs by forming complexes with AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated regions. Multiple AUF1-ARE complexes regulate the translation of encoded products related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation. AUF1 contains two tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and a Gln- (Q-) rich domain in their C-terminal region. To observe how the two RRMs are involved in recognizing ARE, we obtained the AUF1-p37 protein covering the two RRMs. However, only N-terminal RRM (RRM1) was crystallized and its structure was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. It appears that the RRM1 and RRM2 separated before crystallization. To demonstrate which factors affect the separate RRM1-2, we performed limited proteolysis using trypsin. The results indicated that the intact proteins were cleaved by unknown proteases that were associated with them prior to crystallization. In comparison with each of the monomers, the conformations of the β2-β3 loops were highly variable. Furthermore, a comparison with the RRM1-2 structures of HuR and hnRNP A1 revealed that a dimer of RRM1 could be one of the possible conformations of RRM1-2. Our data may provide a guidance for further structural investigations of AUF1 tandem RRM repeat and its mode of ARE binding. PMID:27437398

  1. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal RNA Recognition Motif of mRNA Decay Regulator AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    AU-rich element binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1) plays a role in destabilizing mRNAs by forming complexes with AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3′-untranslated regions. Multiple AUF1-ARE complexes regulate the translation of encoded products related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation. AUF1 contains two tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and a Gln- (Q-) rich domain in their C-terminal region. To observe how the two RRMs are involved in recognizing ARE, we obtained the AUF1-p37 protein covering the two RRMs. However, only N-terminal RRM (RRM1) was crystallized and its structure was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. It appears that the RRM1 and RRM2 separated before crystallization. To demonstrate which factors affect the separate RRM1-2, we performed limited proteolysis using trypsin. The results indicated that the intact proteins were cleaved by unknown proteases that were associated with them prior to crystallization. In comparison with each of the monomers, the conformations of the β2-β3 loops were highly variable. Furthermore, a comparison with the RRM1-2 structures of HuR and hnRNP A1 revealed that a dimer of RRM1 could be one of the possible conformations of RRM1-2. Our data may provide a guidance for further structural investigations of AUF1 tandem RRM repeat and its mode of ARE binding. PMID:27437398

  2. Visualizing the formation of an RNA folding intermediate through a fast highly modular secondary structure switch

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yi; Gracia, Brant; Herschlag, Daniel; Russell, Rick; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediates play important roles in RNA folding but can be difficult to characterize when short-lived or not significantly populated. By combining 15N relaxation dispersion NMR with chemical probing, we visualized a fast (kex=k1+k−1≈423 s−1) secondary structural switch directed towards a low-populated (∼3%) partially folded intermediate in tertiary folding of the P5abc subdomain of the ‘Tetrahymena' group I intron ribozyme. The secondary structure switch changes the base-pairing register across the P5c hairpin, creating a native-like structure, and occurs at rates of more than two orders of magnitude faster than tertiary folding. The switch occurs robustly in the absence of tertiary interactions, Mg2+ or even when the hairpin is excised from the three-way junction. Fast, highly modular secondary structural switches may be quite common during RNA tertiary folding where they may help smoothen the folding landscape by allowing folding to proceed efficiently via additional pathways. PMID:27292179

  3. 3S: shotgun secondary structure determination of long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Irina V; Dharap, Ashutosh; Hennelly, Scott P; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-09-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of RNAs playing key roles in development, disease and epigenetics. Knowledge of lncRNA structure may be critical in understanding function for many lncRNA systems. Due to the enormous number of possible folds for these sequences, secondary structure determination presents a significant challenge, both experimentally and computationally. Here, we present a new strategy capable of determining the RNA secondary structure in the wet lab without significant reliance on computational predictions. First, we chemically probe the entire lncRNA. Next, using a shotgun approach, we divide the RNA into overlapping fragments and probe these fragments. We then compare probing profiles of fragments with the profiles of the full RNA and identify similarities. Sequence regions with profiles that are similar in the fragment and full-length transcript possess only base pairing partners within the fragment. Thus, by experimentally folding smaller and smaller fragments of the full RNA and probing these chemically, we are able to isolate modular sub-domains, dramatically reducing the number of possible folds. The method also eliminates the possibility of pseudoknots within a modular sub-domain. The 3S technique is ideally suited for lncRNAs because it is designed for long RNA sequences. The 3S-determined secondary structure of a specific lncRNA in one species (e.g., human) enables searches for instances of the same lncRNA in other species. PMID:23927838

  4. Determination of Protein Secondary Structure from Infrared Spectra Using Partial Least-Squares Regression.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kieaibi E; Blanch, Ewan W; Doig, Andrew J

    2016-07-12

    Infrared (IR) spectra contain substantial information about protein structure. This has previously most often been exploited by using known band assignments. Here, we convert spectral intensities in bins within Amide I and II regions to vectors and apply machine learning methods to determine protein secondary structure. Partial least squares was performed on spectra of 90 proteins in H2O. After preprocessing and removal of outliers, 84 proteins were used for this work. Standard normal variate and second-derivative preprocessing methods on the combined Amide I and II data generally gave the best performance, with root-mean-square values for prediction of ∼12% for α-helix, ∼7% for β-sheet, 7% for antiparallel β-sheet, and ∼8% for other conformations. Analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of 16 proteins in D2O showed that secondary structure determination was slightly poorer than in H2O. Interval partial least squares was used to identify the critical regions within spectra for secondary structure prediction and showed that the sides of bands were most valuable, rather than their peak maxima. In conclusion, we have shown that multivariate analysis of protein FTIR spectra can give α-helix, β-sheet, other, and antiparallel β-sheet contents with good accuracy, comparable to that of circular dichroism, which is widely used for this purpose. PMID:27322779

  5. Two-photon circular dichroism of molecular structures simulating L-tryptophan residues in proteins with secondary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesga, Yuly; Diaz, Carlos; Higgs, Mary; Hernandez, Florencio E.

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we report on the calculation and the comparative analysis of the theoretical two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD) spectra of L-tryptophan (Trp) residues in proteins with secondary structures (α-helix, β-strand and random coil) conformation, down to the far-UV region (FUV). The examination of the TPCD spectra of the different conformers in each configuration reveals distinctive fingerprints in the FUV, a dark spectral region for electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Our results show the potential of FUV-TPCD to identify and study protein structures in a region never assessed before but filled with important structural information.

  6. Evaluating minimalist mimics by exploring key orientations on secondary structures (EKOS)☟

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Dongyue; Ko, Eunhwa; Perez, Lisa M.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Burgess, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Peptide mimics that display amino acid side-chains on semi-rigid scaffolds (not peptide polyamides) can be referred to as minimalist mimics. Accessible conformations of these scaffolds may overlay with secondary structures giving, for example, “minimalist helical mimics”. It is difficult for researchers who want to apply minimalist mimics to decide which one to use because there is no widely accepted protocol for calibrating how closely these compounds mimic secondary structures. Moreover, it is also difficult for potential practitioners to evaluate which ideal minimalist helical mimics are preferred for a particular set of side-chains. For instance, what mimic presents i, i+4, i+7 side-chains in orientations that best resemble an ideal α-helix, and is a different mimic required for a i, i+3, i+7 helical combination? This article describes a protocol for fitting each member of an array of accessible scaffold conformations on secondary structures. The protocol involves: (i) use quenched molecular dynamics (QMD) to generate an ensemble consisting of hundreds of accessible, low energy conformers of the mimics; (ii) representation of each of these as a set of Cα and Cβ coordinates corresponding to three amino acid side-chains displayed by the scaffolds;(iii) similar representation of each combination of three side-chains in each ideal secondary structure as a set of Cα and Cβ coordinates corresponding to three amino acid side-chains displayed by the scaffolds; and, (iv) overlay Cα and Cβ coordinates of all the conformers on all the sets of side-chain “triads” in the ideal secondary structures and express the goodness of fit in terms of root mean squared deviation (RMSD, Å) for each overlay. We refer to this process as Exploring Key Orientations on Secondary structures (EKOS). Application of this procedure reveals the relative bias of a scaffold to overlay on different secondary structures, the “side-chain correspondences” (eg i, i+4, i+7 or i, i+3

  7. On the structure and dynamics of secondary n-alkyl cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Allan L. L.; Bučko, Tomáš; Hafner, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    A variety of computational studies was undertaken to examine and establish the relative importance of open versus closed structures for unbranched secondary n-alkyl cations. First, the PW91 level of density functional theory was used to optimize over 20 minimum-energy structures of sec-pentyl, sec-hexyl, and sec-heptyl ions, demonstrating that closed structures are more stable than open ones on the potential energy surface (PES). Second, PW91 was used with a theoretical Andersen thermostat to perform a molecular dynamics simulation (150 ps) of C9H19+ at a typical catalytic temperature of 800 K, demonstrating that the structure preference is inverted on the free-energy surface. Third, both quantum (rigid-rotor/harmonic oscillator) and classical partition functions were used to demonstrate that the simulated structure-opening at catalytic temperatures is due to the floppiness of the open forms, which improves its free energy by both lowering its zero-point vibrational energy and increasing its molecular entropy. The particular conformer of the preferred open form (at 800 K) is dependent on length of alkyl ion, with pentyl ions preferring syn/anti structures but longer ions preferring open-clinal ones. These results, plus an additional set of PES optimized structures from an alternative level of theory (MP2/6-31G(d,p)), are used to discuss the likely nature of secondary n-alkyl ions.

  8. Small-angle X-ray scattering: a bridge between RNA secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xianyang; Stagno, Jason R.; Bhandari, Yuba R.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2015-02-01

    Whereas the structures of small to medium-sized well folded RNA molecules often can be determined by either X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, obtaining structural information for large RNAs using experimental, computational, or combined approaches remains a major interest and challenge. RNA is very sensitive to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) due to high electron density along phosphate-sugar backbones, whose scattering contribution dominates SAXS intensity. For this reason, SAXS is particularly useful in obtaining global RNA structural information that outlines backbone topologies and, therefore, molecular envelopes. Such information is extremely valuable in bridging the gap between the secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures of RNAmolecules, particularly those that have proven difficult to study using other structuredetermination methods. Here we review published results of RNA topological structures derived from SAXS data or in combination with other experimental data, as well as details on RNA sample preparation for SAXS experiments.

  9. A generalized threading model using integer programming that allows for secondary structure element deletion.

    PubMed

    Ellrott, Kyle; Guo, Jun-tao; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    Integer programming is a combinatorial optimization method that has been successfully applied to the protein threading problem. We seek to expand the model optimized by this technique to allow for a more accurate description of protein threading. We have developed and implemented an expanded model of integer programming that has the capability to model secondary structure element deletion, which was not possible in previous version of integer programming based optimization. PMID:17503397

  10. TMPyP4, a Stabilizer of Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure, Is a Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Mazzola, Michael; Cai, Elizabeth; Wang, Meng; Cave, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrin compound, TMPyP4 (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine), is widely used as a photosensitizer and a modulator of nucleic acid secondary structure stability. Our group recently showed in cultured cells and forebrain slice cultures that this compound can also down regulate expression of Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, by stabilizing DNA secondary structures in the Th proximal promoter. The current study sought to establish whether treatment with TMPyP4 could modify mouse Th expression levels in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of low TMPyP4 doses (10mg/kg), similar to those used for photosensitization, did not significantly reduce Th transcript levels in several catecholaminergic regions. Administration of a high dose (40 mg/kg), similar to those used for tumor xenograph reduction, unexpectedly induced flaccid paralysis in an age and sex-dependent manner. In vitro analyses revealed that TMPyP4, but not putative metabolites, inhibited Acetylcholinesterase activity and pre-treatment of TMPyP4 with Hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) rescued Acetylcholinesterase function. Age-dependent differences in HO-2 expression levels may account for some of the variable in vivo effects of high TMPyP4 doses. Together, these studies indicate that only low doses of TMPyP4, such as those typically used for photosensitization, are well tolerated in vivo. Thus, despite its widespread use in vitro, TMPyP4 is not ideal for modifying neuronal gene expression in vivo by manipulating nucleic acid secondary structure stability, which highlights the need to identify more clinically suitable compounds that can modulate nucleic acid secondary structure and gene expression. PMID:26402367

  11. Extremely Slow Dynamics of an Abiotic Helical Assembly: Unusual Relevance to the Secondary Structure of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Avinash, M B; Govindaraju, T

    2013-02-21

    Serendipitously, we found that isoleucine methylester functionalized perylenediimide 1 undergoes an extremely slow supramolecular helical assembly over a day's time. Surprisingly, heating led to irreversible chiral denaturation. However, reversible helical assembly could be achieved only in the presence of nondenatured aggregates of 1, which act as seeds. The intriguing functional relevance deduced from 1 was employed to draw parallels with the secondary structure of proteins, envisaging its plausible implications. PMID:26281870

  12. Secondary relaxation dynamics in rigid glass-forming molecular liquids with related structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Meng; Liu, Riping; Ngai, Kia L; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min; Capaccioli, Simone

    2015-09-14

    The dielectric relaxation in three glass-forming molecular liquids, 1-methylindole (1MID), 5H-5-Methyl-6,7-dihydrocyclopentapyrazine (MDCP), and Quinaldine (QN) is studied focusing on the secondary relaxation and its relation to the structural α-relaxation. All three glass-formers are rigid and more or less planar molecules with related chemical structures but have dipoles of different strengths at different locations. A strong and fast secondary relaxation is detected in the dielectric spectra of 1MID, while no resolved β-relaxation is observed in MDCP and QN. If the observed secondary relaxation in 1MID is identified with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, then apparently the relation between the α- and β-relaxation frequencies of 1MID is not in accord with the Coupling Model (CM). The possibility of the violation of the prediction in 1MID as due to either the formation of hydrogen-bond induced clusters or the involvement of intramolecular degree of freedom is ruled out. The violation is explained by the secondary relaxation originating from the in-plane rotation of the dipole located on the plane of the rigid molecule, contributing to dielectric loss at higher frequencies and more intense than the JG β-relaxation generated by the out-of-plane rotation. MDCP has smaller dipole moment located in the plane of the molecule; however, presence of the change of curvature of dielectric loss, ε″(f), at some frequency on the high-frequency flank of the α-relaxation reveals the JG β-relaxation in MDCP and which is in accord with the CM prediction. QN has as large an in-plane dipole moment as 1MID, and the absence of the resolved secondary relaxation is explained by the smaller coupling parameter than the latter in the framework of the CM. PMID:26374048

  13. Secondary relaxation dynamics in rigid glass-forming molecular liquids with related structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Meng; Liu, Riping; Ngai, Kia L.; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min; Capaccioli, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The dielectric relaxation in three glass-forming molecular liquids, 1-methylindole (1MID), 5H-5-Methyl-6,7-dihydrocyclopentapyrazine (MDCP), and Quinaldine (QN) is studied focusing on the secondary relaxation and its relation to the structural α-relaxation. All three glass-formers are rigid and more or less planar molecules with related chemical structures but have dipoles of different strengths at different locations. A strong and fast secondary relaxation is detected in the dielectric spectra of 1MID, while no resolved β-relaxation is observed in MDCP and QN. If the observed secondary relaxation in 1MID is identified with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, then apparently the relation between the α- and β-relaxation frequencies of 1MID is not in accord with the Coupling Model (CM). The possibility of the violation of the prediction in 1MID as due to either the formation of hydrogen-bond induced clusters or the involvement of intramolecular degree of freedom is ruled out. The violation is explained by the secondary relaxation originating from the in-plane rotation of the dipole located on the plane of the rigid molecule, contributing to dielectric loss at higher frequencies and more intense than the JG β-relaxation generated by the out-of-plane rotation. MDCP has smaller dipole moment located in the plane of the molecule; however, presence of the change of curvature of dielectric loss, ɛ″(f), at some frequency on the high-frequency flank of the α-relaxation reveals the JG β-relaxation in MDCP and which is in accord with the CM prediction. QN has as large an in-plane dipole moment as 1MID, and the absence of the resolved secondary relaxation is explained by the smaller coupling parameter than the latter in the framework of the CM.

  14. Secondary structure encodes a cooperative tertiary folding funnel in the Azoarcus ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Mustoe, Anthony M.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    A requirement for specific RNA folding is that the free-energy landscape discriminate against non-native folds. While tertiary interactions are critical for stabilizing the native fold, they are relatively non-specific, suggesting additional mechanisms contribute to tertiary folding specificity. In this study, we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to explore how secondary structure shapes the tertiary free-energy landscape of the Azoarcus ribozyme. We show that steric and connectivity constraints posed by secondary structure strongly limit the accessible conformational space of the ribozyme, and that these so-called topological constraints in turn pose strong free-energy penalties on forming different tertiary contacts. Notably, native A-minor and base-triple interactions form with low conformational free energy, while non-native tetraloop/tetraloop–receptor interactions are penalized by high conformational free energies. Topological constraints also give rise to strong cooperativity between distal tertiary interactions, quantitatively matching prior experimental measurements. The specificity of the folding landscape is further enhanced as tertiary contacts place additional constraints on the conformational space, progressively funneling the molecule to the native state. These results indicate that secondary structure assists the ribozyme in navigating the otherwise rugged tertiary folding landscape, and further emphasize topological constraints as a key force in RNA folding. PMID:26481360

  15. CPU-GPU hybrid accelerating the Zuker algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prediction of ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structure remains one of the most important research areas in bioinformatics. The Zuker algorithm is one of the most popular methods of free energy minimization for RNA secondary structure prediction. Thus far, few studies have been reported on the acceleration of the Zuker algorithm on general-purpose processors or on extra accelerators such as Field Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) and Graphics Processing Units (GPU). To the best of our knowledge, no implementation combines both CPU and extra accelerators, such as GPUs, to accelerate the Zuker algorithm applications. Results In this paper, a CPU-GPU hybrid computing system that accelerates Zuker algorithm applications for RNA secondary structure prediction is proposed. The computing tasks are allocated between CPU and GPU for parallel cooperate execution. Performance differences between the CPU and the GPU in the task-allocation scheme are considered to obtain workload balance. To improve the hybrid system performance, the Zuker algorithm is optimally implemented with special methods for CPU and GPU architecture. Conclusions Speedup of 15.93× over optimized multi-core SIMD CPU implementation and performance advantage of 16% over optimized GPU implementation are shown in the experimental results. More than 14% of the sequences are executed on CPU in the hybrid system. The system combining CPU and GPU to accelerate the Zuker algorithm is proven to be promising and can be applied to other bioinformatics applications. PMID:22369626

  16. Mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils defined by secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, C; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Wang, C; Besenbacher, F; Dong, M

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology are extensively studied - among these parameters, the secondary structures and the pH have been revealed to be crucial, since a variation in pH changes the fibril morphology and net chirality during protein aggregation. It is important to quantify the mechanical properties of these fibrils in order to help the design of effective strategies for treating diseases related to the presence of amyloid fibrils. In this work, we show that by changing pH the mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils vary as well. In particular, we reveal that these mechanical properties are strongly related to the content of secondary structures. We analysed and estimated the Young's modulus (E) by comparing the persistence length (Lp) - measured from the observation of TEM images by using statistical mechanics arguments - with the mechanical information provided by peak force quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (PF-QNM). The secondary structure content and the chirality are investigated by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SR-CD). Results arising from this study could be fruitfully used as a protocol to investigate other medical or engineering relevant peptide fibrils. PMID:25839069

  17. PURE mRNA display for in vitro selection of single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Yu; Fujiwara, Kei; Horisawa, Kenichi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Nobuhide

    2016-05-01

    mRNA display is a method to form a covalent linkage between a cell-free synthesized protein (phenotype) and its encoding mRNA (genotype) through puromycin for in vitro selection of proteins. Although a wheat germ cell-free translation system has been previously used in our mRNA display system, a protein synthesis using recombinant elements (PURE) system is a more attractive approach because it contains no endogenous nucleases and proteases and is optimized for folding of antibodies with disulphide bonds. However, when we used the PURE system for mRNA display of single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies, the formation efficiency of the mRNA-protein conjugates was quite low. To establish an efficient platform for the PURE mRNA display of scFv, we performed affinity selection of a library of scFv antibodies with a C-terminal random sequence and obtained C-terminal sequences that increased the formation of mRNA-protein conjugates. We also identified unexpected common substitution mutations around the start codon of scFv antibodies, which were inferred to destabilize the mRNA secondary structure. This destabilization causes an increase in protein expression and the efficiency of the formation of mRNA-protein conjugates. We believe these improvements should make the PURE mRNA display more efficient for selecting antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26711234

  18. Peptide Length Determines Equilibrium Secondary Structure in Protein-Analogous Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew; Marullo, Rachel; Kastantin, Mark

    2013-03-01

    This work seeks improved bottom-up design of bioinspired materials built from peptide-amphiphiles, which are a class of bioconjugates whereby a biofunctional peptide is covalently attached to a hydrophobic moiety that drives self-assembly in aqueous solution. Specifically, this work highlights the importance of peptide length (i.e. molecular weight) in determining the equilibrium secondary structure of the peptide as well as the self-assembled (i.e. micelle) geometry. Peptides used here repeat a seven-amino acid sequence between one and four times to vary peptide length while maintaining similar peptide-peptide interactions. Without a hydrophobic tail, these peptides all exhibit a combination of random coil and α-helical structure. Upon self-assembly, however, short peptides are prone to β-sheet structure and cylindrical geometry while longer peptides remain helical in spheroidal micelles. The transition to β-sheets in short peptides is kinetic, whereby amphiphiles first self-assemble with helical peptide structure, then overcome an activation barrier as they transition to their equilibrium β-sheet structure at a rate that depends on both temperature and ionic strength. These results identify peptide length as an important control over equilibrium peptide secondary structure and micelle geometry. Furthermore, the kinetic nature of the helix-to-sheet transition opens the door for shape-changing bioinspired materials with tunable conversion rates.

  19. Correlation between protein secondary structure, backbone bond angles, and side-chain orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the fine structure of the sp3 hybridized covalent bond geometry that governs the tetrahedral architecture around the central Cα carbon of a protein backbone, and for this we develop new visualization techniques to analyze high-resolution x-ray structures in the Protein Data Bank. We observe that there is a correlation between the deformations of the ideal tetrahedral symmetry and the local secondary structure of the protein. We propose a universal coarse-grained energy function to describe the ensuing side-chain geometry in terms of the Cβ carbon orientations. The energy function can model the side-chain geometry with a subatomic precision. As an example we construct the Cα-Cβ structure of HP35 chicken villin headpiece. We obtain a configuration that deviates less than 0.4 Å in root-mean-square distance from the experimental x-ray structure.

  20. Sheath structure in plasma with two species of positive ions and secondary electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Yun, Zhao; Nong, Xiang; Jing, Ou; De-Hui, Li; Bin-Bin, Lin

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a collisionless plasma sheath are investigated by using a fluid model in which two species of positive ions and secondary electrons are taken into account. It is shown that the positive ion speeds at the sheath edge increase with secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient, and the sheath structure is affected by the interplay between the two species of positive ions and secondary electrons. The critical SEE coefficients and the sheath widths depend strongly on the positive ion charge number, mass and concentration in the cases with and without SEE. In addition, ion kinetic energy flux to the wall and the impact of positive ion species on secondary electron density at the sheath edge are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475220 and 11405208), the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning, the National ITER Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB101003), and the Higher Education Natural Science Research Project of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2015KJ009).

  1. Using probe secondary structure information to enhance Affymetrix GeneChip background estimates

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Raad Z.; Fodor, Anthony A.; Gibas, Cynthia J.

    2007-01-01

    High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data. A number of statistical techniques have been developed to correct for this background noise. Here, we demonstrate that probe minimum folding energy and structure can be used to enhance a previously existing model for background noise correction. We estimate that probe secondary structure accounts for up to 3% of all variation on Affymetrix microarrays. PMID:17387043

  2. The influence of the secondary relaxation processes on the structural relaxation in glass-forming materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, A. A.; Popov, I. I.; Nigmatullin, R. R.

    2013-06-01

    In the frame of fractional-kinetic approach, the model of the structural α-relaxation in the presence of the secondary β-relaxation processes is suggested. The model is based on the rigorous bond between β-processes with α-process and leads to the generalized and justified expression for the complex dielectric permittivity (CDP). It allows to form a new sight on the problem of the fitting of multi-peak structure of the dielectric loss spectra in glass-forming materials. The consistency of the CDP expressions obtained is based on a good fit of experimental data for binary methanol-water mixtures.

  3. The influence of the secondary relaxation processes on the structural relaxation in glass-forming materials.

    PubMed

    Khamzin, A A; Popov, I I; Nigmatullin, R R

    2013-06-28

    In the frame of fractional-kinetic approach, the model of the structural α-relaxation in the presence of the secondary β-relaxation processes is suggested. The model is based on the rigorous bond between β-processes with α-process and leads to the generalized and justified expression for the complex dielectric permittivity (CDP). It allows to form a new sight on the problem of the fitting of multi-peak structure of the dielectric loss spectra in glass-forming materials. The consistency of the CDP expressions obtained is based on a good fit of experimental data for binary methanol-water mixtures. PMID:23822251

  4. VMD-SS: A graphical user interface plug-in to calculate the protein secondary structure in VMD program

    PubMed Central

    Yahyavi, Masoumeh; Falsafi-Zadeh, Sajad; Karimi, Zahra; Kalatarian, Giti; Galehdari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the types of secondary structure (SS) of a protein is important. The evolution of secondary structures during molecular dynamics simulations is a useful parameter to analyze protein structures. Therefore, it is of interest to describe VMD-SS (a software program) for the identification of secondary structure elements and its trajectories during simulation for known structures available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The program helps to calculate (1) percentage SS, (2) SS occurrence in each residue, (3) percentage SS during simulation, and (4) percentage residues in all SS types during simulation. The VMD-SS plug-in was designed using TCL script and stride to calculate secondary structure features. Availability The database is available for free at http://science.scu.ac.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=13755 PMID:25258493

  5. A novel secondary structure based on fused five-membered rings motif

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Jesmita; Kishore, Raghuvansh; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of protein structures indicates the existence of a novel, fused five-membered rings motif, comprising of two residues (i and i + 1), stabilized by interresidue Ni+1–H∙∙∙Ni and intraresidue Ni+1–H∙∙∙O=Ci+1 hydrogen bonds. Fused-rings geometry is the common thread running through many commonly occurring motifs, such as β-turn, β-bulge, Asx-turn, Ser/Thr-turn, Schellman motif, and points to its structural robustness. A location close to the beginning of a β-strand is rather common for the motif. Devoid of side chain, Gly seems to be a key player in this motif, occurring at i, for which the backbone torsion angles cluster at ~(−90°, −10°) and (70°, 20°). The fused-rings structures, distant from each other in sequence, can hydrogen bond with each other, and the two segments aligned to each other in a parallel fashion, give rise to a novel secondary structure, topi, which is quite common in proteins, distinct from two major secondary structures, α-helix and β-sheet. Majority of the peptide segments making topi are identified as aggregation-prone and the residues tend to be conserved among homologous proteins. PMID:27511362

  6. Prediction of Spontaneous Protein Deamidation from Sequence-Derived Secondary Structure and Intrinsic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, J. Ramiro; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Sánchez, Ignacio E.

    2015-01-01

    Asparagine residues in proteins undergo spontaneous deamidation, a post-translational modification that may act as a molecular clock for the regulation of protein function and turnover. Asparagine deamidation is modulated by protein local sequence, secondary structure and hydrogen bonding. We present NGOME, an algorithm able to predict non-enzymatic deamidation of internal asparagine residues in proteins in the absence of structural data, using sequence-based predictions of secondary structure and intrinsic disorder. Compared to previous algorithms, NGOME does not require three-dimensional structures yet yields better predictions than available sequence-only methods. Four case studies of specific proteins show how NGOME may help the user identify deamidation-prone asparagine residues, often related to protein gain of function, protein degradation or protein misfolding in pathological processes. A fifth case study applies NGOME at a proteomic scale and unveils a correlation between asparagine deamidation and protein degradation in yeast. NGOME is freely available as a webserver at the National EMBnet node Argentina, URL: http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/ in the subpage “Protein and nucleic acid structure and sequence analysis”. PMID:26674530

  7. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka; Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  8. Structures of the PIN domains of SMG6 and SMG5 reveal a nuclease within the mRNA surveillance complex

    PubMed Central

    Glavan, Filip; Behm-Ansmant, Isabelle; Izaurralde, Elisa; Conti, Elena

    2006-01-01

    SMG6 and SMG5 are essential factors in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, a conserved pathway that degrades mRNAs with premature translation termination codons. Both SMG5 and SMG6 have been predicted to contain a C-terminal PIN (PilT N-terminus) domain, present in proteins with ribonuclease activity. We have determined the structures of human SMG5 and SMG6 PIN domains. Although they share a similar overall fold related to ribonucleases of the RNase H family, they have local differences at the putative active site. SMG6 has the canonical triad of acidic residues that are crucial in RNase H for nuclease activity, while SMG5 lacks key catalytic residues. The structural differences are reflected at the functional level. Only the PIN domain of SMG6 has degradation activity on single-stranded RNA in vitro. This difference in catalytic activity is conserved in Drosophila, where an SMG6 with an inactive PIN domain inhibits NMD in a dominant-negative manner. Our findings suggest that the NMD machinery has intrinsic nuclease activity that is likely to contribute to the rapid decay of mRNAs that terminate translation prematurely. PMID:17053788

  9. Test of circular dichroism (CD) methods for crambin and CD-assisted secondary structure prediction of its homologous toxins.

    PubMed

    Teeter, M M; Whitlow, M

    1988-01-01

    Methods that analyze protein circular dichroism (CD) spectra for fractions of secondary structure are evaluated for the plant protein crambin, which has a known high-resolution crystal structure. In addition, a two-step secondary structure prediction scheme is presented and used for the toxins homologous to crambin, shown by others to have secondary structures similar to crambin. The test of CD spectral analysis methods with the protein crambin employed two computer programs and several CD basis sets. Crambin's crystal structure, known to 0.945A resolution (Hendrickson, W.A., Teeter, M.M. Nature 290:107-113, 1981), allows accurate evaluation of results. Analysis with the protein spectra basis sets (Provencher, S.W., Glöckner, J. Biochemistry 20:33-37, 1981) as modified (Manavalan, P., Johnson, W.C., Jr. Anal. Biochem. 167:76-85, 1987) agreed most closely with crambin's crystal structure. This method was then applied to the CD spectra of the membrane-active toxins homologous to crambin (alpha 1- and beta-purothionin, phoratoxin A and B, and viscotoxin A3 and B). The new program SEQ (pronounced "seek") was developed to assign the secondary structure along the protein chain in a hierarchical fashion and applied to the plant toxins. The method constrained the secondary structure fractions to those from CD analysis and combined standard statistical methods with amphipathic helix location. Both CD-arrived secondary structure percentages and sequence assignment indicate that the viscotoxins are structurally most similar to crambin. Purothionin's secondary structure was predicted to be fundamentally similar to crambin's with a difference at the start of the first helix. This assignment agreed with Raman and NMR analyses of purothionin and lends validity to the method presented here. Differences from the NMR in the CD secondary structure fraction analysis for phoratoxin suggest interference in the CD from tryptophan residues. PMID:3253736

  10. RNA Secondary Structure Modulates FMRP's Bi-Functional Role in the MicroRNA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Phillip; Ceman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs act by post-transcriptionally regulating the gene expression of 30%-60% of mammalian genomes. MicroRNAs are key regulators in all cellular processes, though the mechanism by which the cell activates or represses microRNA-mediated translational regulation is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the RNA binding protein Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and its role in microRNA-mediated translational regulation. Historically, FMRP is known to function as a translational suppressor. However, emerging data suggests that FMRP has both an agonistic and antagonistic role in regulating microRNA-mediated translational suppression. This bi-functional role is dependent on FMRP's interaction with the RNA helicase Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10), which modifies the structural landscape of bound mRNA, therefore facilitating or inhibiting its association with the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex. PMID:27338369

  11. Secondary structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton S.; Bernier, Chad R.; Hershkovits, Eli; Xue, Yuzhen; Waterbury, Chris C.; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Stepanov, Victor G.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Grover, Martha A.; Harvey, Stephen C.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Wartell, Roger M.; Fox, George E.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2013-01-01

    We present a de novo re-determination of the secondary (2°) structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs, using 3D structures, determined by X-ray diffraction, as input. In the traditional 2° structure, the center of the 23S rRNA is an extended single strand, which in 3D is seen to be compact and double helical. Accurately assigning nucleotides to helices compels a revision of the 23S rRNA 2° structure. Unlike the traditional 2° structure, the revised 2° structure of the 23S rRNA shows architectural similarity with the 16S rRNA. The revised 2° structure also reveals a clear relationship with the 3D structure and is generalizable to rRNAs of other species from all three domains of life. The 2° structure revision required us to reconsider the domain architecture. We partitioned the 23S rRNA into domains through analysis of molecular interactions, calculations of 2D folding propensities and compactness. The best domain model for the 23S rRNA contains seven domains, not six as previously ascribed. Domain 0 forms the core of the 23S rRNA, to which the other six domains are rooted. Editable 2° structures mapped with various data are provided (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery). PMID:23771137

  12. Crumple: a method for complete enumeration of all possible pseudoknot-free RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Bleckley, Samuel; Stone, Jonathan W; Schroeder, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    The diverse landscape of RNA conformational space includes many canyons and crevices that are distant from the lowest minimum free energy valley and remain unexplored by traditional RNA structure prediction methods. A complete description of the entire RNA folding landscape can facilitate identification of biologically important conformations. The Crumple algorithm rapidly enumerates all possible non-pseudoknotted structures for an RNA sequence without consideration of thermodynamics while filtering the output with experimental data. The Crumple algorithm provides an alternative approach to traditional free energy minimization programs for RNA secondary structure prediction. A complete computation of all non-pseudoknotted secondary structures can reveal structures that would not be predicted by methods that sample the RNA folding landscape based on thermodynamic predictions. The free energy minimization approach is often successful but is limited by not considering RNA tertiary and protein interactions and the possibility that kinetics rather than thermodynamics determines the functional RNA fold. Efficient parallel computing and filters based on experimental data make practical the complete enumeration of all non-pseudoknotted structures. Efficient parallel computing for Crumple is implemented in a ring graph approach. Filters for experimental data include constraints from chemical probing of solvent accessibility, enzymatic cleavage of paired or unpaired nucleotides, phylogenetic covariation, and the minimum number and lengths of helices determined from crystallography or cryo-electron microscopy. The minimum number and length of helices has a significant effect on reducing conformational space. Pairing constraints reduce conformational space more than single nucleotide constraints. Examples with Alfalfa Mosaic Virus RNA and Trypanosome brucei guide RNA demonstrate the importance of evaluating all possible structures when pseduoknots, RNA-protein interactions

  13. Structural effects of liana presence in secondary tropical dry forests using ground LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, A.; Portillo-Quintero, C.; Durán, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    Lianas, woody vines, are a key component of tropical forest because they may reduce carbon storage potential. Lianas are increasing in density and biomass in tropical forests, but it is unknown what the potential consequences of these increases are for forest dynamics. Lianas may proliferate in disturbed areas, such as regenerating forests, but little is known about the role of lianas in secondary succession. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the ground LiDAR to detect differences in the vertical structure of stands of different ages with and without lianas in tropical dry forests. Specifically, we used a terrestrial laser scanner called VEGNET to assess whether liana presence influences the vertical signature of stands of different ages, and whether successional trajectories as detected by the VEGNET could be altered by liana presence. We deployed the VEGNET ground LiDAR system in 15 secondary forests of different ages early (21 years old since land abandonment), intermediate (32-35 years old) and late stages (> 80 years old) with and without lianas. We compared laser-derived vegetation components such as Plant Area Index (PAI), plant area volume density (PAVD), and the radius of gyration (RG) across forest stands between liana and no-liana treatments. In general forest stands without lianas show a clearer distinction of vertical strata and the vertical height of accumulated PAVD. A significant increase of PAI was found from intermediate to late stages in stands without lianas, but in stands where lianas were present there was not a significant trend. This suggests that lianas may be influencing successional trajectories in secondary forests, and these effects can be captured by terrestrial laser scanners such as the VEGNET. This research contributes to estimate the potential effects of lianas in secondary dry forests and highlight the role of ground LiDAR to monitor structural changes in tropical forests due to liana presence.

  14. The Interplay between Adolescent Needs and Secondary School Structures: Fostering Developmentally Responsive Middle and High School Environments across the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the developmental responsiveness of secondary school environments may be an important factor in supporting students as they make the transition from one school to the next. Students' needs may or may not be met depending on the nature of the fit between their basic and developmental needs and secondary school structures at the…

  15. Quantification of protein secondary structure by (13)C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fabiana Diuk; Forato, Lucimara Aparecida; Bernardes Filho, Rubens; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution (13)C solid-state NMR stands out as one of the most promising techniques to solve the structure of insoluble proteins featuring biological and technological importance. The simplest nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method to quantify the secondary structure of proteins uses the areas of carbonyl and alpha carbon peaks. The quantification obtained by fitting procedures depends on the assignment of the peaks to the structure, type of line shape, number of peaks to be used, and other parameters that are set by the operator. In this paper, we demonstrate that the analysis of (13)C NMR spectra by a pattern recognition method-based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) regression, which does not depend on the operator-shows higher correlation coefficients for α-helix and β-sheet (0.96 and 0.91, respectively) than Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Therefore, the use of (13)C solid-state NMR spectra and SVD is a simple and reliable method for quantifying the secondary structures of insoluble proteins in solid-state. PMID:27068694

  16. Incorporating chemical modification constraints into a dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, David H.; Disney, Matthew D.; Childs, Jessica L.; Schroeder, Susan J.; Zuker, Michael; Turner, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure has been revised to accommodate folding constraints determined by chemical modification and to include free energy increments for coaxial stacking of helices when they are either adjacent or separated by a single mismatch. Furthermore, free energy parameters are revised to account for recent experimental results for terminal mismatches and hairpin, bulge, internal, and multibranch loops. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, in vivo modification was performed on 5S rRNA in both Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate, dimethyl sulfate, and kethoxal. The percentage of known base pairs in the predicted structure increased from 26.3% to 86.8% for the E. coli sequence by using modification constraints. For C. albicans, the accuracy remained 87.5% both with and without modification data. On average, for these sequences and a set of 14 sequences with known secondary structure and chemical modification data taken from the literature, accuracy improves from 67% to 76%. This enhancement primarily reflects improvement for three sequences that are predicted with <40% accuracy on the basis of energetics alone. For these sequences, inclusion of chemical modification constraints improves the average accuracy from 28% to 78%. For the 11 sequences with <6% pseudoknotted base pairs, structures predicted with constraints from chemical modification contain on average 84% of known canonical base pairs. PMID:15123812

  17. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. . E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  18. Effective stiffness and formation of secondary structures in a protein-like model.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Tatjana; Hoang, Trinh X; Giacometti, Achille

    2016-08-28

    We use Wang-Landau and replica exchange techniques to study the effect of an increasing stiffness on the formation of secondary structures in protein-like systems. Two possible models are considered. In both models, a polymer chain is formed by tethered beads where non-consecutive backbone beads attract each other via a square-well potential representing the tendency of the chain to fold. In addition, smaller hard spheres are attached to each non-terminal backbone bead along the direction normal to the chain to mimic the steric hindrance of side chains in real proteins. The two models, however, differ in the way bending rigidity is enforced. In the first model, partial overlap between consecutive beads is allowed. This reduces the possible bending angle between consecutive bonds thus producing an effective entropic stiffness that competes with a short-range attraction, and leads to the formation of secondary structures characteristic of proteins. We discuss the low-temperature phase diagram as a function of increasing interpenetration and find a transition from a planar, beta-like structure, to helical shape. In the second model, an energetic stiffness is explicitly introduced by imposing an infinitely large energy penalty for bending above a critical angle between consecutive bonds, and no penalty below it. The low-temperature phase of this model does not show any sign of protein-like secondary structures. At intermediate temperatures, however, where the chain is still in the coil conformation but stiffness is significant, we find the two models to predict a quite similar dependence of the persistence length as a function of the stiffness. This behaviour is rationalized in terms of a simple geometrical mapping between the two models. Finally, we discuss the effect of shrinking side chains to zero and find the above mapping to still hold true. PMID:27586943

  19. Discrete state model and accurate estimation of loop entropy of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Jie

    2008-03-28

    Conformational entropy makes important contribution to the stability and folding of RNA molecule, but it is challenging to either measure or compute conformational entropy associated with long loops. We develop optimized discrete k-state models of RNA backbone based on known RNA structures for computing entropy of loops, which are modeled as self-avoiding walks. To estimate entropy of hairpin, bulge, internal loop, and multibranch loop of long length (up to 50), we develop an efficient sampling method based on the sequential Monte Carlo principle. Our method considers excluded volume effect. It is general and can be applied to calculating entropy of loops with longer length and arbitrary complexity. For loops of short length, our results are in good agreement with a recent theoretical model and experimental measurement. For long loops, our estimated entropy of hairpin loops is in excellent agreement with the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model. However, for bulge loops and more complex secondary structures such as internal and multibranch loops, we find that the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model has large errors. Based on estimated entropy, we have developed empirical formulae for accurate calculation of entropy of long loops in different secondary structures. Our study on the effect of asymmetric size of loops suggest that loop entropy of internal loops is largely determined by the total loop length, and is only marginally affected by the asymmetric size of the two loops. Our finding suggests that the significant asymmetric effects of loop length in internal loops measured by experiments are likely to be partially enthalpic. Our method can be applied to develop improved energy parameters important for studying RNA stability and folding, and for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. The discrete model and the program used to calculate loop entropy can be downloaded at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/resources/RNA.html. PMID:18376982

  20. Prediction of RNA secondary structures: from theory to models and real molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2006-05-01

    RNA secondary structures are derived from RNA sequences, which are strings built form the natural four letter nucleotide alphabet, {AUGC}. These coarse-grained structures, in turn, are tantamount to constrained strings over a three letter alphabet. Hence, the secondary structures are discrete objects and the number of sequences always exceeds the number of structures. The sequences built from two letter alphabets form perfect structures when the nucleotides can form a base pair, as is the case with {GC} or {AU}, but the relation between the sequences and structures differs strongly from the four letter alphabet. A comprehensive theory of RNA structure is presented, which is based on the concepts of sequence space and shape space, being a space of structures. It sets the stage for modelling processes in ensembles of RNA molecules like evolutionary optimization or kinetic folding as dynamical phenomena guided by mappings between the two spaces. The number of minimum free energy (mfe) structures is always smaller than the number of sequences, even for two letter alphabets. Folding of RNA molecules into mfe energy structures constitutes a non-invertible mapping from sequence space onto shape space. The preimage of a structure in sequence space is defined as its neutral network. Similarly the set of suboptimal structures is the preimage of a sequence in shape space. This set represents the conformation space of a given sequence. The evolutionary optimization of structures in populations is a process taking place in sequence space, whereas kinetic folding occurs in molecular ensembles that optimize free energy in conformation space. Efficient folding algorithms based on dynamic programming are available for the prediction of secondary structures for given sequences. The inverse problem, the computation of sequences for predefined structures, is an important tool for the design of RNA molecules with tailored properties. Simultaneous folding or cofolding of two or more RNA

  1. Rubella virus 40S genome RNA specifies a 24S subgenomic mRNA that codes for a precursor to structural proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Oker-Blom, C; Ulmanen, I; Kääriäinen, L; Pettersson, R F

    1984-01-01

    We have analyzed the structure of the rubella virus genome RNA and the virus-specific RNA species synthesized in B-Vero cells infected with rubella virus. A single-stranded, capped, and polyadenylated RNA species sedimenting at 40S in a sucrose gradient was released from purified virions treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate. This RNA species migrated with an Mr of about 3.8 X 10(6) in an agarose gel after denaturation with glyoxal and dimethyl sulfoxide. Infected cells labeled with [3H]uridine in the presence of actinomycin D contained, in addition to the 40S RNA, a single-stranded polyadenylated 24S RNA species as shown by sucrose gradient analysis. In a Northern blot analysis, this RNA hybridized to a cDNA probe derived from the 3' portion of the genomic 40S RNA. In vitro translation of the 24S RNA species yielded a 110,000-dalton polypeptide, in addition to some smaller products which were immunoprecipitated with an antiserum prepared against the structural proteins E1, E2a, E2b, and C. Since the sum of the molecular weights of the nonglycosylated envelope proteins and the capsid protein has been estimated to be about 116,000 (C. Oker-Blom et al., J. Virol. 46:964-973, 1983), these results suggest that the 24S RNA species represents a subgenomic mRNA coding for a precursor (p110) to the structural proteins of rubella virus. Thus, the strategy of gene expression of rubella virus appears to be similar to that of the alphaviruses. Images PMID:6694262

  2. Generic properties of combinatory maps: Neutral networks of RNA secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Reidys, C. |; Stadler, P.F. |; Schuster, P. ||

    1997-03-01

    Random graph theory is used to model and analyze the relationships between sequences and secondary structures of RNA molecules, which are understood as mappings from sequence space into shape space. These maps are non-invertible since there are always many orders of magnitude more sequences than structures. Sequences folding into identical structures form neutral networks. A neutral network is embedded in the set of sequences that are compatible with the given structure. Networks are modeled as graphs and constructed by random choice of vertices from the space of compatible sequences. The theory characterizes neutral networks by the mean fraction of neutral neighbors ({lambda}). The networks are connected and percolate sequence space if the fraction of neutral nearest neighbors exceeds a threshold value ({lambda} > {lambda}*). Below threshold ({lambda} < {lambda}*), the networks are partitioned into a largest giant component and several smaller components. Structures are classified as common or rare according to the sizes of their pre-images, i.e. according to the fractions of sequences folding into them. The neutral networks of any pair of two different common structures almost touch each other, and, as expressed by the conjecture of shape space covering sequences folding into almost all common structures, can be found in a small ball of an arbitrary location in sequence space. The results from random graph theory are compared to data obtained by folding large samples of RNA sequences. Differences are explained in terms of specific features of RNA molecular structures.

  3. Modeling proteins using a super-secondary structure library and NMR chemical shift information

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vilas; Vallat, Brinda; Dybas, Joseph M.; Fiser, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Summary A remaining challenge in protein modeling is to predict structures for sequences that do not share recognizable sequence similarity to any experimentally solved structure. This challenge can be addressed by hybrid algorithms that utilize easily obtainable experimental data and carry a limited amount of indirect structural information. Based on earlier observations, the library of protein super-secondary structure motifs (Smotifs) saturated about a decade ago, and new folds discovered since then are novel combinations of existing Smotifs. This observation suggests that it should be possible to build any structure, of either a known or yet to be discovered fold, from a combination of existing Smotifs derived from already known structures. In the absence of any sequence similarity signal, limited experimental data can be used to relate the backbone conformations of Smotifs between target proteins and known experimental structures. Here we present a modeling algorithm that relies on an exhaustive Smotif library and on NMR chemical shift patterns without any input of primary sequence information. In a test of 102 proteins with unique folds, the algorithm delivered 90 homology model quality models, among them 24 high quality ones, and a topologically correct solution for almost all cases. Detailed analysis of the method’s performance suggests that further improvement can be achieved by improving sampling algorithms and developing more precise tools that predict dihedral angle preferences from chemical shift assignments. The current approach opens a venue to address the modeling of larger protein structures for which chemical shifts are available. PMID:23685209

  4. mRNA imprinting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Following its synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA undergoes various stages that are critical for the proper synthesis, localization and possibly functionality of its encoded protein. Recently, we have shown that two RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunits, Rpb4p and Rpb7p, associate with the nascent transcript co-transcriptionally. This “mRNA imprinting” lasts throughout the mRNA lifetime and is required for proper regulation of all major stages that the mRNA undergoes. Other possible cases of co-transcriptional imprinting are discussed. Since mRNAs can be transported from the synthesizing cell to other cells, we propose that mRNA imprinting can also affect the phenotype of the recipient cells. This can be viewed as “mRNA-based epigenetics.” PMID:21686103

  5. NMR structure and dynamics of the RNA-binding site for the histone mRNA stem-loop binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Eric S; Marzluff, William F; Nikonowicz, Edward P

    2002-01-01

    The 3' end of replication-dependent histone mRNAs terminate in a conserved sequence containing a stem-loop. This 26-nt sequence is the binding site for a protein, stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), that is involved in multiple aspects of histone mRNA metabolism and regulation. We have determined the structure of the 26-nt sequence by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. There is a 16-nt stem-loop motif, with a conserved 6-bp stem and a 4-nt loop. The loop is closed by a conserved U.A base pair that terminates the canonical A-form stem. The pyrimidine-rich 4-nt loop, UUUC, is well organized with the three uridines stacking on the helix, and the fourth base extending across the major groove into the solvent. The flanking nucleotides at the base of the hairpin stem do not assume a unique conformation, despite the fact that the 5' flanking nucleotides are a critical component of the SLBP binding site. PMID:11871662

  6. A key role for the mRNA leader structure in translational control of ribosomal protein S1 synthesis in gamma-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tchufistova, Ludmila S; Komarova, Anastassia V; Boni, Irina V

    2003-12-01

    The translation initiation region (TIR) of the Escherichia coli rpsA mRNA coding for ribosomal protein S1 is characterized by a remarkable efficiency in driving protein synthesis despite the absence of the canonical Shine-Dalgarno element, and by a strong and specific autogenous repression in the presence of free S1 in trans. The efficient and autoregulated E.coli rpsA TIR comprises not less than 90 nt upstream of the translation start and can be unambiguously folded into three irregular hairpins (HI, HII and HIII) separated by A/U-rich single-stranded regions (ss1 and ss2). Phylogenetic comparison revealed that this specific fold is highly conserved in the gamma-subdivision of proteobacteria (but not in other subdivisions), except for the Pseudomonas group. To test phylogenetic predictions experimentally, we have generated rpsA'-'lacZ translational fusions by inserting the rpsA TIRs from various gamma-proteobacteria in-frame with the E.coli chromosomal lacZ gene. Measurements of their translation efficiency and negative regulation by excess protein S1 in trans have shown that only those rpsA TIRs which share the structural features with that of E.coli can govern efficient and regulated translation. We conclude that the E.coli-like mechanism for controlling the efficiency of protein S1 synthesis evolved after divergence of Pseudomona. PMID:14627832

  7. Mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils defined by secondary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolini, C.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Wang, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Dong, M.

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology are extensively studied - among these parameters, the secondary structures and the pH have been revealed to be crucial, since a variation in pH changes the fibril morphology and net chirality during protein aggregation. It is important to quantify the mechanical properties of these fibrils in order to help the design of effective strategies for treating diseases related to the presence of amyloid fibrils. In this work, we show that by changing pH the mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils vary as well. In particular, we reveal that these mechanical properties are strongly related to the content of secondary structures. We analysed and estimated the Young's modulus (E) by comparing the persistence length (Lp) - measured from the observation of TEM images by using statistical mechanics arguments - with the mechanical information provided by peak force quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (PF-QNM). The secondary structure content and the chirality are investigated by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SR-CD). Results arising from this study could be fruitfully used as a protocol to investigate other medical or engineering relevant peptide fibrils.Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology

  8. Nucleotide sequence and proposed secondary structure of Columnea latent viroid: a natural mosaic of viroid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, R; Smith, D R; Diener, T O

    1989-01-01

    The Columnea latent viroid (CLV) occurs latently in certain Columnea erythrophae plants grown commercially. In potato and tomato, CLV causes potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV)-like symptoms. Its nucleotide sequence and proposed secondary structure reveal that CLV consists of a single-stranded circular RNA of 370 nucleotides which can assume a rod-like structure with extensive base-pairing characteristic of all known viroids. The electrophoretic mobility of circular CLV under nondenaturing conditions suggests a potential tertiary structure. CLV contains extensive sequence homologies to the PSTV group of viroids but contains a central conserved region identical to that of hop stunt viroid (HSV). CLV also shares some biological properties with each of the two types of viroids. Most probably, CLV is the result of intracellular RNA recombination between an HSV-type and one or more PSTV-type viroids replicating in the same plant. Images PMID:2602114

  9. Neural-network design applied to protein-secondary-structure predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R.C.; Head-Gordon, T.

    1995-04-01

    The success of neural networks is often limited by a sparse database of training examples, deficient neural-network architectures, and nonglobal optimization of the network variables. The convolution of these three problems has curtailed the application of network models to protein-structure predictions, where homology modeling or information theory approaches are considered better controlled alternatives. This paper introduces our broad objective of disentangling the three degrading features of neural networks cited above, beginning with improved designs of network architectures used in the prediction of protein secondary structure. This work demonstrates that network architecture design considerations greatly improve generalization and more efficiently extract complex sequence-structure relationships from the existing database, as compared to arbitrary architectures with the same size input window.

  10. Profiles and Majority Voting-Based Ensemble Method for Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Bouziane, Hafida; Messabih, Belhadri; Chouarfia, Abdallah

    2011-01-01

    Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to solve the problem of predicting protein secondary structure from the amino acid sequence. They have gained substantial success in this research area. Many methods have been used including k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NNs), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), which have attracted attention recently. Today, the main goal remains to improve the prediction quality of the secondary structure elements. The prediction accuracy has been continuously improved over the years, especially by using hybrid or ensemble methods and incorporating evolutionary information in the form of profiles extracted from alignments of multiple homologous sequences. In this paper, we investigate how best to combine k-NNs, ANNs and Multi-class SVMs (M-SVMs) to improve secondary structure prediction of globular proteins. An ensemble method which combines the outputs of two feed-forward ANNs, k-NN and three M-SVM classifiers has been applied. Ensemble members are combined using two variants of majority voting rule. An heuristic based filter has also been applied to refine the prediction. To investigate how much improvement the general ensemble method can give rather than the individual classifiers that make up the ensemble, we have experimented with the proposed system on the two widely used benchmark datasets RS126 and CB513 using cross-validation tests by including PSI-BLAST position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) profiles as inputs. The experimental results reveal that the proposed system yields significant performance gains when compared with the best individual classifier. PMID:22058650

  11. The secondary structure of the 7SL RNA in the signal recognition particle: functional implications.

    PubMed Central

    Zwieb, C

    1985-01-01

    The secondary structure of the 7SL RNA in the signal recognition particle was determined by applying both a theoretical and an experimental approach. The compensatory base change approach was taken comparing the published sequences of human, Drosophila and Xenopus 7SL RNA's. The deduced secondary structure was confirmed by post-labeling of an RNase V1-nicked dog SRP with P32-pCp and RNA-ligase and analysis of the labeled RNA-fragments by non-denaturing/denaturing 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two interesting features in the secondary structure were revealed: Firstly, bases at positions 122 to 127 of the human 7SL RNA are not only able to pair with bases at positions 167 to 170, but also with a single-stranded region of the bases at positions 223 to 228, suggesting an alternative base pairing scheme for the 7SL RNA in all three organisms. In agreement with this finding, four different conformations were identified after transcription of the 7SL RNA from the genomic human clone. The involvement of the particular basepairing interaction postulated was confirmed by the analysis of a 7SL RNA deletion mutant (Sma1-409). Secondly, a significant sequence homology of the paired bases at positions 236 to 255 and 104 to 109 in 7SL RNA with bases in 5S ribosomal RNA at the positions 84 to 110 was noticed, suggesting that 5S ribosomal and 7SL RNA interact with the same target during protein biosynthesis. These findings are summarized by proposing a mechanism for the translational arrest of protein synthesis by the signal recognition particle using specific sequences and an alternative configuration in the 7SL RNA. Images PMID:2413423

  12. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on secondary structure and emulsifying behavior of sweet potato protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood Khan, Nasir; Mu, Tai-Hua; Sun, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jing-Wang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, secondary structures of sweet potato protein (SPP) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (200-600 MPa) were evaluated and emulsifying properties of emulsions with HHP-treated SPP solutions in different pH values (3, 6, and 9) were investigated. Circular dichroism analysis confirmed the modification of the SPP secondary structure. Surface hydrophobicity increased at pH 3 and decreased at 6 and 9. Emulsifying activity index at pH 6 increased with an increase in pressure, whereas emulsifying stability index increased at pH 6 and 9. Oil droplet sizes decreased, while volume frequency distribution of the smaller droplets increased at pH 3 and 6 with the HHP treatment. Emulsion viscosity increased at pH 6 and 9 and pseudo-plastic flow behaviors were not altered for all emulsions produced with HHP-treated SPP. These results suggested that HHP could modify the SPP structure for better emulsifying properties, which could increase the use of SPP emulsion in the food industry.

  13. Interplay between desolvation and secondary structure in mediating cosolvent and temperature induced alpha-synuclein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, V. L.; Webb, W. W.; Eliezer, D.

    2012-10-01

    Both increased temperature and moderate concentrations of fluorinated alcohols enhance aggregation of the Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein (αS). Here, we investigate the secondary structural rearrangements induced by heating and trifluoroethanol [TFE]. At low TFE concentrations, CD spectra feature a negative peak characteristic of disordered polypeptides near 200 nm and a slight shoulder around 220 nm suggesting some polyproline-II content. Upon heating, these peaks weaken, while a weak negative signal develops at 222 nm. At high TFE concentrations, the spectra show distinct minima at 208 and 222 nm, indicative of considerable α-helical structure, which diminish upon heating. We observe a crossover between the low-TFE and high-TFE behavior near 15% TFE, where we previously showed that a partially helical intermediate is populated. We postulate that the protein is well solvated by water at low TFE concentrations and by TFE at high TFE concentrations, but may become desolvated at the crossover point. We discuss the potential roles and interplay of desolvation and helical secondary structure in driving αS aggregation.

  14. A global sampling approach to designing and reengineering RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex; Lis, Mieszko; Ponty, Yann; O’Donnell, Charles W.; Devadas, Srinivas; Berger, Bonnie; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    The development of algorithms for designing artificial RNA sequences that fold into specific secondary structures has many potential biomedical and synthetic biology applications. To date, this problem remains computationally difficult, and current strategies to address it resort to heuristics and stochastic search techniques. The most popular methods consist of two steps: First a random seed sequence is generated; next, this seed is progressively modified (i.e. mutated) to adopt the desired folding properties. Although computationally inexpensive, this approach raises several questions such as (i) the influence of the seed; and (ii) the efficiency of single-path directed searches that may be affected by energy barriers in the mutational landscape. In this article, we present RNA-ensign, a novel paradigm for RNA design. Instead of taking a progressive adaptive walk driven by local search criteria, we use an efficient global sampling algorithm to examine large regions of the mutational landscape under structural and thermodynamical constraints until a solution is found. When considering the influence of the seeds and the target secondary structures, our results show that, compared to single-path directed searches, our approach is more robust, succeeds more often and generates more thermodynamically stable sequences. An ensemble approach to RNA design is thus well worth pursuing as a complement to existing approaches. RNA-ensign is available at http://csb.cs.mcgill.ca/RNAensign. PMID:22941632

  15. Secondary structure of corona proteins determines the cell surface receptors used by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Candace C; Payne, Christine K

    2014-12-11

    Nanoparticles used for biological and biomedical applications encounter a host of extracellular proteins. These proteins rapidly adsorb onto the nanoparticle surface, creating a protein corona. Poly(ethylene glycol) can reduce, but not eliminate, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. As a result, the adsorbed proteins, rather than the nanoparticle itself, determine the cellular receptors used for binding, the internalization mechanism, the intracellular transport pathway, and the subsequent immune response. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we first characterize a set of polystyrene nanoparticles in which the same adsorbed protein, bovine serum albumin, leads to binding to two different cell surface receptors: native albumin receptors and scavenger receptors. Using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein controls the cellular receptors used by the protein-nanoparticle complexes. These results show that protein secondary structure is a key parameter in determining the cell surface receptor used by a protein-nanoparticle complex. We expect this link between protein structure and cellular outcomes will provide a molecular basis for the design of nanoparticles for use in biological and biomedical applications. PMID:24779411

  16. Differential protein occupancy profiling of the mRNA transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate mRNA biogenesis, translation and decay. We recently developed an approach to profile transcriptome-wide RBP contacts on polyadenylated transcripts by next-generation sequencing. A comparison of such profiles from different biological conditions has the power to unravel dynamic changes in protein-contacted cis-regulatory mRNA regions without a priori knowledge of the regulatory protein component. Results We compared protein occupancy profiles of polyadenylated transcripts in MCF7 and HEK293 cells. Briefly, we developed a bioinformatics workflow to identify differential crosslinking sites in cDNA reads of 4-thiouridine crosslinked polyadenylated RNA samples. We identified 30,000 differential crosslinking sites between MCF7 and HEK293 cells at an estimated false discovery rate of 10%. 73% of all reported differential protein-RNA contact sites cannot be explained by local changes in exon usage as indicated by complementary RNA-seq data. The majority of differentially crosslinked positions are located in 3′ UTRs, show distinct secondary-structure characteristics and overlap with binding sites of known RBPs, such as ELAVL1. Importantly, mRNA transcripts with the most significant occupancy changes show elongated mRNA half-lives in MCF7 cells. Conclusions We present a global comparison of protein occupancy profiles from different cell types, and provide evidence for altered mRNA metabolism as a result of differential protein-RNA contacts. Additionally, we introduce POPPI, a bioinformatics workflow for the analysis of protein occupancy profiling experiments. Our work demonstrates the value of protein occupancy profiling for assessing cis-regulatory RNA sequence space and its dynamics in growth, development and disease. PMID:24417896

  17. Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current “cartoons” of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques. PMID:22936943

  18. Enhancement of accuracy and efficiency for RNA secondary structure prediction by sequence segmentation and MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Their secondary structures are crucial for the RNA functionality, and the prediction of the secondary structures is widely studied. Our previous research shows that cutting long sequences into shorter chunks, predicting secondary structures of the chunks independently using thermodynamic methods, and reconstructing the entire secondary structure from the predicted chunk structures can yield better accuracy than predicting the secondary structure using the RNA sequence as a whole. The chunking, prediction, and reconstruction processes can use different methods and parameters, some of which produce more accurate predictions than others. In this paper, we study the prediction accuracy and efficiency of three different chunking methods using seven popular secondary structure prediction programs that apply to two datasets of RNA with known secondary structures, which include both pseudoknotted and non-pseudoknotted sequences, as well as a family of viral genome RNAs whose structures have not been predicted before. Our modularized MapReduce framework based on Hadoop allows us to study the problem in a parallel and robust environment. Results On average, the maximum accuracy retention values are larger than one for our chunking methods and the seven prediction programs over 50 non-pseudoknotted sequences, meaning that the secondary structure predicted using chunking is more similar to the real structure than the secondary structure predicted by using the whole sequence. We observe similar results for the 23 pseudoknotted sequences, except for the NUPACK program using the centered chunking method. The performance analysis for 14 long RNA sequences from the Nodaviridae virus family outlines how the coarse-grained mapping of chunking and predictions in the MapReduce framework exhibits shorter turnaround times for short RNA sequences. However

  19. GraphClust: alignment-free structural clustering of local RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Dominic; Backofen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Clustering according to sequence–structure similarity has now become a generally accepted scheme for ncRNA annotation. Its application to complete genomic sequences as well as whole transcriptomes is therefore desirable but hindered by extremely high computational costs. Results: We present a novel linear-time, alignment-free method for comparing and clustering RNAs according to sequence and structure. The approach scales to datasets of hundreds of thousands of sequences. The quality of the retrieved clusters has been benchmarked against known ncRNA datasets and is comparable to state-of-the-art sequence–structure methods although achieving speedups of several orders of magnitude. A selection of applications aiming at the detection of novel structural ncRNAs are presented. Exemplarily, we predicted local structural elements specific to lincRNAs likely functionally associating involved transcripts to vital processes of the human nervous system. In total, we predicted 349 local structural RNA elements. Availability: The GraphClust pipeline is available on request. Contact: backofen@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22689765

  20. Secondary Airflow Structure around Clustered Shrubs and Its Significance for Vegetated Dune Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqiang; Lu, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    Shrubs have an important significance in aeolian processes due to their disturbance of the local airflow. In the formation of vegetated dunes, there is an iterative interaction between shrub geometry, the structure of the secondary airflow, and the interaction between neighboring shrubs. Understanding the dynamics of vegetated dunes thus requires an insight into the airflow fields around shrubs. Based on aerodynamic and aeolian sand physics theory, this project measured the complex secondary flow field and aeolian sand deposition pattern around single and cluster shrubs with varied densities (i.e., 0.05, 0.08, 0.15, 0.20) and gap ratios (the ratio of the gap spacing between the shrub models to the center-to-center distance for the shrub models, ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 with side-by-side arrangement and 1.2 to 4.3 with tandem arrangement) using the particle image velocimetry system through wind tunnle simulation. The relationship between the secondary airflow structure and the shrub's porosity and arrangement was analyzed quantitatively. Research results revealed that porosity (density) is the key parameter to affect the flow patterns around single shrub. Compared to solid obstacles, bleed flow through the shrubs has great influence on the secondary airflow patterns around itself. Under cluster modes, the distance between two adjacent shrubs has great influence on flow field structures around them. The flow patterns around two side-by-side arranged shrubs can be classified into three kinds of modes, that is: single-bluff-body, biased flow pattern and parallel vortex streets. The flow patterns around two tandem arranged shrubs can be classified into three regimes, that is: the extended body regime, reattachment regime and co-shedding regime. The "shadow zone" with low velocity in the lee of shrubs is the optimal position for sand deposition, but its form, size and orientation would varied with the shrub porosity and gap ratio between them. With the increase of the gap

  1. Secondary structural analysis of the carboxyl-terminal domain from different connexin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Spagnol, Gaëlle; Al-Mugotir, Mona; Kopanic, Jennifer L; Zach, Sydney; Li, Hanjun; Trease, Andrew J; Stauch, Kelly L; Grosely, Rosslyn; Cervantes, Matthew; Sorgen, Paul L

    2016-03-01

    The connexin carboxyl-terminal (CxCT) domain plays a role in the trafficking, localization, and turnover of gap junction channels, as well as the level of gap junction intercellular communication via numerous post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. As a key player in the regulation of gap junctions, the CT presents itself as a target for manipulation intended to modify function. Specific to intrinsically disordered proteins, identifying residues whose secondary structure can be manipulated will be critical toward unlocking the therapeutic potential of the CxCT domain. To accomplish this goal, we used biophysical methods to characterize CxCT domains attached to their fourth transmembrane domain (TM4). Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance were complementary in demonstrating the connexin isoforms that form the greatest amount of α-helical structure in their CT domain (Cx45 > Cx43 > Cx32 > Cx50 > Cx37 ≈ Cx40 ≈ Cx26). Studies compared the influence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, pH, phosphorylation, and mutations (Cx32, X-linked Charcot-Marie Tooth disease; Cx26, hearing loss) on the TM4-CxCT structure. While pH modestly influences the CT structure, a major structural change was associated with phosphomimetic substitutions. Since most connexin CT domains are phosphorylated throughout their life cycle, studies of phospho-TM4-CxCT isoforms will be critical toward understanding the role that structure plays in regulating gap junction function. PMID:26542351

  2. Ambient modal identification of a primary-secondary structure by Fast Bayesian FFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui; Zhang, Feng-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The Mong Man Wai Building is a seven-storied reinforced concrete structure situated on the campus of the City University of Hong Kong. On its roof a two-storied steel frame has been recently constructed to host a new wind tunnel laboratory. The roof frame and the main building form a primary-secondary structure. The dynamic characteristics of the resulting system are of interest from a structural dynamics point of view. This paper presents work on modal identification of the structure using ambient vibration measurement. An array of tri-axial acceleration data has been obtained using a number of setups to cover all locations of interest with a limited number of sensors. Modal identification is performed using a recently developed Fast Bayesian FFT method. In addition to the most probable modal properties, their posterior uncertainties can also be assessed using the method. The posterior uncertainty of mode shape is assessed by the expected value of the Modal Assurance Criteria (MAC) of the most probable mode shape with a random mode shape consistent with the posterior distribution. The mode shapes of the overall structural system are obtained by assembling those from individual setups using a recently developed least-square method. The identification results reveal a number of interesting features about the structural system and provide important information defining the baseline modal properties of the building. Practical interpretation of the statistics of modal parameters calculated from frequentist and Bayesian context is also discussed.

  3. The influence of residual water on the secondary structure and crystallinity of freeze-dried fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Verena; Scheibelhofer, Otto; Roessl, Ulrich; Leitgeb, Stefan; De Beer, Thomas; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of water content on the secondary structure of a freeze-dried protein (fibrinogen) after a storage period of two weeks. To that end, attenuated reflectance Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectra were generated and evaluated and the crystalline state of the fibrinogen bulks was determined via X-ray diffraction. First, a PCA (principal component analysis) of the spectral data was performed. While the α-helix and β-turn contents were increasing with the increasing water content, the β-sheet content was decreasing. A partial least squares (PLS) model was developed to correlate the mid-infrared and Raman spectral changes with the degree of crystallinity. The obtained R(2) value of 0.953 confirmed a correlation between changes in the secondary structure and crystallinity of the samples. The results demonstrated that the combined ATR-FTIR and Raman approach could be used to predict the crystalline state in freeze-dried fibrinogen products. PMID:25701629

  4. Transcriptome-wide interrogation of RNA secondary structure in living cells with icSHAPE.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Spitale, Robert C; Lee, Byron; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-02-01

    icSHAPE (in vivo click selective 2-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment) captures RNA secondary structure at a transcriptome-wide level by measuring nucleotide flexibility at base resolution. Living cells are treated with the icSHAPE chemical NAI-N3 followed by selective chemical enrichment of NAI-N3-modified RNA, which provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with similar methods leveraging deep sequencing. Purified RNA is then reverse-transcribed to produce cDNA, with SHAPE-modified bases leading to truncated cDNA. After deep sequencing of cDNA, computational analysis yields flexibility scores for every base across the starting RNA population. The entire experimental procedure can be completed in ∼5 d, and the sequencing and bioinformatics data analysis take an additional 4-5 d with no extensive computational skills required. Comparing in vivo and in vitro icSHAPE measurements can reveal in vivo RNA-binding protein imprints or facilitate the dissection of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. icSHAPE reactivities can additionally be used to constrain and improve RNA secondary structure prediction models. PMID:26766114

  5. Modeling the influence of alkane molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Aumont, Bernard; Camredon, Marie; Mouchel-Vallon, Camille; La, Stéphanie; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) production and ageing is a multigenerational oxidation process involving the formation of successive organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) emitted to the atmosphere are expected to be a substantial source of SOA. These emitted IVOC constitute a complex mixture including linear, branched and cyclic alkanes. The explicit gas-phase oxidation mechanisms are here generated for various linear and branched C10-C22 alkanes using the GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) and SOA formation is investigated for various homologous series. Simulation results show that both the size and the branching of the carbon skeleton are dominant factors driving the SOA yield. However, branching appears to be of secondary importance for the particle oxidation state and composition. The effect of alkane molecular structure on SOA yields appears to be consistent with recent laboratory observations. The simulated SOA composition shows, however, an unexpected major contribution from multifunctional organic nitrates. Most SOA contributors simulated for the oxidation of the various homologous series are far too reduced to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). On a carbon basis, the OOA yields never exceeded 10% regardless of carbon chain length, molecular structure or ageing time. This version of the model appears clearly unable to explain a large production of OOA from alkane precursors. PMID:24600999

  6. Analysis of secondary structural and physicochemical changes in protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Saranya, N; Saravanan, K M; Michael Gromiha, M; Selvaraj, S

    2016-03-01

    Conformation switching in protein-protein complexes is considered important for the molecular recognition process. Overall analysis of 123 protein-protein complexes in a benchmark data-set showed that 6.8% of residues switched over their secondary structure conformation upon complex formation. Amino acid residue-wise preference for conformation change has been analyzed in binding and non-binding site residues separately. In this analysis, residues such as Ser, Leu, Glu, and Lys had higher frequency of secondary structural conformation change. The change of helix to coil and sheet to coil conformation and vice versa has been observed frequently, whereas the conformation change of helix to extended sheet occurred rarely in the studied complexes. Influence of conformation change toward the N and C terminal on either side of the binding site residues has been analyzed. Further, analysis on φ and ψ angle variation, conservation, stability, and solvent accessibility have been performed on binding site residues. Knowledge obtained from the present study could be effectively employed in the protein-protein modeling and docking studies. PMID:25990569

  7. Transcriptome-wide interrogation of RNA secondary structure in living cells with icSHAPE

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Spitale, Robert C; Lee, Byron; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-01-01

    icSHAPE (in vivo click selective 2-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment) captures RNA secondary structure at a transcriptome-wide level by measuring nucleotide flexibility at base resolution. Living cells are treated with the icSHAPE chemical NAI-N3 followed by selective chemical enrichment of NAI-N3–modified RNA, which provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with similar methods leveraging deep sequencing. Purified RNA is then reverse-transcribed to produce cDNA, with SHAPE-modified bases leading to truncated cDNA. After deep sequencing of cDNA, computational analysis yields flexibility scores for every base across the starting RNA population. The entire experimental procedure can be completed in ~5 d, and the sequencing and bioinformatics data analysis take an additional 4–5 d with no extensive computational skills required. Comparing in vivo and in vitro icSHAPE measurements can reveal in vivo RNA-binding protein imprints or facilitate the dissection of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. icSHAPE reactivities can additionally be used to constrain and improve RNA secondary structure prediction models. PMID:26766114

  8. Evolutionary conservation of sequence and secondary structures inCRISPR repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, Victor; Sorek, Rotem; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel class of direct repeats, separated by unique spacer sequences of similar length, that are present in {approx}40% of bacterial and all archaeal genomes analyzed to date. More than 40 gene families, called CRISPR-associated sequences (CAS), appear in conjunction with these repeats and are thought to be involved in the propagation and functioning of CRISPRs. It has been proposed that the CRISPR/CAS system samples, maintains a record of, and inactivates invasive DNA that the cell has encountered, and therefore constitutes a prokaryotic analog of an immune system. Here we analyze CRISPR repeats identified in 195 microbial genomes and show that they can be organized into multiple clusters based on sequence similarity. All individual repeats in any given cluster were inferred to form characteristic RNA secondary structure, ranging from non-existent to pronounced. Stable secondary structures included G:U base pairs and exhibited multiple compensatory base changes in the stem region, indicating evolutionary conservation and functional importance. We also show that the repeat-based classification corresponds to, and expands upon, a previously reported CAS gene-based classification including specific relationships between CRISPR and CAS subtypes.

  9. Secondary flow structures under simple harmonic inflow in a bent pipe model for curved arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Autumn; Seagrave, Penelope; Shu, Fangjun; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2010-11-01

    Inward centrifuging of fluid in the inviscid core of a 180 degree curved pipe leads to Lyne-type vortices under zero-mean harmonic oscillations, along with the formation of vortices in the Stokes' layer, that rotate in the same directional sense as their steady flow counterpart (Dean vortices). Under physiological conditions, the development of the Lyne-type vortices is believed to be influenced by the systolic pulse, and its associated rapid acceleration and deceleration. Experimental data acquired using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for three harmonic waveforms of different frequencies clarify the conditions under which Lyne vortices form. Multiple vortex pairs were observed for all waveforms and frequencies investigated, including Dean and Lyne-type vortex structures at a Womersley number of 4.22, much lower than previously reported. Hence, frequency alone is not an adequate governing parameter to characterize secondary flow structures in pulsatile flows. A regime map of the secondary flow was sought by using an acceleration-based parameter and the Dean number.

  10. A Tool Preference Choice Method for RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by SVM with Statistical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hor, Chiou-Yi; Yang, Chang-Biau; Chang, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Chiou-Ting; Chen, Hung-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The Prediction of RNA secondary structures has drawn much attention from both biologists and computer scientists. Many useful tools have been developed for this purpose. These tools have their individual strengths and weaknesses. As a result, based on support vector machines (SVM), we propose a tool choice method which integrates three prediction tools: pknotsRG, RNAStructure, and NUPACK. Our method first extracts features from the target RNA sequence, and adopts two information-theoretic feature selection methods for feature ranking. We propose a method to combine feature selection and classifier fusion in an incremental manner. Our test data set contains 720 RNA sequences, where 225 pseudoknotted RNA sequences are obtained from PseudoBase, and 495 nested RNA sequences are obtained from RNA SSTRAND. The method serves as a preprocessing way in analyzing RNA sequences before the RNA secondary structure prediction tools are employed. In addition, the performance of various configurations is subject to statistical tests to examine their significance. The best base-pair accuracy achieved is 75.5%, which is obtained by the proposed incremental method, and is significantly higher than 68.8%, which is associated with the best predictor, pknotsRG. PMID:23641141

  11. Influence of microenvironment and liposomal formulation on secondary structure and bilayer interaction of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Witoonsaridsilp, Wasu; Panyarachun, Busaba; Sarisuta, Narong; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2010-02-01

    The conformation of peptide and protein drugs in various microenvironments and the interaction with drug carriers such as liposomes are of considerable interest. In this study the influence of microenvironments such as pH, salt concentration, and surface charge on the secondary structure of a model protein, lysozyme, either in solution or entrapped in liposomes with various molar ratios of phosphatidylcholine (PC):cholesterol (Chol) was investigated. It was found that entrapment efficiency was more pronounced in negatively charged liposomes than in non-charged liposomes, which was independent of Chol content and pH of hydration medium. The occurrence of aggregation, decrease in zeta potential, and alteration of 31P NMR chemical shift of negatively charged lysozyme liposomes compared to blank liposomes suggested that the electrostatic interaction plays a major role in protein-lipid binding. Addition of sodium chloride could impair the neutralizing ability of positively charged lysozyme on negatively charged membrane via chloride counterion binding. Neither lysozyme in various buffer solutions with sodium chloride nor that entrapped in liposomes showed any significant change in their secondary structures. However, significant decrease in alpha-helical content of lysozyme in non-charged liposomes at higher pH and salt concentrations was discovered. PMID:19880295

  12. Secondary Structure Prediction of Protein Constructs Using Random Incremental Truncation and Vacuum-Ultraviolet CD Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pukáncsik, Mária; Orbán, Ágnes; Nagy, Kinga; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Maurin, Damien; Hart, Darren; Kézsmárki, István; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel uracil-DNA degrading protein factor (termed UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster with no significant structural and functional homology to other uracil-DNA binding or processing factors. Determination of the 3D structure of UDE is excepted to provide key information on the description of the molecular mechanism of action of UDE catalysis, as well as in general uracil-recognition and nuclease action. Towards this long-term aim, the random library ESPRIT technology was applied to the novel protein UDE to overcome problems in identifying soluble expressing constructs given the absence of precise information on domain content and arrangement. Nine constructs of UDE were chosen to decipher structural and functional relationships. Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy was performed to define the secondary structure content and location within UDE and its truncated variants. The quantitative analysis demonstrated exclusive α-helical content for the full-length protein, which is preserved in the truncated constructs. Arrangement of α-helical bundles within the truncated protein segments suggested new domain boundaries which differ from the conserved motifs determined by sequence-based alignment of UDE homologues. Here we demonstrate that the combination of ESPRIT and VUVCD spectroscopy provides a new structural description of UDE and confirms that the truncated constructs are useful for further detailed functional studies. PMID:27273007

  13. SeqFold: genome-scale reconstruction of RNA secondary structure integrating high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Snyder, Michael P; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-02-01

    We present an integrative approach, SeqFold, that combines high-throughput RNA structure profiling data with computational prediction for genome-scale reconstruction of RNA secondary structures. SeqFold transforms experimental RNA structure information into a structure preference profile (SPP) and uses it to select stable RNA structure candidates representing the structure ensemble. Under a high-dimensional classification framework, SeqFold efficiently matches a given SPP to the most likely cluster of structures sampled from the Boltzmann-weighted ensemble. SeqFold is able to incorporate diverse types of RNA structure profiling data, including parallel analysis of RNA structure (PARS), selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE-Seq), fragmentation sequencing (FragSeq) data generated by deep sequencing, and conventional SHAPE data. Using the known structures of a wide range of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs as benchmarks, we demonstrate that SeqFold outperforms or matches existing approaches in accuracy and is more robust to noise in experimental data. Application of SeqFold to reconstruct the secondary structures of the yeast transcriptome reveals the diverse impact of RNA secondary structure on gene regulation, including translation efficiency, transcription initiation, and protein-RNA interactions. SeqFold can be easily adapted to incorporate any new types of high-throughput RNA structure profiling data and is widely applicable to analyze RNA structures in any transcriptome. PMID:23064747

  14. 5-Azacytidine and RNA secondary structure increase the retrovirus mutation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, V K; Temin, H M

    1992-01-01

    A broad spectrum of mutations occurs at a high rate during a single round of retrovirus replication (V.K. Pathak and H. M. Temin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6019-6023, 1990). We have now determined that this high rate of spontaneous mutation can be further increased by 5-azacytidine (AZC) treatment or by regions of potential RNA secondary structure. We found a 13-fold increase in the mutation rate after AZC treatment of retrovirus-producing cells and target cells. The AZC-induced substitutions were located at the same target sites as previously identified spontaneous substitutions. The concordance of the AZC-induced and spontaneous substitutions indicates the presence of reverse transcription "pause sites," where the growing point is error prone. An analysis of nucleotides that neighbored substitutions revealed that transversions occur primarily by transient template misalignment, whereas transitions occur primarily by misincorporation. We also introduced a 34-bp potential stem-loop structure as an in-frame insertion within a lacZ alpha gene that was inserted in the long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 region and determined whether this potential secondary structure increased the rate of retrovirus mutations. We found a threefold increase in the retrovirus mutation rate. Fifty-seven of 96 mutations were deletions associated with the potential stem-loop. We also determined that these deletion mutations occurred primarily during minus-strand DNA synthesis by comparing the frequencies of mutations in recovered provirus plasmids containing both LTRs and in provirus plasmids containing only one LTR. PMID:1373201

  15. Impact of Microscale and Pilot-Scale Freeze-Drying on Protein Secondary Structures: Sucrose Formulations of Lysozyme and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Leskinen, Jari T T; Molnár, Ferdinand; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-11-01

    Microscale (MS) freeze-drying offers rapid process cycles for early-stage formulation development. The effects of the MS approach on the secondary structures of two model proteins, lysozyme and catalase, were compared with pilot-scale (PS) vial freeze-drying. The secondary structures were assessed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Formulations were made with increasing sucrose-protein ratios. Freeze-drying protocols involved regular cooling without thermal treatment and annealing with MS and PS equipment, and cooling rate variations with the MS. Principal component analysis of smoothed second-derivative amide I spectra revealed sucrose-protein ratio-dependent shifts toward α-helical structures. Transferability of sucrose-protein formulations from MS to PS vial freeze-drying was evidenced at regular cooling rates. Local differences in protein secondary structures between the bottom and top of sucrose-catalase samples could be detected at the sucrose-catalase ratios of 1 and 2, this being related to the initial filling height and ice crystal morphology. Annealing revealed temperature, protein, formulation, and sample location-dependent effects influencing surface morphology at the top, or causing protein secondary structure perturbation at the bottom. With the MS approach, protein secondary structure differences at different cooling rates could be detected for sucrose-lysozyme samples at the sucrose-lysozyme ratio of 1. PMID:26305147

  16. Combining sequence-based prediction methods and circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopic data to improve protein secondary structure determinations

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Jonathan G; Janes, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of sequence-based methods exist for protein secondary structure prediction. Protein secondary structures can also be determined experimentally from circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopic data using empirical analysis methods. It has been proposed that comparable accuracy can be obtained from sequence-based predictions as from these biophysical measurements. Here we have examined the secondary structure determination accuracies of sequence prediction methods with the empirically determined values from the spectroscopic data on datasets of proteins for which both crystal structures and spectroscopic data are available. Results In this study we show that the sequence prediction methods have accuracies nearly comparable to those of spectroscopic methods. However, we also demonstrate that combining the spectroscopic and sequences techniques produces significant overall improvements in secondary structure determinations. In addition, combining the extra information content available from synchrotron radiation circular dichroism data with sequence methods also shows improvements. Conclusion Combining sequence prediction with experimentally determined spectroscopic methods for protein secondary structure content significantly enhances the accuracy of the overall results obtained. PMID:18197968

  17. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Secondary Structure Analysis Reveals a Common Core throughout the Anaerobic Fungi (Neocallimastigomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Koetschan, Christian; Kittelmann, Sandra; Lu, Jingli; Al-Halbouni, Djamila; Jarvis, Graeme N.; Müller, Tobias; Wolf, Matthias; Janssen, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is a popular barcode marker for fungi and in particular the ITS1 has been widely used for the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). A good number of validated reference sequences of isolates as well as a large number of environmental sequences are available in public databases. Its highly variable nature predisposes the ITS1 for low level phylogenetics; however, it complicates the establishment of reproducible alignments and the reconstruction of stable phylogenetic trees at higher taxonomic levels (genus and above). Here, we overcame these problems by proposing a common core secondary structure of the ITS1 of the anaerobic fungi employing a Hidden Markov Model-based ITS1 sequence annotation and a helix-wise folding approach. We integrated the additional structural information into phylogenetic analyses and present for the first time an automated sequence-structure-based taxonomy of the ITS1 of the anaerobic fungi. The methodology developed is transferable to the ITS1 of other fungal groups, and the robust taxonomy will facilitate and improve high-throughput anaerobic fungal community structure analysis of samples from various environments. PMID:24663345

  18. Structure of cellulose-deficient secondary cell walls from the irx3 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ha, Marie-Ann; MacKinnon, Iain M; Sturcová, Adriana; Apperley, David C; McCann, Maureen C; Turner, Simon R; Jarvis, Michael C

    2002-09-01

    In the Arabidopsis mutant irx3, truncation of the AtCesA7 gene encoding a xylem-specific cellulose synthase results in reduced cellulose synthesis in the affected xylem cells and collapse of mature xylem vessels. Here we describe spectroscopic experiments to determine whether any cellulose, normal or abnormal, remained in the walls of these cells and whether there were consequent effects on other cell-wall polysaccharides. Xylem cell walls from irx3 and its wild-type were prepared by anatomically specific isolation and were examined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and FTIR microscopy. The affected cell walls of irx3 contained low levels of crystalline cellulose, probably associated with primary cell walls. There was no evidence that crystalline cellulose was replaced by less ordered glucans. From the molecular mobility of xylans and lignin it was deduced that these non-cellulosic polymers were cross-linked together in both irx3 and the wild-type. The disorder previously observed in the spatial pattern of non-cellulosic polymer deposition in the secondary walls of irx3 xylem could not be explained by any alteration in the structure or cross-linking of these polymers and may be attributed directly to the absence of cellulose microfibrils which, in the wild-type, scaffold the organisation of the other polymers into a coherent secondary cell wall. PMID:12165296

  19. Suppression of secondary electron yield by micro-porous array structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, M.; He, Y. N.; Hu, S. G.; Wang, R.; Hu, T. C.; Yang, J.; Cui, W. Z.

    2013-02-21

    We study secondary electron yield (SEY) suppression for metal materials using a roughened surface with a micro-porous array. First, we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the electron trajectory in a single cylindrical well using a phenomenological model of secondary electron emission and the SEY suppression efficiency of a micro-porous array. The simulation results show that the SEY of a roughened surface is affected significantly by the aspect ratio of the micro-pores and the surface porosity of the metal plate. Then, to verify the simulation results, we produce a micro-porous array on metal plates using photolithography and measure their SEYs. We show that the micro-porous array structure can efficiently suppress the SEY of metal materials, and the measurements agree quantitatively with the corresponding simulation results. Finally, we derive an analytical formula to evaluate easily the SEY suppression efficiency of the Ag micro-porous array. In total, the micro-porous array proposed in this paper offers an alternative to SEY suppression in related areas such as multipactor effects in satellite payloads or electron cloud effects in accelerators.

  20. Role of secondary long wavelength structures in the saturation of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2008-11-15

    The dynamics of secondary long wavelength structures (LWSs) in electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are investigated by performing gyrofluid simulations and modeling analyses in a slab geometry with an emphasis of the underlying nonlinear interaction processes. It is shown that the back-reaction of the secondary LWS on the ambient fluctuations essentially contributes to saturating ETG instability and limiting the electron transport. The LWS is nonlinearly generated mainly through the beating of the most unstable ETG modes, even a weak modulation instability. The back-reaction is identified as the enhanced stabilization of the ETG modes due to the streamer-type feature of the LWS, which dominantly produces a local poloidal mode coupling among unstable and highly damped spectral components to form a global mode, besides the suppression effect of the LWS due to the radial shearing decorrelation and/or the radial mode coupling. Finally, the correspondence between the LWS in the slab model and the quasimode observed in toroidal ETG simulation [Z. Lin et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005)] and the importance of the nonlinear mode coupling in the multiscale turbulence interaction are discussed.

  1. Poly(L-lysine) and Clay Nanocomposite with Desired Matrix Secondary Structure: Effects of Polypeptide Molecular Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Hule,R.; Pochan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocomposites (NC) were formed using cationic poly(L-lysine) (PLL), a semicrystalline polypeptide, that was reinforced by sodium montmorillonite (MMT) clay via solution intercalation technique. By varying solution conditions such as pH, temperature, and polypeptide concentration in the presence of clay platelets, the secondary structure of PLL was controllably altered into {alpha}-helical, {beta}-sheet, and random coil. The high molecular weight polypeptide shows a strong propensity to fold into the {beta}-sheet structure when cast as films, irrespective of the initial secondary structure in solution. Nanocomposite local morphology confirms intercalated MMT platelets with PLL over a wide range of compositions.

  2. Design and analysis of supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror on a space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Chai, Wenyi; Feng, Liangjie; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Wei; Fan, Xuewu

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical stability is a significant segment for an on-axis space telescope to assure its assembly accuracy as well as the image quality in the rigorous space environment, supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a main structure of the on-axis space telescope must be designed reasonably to meet the mission requirements of the space telescope. Meanwhile, in view of the limitation of the satellite launching cost, it is necessary to reduce the weight and power compensation during the supporting structure design based on the satisfaction of telescope performance. Two types of supporting structure for a space telescope are designed, one is three-tripod structure which has three tripods located on the optical bench to support the secondary mirror assemblies and keep the distance between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror, the other is barrel supporting structure which includes a tube and a secondary mirror support with four spider struts. To compare the mechanical performance and launching cost of the two kinds of supporting structure, both structural and thermal analysis model are established. The analysis results indicates that the three-tripod support is lighter, has better mechanical performance and needs less power compensation than the barrel support.

  3. Factors that Affect Mathematics-Science (MS) Scores in the Secondary Education Institutional Exam: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Discovering what determines students' success in the Secondary Education Institutional Exam is very important to parents and it is also critical for students, teachers, directors, and researchers. Research was carried out by studying the related literature and structural equation modeling techniques. A structural model was created that consisted…

  4. Secondary structure of proteins analyzed ex vivo in vascular wall in diabetic animals using FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Majzner, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-11-12

    In recent years many methods for ex vivo tissue analysis or diagnosis of diseases have been applied, including infrared absorption spectroscopy. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption microspectroscopy allows the simultaneous monitoring of the content of various chemical compounds in tissues with both high selectivity and resolution. Imaging of tissue samples in very short time can be performed using a spectrometer equipped with a Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector. Additionally, a detection of minor components or subtle changes associated with the functional status of a tissue sample is possible when advanced methods of data analysis, such as chemometric techniques, are applied. Monitoring of secondary structures of proteins has already proved to be useful in the analysis of animal tissues in disease states. The aim of this work was to build a mathematical model based on FT-IR measurements for the prediction of alterations in the content of secondary structures of proteins analyzed by FT-IR in the vascular wall of diabetic animals. For that purpose a spectral database of proteins of known crystallography and secondary structures was assembled. Thirty-seven proteins were measured by means of two FT-IR techniques: transflection and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The obtained model was tested on cross-sections of rat tail, for which the content of proteins and their secondary structures was well characterized. Then, the model was applied for the detection of possible alterations in the secondary structures of proteins in the vascular wall of diabetic rats and mice. The obtained results suggest a prominent increase in E- and S-structures and a decrease in the content of H-structures in the vascular wall from diabetic mice and rats. FT-IR-based studies of secondary structures of proteins may be a novel approach to study complex processes ongoing in the vascular wall. The obtained results are satisfactory; however, the existing limitations of the method are

  5. Class Anxiety in Secondary Education: Exploring Structural Relations with Perceived Control, Engagement, Disaffection, and Performance.

    PubMed

    González, Antonio; Faílde Garrido, José María; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda; Carrera Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between class-related anxiety with perceived control, teacher-reported behavioral engagement, behavioral disaffection, and academic performance. Participants were 355 compulsory secondary students (9th and 10th grades; Mean age = 15.2 years; SD = 1.8 years). Structural equation models revealed performance was predicted by perceived control, anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Perceived control predicted anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Anxiety predicted disaffection and engagement, and partially mediated the effects from control on disaffection (β = -.277, p < .005; CI = -.378, -.197) and engagement (β = .170, p < .002; CI = .103 .258). The negative association between anxiety and performance was mediated by engagement and disaffection (β = -.295, p < .002; CI = -.439, -.182). Anxiety, engagement, and disaffection mediated the effects of control on performance (β = .352, p < .003; CI = .279, .440). The implications of these results are discussed in the light of current theory and educational interventions. PMID:26364673

  6. Phylogenetic study of nine species of freshwater monogeneans using secondary structure and motif prediction from India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to identify and validate monogenean species from different piscine hosts using molecular tools. Nine species of freshwater monogeneans were collected from gills and skin of freshwater fishes at Hastinapur, Meerut, India. After microscopic examination, molecular analysis was performed utilizing 28S gene marker. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the validation and systematic position of these nine different monogeneans belongs to the Dactylogyridae and Gyrodactylidae families. The findings also confirm that the 28S rDNA sequence is highly conserved and may prove to be useful in taxonomic studies of parasitic platyhelminthes. Besides this, the study is also supplemented by molecular morphometrics that is based on 28S secondary structure homologies of nine monogenean species. The data indicate that 28S motifs i.e., ≤ 50bp in size can also be considered a promising tool for monogenean species identification and their validation. PMID:23144541

  7. Secondary-structure characterization by far-UV CD of highly purified uncoupling protein 1 expressed in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Brans, Alain; Sluse-Goffart, Claudine; Matagne, André; Sluse, Francis E

    2004-01-01

    The rat UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane carrier involved in energy dissipation and heat production. We expressed UCP1 carrying a His6 epitope at its C-terminus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. The recombinant-tagged UCP1 was purified by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography to homogeneity (>95%). This made it suitable for subsequent biophysical characterization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments showed that n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside-solubilized UCP1-His6 retained its PN (purine nucleotide)-binding capacity. The far-UV CD spectrum of the functional protein clearly indicated the predominance of alpha-helices in the UCP1 secondary structure. The UCP1 secondary structure exhibited an alpha-helical degree of approx. 68%, which is at least 25% higher than the previously reported estimations based on computational predictions. Moreover, the helical content remained unchanged in free and PN-loaded UCP1. A homology model of the first repeat of UCP1, built on the basis of X-ray-solved close parent, the ADP/ATP carrier, strengthened the CD experimental results. Our experimental and computational results indicate that (i) alpha-helices are the major component of UCP1 secondary structure; (ii) PN-binding mechanism does not involve significant secondary-structure rearrangement; and (iii) UCP1 shares similar secondary-structure characteristics with the ADP/ATP carrier, at least for the first repeat. PMID:14766012

  8. Effect of Secondary Cooling Conditions on Solidification Structure and Central Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast High-Carbon Rectangular Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jie; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    Solidification structures of high carbon rectangular billet with a size of 180 mm × 240 mm in different secondary cooling conditions were simulated using cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) coupling model. The adequacy of the model was compared with the simulated and the actual macrostructures of 82B steel. Effects of the secondary cooling water intensity on solidification structures including the equiaxed grain ratio and the equiaxed grain compactness were discussed. It was shown that the equiaxed grain ratio and the equiaxed grain compactness changed in the opposite direction at different secondary cooling water intensities. Increasing the secondary cooling water intensity from 0.9 or 1.1 to 1.3 L/kg could improve the equiaxed grain compactness and decrease the equiaxed grain ratio. Besides, the industrial test was conducted to investigate the effect of different secondary cooling water intensities on the center carbon macrosegregation of 82B steel. The optimum secondary cooling water intensity was 0.9 L/kg, while the center carbon segregation degree was 1.10. The relationship between solidification structure and center carbon segregation was discussed based on the simulation results and the industrial test.

  9. A 3D-1D substitution matrix for protein fold recognition that includes predicted secondary structure of the sequence.

    PubMed

    Rice, D W; Eisenberg, D

    1997-04-11

    In protein fold recognition, a probe amino acid sequence is compared to a library of representative folds of known structure to identify a structural homolog. In cases where the probe and its homolog have clear sequence similarity, traditional residue substitution matrices have been used to predict the structural similarity. In cases where the probe is sequentially distant from its homolog, we have developed a (7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3) 3D-1D substitution matrix (called H3P2), calculated from a database of 119 structural pairs. Members of each pair share a similar fold, but have sequence identity less than 30%. Each probe sequence position is defined by one of seven residue classes and three secondary structure classes. Each homologous fold position is defined by one of seven residue classes, three secondary structure classes, and two burial classes. Thus the matrix is five-dimensional and contains 7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3 = 882 elements or 3D-1D scores. The first step in assigning a probe sequence to its homologous fold is the prediction of the three-state (helix, strand, coil) secondary structure of the probe; here we use the profile based neural network prediction of secondary structure (PHD) program. Then a dynamic programming algorithm uses the H3P2 matrix to align the probe sequence with structures in a representative fold library. To test the effectiveness of the H3P2 matrix a challenging, fold class diverse, and cross-validated benchmark assessment is used to compare the H3P2 matrix to the GONNET, PAM250, BLOSUM62 and a secondary structure only substitution matrix. For distantly related sequences the H3P2 matrix detects more homologous structures at higher reliabilities than do these other substitution matrices, based on sensitivity versus specificity plots (or SENS-SPEC plots). The added efficacy of the H3P2 matrix arises from its information on the statistical preferences for various sequence-structure environment combinations from very distantly related proteins. It

  10. Content-Related Knowledge of Biology Teachers from Secondary Schools: Structure and learning opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großschedl, Jörg; Mahler, Daniela; Kleickmann, Thilo; Harms, Ute

    2014-09-01

    Teachers' content-related knowledge is a key factor influencing the learning progress of students. Different models of content-related knowledge have been proposed by educational researchers; most of them take into account three categories: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge. As there is no consensus about the empirical separability (i.e. empirical structure) of content-related knowledge yet, a total of 134 biology teachers from secondary schools completed three tests which were to capture each of the three categories of content-related knowledge. The empirical structure of content-related knowledge was analyzed by Rasch analysis, which suggests content-related knowledge to be composed of (1) content knowledge, (2) pedagogical content knowledge, and (3) curricular knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge and curricular knowledge are highly related (rlatent = .70). The latent correlations between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (rlatent = .48)-and curricular knowledge, respectively (rlatent = .35)-are moderate to low (all ps < .001). Beyond the empirical structure of content-related knowledge, different learning opportunities for teachers were investigated with regard to their relationship to content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge acquisition. Our results show that an in-depth training in teacher education, professional development, and teacher self-study are positively related to particular categories of content-related knowledge. Furthermore, our results indicate that teaching experience is negatively related to curricular knowledge, compared to no significant relationship with content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  11. Mod-seq: A High-Throughput Method for Probing RNA Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yizhu; May, Gemma E; Joel McManus, C

    2015-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that large RNA molecules, especially long noncoding RNAs, function in almost all gene regulatory processes (Cech & Steitz, 2014). Many large RNAs appear to be structural scaffolds for assembly of important RNA/protein complexes. However, the structures of most large cellular RNA molecules are currently unknown (Hennelly & Sanbonmatsu, 2012). While chemical probing can reveal single-stranded regions of RNA, traditional approaches to identify sites of chemical modification are time consuming. Mod-seq is a high-throughput method used to map chemical modification sites on RNAs of any size, including complex mixtures of RNA. In this protocol, we describe preparation of Mod-seq high-throughput sequencing libraries from chemically modified RNA. We also describe a software package "Mod-seeker," which is a compilation of scripts written in Python, for the analysis of Mod-seq data. Mod-seeker returns statistically significant modification sites, which can then be used to aid in secondary structure prediction. PMID:26068740

  12. Resolving detailed molecular structures in complex organic mixtures and modeling their secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman-Rendall, Kevin A. S.; Zhuang, Yang R.; Amirav, Aviv; Chan, Arthur W. H.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) remains an ongoing challenge towards developing detailed and accurate inputs for modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Traditional techniques based on gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry induce excessive fragmentation, making it difficult to speciate and quantify isomers precisely. The goal of this study is to identify individual organic isomers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beam (SMB-GC/MS, also known as GC/MS with Cold EI) and to incorporate speciated isomers into an SOA model that accounts for the specific structures elucidated. Two samples containing atmospherically relevant UCMs are analyzed. The relative isomer distributions exhibit remarkably consistent trends across a wide range of carbon numbers. Constitutional isomers of different alkanes are speciated and individually quantified as linear, branched - for the first time by position of branching - multiply branched, or unsaturated - by degree of ring substitution and number of rings. Relative amounts of exact molecular structures are used as input parameters in an SOA box model to study the effects of molecular structures on SOA yields and volatility evolution. Highly substituted cyclic, mono-substituted cyclic, and linear species have the highest SOA yields while branched alkanes formed the least SOA. The rate of functionalization of a representative UCM is found to be in agreement with current volatility basis set (VBS) parameterizations based on detailed knowledge of composition and known oxidation mechanisms, confirming the validity of VBS parameters currently used in air quality models.

  13. On The Dissolution Kinetics Of Positive Photoresists: The Secondary Structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Michael K.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Zampini, Anthony

    1987-08-01

    Dissolution kinetics of several model resins with well defined molecular structures were studied extensively. These include a pure m-cresol formaldehyde novolac resin and an alternating m,R-cresol novolac. Other phenolic materials, such as poly(4-hydroxy-styrene), were also examined. Secondary structures of these materials were predicted by molecular mechanics energy minimization techniques and corroborated by comparison with existing experimentally determined X-ray crystallographic data, where available. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment for simple systems lends credence to structural predictions for our model systems. The salient conformational features of these molecules are manifested in the variety of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions which influence strongly the dissolution properties of a given resin. Dissolution kinetics were studied as a function of cation type, developer ionic strength, normality and temperature. The results are explained in terms of the inter- and intramolecular interactions predicted for these resins. Finally we show results which indicate the utility of our model to the design of resist/developer systems.

  14. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-05-19

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation. PMID:25870416

  15. FPGA accelerator for protein secondary structure prediction based on the GOR algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein is an important molecule that performs a wide range of functions in biological systems. Recently, the protein folding attracts much more attention since the function of protein can be generally derived from its molecular structure. The GOR algorithm is one of the most successful computational methods and has been widely used as an efficient analysis tool to predict secondary structure from protein sequence. However, the execution time is still intolerable with the steep growth in protein database. Recently, FPGA chips have emerged as one promising application accelerator to accelerate bioinformatics algorithms by exploiting fine-grained custom design. Results In this paper, we propose a complete fine-grained parallel hardware implementation on FPGA to accelerate the GOR-IV package for 2D protein structure prediction. To improve computing efficiency, we partition the parameter table into small segments and access them in parallel. We aggressively exploit data reuse schemes to minimize the need for loading data from external memory. The whole computation structure is carefully pipelined to overlap the sequence loading, computing and back-writing operations as much as possible. We implemented a complete GOR desktop system based on an FPGA chip XC5VLX330. Conclusions The experimental results show a speedup factor of more than 430x over the original GOR-IV version and 110x speedup over the optimized version with multi-thread SIMD implementation running on a PC platform with AMD Phenom 9650 Quad CPU for 2D protein structure prediction. However, the power consumption is only about 30% of that of current general-propose CPUs. PMID:21342582

  16. Structural features of helical secondary structures and leucine-rich repeat superhelix in proteins as revealed by HELFIT analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Norio; Enkhbayar, Purevjav

    2012-09-01

    The HELFIT program determines the helical parameters - pitch, residues per turn (n), radius, and handedness - and p = rmsd / (N - 1)1/2 estimating helical regularity, where "rmsd" is the root mean square deviation from the best fit helix or superhelix and "N" is helix/superhelix length. Helical secondary structures - α-helix and 310-helix - and solenoid structures of leucine rich repeats (LRRs) in The Protein Data Bank (PDB) were analyzed by the HELFIT program. The results indicate that the definition of 310-helices in terms of average, uniform dihedral angles is not appropriate and that it is inherently unstable for a polypeptide to form an extended, regular 310-helix. The 310-helices observed in proteins are better referred to parahelices. A modification of the α-helix, termed the ω-helix, that has four residues in one turn of a helix, has been identified only in synthetic polypeptides. The results also demonstrate that the right-handed ω-helix occur really in proteins. The solenoid structures of LRR domains in brasinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), internalin J (InlJ), and internalin A (InlA) are well represented by a superhelix rather than by a circular arc.

  17. Differential flexibility of the secondary structures of lysozyme and the structure and ordering of surrounding water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2011-03-01

    We have performed an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of an aqueous solution of hen egg-white lysozyme at room temperature with explicit water molecules. Several analyses have been carried out to explore the differential flexibility of the secondary structural segments of the protein and the structure and ordering of water around them. It is found that the overall flexibility of the protein molecule is primarily controlled by few large-amplitude bistable motions exhibited by two coils; one connecting two α-helical segments in domain-1 and the other connecting a 310 helix and a β-sheet in domain-2 of the protein. The heterogeneous structuring of water around the segments of the protein has been found to depend on the degree of exposure of the segments to water. The ordering of water molecules around the protein segments and their tagged potential energies have been found to be anticorrelated with each other. Some of these findings can be verified by suitable experimental studies.

  18. Phylogenetic hypotheses of gorgoniid octocorals according to ITS2 and their predicted RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Catalina; Sánchez, Juan Armando

    2007-06-01

    Gorgoniid octocorals taxonomy (Cnidaria; Octocorallia; Gorgoniidae) includes diagnostic characters not well defined at the generic level, and based on the family diagnosis some species could be classified in either Gorgoniidae or Plexauridae. In this study, we used sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) and their predicted RNA secondary structure to both correct the alignment and reconstruct phylogenies using molecular morphometrics for 24 octocorals mostly from the Atlantic. ITS2 exhibited the six-helicoidal ring-model structure found in eukaryotes, and provided 38 parsimony-informative characters. The proposed phylogenies, though differing between sequence- and structure-base results, provided consistent support for several clades. Genera considered part of the polyphyletic genus Leptogorgia, such as Filigorgia, were distantly related to the former in all phylogenetic hypotheses. Main differences among the hypotheses consisted in the placement of Muriceopsis (previously considered from the Plexauridae family) and Filigorgia. Excluding Muriceopsis and an undescribed octocoral from Tobago, Plexaurella and Pterogorgia grouped together as a sister branch of Pinnigorgia spp. but long-branch attraction was evident for the grouping of Plexaurella nutans (another plexaurid) and Pterogorgia citrina. Unexpected results were the divergence between Caribbean genera, Gorgonia and Pseudopterogorgia, which were placed basal respect to Pacifigorgia and Leptogorgia (=Lophogorgia). ITS2 provided support to corroborate observations based on sclerite morphology: species with "capstan sclerites" (e.g., Pacifigorgia and Leptogorgia) were characterized by a long helix IV with one internal loop and a helix V with four internal loops; "scaphoid sclerites" had a predominantly long helix V if compared to helix IV; "asymmetric spiny sclerites" (Muriceopsis, Pinnigorgia and the undescribed octocoral) exhibited one or two lateral bulges in the V helix. Remarkably, Muriceopsis

  19. An infrared sensor analysing label-free the secondary structure of the Abeta peptide in presence of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Nabers, Andreas; Ollesch, Julian; Schartner, Jonas; Kötting, Carsten; Genius, Just; Haußmann, Ute; Klafki, Hans; Wiltfang, Jens; Gerwert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The secondary structure change of the Abeta peptide to beta-sheet was proposed as an early event in Alzheimer's disease. The transition may be used for diagnostics of this disease in an early state. We present an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) sensor modified with a specific antibody to extract minute amounts of Abeta peptide out of a complex fluid. Thereby, the Abeta peptide secondary structure was determined in its physiological aqueous environment by FTIR-difference-spectroscopy. The presented results open the door for label-free Alzheimer diagnostics in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. It can be extended to further neurodegenerative diseases. An immunologic ATR-FTIR sensor for Abeta peptide secondary structure analysis in complex fluids is presented. PMID:25808829

  20. Computing the partition function and sampling for saturated secondary structures of RNA, with respect to the Turner energy model.

    PubMed

    Waldispühl, J; Clote, P

    2007-03-01

    An RNA secondary structure is saturated if no base pairs can be added without violating the definition of secondary structure. Here we describe a new algorithm, RNAsat, which for a given RNA sequence a, an integral temperature 0 secondary structures of a which have exactly k base pairs, R is the universal gas constant and E(S) denotes the free energy with respect to the Turner nearest neighbor energy model. By dynamic programming, we compute Z(k)(T)simultaneously for all values of k in time O(n(5)) and space O(n(3)).Additionally, RNAsat computes the partition function Q(k)(T)(a) = SigmaSepsilonS(k)(a) exp(-E(S)/RT), where the sum is over all secondary structures of a which have k base pairs; the latter computation is performed simultaneously for all values of k in O(n(4)) time and O(n(3)) space. Lastly, using the partition function Z(k)(T) [resp. Q(k)(T)] with stochastic backtracking, RNAsat rigorously samples the collection of saturated secondary structures [resp. secondary structures] having k base pairs; for Q(k)(T) this provides a parametrized form of Sfold sampling (Ding and Lawrence, 2003). Using RNAsat, (i) we compute the ensemble free energy for saturated secondary structures having k base pairs, (ii) show cooperativity of the Turner model, (iii) demonstrate a temperature-dependent phase transition, (iv) illustrate the predictive advantage of RNAsat for precursor microRNA cel-mir-72 of C. elegans and for the pseudoknot PKB 00152 of Pseudobase (van Batenburg et al., 2001), (v) illustrate the RNA shapes (Giegerich et al., 2004) of sampled secondary structures [resp. saturated structures] having exactly k base pairs. A web server for RNAsat is under construction at bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAsat/. PMID:17456015

  1. ITS2 Secondary Structure Improves Discrimination between Medicinal “Mu Tong” Species when Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Shuo; Huang, Jianjun; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a promising species identification method, but it has proved difficult to find a standardized DNA marker in plant. Although the ITS/ITS2 RNA transcript has been proposed as the core barcode for seed plants, it has been criticized for being too conserved in some species to provide enough information or too variable in some species to align it within the different taxa ranks. We selected 30 individuals, representing 16 species and four families, to explore whether ITS2 can successfully resolve species in terms of secondary structure. Secondary structure was predicted using Mfold software and sequence-structure was aligned by MARNA. RNAstat software transformed the secondary structures into 28 symbol code data for maximum parsimony (MP) analysis. The results showed that the ITS2 structures in our samples had a common four-helix folding type with some shared motifs. This conserved structure facilitated the alignment of ambiguous sequences from divergent families. The structure alignment yielded a MP tree, in which most topological relationships were congruent with the tree constructed using nucleotide sequence data. When the data was combined, we obtained a well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny, in which individuals of a same species were clustered together into a monophyletic group. As a result, the different species that are often referred to as the herb “Mu tong” were successfully identified using short fragments of 250 bp ITS2 sequences, together with their secondary structure. Thus our analysis strengthens the potential of ITS2 as a promising DNA barcode because it incorporates valuable secondary structure information that will help improve discrimination between species. PMID:26132382

  2. Improved prediction of RNA secondary structure by integrating the free energy model with restraints derived from experimental probing data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Shi, Binbin; Ding, Xinqiang; Liu, Tong; Hu, Xihao; Yip, Kevin Y.; Yang, Zheng Rong; Mathews, David H.; Lu, Zhi John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several experimental techniques have emerged for probing RNA structures based on high-throughput sequencing. However, most secondary structure prediction tools that incorporate probing data are designed and optimized for particular types of experiments. For example, RNAstructure-Fold is optimized for SHAPE data, while SeqFold is optimized for PARS data. Here, we report a new RNA secondary structure prediction method, restrained MaxExpect (RME), which can incorporate multiple types of experimental probing data and is based on a free energy model and an MEA (maximizing expected accuracy) algorithm. We first demonstrated that RME substantially improved secondary structure prediction with perfect restraints (base pair information of known structures). Next, we collected structure-probing data from diverse experiments (e.g. SHAPE, PARS and DMS-seq) and transformed them into a unified set of pairing probabilities with a posterior probabilistic model. By using the probability scores as restraints in RME, we compared its secondary structure prediction performance with two other well-known tools, RNAstructure-Fold (based on a free energy minimization algorithm) and SeqFold (based on a sampling algorithm). For SHAPE data, RME and RNAstructure-Fold performed better than SeqFold, because they markedly altered the energy model with the experimental restraints. For high-throughput data (e.g. PARS and DMS-seq) with lower probing efficiency, the secondary structure prediction performances of the tested tools were comparable, with performance improvements for only a portion of the tested RNAs. However, when the effects of tertiary structure and protein interactions were removed, RME showed the highest prediction accuracy in the DMS-accessible regions by incorporating in vivo DMS-seq data. PMID:26170232

  3. Investigations of primary and secondary impact structures on the moon and laboratory experiments to study the ejecta of secondary particles. Ph.D. Thesis - Ruprecht Karl Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, B.

    1977-01-01

    Young lunar impact structures were investigated by using lunar orbiter, Apollo Metric and panorama photographs. Measurements on particularly homogeneous areas low in secondary craters made possible an expansion of primary crater distribution to small diameters. This is now sure for a range between 20m or = D or = 20km and this indicates that the size and velocity distribution of the impacting bodies in the last 3 billion years has been constant. A numerical approximation in the form of a 7th degree polynomial was obtained for the distribution.

  4. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  5. Investigating the secondary structures for long oligonucleotides using attenuated-total-reflection nanoplasmon-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Yu, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chen, S.-J.

    2007-09-01

    This study utilizes a nanoplasmon-enhanced Raman scattering based on the attenuated-total-reflection (ATR) method to investigate the secondary structures of long oligonucleotides and their influence on the DNA hybridization. It is found that the ring-breathing modes of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine in Raman fingerprint associated with three 60mer oligonucleotides with prominent secondary structures are lower than those observed for the two oligonucleotides with no obvious secondary structures. It is also determined that increasing the DNA hybridization temperature from 35 °C to 45 °C reduces secondary structure effects. The kinetics of biomolecular interaction analysis can be performed by using surface plasmons resonance biosensor, but the structural information of the oligonucleotides can not observed directly. The ATR-Raman spectrum can provide the structural information of the oligonucleotide monolayer on the sensing surface with the help of a silver patterned nanostructure film based on the finite-difference time-domain simulation and the e-beam lithography fabrication adapted as an ATR-Raman active substrate.

  6. Protein-associated water and secondary structure effect removal of blood proteins from metallic substrates.

    PubMed

    Anand, Gaurav; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Belfort, Georges

    2011-03-01

    Removing adsorbed protein from metals has significant health and industrial consequences. There are numerous protein-adsorption studies using model self-assembled monolayers or polymeric substrates but hardly any high-resolution measurements of adsorption and removal of proteins on industrially relevant transition metals. Surgeons and ship owners desire clean metal surfaces to reduce transmission of disease via surgical instruments and minimize surface fouling (to reduce friction and corrosion), respectively. A major finding of this work is that, besides hydrophobic interaction adhesion energy, water content in an adsorbed protein layer and secondary structure of proteins determined the access and hence ability to remove adsorbed proteins from metal surfaces with a strong alkaline-surfactant solution (NaOH and 5 mg/mL SDS in PBS at pH 11). This is demonstrated with three blood proteins (bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulin, and fibrinogen) and four transition metal substrates and stainless steel (platinum (Pt), gold (Au), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), and 316 grade stainless steel (SS)). All the metallic substrates were checked for chemical contaminations like carbon and sulfur and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). While Pt and Au surfaces were oxide-free (fairly inert elements), W, Ti, and SS substrates were associated with native oxide. Difference measurements between a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) provided a measure of the water content in the protein-adsorbed layers. Hydrophobic adhesion forces, obtained with atomic force microscopy, between the proteins and the metals correlated with the amount of the adsorbed protein-water complex. Thus, the amount of protein adsorbed decreased with Pt, Au, W, Ti and SS, in this order. Neither sessile contact angle nor surface roughness of the metal substrates was useful as predictors here. All three globular proteins

  7. Determination of Endosperm Protein Secondary Structure in Hard Wheat Breeding Lines using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bonwell,E.; Fisher, T.; Fritz, A.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01

    One molecular aspect of mature hard wheat protein quality for breadmaking is the relative amount of endosperm protein in the a-helix form compared with that in other secondary structure forms including {beta}-sheet. Modeling of a-helix and {beta}-sheet absorption bands that contribute to the amide I band at 1650 cm-1 was applied to more than 1500 spectra in this study. The microscopic view of wheat endosperm is dominated by many large starch granules with protein in between. The spectrum produced from in situ microspectroscopy of this mixture is dominated by carbohydrate bands from the large starch granules that fill up the field. The high spatial resolution achievable with synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enables revealing good in situ spectra of the protein located interstitially. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic mapping of 4 {mu}m thick frozen sections of endosperm in the subaleurone region provides spectra from a large number of pixels. Pixels with protein-dominated spectra are sorted out from among adjacent pixels to minimize the starch absorption and scattering contributions. Subsequent data treatment to extract information from the amide I band requires a high signal to noise ratio. Although spectral interference of the carbohydrate band on the amide band is not a problem, the scattering produced by the large starch granules diminishes the signal to noise ratio throughout the spectrum. High density mapping was done on beamlines U2B and U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Mapping with a single masked spot size of 5.5 {mu}m diameter or confocal 5 {mu}m x 5 {mu}m spot size, respectively, on the two beamlines used produced spectra for new breeding lines under current consideration. Appropriate data treatment allows calculation of a numerical estimate of the a-helix population relative to other secondary protein structures from the position and shape of the amide I absorption band. Current

  8. Determination of Endosperm Protein Secondary Structure in Hard Wheat Breeding Lines using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Bonwell, E; Fritz, T; Fritz, A

    2008-01-01

    One molecular aspect of mature hard wheat protein quality for breadmaking is the relative amount of endosperm protein in the {alpha}-helix form compared with that in other secondary structure forms including {beta}-sheet. Modeling of {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet absorption bands that contribute to the amide I band at 1650 cm{sup -1} was applied to more than 1500 spectra in this study. The microscopic view of wheat endosperm is dominated by many large starch granules with protein in between. The spectrum produced from in situ microspectroscopy of this mixture is dominated by carbohydrate bands from the large starch granules that fill up the field. The high spatial resolution achievable with synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enables revealing good in situ spectra of the protein located interstitially. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic mapping of 4 {mu}m thick frozen sections of endosperm in the subaleurone region provides spectra from a large number of pixels. Pixels with protein-dominated spectra are sorted out from among adjacent pixels to minimize the starch absorption and scattering contributions. Subsequent data treatment to extract information from the amide I band requires a high signal to noise ratio. Although spectral interference of the carbohydrate band on the amide band is not a problem, the scattering produced by the large starch granules diminishes the signal to noise ratio throughout the spectrum. High density mapping was done on beamlines U2B and U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Mapping with a single masked spot size of 5.5 {mu}m diameter or confocal 5 {mu}mX5{mu}m spot size, respectively, on the two beamlines used produced spectra for new breeding lines under current consideration. Appropriate data treatment allows calculation of a numerical estimate of the {alpha}-helix population relative to other secondary protein structures from the position and shape of the amide I

  9. Fine Structure in the Secondary Electron Emission Peak for Diamond Crystal with (100) Negative Electron Affinity Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnin, V. M.; Krainsky, I. L.

    1998-01-01

    A fine structure was discovered in the low-energy peak of the secondary electron emission spectra of the diamond surface with negative electron affinity. We studied this structure for the (100) surface of the natural type-IIb diamond crystal. We have found that the low-energy peak consists of a total of four maxima. The relative energy positions of three of them could be related to the electron energy minima near the bottom of the conduction band. The fourth peak, having the lowest energy, was attributed to the breakup of the bulk exciton at the surface during the process of secondary electron emission.

  10. Prediction of protein secondary structure based on residue pair types and conformational states using dynamic programming algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Parto, Sahar; Arab, Shahriar; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2005-06-20

    We have used a statistical approach for protein secondary structure prediction based on information theory and simultaneously taking into consideration pairwise residue types and conformational states. Since the prediction of residue secondary structure by one residue window sliding make ambiguity in state prediction, we used a dynamic programming algorithm to find the path with maximum score. A score system for residue pairs in particular conformations is derived for adjacent neighbors up to ten residue apart in sequence. The three state overall per-residue accuracy, Q3, of this method in a jackknife test with dataset created from PDBSELECT is more than 70%. PMID:15936021

  11. DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Adam F.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Rask, Thomas S.; Lisby, Michael; Salanti, Ali; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Carter, Richard; Deitsch, Kirk W.; Theander, Thor G.; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Arnot, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens undergo antigenic variation to counter host immune defense mechanisms. In Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal of human malaria parasites, switching of var gene expression results in alternating expression of the adhesion proteins of the Plasmodium falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 class on the infected erythrocyte surface. Recombination clearly generates var diversity, but the nature and control of the genetic exchanges involved remain unclear. By experimental and bioinformatic identification of recombination events and genome-wide recombination hotspots in var genes, we show that during the parasite’s sexual stages, ectopic recombination between isogenous var paralogs occurs near low folding free energy DNA 50-mers and that these sequences are heavily concentrated at the boundaries of regions encoding individual Plasmodium falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 structural domains. The recombinogenic potential of these 50-mers is not parasite-specific because these sequences also induce recombination when transferred to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic cross data suggest that DNA secondary structures (DSS) act as inducers of recombination during DNA replication in P. falciparum sexual stages, and that these DSS-regulated genetic exchanges generate functional and diverse P. falciparum adhesion antigens. DSS-induced recombination may represent a common mechanism for optimizing the evolvability of virulence gene families in pathogens. PMID:24253306

  12. Secondary structure and conformational change of mushroom polyphenol oxidase during thermosonication treatment by using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baltacıoğlu, Hande; Bayındırlı, Alev; Severcan, Feride

    2017-01-01

    To understand the conformational changes of mushroom PPO, the secondary structural change of the enzyme during thermosonication treatment at different power (60, 80 and 100%), temperature (20-60°C) and time (0-30min) combinations was investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy and compared with the change in enzyme activity. The enzyme inactivation higher than 99% was obtained at 100% amplitude at 60°C for 10min. FTIR studies showed that marked spectral changes were noted after ultrasound treatment at 20°C. The α-helix and β-sheet contents decreased, while aggregated β-sheet, turns and random coil contents increased as temperature increased up to 60°C during thermosonication treatment for 10min indicating protein denaturation. Aggregated bands located at 1683 and 1616cm(-1) became evident after ultrasound treatment at 40°C. When temperature was lowered back to 25°C, from ultrasound treatment at 60°C, these bands were still observed, indicating the irreversible change in the structure. PMID:27507504

  13. Secondary flow structure from stent-induced perturbations in a bent pipe model for curved arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Fangjun; Glenn, Autumn; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2010-11-01

    Secondary flow structures were investigated in a 180-degree circular bend under physiological (pulsatile) flow conditions with a stent model installed upstream of the bend. Upstream Reynolds number ranged from 200 to 1400 and the cardiac cycle period was scaled to match the physiological Womersley number, Wo=4.2. Experimental data were acquired using 2-D PIV at various cross-sectional planes along the bend. Similar to the results in absence of the stent model, symmetric counter-rotating vortex pairs were observed to develop during the cardiac cycle. In addition, transient unstable flow was initiated at the deceleration phase of the systolic peak (t/T=0.21). This complex flow is mainly attributable to perturbations induced by the stent model. It is characterized by breakdown of Dean- and Lyne-type vortices into various multiple-scale vortices. The phase-averaged flow fields were analyzed using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to gain further insight regarding the structural features of the flow.

  14. The influence of viral RNA secondary structure on interactions with innate host cell defences

    PubMed Central

    Witteveldt, Jeroen; Blundell, Richard; Maarleveld, Joris J.; McFadden, Nora; Evans, David J.; Simmonds, Peter

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses infecting vertebrates differ fundamentally in their ability to establish persistent infections with markedly different patterns of transmission, disease mechanisms and evolutionary relationships with their hosts. Although interactions with host innate and adaptive responses are complex and persistence mechanisms likely multi-factorial, we previously observed associations between bioinformatically predicted RNA secondary formation in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses with their in vivo fitness and persistence. To analyse this interactions functionally, we transfected fibroblasts with non-replicating, non-translated RNA transcripts from RNA viral genomes with differing degrees of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS). Single-stranded RNA transcripts induced interferon-β mediated though RIG-I and PKR activation, the latter associated with rapid induction of antiviral stress granules. A striking inverse correlation was observed between induction of both cellular responses with transcript RNA structure formation that was independent of both nucleotide composition and sequence length. The consistent inability of cells to recognize RNA transcripts possessing GORS extended to downstream differences from unstructured transcripts in expression of TNF-α, other interferon-stimulated genes and induction of apoptosis. This functional association provides novel insights into interactions between virus and host early after infection and provides evidence for a novel mechanism for evading intrinsic and innate immune responses. PMID:24335283

  15. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission at low gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, Irina; Langendorf, Samuel J.; Keidar, Michael; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2014-10-01

    Previously the experiments demonstrated that the growth of the electron temperature with power in the Hall thruster is restricted by plasma-wall interaction if the wall has an enhanced secondary electron emission (SEE) yield. It is known that the plasma and wall is separated by the sheath potential drop to provide the condition of zero-current on the surface with floating potential. The rearrangement of the sheath structure near the plate with enhanced SEE is the subject of our experimental and theoretical study. The experiment was carried out in multidipole plasma device, where plasma is maintained by the negatively-biased emissive filament. The plate with sapphire surface is placed 50 cm apart from the filament. The plasma parameters were measured for different negative biases Ub and discharge currents J at P = 10-4 Torr. In our PIC simulations the plasma was calculated for the experimental conditions. We solved self-consistently the Boltzmann equations for the electron and ion distribution functions and Poisson equation for electrical field. Both in the experiment and simulation we found non-monotonic change in sheath structure near the plate depending on Ub and J. The kinetic simulations allowed us to describe the sheath rearrangement in terms of the electron energy distribution function.

  16. FTIR Study On The Secondary Structure Of Mucin From Mucinous Cystadenoma Of The Ovary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Keng; Wu, Paochen; Zhou, Weij in; Liu, Fuan; Guo, Hai; Wu, Jinguang

    1989-12-01

    The mucinous cystadenoma, a common benign neoplasm of the ovary, may sometime bring about a fatal outcome known as pseudomyxoma peritonei which is characterized by massive accumulation of mucinous substance in the peritoneal cavity, resulting in extensive adhesions, chronic progressive intestinal obstruction and finally death of the patient. Surgical approach to this condition proves to be a palliative procedure. Repeated operation can only remove part of the geletinous material and reaccumulation of mucus within 1-2 years after the initial surgery is almost a rule. In view of the benign histologic nature of the disease, chemotherapy, either systemic or intraperitoneal, and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in arresting the progression of the pathologic process and preventing the reaccumulation of mucus. Therefore, the only hope lies on the introduction into the peritoneal cavity some agents which may dissolve the accumulated mucin, relieve the intestinal obstruction, and consequently, prolong and even save the life f the patient. Based on this conception, sporadic articles by a few authors(1,2)ap-peared in the literature reporting their clinical experience with different mucolytic agents. However, some blindness would inevitably be involved in such investigations due to the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the chemical structures of the substance. The purpose of the present paper is to report our preliminary results of study of the secondary structures of mucin secreted by this special type of tumor.

  17. A Deep Learning Network Approach to ab initio Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Matt; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Ab initio protein secondary structure (SS) predictions are utilized to generate tertiary structure predictions, which are increasingly demanded due to the rapid discovery of proteins. Although recent developments have slightly exceeded previous methods of SS prediction, accuracy has stagnated around 80% and many wonder if prediction cannot be advanced beyond this ceiling. Disciplines that have traditionally employed neural networks are experimenting with novel deep learning techniques in attempts to stimulate progress. Since neural networks have historically played an important role in SS prediction, we wanted to determine whether deep learning could contribute to the advancement of this field as well. We developed an SS predictor that makes use of the position-specific scoring matrix generated by PSI-BLAST and deep learning network architectures, which we call DNSS. Graphical processing units and CUDA software optimize the deep network architecture and efficiently train the deep networks. Optimal parameters for the training process were determined, and a workflow comprising three separately trained deep networks was constructed in order to make refined predictions. This deep learning network approach was used to predict SS for a fully independent test data set of 198 proteins, achieving a Q3 accuracy of 80.7% and a Sov accuracy of 74.2%. PMID:25750595

  18. A Deep Learning Network Approach to ab initio Protein Secondary Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Matt; Eickholt, Jesse; Jianlin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio protein secondary structure (SS) predictions are utilized to generate tertiary structure predictions, which are increasingly demanded due to the rapid discovery of proteins. Although recent developments have slightly exceeded previous methods of SS prediction, accuracy has stagnated around 80 percent and many wonder if prediction cannot be advanced beyond this ceiling. Disciplines that have traditionally employed neural networks are experimenting with novel deep learning techniques in attempts to stimulate progress. Since neural networks have historically played an important role in SS prediction, we wanted to determine whether deep learning could contribute to the advancement of this field as well. We developed an SS predictor that makes use of the position-specific scoring matrix generated by PSI-BLAST and deep learning network architectures, which we call DNSS. Graphical processing units and CUDA software optimize the deep network architecture and efficiently train the deep networks. Optimal parameters for the training process were determined, and a workflow comprising three separately trained deep networks was constructed in order to make refined predictions. This deep learning network approach was used to predict SS for a fully independent test dataset of 198 proteins, achieving a Q3 accuracy of 80.7 percent and a Sov accuracy of 74.2 percent. PMID:25750595

  19. Formation of secondary structures in heat-resistant steels under sliding friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lad'yanov, V. I.; Goncharov, O. Yu.; Malenko, P. I.; Nikonova, R. M.; Gilmutdinov, F. Z.; Mokrushina, M. I.; Tereshkina, S. A.; Leonov, A. Yu.; Relmasira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of secondary structures in nicotrated layers on surfaces of complex-alloy heatresistant 25Kh3M3NBTsA and 30KhN2MFA structural steels under the effect of sliding friction with resource lubrication has been studied using metallography, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermodynamic modeling. It has been found that, under friction, the nicotrated layer on the steels oxidizes to produce iron oxides, which is substantially less pronounced for 25Kh3M3NBTsA steel than for 30KhN2MFA steel. It has been shown using thermodynamic modeling that, under equilibrium conditions, the heating of both steels to a temperature of ~300°C leads to the formation of an internal-oxidation layer, which consists of FeO with MoO2, Cr2O3, and carbon impurities, a Fe3O4 interlayer with MoO2 and Cr2O3 impurities, and a top layer of Fe2O3 with Cr2O3 impurity. The heating of steels to a temperature of ~700°C leads to the formation of an internal-oxidation layer, which consists of FeO with MoO2 and carbon impurities, a Fe3O4 interlayer with MoO2 impurity, and a top layer of Cr2O3 with Fe2MnO4 and SiO2 impurities.

  20. Duplex formation and secondary structure of γ-PNA observed by NMR and CD.

    PubMed

    Viéville, J M P; Barluenga, S; Winssinger, N; Delsuc, M A

    2016-03-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are non-natural oligonucleotides mimics, wherein the phosphoribose backbone has been replaced by a peptidic moiety (N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine). This peptidic backbone lends itself to substitution and the γ-position has proven to yield oligomers with enhanced hybridization properties. In this study, we use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) to explore the properties of the supramolecular duplexes formed by these species. We show that standard Watson-Crick base pair as well as non-standard ones are formed in solution. The duplexes thus formed present marked melting transition temperatures substantially higher than their nucleic acid homologs. Moreover, the presence of a chiral group on the γ-peptidic backbone increases further this transition temperature, leading to very stable duplexes. PNA duplexes with a chiral backbone present a marked chiral secondary structure, observed by CD, and showing a common folding pattern for all studied structures. Nevertheless small differences are observed depending on the details of the nucleobase sequence. PMID:26493008

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nitroaromatic peptoids: fine tuning peptoid secondary structure through monomer position and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sarah A; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Blackwell, Helen E

    2009-02-20

    N-substituted glycine oligomers, or peptoids, have emerged as an important class of foldamers for the study of biomolecular interactions and for potential use as therapeutic agents. However, the design of peptoids with well-defined conformations a priori remains a formidable challenge. New approaches are required to address this problem, and the systematic study of the role of individual monomer units in the global peptoid folding process represents one strategy. Here, we report our efforts toward this approach through the design, synthesis, and characterization of peptoids containing nitroaromatic monomer units. This work required the synthesis of a new chiral amine building block, (S)-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanamine (s2ne), which could be readily installed into peptoids using standard solid-phase peptoid synthesis techniques. We designed a series of peptoid nonamers that allowed us to probe the effects of this relatively electron-deficient and sterically encumbered alpha-chiral side chain on peptoid structure, namely, the peptoid threaded loop and helix. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of the peptoids revealed that the nitroaromatic monomer has a significant effect on peptoid secondary structure. Specifically, the threaded loop structure was disrupted in a nonamer containing alternating N-(S)-1-phenylethylglycine (Nspe) and Ns2ne monomers, and the major conformation was helical instead. Indeed, placement of a single Ns2ne at the N-terminal position of (Nspe)(9) resulted in a destabilized form of the threaded loop structure relative to the homononamer (Nspe)(9). Conversely, we observed that incorporation of N-(S)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylglycine (Nsnp, a p-nitro monomer) at the N-terminal position stabilized the threaded loop structure relative to (Nspe)(9). Additional experiments revealed that nitroaromatic side chains can influence peptoid nonamer folding by modulating the strength of key intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the peptoid threaded loop structure. Steric

  2. alpha-Amanitin-insensitive transcription of mouse beta major-globin 5'-flanking and structural gene sequences correlates with mRNA expression.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, D P; Ross, J

    1984-01-01

    A small proportion of the RNAs of mouse reticulocytes consists of beta major-globin mRNA sequences linked to sequences transcribed from the 5'-flanking region of the beta major-globin gene. These upstream RNAs are polyadenylylated and contain 700-800 nucleotides, and their 5' regions are heterogeneous. RNAs with similar or identical 5' regions are transcribed in cell-free extracts from a circular mouse beta major-globin gene template. Synthesis of most of the upstream RNAs in vitro is not inhibited by low levels (1 microgram/ml) of alpha-amanitin, indicating that they are transcribed by an enzyme(s) different from RNA polymerase II. During culture of mouse erythroleukemia cells with dimethyl sulfoxide, globin mRNA and upstream RNAs accumulate with similar kinetics. In contrast, upstream RNAs are not detected in hemin-treated cells. Images PMID:6595660

  3. Insight into the secondary structure of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase type I — computer analysis and FT-IR spectroscopic characterization of the protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A. E.; Karamancheva, I. R.

    2001-05-01

    The secondary structure of chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase type I (CAT I) and an N-terminal deleted mutant has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of the amide I band of different samples (KBr, hydrated films and buffer solution) by Fourier self-deconvolution followed by a curve fitting was performed. The spectroscopic data have been utilized to determine the α-helix and β-structure % contents, which depend strongly on the protein sample preparation. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the enzyme-inhibitor Crystal Violet complex was analyzed. The observed difference in the secondary structural contents suggests that some conformational changes of the enzyme are induced by the inhibitor after binding.

  4. Residual Structure of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm following Complete Disinfection Favors Secondary Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Re-Development

    PubMed Central

    Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Shoji; Wakamatsu, Rika; Sakaue, Yuuki; Narisawa, Naoki; Senpuku, Hidenobu; Ohshima, Hayato; Terao, Yutaka; Okiji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion. PMID:25635770

  5. Secondary structure, stability and tetramerisation of recombinant K(V)1.1 potassium channel cytoplasmic N-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, G W; Bloemendal, M; Van Stokkum, I H; Mercer, E A; Miller, R T; Sewing, S; Wolters, M; Pongs, O; Srai, S K

    1997-08-15

    The recombinant N-terminal fragment (amino acids 14-162) of a tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel (K(V)1.1) has been studied using spectroscopic techniques. Evidence is presented that it forms a tetramer in aqueous solution, whereas when solubilised in 1% Triton X-100 it remains monomeric. The secondary structure content of both monomeric and tetrameric K(V)1.1 N-terminal fragment has been estimated from FTIR and CD spectroscopy to be 20-25% alpha-helix, 20-25% beta-sheet, 20% turns and 30-40% random coil. Solubilisation of the protein in detergent is shown by hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis to alter tertiary structure rather than secondary structure and this may be the determining factor in tetramerisation ability. Using molecular modelling we propose a supersecondary structure consisting of two structural domains. PMID:9300810

  6. Orientation Determination of Protein Helical Secondary Structure Using Linear and Nonlinear Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoi Tan; Le Clair, Stéphanie V.; Ye, Shuji; Chen, Zhan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically presented the orientation determination of protein helical secondary structures using vibrational spectroscopic methods, particularly the nonlinear Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, along with linear vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering. SFG amide I signals can be collected using different polarization combinations of the input laser beams and output signal beam to measure the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility components of the helical amide I modes, which are related to their molecular hyperpolarizability elements through the orientation distribution of these helices. The molecular hyperpolarizability elements of amide I modes of a helix can be calculated based on the infrared transition dipole moment and Raman polarizability tensor of the helix; these quantities are determined by using the bond additivity model to sum over the individual infrared dipole transition moments and Raman polarizability tensors, respectively, of the peptide units (or the amino acid residues). The computed overall infrared transition dipole moment and Raman polarizability tensor of a helix can be validated by experimental data using polarized infrared and polarized Raman spectroscopy on samples with well-aligned helical structures. From the deduced SFG hyperpolarizability elements and measured SFG second order nonlinear susceptibility components, orientation information regarding helical structures can be determined. Even though such orientation information can also be measured using polarized infrared or polarized Raman amide I signals, SFG has a much lower detection limit, which can be used to study the orientation of a helix when its surface coverage is much lower than a monolayer. In addition, the combination of different vibrational spectroscopic techniques, e.g., SFG and Attenuated Total Reflectance – Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, provides more

  7. Computational and molecular analysis of conserved influenza A virus RNA secondary structures involved in infectious virion production.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Dadonaite, Bernadeta; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Barclay, Wendy S; Pybus, Oliver G

    2016-09-01

    As well as encoding viral proteins, genomes of RNA viruses harbor secondary and tertiary RNA structures that have been associated with functions essential for successful replication and propagation. Here, we identified stem-loop structures that are extremely conserved among 1,884 M segment sequences of influenza A virus (IAV) strains from various subtypes and host species using computational and evolutionary methods. These structures were predicted within the 3' and 5' ends of the coding regions of M1 and M2, respectively, where packaging signals have been previously proposed to exist. These signals are thought to be required for the incorporation of a single copy of 8 different negative-strand RNA segments (vRNAs) into an IAV particle. To directly test the functionality of conserved stem-loop structures, we undertook reverse genetic experiments to introduce synonymous mutations designed to disrupt secondary structures predicted at 3 locations and found them to attenuate infectivity of recombinant virus. In one mutant, predicted to disrupt stem loop structure at nucleotide positions 219-240, attenuation was more evident at increased temperature and was accompanied by an increase in the production of defective virus particles. Our results suggest that the conserved secondary structures predicted in the M segment are involved in the production of infectious viral particles during IAV replication. PMID:27399914

  8. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byungchan; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  9. Decentralization and Structural Change in Secondary Education in Argentina: The Case of the Province of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.; Senen-Gonzalez, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, Argentina created and implemented a compulsory lower-secondary education level, within an ambitious educational reform programme. This article addresses the reform at the national level, diverse provincial responses, and the particular way that the powerful province of Buenos Aires appropriated the structural change. The…

  10. Effect of Programmed Instruction on Students' Attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table among Kenyan Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangila, M. J.; Martin, W.; Ronald, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Programmed Instruction on students' attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table (SAPT) among mixed (co-educational) secondary schools of Butere district, Kakamega county, Kenya. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted, using the nonrandomized Solomon four-group as a model. The sample…

  11. Secondary dislocation structures in a Ni-TiN system from the GMS and O-lattice theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yiru; Dai, Fuzhi; Gu, Xinfu; Wang, Zhongchang; Zhang, Wenzheng

    2016-03-01

    The preferred state in an interface is the key to evaluating misfit strain, especially for the interphase interfaces in secondary preferred state. The structure of good matching site (GMS) in a GMS clusters offers a guidance for the preferred state, especially for identifying the coincidence site lattice in two dimension for secondary preferred state and the Burgers vectors in a large misfit system. Here, we combine the GMS with O-lattice theory to calculate the secondary dislocation structure in the habit planes of the type II and III TiN precipitates in a Ni-TiN system. We find that under a slight elastic strain, the type III habit plane contains a single set of secondary dislocations, consistent with the experimental observation. The type II habit plane contains three sets of secondary dislocations, two of which can be relaxed to be nearly parallel and another of which may be invisible in diffraction contrast due to its short Burgers vector. The present study provides a reasonable interpretation to the observed interfacial dislocations, and also suggests Burgers vectors for the dislocations that are not determined experimentally.

  12. Identification of WD40 repeats by secondary structure-aided profile-profile alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Dong, Xiaobao; Han, Lei; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ziding; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-06-01

    A WD40 protein typically contains four or more repeats of ~40 residues ended with the Trp-Asp dipeptide, which folds into β-propellers with four β strands in each repeat. They often function as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions and are involved in numerous fundamental biological processes. Despite their important functional role, the "velcro" closure of WD40 propellers and the diversity of WD40 repeats make their identification a difficult task. Here we develop a new WD40 Repeat Recognition method (WDRR), which uses predicted secondary structure information to generate candidate repeat segments, and further employs a profile-profile alignment to identify the correct WD40 repeats from candidate segments. In particular, we design a novel alignment scoring function that combines dot product and BLOSUM62, thereby achieving a great balance of sensitivity and accuracy. Taking advantage of these strategies, WDRR could effectively reduce the false positive rate and accurately identify more remote homologous WD40 repeats with precise repeat boundaries. We further use WDRR to re-annotate the Pfam families in the β-propeller clan (CL0186) and identify a number of WD40 repeat proteins with high confidence across nine model organisms. The WDRR web server and the datasets are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/wdrr/. PMID:27021623

  13. Comparative Genome Structure, Secondary Metabolite, and Effector Coding Capacity across Cochliobolus Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, Bradford J.; Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Dongliang; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Grimwood, Jane; MohdZainudin, NurAinlzzati; Xue, Chunsheng; Wang, Rui; Manning, Viola A.; Dhillon, Braham; Tu, Zheng Jin; Steffenson, Brian J.; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lowry, Steve; LaButti, Kurt; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Schmutz, Jeremy; Baker, Scott E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Zhong, Shaobin; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2013-01-24

    The genomes of five Cochliobolus heterostrophus strains, two Cochliobolus sativus strains, three additional Cochliobolus species (Cochliobolus victoriae, Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus miyabeanus), and closely related Setosphaeria turcica were sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). The datasets were used to identify SNPs between strains and species, unique genomic regions, core secondary metabolism genes, and small secreted protein (SSP) candidate effector encoding genes with a view towards pinpointing structural elements and gene content associated with specificity of these closely related fungi to different cereal hosts. Whole-genome alignment shows that three to five of each genome differs between strains of the same species, while a quarter of each genome differs between species. On average, SNP counts among field isolates of the same C. heterostrophus species are more than 25 higher than those between inbred lines and 50 lower than SNPs between Cochliobolus species. The suites of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS), and SSP encoding genes are astoundingly diverse among species but remarkably conserved among isolates of the same species, whether inbred or field strains, except for defining examples that map to unique genomic regions. Functional analysis of several strain-unique PKSs and NRPSs reveal a strong correlation with a role in virulence.

  14. Line-Based Object Recognition using Hausdorff Distance: From Range Images to Molecular Secondary Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, C; Pascucci, V

    2004-12-13

    Object recognition algorithms are fundamental tools in automatic matching of geometric shapes within a background scene. Many approaches have been proposed in the past to solve the object recognition problem. Two of the key aspects that distinguish them in terms of their practical usability are: (i) the type of input model description and (ii) the comparison criteria used. In this paper we introduce a novel scheme for 3D object recognition based on line segment representation of the input shapes and comparison using the Hausdor distance. This choice of model representation provides the flexibility to apply the scheme in different application areas. We define several variants of the Hausdor distance to compare the models within the framework of well defined metric spaces. We present a matching algorithm that efficiently finds a pattern in a 3D scene. The algorithm approximates a minimization procedure of the Hausdor distance. The output error due to the approximation is guaranteed to be within a known constant bound. Practical results are presented for two classes of objects: (i) polyhedral shapes extracted from segmented range images and (ii) secondary structures of large molecules. In both cases the use of our approximate algorithm allows to match correctly the pattern in the background while achieving the efficiency necessary for practical use of the scheme. In particular the performance is improved substantially with minor degradation of the quality of the matching.

  15. GADIS: Algorithm for designing sequences to achieve target secondary structure profiles of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Tyler S; Crabtree, Michael D; Shammas, Sarah L; Posey, Ammon E; Clarke, Jane; Pappu, Rohit V

    2016-09-01

    Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in coupled folding and binding reactions and form alpha helical structures in their bound complexes. Alanine, glycine, or proline scanning mutagenesis approaches are often used to dissect the contributions of intrinsic helicities to coupled folding and binding. These experiments can yield confounding results because the mutagenesis strategy changes the amino acid compositions of IDPs. Therefore, an important next step in mutagenesis-based approaches to mechanistic studies of coupled folding and binding is the design of sequences that satisfy three major constraints. These are (i) achieving a target intrinsic alpha helicity profile; (ii) fixing the positions of residues corresponding to the binding interface; and (iii) maintaining the native amino acid composition. Here, we report the development of a G: enetic A: lgorithm for D: esign of I: ntrinsic secondary S: tructure (GADIS) for designing sequences that satisfy the specified constraints. We describe the algorithm and present results to demonstrate the applicability of GADIS by designing sequence variants of the intrinsically disordered PUMA system that undergoes coupled folding and binding to Mcl-1. Our sequence designs span a range of intrinsic helicity profiles. The predicted variations in sequence-encoded mean helicities are tested against experimental measurements. PMID:27503953

  16. Inclusion of persistence length-based secondary structure in replica field theoretic models of heteropolymer freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2013-09-01

    The protein folding problem has long represented a "holy grail" in statistical physics due to its physical complexity and its relevance to many human diseases. While past theoretical work has yielded apt descriptions of protein folding landscapes, recent large-scale simulations have provided insights into protein folding that were impractical to obtain from early theories. In particular, the role that non-native contacts play in protein folding, and their relation to the existence of misfolded, β-sheet rich trap states on folding landscapes, has emerged as a topic of interest in the field. In this paper, we present a modified model of heteropolymer freezing that includes explicit secondary structural characteristics which allow observations of "intramolecular amyloid" states to be probed from a theoretical perspective. We introduce a variable persistence length-based energy penalty to a model Hamiltonian, and we illustrate how this modification alters the phase transitions present in the theory. We find, in particular, that inclusion of this variable persistence length increases both generic freezing and folding temperatures in the model, allowing both folding and glass transitions to occur in a more highly optimized fashion. We go on to discuss how these changes might relate to protein evolution, misfolding, and the emergence of intramolecular amyloid states.

  17. The accessory helix of complexin functions by stabilizing central helix secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Radoff, Daniel T; Dong, Yongming; Snead, David; Bai, Jihong; Eliezer, David; Dittman, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    The presynaptic protein complexin (CPX) is a critical regulator of synaptic vesicle fusion, but the mechanisms underlying its regulatory effects are not well understood. Its highly conserved central helix (CH) directly binds the ternary SNARE complex and is required for all known CPX functions. The adjacent accessory helix (AH) is not conserved despite also playing an important role in CPX function, and numerous models for its mechanism have been proposed. We examined the impact of AH mutations and chimeras on CPX function in vivo and in vitro using C. elegans. The mouse AH fully restored function when substituted into worm CPX suggesting its mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. CPX inhibitory function was impaired when helix propagation into the CH was disrupted whereas replacing the AH with a non-native helical sequence restored CPX function. We propose that the AH operates by stabilizing CH secondary structure rather than through protein or lipid interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04553.001 PMID:25383924

  18. Spontaneous deposition of polylysine on surfaces: role of the secondary structure to optimize noncovalent coating strategies.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, Alessandro; Mirabella, Francesca; D'Urso, Alessandro; Randazzo, Rosalba; Purrello, Roberto; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that governs spontaneous molecular transfer from solution to solid surface is fundamental to control noncovalent surface functionalization strategies, both in term of robustness and reproducibility. The comprehension of the nature of interaction involved in the mechanism of spontaneous adsorption will allow for a fine modulation of the deposition process. Herein, we provide experimental evidences to demonstrate that poly-lysine secondary structure represents a crucial factor profoundly influencing the outcome of its spontaneous deposition on quartz surfaces. In particular, random coil to α-helix transition is required to drive an effective transfer of the poly-l-lysine at the liquid-solid interface. β-sheet deposition requires longer times to be accomplished, while random-coil deposition is highly unfavored. Accordingly, polylysine deposition on quartz and silicon is effective when α-helix is formed in solution (pH>10). This surface noncovalent functionalization represents a simple strategy to fabricate hybrid organic-inorganic or biocompatible materials. In fact, the proposed methodology is proven robust and repeatable and compatible for combination with solution or vapor phases (i.e. MOCVD) nanomaterial deposition approaches. PMID:25441360

  19. Regulation of Fibronectin EDA Exon Alternative Splicing: Possible Role of RNA Secondary Structure for Enhancer Display

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Andrés F.; Caputi, Massimo; Pariyarath, Rajalakshmi; Pagani, Franco; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E.

    1999-01-01

    The fibronectin primary transcript undergoes alternative splicing in three noncoordinated sites: the cassette-type EDA and EDB exons and the more complex IIICS region. We have shown previously that an 81-nucleotide region within the EDA exon is necessary for exon recognition and that this region contains at least two splicing-regulatory elements: a polypurinic enhancer (exonic splicing enhancer [ESE]) and a nearby silencer element (exonic splicing silencer [ESS]). Here, we have analyzed the function of both elements in different cell types. We have mapped the ESS to the nucleotide level, showing that a single base change is sufficient to abolish its function. Testing of the ESE and ESS elements in heterologous exons, individually or as part of the complete EDA regulatory region, showed that only the ESE element is active in different contexts. Functional studies coupled to secondary-structure enzymatic analysis of the EDA exon sequence variants suggest that the role of the ESS element may be exclusively to ensure the proper RNA conformation and raise the possibility that the display of the ESE element in a loop position may represent a significant feature of the exon splicing-regulatory region. PMID:10082532

  20. Comparative Genome Structure, Secondary Metabolite, and Effector Coding Capacity across Cochliobolus Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bushley, Kathryn E.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Grimwood, Jane; MohdZainudin, NurAinIzzati; Xue, Chunsheng; Wang, Rui; Manning, Viola A.; Dhillon, Braham; Tu, Zheng Jin; Steffenson, Brian J.; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lowry, Steve; LaButti, Kurt; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Schmutz, Jeremy; Baker, Scott E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Zhong, Shaobin; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2013-01-01

    The genomes of five Cochliobolus heterostrophus strains, two Cochliobolus sativus strains, three additional Cochliobolus species (Cochliobolus victoriae, Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus miyabeanus), and closely related Setosphaeria turcica were sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). The datasets were used to identify SNPs between strains and species, unique genomic regions, core secondary metabolism genes, and small secreted protein (SSP) candidate effector encoding genes with a view towards pinpointing structural elements and gene content associated with specificity of these closely related fungi to different cereal hosts. Whole-genome alignment shows that three to five percent of each genome differs between strains of the same species, while a quarter of each genome differs between species. On average, SNP counts among field isolates of the same C. heterostrophus species are more than 25× higher than those between inbred lines and 50× lower than SNPs between Cochliobolus species. The suites of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS), and SSP–encoding genes are astoundingly diverse among species but remarkably conserved among isolates of the same species, whether inbred or field strains, except for defining examples that map to unique genomic regions. Functional analysis of several strain-unique PKSs and NRPSs reveal a strong correlation with a role in virulence. PMID:23357949

  1. A new criterion to evaluate water vapor interference in protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ye; Ma, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Second derivative and Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) are two commonly used techniques to resolve the overlapped component peaks from the often featureless amide I band in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) curve-fitting approach for protein secondary structural analysis. Yet, the reliability of these two techniques is greatly affected by the omnipresent water vapor in the atmosphere. Several criteria are currently in use as quality controls to ensure the protein absorption spectrum is negligibly affected by water vapor interference. In this study, through a second derivative study of liquid water, we first argue that the previously established criteria cannot guarantee a reliable evaluation of water vapor interference due to a phenomenon that we refer to as sample's absorbance-dependent water vapor interference. Then, through a comparative study of protein and liquid water, we show that a protein absorption spectrum can still be significantly affected by water vapor interference even though it satisfies the established criteria. At last, we propose to use the comparison between the second derivative spectra of protein and liquid water as a new criterion to better evaluate water vapor interference for more reliable second derivative and FSD treatments on the protein amide I band. PMID:24901531

  2. Spatial structure of neuronal receptive field in awake monkey secondary visual cortex (V2).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Chen, Ming; Liu, Tianyi; Lu, Haidong D; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2016-02-16

    Visual processing depends critically on the receptive field (RF) properties of visual neurons. However, comprehensive characterization of RFs beyond the primary visual cortex (V1) remains a challenge. Here we report fine RF structures in secondary visual cortex (V2) of awake macaque monkeys, identified through a projection pursuit regression analysis of neuronal responses to natural images. We found that V2 RFs could be broadly classified as V1-like (typical Gabor-shaped subunits), ultralong (subunits with high aspect ratios), or complex-shaped (subunits with multiple oriented components). Furthermore, single-unit recordings from functional domains identified by intrinsic optical imaging showed that neurons with ultralong RFs were primarily localized within pale stripes, whereas neurons with complex-shaped RFs were more concentrated in thin stripes. Thus, by combining single-unit recording with optical imaging and a computational approach, we identified RF subunits underlying spatial feature selectivity of V2 neurons and demonstrated the functional organization of these RF properties. PMID:26839410

  3. The Structure of Educational Costs: Multiproduct Cost Functions for Primary and Secondary Schools in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1986-01-01

    Relying heavily on equations and tabular data, this paper analyzes the educational cost functions of primary and secondary schooling levels in Latin America. Economies of scale are found for both levels in Bolivian and Paraguayan urban schools; schools combining primary and secondary school services are shown to be less cost effective. (23…

  4. Polymorphism, population structure, and multivariate relationships among secondary traits in open-pollinated corn heterotic groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant, ear and kernel traits directly or indirectly associated with grain yield in corn (Zea mays) were suggested as "secondary" traits to select for larger grain yield, especially in open-pollinated corn varieties (OPVs) and their hybrids (OPVhs). Thirty-four secondary traits, besides grain yield, ...

  5. Scoping the Duals: Structural Challenges of Combining Further and Higher Education in Post-Secondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrod, Neil; Macfarlane, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Dual sector universities (or duals) are a growing international phenomenon that cut across the divide that typically exists in post-secondary education. Duals combine "further" and "higher" education within a single institution providing enhanced opportunities for student transition between post-secondary sectors. This paper reports the results of…

  6. Ebola virus RNA editing depends on the primary editing site sequence and an upstream secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Mehedi, Masfique; Hoenen, Thomas; Robertson, Shelly; Ricklefs, Stacy; Dolan, Michael A; Taylor, Travis; Falzarano, Darryl; Ebihara, Hideki; Porcella, Stephen F; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Ebolavirus (EBOV), the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever and a biosafety level 4 pathogen, increases its genome coding capacity by producing multiple transcripts encoding for structural and nonstructural glycoproteins from a single gene. This is achieved through RNA editing, during which non-template adenosine residues are incorporated into the EBOV mRNAs at an editing site encoding for 7 adenosine residues. However, the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing is currently not understood. In this study, we report for the first time that minigenomes containing the glycoprotein gene editing site can undergo RNA editing, thereby eliminating the requirement for a biosafety level 4 laboratory to study EBOV RNA editing. Using a newly developed dual-reporter minigenome, we have characterized the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing, and have identified cis-acting sequences that are required for editing, located between 9 nt upstream and 9 nt downstream of the editing site. Moreover, we show that a secondary structure in the upstream cis-acting sequence plays an important role in RNA editing. EBOV RNA editing is glycoprotein gene-specific, as a stretch encoding for 7 adenosine residues located in the viral polymerase gene did not serve as an editing site, most likely due to an absence of the necessary cis-acting sequences. Finally, the EBOV protein VP30 was identified as a trans-acting factor for RNA editing, constituting a novel function for this protein. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the RNA editing mechanism of EBOV, further understanding of which might result in novel intervention strategies against this viral pathogen. PMID:24146620

  7. miRNA sensitivity to Drosha levels correlates with pre-miRNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, Henrik; Beem, Alan; Shannon, Sandra; Jones, Ross; Banik, Pratyusha; Chen, Yu; Ku, Sherman; Varani, Gabriele; Yao, Shuyuan; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for cellular development and homeostasis. In order to better understand regulation of miRNA biosynthesis, we studied cleavage of primary miRNAs by Drosha. While Drosha knockdown triggers an expected decrease of many mature miRNAs in human embryonic stem cells (hESC), a subset of miRNAs are not reduced. Statistical analysis of miRNA secondary structure and fold change of expression in response to Drosha knockdown showed that absence of mismatches in the central region of the hairpin, 5 and 9–12 nt from the Drosha cutting site conferred decreased sensitivity to Drosha knockdown. This suggests that, when limiting, Drosha processes miRNAs without mismatches more efficiently than mismatched miRNAs. This is important because Drosha expression changes over cellular development and the fold change of expression for miRNAs with mismatches in the central region correlates with Drosha levels. To examine the biochemical relationship directly, we overexpressed structural variants of miRNA-145, miRNA-137, miRNA-9, and miRNA-200b in HeLa cells with and without Drosha knockdown; for these miRNAs, elimination of mismatches in the central region increased, and addition of mismatches decreased their expression in an in vitro assay and in cells with low Drosha expression. Change in Drosha expression can be a biologically relevant mechanism by which eukaryotic cells control miRNA profiles. This phenomenon may explain the impact of point mutations outside the seed region of certain miRNAs. PMID:24677349

  8. A range of complex probabilistic models for RNA secondary structure prediction that includes the nearest-neighbor model and more.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R

    2012-02-01

    The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases. PMID:22194308

  9. The Role of Secondary Structure in the Entropically Driven Amelogenin Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Fan, Daming; Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Amelogenin, the major extracellular enamel matrix protein, plays critical roles in controlling enamel mineralization. This generally hydrophobic protein self-assembles to form nanosphere structures under certain solution conditions. To gain clearer insight into the mechanisms of amelogenin self-assembly, we first investigated the occurrences of secondary structures within its sequence. By applying isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we determined the thermodynamic parameters associated with protein-protein interactions and with conformational changes during self-assembly. The recombinant porcine full length (rP172) and a truncated amelogenin lacking the hydrophilic C-terminal (rP148) were used. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements performed at low concentrations (<5 μM) revealed the presence of the polyproline-type II (PPII) conformation in both amelogenins in addition to α-helix and unordered conformations. Structural transition from PPII/unordered to β-sheet was observed for both proteins at higher concentrations (>62.5 μM) and upon self-assembly. ITC measurements indicated that the self-assembly of rP172 and rP148 is entropically driven (+ΔSA) and energetically favorable (−ΔGA). The magnitude of enthalpy (ΔHA) and entropy changes of assembly (ΔSA) were smaller for rP148 than rP172, whereas the Gibbs free energy change of assembly (ΔGA) was not significantly different. It was found that rP172 had higher PPII content than rP148, and the monomer-multimer equilibrium for rP172 was observed in a narrower protein concentration range when compared to rP148. The large positive enthalpy and entropy changes in both cases are attributed to the release of ordered water molecules and the associated entropy gain (due to the hydrophobic effect). These findings suggest that PPII conformation plays an important role in amelogenin self-assembly and that rP172 assembly is more favorable than rP148. The data are direct evidence for the notion that hydrophobic

  10. CUUCGG hairpins: extraordinarily stable RNA secondary structures associated with various biochemical processes.

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, C; Gauss, P; Thermes, C; Groebe, D R; Gayle, M; Guild, N; Stormo, G; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Y; Uhlenbeck, O C; Tinoco, I

    1988-01-01

    The mRNA of bacteriophage T4 contains a strikingly abundant intercistronic hairpin. Within the 55 kilobases of known T4 sequence, the hexanucleotide sequence CTTCGG is found 13 times in the DNA strand equivalent to mRNA sequences. In 12 of those occurrences, the sequence is flanked by inverted repeats predictive of RNA hairpins with UUCG in the loop. Avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase, which can traverse hairpins of larger calculated stability, terminates efficiently at these CUUCGG hairpins. Thermal denaturation studies of model hairpins show that the loop sequence UUCG dramatically stabilizes RNA hairpins when compared to a control sequence. These data, when combined with previously described parameters of helix stability, suggest that T4 has utilized this loop sequence to optimize the stability of intercistronic hairpins. The stability of CUUCGG hairpins is also utilized in the RNAs of many organisms besides T4. Images PMID:2449689

  11. A secondary structural common core in the ribosomal ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer) of Culexspecies from diverse geographical locations

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, Ryavarapu; Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, sequence and structural analysis of ITS2 region (the spacer segment between 5.8S and 28S rRNA of mature rRNA sequences) of 7 Culex species belonging to 5 different geographical locations was carried out. Alignment of the ITS2 sequence from the 7 species revealed 8 homologous domains. Four species namely C. vishnui, C. annulus, C. pipiens, C. quiquefasciatusshowed high sequence (98­100%) and RNA secondary structure similarity. The ITS2 similarity among different species is high despite their varying geographical locations. Several common features of secondary structure are shared among these species, with some of them supported by compensatory changes, suggesting the significant role by ITS2 as an RNA domain during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:17597853

  12. Two-dimensional sup 1 H NMR studies on HPr protein from Staphylococcus aureus: Complete sequential assignments and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbitzer, H.R.; Neidig, K.P. ); Hengstenberg, W. )

    1991-11-19

    Complete sequence-specific assignments of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of HPr protein from Staphylococcus aureus were obtained by two-dimensional NMR methods. Important secondary structure elements that can be derived from the observed nuclear Overhauser effects are a large antiparallel {beta}-pleated sheet consisting of four strands, A, B, C, D, a segment S{sub AB} consisting of an extended region around the active-center histidine (His-15) and an {alpha}-helix, a half-turn between strands B and C, a segment S{sub CD} which shows no typical secondary structure, and the {alpha}-helical, C-terminal segment S{sub term}. These general structural features are similar to those found earlier in HPr proteins from different microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus faecalis.

  13. On the control of secondary carbanion structure utilising ligand effects during directed metallation.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Andrew E H; Clayden, Jonathan; Hillier, Ian H; Campbell Smith, Alison; Vincent, Mark A; Taylor, Laurence J; Haywood, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    N,N-Diisopropyl-2-propylbenzamide 6-H undergoes lateral deprotonation by t-BuLi in the presence of the Lewis base PMDTA (N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) to give a benzyllithium 6-Li(l)·PMDTA that incorporates a trigonal planar secondary carbanion. In the solid state, the amide directing group and the PMDTA additive work together to abstract the metal ion from the deprotonated α-C of the propyl group (4.107(4) Å). A short distance of 1.376(3) Å is observed between the deprotonated carbon centre and a planar aromatic system that shows a pattern of bond lengths which contrasts with that reported for related tertiary carbanion systems. Analogous benzylic deprotonation is seen if 6-H is treated with t-BuLi in the presence of diglyme to give 6-Li(l)·DGME. X-ray crystallography now shows that the metal ion more closely approaches the tertiary carbanion (2.418(6) Å) but that the planarity of the deprotonated carbon centre and the bonding pattern in the organic anion seen in the PMDTA complex are retained. DFT analysis corroborates both the short distance between aromatic ring and carbanion centre and the unperturbed nature of aromaticity in 6-Li(l)·L (L = Lewis base). The observation of two structure-types for the carbanion in solution is explained theoretically and by NMR spectroscopy in terms of cis and trans isomerism imparted by partial double bond character in the arene-(α-C) bond. PMID:22423271

  14. Aggregation and secondary loop structure of oligonucleotides do not determine their ability to inhibit TLR9.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Robert F; Goeken, J Adam; Lenert, Petar S

    2011-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an endosomal DNA sensor that warns us of the presence of infectious danger and triggers a rapid pro-inflammatory response in dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. The consequences of uncontrolled TLR9 activation can be detrimental for the host, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial septic shock or autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, we need to develop TLR9 antagonists. We and others have created inhibitory oligonucleotides (INH-ODN) that are capable of sequence-dependent inhibition of TLR9-induced activation in both human and mouse cells. However, it is not clear whether marked differences in INH-ODN activity related to base sequence derived from polymerization of INH-ODNs or their ability to complex with stimulatory CpG-oligonucleotides (ST-ODN). Furthermore, the 5' end of INH-ODNs may assume a particular loop configuration that may be needed for binding to a critical site on TLR9. Here, we show that 1) G-tetrads required for ODN stacking were compatible with INH-ODN activity but were not necessary; 2) there was no relationship between activity and self-association at endosomal pH; 3) there was no evidence for direct binding between ST-ODNs and INH-ODNs; 4) when a 3G sequence was disrupted, despite a preserved stem-loop formation, INH-ODN activity was abolished. These results support the conclusion that certain features of the primary linear sequence are critical for TLR9 inhibition, but changes in secondary structure or in ODN aggregation are irrelevant. PMID:21376154

  15. Secondary Structures of Ubiquitin Ions Soft-Landed onto Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichi; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The secondary structures of multiply charged ubiquitin ions soft-landed onto self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces were studied using in situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Two charge states of ubiquitin, 5+ and 13+, were mass selected separately from a mixture of different charge states produced by electrospray ionization (ESI). The low 5+ charge state represents a nativelike folded state of ubiquitin, while the high 13+ charge state assumes an extended, almost linear conformation. Each of the two charge states was soft-landed onto a CH3- and COOH-terminated SAM of alkanethiols on gold (HSAM and COOH-SAM). HSAM is a hydrophobic surface known to stabilize helical conformations of soft-landed protonated peptides, whereas COOH-SAM is a hydrophilic surface that preferentially stabilizes β-sheet conformations. IRRAS spectra of the soft-landed ubiquitin ions were acquired as a function of time during and after ion soft-landing. Similar to smaller peptide ions, helical conformations of ubiquitin are found to be more abundant on HSAM, while the relative abundance of β-sheet conformations increases on COOH-SAM. The initial charge state of ubiquitin also has a pronounced effect on its conformation on the surface. Specifically, on both surfaces, a higher relative abundance of helical conformations and a lower relative abundance of β-sheet conformations are observed for the 13+ charge state compared to the 5+ charge state. Time-resolved experiments indicate that the α-helical band in the spectrum of the 13+ charge state slowly increases with time on the HSAM surface and decreases in the spectrum of the 13+ charge state on COOH-SAM. These results further support the preference of the hydrophobic HSAM surface toward helical conformations and demonstrate that soft-landed protein ions may undergo slow conformational changes during and after deposition. PMID:27192353

  16. Determination of secondary structural changes in gluten proteins during mixing using Fourier transform horizontal attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seabourn, Bradford W; Chung, Okkyung K; Seib, Paul A; Mathewson, Paul R

    2008-06-11

    Fourier transform horizontal attenuated total reflectance (FT-HATR) was used to examine changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins in a flour-water dough system during mixing. Midinfrared spectra of mixed dough revealed changes in four bands in the amide III region associated with secondary structure in proteins: 1317 (alpha-helix), 1285 (beta-turn), 1265 (random coil), and 1242 cm (-1) (beta-sheet). The largest band, which also showed the greatest change in second derivative band area (SDBA) during mixing, was located at 1242 cm (-1). The bands at 1317 and 1285 cm (-1) also showed an increase in SDBA over time. Conversely, the band at 1265 cm (-1) showed a corresponding decrease over time as the doughs were mixed. All bands reached an optimum corresponding to the minimum mobility of the dough as determined by the mixograph. Increases in alpha-helix, beta-turn, and beta-sheet secondary structures during mixing suggest that the dough proteins assume a more ordered conformation. These results demonstrate that it is possible, using infrared spectroscopic techniques, to relate the rheological behavior of developing dough in a mixograph directly to changes in the structure of the gluten protein system. PMID:18489117

  17. A cell-compatible PEO-PPO-PEO (Pluronic®)-based hydrogel stabilized through secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sydney; Lin, Ji-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Wu, Chih-Wei; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Pluronic F-127 (PF127) is a thermosensitive polymer that has been widely recognized as a potential candidate for various bio-applications. However, in hydrogel form, its rapid disintegration and inhospitality toward cells have significantly limited its usage. As a means to increase the integrity and cell compatibility of a PF127 hydrogel, we propose the introduction of stabilizing secondary structures to the gel network by the addition of secondary structure-forming oligo-alanine and oligo-phenylalanine. Results indicate that increasing the oligo(peptides) attached to PF127 led to a significant decrease in the gelation concentration and temperature. A selected oligo(peptide)-modified PF127 was capable of forming a stable hydrogel network at 5% and suffered only 20% weight loss after 7days of incubation in media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed comparably more interconnected morphology in modified hydrogels which may be attributed to the presence of secondary structures, as verified by circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provided insights into the extensive interactions at the micelle core, which is the key to altered gelation behavior. Furthermore, modified hydrogels maintained structural integrity within culturing media and supported the proliferation of encapsulated chondrocytes. In addition, in vivo residence time was extended to well beyond 2weeks after oligo(peptide) modification, thereby broadening the application scope of the PF127 hydrogel to encompass long-term drug delivery and cell culturing. PMID:27612731

  18. Phylogenetic conservation of RNA secondary and tertiary structure in the trpEDCFBA operon leader transcript in Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Schaak, Janell E; Babitzke, Paul; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2003-12-01

    Expression of the trpEDCFBA operon of Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcription attenuation and translation control mechanisms. We recently determined that the B. subtilis trp leader readthrough transcript can adopt a Mg(2+)-dependent tertiary structure that appears to interfere with TRAP-mediated translation control of trpE. In the present study, sequence comparisons to trp leaders from three other Bacillus sp. were made, suggesting that RNA secondary and tertiary structures are phylogenetically conserved. To test this hypothesis, experiments were carried out with the trp leader transcript from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Structure mapping experiments confirmed the predicted secondary structure. Native gel experiments identified a faster mobility species in the presence of Mg(2+), suggesting that a Mg(2+)-dependent tertiary structure forms. Mg(2+)-dependent protection of residues within the first five triplet repeats of the TRAP binding target and a pyrimidine-rich internal loop were observed, consistent with tertiary structure formation between these regions. Structure mapping in the presence of a competitor DNA oligonucleotide allowed the interacting partners to be identified as a single-stranded portion of the purine-rich TRAP binding target and the large downstream pyrimidine-rich internal loop. Thermal denaturation experiments revealed a Mg(2+)- and pH-dependent unfolding transition that was absent for a transcript missing the first five triplet repeats. The stability of several mutant transcripts allowed a large portion of the base-pairing register for the tertiary interaction to be determined. These data indicate that RNA secondary and tertiary structures involved in TRAP-mediated translation control are conserved in at least four Bacillus species. PMID:14624006

  19. Use of complementary DNA oligomers to probe trp leader transcript secondary structures involved in transcription pausing and termination.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R; Yanofsky, C

    1984-01-01

    DNA oligomers were synthesized that are perfectly complementary to different segments of the tryptophan (trp) operon leader transcript. These 15 nucleotide long oligomers were used as probes of the involvement of transcript secondary structures in two processes: transcription pausing at the pause site located near base pair 90 in the leader region, and transcription termination at the attenuator. The 15-mers were complementary to the four segments of the trp leader transcript which have been shown to form the alternative secondary structures that are believed to be responsible for pausing, termination, and antitermination. Oligomers complementary to RNA segments 1 and 3 relieved termination while the 15-mer complementary to RNA segment 1 relieved pausing. 15-mers complementary to segment 2 had no effect on pausing and the oligomer complementary to segment 4 had virtually no effect on termination. PMID:6201827

  20. The Response of Greek Key Proteins to Changes in Connectivity Depends on the Nature of Their Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kemplen, Katherine R.; De Sancho, David; Clarke, Jane

    2015-01-01

    What governs the balance between connectivity and topology in regulating the mechanism of protein folding? We use circular permutation to vary the order of the helices in the all-α Greek key protein FADD (Fas-associated death domain) to investigate this question. Unlike all-β Greek key proteins, where changes in the order of secondary structure cause a shift in the folding nucleus, the position of the nucleus in FADD is unchanged, even when permutation reduces the complexity significantly. We suggest that this is because local helical contacts are so dominant that permutation has little effect on the entropic cost of forming the folding nucleus whereas, in all-β Greek key proteins, all interactions in the nucleus are long range. Thus, the type of secondary structure modulates the sensitivity of proteins to changes in connectivity. PMID:25861761

  1. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead. PMID:25807706

  2. Plasmodesmata during development: re-examination of the importance of primary, secondary, and branched plasmodesmata structure versus function

    PubMed Central

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Stonebloom, Solomon; Xu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) structure and function vary temporally and spatially during all stages of plant development. PD that originate during, or post, cell division are designated as primary or secondary according to classical terminology. PD structure may be simple, twinned, or branched. Studies of PD during leaf, root, and embryo development have lead to the generalization that cells in less mature tissues contain predominantly simple PD. New quantitative analyses reveal that twinned and branched PD also occur in immature tissues. New data also highlight the versatility of viral movement proteins as tags for labeling PD in immature tissues as well as PD in mature tissues. A summary of the formation and function of primary, secondary, and branched PD during leaf, trichome, embryo, apical meristem, vascular cambium, and root development underscores the remarkable and indispensible plant-specific intercellular communication system that is mediated by PD. PMID:21174132

  3. a High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with NANO-TiO2 Secondary Structure in the Photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zhang; Wu, Jihuai; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2013-04-01

    A high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) with nanocrystallite TiO2 (nano-TiO2) secondary structure in the photoanode was successfully fabricated via a simple one step doctor blade printing method with a special nano-TiO2 paste containing micro-sized nano-TiO2 aggregates formed in situ. The special secondary structure in the photoanode shows improved optical absorption, increased light scattering ability, and enhanced electron transport and collection efficiency, resulting in high power conversion efficiency of 7.30% with 6 μm thin nano-TiO2 film in the photoanode, and the highest value of 9.28% by increasing the thickness of the nano-TiO2 film to 11 μm.

  4. Kohonen map as a visualization tool for the analysis of protein sequences: multiple alignments, domains and segments of secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Hanke, J; Reich, J G

    1996-12-01

    The method of Kohonen maps, a special form of neural networks, was applied as a visualization tool for the analysis of protein sequence similarity. The procedure converts sequence (domains, aligned sequences, segments of secondary structure) into a characteristic signal matrix. This conversion depends on the property or replacement score vector selected by the user. Similar sequences have small distance in the signal space. The trained Kohonen network is functionally equivalent to an unsupervised non-linear cluster analyzer. Protein families, or aligned sequences, or segments of similar secondary structure, aggregate as clusters, and their proximity may be inspected on a color screen or on paper. Pull-down menus permit access to background information in the established text-oriented way. PMID:9021261

  5. A hairpin within YAP mRNA 3'UTR functions in regulation at post-transcription level.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuen; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Feng, Guoxing; Zheng, Minying; Yang, Zhe; Xiao, Zelin; Lu, Zhanping; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    The central dogma of gene expression is that DNA is transcribed into messenger RNAs, which in turn serve as the template for protein synthesis. Recently, it has been reported that mRNAs display regulatory roles that rely on their ability to compete for microRNA binding, independent of their protein-coding function. However, the regulatory mechanism of mRNAs remains poorly understood. Here, we report that a hairpin within YAP mRNA 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) functions in regulation at post-transcription level through generating endogenous siRNAs (esiRNAs). Bioinformatics analysis for secondary structure showed that YAP mRNA displayed a hairpin structure (termed standard hairpin, S-hairpin) within its 3'UTR. Surprisingly, we observed that the overexpression of S-hairpin derived from YAP 3'UTR (YAP-sh) increased the luciferase reporter activities of transcriptional factor NF-κB and AP-1 in 293T cells. Moreover, we identified that a fragment from YAP-sh, an esiRNA, was able to target mRNA 3'UTR of NF2 (a member of Hippo-signaling pathway) and YAP mRNA 3'UTR itself in hepatoma cells. Thus, we conclude that the YAP-sh within YAP mRNA 3'UTR may serve as a novel regulatory element, which functions in regulation at post-transcription level. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of mRNAs in regulatory function. PMID:25727017

  6. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure.

    PubMed

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibres-cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material-are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10 %) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species. PMID:26019229

  7. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure

    PubMed Central

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibres—cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material—are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2–1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10 %) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species. PMID:26019229

  8. Quantitative studies of mRNA recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    The process of peptide bond synthesis by ribosomes is conserved between species, but the initiation step differs greatly between the three kingdoms of life. This is illustrated by the evolution of roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factor mass found in humans compared with bacteria. Eukaryotic initiation of translation is comprised of a number of sub-steps: (i) recruitment of an mRNA and initiator methionyl-tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit; (ii) migration of the 40S subunit along the 5' UTR to locate the initiation codon; and (iii) recruitment of the 60S subunit to form the 80S initiation complex. Although the mechanism and regulation of initiation has been studied for decades, many aspects of the pathway remain unclear. In this review, I will focus discussion on what is known about the mechanism of mRNA selection and its recruitment to the 40S subunit. I will summarize how the 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) is formed and stabilized by interactions between its components. I will discuss what is known about the mechanism of mRNA selection by the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex and how the selected mRNA is recruited to the 43S PIC. The regulation of this process by secondary structure located in the 5' UTR of an mRNA will also be discussed. Finally, I present a possible kinetic model with which to explain the process of mRNA selection and recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome. PMID:25742741

  9. Secondary structure and (1)H, (13)C, (15)N resonance assignments of the endosomal sorting protein sorting nexin 3.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Michael; Rajesh, Sandya; Gruenberg, Jean; Lenoir, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Sorting nexin 3 (SNX3) belongs to a sub-family of sorting nexins that primarily contain a single Phox homology domain capable of binding phosphoinositides and membranes. We report the complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of the full-length human SNX3 protein and identification of its secondary structure elements, revealing a canonical fold and unstructured termini. PMID:25893673

  10. Effect of template secondary structure on the inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by a pyridinone non-nucleoside inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, D B; Carroll, S S; Culberson, J C; Shafer, J A; Kuo, L C

    1994-01-01

    The importance of RNA secondary structure on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase catalyzed polymerization and on the potency of the pyridin-2-one inhibitor 3-(4,7-dichlorobenzoxazol-2-ylmethylamino)-5-ethyl-6-meth ylpyridin-2(1H)-one, L-697,661, were investigated by employing heteromeric primer-template systems. Our data revealed that a stem-loop hairpin secondary structure in the RNA template could lead to strong hindrance of reverse transcription in the reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resulting in the build up of intermediate-length (pause) polymerization products. The presence of L-697,661 greatly enhanced the accumulation of the pause products suggesting that the rate of enzyme translocation from the pause product might be more potently inhibited than polymerization up to the pause site. Model experiments using a synthetic RNA template containing a stem-loop hairpin revealed that the inhibitory potency of L-697, 661 increased 2-fold upon polymerization to within four bases of the secondary structure. Inhibitor potency was enhanced over 6-fold when primer-extension proceeded through the duplex region of the stem-loop. Images PMID:7514786

  11. The effects of various alcohols on the secondary structural integrity of melittin, TH-10Aox, and Tc1 by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2006-03-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of various alcohols on the structural integrity of three peptides: melittin with 2 α-helices, TH-10Aox with 3 β-strands, and Tc1 with 1 α-helix and 2 β-strands. The results reveal that the secondary structural integrity of these peptides increased with decreasing dielectric constant of the solvent, indicating that there is a positive correlation between the number of carbon atoms in alcohols and the stability of the secondary structures. In addition, TFE enhanced the secondary structural stability of these peptides to a greater extent than the other alcohols.

  12. Combined actions of multiple hairpin loop structures and sites of rate-limiting endonucleolytic cleavage determine differential degradation rates of individual segments within polycistronic puf operon mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, G; Cohen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Differential expression of the genes within the puf operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus is accomplished in part by differences in the rate of degradation of different segments of the puf transcript. We report here that decay of puf mRNA sequences specifying the light-harvesting I (LHI) and reaction center (RC) photosynthetic membrane peptides is initiated endoribonucleolytically within a discrete 1.4-kilobase segment of the RC-coding region. Deletion of this segment increased the half-life of the RC-coding region from 8 to 20 min while not affecting decay of LHI-coding sequences upstream from an intercistronic hairpin loop structure shown previously to impede 3'-to-5' degradation. Prolongation of RC segment half-life was dependent on the presence of other hairpin structures 3' to the RC region. Inserting the endonuclease-sensitive sites into the LHI-coding segment markedly accelerated its degradation. Our results suggest that differential degradation of the RC- and LHI-coding segments of puf mRNA is accomplished at least in part by the combined actions of RC region-specific endonuclease(s), one or more exonucleases, and several strategically located exonuclease-impeding hairpins. Images PMID:2394682

  13. The Structure of Scientific Arguments by Secondary Science Teachers: Comparison of Experimental and Historical Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ron; Kang, Nam-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Just as scientific knowledge is constructed using distinct modes of inquiry (e.g. experimental or historical), arguments constructed during science instruction may vary depending on the mode of inquiry underlying the topic. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how secondary science teachers construct scientific arguments during…

  14. The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Testing for Invariant Factorial Structure across Gender for Elementary and Secondary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    A study was conducted to: (1) test for the factorial validity of the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) separately for 742 male and 801 female elementary school teachers and 659 male and 721 female secondary school teachers in Central Canada; (2) cross-validate findings across a second independent sample for each teacher group; and (3) test…

  15. The Tension between Organisational Sub-structures in Secondary Schools and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imants, Jeroen; Sleegers, Peter; Witziers, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Explores how Dutch secondary schools can provide supportive working contexts that promote teacher learning, focusing on integration of two substructures (subject departments and student guidance units). Analyzes tensions between the substructures, summarizes insights into teacher learning communities, and discusses integrated teacher teams'…

  16. Simulation of unsteady state performance of a secondary air system by the 1D-3D-Structure coupled method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Li, Peng; Li, Yulong

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the calculation method for unsteady state conditions in the secondary air systems in gas turbines. The 1D-3D-Structure coupled method was applied. A 1D code was used to model the standard components that have typical geometric characteristics. Their flow and heat transfer were described by empirical correlations based on experimental data or CFD calculations. A 3D code was used to model the non-standard components that cannot be described by typical geometric languages, while a finite element analysis was carried out to compute the structural deformation and heat conduction at certain important positions. These codes were coupled through their interfaces. Thus, the changes in heat transfer and structure and their interactions caused by exterior disturbances can be reflected. The results of the coupling method in an unsteady state showed an apparent deviation from the existing data, while the results in the steady state were highly consistent with the existing data. The difference in the results in the unsteady state was caused primarily by structural deformation that cannot be predicted by the 1D method. Thus, in order to obtain the unsteady state performance of a secondary air system more accurately and efficiently, the 1D-3D-Structure coupled method should be used.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Assisted Prediction of Secondary Structure for RNA: Incorporation of Direction-Dependent Chemical Shift Constraints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of RNA structure is necessary to determine structure–function relationships and to facilitate design of potential therapeutics. RNA secondary structure prediction can be improved by applying constraints from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments to a dynamic programming algorithm. Imino proton walks from NOESY spectra reveal double-stranded regions. Chemical shifts of protons in GH1, UH3, and UH5 of GU pairs, UH3, UH5, and AH2 of AU pairs, and GH1 of GC pairs were analyzed to identify constraints for the 5′ to 3′ directionality of base pairs in helices. The 5′ to 3′ directionality constraints were incorporated into an NMR-assisted prediction of secondary structure (NAPSS-CS) program. When it was tested on 18 structures, including nine pseudoknots, the sensitivity and positive predictive value were improved relative to those of three unrestrained programs. The prediction accuracy for the pseudoknots improved the most. The program also facilitates assignment of chemical shifts to individual nucleotides, a necessary step for determining three-dimensional structure. PMID:26451676

  18. RNA Secondary Structure Modulates FMRP’s Bi-Functional Role in the MicroRNA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Phillip; Ceman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs act by post-transcriptionally regulating the gene expression of 30%–60% of mammalian genomes. MicroRNAs are key regulators in all cellular processes, though the mechanism by which the cell activates or represses microRNA-mediated translational regulation is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the RNA binding protein Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and its role in microRNA-mediated translational regulation. Historically, FMRP is known to function as a translational suppressor. However, emerging data suggests that FMRP has both an agonistic and antagonistic role in regulating microRNA-mediated translational suppression. This bi-functional role is dependent on FMRP’s interaction with the RNA helicase Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10), which modifies the structural landscape of bound mRNA, therefore facilitating or inhibiting its association with the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex. PMID:27338369

  19. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jane C.; Kessell, Allan; Weston, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. PMID:24451131

  20. Secondary plant products causing photosensitization in grazing herbivores: their structure, activity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jane C; Kessell, Allan; Weston, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. PMID:24451131

  1. Factor Structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) Scores across Gender among Students in Elementary and Secondary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents, a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students, is examined across gender. The sample consisted of 696 elementary and secondary school students (391 girls and 305 boys). Coefficient of congruence and salient…

  2. Secondary structure of Tetrahymena thermophilia 5S ribosomal RNA as revealed by enzymatic digestion and microdensitometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sneath, B; Vary, C; Pavlakis, G; Vournakis, J

    1986-01-01

    The secondary structure of [32P] end-labeled 5S rRNA from Tetrahymena thermophilia (strain B) has been investigated using the enzymes S1 nuclease, cobra venom ribonuclease and T2 ribonuclease. The results, analyzed by scanning microdensitometry and illustrated by three-dimensional computer graphics, support the secondary structure model of Curtiss and Vournakis for 5S rRNA. Aberrent mobility of certain RNA fragments on sequencing gels was observed as regions of band compression. These regions are postulated to be caused by stable internal base-pairing. The molecule was probed with T2 RNase in neutral (pH 7.5) and acidic (pH 4.5) buffers and only minor structural differences were revealed. One of the helices was found to be susceptible to enzymatic attack by both the single-strand and double-strand specific enzymes. These observations are evidence for the existence of dynamic structural equilibria in 5S rRNA. Images PMID:3005972

  3. Effects of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on Cell Membrane And Secondary Protein Structure in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Hadeethi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on biological cells have been reported in several literatures. Most of them were mainly concerned with doses greater than 0.01 Gy and were also concerned with gamma rays. On the other hand, the studies on very low dose fast neutrons (VLDFN) are rare. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VLDFN on cell membrane and protein secondary structure of rat erythrocytes. Twelve female Wistar rats were irradiated with neutrons of total dose 0.009 Gy (241Am-Be, 0.2 mGy/h) and twelve others were used as control. Blood samples were taken at the 0, 4th, 8th, and 12th days postirradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of rat erythrocytes were recorded. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analysis FTIR spectra. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify group spectra. The second derivative and curve fitting of FTIR spectra revealed that the most significant alterations in the cell membrane and protein secondary structure upon neutron irradiation were detected after 4 days postirradiation. The increase in membrane polarity, phospholipids chain length, packing, and unsaturation were noticed from the corresponding measured FTIR area ratios. This may be due to the membrane lipid peroxidation. The observed band shift in the CH2 stretching bands toward the lower frequencies may be associated with the decrease in membrane fluidity. The curve fitting of the amide I revealed an increase in the percentage area of α-helix opposing a decrease in the β-structure protein secondary structure, which may be attributed to protein denaturation. The results provide detailed insights into the VLDFN effects on erythrocytes. VLDFN can cause an oxidative stress to the irradiated erythrocytes, which appears clearly after 4 days postirradiation. PMID:26436416

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND REMOVAL OF PROTEINS THAT CO-PURIFY WITH INFECTIOUS PRION PROTEIN IMPROVES THE ANALYSIS OF ITS SECONDARY STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roger A.; Timmes, Andrew; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Safronetz, David; Priola, Suzette A.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the mammalian prion protein (PrP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has previously been used to show that the conformation of aggregated, infectious PrP (PrPSc) varies between prion strains and these unique conformations may determine strain-specific disease phenotypes. However, the relative amounts of α-helix, β-sheet and other secondary structures have not always been consistent between studies suggesting that other proteins might be confounding the analysis of PrPSc secondary structure. We have used FTIR and tandem mass spectrometry to analyze enriched PrPSc from mouse and hamster prion strains both before and after the removal of protein contaminants that commonly co-purify with PrPSc. Our data show that non-PrP proteins do contribute to absorbances that have been associated with α-helical, loop, turn, and β-sheet structures attributed to PrPSc. The major contaminant, the α-helical protein ferritin, absorbs strongly at 1652cm−1 in the FTIR spectrum associated with PrPSc. However, even the removal of greater than 99% of the ferritin from PrPSc did not completely abolish absorbance at 1652cm−1. Our results show that contaminating proteins alter the FTIR spectrum attributed to PrPSc and suggest that the α-helical, loop/turn, and β-sheet secondary structure that remains following their removal are derived from PrPSc itself. PMID:21805638

  5. The secondary structure and the thermal unfolding parameters of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Lighezan, Liliana; Georgieva, Ralitsa; Neagu, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins have been identified in the cell envelope of many organisms, such as bacteria and archaea. They self-assemble, forming monomolecular crystalline arrays. Isolated S-layer proteins are able to recrystallize into regular lattices, which proved useful in biotechnology. Here we investigate the structure and thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein isolated from Lactobacillus salivarius 16 strain of human origin. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the software CDSSTR from DICHROWEB, CONTINLL from CDPro, as well as CDNN, we assess the fractions of the protein's secondary structural elements at temperatures ranging between 10 and 90 °C, and predict the tertiary class of the protein. To study the thermal unfolding of the protein, we analyze the temperature dependence of the CD signal in the far- and near-UV domains. Fitting the experimental data by two- and three-state models of thermal unfolding, we infer the midpoint temperatures, the temperature dependence of the changes in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the unfolding transitions in standard conditions, and the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. We also estimate the changes in heat capacity at constant pressure in standard conditions. The results indicate that the thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein from L. salivarius is highly cooperative, since changes in the secondary and tertiary structures occur simultaneously. The thermodynamic analysis predicts a "cold" transition, at about -3 °C, of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Our findings may be important for the use of S-layer proteins in biotechnology and in biomedical applications. PMID:26992716

  6. Accurate prediction of protein structural classes by incorporating predicted secondary structure information into the general form of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kong, Liang; Zhang, Lichao; Lv, Jinfeng

    2014-03-01

    Extracting good representation from protein sequence is fundamental for protein structural classes prediction tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel and powerful method to predict protein structural classes based on the predicted secondary structure information. At the feature extraction stage, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted to characterize general contents and spatial arrangements of the secondary structural elements of a given protein sequence. Specially, four segment-level features are designed to elevate discriminative ability for proteins from the α/β and α+β classes. After the features are extracted, a multi-class non-linear support vector machine classifier is used to implement protein structural classes prediction. We report extensive experiments comparing the proposed method to the state-of-the-art in protein structural classes prediction on three widely used low-similarity benchmark datasets: FC699, 1189 and 640. Our method achieves competitive performance on prediction accuracies, especially for the overall prediction accuracies which have exceeded the best reported results on all of the three datasets. PMID:24316044

  7. Refinement of modelled structures by knowledge-based energy profiles and secondary structure prediction: application to the human procarboxypeptidase A2.

    PubMed

    Aloy, P; Mas, J M; Martí-Renom, M A; Querol, E; Avilés, F X; Oliva, B

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge-based energy profiles combined with secondary structure prediction have been applied to molecular modelling refinement. To check the procedure, three different models of human procarboxypeptidase A2 (hPCPA2) have been built using the 3D structures of procarboxypeptidase A1 (pPCPA1) and bovine procarboxypeptidase A (bPCPA) as templates. The results of the refinement can be tested against the X-ray structure of hPCPA2 which has been recently determined. Regions miss-modelled in the activation segment of hPCPA2 were detected by means of pseudo-energies using Prosa II and modified afterwards according to the secondary structure prediction. Moreover, models obtained by automated methods as COMPOSER, MODELLER and distance restraints have also been compared, where it was found possible to find out the best model by means of pseudo-energies. Two general conclusions can be elicited from this work: (1) on a given set of putative models it is possible to distinguish among them the one closest to the crystallographic structure, and (2) within a given structure it is possible to find by means of pseudo-energies those regions that have been defectively modelled. PMID:10702927

  8. Secondary structure model of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus 5' leader sequence: identification of a structural motif common to a variety of retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, G P; Hunter, E; Lever, A M

    1995-01-01

    A stable secondary structure model is presented for the region 3' of the primer-binding site to 130 bases into the gag sequence of the prototype type D retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. Using biochemical probing of RNA from this region in association with free energy minimization, we have identified a stem-loop structure in the region, which from other studies has been shown to be important for genomic RNA encapsidation. The structure involves a highly stable stem of five G-C pairs terminating in a heptaloop. Comparison of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus structure with one predicted for squirrel monkey retrovirus demonstrates an identical stem and a common ACC motif in the loop. Free energy studies of the secondary structure of the 5' regions of eight other retroviruses predict stem loops which have similar GAYC motifs. We believe this may represent a common structural and sequence motif which among other functions may be involved in genomic RNA packaging in these viruses. PMID:7884866

  9. Induced Secondary Structure and Polymorphism in an Intrinsically Disordered Structural Linker of the CNS: Solid-State NMR and FTIR Spectroscopy of Myelin Basic Protein Bound to Actin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mumdooh A.M.; Bamm, Vladimir V.; Shi, Lichi; Steiner-Mosonyi, Marta; Dawson, John F.; Brown, Leonid; Harauz, George; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein (MBP) is a peripheral membrane protein that maintains the structural integrity of the myelin sheath of the central nervous system by conjoining the cytoplasmic leaflets of oligodendrocytes and by linking the myelin membrane to the underlying cytoskeleton whose assembly it strongly promotes. It is a multifunctional, intrinsically disordered protein that behaves primarily as a structural stabilizer, but with elements of a transient or induced secondary structure that represent binding sites for calmodulin or SH3-domain-containing proteins, inter alia. In this study we used solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the conformation of 18.5 kDa MBP in association with actin microfilaments and bundles. FTIR spectroscopy of fully 13C,15N-labeled MBP complexed with unlabeled F-actin showed induced folding of both protein partners, viz., some increase in β-sheet content in actin, and increases in both α-helix and β-sheet content in MBP, albeit with considerable extended structure remaining. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that MBP in MBP-actin assemblies is structurally heterogeneous but gains ordered secondary structure elements (both α-helical and β-sheet), particularly in the terminal fragments and in a central immunodominant epitope. The overall conformational polymorphism of MBP is consistent with its in vivo roles as both a linker (membranes and cytoskeleton) and a putative signaling hub. PMID:19134474

  10. Primary and secondary structure of 5.8S rRNA from the silkgland of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, H; Kawata, Y; Ishikawa, H

    1982-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence of 5.8S rRNA of the silkworm, Bombyx mori has been determined by gel sequencing methods. The 5.8S rRNA was the longest so far reported, with the 5'-terminal sequence several nucleotides longer than those of the other organisms. Upon constructing the secondary structure in accordance with the "burp gun" model (12), the Bombyx 5.8S rRNA formed a wide-open "muzzle" due to several unpaired bases at the ends. The overall structure also appeared less stable with less G . C pairs and more unpaired bases than that of the HeLa 5.8S rRNA. These structural features may be essential for those 5.8S rRNAs which interact with 28S rRNAs containing the hidden break to form a stable complex. PMID:7088713

  11. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C. K.; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-05-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines.

  12. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C K; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-01-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines. PMID:27138090

  13. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C.K.; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-01-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines. PMID:27138090

  14. Transcription of the genome of adenovirus type 12. I. Viral mRNA in abortively infected and transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ortin, J; Doerfler, W

    1975-01-01

    In baby hamster kidney (BKH-21) cells abortively infected with adenovirus type 12, polysome-associated, virus-specific RNA could be detected starting 5 to 7 h after infection. The amount of this RNA reached a maximum between 10 to 12 h after infection and continued to be synthesized at a reduced level until late in infection (48 to 50 h.). In BHK-21 cells transformed by adenovirus type 12 (HB cells), 0.26% of the polysome-associated mRNA was virus specific. The size of the virus-specific mRNA isolated from polysomes of BHK-21 cells abortively infected with, or transformed by adenovirus type 12 was determined by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels in 98% formamide, i.e., under conditions which eliminated secondary structure or aggregation of RNA. In abortively infected hamster cells viral mRNA size classes of molecular weights 0.9 times 10-6 and 0.65 times 10-6 to 0.67 times 10-6 were predominant. A minor fraction of 1.5 times 10-6 daltons was consistently found and increased with time after infection. Late after infection (24 to 26 h), viral mRNA of 1.9 times 10-6 daltons was also observed. The size distribution of adenovirus type 12-specific mRNA from transformed hamster cells (HB line) was very similar to that in abortively infected cells, except that the relative amount of the viral mRNA fraction of 1.5 times 10-6 daltons was much higher. It is uncertain whether the viral mRNA of high-molecular-weight represents mixed transcripts derived from integrated viral genomes and adjacent host genes. PMID:1167602

  15. Population structure and secondary production of Siriella clausii, a dominant detritus feeding mysid in Posidonia oceanica meadows (W Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Carmen; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2013-10-01

    Temporal trends in abundance, demographic structure of the population and secondary production of Siriella clausii were studied at three different sectors of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the SE Iberian Peninsula, with different levels of habitat complexity. Secondary production was calculated through three methods widely employed in marine invertebrates: the Hynes method (based on demographic structure data) and models by Morin-Bourassa and Brey (based on biomass data). This filter/grazer and detritus feeder is the most abundant mysid in P. oceanica seagrass meadows in the Mediterranean. The population structure was similar in the three sectors, but the temporal pattern of abundance was different, at times even opposite. This pattern may be related to the aggregated spatial distribution, metapopulation dynamics or stochastic factors, but other potential factors could be involved, such as habitat features or predation rates. The values of production oscillated between 25 and 60 mgAFDW/m2/year, depending on the calculation method that was applied, and showed differences between sites and seagrass complexity. The present values are intermediate between those characterising highly productive systems, such as estuaries, and systems of limited productivity (bathyal habitats). Compared to other peracarids, mysid production is greater than that of isopods and less than amphipod production. This is possibly related to the life cycle and reproductive strategies. Detritus feeders such as S. clausii may play an important trophic role due their capacity to use as food the biomass associated to detritus, which constitutes larges reservoirs of carbon derived from seagrass primary production.

  16. An overview of the secondary structure of the V4 region of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, D L; Sargent, M L

    1991-01-01

    The V4 region of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA was examined in 72 different sequences representing a broad sample eukaryotic diversity. This domain is the most variable region of the 18S rRNA molecule and ranges in length from ca. 230 to over 500 bases. Based upon comparative analysis, secondary structural models were constructed for all sequences and the resulting generalized model shows that most organisms possess seven helices for this region. The protists and two insects show from one to as many as four helices in addition to the above seven. In this report, we summarize secondary structure information presented elsewhere for the V4 region, describe the general features for helical and apical regions, and identify signature sequences useful in helix identification. Our model generally agrees with other current concepts; however, we propose modifications or alternative structures for the start of the V4 region, the large protist inserts, and the sector that may possibly contain a pseudoknot. PMID:2014163

  17. Extracting Infrared Spectra of Protein Secondary Structures Using a Library of Protein Spectra and the Ramachandran Plot.

    PubMed

    Coe, James V; Nystrom, Steven V; Chen, Zhaomin; Li, Ran; Verreault, Dominique; Hitchcock, Charles L; Martin, Edward W; Allen, Heather C

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) spectra from 1200 to 1800 cm(-1) of the pure α-helix and β-sheet secondary structures have been extracted using a covariant least-squares procedure which relates a library of 40 infrared (IR) solution protein spectra from the work of Dong, Carpenter, and Caughey and amino acid fractions of the proteins based on assignments by STRIDE (secondary structure identification) of Eisenhaber and Argos. The excitonic splitting of the β-sheet structures is determined for this library of solution proteins. The method is extended to find a set of spectral basis functions that analyze IR spectra of protein samples for α-helix and β-sheet content. A rigorous error analysis including covariance, the correlations between the input library spectra, was used to justify the results and avoid less meaningful results. The utility of the results on α-helix and β-sheet regions is demonstrated by detecting protein changes due to cancer in imaging Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectra of liver tissue slices. This work ends with a method to extract IR spectra of less prominent torsional angle distributions. PMID:26397941

  18. NMR assignments, secondary structure, and global fold of calerythrin, an EF-hand calcium-binding protein from Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed Central

    Aitio, H.; Annila, A.; Heikkinen, S.; Thulin, E.; Drakenberg, T.; Kilpeläinen, I.

    1999-01-01

    Calerythrin is a 20 kDa calcium-binding protein isolated from gram-positive bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Based on amino acid sequence homology, it has been suggested that calerythrin belongs to the family of invertebrate sarcoplasmic EF-hand calcium-binding proteins (SCPs), and therefore it is expected to function as a calcium buffer. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain structural information on the protein in solution. Backbone and side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N assignments were obtained from triple resonance experiments HNCACB, HN(CO)CACB, HNCO, CC(CO)NH, and [15N]-edited TOCSY, and HCCH-TOCSY. Secondary structure was determined by using secondary chemical shifts and characteristic NOEs. In addition, backbone N-H residual dipolar couplings were measured from a spin-state selective [1H, 15N] correlation spectrum acquired from a sample dissolved in a dilute liquid crystal. Four EF-hand motifs with characteristic helix-loop-helix patterns were observed. Three of these are typical calcium-binding EF-hands, whereas site 2 is an atypical nonbinding site. The global fold of calerythrin was assessed by dipolar couplings. Measured dipolar couplings were compared with values calculated from four crystal structures of proteins with sequence homology to calerythrin. These data allowed us to recognize an overall similarity between the folds of calerythrin and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins from the sandworm Nereis diversicolor and the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. PMID:10631973

  19. Protein secondary structure of the isolated photosystem II reaction center and conformational changes studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, W Z; Newell, W R; Haris, P I; Chapman, D; Barber, J

    1991-05-01

    The secondary structure of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center isolated from pea chloroplasts has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded in aqueous buffers containing H2O or D2O; the detergent present for most measurements was dodecyl maltoside. The broad amide I and amide II bands were analyzed by using second-derivative and deconvolution procedures. Absorption bands were assigned to the presence of alpha-helices, beta-sheets, turns, or random structure. Quantitative analysis revealed that this complex contained a high proportion of alpha-helices (67%) and some antiparallel beta-sheets (9%) and turns (11%). An irreversible decrease in the intensity of the band associated with the alpha-helices occurs upon exposure of the isolated PSII reaction center to bright illumination. This loss of alpha-helical content gave rise to an increase in other secondary structures, particularly beta-sheets. After similar pretreatment with light, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals lower mobility and solubility of constituent D1 and D2 polypeptides of the PSII reaction center. Some degradation of these polypeptides also occurs. In contrast, there is no change in the mobility of the two subunits of cytochrome b559. In the absence of illumination, the PSII reaction center exchanged into dodecyl maltoside shows good thermal stability as compared with samples in Triton X-100. Only at a temperature of about 60 degrees C do spectral changes take place that are indicative of denaturation. PMID:1850626

  20. A common core of secondary structure of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) throughout the Eukaryota

    PubMed Central

    SCHULTZ, JÖRG; MAISEL, STEFANIE; GERLACH, DANIEL; MÜLLER, TOBIAS; WOLF, MATTHIAS

    2005-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of novel species creates the need for a molecular marker which can be used for species- and, simultaneously, for mega-systematics. Recently, the use of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence was suggested, as it shows a high divergence in sequence with an assumed conservation in structure. This hypothesis was mainly based on small-scale analyses, comparing a limited number of sequences. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of more than 54,000 currently known ITS2 sequences with the goal to evaluate the hypothesis of a conserved structural core and to assess its use for automated large-scale phylogenetics. Structure prediction revealed that the previously described core structure can be found for more than 5000 sequences in a wide variety of taxa within the eukaryotes, indicating that the core secondary structure is indeed conserved. This conserved structure allowed an automated alignment of extremely divergent sequences as exemplified for the ITS2 sequences of a ctenophorean eumetazoon and a volvocalean green alga. All classified sequences, together with their structures can be accessed at http://www.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/bioinformatik/projects/ITS2.html. Furthermore, we found that, although sample sequences are known for most major taxa, there exists a profound divergence in coverage, which might become a hindrance for general usage. In summary, our analysis strengthens the potential of ITS2 as a general phylogenetic marker and provides a data source for further ITS2-based analyses. PMID:15769870

  1. mRNA transcript therapy.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Drew

    2015-02-01

    mRNA is the central molecule of all forms of life. It is generally accepted that current life on Earth descended from an RNA world. mRNA, after its first therapeutic description in 1992, has recently come into increased focus as a method to deliver genetic information. The recent solution to the two main difficulties in using mRNA as a therapeutic, immune stimulation and potency, has provided the basis for a wide range of applications. While mRNA-based cancer immunotherapies have been in clinical trials for a few years, novel approaches; including, in vivo delivery of mRNA to replace or supplement proteins, mRNA-based generation of pluripotent stem cells, or genome engineering using mRNA-encoded meganucleases are beginning to be realized. This review presents the current state of mRNA drug technologies and potential applications, as well as discussing the challenges and prospects in mRNA development and drug discovery. PMID:25359562

  2. Characterization of proteins associating with 5' terminus of PGHS-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Bunimov, Natalia; Laneuville, Odette

    2010-06-01

    Induction of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide H Synthase-1 (PGHS-1) gene has been previously documented in a few studies during events such as development and cellular differentiation. However, molecular mechanisms governing the regulation of PGHS-1 gene expression and contributing to changes in protein levels are poorly understood. Using the MEG-01 cell model of PGHS-1 gene induction, our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the 5'UTR and the first two exons of PGHS-1 mRNA had a significant impact on decreasing the translational efficiency of a reporter gene and suggested that the presence of a secondary structure is required for conservation of this activity. This 5'end of PGHS-1 mRNA sequence has also been shown to associate with nucleolin protein. In the current study, we set to investigate the protein composition of the mRNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein) associating with the 5'end of PGHS-1 mRNA and to identify its protein members. RNA/protein binding assays coupled with LC-MS analysis identified serpin B1 and NF45 (nuclear factor 45) proteins as potential members of PGHS-1 mRNP complex. Immunoprecipitation experiments using MEG-01 protein extracts validated mass spectrometry data and confirmed binding of nucleolin, serpin B1, NF45 and NF90. The RNA fraction was extracted from immunoprecipitated mRNP complexes and association of RNA binding proteins, serpin B1, NF45 and NF90, to PGHS-1 mRNA target sequence was confirmed by RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that serpin B1, NF45 and NF90 associate with PGHS-1 mRNA and can potentially participate in the formation a single or a number of PGHS-1 ribonucleoprotein complexes, through nucleolin that possibly serves as a docking base for other protein complex members. PMID:20112001

  3. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Püttker, Thomas; Pardini, Renata; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Sommer, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies) are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to fragmentation occurred at locations

  4. Secondary structure components and properties of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli: a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Dave, N; Troullier, A; Mus-Veteau, I; Duñach, M; Leblanc, G; Padrós, E

    2000-08-01

    The structure of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, using the purified transporter either in the solubilized state or reconstituted in E. coli lipids. In both instances, the spectra suggest that the permease secondary structure is dominated by alpha-helical components (up to 50%) and contains beta-structure (20%) and additional components assigned to turns, 3(10) helix, and nonordered structures (30%). Two distinct and strong absorption bands are recorded at 1660 and 1653 cm(-1), i.e., in the usual range of absorption of helices of membrane proteins. Moreover, conditions that preserve the transporter functionality (reconstitution in liposomes or solubilization with dodecyl maltoside) make possible the detection of two separate alpha-helical bands of comparable intensity. In contrast, a single intense band, centered at approximately 1656 cm(-1), is recorded from the inactive permease in Triton X-100, or a merged and broader signal is recorded after the solubilized protein is heated in dodecyl maltoside. It is suggested that in the functional permease, distinct signals at 1660 and 1653 cm(-1) arise from two different populations of alpha-helical domains. Furthermore, the sodium- and/or melibiose-induced changes in amide I line shape, and in particular, in the relative amplitudes of the 1660 and 1653 cm(-1) bands, indicate that the secondary structure is modified during the early step of sugar transport. Finally, the observation that approximately 80% of the backbone amide protons can be exchanged suggests high conformational flexibility and/or a large accessibility of the membrane domains to the aqueous solvent. PMID:10920008

  5. Primary and secondary structural determinants in the receptor binding sequence. beta. -(38-57) from human luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Keutmann, H.T.; Charlesworth, M.C.; Kitzmann, K.; Mason, K.A.; Johnson, L.; Ryan, R.J.

    1988-12-13

    The intercysteine loop sequence 38-57 in the ..beta.. subunit has been shown to be a determinant for expression of biological activity in human lutropin (hLH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG). Together with other sequences, the 38-57 region may contribute to a multicomponent receptor binding domain in hLH/hCG. Because the structural features influencing activity in this important region are not easy to evaluate in the full-length subunit, the authors have used analogues of hLH..beta..-(38-57) prepared by solid-phase synthesis. The peptides were tested for inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled hCG binding to rat ovarian membrane receptors. Secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and by reactivity with antibodies to the native 38-57 peptide. An analogue lacking the 38-57 disulfide linkage retained 20% receptor binding and full immunoreactivity. Far-ultraviolet CD profiles were essentially identical with those of the disulfide-intact peptide; a transition from 10% to 30% ..cap alpha..-helix in 90% trifluoroethanol was characteristic of both. The peptide thus appears not to require the disulfide bridge to retain a looped conformation with amphipathic secondary structure. An essential positive charge at position 43 was shown by complete loss of activity upon substitution of Asp or Ala for the Arg found in all known species of LH. These results indicate that the 38-57 sequence is a relatively rigid and structurally autonomous region, not merely a series of residues constrained passively into a loop by a disulfide linkage. It includes segments of ordered structure, probably including both amphipathic helical and turn sequences. Evidence from studies of other hormones suggests that this region may be important to binding and specificity in the glycoprotein hormones as a group.

  6. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  7. The structurally distinct form of pp60/sup c-src/ detected in neuronal cells is encoded by a unique c-src mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.B.; Dorai, T.; Wang, L.H.; Brugge, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A cellular scr (c-src) cDNA clone was isolated from a chicken embryonic brain cDNA library and characterized by DNA sequence analysis. Comparison with the published sequence of a chicken genomic c-src clone indicated that the brain cDNA clone contained an 18-base-pair insertion located between exons 3 and 4 of the c-src gene. The six amino acids encoded by the insertion caused an alteration in the electrophoretic mobility of the c-src gene product similar to that of the structurally distinct form of the src protein detected in neuronal cultures.

  8. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics of Murine Amelogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. X.; Xu, Y. S.; Buchko, G. W.; Shaw, W. J.

    2013-10-15

    Biomineralization proteins, present during the formation of hard tissues including bones, teeth, egg shells and nacre, result in the exquisite structures and properties of the resulting materials.[1] The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of these proteins due to the difficulty in determining structures of immobilized proteins. Solid-state NMR is uniquely suited to the study of the structure of proteins bound to surfaces, demonstrated with the structural and orientation insights provided for the hydroxyapatite mineralization proteins statherin and the amelogenin, LRAP.[2] While these data are some of the only structural data available for this important class of protein, the experiments are often expensive and time consuming, due to the need to prepare and measure samples with isolated spin pairs, and are limited to a size of ~60 residues. In this work, we utilized a combination of 1D and recent 2D[3] solid-state NMR techniques along with a sparsely labelled sample to characterize the structure and dynamics of potential HAP binding residues of the 180 residue enamel protein, amelogenin. Amelogenin nanospheres and mineral bound amelogenin were investigated and a shift from unstructured to β-sheet structure was observed, along with a decrease in protein flexibility. This work provides the first molecular level structure and dynamic information of full-length amelogenin on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and within nanospheres, and demonstrates the ability to evaluate structural characteristics of large biomineralization proteins bound to their physiologically relevant surface. The research was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a facility operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, with a portion of it performed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user

  9. Elastic properties and secondary structure formation of single-stranded DNA at monovalent and divalent salt conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Alessandro; Camunas-Soler, Joan; Ritort, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plays a major role in several biological processes. It is therefore of fundamental interest to understand how the elastic response and the formation of secondary structures are modulated by the interplay between base pairing and electrostatic interactions. Here we measure force-extension curves (FECs) of ssDNA molecules in optical tweezers set up over two orders of magnitude of monovalent and divalent salt conditions, and obtain its elastic parameters by fitting the FECs to semiflexible models of polymers. For both monovalent and divalent salts, we find that the electrostatic contribution to the persistence length is proportional to the Debye screening length, varying as the inverse of the square root of cation concentration. The intrinsic persistence length is equal to 0.7 nm for both types of salts, and the effectivity of divalent cations in screening electrostatic interactions appears to be 100-fold as compared with monovalent salt, in line with what has been recently reported for single-stranded RNA. Finally, we propose an analysis of the FECs using a model that accounts for the effective thickness of the filament at low salt condition and a simple phenomenological description that quantifies the formation of non-specific secondary structure at low forces. PMID:24225314

  10. Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared study on photoadduct formation and secondary structural changes within the phototropin LOV domain.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Anna; Majerus, Teresa; Zikihara, Kazunori; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Tokutomi, Satoru; Heberle, Joachim; Kottke, Tilman

    2009-02-18

    Phototropins are plant blue-light photoreceptors containing two light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domains and a C-terminal kinase domain. The two LOV domains bind noncovalently flavin mononucleotide as a chromophore. We investigated the photocycle of fast-recovery mutant LOV2-I403V from Arabidopsis phototropin 2 by step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reaction of the triplet excited state of flavin with cysteine takes place with a time constant of 3 micros to yield the covalent adduct. Our data provide evidence that the flavin is unprotonated in the productive triplet state, disfavoring an ionic mechanism of bond formation. An intermediate adduct species was evident that displayed changes in secondary structure in the helix or loop region, and relaxed with a time constant of 120 micros. In milliseconds, the final adduct state is formed by further alterations of secondary structure, including beta-sheets. A comparison with wild-type adduct spectra shows that the mutation does not interfere with the functionality of the domain. All signals originate from within the LOV domain, because the construct does not comprise the adjacent Jalpha helix required for signal transduction. The contribution of early and late adduct intermediates to signal transfer to the Jalpha helix outside of the domain is discussed. PMID:19217862

  11. Downstream elements of mammalian pre-mRNA polyadenylation signals: primary, secondary and higher-order structures.

    PubMed

    Zarudnaya, Margarita I; Kolomiets, Iryna M; Potyahaylo, Andriy L; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2003-03-01

    Primary, secondary and higher-order structures of downstream elements of mammalian pre-mRNA polyadenylation signals [poly(A) signals] are re viewed. We have carried out a detailed analysis on our database of 244 human pre-mRNA poly(A) signals in order to characterize elements in their downstream regions. We suggest that the downstream region of the mammalian pre-mRNA poly(A) signal consists of various simple elements located at different distances from each other. Thus, the downstream region is not described by any precise consensus. Searching our database, we found that approximately 80% of pre-mRNAs with the AAUAAA or AUUAAA core upstream elements contain simple downstream elements, consisting of U-rich and/or 2GU/U tracts, the former occurring approximately 2-fold more often than the latter. Approximately one-third of the pre-mRNAs analyzed here contain sequences that may form G-quadruplexes. A substantial number of these sequences are located immediately downstream of the poly(A) signal. A possible role of G-rich sequences in the polyadenylation process is discussed. A model of the secondary structure of the SV40 late pre-mRNA poly(A) signal downstream region is presented. PMID:12595544

  12. miR-Explore: Predicting MicroRNA Precursors by Class Grouping and Secondary Structure Positional Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Bram; Aggrey, Samuel E.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expressions by targeting the mRNAs especially in the 3′UTR regions. The identification of miRNAs has been done by biological experiment and computational prediction. The computational prediction approach has been done using two major methods: comparative and noncomparative. The comparative method is dependent on the conservation of the miRNA sequences and secondary structure. The noncomparative method, on the other hand, does not rely on conservation. We hypothesized that each miRNA class has its own unique set of features; therefore, grouping miRNA by classes before using them as training data will improve sensitivity and specificity. The average sensitivity was 88.62% for miR-Explore, which relies on within miRNA class alignment, and 70.82% for miR-abela, which relies on global alignment. Compared with global alignment, grouping miRNA by classes yields a better sensitivity with very high specificity for pre-miRNA prediction even when a simple positional based secondary and primary structure alignment are used. PMID:23645986

  13. Population Structure and Spatial Pattern of Main Tree Species in Secondary Betula platyphylla Forest in Ziwuling Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Di; Guo, Yaoxin; Ren, Chengjie; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated a typical secondary Betula platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains, Loess Plateau, China. In the sample plot, the DBH (diameter at breast height) class structure of B. platyphylla was bimodal. Individuals with small and large DBH values were abundant. The DBH structures of Quercus wutaishanica and Pinus tabulaeformis were close to that of the logistic model, thus suggesting the increasing population of these species. B. platyphylla and Populus davidiana showed random spatial distributions at almost all scales. However, Q. wutaishanica and P. tabulaeformis were significantly clumped at small scales. B. platyphylla had a negative spatial relation with Q. wutaishanica at small spatial scales. P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica showed negative spatial correlations at small scales, but they had positive correlations at large scales. These results suggest that P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica shared habitat preferences at these scales. In the future, the secondary B. platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains in the Loess Plateau will probably change into a multi-species mixed forest (Quercus–Pinus mixed forest). Assisted restoration strategies must be employed to improve the regeneration dynamics of the forest in the long term. PMID:25362993

  14. A study of the alkaline hydrolysis of fractionated reticulocyte ribosomal ribonucleic acid and its relevance to secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R. A.; Gould, Hannah J.; Kanagalingam, K.

    1968-01-01

    1. RNA isolated from the sub-units of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes was hydrolysed by 0·4n-potassium hydroxide at 20°. The probability of main-chain scission was calculated from the number-average chain length, which was obtained from S25,w in 0·01m-phosphate buffer. 2. The fraction, f, of the original secondary structure that the fragments re-formed at neutral pH in 4m-guanidinium chloride, as well as in 0·01m- and 0·1m-phosphate buffer, was derived from changes in extinction over the range 220–310mμ on thermal denaturation. 3. The secondary structure of RNA is regarded as an assembly of hairpin loops each of 2N+b residues on average, where N is the number of base-paired residues and b is the number of unpaired residues. 4. If chain scission takes place at random then 2N+b=logf/log(1–p). 5. For RNA from the smaller sub-unit 2N+b was estimated as 25±5 residues, compared with 30±5 residues for the less stable species and 35±5 residues for the more stable species of hairpin loop of RNA from the larger sub-unit. PMID:5639928

  15. Population structure and spatial pattern of main tree species in secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Ziwuling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Guo, Yaoxin; Ren, Chengjie; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated a typical secondary Betula platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains, Loess Plateau, China. In the sample plot, the DBH (diameter at breast height) class structure of B. platyphylla was bimodal. Individuals with small and large DBH values were abundant. The DBH structures of Quercus wutaishanica and Pinus tabulaeformis were close to that of the logistic model, thus suggesting the increasing population of these species. B. platyphylla and Populus davidiana showed random spatial distributions at almost all scales. However, Q. wutaishanica and P. tabulaeformis were significantly clumped at small scales. B. platyphylla had a negative spatial relation with Q. wutaishanica at small spatial scales. P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica showed negative spatial correlations at small scales, but they had positive correlations at large scales. These results suggest that P. tabulaeformis and Q. wutaishanica shared habitat preferences at these scales. In the future, the secondary B. platyphylla forest in the Ziwuling Mountains in the Loess Plateau will probably change into a multi-species mixed forest (Quercus-Pinus mixed forest). Assisted restoration strategies must be employed to improve the regeneration dynamics of the forest in the long term. PMID:25362993

  16. Unoccupied-electronic-band structure of graphite studied by angle-resolved secondary-electron emission and inverse photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, F.; Takahashi, T.; Ohsawa, H.; Suzuki, S.; Suematsu, H.

    1988-03-01

    Angle-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy (ARIPES) and angle-resolved secondary-electron emission spectroscopy (ARSEES) have been performed for graphite to establish experimentally the unoccupied-electronic-band structure as well as to study the difference between the two techniques. Remarkable differences have been found in the experimental two-dimensional band structures obtained by the two methods. The experimental results have been compared with the two different band calculations by R. C. Tatar and S. Rabii [Phys. Rev. B 25, 4126 (1982)] and by N. A. W. Holzwarth, S. G. Louie, and S. Rabii [Phys. Rev. B 26, 5382 (1982)] with special attention to the energy position of the three-dimensional interlayer band. The possible origin of the difference between ARIPES and ARSEES has also been discussed.

  17. Computer analysis of phytochrome sequences and reevaluation of the phytochrome secondary structure by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, J; Hermann, G; Dornberger, U; Fritzsche, H

    1997-07-18

    A repertoire of various methods of computer sequence analysis was applied to phytochromes in order to gain new insights into their structure and function. A statistical analysis of 23 complete phytochrome sequences revealed regions of non-random amino acid composition, which are supposed to be of particular structural or functional importance. All phytochromes other than phyD and phyE from Arabidopsis have at least one such region at the N-terminus between residues 2 and 35. A sequence similarity search of current databases indicated striking homologies between all phytochromes and a hypothetical 84.2-kDa protein from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Furthermore, scanning the phytochrome sequences for the occurrence of patterns defined in the PROSITE database detected the signature of the WD repeats of the beta-transducin family within the functionally important 623-779 region (sequence numbering of phyA from Avena) in a number of phytochromes. A multiple sequence alignment performed with 23 complete phytochrome sequences is made available via the IMB Jena World-Wide Web server (http://www.imb-jena.de/PHYTO.html). It can be used as a working tool for future theoretical and experimental studies. Based on the multiple alignment striking sequence differences between phytochromes A and B were detected directly at the N-terminal end, where all phytochromes B have an additional stretch of 15-42 amino acids. There is also a variety of positions with totally conserved but different amino acids in phytochromes A and B. Most of these changes are found in the sequence segment 150-200. It is, therefore, suggested that this region might be of importance in determining the photosensory specificity of the two phytochromes. The secondary structure prediction based on the multiple alignment resulted in a small but significant beta-sheet content. This finding is confirmed by a reevaluation of the secondary structure using FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:9252112

  18. The recognition of multi-class protein folds by adding average chemical shifts of secondary structure elements

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhenxing; Hu, Xiuzhen; Jiang, Zhuo; Song, Hangyu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of protein folds is an important step in the prediction of protein structure and function. Recently, an increasing number of researchers have sought to improve the methods for protein fold recognition. Following the construction of a dataset consisting of 27 protein fold classes by Ding and Dubchak in 2001, prediction algorithms, parameters and the construction of new datasets have improved for the prediction of protein folds. In this study, we reorganized a dataset consisting of 76-fold classes constructed by Liu et al. and used the values of the increment of diversity, average chemical shifts of secondary structure elements and secondary structure motifs as feature parameters in the recognition of multi-class protein folds. With the combined feature vector as the input parameter for the Random Forests algorithm and ensemble classification strategy, we propose a novel method to identify the 76 protein fold classes. The overall accuracy of the test dataset using an independent test was 66.69%; when the training and test sets were combined, with 5-fold cross-validation, the overall accuracy was 73.43%. This method was further used to predict the test dataset and the corresponding structural classification of the first 27-protein fold class dataset, resulting in overall accuracies of 79.66% and 93.40%, respectively. Moreover, when the training set and test sets were combined, the accuracy using 5-fold cross-validation was 81.21%. Additionally, this approach resulted in improved prediction results using the 27-protein fold class dataset constructed by Ding and Dubchak. PMID:26980999

  19. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25893743

  20. Primary structure of human nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle C proteins: conservation of sequence and domain structures in heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, and pre-rRNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Nakagawa, T Y; LeVan, K; Dreyfuss, G

    1987-01-01

    In the eucaryotic nucleus, heterogeneous nuclear RNAs exist in a complex with a specific set of proteins to form heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (hnRNPs). The C proteins, C1 and C2, are major constituents of hnRNPs and appear to play a role in RNA splicing as suggested by antibody inhibition and immunodepletion experiments. With the use of a previously described partial cDNA clone as a hybridization probe, full-length cDNAs for the human C proteins were isolated. All of the cDNAs isolated hybridized to two poly(A)+ RNAs of 1.9 and 1.4 kilobases (kb). DNA sequencing of a cDNA clone for the 1.9-kb mRNA (pHC12) revealed a single open reading frame of 290 amino acids coding for a protein of 31,931 daltons and two polyadenylation signals, AAUAAA, approximately 400 base pairs apart in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. DNA sequencing of a clone corresponding to the 1.4-kb mRNA (pHC5) indicated that the sequence of this mRNA is identical to that of the 1.9-kb mRNA up to the first polyadenylation signal which it uses. Both mRNAs therefore have the same coding capacity and are probably transcribed from a single gene. Translation in vitro of the 1.9-kb mRNA selected by hybridization with a 3'-end subfragment of pHC12 demonstrated that it by itself can direct the synthesis of both C1 and C2. The difference between the C1 and C2 proteins which results in their electrophoretic separation is not known, but most likely one of them is generated from the other posttranslationally. Since several hnRNP proteins appeared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as multiple antigenically related polypeptides, this raises the possibility that some of these other groups of hnRNP proteins are also each produced from a single mRNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein indicates that it is composed of two distinct domains: an amino terminus that contains what we have recently described as a RNP consensus sequence, which is the putative

  1. Method of preparing electrodes with porous current collector structures and solid reactants for secondary electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate electrode reactants, for instance transition metal sulfides for the positive electrodes and lithium alloys for the negative electrodes, are vibratorily compacted into porous, electrically conductive structures. Structures of high porosity support sufficient reactant material to provide high cell capacity per unit weight while serving as an electrical current collector to improve the utilization of reactant materials. Pore sizes of the structure and particle sizes of the reactant material are selected to permit uniform vibratory loading of the substrate without settling of the reactant material during cycling.

  2. Multiple sexual selection pressures drive the rapid evolution of complex morphology in a male secondary genital structure.</