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Sample records for ms quantification method

  1. LC-MS quantification of protein drugs: validating protein LC-MS methods with predigestion immunocapture.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Jeffrey; Ren, Bailuo; Mao, Yan; Chen, Lin-Zhi; Philip, Elsy

    2016-09-01

    A refinement of protein LC-MS bioanalysis is to use predigestion immunoaffinity capture to extract the drug from matrix prior to digestion. Because of their increased sensitivity, such hybrid assays have been successfully validated and applied to a number of clinical studies; however, they can also be subject to potential interferences from antidrug antibodies, circulating ligands or other matrix components specific to patient populations and/or dosed subjects. The purpose of this paper is to describe validation experiments that measure immunocapture efficiency, digestion efficiency, matrix effect and selectivity/specificity that can be used during method optimization and validation to test the resistance of the method to these potential interferences. The designs and benefits of these experiments are discussed in this report using an actual assay case study. PMID:27532431

  2. Multiclass method for pesticides quantification in honey by means of modified QuEChERS and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; Pereira, Elba Nathália Corrêa; Silva, Gilsara; de Abreu Glória, Maria Beatriz; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-11-15

    Bee products can be produced in an environment contaminated by pesticides that can be transported by honey bees to the hive and incorporated into the honey. Therefore, rapid and modern methods to determine pesticide residues in honey samples are essential to guarantee consumers' health. In this study, a simple multiresidue method for the quantification of 116 pesticides in honey is proposed. It involves the use of a modified QuEChERS procedure followed by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was validated according to the European Union SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (0.005mg/kg) and limit of quantification (0.010 and 0.025mg/kg), trueness (for the four tested levels the recovery assays values were between 70 and 120%), intermediate precision (RSD<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<50.0%). The validated method was applied for determination of 100 honey samples from five states of Brazil. PMID:27283616

  3. Novel and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of sofosbuvir in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Basalious, Emad B; Amin, Mohammed E

    2016-09-01

    A novel and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of sofosbuvir (SF) using eplerenone as an internal standard. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Method validation was performed as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.25-3500 ng/mL for SF. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1 min made it possible to analyze more than 500 human plasma samples per day. A very low quantification limit of SF allowed the applicability of the developed method for determination of SF in a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26821881

  4. An UPLC-MS/MS method for separation and accurate quantification of tamoxifen and its metabolites isomers.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Cécile; Allal, Ben; Goubaa, Anwar; Roché, Henri; Chatelut, Etienne

    2014-11-01

    A selective and accurate analytical method is needed to quantify tamoxifen and its phase I metabolites in a prospective clinical protocol, for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of tamoxifen and its metabolites in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. The selectivity of the analytical method is a fundamental criteria to allow the quantification of the main active metabolites (Z)-isomers from (Z)'-isomers. An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of (Z)-tamoxifen, (Z)-endoxifen, (E)-endoxifen, Z'-endoxifen, (Z)'-endoxifen, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, (Z)-4'-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyl tamoxifen, and tamoxifen-N-oxide. The validation range was set between 0.5ng/mL and 125ng/mL for 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen isomers, and between 12.5ng/mL and 300ng/mL for tamoxifen, tamoxifen N-desmethyl and tamoxifen-N-oxide. The application to patient plasma samples was performed. PMID:25173109

  5. HPLC MS/MS method for quantification of meprobamate in human plasma: application to 24/7 clinical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Delavenne, Xavier; Gay-Montchamp, Jean Pierre; Basset, Thierry

    2011-01-15

    We described the development and full validation of rapid and accurate liquid chromatography method, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection, for quantification of meprobamate in human plasma with [(13)C-(2)H(3)]-meprobamate as internal standard. Plasma pretreatment involved a one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Separation was performed by reversed-phase chromatography on a Luna MercuryMS C18 (20 mm×4 mm×3 μm) column using a gradient elution mode. The mobile phase was a mix of distilled water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The selected reaction monitoring transitions, in electrospray positive ionization, used for quantification were 219.2→158.2 m/z and 223.1→161.1m/z for meprobamate and internal standard, respectively. Qualification transitions were 219.2→97.0 and 223.1→101.1 m/z for meprobamate and internal standard, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1-300 mg/L. The intra- and inter-day precision values were below 6.4% and accuracy was within 95.3% and 103.6% for all QC levels (5, 75 and 200 mg/L). The lower limit of quantification was 1 mg/L. Total analysis time was reduced to 6 min including sample preparation. The present method is successfully applied to 24/7 clinical toxicology and demonstrated its usefulness to detect meprobamate poisoning. PMID:21185792

  6. Rapid method for quantification of seven synthetic pigments in colored Chinese steamed buns using UFLC-MS/MS without SPE.

    PubMed

    Gao, He-Gang; Gong, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pigments are still used instead of natural pigments in many foods and their residues in food could be an important risk to human health. A simple and rapid analytical method combining the low-cost extraction protocol with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven synthetic pigments used in colored Chinese steamed buns. For the first time, ethanol/ammonia solution/water (7:2:1, v/v/v) was used as extraction solution for the synthetic pigments in colored Chinese steamed buns. The results showed that the property of the extraction solution used in this method was more effective than critic acid solution, which is used in the polyamide adsorption method. The limits of quantification for the seven synthetic pigments ranged from 0.15 to 0.50 μg/kg. The present method was successfully applied to samples of colored Chinese steamed buns for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results found sunset yellow pigment in six out of 300 colored Chinese steamed buns (from 0.50 to 32.6 μg/kg). PMID:25765275

  7. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of febuxostat in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Vaka, Venkata Rami Reddy; Inamadugu, Jaswanth Kumar; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Ramesh, Mullangi; Katreddi, Hussain Reddy

    2013-11-01

    An improved, simple and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for quantification of febuxostat with 100 μL human plasma using febuxostat-d7 as an internal standard (IS) according to regulatory guidelines. The analyte and IS were extracted from human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and 5 mm ammonium formate (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The total run time was 5.0 min and the elution of febuxostat and IS occurred at 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 1-6000 ng/mL (r > 0.99). The precursor to product ion transitions monitored for febuxostat and IS were m/z 317.1 → 261.1 and 324.2 → 262.1, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (%RSD) were within 1.29-9.19 and 2.85-7.69%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies in humans. PMID:23733262

  8. LC-MS/MS method development for quantification of busulfan in human plasma and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Nadella, Taraka Ramarao; Suryadevara, Vidyadhara; Lankapalli, Sasidhar Reddyvallam; Mandava, Venkata Basaveswara Rao; Bandarupalli, Deepti

    2016-02-20

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of busulfan, in human plasma. busulfan d8 was used as internal standard, added to plasma sample prior to extraction using acetonitrile as a precipitating agent. Chromatographic separation was achieved on phenomenex kinetex C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 2.6μm) with acteonitrile: 10mM ammonium formate buffer (80:20v/v) as an isocratic mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1). Quantitation was performed by transition of 264.1→151.1 (m/z) for busulfan and 272.1→159.1 (m/z) for busulfan d8. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.2ngmL(-1) with a 100μL plasma sample. The concentrations of nine working standards showed linearity between 0.2 and 100ngmL(-1) (r(2)≥0.9986). Chromatographic separation was achieved within 2.0min. The average extraction recoveries of 3quality control concentrations were 92.52% for busulfan and 90.75% for busulfan d8. The coefficient of variation was ≤15% for intra- and inter-batch assays. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Busulfan pharmacokinetics after oral administration. PMID:26736033

  9. Rapid and simple UPLC-MS/MS method for precise phytochelatin quantification in alga extracts.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Anja; Wesenberg, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative phytochelatin (PC) analysis is, due to oxidation sensitivity of the PCs, matrix effects, and time consuming sample preparation, still a challenging analytical task. In this study, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for precise determination of native PCs in crude extracts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed. Algae were exposed 48 h to 70 μM Cd. Coupling of ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multi-reaction mode transitions for detection permitted the required short-time, high-resolution separation and detection specificity. Thus, under optimized chromatographic conditions, 10 thiol peptides were baseline-separated within 7 min. Relative detection limits in the nanomolar range in microliter sample volumes were achieved (corresponding to absolute detection limits at femtomole level). Next to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cadmium-induced PCs in C. reinhardtii, namely CysGSH, PC(2), PC(3), CysPC(2), and CysPC(3), were quantified with high reproducibility at concentrations between 15 and 198 nmol g(-1) fresh weight. The biological variation of PC synthesis of nine independently grown alga cultures was determined to be on average 13.7%. PMID:20632163

  10. LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of almotriptan in dialysates: application to rat brain and blood microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Aleti, Raghupathi; Pantangi, Hanumanth Rao; Srikakolapu, Surya Rao; Benade, Vijay; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Vurimindi, Himabindu

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of almotriptan in rat brain and blood dialysates. Almotriptan is a 5HT1B/1D receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine pain. Method consists of rapid gradient elution program with 10mM ammonium formate (pH 3) and acetonitrile on a Xbridge column. The MRM transitions monitored were m/z 336.2-58.1 for almotriptan and m/z 448.2-285.3 for the IS. The assay was linear in the range of 0.1-20 ng/ml, with acceptable precision and accuracy along with adequate sensitivity. The between batch accuracy was in the range of 99.0-104.3% with precision in between 0.6% and 5.8%. Microdialysis is an important sampling technique, with the capability of capturing the concentrations of various analytes in different bio fluids, at a single time point. This method was applied to quantify brain and blood dialysate samples obtained from a microdialysis study of rats treated with almotriptan (10mg/kg, p.o.). In vivo recovery experiments were performed to correct the dialysate concentrations into extracellular concentrations. Mean peak dialysate concentrations of almotriptan were found to be 152 ± 78 and 7.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml in blood and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The brain penetration of almotriptan is characterized by the AUCbrain/AUCblood found to be 0.07 ± 0.05. The results revealed the importance of measuring the unbound almotriptan concentrations in the brain over the blood for understanding its PK/PD relationship. PMID:23666253

  11. Development and validation of UHPLC-MS/MS methods for the quantification of colistin in plasma and dried plasma spots.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Castagnola, Elio; Tripodi, Gino; Favata, Fabio; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-09-10

    Quantification of colistin in plasma samples may be very useful in optimizing therapy especially in special patients' population. Nevertheless, therapeutic drug monitoring of colistin is still limited probably for the low number of laboratories which perform this analysis and for high shipment costs. We developed and validated new UHPLC-MS/MS methods to quantify colistin in plasma and in dried plasma spots (DPS) collected on dried sample spots devices (DSSD). Colistin A, Colistin B and polimixin B, used as internal standard, were detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the following specific transitions: 585.5→534.9; 576, 578.5→527.9; 568.9 and 602.5→100.9, 551.9, 592.8, respectively. Colistin A and B were extracted from plasma using protein precipitation and from DSSD using an extraction basic solution. Both methods were validated, and the mean intra and inter-day accuracies and precisions were in accordance with FDA and EMA guidelines. Colistin in DPS was found to be stable for at least one week at room temperature (20-25°C). A statistically significant linear correlation was found between colistin extracted from plasma and from DPS [r(2) 0.9864 (P<0.0001, 95% CI 0.9699-0.9939) for colistin A and 0.9695 (P<0.0001, 95% CI 0.9310-0.9866) for colistin B, respectively]. DPS on DSSD represents a safe and cheap strategy to store and ship at room temperature plasma samples. Thus, it is suited for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of colistin. PMID:27505127

  12. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 15 endocannabinoids and related compounds in milk and other biofluids.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L

    2014-01-21

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has gained an increasing interest over the past decades since the discovery of anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). These, and structurally related compounds, are associated with a wide variety of physiological processes. For instance, eCB levels in milk have been associated with infants' feeding and sleeping behavior. A method based on ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of 15 eCBs and related compounds, including both fatty acid amides and glycerols. Linearity (0.9845 < R(2) < 1), limit of detection and quantification (0.52-293 pg on column), inter- and intraday accuracy (>70%) and precision (CV < 15%), stability, and recovery (in milk and plasma) were established in accordance to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The method was successfully applied to bovine and elk milk revealing species-specific eCB profiles, with significant different levels of 2-AG, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, palmitoyl ethanolamide, and oleoyl ethanolamide. Furthermore, stearoyl ethanolamide and docosatetraenoyl ethanolamide were only detected in elk milk. In summary, our UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method may be used for quantification of eCBs and related compounds in different biofluids and applied to investigations of the role of these emerging compounds in various physiological processes. PMID:24377270

  13. A validated SPME-GC-MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stacy D; Rhodes, Daniel J; Pritchard, Boyd J

    2007-09-13

    A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (SPME-GC-MS) method has been developed and validated for measuring four club drugs in human urine. These drugs include gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), methamphetamine (MAMP), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These drugs are referred to as 'club drugs' because of their prevalence at parties and raves. Deuterium labeled internal standards for each of the four drugs was included in the assay to aid in quantitation. The drugs were spiked into human urine and derivatized using pyridine and hexylchloroformate to make them suitable for GC-MS analysis. The SPME conditions of extraction time/temperature and desorption time/temperature were optimized to yield the highest peak area for each of the four drugs. The final SPME parameters included a 90 degrees C extraction for 20min with a 1min desorption in the GC injector at 225 degrees C using a splitless injection. All SPME work was done using a 100microm PDMS fiber by Supelco. The ratio of pyridine to hexylchloroformate for derivatization was also optimized. The GC separation was carried out on a VF-5ht column by Varian (30m, 0.25mm i.d., 0.10microm film thickness) using a temperature program of 150-270 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. The instrument used was a ThermoFinnigan Trace GC-Polaris Q interfaced with a LEAP CombiPal autosampler. The data was collected by using extracted ion chromatograms of marker m/z values for each drug from the total ion chromatograms (TIC) (full scan mode). Calibration curves with R(2)>0.99 were generated each day using the peak area ratios (peak area drug/peak area internal standard) versus concentration. The validated method resulted in intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of less than 15% and a % error of less than 15% for four concentrations in the range of 0.05-20microg/mL (MAMP) and 0.10-20microg/mL (GHB, KET, and MDMA). This method has the advantage of an easy sample preparation with

  14. High-Throughput LC-MS/MS Method for Direct Quantification of Glucuronidated, Sulfated, and Free Enterolactone in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2016-03-01

    Sulfation and glucuronidation constitute a major pathway in humans and may play an important role in biological activity of metabolites including the enterolignan, enterolactone. Because the aromatic structure of enterolactone has similarities to steroid metabolites, it was hypothesized that enterolactone may protect against hormone-dependent cancers. This led to numerous epidemiological studies. In this context, there has been a demand for rapid, sensitive, high-throughput methods to measure enterolactone in biofluids. Different methods have been developed using GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and a fluoroimmunoassay; however, most of these methods measure the total concentration of enterolactone, without any specification of its conjugation pattern. Here for the first time we present a high-throughput LC-MS/MS method to quantify enterolactone in its intact form as glucuronide, sulfate, and free enterolactone. The method has shown good accuracy and precision at low concentration and very high sensitivity, with LLOQ for enterolactone sulfate at 16 pM, enterolactone glucuronide at 26 pM, and free enterolactone at 86 pM. The short run time of 2.6 min combined with simple sample clean up and high sensitivity make this method attractive for the high-throughput of samples needed for epidemiological studies. Finally, we have adapted the new method to quantify enterolactone and its conjugates in 3956 plasma samples from an epidemiological study. We found enterolactone glucuronide to be the major conjugation form and that conjugation pattern was similar between men and women. PMID:26809233

  15. Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Agaritine in Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Merdivan, Simon; Willke, Christoph; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Agaritine, an aromatic hydrazine, is found as a secondary metabolite in mushroom species. It is among others suspected to exhibit genotoxic activity. This publication describes the validation of a method for the quantification of agaritine in mushrooms (i.e., extraction and purification by solid phase extraction) and measurement by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection in positive ionization mode. The results show this method to be selective, accurate, and precise. This method could be used for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing mushrooms. PMID:27279441

  16. A LC–MS/MS method for the specific, sensitive, and simultaneous quantification of 5-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinglan; Yasuda, Makiko; Desnick, Robert J.; Balwani, Manisha; Bishop, David; Yu, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determinations of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) in physiologic fluids are required for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute porphyrias. Current colorimetric methods are insensitive and over-estimate ALA and PBG due to poor specificity, while LC–MS/MS methods increase sensitivity, but have limited matrices. An LC–MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine ALA and PBG concentrations in fluids or tissues which were solid phase extracted, butanol derivatized, and quantitated by selective reaction monitoring using 13C5, 15N-ALA and 2,4-13C2-PBG internal standards. ALA was separated from interfering compounds on a reverse phase C8-column. For ALA and PBG, the matrix effects (87.3–105%) and process efficiencies (77.6–97.8% and 37.2–41.6%, respectively) were acceptable in plasma and urine matrices. The assay was highly sensitive for ALA and PBG (LLOQ = 0.05 µM with 25 µL urine or 100 µL plasma), and required ~4 h from extraction to results. ALA and PBG accuracy ranged from 88.2 to 110% (n = 10); intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were <10% for urine and plasma. In clinical applications, patients with mutation-confirmed acute porphyrias had normal to slightly increased urinary ALA and PBG levels when asymptomatic, and high levels during acute attacks, which decreased with hemin therapy. In AIP mice, baseline ALA and PBG levels in urine, plasma, and liver were increased after phenobarbital induction 28-/63-, 42-/266-, and 13-/316-fold, respectively. This LC–MS/MS method is rapid, specific, highly sensitive, accurate, and simultaneously measures ALA and PBG in urine, plasma, and tissues permitting porphyria clinical diagnoses, therapeutic monitoring, and research. PMID:21783436

  17. High sensitivity LC-MS/MS method for direct quantification of human parathyroid 1-34 (teriparatide) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Erin E; Lame, Mary E; Bardsley, Jon; Hannam, Sally; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Smith, Norman; Fountain, Kenneth J; Collins, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    Teriparatide, the 1-34 fragment of human parathyroid hormone, is used to treat osteoporosis patients with a high risk of fracture by stimulating new bone formation. Routinely teriparatide is quantified using radioimmunoassay however the LC-MS/MS described here has the potential to achieve greater accuracy and precision, higher specificity, and is readily implemented in routine bioanalytical laboratories. Hence a complete method combining effective sample prep with appropriate LC separation and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS detection was developed to selectively separate teriparatide from closely related endogenous peptides and to reduce interferences. Samples were concentrated without evaporation, minimizing the risk of adsorptive losses. Chromatography was performed on a sub 2μm particle charged surface hybrid column, which provided significantly higher peak capacity than a traditional C18 column when formic acid was used as the mobile phase modifier. Total LC cycle time was 6min. An LOD of 15pg/mL (3.6fmol/mL) from 200μL of human plasma was readily achieved and standard curves were accurate and precise from 15pg/mL to 500pg/mL. Mean QC accuracies ranged from 90% to 106%. Mean QC precision was better than 7%. The CV of matrix factors across 6 sources of human plasma was 5%. The assay presented here is the first LC-MS method which reaches clinically relevant detection limits for teriparatide. PMID:24076523

  18. Furan quantification in bread crust: development of a simple and sensitive method using headspace-trap GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huault, Lucie; Descharles, Nicolas; Rega, Barbara; Bistac, Sophie; Bosc, Véronique; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    To study reactivity in bread crust during the baking process in the pan, we followed furan mainly resulting from Maillard and caramelisation reactions in cereal products. Furan quantification is commonly performed with automatic HS-static GC-MS. However, we showed that the automatic HS-trap GC-MS method can improve the sensitivity of the furan quantification. Indeed, this method allowed the LOD to be decreased from 0.3 ng g(-1) with HS-static mode to 0.03 ng g(-1) with HS-trap mode under these conditions. After validation of this method for furan quantification in bread crust, a difference between the crust extracted from the bottom and from the sides of the bread was evident. The quantity of furan in the bottom crust was five times lower than in the side crust, revealing less reactivity on the bottom than on the sides of the bread during the baking process in the pan. Differences in water content may explain these variations in reactivity. PMID:26666729

  19. Development and validation of a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for ondansetron quantification in human plasma and its application in comparative bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Roberto F; Salvadori, Myriam C; Azevedo, Cristina P; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Borges, Diego C; Moreno, Ronílson A; Sverdloff, Carlos E; Borges, Ney C

    2010-11-01

    The validation of a high throughput and specific method using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray (ES+) ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for ondansetron quantification in human plasma is described. Human plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using methyl tert-butyl ether and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The limit of quantification was 0.2 ng/mL and the method was linear in the range 0.2-60 ng/mL. The intra-assay precisions ranged from 1.6 to 7.7%, while inter-assay precisions ranged from 2.1 to 5.1%. The intra-assay accuracies ranged from 97.5 to 108.2%, and the inter-assay accuracies ranged from 97.3 to 107.0%. The analytical method was applied to evaluate the relative bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations containing 8 mg of ondansetron each in 25 healthy volunteers using a randomized, two-period crossover design. The geometric mean and respective 90% confidence interval (CI) of ondansetron test/reference percent ratios were 90.15% (81.74-99.44%) for C(max) and 93.11% (83.01-104.43%) for AUC(₀-t). Based on the 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for C(max) and AUC(₀-inf), it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference one with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of ondansetron. PMID:20954214

  20. A novel LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of tenofovir and lamivudine in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Matta, Murali Krishna; Burugula, Laxminarayana; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Inamadugu, Jaswanth Kumar; J V L N, Seshagiri Rao

    2012-10-01

    A new, rapid, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of tenofovir and lamivudine in human plasma using abacavir as an internal standard. An API-4000 LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the analysis. The analytes were extracted from plasma by solid-phase extraction technique using an Oasis HLB cartridge. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on a Chromolith ROD speed C(18) column using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (90:10 v/v) at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. The method was validated as per the FDA guidelines. The calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-600 ng/mL for tenofovir and 25- 4000 ng/mL for lamivudine. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. A run time of 2.8 min consumed for each sample made it possible to analyze more samples per day. The proposed assay method was found to be applicable to a pharmacokinetic study in human male volunteers. PMID:22222724

  1. Quantification of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method: Application to fasting and fed bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Bendas, Ehab R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A

    2016-08-15

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of sofosbuvir (SF) and ledipasvir (LD) in human plasma using eplerenone as an internal standard (IS). Analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique using methyl tertiary butyl ether. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column. Separation was done using a mobile phase formed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. A full validation of the method was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.25-3500ng/ml for SF and 5-2000ng/ml for LD. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A short run time of 2min allows analysis of more than 400 plasma samples per day. The developed method was successfully applied to both fasting and fed bioequivalence studies in healthy human volunteers. PMID:27322631

  2. Rapid, simple and highly sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamsulosin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Wishu, S; Varma, D P

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of tamsulosin (I), a highly selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analyte and internal standard, mosapride (II) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase Waters symmetry C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.03% formic acid-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 409.1 solidus in circle 228.1 and m/z 422.3 solidus in circle 198.3 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-50.0 ng/mL for tamsulosin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 100 pg/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. PMID:15828055

  3. Development and validation of a bioanalytical method by LC-MS/MS for the quantification of the LAFIS 10 - an antimalarial candidate - and its pharmacokinetics first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Laureano, J V; Barreto, F; Gnoatto, S; Tasso, L; Dalla Costa, T; de Araujo, B V

    2015-05-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive method by LC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the quantification of an antimalarial candidate (LAFIS10) in rat plasma using dexamethasone as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed with a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and acetonitrile (B), both containing 10 m m of ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid, delivered in the form of elution gradient. The LAFIS10 was monitored using an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive mode in multiple reaction monitoring mode, monitoring the transitions 681.47 → 538.2 for LAFIS10 and 393.20 → 355.30 for the IS. The flow rate was 500 μL/min. The column temperature was kept at 40 °C and the injection volume was 2 μL. The lower limit of quantification was of 10 ng/mL and linearity between 10 and 1000 ng/mL was observed, with an R(2)  > 0.99. The accuracy of the method was >90%. The relative standard deviations intra- and interday were <8.80 and <6.37%, respectively. The method showed sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and selectivity required to quantify LAFIS 10 in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies according to criteria established by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. PMID:25339180

  4. Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for the Quantification of Plasma Androgens and Androgen Glucuronides in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Christophi, Costas A; Zografos, George C; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Gounaris, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    The physiological and pathological development of the breast is strongly affected by the hormonal milieu consisting of steroid hormones. Mass spectrometry (MS) technologies of high sensitivity and specificity enable the quantification of androgens and consequently the characterization of the hormonal status. The aim of this study is the assessment of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides, in the par excellence hormone-sensitive tissue of the breast, through the application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A simple and efficient fit-for-purpose method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) in human plasma was developed and validated. The presented method permits omission of derivatization, requires a single solid-phase extraction procedure and the chromatographic separation can be achieved on a single C18 analytical column, for all four analytes. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of 191 human plasma samples from postmenopausal women with benign breast disease (BBD), lobular neoplasia (LN), ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). DHEAS plasma levels exhibited significant differences between LN, IDC and BBD patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, ADTG levels were significantly higher in patients with LN compared with those with BBD (P < 0.05). PMID:26762957

  5. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; Jager, Agnes; Lam, Mei-Ho; den Boer, Mathilda D; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruijn, Peter

    2015-10-10

    The aim of this study was to validate an earlier developed high-performance highly sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tamoxifen and its three main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) in scalp hair. This non-invasive method might, by segmental analysis of hair, be useful in the determination of the concentration of drugs and its metabolites over time, which can be used to study a wide variety of clinical relevant questions. Hair samples (150-300 hair strands, cut as close to the scalp as possible from the posterior vertex region of the head) were collected from female patients taking tamoxifen 20mg daily (n=19). The analytes were extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with carbonate buffer at pH 8.8 and a mixture of n-hexane/isopropranol method, followed by UPLC-MS/MS chromatography, based on an earlier validated method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1.00-200 pmol for tamoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, with lower limit of quantitation of 1.00 pmol and 0.100-20.0 pmol with lower limit of quantitation of 0.100 pmol for endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Assay performance was fair with a within-run and between-run variability less than 9.24 at the three quality control samples and less than 15.7 for the lower limit of quantitation. Importantly, a steep linear decline was observed from distal to proximal hair segments. Probably, this is due to UV exposure as we showed degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites after exposure to UV-light. Furthermore, higher concentrations of tamoxifen were found in black hair samples compared to blond and brown hair samples. We conclude that measurement of the concentration of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in hair is possible, with the selective, sensitive, accurate and precise UPLC-MS/MS method. However, for tamoxifen, it seems not possible to determine

  6. Method development for quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Annonacin is an environmental neurotoxin identified in the pulp of several fruits of the Annonaceae family (for example in Annona muricata, Asimina triloba), whose consumption was linked with the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. Pharmacokinetic parameters of this molecule are unknown. A method for its quantification in Rat plasma was developed, using its analogue annonacinone as an internal standard. Extraction from plasma was performed using ethylacetate with a good recovery. Quantification was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in SRM mode, based on the loss of the γ-methyl-γ-lactone (-112amu) from the sodium-cationized species [M+Na](+) of both annonacin and internal standard. The limit of quantification was 0.25ng/mL. Despite strong matrix effects, a good linearity was obtained over two distinct ranges 0.25-10ng/mL and 10-100ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were lower than 10%, while accuracy was within ±10%. This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the Rat. After oral administration of 10mg/kg annonacin, a Cmax of 7.9±1.5ng/mL was reached at Tmax 0.25h; T1/2 was 4.8±0.7h and apparent distribution volume was 387.9±64.6L. The bioavailability of annonacin was estimated to be 3.2±0.3% of the ingested dose. PMID:26444335

  7. Stable isotope dilution HILIC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamic acid, GABA and theanine in mouse brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasuto; Unno, Keiko; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed the stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) technique for the accurate, reasonable and simultaneous quantification of glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), pyroglutamic acid (pGlu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and theanine in mouse brain tissues. The quantification of these analytes was accomplished using stable isotope internal standards and the HILIC separating mode to fully correct the intramolecular cyclization during the electrospray ionization. It was shown that linear calibrations were available with high coefficients of correlation (r(2)  > 0.999, range from 10 pmol/mL to 50 mol/mL). For application of the theanine intake, the determination of Glu, Gln, pGlu, GABA and theanine in the hippocampus and central cortex tissues was performed based on our developed method. In the region of the hippocampus, the concentration levels of Glu and pGlu were significantly reduced during reality-based theanine intake. Conversely, the concentration level of GABA increased. This result showed that transited theanine has an effect on the metabolic balance of Glu analogs in the hippocampus. PMID:26033549

  8. Quantification of Melt Inclusion Chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, EMP and SIMS: Advantages and Possible Limitations of Either Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettke, T.; Halter, W. E.; Aigner-Torres, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has unique advantages for chemical analysis of melt inclusions (MI), because it allows bulk compositional reconstitution of heterogeneous (crystallized) MI without prior thermal homogenization. Quantification is possible even if chemically complex minerals such as plagioclase or amphibole host the MI. We have analyzed glassy MI in plagioclase in one sample using EMP, SIMS (exposed MI) and 193 nm ArF Excimer LA-ICP-MS (unexposed MI), and rigorously compared the results in order to test the analytical accuracy of the data obtained by the various methods. We used a basalt sample, ALV-3352-7 (MORB from the East Pacific Rise, 17 - 19° S, STOWA cruise) with plagioclase phenocrysts ( ~10 vol-%, An82) in a glassy matrix. Plagioclase contains abundant glassy MI (10 - 300 μ m) some of which show a shrinkage bubble. The plagioclase phenocrysts, the matrix glass and the MI are chemically uniform. For the matrix glass, major element analyses by EMP ( ~0.1 to 50 wt-%) and trace-element analyses by SIMS ( ~2 to 100 ppm) are in excellent agreement (+/- 3% RSD on average) with LA-ICP-MS results obtained with a single 40-element menu. This demonstrates analytical accuracy of the three methods. Using MgO or FeO analyses from EMP of exposed MI as an internal standard for the quantification of LA-ICP-MS data of unexposed MI provides identical composition, hence the numerical re-integration of inlcusion compositions (Halter et al., 2002, Chem. Geol. 183, 63-86) is also accurate. Careful evaluation of the EMP data of exposed MI and matrix glass demonstrates significant chemical differences between the two; the glass in the MI apparently fractionated more plagioclase than did the matrix glass. Using MgO of the matrix glass as an internal standard for the quantification of MI analyzed by LA-ICP-MS (i.e., assuming that the MI and the matrix glass originally contained the same MgO concentration) indicates that

  9. Quantification of serotonin O-sulphate by LC-MS method in plasma of healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lozda, Raimonds; Purviņš, Indulis

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that serotonin O-sulphate (5-HT-SO4) could be quantified in human plasma using modern liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method as well as develop and validate that method. First, a suitable LC-MS method for detection of 5-HT-SO4 in human plasma samples was developed and validated. Second, a Pilot phase involving four healthy volunteers was executed, where a basal plasma level of 5-HT-SO4 was measured for all subjects and for one after the intake of 100 mg of a 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) -containing food supplement used to promote serotonergic stimulation of the central nervous system. The basal level of 0.9–2.8 ng/mL of 5-HT-SO4 was observed. The changes of plasma 5HT-O-SO4 showed 1.2 ng/mL before and 22.6 ng/mL 1 h after stimulation. Finally, nine healthy volunteers were selected for the Study phase, where a basal plasma level of 5-HT-SO4 was measured before and after the intake of 5-HTP. One hour after stimulation, six study subjects showed a decrease in 5-HT-SO4 levels while three subjects showed an increase. The changes of plasma 5HT-O-SO4 from the Study phase showed an average 5-HT-SO4 level of 19.2 ng/mL before and 15.7 ng/mL 1 h after stimulation indicating ability of method to emphasize quantitative changes. This was the first study in which naturally occurring 5-HT-SO4 was detected in the samples of human plasma obtained from healthy volunteers. The method developed herein is specific to the measurement of 5-HT-SO4, sensitive enough to quantify intra-individual changes in the samples of plasma and opens up new possibilities to evaluate pathways of serotonin metabolism by minimally invasive methods. The discovery of novel biomarkers using such approaches is increasingly required to expedite development of mechanism-based therapeutics and patient stratification. PMID:24782770

  10. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid and its application to preliminary studies on their detection windows.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Stefan; Speck, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Corneillie, Todd M; Butlin, Nathaniel G; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Serum and urine samples are commonly used for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in biofluids; however, their utilization as analytical matrices for drug abstinence control features some substantial drawbacks. While for blood collection invasive sampling is inevitable, the urinary analysis of synthetic cannabinoids is limited by the lack of available reference standards of the respective major metabolites. Moreover, the long detectability of synthetic cannabinoids in both matrices hampers the identification of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use. This article describes the development, validation and application of an LC/ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid (OF) samples. OF samples were prepared by protein precipitation using ice-cold acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on a Luna Phenyl Hexyl column (50 × 2 mm, 5 μm), while detection was carried out on a QTrap 4000 instrument in positive ionization mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 ng/mL, whereas the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 ng/mL. The method was applied to authentic samples collected during two preliminary studies in order to obtain insights into the general detectability and detection windows of synthetic cannabinoids in this matrix. The results indicate that synthetic cannabinoids are transferred from the blood stream into OF and vice versa only at a very low rate. Therefore, positive OF samples are due to contamination of the oral cavity during smoking. As these drug-contaminations could be detected up to approximately 2 days, neat oral fluid appears to be well suited for detection of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use. PMID:23535743

  11. A simple LC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of bacopaside I in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruo-Feng; Xiong, Kun; Wen, Si-Min; Song, Zhi-Min; Xu, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Bacopaside I is one of the main pseudojujubogenin glycosides isolated from Bacopa monniera. In the present study, a rapid and robust LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify bacopaside I in rat plasma. After plasma samples were deproteinized by methanol, the post-treatment samples were analyzed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1×50mm, 1.8μm) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (65:35, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization source. This method covered a linearity range of 10-2000ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification of 10ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions of analysis were less than 10.2%, and the accuracies were between -11.1% and 8.4% at the concentrations of 25, 150 and 1800ng/mL. The total run time was 6.0min. This method was successfully applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bacopaside I following intravenous or oral administration to rats. PMID:27270262

  12. A rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS-MS method for the quantification of zolpidem tartrate in human EDTA plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dendhi Chandrapal; Bapuji, Akula Tukaram; Rao, Vepakomma Suryanarayana; Himabindu, Vurimindi; Ravinder, Sreedasyam

    2012-07-01

    A rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of zolpidem in human EDTA plasma using ondansetron (IS) as an internal standard. The analyte and IS were extracted from human plasma using ethyl acetate and separated on a C18 column (Inertsil-ODS, 5 µm, 4.6 × 50 mm) interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The mobile phase, which consisted of a mixture of methanol and 20 mM ammonium formate (pH 5.00 ± 0.05; 75:25 v/v), was injected at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The retention times of zolpidem and IS were approximately 1.76 and 1.22. The LC run time was 3 min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring used the [M + H](+) ions m/z 308.13 → 235.21 for zolpidem and m/z 294.02 → 170.09 for the ondansetron, respectively. Five freeze-thaw cycles was established at -20 and -70°C.The linearity of the response/concentration curve was established in human EDTA plasma over the concentration range 0.10-149.83 ng/mL. The lower detection limit [(signal-to-noise (S/N) > 3] was 0.04 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification (S/N > 10) was 0.10 ng/mL. This LC-MS-MS method was validated with intra-batch and inter-batch precision of 0.52-8.66.The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy was 96.66-106.11. Recovery of zolpidem in human plasma was 87.00% and IS recovery was 81.60%. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters were T(max) (h) = (1.25 ± 0.725), C(max) (ng/mL) (127.80 ± 34.081), AUC(0→t), = (665.37 ± 320.982) and AUC(0→∞), 686.03 ± 342.952, respectively. PMID:22689921

  13. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers: Application to a topical administration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Hyeon Gwan; Lee, Young Sung; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-10-15

    This study describes the development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers. Separations were performed on a Zorbax SB C8 column using a binary gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The assay achieved LLOQ of 0.5ng/ml for plasma, 5ng/ml for stratum corneum, and 10ng/ml for epidermis and dermis. This method was applied to a percutaneous absorption study of avobenzone in rats. At 12h following topical application of emulsion and lotion (applied amount of avobenzone 11.7mg/kg), avobenzone was found primarily in the stratum corneum (16.3-17.8%) followed by epidermis (2.0-3.4%) and dermis (0.11-0.15%). Avobenzone was not quantifiable in the plasma samples collected over a 12h sampling period. Given the excellent plasma assay sensitivity, this study provides evidence that the systemic absorption of avobenzone is insignificant, if any, after topical application. PMID:26409261

  14. Development and full validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the plant-derived alkaloid indirubin in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Jähne, Evelyn A; Sampath, Chethan; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-09-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of indirubin in lithium heparinized rat plasma was developed and validated according to current international guidelines. Indirubin was extracted from rat plasma by using Waters Ostro™ pass-through sample preparation plates. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 5.00ng/mL and an ULOQ of 500ng/mL. The calibration curve was fitted by least-square quadratic regression, and a weighting factor of 1/X was applied. Recoveries of indirubin and I.S. were consistent and ≥75.5%. Stability studies demonstrated that indirubin was stable in lithium heparinized rat plasma for at least 3 freeze/thaw cycles, for 3h at RT, for 96h in the autosampler at 10°C, and for 84days when stored below -65°C. Preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) data were obtained from Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous administration of indirubin (2mg/kg b.w.) and blood sampling up to 12h after injection. PK parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Indirubin had a half-life (t1/2) of 35min, and a relatively high clearance (CL) of 2.71L/h/kg. PMID:27281580

  15. A GC-MS Method for Detection and Quantification of Cathine, Cathinone, Methcathinone and Ephedrine in Oral Fluid.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Al-Hazmi, Abtehaj H; Alasiri, Alanoud M; Ali, Mahmoud El-Said

    2016-09-01

    The stimulating herbal drug khat (cathine, cathinone) and its analog methcathinone are common substances of abuse in most countries. A GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of cathine, cathinone, methcathinone and ephedrine in oral fluid specimens. The analytes and internal standard (amphetamine-d5) were extracted from 0.5 mL oral fluids by ethyl acetate, and then the dried extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 70°C for 30 min. The MS was used in selected ion monitoring mode. Ions monitored were m/z 117, 240 and 330 for cathine, m/z 77, 105 and 240 for cathinone, m/z 105, 210 and 254 for methcathinone, m/z 210, 254 and 344 for ephedrine and m/z 244 and 336 for amphetamine-d5 The calibration curves were linear (r(2)> 0.98) in the concentration range 20-2,000 ng/mL for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions were within (1.6-12.5%) and (1.5-9.5%), respectively, for all analytes. Intra-assay accuracies were between -5.9 and 6.7% for all analytes. The method was successfully applied to detect and quantify the target analytes from oral fluid specimens collected from Khat and methcathinone users. PMID:27165573

  16. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengliang; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Bin; Song, Youxin; Zhu, Naiqiang; Zhao, Long; Liu, Changjian; Meng, Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established and validated to assay the concentrations of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) at an isocratic flow rate of 0.5 mL/min using methanol-10 mm ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The total run time was 5 min for each sample. MS/MS detection was accomplished in selected reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.125-50 ng/mL with lower limit of quantification of 0.125 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <10.1% in terms of coefficient of variation, and the accuracy was within ±11.7% in terms of relative error. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol following intragastric administration of 3.65 mg/kg to Wistar rats. PMID:25611485

  17. Isotope Inversion Experiment evaluating the suitability of calibration in surrogate matrix for quantification via LC-MS/MS-Exemplary application for a steroid multi-method.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Anna Catharina; Vogeser, Michael; Grimm, Stefanie H

    2016-05-30

    For quotable quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes in complex biological samples by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS, the creation of appropriate calibrators is a challenge, since analyte-free authentic material is in general not available. Thus, surrogate matrices are often used to prepare calibrators and controls. However, currently employed validation protocols do not include specific experiments to verify the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of authentic matrix samples. The aim of the study was the development of a novel validation experiment to test whether surrogate matrix based calibrators enable correct quantification of authentic matrix samples. The key element of the novel validation experiment is the inversion of nonlabelled analytes and their stable isotope labelled (SIL) counterparts in respect to their functions, i.e. SIL compound is the analyte and nonlabelled substance is employed as internal standard. As a consequence, both surrogate and authentic matrix are analyte-free regarding SIL analytes, which allows a comparison of both matrices. We called this approach Isotope Inversion Experiment. As figure of merit we defined the accuracy of inverse quality controls in authentic matrix quantified by means of a surrogate matrix calibration curve. As a proof-of-concept application a LC-MS/MS assay addressing six corticosteroids (cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 17-OH-progesterone) was chosen. The integration of the Isotope Inversion Experiment in the validation protocol for the steroid assay was successfully realized. The accuracy results of the inverse quality controls were all in all very satisfying. As a consequence the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of the targeted steroids in human serum as authentic matrix could be successfully demonstrated. The Isotope Inversion Experiment fills a gap in the validation process for LC-MS/MS assays

  18. Development and validation of LC-MS methods for peptaibol quantification in fungal extracts according to their lengths.

    PubMed

    Van Bohemen, Anne-Isaline; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Phuong, Nam Ngoc; Inguimbert, Nicolas; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Ruiz, Nicolas; Pouchus, Yves François

    2016-01-15

    Some terrestrial Trichoderma sp. strains are already used as biological control agents (BCAs). They all produce peptaibols, small antimicrobial peptides which are supposed to play a role in the anti-phytopathogenic activity of Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma strains producing high amounts of peptaibols could represent new potential BCAs. In this context, marine-derived Trichoderma strains from the marine fungal strain collection of the "Mer, Molécules, Santé" (MMS) laboratory were investigated for their peptaibol production. Previously, the quantification of peptaibols was performed using alamethicin, as standard (20-amino acid residues peptaibol). In this study, the development and validation of quantification LC/ESI-TI-MS methods using different standards of peptaibols (11-, 14- and 20-amino acid residues) was performed in order to quantify all of them, in a single analysis, in Trichoderma crude extracts according to their chain length. The developed and validated methods were used to study the peptaibol production kinetic of a marine-derived Trichoderma strain, i.e., Trichoderma longibrachiatum (MMS 151). The results showed the optimal culture time at the 9th day with concentrations reaching 1.4±0.2% and 2.3±0.4% of the fungal biomass respectively for 11- and 20-residue peptaibols. Then, the different peptaibol subgroups produced by 13 Trichoderma strains were quantified. According to their 18-, 19- and 20-residue peptaibol production, three strains referenced as MMS 1541, MMS 639 and MMS 151 seemed to be good candidates as potential new biological control agents with respective production of 0.4, 0.4 and 2.1%. PMID:26688345

  19. Development and validation of an LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of naproxen and sumatriptan in human plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Brêtas, Juliana Machado; César, Isabela Costa; Brêtas, Camila Machado; Teixeira, Leonardo de Souza; Bellorio, Karini Bruno; Mundim, Iram Moreira; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2016-06-01

    A sensitive and fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of naproxen and sumatriptan in human plasma. A simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure, with a mixture of ethyl acetate, methyl tert-butyl ether, and dichloromethane (4:3:3, v/v), was used for the cleanup of plasma. Naratriptan and aceclofenac were employed as internal standards. The analyses were carried out using an ACE C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm i.d.; particle size 5 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of 2 mM aqueous ammonium acetate with 0.025 % formic acid and methanol (38:62, v/v). A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source in the positive mode was set up in the selective reaction monitoring mode to detect the ion transitions m/z 231.67 → m/z 185.07, m/z 296.70 → m/z 157.30, m/z 354.80 → m/z 215.00, and m/z 336.80 → m/z 97.94 for naproxen, sumatriptan, aceclofenac, and naratriptan, respectively. The method was validated and proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and selective over the ranges of 2.5-130 μg mL(-1) for naproxen and 1-50 ng mL(-1) for sumatriptan. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study with simultaneous administration of naproxen sodium and sumatriptan succinate tablet formulations in healthy volunteers. PMID:27020929

  20. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), THC, CBN and CBD in hair.

    PubMed

    Roth, Nadine; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-02-01

    For analysis of hair samples derived from a pilot study ('in vivo' contamination of hair by sidestream marijuana smoke), an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hair samples were extracted in methanol for 4 h under occasional shaking at room temperature, after adding THC-D(3), CBN-D(3), CBD-D(3) and THCA-A-D(3) as an in-house synthesized internal standard. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a Luna C18 column using 0.1% HCOOH and ACN + 0.1% HCOOH. Data acquisition was performed on a QTrap 4000 in electrospray ionization-multi reaction monitoring mode. Validation was carried out according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 2.5 pg/mg for THCA-A and 20 pg/mg for THC, CBN and CBD. A linear calibration model was applicable for all analytes over a range of 2.5 pg/mg or 20 pg/mg to 1000 pg/mg, using a weighting factor 1/x. Selectivity was shown for 12 blank hair samples from different sources. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits for all analytes (bias between -0.2% and 6.4%, RSD between 3.7% and 11.5%). The dried hair extracts were stable over a time period of one to five days in the dark at room temperature. Processed sample stability (maximum decrease of analyte peak area below 25%) was considerably enhanced by adding 0.25% lecithin (w/v) in ACN + 0.1% HCOOH for reconstitution. Extraction efficiency for CBD was generally very low using methanol extraction. Hence, for effective extraction of CBD alkaline hydrolysis is recommended. PMID:23378095

  1. A simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of buddlejasaponin IV in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Xu, Hui; Chen, Liping; Tan, Lei

    2016-02-20

    Buddlejasaponin IV (BS-IV), a natural triterpene saponin isolated from several herbal plants, has drawn a lot of attention for its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperlipidemia, and antitumor activities. In this study, a simple and sensitive method for determination of BS-IV in rat plasma was developed for the first time, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Tenacissoside I was used as an internal standard (IS). Separation was achieved on an Agilent Extend-C18 column with gradient elution using methanol-water as mobile phase at a flow rate of 400μL/min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization mode with selection reaction monitoring (SRM) was used to determine BS-IV and IS transitions of 941.4→779.5 and 815.5→755.5, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 3.00ng/mL with a linear range of 3.0-3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were both ≤10.4% for BS-IV, and the average intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -7.2% to 6.7%. The validated assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of BS-IV following oral administration of 3, 6, 12mg/kg and an intravenous administration of 0.9mg/kg to rats. PMID:26774034

  2. Validation and application of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of synthetic cannabinoids in urine samples and analysis of seized materials from the Portuguese market.

    PubMed

    Simões, Susana Sadler; Silva, Inês; Ajenjo, Antonio Castañera; Dias, Mário João

    2014-10-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method using ESI+ionization and MRM was developed and fully validated according to international guidelines for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine synthetic cannabinoids and/or their metabolites in urine samples (1mL). Prior to extraction the samples were subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase followed by a SPE procedure using Oasis(®) HLB 3cc (60mg) columns. The chromatographic separation was performed with an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 (50mm×2.1mm i.d., 1.8μm) reversed-phase column using a gradient with methanol-ammonium formate 2mM (0.1% formic acid) and with a run time of 9.5min. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, capacity of identification, limits of detection (0.01-0.5ng/mL) and quantification (0.05-0.5ng/mL), recovery (58-105%), carryover, matrix effect, linearity (0.05-50ng/mL), intra-assay precision, inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV<20%). The method was applied to 80 authentic samples, five of them (6.2%) were confirmed or suspected to be positive for the metabolites JWH-018 N-hydroxypentyl and JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid of JWH-018 and for the metabolite JWH-122 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) of JWH-122, and three of them in association with THC and/or THCCOOH (substances included in the method, together with the 11-OH-THC). Additionally, 17 spice products were analyzed, for which were confirmed the presence of the following substances: AM-2201, JWH-018, JWH-022 JWH-073, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-210, JWH-250, HU-210 and RCS-4, according to the comparison with authentic reference material and published data. The analytical method developed allowed the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and the notification of the first cases in Portugal. PMID:25127518

  3. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    PubMed Central

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  4. Development of an electrospray LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol and its main metabolite in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Bylda, Caroline; Leinenbach, Andreas; Thiele, Roland; Kobold, Uwe; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2012-01-01

    A fast and sensitive reference method for quantification of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in oral fluid is described in this study. Samples were collected using an oral specimen collection device, followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved by gradient elution on a reversed-phase column with subsequent detection by electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was performed by means of deuterated analogues of the analytes as internal standards. Total run time of the assay was 12 min. The method allowed sensitive quantification of both analytes at a limit of quantification of 0.2 ng/ml. This sensitivity is essential for analysis of samples collected with the Intercept Oral Fluid Collection device (OraSure) and an assay for simultaneous quantification of THC and THCCOOH in saliva has not yet been described. The calibration curves for THC and THCCOOH were linear in the range between 0.25 and 8 ng/ml (r(2)  > 0.99). Ion suppression effects from endogenous or exogenous interferences were investigated using selected model substances (albumin, ascorbic acid, bilirubin, hemoglobin, breath spray, cigarette, chewing gum, chewing tobacco, candy, tooth whitening, and Tums antacid). These substances were chosen because of the high probability of their presence in the collected samples. None of the 11 endogenous model interferences altered the accuracy of analysis, demonstrating good robustness of the method with respect to interferences in common hygiene products, medicine, tobacco and naturally occurring endogenous substances. PMID:22374692

  5. Comparison of sample preparation methods, validation of an UPLC-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of tetrodotoxin present in marine gastropods and analysis of pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods. PMID:23194566

  6. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS-ESI method for quantification of IIIM-019-A novel nitroimidazole derivative with promising action against Tuberculosis: Application to drug development.

    PubMed

    Kour, Gurleen; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Khullar, Mowkshi; Munagala, Gurunadham; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Bhagat, Asha; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Ahmed, Zabeer

    2016-05-30

    The study aims to illustrate an analytical validation of a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) and electrospray ionization (ESI) method for quantification of IIIM-019 (a novel nitroimidazole derivative with potential activity against Tuberculosis) in mice plasma. The extraction of the analyte and the internal standard (Tolbutamide) from the plasma samples involves protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using a gradient mode and the mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The flow rate used was 0.7ml/min on a C18e high performance Chromolith column. IIIM-019 and Tolbutamide (IS) were analyzed by combined reversed-phase LC/MS-MS with positive ion electrospray ionization. The MS-MS ion transitions used were 533>170.1, 533>198 for IIIM-019 and 271>74, 271>155 for internal standard (IS) respectively. The method was linear over a concentration range of 0.5-1000ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was 0.50ng/ml. The entire study was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, and matrix effect in accordance with the FDA guidelines of method validation. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. The intra and inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.51-11.18% and 0.51-7.55%. The pharmacokinetics was performed on male Balb/c mice by oral (2.5mg/kg), intraperitoneal (2.5mg/kg) and intravenous (1mg/kg) routes. The oral bioavailability of IIIM-019 was 51.6%. The method was also applied successfully in determining microsomal stability wherein the compound was found to be very slightly metabolized by rat liver microsomes. PMID:26922579

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a microwave-assisted metal-labeling strategy for quantification of peptides via RPLC-ICP-MS and the method of standard additions.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Steven J; Kilpatrick, Eric L; Yu, Lee L; Davis, W Clay; Adair, Blakely M

    2012-01-15

    NIST has performed preliminary research on applying a calibration methodology based on the method of standard additions to the quantification of peptides via reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (RPLC-ICP-MS). A microwave-assisted lanthanide labeling procedure was developed and applied to derivatize peptides using the macrocyclic bifunctional chemical chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), which significantly improved the lanthanide labeling yield and reduced reaction times compared to benchtop labeling procedures. Biomolecular MS technologies of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS and electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS were used in concert with ICP-MS to confirm the results of microwave labeling, sample cleanup and standard additions experiments for several test peptides. The calibration scheme is outlined in detail and contextualized against complementary high accuracy calibration strategies currently employed for ICP-MS detection of biomolecules. Standard additions experiments using native, non-isotopic peptide calibrants confirm the simplicity of the scheme and the potential of applying a blending (recombined sample and spike) procedure, facilitating calibration via co-elution of lanthanide labeled peptides. Ways to improve and fully leverage the analytical methodology are highlighted. PMID:22265570

  8. A validated HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of caderofloxacin in human plasma and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianhua; Zhai, Suodi; Duan, Jingli; Yang, Li

    2016-02-01

    A simple, selective and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of caderofloxacin in human plasma. Sparfloxacin was used as the internal standard (IS). After precipitation with methanol and dilution with the mobile phase, the samples were injected into the HPLC-MS/MS system. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax XDB Eclipse C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase of ammonium acetate buffer (20 mm, pH 3.0)-methanol, 45:55 (v/v). The MS/MS analysis was done in positive mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions monitored were m/z 412.3 → 297.1 for caderofloxacin and m/z 393.2 → 292.2 for the IS. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 50.0-8000 ng/mL with an aliquot of 100 μL plasma. The precision of the assay was 2.0-9.4 and 6.6-11.5% for the intra- and inter-run variability, respectively. The intra- and inter-run accuracy (relative error) was 4.4-10.0 and -1.2-4.0%. The total run time was 3.5 min. The assay was fully validated in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration guidance. It was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of caderofloxacin in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26046921

  9. An ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS method with liquid phase extraction to determine paclitaxel in both cell culture medium and lysate promising quantification of drug nanocarriers release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baati, Tarek; Schembri, Thérèse; Villard, Claude; Correard, Florian; Braguer, Diane; Estève, Marie-Anne

    2015-11-10

    The quantification of paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers, has been performed from complete cell culture medium and cell lysate samples using a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure in conjunction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A simple sample preparation using methanol and acetic acid as a weaker acid was applied to avoid paclitaxel destruction and to achieve recovery exceeding 80 % from both matrices spiked with paclitaxel and docetaxel used as internal standard. This rapid, simple, selective and sensitive method enabled the quantification of paclitaxel within the linear range of 1-250nM in culture medium and 5-250nM in cell lysate. The lower limit of quantification was achieved in cell culture medium and cell lysates at 0.2 and 1pmol, respectively. This method was successfully applied to human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549 cells) in order to quantify the amount of paclitaxel in both cell culture medium and lysate after incubation with 5, 50 and 100nM of paclitaxel. This ultra-sensitive method promises the quantification of ultra-low concentrations of paclitaxel released from any nanocarriers, allowing the determination of the kinetic profile of drug release, which is an essential parameter to validate the use of nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy. PMID:26263058

  10. Development and validation of a simple and sensitive method for quantification of levodopa and carbidopa in rat and monkey plasma using derivatization and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Junnotula, Venkatraman; Licea-Perez, Hermes

    2013-05-01

    A simple, selective, and sensitive quantitative method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa in rat and monkey plasma by protein precipitation using acetonitrile containing the derivatizing reagent, flourescamine. Derivatized products of levodopa and carbidopa were separated on a BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm; 1.7 μm particle size) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) without any further purification. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for detection. The method was validated over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL and 3-3000 ng/mL for levodopa and carbidopa, respectively in rat and monkey plasma. Due to the poor stability of the investigated analytes in biological matrices, a mixture of sodium metabisulfite and hydrazine dihydrochloride was used as a stabilizer. This method was successfully utilized to support pharmacokinetic studies in both species. The results from assay validations and incurred samples re-analysis show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. To our knowledge, this is the first UHPLC-MS/MS based method that utilizes derivatization with fluorescamine and provides adequate sensitivity for both levodopa and carbidopa with 50 μL of sample and a run time of 3.5 min. PMID:23548675

  11. Development and Bioanalytical Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) Method for the Quantification of the CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Joshua F.; Seserko, Lauren A.; Marzinke, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist that has been utilized as a viral entry inhibitor in the management of HIV-1. Current clinical trials are pursuing maraviroc drug efficacy in both oral and topical formulations. Therefore, in order to fully understand drug pharmacokinetics, a sensitive method is required to quantify plasma drug concentrations. Methods Maraviroc-spiked plasma was combined with acetonitrile containing an isotopically-labeled internal standard, and following protein precipitation, samples were evaporated to dryness and reconstituted for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters BEH C8, 50 × 2.1 mm UPLC column, with a 1.7 μm particle size and the eluent was analyzed using an API 4000 mass analyzer in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per FDA Bioanalytical Method Validation guidelines. Results The analytical measuring range of the LC-MS/MS method is 0.5-1000 ng/ml. Calibration curves were generated using weighted 1/x2 quadratic regression. Inter-and intra-assay precision was ≤ 5.38% and ≤ 5.98%, respectively; inter-and intra-assay accuracy (%DEV) was ≤ 10.2% and ≤ 8.44%, respectively. Additional studies illustrated similar matrix effects between maraviroc and its internal standard, and that maraviroc is stable under a variety of conditions. Method comparison studies with a reference LC-MS/MS method show a slope of 0.948 with a Spearman coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions Based on the validation metrics, we have generated a sensitive and automated LC-MS/MS method for maraviroc quantification in human plasma. PMID:24561264

  12. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke; Larsen, Lizette Weber; Cornett, Claus; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-07-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis. The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off-line SPE methodology was developed for the necessary clean-up of in vivo assays. Samples, such as gonad tissue, plasma and serum, are complex biological matrixes, and the SPE methodology was optimized to remove salts and proteins prior to elution of target analytes. At the same time, lipophilic compounds were retained on the SPE cartridge during elution. This, combined with the multi-steroid LC-MS(2) method, made it possible to determine 10 steroids in male Sprague-Dawley rat gonad tissue. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify 6 steroids in the plasma. In general, the observed concentration of steroid hormones in plasma, testes, and H295R cell medium corresponded well with previous studies. The off-line SPE method was validated using spiked charcoal-stripped serum. Method recovery, accuracy, precision and robustness were all good. Instrument sensitivity was in the range of 55-530 pg/mL (LLOQ). PMID:27150205

  13. New HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the antileukemia drugs imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib in human plasma.

    PubMed

    De Francia, Silvia; D'Avolio, Antonio; De Martino, Francesca; Pirro, Elisa; Baietto, Lorena; Siccardi, Marco; Simiele, Marco; Racca, Silvia; Saglio, Giuseppe; Di Carlo, Francesco; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2009-06-15

    A new method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry is described for the quantification of plasma concentration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib. A simple protein precipitation extraction procedure was applied on 250 microl of plasma aliquots. Chromatographic separation of drugs and Internal Standard (quinoxaline) was achieved with a gradient (acetonitrile and water + formic acid 0.05%) on a C18 reverse phase analytical column with 20min of analytical run, at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Mean intra-day and inter-day precision for all compounds were 4.3 and 11.4%; mean accuracy was 1.5%; extraction recovery ranged within 95 and 114%. Calibration curves ranged from 10,000 to 62.5 ng/ml. The limit of quantification was set at 78.1 ng/ml for imatinib and at 62.5 ng/ml for dasatinib and nilotinib. This novel developed methodology allows a specific, sensitive and reliable simultaneous determination of the three tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib in a single chromatographic run, useful for drugs estimation in plasma of patients affected by chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:19428316

  14. Quantification of soy isoflavones and their conjugative metabolites in plasma and urine: an automated and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for use in large-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Sebastian T; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Botting, Nigel; Kulling, Sabine E

    2014-09-01

    The biotransformation of isoflavones by gut microbiota and by drug metabolizing enzymes plays a crucial role in the understanding of their potential health-promoting effects. The purpose of our work was to develop a simultaneous, sensitive, and robust automated ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify the soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein, their conjugative metabolites, as well as their major microbial degradation products in order to provide a method for use in large clinical trials or animal studies. An automated, 96-well solid-phase extraction method was used to extract the isoflavone analytes from plasma and urine. Separation of genistein, daidzein, and 19 of its metabolites, including five glucuronides, seven sulfates, and two sulfoglucuronides, as well as five microbial metabolites, was achieved in less than 25 min using a sub-2 μm particle column and a gradient elution with acetonitrile/methanol/water as mobile phases. Analysis was performed under negative ionization electrospray MS via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Validation was performed according to the analytical method validation guidelines of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) consisting of selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, recovery, matrix effect, and robustness. All validated parameters essentially matched the FDA and ICH requirements. The application of this method to a pharmacokinetic study in postmenopausal women showed that isoflavones are extensively metabolized in vivo. A robust automated analytical approach was developed, which allows the handling of large sample sizes but nevertheless provides detailed information on the isoflavone metabolite profile leading to a better understanding and interpretation of clinical and animal studies. PMID:25103528

  15. Development and validation of a specific and sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS method for quantification of lysophosphatidylinositols and evaluation of their levels in mice tissues.

    PubMed

    Masquelier, Julien; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-07-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that lysophosphatidylinositols (LPIs), a subspecies of lysophospholipids, are important endogenous mediators. Although LPIs long remained among the less studied lysophospholipids, the identification of GPR55 as their molecular target sparked a renewed interest in the study of these bioactive lipids. Furthermore, increasing evidence points towards a role for LPIs in cancer development. However, a better understanding of the role and functions of LPIs in physiology and disease requires methods that allow for the quantification of LPI levels in cells and tissues. Because dedicated efficient methods for quantifying LPIs were missing, we decided to develop and validate an HPLC-ESI-MS method for the quantification of LPI species from tissues. LPIs are extracted from tissues by liquid/liquid extraction, pre-purified by solid-phase extraction, and finally analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. We determined the method's specificity and selectivity, we established calibration curves, determined the carry over (< 2%), LOD and LLOQ (between 0.116-7.82 and 4.62-92.5pmol on column, respectively), linearity (0.988 80%), intermediate precision (CV<20%) as well as the recovery from tissues. We then applied the method to determine the relative abundance of the LPI species in 15 different mouse tissues. Finally, we quantified the absolute LPI levels in six different mouse tissues. We found that while 18:0 LPI represents more than 60% of all the LPI species in the periphery (e.g. liver, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, spleen) it is much less abundant in the central nervous system where the levels of 20:4 LPI are significantly higher. Thus this validated HPLC-ESI-MS method for quantifying LPIs represents a powerful tool that will facilitate the comprehension of the pathophysiological roles of LPIs. PMID:27208623

  16. A highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in human plasma and its application in phase IIa clinical trial of a novel antidepressant agent.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jin; Yu, Yingjia; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Yan; Ling, Li; Wang, Liping; Xu, Changjiang; Duan, Gengli

    2016-09-15

    A highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS assay method was established to quantify 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) in human plasma with dexamethasone as an internal standard. The electrospray ion mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was operated under the multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM) using positive ion mode. PPD was extracted from 500μL plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction then separated by a C18 analytical column with gradient elution. The concentration of PPD could be determined by this HPLC-MS/MS method over the range of 0.05-20ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.05ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to phase IIa clinical trial of Yuxintine (PPD capsule) in which plasma samples of 87 subjects were analyzed following 6 weeks of oral administration of placebo or PPD capsules in 5 different doses. In this study, the measured concentration was linearly related to the oral dosage with R=0.9901. The minimum and maximum values of measured concentration were 0.06 and 11.60ng/mL, respectively. In addition, plasma concentrations of PPD in depression patients were reported for the first time in our study. PMID:27507666

  17. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of tigecycline in rat brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Munyeza, Chiedza F; Shobo, Adeola; Baijnath, Sooraj; Bratkowska, Dominika; Naiker, Suhashni; Bester, Linda A; Singh, Sanil D; Maguire, Glenn E M; Kruger, Hendrik G; Naicker, Tricia; Govender, Thavendran

    2016-06-01

    Tigecycline (TIG), a derivative of minocycline, is the first in the novel class of glycylcyclines and is currently indicated for the treatment of complicated skin structure and intra-abdominal infections. A selective, accurate and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of TIG in rat brain tissues. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation and solid phase extraction using Supel-Select HLB (30 mg/1 mL) cartridges. The samples were separated on a YMC Triart C18 column (150 mm x 3.0 mm. 3.0 µm) using gradient elution. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) was used for the detection mechanism with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated over the concentration range of 150-1200 ng/mL for rat brain tissue. The precision and accuracy for all brain analyses were within the acceptable limit. The mean extraction recovery in rat brain was 83.6%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in female Sprague Dawley rats, which were given a dose of 25 mg/kg TIG intraperitoneally at various time-points. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26378888

  18. Impact of the grinding process on the quantification of ethyl glucuronide in hair using a validated UPLC-ESI-MS-MS method.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah M R; Di Fazio, Vincent; Ramírez Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Yegles, Michel; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has provided cutoffs for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair to indicate occasional or chronic/excessive alcohol consumption. Although several sensitive methods have been reported, past proficiency test results show a lack of reproducibility. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LLOQ of 10 pg EtG/mg hair) has been validated according to the international guidelines, including the successful participation in five proficiency tests. This method was subsequently used to evaluate the impact of different grinding conditions (cut, weakly or extensively pulverized hair samples) on the final measured EtG concentration. Hair from alcohol consumers (n = 2) and commercially available quality control samples (QCs) (n = 2) was used. For the QCs, extensive pulverization led to a significantly higher amount of measured EtG. In the hair samples obtained from volunteers, cut or weakly pulverized hair resulted in EtG concentrations below the LLOQ, while the mean concentrations of 14 and 40 pg EtG/mg hair were determined after extensive pulverization. Differences in sample preparation could partially explain inter-laboratory variability. As the differences in results can lead to a different interpretation even when applying the SoHT cutoffs, it is of interest to standardize sample preparation techniques in the field of EtG hair testing. PMID:25274495

  19. The Development of a Specific and Sensitive LC-MS-Based Method for the Detection and Quantification of Hydroperoxy- and Hydroxydocosahexaenoic Acids as a Tool for Lipidomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Derogis, Priscilla B. M. C.; Freitas, Florêncio P.; Marques, Anna S. F.; Cunha, Daniela; Appolinário, Patricia P.; de Paula, Fernando; Lourenço, Tiago C.; Murgu, Michael; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Miyamoto, Sayuri

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is highly enriched in the brain, and the oxidation products of DHA are present or increased during neurodegenerative disease progression. The characterization of the oxidation products of DHA is critical to understanding the roles that these products play in the development of such diseases. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific analytical tool for the detection and quantification of twelve major DHA hydroperoxide (HpDoHE) and hydroxide (HDoHE) isomers (isomers at positions 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 20) in biological systems. In this study, HpDoHE were synthesized by photooxidation, and the corresponding hydroxides were obtained by reduction with NaBH4. The isolated isomers were characterized by LC-MS/MS, and unique and specific fragment ions were chosen to construct a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method for the targeted quantitative analysis of each HpDoHE and HDoHE isomer. The detection limits for the LC-MS/MS-SRM assay were 1−670 pg for HpDoHE and 0.5−8.5 pg for HDoHE injected onto a column. Using this method, it was possible to detect the basal levels of HDoHE isomers in both rat plasma and brain samples. Therefore, the developed LC-MS/MS-SRM can be used as an important tool to identify and quantify the hydro(pero)xy derivatives of DHA in biological system and may be helpful for the oxidative lipidomic studies. PMID:24204871

  20. A NEW LC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF ENDOGENOUS AND VINYL CHLORIDE INDUCED 7-(2-OXOETHYL)GUANINE IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Esra; Jeong, Yo-Chan; Collins, Leonard B.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Upton, Patricia B.; Hatch, Gary; Winsett, Darrell; Evansky, Paul; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is an industrial chemical that is known to be carcinogenic to animals and humans. VC primarily induces hepatic angiosarcomas following high exposures (≥50 ppm). VC is also found in Superfund sites at ppb concentrations as a result of microbial metabolism of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. Here, we report a new sensitive LC-MS/MS method to analyze the major DNA adduct formed by VC, 7-(2-oxoethylguanine) (7-OEG). We used this method to analyze tissue DNA from both adult and weanling rats exposed to 1100 ppm [13C2]-VC for 5 days. After neutral thermal hydrolysis, 7-OEG was derivatized with O-t-butyl hydroxylamine to an oxime adduct, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The limit of detection was 1 fmol and the limit of quantitation was 1.5 fmol on the column. The use of stable isotope VC allowed us to demonstrate for the first time that endogenous 7-OEG was present in tissue DNA. We hypothesized that endogenous 7-OEG was formed from lipid peroxidation and demonstrated the formation of [13C2]-7-OEG from the reaction of calf thymus DNA with [13C18]-ethyl linoleate (EtLa) under peroxidizing conditions. The concentrations of endogenous 7-OEG in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, testis and brain DNA from adult and weanling rats typically ranged from 1.0-10.0 adducts per 106 guanine. The exogenous 7-OEG in liver DNA from adult rats exposed to 1100 ppm [13C2]-VC for 5 days was 104.0 ± 23.0 adducts per 106 guanine (n=4), while concentrations in other tissues ranged from 1.0-39.0 adducts per 106 guanine (n=4). Although endogenous concentrations of 7-OEG in tissues in weanling rats were similar to those of adult rats, exogenous [13C2]-7-OEG concentrations were higher in weanlings, averaging 300 adducts per 106 guanine in liver. Studies on the persistence of [13C2]-7-OEG in adult rats sacrificed 2, 4, and 8 wks post exposure to [13C2]-VC demonstrated a half-life of 7-OEG of 4 days in both liver and lung. PMID:22211352

  1. UHPLC-MS/MS method with protein precipitation extraction for the simultaneous quantification of ten antihypertensive drugs in human plasma from resistant hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    De Nicolò, Amedeo; Avataneo, Valeria; Rabbia, Franco; Bonifacio, Gabriele; Cusato, Jessica; Tomasello, Cristina; Perlo, Elisa; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-09-10

    Today the management of resistant hypertension is a critical health problem: the main difficulty on this field is the discrimination of cases of poor therapeutic adherence from cases of real resistance. This gives rise to the need of high throughput and reliable quantification methods for the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of antihypertensive drugs. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a UHPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry assay for this application and its use in plasma from patients with resistant hypertension. The novelty of this method resides in the ability to simultaneously quantify a wide panel of antihypertensive drugs: amlodipine, atenolol, clonidine, chlortalidone, doxazosin, hydrochlorothiazide, nifedipine, olmesartan, ramipril and telmisartan. Moreover, this method stands out for its simplicity and cheapness, resulting feasible for clinical routine. Both standards and quality controls were prepared in human plasma. After the addition of internal standard, each sample underwent protein precipitation with acetonitrile and was then dried. Extracts were resuspended in water:acetonitrile 90:10 (0.05% formic acid) and then injected into the chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity(®) UPLC HSS T3 1.8μm 2.1×150mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile, both added with 0.05% formic acid. Accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision fitted FDA guidelines for all analytes, while matrix effects and recoveries resulted stable between samples for each analyte. Finally, we tested this method by monitoring plasma concentrations in 22 hypertensive patients with good results. This simple analytical method could represent a useful tool for the management of antihypertensive therapy. PMID:27497654

  2. MS/MS library facilitated MRM quantification of native peptides prepared by denaturing ultrafiltration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring native peptides provide important information about physiological states of an organism and its changes in disease conditions but protocols and methods for assessing their abundance are not well-developed. In this paper, we describe a simple procedure for the quantification of non-tryptic peptides in body fluids. The workflow includes an enrichment step followed by two-dimensional fractionation of native peptides and MS/MS data management facilitating the design and validation of LC- MRM MS assays. The added value of the workflow is demonstrated in the development of a triplex LC-MRM MS assay used for quantification of peptides potentially associated with the progression of liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22304756

  3. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ethoxzolamide in plasma and bioequivalent buffers: Applications to absorption, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Taijun; Ma, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify ethoxzolamide in plasma (EZ) and apply the method to absorption, brain distribution, as well as pharmacokinetic studies. A C18 column was used with 0.1% of formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in water as the mobile phases to resolve EZ. The mass analysis was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode. The results show that the linear range of EZ is 4.88–10,000.00 nM. The intra-day variance is less than 12.43 % and the accuracy is between 88.88–08.00 %. The inter-day variance is less than 12.87 % and accuracy is between 89.27–115.89 %. Protein precipitation was performed using methanol to extract EZ from plasma and brain tissues. Only 40 µL of plasma is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method, which could be completed in less than three minutes. This method was used to study the pharmacokinetics of EZ in SD rats, and the transport of EZ in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing cell culture models. Our data show that EZ is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its entry into the brain may not limited by the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25706567

  4. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of glucocorticoid residues in edible tissues of swine, cattle, sheep, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-10-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin. PMID:20658401

  5. Characterization and LC-MS/MS based quantification of hydroxylated fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Song, Guixue; Hansmeier, Nicole; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre; Halden, Rolf U.

    2011-01-01

    Highly water-soluble hydroxylated fullerene derivatives are being investigated for a wide range of commercial products as well as for potential cytotoxicity. However, no analytical methods are currently available for their quantification at sub-ppm concentrations in environmental matrices. Here, we report on the development and comparison of liquid chromatography-ultra violet/visible spectroscopy (LC-UV/vis) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based detection and quantification methods for a commercial fullerols. We achieved good separation efficiency using an amide-type hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column (plate number >2000) under isocratic conditions with 90% acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 42.8 ng/mL (UV detection) to 0.19 pg/mL (using MS with multiple reaction monitoring, MRM). Other MS measurement modes achieved MDLs of 125 pg/mL (single quad scan, Q1) and 1.5 pg/mL (multiple ion monitoring, MI). Each detection method exhibited a good linear response over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we tested the robustness of these methods in the presence of Suvanee River fulvic acids (SRFA) as an example of organic matter commonly found in environmental water samples. While SRFA significantly interfered with UV- and Q1-based quantifications, the interference was relatively low using MI or MRM (relative error in presence of SRFA: 8.6% and 2.5%, respectively). This first report of a robust MS-based quantification method for modified fullerenes dissolved in water suggests the feasibility of implementing MS techniques more broadly for identification and quantification of fullerols and other water-soluble fullerene derivatives in environmental samples. PMID:21294534

  6. Evaluation of a rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of ribavirin, sofosbuvir and its metabolite in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Zhu, Dedong; Lou, Jie; Zhu, Bo; Hu, Ai-rong; Gan, Dongmei

    2015-10-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ribavirin, sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS-331007 in rat plasma was established. The analytes and the internal standard (midazolam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 245.1→113.1 for ribavirin, m/z 530.3→243.1 for sofosbuvir, m/z 261.5→113.1 for GS-331007 and m/z 326.2→291.1 for midazolam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 5-1000ng/mL for ribavirin, 10-2000ng/mL for sofosbuvir and 10-2000ng/mL for GS-331007. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD) <10.0% and the accuracy values ranged from -10.6% to 11.6%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ribavirin, sofosbuvir and GS-331007 in rats. PMID:26363369

  7. Development of a rapid column-switching LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide in whole blood for assessing cannabis consumption frequency.

    PubMed

    Hädener, Marianne; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Schürch, Stefan; König, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in whole blood is used as a parameter for assessing the consumption behavior of cannabis consumers. The blood level of THCCOOH-glucuronide might provide additional information about the frequency of cannabis use. To verify this assumption, a column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the rapid and direct quantification of free and glucuronidated THCCOOH in human whole blood was newly developed. The method comprised protein precipitation, followed by injection of the processed sample onto a trapping column and subsequent gradient elution to an analytical column for separation and detection. The total LC run time was 4.5 min. Detection of the analytes was accomplished by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring using a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was fully validated by evaluating the following parameters: linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy and imprecision, selectivity, extraction efficiency, matrix effect, carry-over, dilution integrity, analyte stability, and re-injection reproducibility. All acceptance criteria were analyzed and the predefined criteria met. Linearity ranged from 5.0 to 500 μg/L for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to whole blood samples from a large collective of cannabis consumers, demonstrating its applicability in the forensic field. PMID:26781107

  8. QbD-Driven Development and Validation of a Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for Quantification of Fluoxetine in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Mohammad Saquib; Siddiqui, Salman; Rao, Shireen; Mohanty, Priyadarsan; Jahan Ara, Tahseen; Beg, Sarwar

    2016-05-01

    The current studies describe the Quality by Design (QbD)-based development and validation of a LC-MS-MS method for quantification of fluoxetine in human plasma using fluoxetine-D5 as an internal standard (IS). Solid-phase extraction was employed for sample preparation, and linearity was observed for drug concentrations ranging between 2 and 30 ng/mL. Systematic optimization of the method was carried out by employing Box-Behnken design with mobile phase flow rate (X1), pH (X2) and mobile phase composition (X3) as the method variables, followed by evaluating retention time (Rt) (Y1) and peak area (Y2) as the responses. The optimization studies revealed reduction in the variability associated with the method variables for improving the method robustness. Validation studies of the developed method revealed good linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of fluoxetine in human plasma. Stability studies performed in human plasma through freeze-thaw, bench-top, short-term and long-term cycles, and autosampler stability revealed lack of any change in the percent recovery of the drug. In a nutshell, the developed method demonstrated satisfactory results for analysis of fluoxetine in human plasma with plausible utility in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies. PMID:26860396

  9. A method for quantification of volatile organic compounds in blood by SPME-GC-MS/MS with broader application: From non-occupational exposure population to exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Cabecinha, Ashley; Harvie, Jeromy; Jin, Zhiyun; Marchand, Axelle; Tardif, Robert; Nong, Andy; Haddad, Sami

    2015-06-15

    Humans are continuously exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as these chemicals are ubiquitously present in most indoor and outdoor environments. In order to assess recent exposure to VOCs for population-based studies, VOCs are measured in the blood of participants. This work describes an improved method to detect 12 VOCs by head-space solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SPME-GC-MS/MS). This method was applied to the analysis of trihalomethanes, styrene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene) in a population-based biomonitoring study (Canadian Health Measures Survey). The method showed good linearity (>0.990) in the range of 0.010-10μg/L and detection limits between 0.007 and 0.027μg/L, precision better than 25% and good accuracy (±25%) based on proficiency testing materials. Quality Control data among runs over a 7 month period showed %RSD between 14 and 25% at low levels (∼0.03μg/L) and between 9 and 23% at high levels (∼0.4μg/L). The method was modified to analyze samples from a pharmacokinetic study in which 5 healthy volunteers were exposed to single, binary and quaternary mixtures of CTEX (chloroform, ethylbenzene, toluene and m-xylene), thus the expected concentration in blood was 1 order of magnitude higher than those found in the general population. The method was modified by reducing the sample size (from 3g to 0.5g) and increasing the upper limit of the concentration range to 395μg/L. Good linearity was found in the range of 0.13-395μg/L for toluene and ethylbenzene and 0.20-609μg/L for m/p-xylene. Quality control data among runs over the period of the study (n=13) were found to vary between 7 and 25%. PMID:25965874

  10. Validation (in-house and collaboratory) of the quantification method for ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Chen, Qing; Han, Jian-Long; Shen, Xiang-Hong

    2013-12-15

    A method for ethyl carbamate (EC) determination in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce was developed by GC-MS. We adopted the diatomaceous earth solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and elution solvent of ethyl acetate/diethyl ether (5:95 v/v) for sample cleaning. The in-house validation showed the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 μg/kg. In the accuracy assay, the total average recovery for was 96.7%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5%. Subsequently, a collaborative trial was organized for the further validation. The RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were 1.2-7.8% and 2.3-9.6% respectively. It indicated that the present method performed well in different laboratories. PMID:23993600

  11. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Tao, Guizhou; Gao, Hang; Li, Keyan; Zhang, Yazhuo; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and precision was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside (QGG) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A Venusil® ASB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d. 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 787.3/301.3 for QGG, and 725.3/293.3 for internal standard. The linear range was 7.32-1830 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the limit of quantification was 7.32 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than ±15%. At low, medium and high quality control concentrations, the recovery and matrix effect of the analyte and IS were in the range of 89.06-92.43 and 88.58-97.62%, respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetic study of QGG in Sprague-Dawley rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26848536

  12. Development and validation of an UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS method for non-anthocyanin flavonoids quantification in Euterpe oleracea juice.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aécio L S; Rozet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Hubert, Philippe; Rogez, Hervé; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-11-01

    Euterpe oleracea fruits have gained much attention because of their phenolic constituents that have shown potential health benefits. The aim of this work was to quantify the major non-anthocyanin flavonoids (NAF) in the fruit juice by an accurate method coupling ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with a linear ion trap-high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry system (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS). Fruits were processed to juice, and then the juice was lyophilized and defatted. The residue was then extracted in the presence of methanol by sonication. The extraction time was optimized and recovery rates of the extraction were >90%. The extracts were dried and solubilized again in 40% MeOH, which showed the best compromise for MS detection. For the UHPLC quantification, a HSS C18 column (1.8 μm) was used with a gradient elution of methanol and water both with 0.1% formic acid. Total error and accuracy profiles were used as validation criteria. Seven compounds and their isomers were successfully separated, including the major NAF. Calibration in the matrix was found to be more accurate than calibration without matrix. Trueness (<15% relative bias), repeatability, and intermediate precision (<13% RSD), selectivity, response function, linearity, LOD (ranged from 0.04 to 0.81 μg/mL) and LOQ (0.15-5.78 μg/mL) for 12 compounds were evaluated and the quantification method was validated. Its applicability was demonstrated on real samples from different suppliers. Their qualitative and quantitative profiles were similar and some compounds were for the first time quantified. In addition, eriodictyol was identified for the first time in this fruit along with five other flavonoids for which possible structures were proposed. PMID:24136248

  13. Quantification of Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitines in Plasma or Serum Using HPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Heese, Bryce; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Acylcarnitines are formed by esterification between fatty acids CoA or organic acids CoA molecules and carnitine. In various fatty acids oxidation defects and organic acidurias, there is increased concentration of corresponding acylcarnitines. Abnormalities in specific acylcarnitines are used in the diagnosis of fatty acids oxidation defects and organic acidurias. Most commonly used method for the assay of acylcarnitines is HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A HPLC/MS/MS method is described for the quantification of number of acylcarnitines. The method involves butylation of carnitine/acylcarnitines using acidified butanol, HPLC flow injection, and measurement of acylcarnitines using precursor ion scan and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). PMID:26602112

  14. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method. PMID:24590107

  15. Absolute quantification of UGT1A1 in various tissues and cell lines using isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method determines its turnover number and correlates with its glucuronidation activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Gao, Song; Wu, Baojian; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 is a major phase II metabolism enzyme responsible for glucuronidation of drugs and endogenous compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression level of UGT1A1 in human liver microsomes and human cell lines by using an isotope label-free LC-MS/MS method. A Waters Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with an API 5500Qtrap mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two signature peptides (Pep-1, and Pep-2) were employed to quantify UGT1A1 by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. Standard addition method was used to validate the assay to account for the matrix effect. 17β-Estradiol was used as the marker substrate to determine UGT1A1 activities. The validated method has a linear range of 200-0.0195nM for both signature peptides. The precision, accuracy, and matrix effect were in acceptable ranges. UGT1A1 expression levels were then determined using 8 individual human liver microsomes, a pooled human liver microsomes, three UGT1A1 genotyped human liver microsomes, and four cell lines (Caco-2, MCF-7, Hela, and HepG2). The correlations study showed that the UGT1A1 protein levels were strongly correlated with its glucuronidation activities in human liver microsomes (R(2)=0.85) and in microsomes prepared from cell lines (R(2)=0.95). Isotope-labeled peptides were not necessary for LC-MS/MS quantitation of proteins. The isotope label-free absolute quantification method used here had good accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, and reproducibility, and were used successfully for the accurate determination of UGT1A1 from tissues and cell lines. PMID:24055854

  16. Development and validation of a rapid turboflow LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in serum and urine samples of emergency toxicological cases.

    PubMed

    Dolder, Patrick C; Liechti, Matthias E; Rentsch, Katharina M

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of the present study is to develop a quantitative turboflow LC-MS/MS method that can be used for rapid quantification of LSD and its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD) in serum and urine in emergency toxicological cases without time-consuming extraction steps. The method was developed on an ion-trap LC-MS/MS instrument coupled to a turbulent-flow extraction system. The validation data showed no significant matrix effects and no ion suppression has been observed in serum and urine. Mean intraday accuracy and precision for LSD were 101 and 6.84%, in urine samples and 97.40 and 5.89% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 97.50 and 4.99% in urine and 107 and 4.70% in serum. Mean interday accuracy and precision for LSD were 100 and 8.26% in urine and 101 and 6.56% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 101 and 8.11% in urine and 99.8 and 8.35% in serum, respectively. The lower limit of quantification for LSD was determined to be 0.1 ng/ml. LSD concentrations in serum were expected to be up to 8 ng/ml. 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy LSD concentrations in urine up to 250 ng/ml. The new method was accurate and precise in the range of expected serum and urine concentrations in patients with a suspected LSD intoxication. Until now, the method has been applied in five cases with suspected LSD intoxication where the intake of the drug has been verified four times with LSD concentrations in serum in the range of 1.80-14.70 ng/ml and once with a LSD concentration of 1.25 ng/ml in urine. In serum of two patients, the O-H-LSD concentration was determined to be 0.99 and 0.45 ng/ml. In the urine of a third patient, the O-H-LSD concentration was 9.70 ng/ml. PMID:25542574

  17. Antidepressants detection and quantification in whole blood samples by GC-MS/MS, for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-09-01

    Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. PMID:27376459

  18. MALDI-TOF MS quantification of coccidiostats in poultry feeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Sporns, P

    2000-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a relatively new technique that is having a great impact on analyses. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of linear MALDI-TOF MS to identify and quantify coccidiostats in poultry feeds. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found to be the best matrix. In MALDI-TOF MS, coccidiostats form predominantly [M + Na](+) ions, with additional small amounts of [M + K](+) and [M - H + 2Na](+) ions, and no obvious fragment ions. Salinomycin and narasin were unstable in the concentrated DHB matrix solution but were stable when dried on the MALDI-TOF MS probe. A simple fast Sep-pak C18 cartridge purification procedure was developed for the MALDI-TOF MS quantification of coccidiostats in poultry feeds. The MALDI-TOF MS limit of detection for lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin standards was 251, 22, 24, and 24 fmol, respectively. The method detection limit for salinomycin and narasin in poultry feeds was 2.4 microgram/g. PMID:10898626

  19. A rapid and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of fourteen synthetic anti-diabetic drugs in adulterated Chinese proprietary medicines and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Cui, Mei; Lu, Xiumei; Qin, Feng; Jiang, Kun; Li, Famei

    2010-11-01

    An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 14 synthetic anti-diabetic drugs in adulterated Chinese proprietary medicines (CPMs) and dietary supplements. The samples were prepared by ultrasonic extraction with methanol and separated on a C₁₈ column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (both containing 0.10% formic acid). Gradient elution was applied with a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. Two transitions from protonated molecules were monitored for each synthetic anti-diabetic drug in positive mode of electrospray ionization (ESI). The two transitions, the peak area ratio of the two transitions and the retention time were used for identification. The more intensive transition was used for quantification. The analysis time was 6 min per sample. Satisfactory linear relationships were estimated between the peak area and the concentration with correlation coefficients higher than 0.995. The limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 5.45 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation of intra-day precision was below 7.6%, the RSD of inter-day precision was below 15% and the relative error of accuracy was between -10 and 7.8%. The proposed method is rapid, selective, reliable and was successfully applied to the analysis of 30 real samples of 22 CPMs and eight dietary supplements from the local market in China. PMID:20954219

  20. A Confirmatory Method Based on HPLC-MS/MS for the Detection and Quantification of Residue of Tetracyclines in Nonmedicated Feed.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Rosa E; Nebot, Carolina; Veiga-Gómez, Maria; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Vazquez Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Commission Regulation 574/2011/EC set up maximum levels of coccidiostats and histomonostats in nonmedicated feed as a consequence of carry-over during manufacturing. Carry-over takes place from medicated to nonmedicated feed during feed production. Similar contamination could also occur for other pharmaceuticals such as tetracyclines, a group of antibiotics commonly employed in food production animal. The objective of this work is to present a simple and fast method for the simultaneous detection of four tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) in nontarget feed at a μg/kg level. Validation of the method was performed according to the guideline included in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for official method. The validated method was successfully applied to 50 feed samples collected from different milk farms and 25 samples obtained from feed manufacturers. While oxytetracycline was the tetracycline most frequently detected, chlortetracycline was the analyte measured at the highest concentration 15.14 mg/Kg. From 75 nonmedicated feed analysed 15% resulted to be positive for the presence of one tetracycline. PMID:27595038

  1. A Confirmatory Method Based on HPLC-MS/MS for the Detection and Quantification of Residue of Tetracyclines in Nonmedicated Feed

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Rosa E.; Veiga-Gómez, Maria; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Vazquez Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Commission Regulation 574/2011/EC set up maximum levels of coccidiostats and histomonostats in nonmedicated feed as a consequence of carry-over during manufacturing. Carry-over takes place from medicated to nonmedicated feed during feed production. Similar contamination could also occur for other pharmaceuticals such as tetracyclines, a group of antibiotics commonly employed in food production animal. The objective of this work is to present a simple and fast method for the simultaneous detection of four tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) in nontarget feed at a μg/kg level. Validation of the method was performed according to the guideline included in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for official method. The validated method was successfully applied to 50 feed samples collected from different milk farms and 25 samples obtained from feed manufacturers. While oxytetracycline was the tetracycline most frequently detected, chlortetracycline was the analyte measured at the highest concentration 15.14 mg/Kg. From 75 nonmedicated feed analysed 15% resulted to be positive for the presence of one tetracycline. PMID:27595038

  2. Simple and sensitive GC/MS-method for the quantification of urinary phenol, o- and m-cresol and ethylphenols as biomarkers of exposure to industrial solvents.

    PubMed

    Schettgen, T; Alt, A; Dewes, P; Kraus, T

    2015-07-15

    We have developed and validated a simple and sensitive method for the determination of urinary phenol as well as the urinary metabolites of toluene and ethylbenzene in one analytical run. After enzymatic hydrolysis for the cleavage of conjugates overnight, the analytes are extracted from the matrix with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure using toluene as solvent under acidic conditions. The analytes are then derivatised to volatile ethers using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamid (BSTFA) for cresols and ethylphenols as well as N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamid (MTBSTFA) for the determination of phenol. Separation and detection was carried out using capillary gas chromatography with mass-selective detection (GC-MS). Deuterium-labeled o-cresol served as internal standard for the quantification of all metabolites and guaranteed good accuracy of the results. No matrix effects were observed in the quantification of the analytes. The limit of detection for o- and m-cresol and 2- and 4-ethylphenol was 10 and 20μg/l urine and linearity ranged up to 3 and 12mg/L urine, respectively. The limit of detection for urinary phenol was 0.5mg/L with a linear range up to 200mg/L. The relative standard deviation of the within-series imprecision ranged between 3.0 and 7.2% at two spiked concentrations of 60 and 400μg/l and the relative recovery was between 84 and 104%, depending on the analyte. The method was successfully applied in proficiency testing for urinary o-cresol and phenol. This method was used for the analysis of urine samples of 17 non-smoking and 13 smoking persons from the general population without known exposure to solvents. Smokers showed a significantly higher excretion of o-cresol (median: 23 vs. 33μg/l), m-cresol (median: 43 vs. 129μg/l) as well as 4-ethylphenol (median: 25 vs. 124μg/l). Especially excretion of 4-ethylphenol was significantly correlated to smoking habits. The method seems to be suitable for biological monitoring of

  3. Simultaneous Quantification of Sphingolipids in Small Quantities of Liver by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Daisuke; Okudaira, Michiyo; Wang, Jiao; Kano, Kuniyuki; Kurano, Makoto; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Motohashi, Hozumi; Aoki, Junken

    2014-01-01

    Sph, S1P, and Cer, derived from the membrane sphingolipids, act as intracellular and intercellular mediators, involved in various (path) physiological functions. Accordingly, determining the distributions and concentrations of these sphingolipid mediators in body tissues is an important task. Consequently, a method for determination of sphingolipids in small quantities of tissue is required. Sphingolipids analysis has been dependent on improvements in mass spectrometry (MS) technology. Additionally, decomposition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the tissue samples before preparation for MS has hindered analysis. In the present study, a method for stabilization of liver samples before MS preparation was developed using a heat stabilizer (Stabilizor™ T1). Then, a LC-MS/MS method using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with a C8 column was developed for simultaneous determination of sphingolipids in small quantities of liver specimens. This method showed good separation and validation results. Separation was performed with a gradient elution of solvent A (5 mmol L−1 ammonium formate in water, pH 4.0) and solvent B (5 mmol L−1 ammonium formate in 95% acetonitrile, pH 4.0) at 300 μL min−1. The lower limit of quantification was less than 132 pmol L−1, and this method was accurate (∼13.5%) and precise (∼7.13%) for S1P analysis. The method can be used to show the tissue distribution of sphingolipids. PMID:26819890

  4. Highly sensitive simultaneous quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Johänning, Janina; Heinkele, Georg; Precht, Jana C; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Schroth, Werner; Mürdter, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:26206706

  5. A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of direct antiviral agents simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, sofosbuvir/GS-331007, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir, together with ritonavir, in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ariaudo, Alessandra; Favata, Fabio; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Simiele, Marco; Paglietti, Luca; Boglione, Lucio; Cardellino, Chiara Simona; Carcieri, Chiara; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    To date, the new standard for treatment of chronic hepatitis C is based on the administration of novel direct acting antivirals. Among these, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir already entered the clinical use. Anyway, since few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted on these drugs in a "real life" context poor knowledge is available about their optimal therapeutic range. Without this background, therapeutic drug monitoring is not applicable for treatment optimization. Up to now, a few methods are reported to quantify these drugs in human plasma, and none of them in a simultaneous way. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, fast and cheap, but still reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of these drugs, feasible for a clinical routine use. Solid phase extraction was performed using HLB C18 96-well plates. Chromatographic separation was performed on a BEH C18 1.7μm, 2.1mm×50mm column, settled at 50°C, with a gradient run of two mobile phases: ammonium acetate 5mM (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 0.4mL/min for 5min. Tandem-mass detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode. Both inter and intraday imprecision and inaccuracy were below 15%, as required by FDA guidelines, while both recoveries and matrix effects resulted within the acceptance criteria. The method was tested on 80 patients samples with good performance. Being robust, simple and fast and requiring a low plasma volume, this method resulted eligible for a clinical routine use. PMID:27131146

  6. A validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid from rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study using sparse sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreenath Nandakumar; Mhatre, Mandar; Menon, Sasikumar; Shailajan, Sunita

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compound, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), is one of the major phytoconstituents of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandra.) Venter, a rare and endemic medicinal plant found in the Western Ghats of India. HMBA has been attributed to possess several biological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic. The present article describes a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of HMBA in rat plasma. In brief, the developed assay involves pre-treatment of the plasma samples by an optimized solid phase extraction method (recoveries for HMBA greater than 90%) followed by chromatographic separation on a Cosmosil C18 (150mm×4.6mm i.d.; 5μm particle size) analytical column with mobile phase of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (95:5 v/v; 0.2% formic acid) delivered at a constant flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The detection and quantification was performed using an Applied Biosystems Hybrid Q-Trap API 2000 mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source (ESI) functioning in negative mode. The developed assay was validated as per the US FDA bioanalytical guidelines with the calibration curve linear over the concentration range of 5.05-2019.60ng/mL (r(2)≥0.9936) for HMBA from rat plasma. Further, the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of HMBA after oral administration of D. arayalpathra tuber extracts to female albino Wistar rats using sparse sampling methodology. Following oral administration, the maximum mean concentration in rat plasma (Cmax -1301.57±128.22ng/mL) was achieved at 1.5h (Tmax) and the area under the curve (AUC0-48h) was 8985.02±229.54ngh/mL. The elimination half-life (t1/2) and terminal elimination rate constant (Kel) were 2.48h and 0.28 L/h, respectively. PMID:25168218

  7. Data-Independent MS/MS Quantification of Neuropeptides for Determination of Putative Feeding-Related Neurohormones in Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important behavior that is regulated by an intricate array of neuropeptides (NPs). Although many feeding-related NPs have been identified in mammals, precise mechanisms are unclear and difficult to study in mammals, as current methods are not highly multiplexed and require extensive a priori knowledge about analytes. New advances in data-independent acquisition (DIA) MS/MS and the open-source quantification software Skyline have opened up the possibility to identify hundreds of compounds and quantify them from a single DIA MS/MS run. An untargeted DIA MSE quantification method using Skyline software for multiplexed, discovery-driven quantification was developed and found to produce linear calibration curves for peptides at physiologically relevant concentrations using a protein digest as internal standard. By using this method, preliminary relative quantification of the crab Cancer borealis neuropeptidome (<2 kDa, 137 peptides from 18 families) was possible in microdialysates from 8 replicate feeding experiments. Of these NPs, 55 were detected with an average mass error below 10 ppm. The time-resolved profiles of relative concentration changes for 6 are shown, and there is great potential for the use of this method in future experiments to aid in correlation of NP changes with behavior. This work presents an unbiased approach to winnowing candidate NPs related to a behavior of interest in a functionally relevant manner, and demonstrates the success of such a UPLC-MSE quantification method using the open source software Skyline. PMID:25552291

  8. Retinoid quantification by HPLC/MS(n)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaffery, Peter; Evans, James; Koul, Omanand; Volpert, Amy; Reid, Kevin; Ullman, M. David

    2002-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) mediates most of the biological effects of vitamin A that are essential for vertebrate survival. It acts through binding to receptors that belong to the nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily (Mangelsdorf et al. 1994). It is also a highly potent vertebrate teratogen. To determine the function and effects of endogenous and exogenous RA, it is important to have a highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise analytical procedure. Current analyses of RA and other retinoids are labor intensive, of poor sensitivity, have limited specificity, or require compatibility with RA reporter cell lines (Chen et al. 1995. BIOCHEM: Pharmacol. 50: 1257-1264; Creech Kraft et al. 1994. BIOCHEM: J. 301: 111-119; Lanvers et al. 1996. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 685: 233-240; Maden et al. 1998. DEVELOPMENT: 125: 4133-4144; Wagner et al. 1992. DEVELOPMENT: 116: 55-66). This paper describes an HPLC/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry product ion scan (HPLC/MS(n)) procedure for the analysis of retinoids that employs atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS. The retinoids are separated by normal-phase column chromatography with a linear hexane-isopropanol-dioxane gradient. Each retinoid is detected by a unique series of MS(n) functions set at optimal collision-induced dissociation energy (30% to 32%) for all MS(n) steps. The scan events are divided into three segments, based on HPLC elution order, to maximize the mass spectrometer duty cycle. The all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis RA isomers are separated, if desired, by an isocratic hexane-dioxane-isopropanol mobile phase. This paper describes an HPLC/MS(n) procedure possessing high sensitivity and specificity for retinoids.

  9. Identification and Quantification of Loline-Type Alkaloids in Endophyte-Infected Grasses by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Khem B; Boelt, Birte; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-08-10

    Lolines, fungal metabolites of the grass-endophyte association, were identified and quantified using newly developed LC-MS/MS methods in endophyte-infected grasses belonging to the Lolium and Festuca genera after extraction with three different solvents using two extraction methods. The shaking extraction method with isopropanol/water was superior to the other methods due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy (recovery within or close to the range of 80-120%), and high precision (coefficient of variation of <10%). Seven loline alkaloids were identified and quantified using our newly established LC-MS/MS methods, and N-formylloline was the most abundant (5 mg/g dry matter), followed by N-acetylloline. These LC-MS/MS methods used the shortest sample handling time and the fewest sample preparation steps and proved to be good alternatives to existing GC and GC-MS analytical methods without compromising analytical efficiency. In conclusion, we developed for the first time a highly sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method for the accurate and reproducible quantification and a LightSight-assisted LC-QTRAP/MS qualitative method for the tentative identification of loline-type alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses. PMID:27434508

  10. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, and glucuronide conjugates in umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amy Redmond; Carmical, Jennifer; Shah, Darshan; Pryor, Jason; Brown, Stacy

    2015-10-01

    Opioid use during pregnancy can result in the newborn being physically dependent on the substance, thus experiencing drug withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Buprenorphine and methadone are two drugs used to treat opioid withdrawal and are approved for use in pregnancy. Quantification of these compounds in umbilical cord plasma would help assess in utero exposure of neonates in cases of buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. An LC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronide metabolites in umbilical cord plasma. The average accuracy (percentage error) and precision (relative standard deviation) were <15% for each validated concentration. Our data establishes a 2 week maximum freezer storage window in order to achieve the most accurate cord plasma concentrations of these analytes. Additionally, we found that the umbilical cord tissue analysis was less sensitive compared with analysis with umbilical cord blood plasma, indicating that this may be a more appropriate matrix for determination of buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cord blood from women with known buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. PMID:25808363

  11. Validation data for the quantification of the Annonaceous acetogenin annonacin in Rat brain by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) are environmental neurotoxins from the fruit pulp of several Annonaceae species, whose consumption was linked to the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. The quantification of the prototypical AAG annonacin in Rat brain homogenates was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer. A natural analog of annonacin was used as an internal standard. Analyzed data set of the analytical validation of this method is presented, including stability of the samples, extraction recovery and matrix effect, supporting the results described in the article "Quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat brain by UPLC-MS/MS" N. Bonneau, I. Schmitz-Afonso, D. Touboul, A. Brunelle, P. Champy (2016) [1]. PMID:27222866

  12. Chemical derivatization for enhancing sensitivity during LC/ESI-MS/MS quantification of steroids in biological samples: a review.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Shoujiro

    2016-09-01

    Sensitive and specific methods for the detection, characterization and quantification of endogenous steroids in body fluids or tissues are necessary for the diagnosis, pathological analysis and treatment of many diseases. Recently, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) has been widely used for these purposes due to its specificity and versatility. However, the ESI efficiency and fragmentation behavior of some steroids are poor, which lead to a low sensitivity. Chemical derivatization is one of the most effective methods to improve the detection characteristics of steroids in ESI-MS/MS. Based on this background, this article reviews the recent advances in chemical derivatization for the trace quantification of steroids in biological samples by LC/ESI-MS/MS. The derivatization in ESI-MS/MS is based on tagging a proton-affinitive or permanently charged moiety on the target steroid. Introduction/formation of a fragmentable moiety suitable for the selected reaction monitoring by the derivatization also enhances the sensitivity. The stable isotope-coded derivatization procedures for the steroid analysis are also described. PMID:26454158

  13. Quantification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-protein adducts in the in vivo gastric digesta of mini-pigs using a GC-MS/MS method with accuracy profile validation.

    PubMed

    Delosière, Mylène; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Chantelauze, Céline; Durand, Denys; Thomas, Agnès; Joly, Charlotte; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Rémond, Didier; Comte, Blandine; Gladine, Cécile; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Laurentie, Michel; Dufour, Claire

    2016-08-10

    Hydroxyalkenals are lipid oxidation end-products resulting from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This study aimed at quantifying the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-protein adducts (HNE-P) via Michael addition from n-6 PUFA oxidation in the gastric digesta of mini-pigs after the consumption of meat-based meals with different plant antioxidant contents. Using the accuracy profile procedure, we validated an extraction protocol for the quantification of HNE-P by GC-MS/MS in gastric contents. The formation of HNE-P in the gastric compartment was observed for the first time, with concentrations ranging from less than 0.52 to 1.33 nmol HNE-P per 500 mg digesta. Nevertheless, most gastric HNE-P levels were below the limit of quantification of 0.52 nmol HNE-P per 500 mg digesta. In this animal study, the protective effect of plant antioxidant sources on HNE-P formation was not evidenced contrasting with the results using TBARS as markers. PMID:27418316

  14. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of key oxysterols, endocannabinoids, and ceramides: variations in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutemberezi, Valentin; Masquelier, Julien; Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids are three families of bioactive lipids suggested to be involved in obesity and metabolic syndrome. To facilitate the quantification of these potentially interconnected lipids, we have developed and validated a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method allowing for their simultaneous quantification from tissues. Sample purification is of great importance when quantifying oxysterols due to the potential artifactual conversion of cholesterol into oxysterols. Therefore, we developed a novel solid-phase extraction procedure and demonstrated that it allowed for good recoveries of the three families of analytes without artifactual oxidation of cholesterol. The oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids and their respective internal standards were chromatographically separated by HPLC and ionized using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source of an LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The repeatability and bias were within the acceptance limits for all 23 lipids of interest. The sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ)) and specificity of the method allowed us to quantify all the analytes in the liver and adipose tissue of control and high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. We found that 16 weeks of high-fat diet strongly impacted the hepatic levels of several oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on the variations of the hepatic levels of these 23 bioactive lipids allowed differentiating the lean mice from the obese mice. PMID:26563111

  15. Quantification of flavonol glycosides in Camellia sinensis by MRM mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. PMID:26937589

  16. Validation data for the quantification of the Annonaceous acetogenin annonacin in Rat brain by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) are environmental neurotoxins from the fruit pulp of several Annonaceae species, whose consumption was linked to the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. The quantification of the prototypical AAG annonacin in Rat brain homogenates was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer. A natural analog of annonacin was used as an internal standard. Analyzed data set of the analytical validation of this method is presented, including stability of the samples, extraction recovery and matrix effect, supporting the results described in the article “Quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat brain by UPLC-MS/MS” N. Bonneau, I. Schmitz-Afonso, D. Touboul, A. Brunelle, P. Champy (2016) [1]. PMID:27222866

  17. New CE-ESI-MS analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of seven phenolic acids including three isomer compounds in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Nevado, Juan José Berzas; Peñalvo, Gregorio Castañeda; Robledo, Virginia Rodríguez; Martínez, Gabriela Vargas

    2009-10-15

    A sensitive and expeditious CE-ESI-MS analytical method for the separation, identification and determination of seven selected antioxidants (cinnamic and benzoic acids), including three isomers of coumaric acid (ortho-, meta- and para-) has been developed. In order to obtain the analytical separation, capillary electrophoresis and CE-MS interface parameters (e.g., buffer pH and composition, sheath liquid and gas flow rates, sheath liquid composition, electrospray voltage, etc.) were carefully optimized. The polar fraction containing the selected phenolic acids was obtained using a previously optimized SPE pretreatment. An MS detector in order to extract structural information about the target compounds and facilitate their qualitative analysis was used in the negative ion mode. The proposed off-line SPE CE-ESI-MS method was validated by assessing its precision, LODs and LOQs, linearity range and accuracy. The optimized and validated method was used in order to quantify the selected antioxidants in various samples of virgin olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the main olive varieties cropped in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Salicylic acid was used as internal standard throughout in order to ensure reproducibility in the quantitative analysis of the oil samples. The results confirmed the presence of hydroxyphenyl acetic, p-coumaric, ferulic and vanillic acids in substantial amounts (microg g(-1) level) in all samples. PMID:19635353

  18. Fast MS/MS acquisition without dynamic exclusion enables precise and accurate quantification of proteome by MS/MS fragment intensity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shen; Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Zhao, Qun; Zhao, Baofeng; Weng, Yejing; Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    Most currently proteomic studies use data-dependent acquisition with dynamic exclusion to identify and quantify the peptides generated by the digestion of biological sample. Although dynamic exclusion permits more identifications and higher possibility to find low abundant proteins, stochastic and irreproducible precursor ion selection caused by dynamic exclusion limit the quantification capabilities, especially for MS/MS based quantification. This is because a peptide is usually triggered for fragmentation only once due to dynamic exclusion. Therefore the fragment ions used for quantification only reflect the peptide abundances at that given time point. Here, we propose a strategy of fast MS/MS acquisition without dynamic exclusion to enable precise and accurate quantification of proteome by MS/MS fragment intensity. The results showed comparable proteome identification efficiency compared to the traditional data-dependent acquisition with dynamic exclusion, better quantitative accuracy and reproducibility regardless of label-free based quantification or isobaric labeling based quantification. It provides us with new insights to fully explore the potential of modern mass spectrometers. This strategy was applied to the relative quantification of two human disease cell lines, showing great promises for quantitative proteomic applications. PMID:27198003

  19. Development and validation of two LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine using turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Peters, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2013-01-01

    In the context of driving ability diagnostics in Germany, administrative cutoffs for various drugs and pharmaceuticals in urine have been established. Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine were developed and validated. A 500-μL aliquot of urine was diluted and fortified with an internal standard solution. After enzymatic cleavage, online extraction was performed by an ion-exchange/reversed-phase turbulent flow column. Separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution. For detection, a Thermo Fisher TSQ Quantum Ultra Accurate Mass tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization was used, and the analytes were measured in multiple-reaction monitoring mode detecting two transitions per precursor ion. The total run time for both methods was about 15 min. Validation was performed according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. The results of matrix effect determination were between 78% and 116%. The limits of detection and quantification for all drugs, except zopiclone, were less than 10 ng/mL and less than 25 ng/mL, respectively. Calibration curves ranged from 25 to 200 ng/mL for amphetamines, designer amphetamines, and benzoylecgonine, from 25 to 250 ng/mL for benzodiazepines, from 12.5 to 100 ng/mL for morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine, and from 5 to 50 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Intraday and interday precision values were lower than 15%, and bias values within ± 15% were achieved. Turbulent flow chromatography needs no laborious sample preparation, so the workup is less time-consuming compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The methods are suitable for quantification of multiple analytes at the cutoff concentrations required for driving ability diagnostics in Germany. PMID

  20. Simple method for the quantification of milk fat content in foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the quantification of milk fat in foods using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PPBu) as an indicator of milk fat content by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The separation of the triacylglycerol positional isomer, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-butyroyl-glycerol (PBuP) and PPBu, was achieved using an octacocyl silylation (C28) column, and multiple reaction monitoring was employed. The milk fat contents in butter, butter-blended margarine, and butter cookies were quantified using two different sample preparation methods. In the first method (Method A), the lipid in the food was extracted with organic solvents and used for the preparation of a sample solution. In the other method (Method B), the sample solution was prepared by dissolving the food in organic solvents; the PPBu content in the fat and oil was corrected by the lipid content in the food obtained by the rapid NMR method. The calibration curve of standard PPBu was a first-order equation over the range of 1-250 µg/mL. The recovery rates of PPBu spiked into butter evaluated by Methods A and B were 99.9-105.0% and 106.5-110.1%, respectively. PBuP was not detected in milk fat. The milk fat contents in blends of butter and margarine determined by the method developed in this study were equivalent to the contents calculated with the butyric acid (Bu) method using GC-FID. The milk fat contents in butter-blended margarine analyzed by Methods A and B were almost the same. The PPBu content in blends of butter and margarine was correlated with the butter content. Thus, we succeeded in developing an efficient method for the rapid quantification of milk fat content and the detection of milk fat adulteration. PMID:23470438

  1. Development, optimization and validation of a highly sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of amlodipine, benazeprile and benazeprilat in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Badr, Kamal A

    2014-09-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine (AML), benazepril (BEN) and benazeprilat (BNT) using eplerenone and torsemide as internal standards (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Sample preparation involves both extraction and precipitation techniques. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.45ml/min. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.1-5ng/ml for AML; 5-1200ng/ml for both BEN and BNT. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A run time of 2.5min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. PMID:24863555

  2. Development and validation of a reliable and rapid LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril and valsartan in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Raja Haranadha Babu; Dannana, Gowri Sankar

    2016-09-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril and valsartan in rat plasma using telmisartan as internal standard (IS). The analytes were extracted by deprotenization of 50 μL of plasma sample using 200 μL of acetonitrile. In a short chromatographic run of 1.50 min run time, separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile in gradient elution mode. The quantification of target compounds was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. Response was a linear function of concentration in the ranges of 0.5-20,000 ng/mL for both analytes, with r(2)  > 0.9997. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were <15% and acceptable as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Stability of compounds were established in a battery of stability studies, i.e. bench-top, autosampler and long-term storage stability as well as freeze-thaw cycles. The validated method can be used as a routine method to support pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26876742

  3. Analysis of Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in atmospheric particulate matter - Qualification and Quantification using a derivatisation method for HPLC-ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Christopher; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    In recent years much effort has been put into the analysis of so called secondary organic aerosols (SOA). SOA is produced through gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by atmospheric oxidants like OH- or NO3-radicals or ozone with subsequent gas-particle partitioning of the low volatility products. VOC's are emitted by both biogenic and anthropogenic sources in large amounts into the atmosphere. However, it is found that gas to particle partitioning alone cannot explain the complete amount of SOA produced in the atmosphere. It is therefore proposed that heterogeneous reactions on the particle surface or in the particles themselves could lead to the formation of additional SOA mass from semi-volatile compounds such as the reactive dialdehydes glyoxal and methylglyoxal[1]. Global glyoxal and methylglyoxal emissions are estimated to be 45 Tg a-1 and 140 Tg a-1, respectively. The oxidation of biogenic isoprene contributes to about 47% of the total glyoxal mass formed and even to about 79% for methylglyoxal[2]. Due to their high solubility in water (hydration of aldehyde functions), glyoxal and methylglyoxal have a high potential to form SOA via heterogeneous reactions in the particle phase although their volatility is relatively high. Several studies propose oligomerisation or formation of imidazole derivatives as potential reaction pathways to reduce their volatility[1,3,4,5]. Here we present a method for the qualification and quantification of both glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric PM2.5 filter samples via derivatisation with phenylhydrazine. Reproducibility, recovery and limits of detection and quantification are given. The method is found to be easily suitable for measurements at atmospheric concentration levels for both substances. First results of a measurement campaign in Mainz, Germany in August 2009 are shown for a proof of principle. Initial problems of the method development due to the chemical nature of the analytes und future

  4. Evaluation of the ion trap MS performance for quantification of flavonoids and comparison to UV detection.

    PubMed

    Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Stefova, Marina

    2012-11-01

    The application of an ion trap mass spectrometer, usually employed for identification, has been here systematically evaluated for quantitative analysis of various conjugated forms of flavonoids and compared with UV quantification. Three MS methods were tested to assess the potential and limits of the ion trap for quantification of flavonoids: full-scan experiment MS(2) , isolated ion experiment MS, and full-scan experiment MS. The test was performed using nine reference standards of flavonoids with six different aglycones: luteolin, apigenin, hypolaetin, 4'-O-methylhypolaetin, isoscutellarein and 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein in the form of 7-O-glucosides and diglucosides, mono or diacetylated, isolated from Sideritis scardica. The analytical characteristics of the tested MS methods were shown to be comparable to UV with regards to precision and accuracy, and superior for selectivity and sensitivity especially when using extracted ion chromatograms. Detection limits did not differ significantly between the MS methods but were significantly lower than those obtained with UV detection by one order of magnitude. Another issue addressed by these results was the choice of most suitable standard substances for quantification of flavonoids with various substituents attached when using MS. In UV detection, the nature of the aglycone is crucial for the absorbance properties, and various derivatives can be quantified with the available one with the same aglycone. Here, it was shown that in MS detection, one flavone derivative can be quantified using other available derivatives with similar substitution pattern with regards to attached and acetylated sugars, whereas the nature of the aglycone is not crucial. PMID:23147814

  5. LC-MS/MS quantification of salvinorin A from biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Michael J.; Williams, Todd D.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Lozama, Anthony; Butelman, Eduardo R.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Johnson, Matthew; Griffiths, Roland; MacLean, Katherine; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    A facile method for quantifying the concentration of the powerful and widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (a selective kappa opioid agonist) from non-human primate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and human plasma has been developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. With CSF solid phase extraction can be avoided completely by simply diluting each sample to 10 % (v/v) acetonitrile, 1 % (v/v) formic acid and injecting under high aqueous conditions for analyte focusing. Extensive plasma sample preparation was investigated including protein precipitation, SPE column selection, and plasma particulate removal. Human plasma samples were centrifuged at 21,000 × gravity for 4 minutes to obtain clear particulate-free plasma, from which 300 μl was spiked with internal standard and loaded onto a C18 SPE column with a 100 mg mL−1 loading capacity. Guard columns (C18, hand packed 1 mm × 20 mm) were exchanged after backpressure increased above 4600psi, about 250 injections. A shallow acetonitrile/water gradient was used, 29 to 33% CH3CN over 8 minutes to elute salvinorin A. Reduction of chemical noise was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring while sensitivity increases were observed using a 50 μL injection volume onto a small bore analytical column (C18, 1 mm ID × 50 mm) thus increasing peak concentration. Limits of quantification were found to be 0.0125 ng mL−1 (CSF) and 0.05 ng mL−1 (plasma) with interday precision and accuracy below 1.7 % and 9.42 % (CSF) and 3.47 % and 12.37 % (plasma) respectively. This method was used to determine the concentration of salvinorin A from an in vivo Rhesus monkey study and a trial of healthy human research participants, using behaviorally active doses. PMID:24416081

  6. Biodiesel production from microalgal isolates of southern Pakistan and quantification of FAMEs by GC-MS/MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda) and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus). Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation. PMID:23216896

  7. LC-MS/MS method using unbonded silica column and aqueous/methanol mobile phase for the simultaneous quantification of a drug candidate and co-administered metformin in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Discenza, Lorell; D'Arienzo, Celia; Olah, Timothy; Jemal, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    BMS-754807 and metformin were co-administered in drug discovery studies which required the quantitation of both compounds in plasma. Since the two compounds are chemically and structurally dissimilar, developing a single bioanalytical method presented a number of chromatographic challenges including the achievement of appropriate retention times and peak shapes on a single analytical column. To address this chromatographic challenge, we investigated different LC columns under different gradient elution schemes using aqueous/organic mobile phases. Using unbonded silica column and aqueous/methanol mobile phase, we were able to obtain robust and well-resolving chromatographic conditions to support the development and implementation of a single LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method. The use of sub-2 micron particle sizes and a high flow rate, which are attainable with UPLC systems, enhanced the method. The method performance evaluation showed that the method easily met the normally used acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods, namely a deviation of +/-15% from the nominal concentration except at lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), where +/-20% is accepted. The reported LLOQ of 7.8 ng/ml, for both BMS-754807 and metformin, was adequate to support the pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:20451474

  8. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of SKLB010, an investigational anti-inflammatory compound, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xia; Tang, Minghai; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xianhuo; Ma, Liang; Zheng, Hao; Hu, Jia; Chen, Xiang; Duan, Xingmei; Chen, Lijuan

    2011-09-10

    SKLB010 is currently under development as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute hepatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the pre-clinical pharmacokinetics of SKLB010 in beagle dogs. An ultra performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of SKLB010 in dog plasma, using rosiglitazone as the internal standard (I.S.). Plasma samples were prepared by a simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The analyte and internal standard were separated by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm) column with a mobile phase of methanol-water (80/20, v/v) over 2 min. Detection was based on the multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 234.10→147.92 (SKLB010) and m/z 356.15→150.00 (I.S.). The method was validated according to FDA guidelines on bio-analytical method validation. The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described above was successfully applied to reveal the single- and multi-pharmacokinetic profiles of SKLB010 in beagle dogs and should be extendable to pharmacokinetic studies in other species as well. PMID:21680128

  9. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ethoxzolamide in blood, brain tissue, and bioequivalent buffers: applications to absorption, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Taijun; Ma, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K; Hu, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify ethoxzolamide in plasma (EZ) and apply the method to absorption, brain distribution, as well as pharmacokinetic studies. A C₁₈ column was used with 0.1% of formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in water as the mobile phases to resolve EZ. The mass analysis was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode. The results show that the linear range of EZ is 4.88-10,000.00 nM. The intra-day variance is less than 12.43% and the accuracy is between 88.88 and 108.00%. The inter-day variance is less than 12.87% and accuracy is between 89.27 and 115.89%. Protein precipitation was performed using methanol to extract EZ from plasma and brain tissues. Only 40 μL of plasma is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method, which could be completed in less than three minutes. This method was used to study the pharmacokinetics of EZ in SD rats, and the transport of EZ in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing cell culture models. Our data show that EZ is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its entry into the brain may not limited by the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25706567

  10. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumit; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this research is to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (phase II metabolite of SN-38) simultaneously in different bio-matrices (plasma, urine, feces), tissues (liver and kidney) and to use the method to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in rats. Irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide has been resolved and separated by C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water used as the mobile phases. Triple quadruple mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode were employed to perform mass analysis. The results showed that the linear response range of irinotecan and SN-38 in plasma, feces, liver and kidney is 4.88-10000 nM, 39-5000 nM, 48.8-6250 nM and 48.8-6250 nM, respectively (R(2)>0.99). In case of SN-38 glucuronide, the standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 6.25-2000 nM, 4.88-1250 nM, 9.8-1250 nM and 9.8-1250 nM in plasma, feces, liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide was determined to be less than 25 nM in all bio-matrices as well as tissue homogenates. Recoveries of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide at three different concentrations (low, medium and high) were not less than 85% at three different concentrations in plasma and feces. The percentage matrix factors in different bio-matrices and tissues were within 20%. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-day and inter-day precision of less than 15% in plasma, feces, liver and kidney. Owing to the high sensitivity of this method, only 20 μl of plasma, urine and homogenates of liver, kidney and feces is needed. The validated method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of irinotecan in male wistar rats to quantify irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, feces, and urine samples. PMID

  11. SPE-LC/ESI/MS: a simple and reproducible method for detection and quantification of 17beta-estradiol in aqueous samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid estrogens contained in wastewater discharge from sewage treatment plants and agricultural run-off can alter endocrine function in exposed wildlife at part per trillion (ng/L) levels. Detection and quantification of estrogens in the environment at these levels pose numerous analytical challen...

  12. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of levodopa and MD01 in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of mucuna pruriens extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangjie; Zhang, Fangrong; Deng, Linfang; Chen, Chang; Cheng, Zhongzhe; Huang, Jiangeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Jiang, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an ancient Indian herbal medicine containing levodopa, is widely used for Parkinson's disease. In order to simultaneously determine levodopa and 1,1-dimethyl-3-carboxy-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MD01) in rat plasma, an improved LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for a pharmacokinetic study in rats orally administered levodopa or Mucuna pruriens extract (MPE). Elimination of matrix effect and improvement of extraction recovery were achieved through systematic optimization of reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic conditions together with sample clean-up procedures. A satisfactory chromatographic performance was obtained with a Thermo Aquasil C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) using acetonitrile and water containing 0.2% formic acid as mobile phases. Futhermore, sodium metabisulfite and formic acid were used as stabilizers in neat solutions as well as rat plasma. The method was validated in a dynamic range of 20.0-10,000 ng/mL for levodopa and MD01; the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable. The method was successfully utilized to determine the levodopa level in plasma samples of rats administered levodopa or MPE. Pharmacokinetic results showed that an increase in the AUC of levodopa was observed in rats following oral administration of multiple doses of MPE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26928470

  13. PSAQ™ standards for accurate MS-based quantification of proteins: from the concept to biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Picard, Guillaume; Lebert, Dorothée; Louwagie, Mathilde; Adrait, Annie; Huillet, Céline; Vandenesch, François; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Jaquinod, Michel; Brun, Virginie

    2012-10-01

    Absolute protein quantification, i.e. determining protein concentrations in biological samples, is essential to our understanding of biological and physiopathological phenomena. Protein quantification methods based on the use of antibodies are very effective and widely used. However, over the last ten years, absolute protein quantification by mass spectrometry has attracted considerable interest, particularly for the study of systems biology and as part of biomarker development. This interest is mainly linked to the high multiplexing capacity of MS analysis, and to the availability of stable-isotope-labelled standards for quantification. This article describes the details of how to produce, control the quality and use a specific type of standard: Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) standards. These standards are whole isotopically labelled proteins, analogues of the proteins to be assayed. PSAQ standards can be added early during sample treatment, thus they can correct for protein losses during sample prefractionation and for incomplete sample digestion. Because of this, quantification of target proteins is very accurate and precise using these standards. To illustrate the advantages of the PSAQ method, and to contribute to the increase in its use, selected applications in the biomedical field are detailed here. PMID:23019168

  14. UPLC-MS/MS method with automated on-line SPE for the isomer-specific quantification of the first-generation anti-HCV protease inhibitors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    De Nicolò, Amedeo; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Boglione, Lucio; Baiett, Lorena; Allegra, Sarah; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-11-10

    HCV infection affects over 170 million people worldwide. The current standard for treatment of genotype 1 infection is the association of the first generation protease inhibitors boceprevir or telaprevir to ribavirin and peginterferon α. Although the response rate has been improved with these new drugs, some pharmacokinetic/pharmacodinamic issues emerged in the past years. To date, some analytical methods are available for the quantification of these drugs in plasma; however, the real active concentrations of the two drugs are those in hepatocytes. Being the withdrawal of hepatocytes too invasive, in this work we aimed to develop and validate a chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry capable of quantifying boceprevir and telaprevir isomers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, used as an "in-vivo" cellular model of compartmentalization. The method used an on-line solid phase extraction protocol based on the new OSM(®) platform and was fully validated following FDA guidelines. This method showed mean intra- and inter-day inaccuracy and imprecision both lower than 15%, high and stable recovery and contained matrix effect, with a run time of 6min, comprehensive of SPE extraction. The method was then applied on 35 real samples from patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir, with good analytical performances, thus assessing its eligibility for a possible future routine use. Peculiar pharmacokinetic data have been observed, suggesting the usefulness of investigating intracellular pharmacokinetics of these drugs. Further studies will be required to test the correlation of intracellular concentrations with effectiveness and toxicity of triple therapy. PMID:26291788

  15. Detection and quantification of MS lesions using fuzzy topological principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udupa, Jayaram K.; Wei, Luogang; Samarasekera, Supun; Miki, Yukio; van Buchem, M. A.; Grossman, Robert I.

    1996-04-01

    Quantification of the severity of the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease through estimation of lesion volume via MR imaging is vital for understanding and monitoring the disease and its treatment. This paper presents a novel methodology and a system that can be routinely used for segmenting and estimating the volume of MS lesions via dual-echo spin-echo MR imagery. An operator indicates a few points in the images by pointing to the white matter, the gray matter, and the CSF. Each of these objects is then detected as a fuzzy connected set. The holes in the union of these objects correspond to potential lesion sites which are utilized to detect each potential lesion as a fuzzy connected object. These 3D objects are presented to the operator who indicates acceptance/rejection through the click of a mouse button. The volume of accepted lesions is then computed and output. Based on several evaluation studies and over 300 3D data sets that were processed, we conclude that the methodology is highly reliable and consistent, with a coefficient of variation (due to subjective operator actions) of less than 1.0% for volume.

  16. Development and validation of sensitive LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of HP-β-CD in human plasma and CSF

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Fujiwara, Hideji; De Meulder, Marc; de Vries, Ronald; Gong, Yong; Kao, Mark; Porter, Forbes D.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Carillo-Carasco, Nuria; Xu, Xin; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Woolery, Myra; Ory, Daniel S.; Jiang, Xuntian

    2014-01-01

    2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a widely used excipient for drug formulation, has emerged as an investigational new drug for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease, a neurodegenerative cholesterol storage disorder. Development of a sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS assay to monitor the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of HP-β-CD required for clinical trials has been challenging owing to the dispersity of the HP-β-CD. To support a phase 1 clinical trial for ICV delivery of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients, novel methods for quantification of HP-β-CD in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using LC-MS/MS were developed and validated: a 2D-LC-in-source fragmentation-MS/MS (2D-LC-IF-MS/MS) assay and a reversed phase ultra performance LC-MS/MS (RP-UPLC-MS/MS) assay. In both assays, protein precipitation and “dilute and shoot” procedures were used to process plasma and CSF, respectively. The assays were fully validated and in close agreement, and allowed determination of PK parameters for HP-β-CD. The LC-MS/MS methods are ∼100-fold more sensitive than the current HPLC assay, and were successfully employed to analyze HP-β-CD in human plasma and CSF samples to support the phase 1 clinical trial of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients. PMID:24868096

  17. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  18. Quantification of complanatoside A in rat plasma using LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Yuchen; Wei, Zhouxia; Pang, Li; Wang, Jianmeng

    2016-06-01

    Complanatoside A is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus, and currently it is used as a quality control index for A. complanatus in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. For the first time, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of complanatoside A in rat plasma over the range of 2.3-575 ng/mL. Complanatoside A was extracted from plasma by a protein precipitation procedure, separated by LC and detected by MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization mode. The method was validated for selectivity, carryover, sensitivity, linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect, accuracy, precision and stability studies. The lower limit of quantification was established at 2.3 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions (LLOQ, low-QC, med-QC and high-QC) were <7.9%, and accuracies were between 94.0 and 105.1%. Matrix effect was acceptable (97.9-103.0%) and extraction recovery was reproducible (88.5-94.4%). Complanatoside A was stable in the investigated conditions. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of complanatoside A in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26393341

  19. Improved Quantification of Free and Ester-Bound Gallic Acid in Foods and Beverages by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Andrew G; Li, Yongchao; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-17

    Hydrolyzable tannins are measured routinely during the characterization of food and beverage samples. Most methods for the determination of hydrolyzable tannins use hydrolysis or methanolysis to convert complex tannins to small molecules (gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid) for quantification by HPLC-UV. Often unrecognized, analytical limitations and variability inherent in these approaches for the measurement of hydrolyzable tannins include the variable mass fraction (0-0.90) that is released as analyte, contributions of sources other than tannins to hydrolyzable gallate (can exceed >10 wt %/wt), the measurement of both free and total analyte, and lack of controls to account for degradation. An accurate, specific, sensitive, and higher-throughput approach for the determination of hydrolyzable gallate based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) that overcomes these limitations was developed. PMID:26804199

  20. Quantification of the Triazole Antifungal Compounds Voriconazole and Posaconazole in Human Serum or Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Molinelli, Alejandro R; Rose, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole and posaconazole are triazole antifungal compounds used in the treatment of fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of both compounds is recommended in order to guide drug dosing to achieve optimal blood concentrations. In this chapter we describe an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of both compounds in human plasma or serum following a simple specimen preparation procedure. Specimen preparation consists of protein precipitation using methanol and acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step that involves filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane. The specimen is then injected into an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a C18 column and separated over an acetonitrile gradient. Quantification of the drugs in the specimen is achieved by comparing the response of the unknown specimen to that of the calibrators in the standard curve using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:26660172

  1. Simultaneous quantification of ten constituents of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge using UHPLC-MS methods and evaluation of their radical scavenging, DNA scission protective, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chun-Li; Qi, Zhi; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the bioactive constituents of Xanthoceras sorbifolia in terms of amounts and their antioxidant, DNA scission protection, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Simultaneous quantification of 10 X. sorbifolia constituents was carried out by a newly established ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by measuring DPPH radical scavenging and DNA scission protective activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated by using an assay with α-glucosidase from Bacillus Stearothermophilus and disaccharidases from mouse intestine. We found that the wood of X. sorbifolia was rich in phenolic compounds with the contents of catechin, epicatechin, myricetin, and dihydromyricetin being 0.12-0.19, 1.94-2.16, 0.77-0.91, and 6.76-7.89 mg·g(-1), respectively. The four constituents strongly scavenged DPPH radicals (with EC50 being 4.2, 3.8 and 5.7 μg·mL(-1), respectively) and remarkably protected peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission (92.10%, 94.66%, 75.44% and 89.95% of protection, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μmol·L(-1)). A dimeric flavan 3-ol, epigallocatechin-(4β→8, 2β→O-7)-epicatechin potently inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC50 value being as low as 1.2 μg·mL(-1). The established UHPLC-MS method could serve as a quality control tool for X. sorbifolia. In conclusion, the high contents of antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory constituents in X. sorbifolia support its use as complementation of other therapeutic agents for metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26614463

  2. Quantification of phytochelatins in plants by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    El-Zohri, M H A; Cabala, R; Frank, H

    2005-08-01

    An on-line HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method has been developed for determination of glutathione and phytochelatins (PC) in plant tissues. For sample pretreatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) must be added at the very beginning, as an anti-oxidant. Optimization of instrumental conditions i.e. composition of HPLC mobile phase, ionization efficiency of the electrospray interface, and MS-MS detection in the multiple ion-monitoring mode, are the central aspects of this work. A polystyrene-packed column was found to be superior to a standard silica-packed reversed-phase column. A concave quadratic gradient of ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile was found to be optimum. The limits of quantitation were 0.2 micromol kg(-1) plant tissue for glutathione and PC. The method has been applied to analysis of tissue samples from Vicia faba grown in Cd-containing nutrient solutions. PMID:16001238

  3. Quantification of Free Phenytoin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) is an anticonvulsant drug that has been used for decades for the treatment of many types of seizures. The drug is highly protein bound and measurement of free-active form of the drug is warranted particularly in patients with conditions that can affect drug protein binding. Here, we describe a LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of free phenytoin. Free drug is separated by ultrafiltration of serum or plasma. Ultrafiltrate is treated with acetonitrile containing internal standard phenytoin d-10 to precipitate proteins. The mixture is centrifuged and supernatant is injected onto LC-MS-MS, and analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring. This method is linear from 0.1 to 4.0 μg/mL and does not demonstrate any significant ion suppression or enhancement. PMID:26660192

  4. Rapid extraction, identification and quantification of oral hypoglycaemic drugs in serum and hair using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Villani, Nicholas; Neels, Hugo; Schneider, Serge

    2012-11-30

    A sensitive and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of 5 oral anti-diabetics (glipizide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, gliquidone and metformin) in serum and hair was developed using glibornuride as the internal standard. We have developed a rapid and robust extraction procedure by using acetonitrile for serum protein precipitation and methanol for the extraction of anti-diabetics from hair. Anti-diabetics (ADs) were separated by UPLC over a C18 column and detection was performed on a Waters Xevo TQ MS mass spectrometer in positive ionization mode using electrospray ionization. Each AD was identified by three specific ion transitions in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated according to international guidelines. For all compounds the variation coefficient (CV) was <20%, and accuracies ranged from 85 to 115% in serum and hair. The limits of detection (LODs) were <1.5 ng/mL for all ADs in serum and <3.59 pg/mg in hair. Recoveries varied from 56.41% (gliclazide) to 67.58% (glipizide) in serum and from 68% (gliclazide) to 91.2% (metformin) in hair. The method was successfully applied to quantify ADs in serum of 33 patients and in hair of 15 patients. PMID:22940189

  5. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS. PMID:26515281

  6. Rapid quantification of buprenorphine-glucuronide and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide in human urine by LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, S; Khiabani, H Z; Øiestad, E L; Berg, T; Christophersen, A S

    2007-05-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of buprenorphine-glucuronide (BUP-G) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (NBUP-G) in human urine. The method included a dilution step followed by filtration through a Mini-Uniprep Filter and direct injection onto the LC column. The analytes were quantified in multiple reactions monitoring mode using one transition ion. Norbuprenorpine-d(3) (NBUP-d(3)) was used as the internal standard. The concentration ranges were 6-161 ng/mL for BUP-G and 12-295 ng/mL for NBUP-G. Recoveries determined after filtration for the analytes were 75%. The between-day precision of the method was in the range of 4.8-11%. The limits of quantification were found to be 4.6 ng/mL for BUP-G and 11.8 ng/mL for NBUP-G. Approximately 1000 samples from law enforcement, prison inmates, probation services, and hospitals were analyzed by the presented method. The ratios of drug glucuronides versus creatinine were calculated for a selection of samples (n = 151), where there was information on treatment with buprenorphine between 16 and 20 mg/day. The majority (86%) of the samples had a ratio of BUP-G/creatinine below 570 microg/g, and 76% of the samples had NBUP-G/creatinine lower than 1060 microg/g. The LC-MS-MS method proved to be robust and specific for the determination of BUP-G and NBUP-G in urine. PMID:17555645

  7. Rapid quantification of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine in urine by automated online SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christoph; Grobosch, Thomas; Binscheck, Torsten

    2011-04-01

    The opioid tilidine is a prodrug which is hepatically metabolized to active nortilidine and bisnortilidine. Due to the increasing abuse of tilidine by drug users and the lack of a specific immunoassay, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine in urine suitable for screening. In a following step, this method was used to establish data on excretion kinetics of the substances in order to evaluate the time window of detection after a single oral dose of tilidine/naloxone and also was applied to authentic urine samples from correctional facilities. Urine samples were mixed with internal standard solution and extracted on a weak cation exchanger at pH 6 using a Symbiosis Pico system. The chromatographic separation was achieved within a 3.5-min run time on a Phenylhexyl column (50 × 2.0 mm, 5 μm) via gradient elution (methanol and 0.2% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS was performed on a QTrap 3,200 in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using two mass transitions per analyte. Validating the method resulted in a lower limit of quantification of 1.0 μg/L followed by a linear calibration range to 100 μg/L for each analyte (r(2) > 0.99). The analytical method allowed the detection of a single dose of a commercially available tilidine solution up to 7 days after administration. Using this highly sensitive method, 55 of 3,665 urine samples were tested positive. PMID:21140136

  8. A robust GC-MS/MS method for the determination of chlorothalonil in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peruga, A; Barreda, M; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2013-01-01

    Chlorothalonil is a non-systemic fungicide that is easily degraded in contact with plants and soil or even by the effect of light and pH. A method for the determination of chlorothalonil in courgettes, strawberries, oranges, leeks and tomato by solvent extraction followed by GC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole analyser was developed. The causes of chlorothalonil degradation during sample treatment were studied and minimised. The final method was based on extraction with acetone in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA sodium salt solution, and clean-up by SPE using OASIS HLB cartridges. Isotope-labelled hexachlorobenzene (HCB-(13)C(6)) was added as an internal standard to the SPE extracts before analysis by GC-MS/MS (EI) (QqQ) analysis in order to correct for instrumental deviations. Quantification was performed by matrix-matched standard calibration using relative responses to the internal standard. Two MS/MS transitions were used for mass spectrometric determination of chlorothalonil to ensure reliable quantification and confirmation. The method was validated using blank samples (for all matrices) spiked at two levels. Recoveries between 77% and 110% and an RSD below 20% were obtained for 0.1 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) spiking levels (n = 5). The validated method was applied to treated and untreated samples collected from an experimental field where a chlorothalonil formulated was applied. PMID:23116300

  9. Simple and accurate quantification of BTEX in ambient air by SPME and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Kenessov, Bulat; Koziel, Jacek A; Carlsen, Lars; Bektassov, Marat; Demyanenko, Olga P

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) comprise one of the most ubiquitous and hazardous groups of ambient air pollutants of concern. Application of standard analytical methods for quantification of BTEX is limited by the complexity of sampling and sample preparation equipment, and budget requirements. Methods based on SPME represent simpler alternative, but still require complex calibration procedures. The objective of this research was to develop a simpler, low-budget, and accurate method for quantification of BTEX in ambient air based on SPME and GC-MS. Standard 20-mL headspace vials were used for field air sampling and calibration. To avoid challenges with obtaining and working with 'zero' air, slope factors of external standard calibration were determined using standard addition and inherently polluted lab air. For polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, differences between the slope factors of calibration plots obtained using lab and outdoor air were below 14%. PDMS fiber provided higher precision during calibration while the use of Carboxen/PDMS fiber resulted in lower detection limits for benzene and toluene. To provide sufficient accuracy, the use of 20mL vials requires triplicate sampling and analysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of 108 ambient air samples from Almaty, Kazakhstan. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were 53, 57, 11 and 14µgm(-3), respectively. The developed method can be modified for further quantification of a wider range of volatile organic compounds in air. In addition, the new method is amenable to automation. PMID:27154647

  10. A Validated HPLC/MS Limit Test Method for a Potential Genotoxic Impurity in Cilostazol and its Quantification in the API and in the Commercially Available Drug Product.

    PubMed

    Bray, Luigi; Monzani, Luca; Brunoldi, Enrico; Allegrini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Cilostazol is a selective inhibitor of type 3 phosphodiesterase. 5-(3-Chloropropyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of cilostazol, has a primary alkyl chloride group, a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a limit test in accordance with ICH Q2(R1) added with the accuracy of a recovery test of 5-(4-chlorobutyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole in cilostazol was developed and validated. The application of the method highlighted the need to optimize the purification process to ensure levels of this potential genotoxic impurity in the final active pharmaceutical ingredient below the established limit. Also, the analytical method was suitable to determine the amount of the impurity in samples of the commercially available drug product, which showed the levels to be above the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). PMID:26839820

  11. Relative quantification of biomarkers using mixed-isotope labeling coupled with MS

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Heidi M; Schutt, Katherine L; Dieter, Emily M; Lamos, Shane M

    2013-01-01

    The identification and quantification of important biomarkers is a critical first step in the elucidation of biological systems. Biomarkers take many forms as cellular responses to stimuli and can be manifested during transcription, translation, and/or metabolic processing. Increasingly, researchers have relied upon mixed-isotope labeling (MIL) coupled with MS to perform relative quantification of biomarkers between two or more biological samples. MIL effectively tags biomarkers of interest for ease of identification and quantification within the mass spectrometer by using isotopic labels that introduce a heavy and light form of the tag. In addition to MIL coupled with MS, a number of other approaches have been used to quantify biomarkers including protein gel staining, enzymatic labeling, metabolic labeling, and several label-free approaches that generate quantitative data from the MS signal response. This review focuses on MIL techniques coupled with MS for the quantification of protein and small-molecule biomarkers. PMID:23157360

  12. Ranking Fragment Ions Based on Outlier Detection for Improved Label-Free Quantification in Data-Independent Acquisition LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Aivett; Zhang, Ying; Varesio, Emmanuel; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2015-11-01

    Data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS techniques complement supervised methods for peptide quantification. However, due to the wide precursor isolation windows, these techniques are prone to interference at the fragment ion level, which, in turn, is detrimental for accurate quantification. The nonoutlier fragment ion (NOFI) ranking algorithm has been developed to assign low priority to fragment ions affected by interference. By using the optimal subset of high-priority fragment ions, these interfered fragment ions are effectively excluded from quantification. NOFI represents each fragment ion as a vector of four dimensions related to chromatographic and MS fragmentation attributes and applies multivariate outlier detection techniques. Benchmarking conducted on a well-defined quantitative data set (i.e., the SWATH Gold Standard) indicates that NOFI on average is able to accurately quantify 11-25% more peptides than the commonly used Top-N library intensity ranking method. The sum of the area of the Top3-5 NOFIs produces similar coefficients of variation as compared to that with the library intensity method but with more accurate quantification results. On a biologically relevant human dendritic cell digest data set, NOFI properly assigns low-priority ranks to 85% of annotated interferences, resulting in sensitivity values between 0.92 and 0.80, against 0.76 for the Spectronaut interference detection algorithm. PMID:26412574

  13. Ranking Fragment Ions Based on Outlier Detection for Improved Label-Free Quantification in Data-Independent Acquisition LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Aivett; Zhang, Ying; Varesio, Emmanuel; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS techniques complement supervised methods for peptide quantification. However, due to the wide precursor isolation windows, these techniques are prone to interference at the fragment ion level, which in turn is detrimental for accurate quantification. The “non-outlier fragment ion” (NOFI) ranking algorithm has been developed to assign low priority to fragment ions affected by interference. By using the optimal subset of high priority fragment ions these interfered fragment ions are effectively excluded from quantification. NOFI represents each fragment ion as a vector of four dimensions related to chromatographic and MS fragmentation attributes and applies multivariate outlier detection techniques. Benchmarking conducted on a well-defined quantitative dataset (i.e. the SWATH Gold Standard), indicates that NOFI on average is able to accurately quantify 11-25% more peptides than the commonly used Top-N library intensity ranking method. The sum of the area of the Top3-5 NOFIs produces similar coefficients of variation as compared to the library intensity method but with more accurate quantification results. On a biologically relevant human dendritic cell digest dataset, NOFI properly assigns low priority ranks to 85% of annotated interferences, resulting in sensitivity values between 0.92 and 0.80 against 0.76 for the Spectronaut interference detection algorithm. PMID:26412574

  14. Identification and quantification of 35 psychotropic drugs and metabolites in hair by LC-MS/MS: application in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maublanc, Julie; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Lachâtre, Gérard; Gaulier, Jean-michel

    2015-03-01

    Despite a non-invasive sampling, hair samples are generally collected in limited amounts for an obvious esthetic reason. In order to reduce the required quantity of samples, a multianalytes method allowing simultaneous identification and quantification of 35 psychoactive drugs was developed. After incubation of 50 mg of hair in a phosphate buffer pH 5 for one night at room temperature, the substances of interest were extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction step, with a dichloromethane/ether mixture (70:30, v/v). After evaporation under a gentle stream of nitrogen and reconstitution in formate buffer (2 mM, pH 3)/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v), twenty microliter were injected into the LC-MS/MS system for a chromatographic run of 29 min using an Atlantis T3 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) (Waters Corp, Milford, USA) and a gradient mixture of 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate, and 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate/acetonitrile. The data acquisition was performed in scheduled MRM mode. Intra- and inter-day precisions, estimated using the coefficient of variation and relative bias, were lower than 20 % for all concentration levels, except for two compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.5 to 10 pg/mg. After complete validation, this method has been successfully used in several forensic cases, three of which are reported. PMID:24777658

  15. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-01

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. PMID:27232150

  16. Quantification of Terpenes by 1DGC-MS and 2DGC-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, R. M.; Perlinger, J. A.; Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic emissions are the primary source of volatile organic compounds in the global troposphere. Deciduous and coniferous forests are the principal emitters of a complex mixture of isoprene (C5H8), monoterpenes (C10H16), and sesquiterpenes (C15H24). Sesquiterpenes are readily oxidized in the atmosphere producing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) with 100% yields. The SOA are hydrophilic and scatter light, and thus, increase albedo and lead to a cooling effect. In addition, both monoterpene and sesquiterpene generated SOA are effective cloud condensation nuclei leading to an increase in the particle number concentration and to the formation of clouds that also increase albedo. To quantify the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products requires development of on-line extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques. One objective of this work was to compare one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1DGC-MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2DGC-TOFMS) for quantifying eight monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, 3-carene, linalool, terpinolene, myrcene and ocimene) and eight sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene, humulene, alpha-cedrene, cis-nerolidol, trans-nerolidol, cedrol, camphene and farnesene) in air samples collected in Northern Michigan. Future research involves coupling thermal desorption and supercritical fluid extraction devices to a GC×2GC for routine quantification of the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products in rural and urban air.

  17. Quantification of the molecular species of tetraacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) Oil by HPLC and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen molecular species of tetraacylglycerols in the seed oil of Physaria fendleri were recently identified. We report here the quantification of these tetraacylglycerols using HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector and the MS of the HPLC fractions. Ion signal intensities of MS1 from th...

  18. Evaluation of tamoxifen and metabolites by LC-MS/MS and HPLC methods.

    PubMed

    Heath, D D; Flat, S W; Wu, A H B; Pruitt, M A; Rock, C L

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that quantification of serum or plasma levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (endoxifen), Z-4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT), N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (ND-tam), is a clinically useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of breast cancer status in patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen. A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure the blood levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites. This fully automated analytical method is specific, accurate and sensitive. The LC-MS/MS automated technique has now become a widely accepted reference method. This study analysed a randomly selected batch of blood samples from participants enrolled in a breast cancer study to compare results from this reference method in 40 samples with those obtained from a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. The mean (SD) concentrations for the LC-MS/MS method (endoxifen 12.6 [7.5] ng/mL, tamoxifen 105 [44] ng/mL, 4-HT 1.9 [1.0] ng/mL, ND-tam 181 [69] ng/mL) and the HPLC method (endoxifen 13.1 [7.8] ng/mL, tamoxifen 108 [55] ng/mL, 4-HT 1.8 [0.8] ng/mL, ND-tam 184 [81] ng/mL) did not show any significant differences. The results confirm that the HPLC method offers an accurate and comparable alternative for the quantification of tamoxifen and tamoxifen metabolites. PMID:24693573

  19. Segmental analysis of amphetamines in hair using a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Gerd; Kronstrand, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A sensitive and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine in hair samples. Segmented hair (10 mg) was incubated in 2M sodium hydroxide (80°C, 10 min) before liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol:formate buffer pH 3 (20:80). The total run time was 4 min and after optimization of UHPLC-MS/MS-parameters validation included selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, calibration model and range, lower limit of quantification, precision and bias. The calibration curve ranged from 0.02 to 12.5 ng/mg, and the recovery was between 62 and 83%. During validation the bias was less than ±7% and the imprecision was less than 5% for all analytes. In routine analysis, fortified control samples demonstrated an imprecision <13% and control samples made from authentic hair demonstrated an imprecision <26%. The method was applied to samples from a controlled study of amphetamine intake as well as forensic hair samples previously analyzed with an ultra high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS) screening method. The proposed method was suitable for quantification of these drugs in forensic cases including violent crimes, autopsy cases, drug testing and re-granting of driving licences. This study also demonstrated that if hair samples are divided into several short segments, the time point for intake of a small dose of amphetamine can be estimated, which might be useful when drug facilitated crimes are investigated. PMID:24817045

  20. Methylmalonic acid quantification in low serum volumes by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Theresa L; Keyes, William R; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Allen, Lindsay H; Newman, John W

    2011-06-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a metabolic intermediate transformed to succinic acid (SA) by a vitamin B(12)-dependent catalytic step, and is broadly used as a clinical biomarker of functional vitamin B12 status. However, reported methods use between 100 and 1000 μL of serum or plasma making them sub-optimal for sample-limited studies, including those with neonates and infants. LC-MS/MS based protocols to measure MMA as n-butyl esters in the presence of tri-deuterated MMA (MMA-d(3)) were modified for use with 25 μL of human serum by scaling down sample processing volumes and analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. Plasma-based calibration solutions were found to be unnecessary, and chromatographic resolution and peak shape of SA and MMA was optimized in <4 min with isocratic 53:47 methanol/1.67 mM (pH 6.5) ammonium formate. Additionally, 1-cyclohexyl-urido-3-dodecanoic acid (CUDA) was included as internal standard allowing direct assessment of MMA recovery. Sample concentrations in the low normal range produced a signal:noise of >100:1. MMA intra- and inter-assay variability was under 10%. MMA-d(3) surrogate recovery averaged 93±14%. MMA stability exceeded three years in frozen samples and was unaffected by up to five freeze/thaw cycles. In conclusion, we report that methylmalonic acid can be measured with 25 μL of serum using water based standards. The assay signal:noise per concentration indicates that the method could perform as implemented with as little as 5 μL of serum. The reported method is applicable for studies of functional B12 status in sample limited experiments including investigations of nutritional status in neonates and in studies where low normal MMA levels are expected. PMID:21497144

  1. Simultaneous quantification of cardiolipin, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and their precursors by hydrophilic interaction LC-MS/MS including correction of isotopic overlap.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Max; Schmitz, Gerd; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) are unique lipid structures with important biological roles for mitochondrial integrity and endolysosomal degradation, respectively. They are synthesized from common precursors, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we present a rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of BMP, CL, PG, and PA using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). HILIC provides coelution of lipid species and their internal standards required for accurate quantification. Coelution leads to isotope overlap of lipid species which was successfully corrected. This assay was validated in mouse heart tissue and primary human skin fibroblasts. It shows reproducibility and limits of detection sufficient for biomarker studies contributing to basic research on BMP and CL metabolism. PMID:20945919

  2. Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC–ToF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Rutgers, P.; Oosterink, E.; Lasaroms, J. J. P.; Peters, R. J. B.; van Rhijn, J. A.; Nielen, M. W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by UPLC–ToF-MS. From the acquired full scan data the drug-specific ions were extracted for construction of the chromatograms and evaluation of the results. The analytical method was validated according to the EU guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. At the concentration level of interest (MRL level) the results for repeatability (%RSD < 20% for 86% of the compounds), reproducibility (%RSD < 40% for 96% of the compounds) and the accuracy (80–120% for 88% of the compounds) were satisfactory. Evaluation of the CCβ values and the linearity results demonstrates that the developed method shows adequate sensitivity and linearity to provide quantitative results. Furthermore, the method is accurate enough to differentiate between suspected and negative samples or drug concentrations below or above the MRL. A set of 100 samples of raw milk were screened for residues. No suspected (positive) results were obtained except for the included blind reference sample containing sulphamethazine (88 μg/l) that tested positive for this compound. UPLC–ToF-MS combines high resolution for both LC and MS with high mass accuracy which is very powerful for the multi-compound analysis of veterinary drugs. The technique seems to be powerful enough for the analysis of not only veterinary drugs but also organic contaminants like pesticides, mycotoxins and plant toxins in one single method. PMID:18491081

  3. Quantification and deconvolution of asymmetric LC-MS peaks using the bi-Gaussian mixture model and statistical model selection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is one of the major techniques for the quantification of metabolites in complex biological samples. Peak modeling is one of the key components in LC-MS data pre-processing. Results To quantify asymmetric peaks with high noise level, we developed an estimation procedure using the bi-Gaussian function. In addition, to accurately quantify partially overlapping peaks, we developed a deconvolution method using the bi-Gaussian mixture model combined with statistical model selection. Conclusions Using extensive simulations and real data, we demonstrated the advantage of the bi-Gaussian mixture model over the Gaussian mixture model and the method of kernel smoothing combined with signal summation in peak quantification and deconvolution. The method is implemented in the R package apLCMS: http://www.sph.emory.edu/apLCMS/. PMID:21073736

  4. Site-specific quantification of lysine acetylation in the N-terminal tail of histone H4 using a double-labelling, targeted UHPLC MS/MS approach.

    PubMed

    D'Urzo, Annalisa; Boichenko, Alexander P; van den Bosch, Thea; Hermans, Jos; Dekker, Frank; Andrisano, Vincenza; Bischoff, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    We developed a targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the site-specific quantification of lysine acetylation in the N-terminal region of histone H4 by combining chemical derivatization at the protein and peptide levels with digestion using chymotrypsin and trypsin. Unmodified ε-amino groups were first modified with propionic acid anhydride and the derivatized protein digested with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The newly formed peptide N-termini were subjected to a second derivatization step with d6- (heavy) or d0- (light) acetic acid anhydride. Samples were mixed at different ratios and peptides monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS/MS. The method was validated in terms of linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.94), precision (RSD ≤ 10 %), and accuracy (≤27 %) and used to assess the effect of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors SAHA and MS-275 in the murine macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7. SAHA and MS-275 showed site-specific effects on the acetylation levels of K5 and K8 with the K5(Ac)-K8 and K5-K8(Ac) peptides increasing 2.5-fold and 5-fold upon treatment with SAHA and MS-275, respectively. Assessing lysine acetylation in a site-specific manner is important for gaining a better understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors and for clarifying disease mechanisms where lysine acetylation plays a role. PMID:26968571

  5. Structural elucidation of rat biliary metabolites of corynoxeine and their quantification using LC-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xinmei; Chen, Yaping; Hattori, Masao

    2014-09-01

    Corynoxeine (COR) is one of 4 bioactive oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria species. In this work two phase I metabolites, namely 11-hydroxycorynoxeine (M1) and 10-hydroxycorynoxeine (M2), and two phase II metabolites, namely 11-hydroxycorynoxeine 11-O-β-d-glucuronide (M3) and 10-hydroxycorynoxeine 10-O-β-d-glucuronide (M4), were detected in rat bile after oral dose of COR (0.105 mmol/kg), by optimized high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ) with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. Structures of M1-4 were determined by LC-MS(n) , nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism and high-resolution MS spectra. COR and its metabolites in rat bile were quantified by LC-MS(n) . The LC-MS(n) quantification methods for COR and its metabolites yielded a linearity with coefficient of determination ≥0.995 from 5.0 × 10(-10) to 5.0 × 10(-7)  m. The recoveries of stability tests varied from 96.80 to 103.10%. Accuracy ranged from 91.00 to 105.20%. Relative standard deviation for intra-day and inter-day assay was <5.0%. After the oral dose 0.14% of COR was detected in rat bile from 0 to 8 h, in which in total 97.8% COR biotransformed into M1-4. M1 and M2 yielded 48.1 and 49.7%, which successively glucuronidated to M3 and M4 at 47.2 and 43.8%, respectively. PMID:24523045

  6. Quantification of Hydrazine in Human Urine by HPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Samantha L; Carter, Melissa D; Crow, Brian S; Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Beninato, Nick; Steele, Kandace; Thomas, Jerry D; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-01

    Currently used on F-16 fighter jets and some space shuttles, hydrazine could be released at toxic levels to humans as a result of an accidental leakage or spill. Lower-level exposures occur in industrial workers or as a result of the use of some pharmaceuticals. A method was developed for the quantitation of hydrazine in human urine and can be extended by dilution with water to cover at least six orders of magnitude, allowing measurement at all clinically significant levels of potential exposure. Urine samples were processed by isotope dilution, filtered, derivatized and then quantified by HPLC-MS-MS. The analytical response ratio was linearly proportional to the urine concentration of hydrazine from 0.0493 to 12.3 ng/mL, with an average correlation coefficientRof 0.9985. Inter-run accuracy for 21 runs, expressed as percent relative error (% RE), was ≤14%, and the corresponding precision, expressed as percent relative standard deviation (% RSD), was ≤15%. Because this method can provide a quantitative measurement of clinical samples over six orders of magnitude, it can be used to monitor trace amounts of hydrazine exposure as well as industrial and environmental exposure levels. PMID:26977107

  7. Detection and validated quantification of nine herbal phenalkylamines and methcathinone in human blood plasma by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jochen; Peters, Frank T; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2007-02-01

    The herbal stimulants Ephedra species, Catha edulis (khat), and Lophophora williamsii (peyote) have been abused for a long time. In recent years, the herbal drug market has grown owing to publicity on the Internet. Some ingredients of these plants are also ingredients of cold remedies. The aim of the presented study is to develop a multianalyte procedure for detection and validated quantification of the phenalkylamines ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, cathinone, mescaline, synephrine (oxedrine), and methcathinone in plasma. After mixed-mode solid-phase extraction of 1 ml of plasma, the analytes were separated using a strong cation exchange separation column and gradient elution. They were detected using a Q-Trap LC-ESI-MS/MS system (MRM mode). Calibration curves were used for quantification using norephedrine-d3, ephedrine-d3, and mescaline-d9 as internal standards. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The assay was selective for the tested compounds. It was linear from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for all analytes. The recoveries were generally higher than 70%. Accuracy ranged from - 0.8 to 20.0%, repeatability from 2.5 to 12.3%, and intermediate precision from 4.6 to 20.0%. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml for all analytes. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The applicability of the assay was tested by analysis of authentic plasma samples after ingestion of different cold medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, and after ingestion of an aqueous extract of Herba Ephedra. After ingestion of the cold medications, only the corresponding single alkaloids were detected in human plasma, whereas after ingestion of the herb extract, all six ephedrines contained in the plant were detected. The presented LC-MS/MS assay was found applicable for sensitive detection and accurate and precise quantification of all

  8. Challenges for the in vivo quantification of brain neuropeptides using microdialysis sampling and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Van Wanseele, Yannick; De Prins, An; De Bundel, Dimitri; Smolders, Ilse; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, neuropeptides and their receptors have received an increased interest in neuropharmacological research. Although these molecules are considered relatively small compared with proteins, their in vivo quantification using microdialysis is more challenging than for small molecules. Low microdialysis recoveries, aspecific adsorption and the presence of various multiply charged precursor ions during ESI-MS/MS detection hampers the in vivo quantification of these low abundant biomolecules. Every step in the workflow, from sampling until analysis, has to be optimized to enable the sensitive analysis of these compounds in microdialysates. PMID:27554986

  9. Trace quantification of 1-triacontanol in beagle plasma by GC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfeng; Fan, Ali; Zhu, Xiaojie; Lu, Yang; Deng, Shuhua; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xijing

    2015-05-01

    1-Triacontanol (TA), a member of long chain fatty alcohol, has recently been received great attention owing to its antitumor activity. In this study, an accurate, sensitive and selective gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of TA in beagle plasma using 1-octacosanal as the internal standard (IS) for the first time. With temperature programming, chromatographic separation was carried out on an HP-5MS column, using helium as carrier gas and argon as collision gas, both at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. TA was analyzed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, with the precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 495.6 → 97.0 and m/z 467.5 → 97.0 for TA and the IS, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation, linearity, intra- and interday precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect of TA were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TA in beagles. PMID:25331188

  10. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943

  11. Quantification of taraxasterol in rat plasma by LC/MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Pang, Li; Dong, Ning; Xu, Dahai; Xu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic triterpene from Taraxacum officinale, is one of the main active constituents of the herb. This study developed and validated a highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of taraxasterol in rat plasma over the range of 9.0-5000 ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 (4.6 × 50 mm, 5.0 µm) column with methanol-isopropanol-water-formic acid (80:10:10:0.1, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase with an isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. After adding cucurbitacin IIa as an internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation using ethyl acetate. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantification of transition ions m/z 409.4 → 137.1 for taraxasterol and m/z 503.4 → 113.1 for IS. The mean recoveries of taraxasterol in rat plasma ranged from 85.3 to 87.2%. The matrix effects for taraxasterol were between 98.5 and 104.0%. Intra- and inter-day precision were both <11.8%, and the accuracy of the method ranged from -7.0 to 12.9%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of taraxasterol after oral administration of 7.75, 15.5 and 31.0 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25873241

  12. Simultaneous HPLC-APCI-MS/MS quantification of endogenous cannabinoids and glucocorticoids in hair.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, Christopher; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Shenghuo; Wang, Weiwen; Deng, Huihua

    2016-08-15

    Hair matrix could retrospectively record association of endogenous cannabinoids (e.g. 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, 2-AG and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine, AEA) and glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol and cortisone) in a myriad of physiological functions. However, depending on the extraction conditions, the spontaneous isomerization of 2-AG to 1-arachidonoylglycerol (1-AG) and the possible rearrangement of O-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (OAEA) to AEA in various sample matrices could be major obstacles encountered in the detection of both 2-AG and AEA. This study aimed to develop a novel method for simultaneous quantification of 2-AG, AEA, cortisol and cortisone in hair. Methanol was used as the incubation solution and an acidic mixture of deionized water and methanol were utilized as mobile phase in order to avert possible rearrangements of both OAEA and 2-AG. The analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer with atmosphere pressure chemical ionization in positive mode. The method showed good linearity in the range of 3.0-250pg/mg for AEA, 15.0-1250pg/mg for 2-AG and 1-250pg/mg for cortisol and cortisone. Limit of detection was 1.5pg/mg for AEA, 6.0pg/mg for 2-AG and 0.5pg/mg for cortisol and cortisone. For all four analytes, intra and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 20% and recovery above 90%. Population analyses in 473 hair samples established that 2-AG was significantly correlated with AEA. 2-AG was significantly and positively correlated with cortisol and cortisone. There was a significant positive correlation of AEA with cortisol, but not with cortisone. Obese participants showed a significantly higher concentration of cortisone and 2-AG. Males showed significantly higher 2-AG and cortisone levels but significantly lower AEA levels than females. PMID:27318292

  13. High-throughput quantification of drugs and their metabolites in biosamples by LC-MS/MS and CE-MS/MS: possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, G; Husser, C; Zell, M

    2002-02-01

    Off-line solid phase extraction with C18 disk plates and turbulent flow chromatography were evaluated versus on-line solid phase extraction using column-switching HPLC as sample preparation techniques for high-throughput analysis of pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites by LC-MS/MS. Turbulent flow chromatography was found to be very straightforward in its applicaton, but the LOQs were more than fivefold higher compared with off-line or other on-line solid phase extraction methods. Solid phase extraction (SPE) on disk was found to be fast and sufficient efficient to minimize matrix effects and therefore an apprach to provide sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS methods. Column-switching HPLC with microbore columns (0.5 mm i.d.) were used for fast analysis of a parent drug and four of its metabolites utilizing steep gradients in 1 minute. The application of CZE-MS/MS for bionalysis of pharamaceutical compounds is also discussed. PMID:11805734

  14. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods in propofol detection: Evaluation of the two analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Focardi, Martina; Fioravanti, Alessia; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2015-11-01

    Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain anesthesia. Propofol abuse and its involvement in suicide deaths have increased in recent years, especially among healthcare personnel. An example is the suicide of a 61-year-old nurse found with a propofol drip in his left arm. We describe the postmortem concentration of propofol in various tissues (femoral and cardiac blood, bile, urine, brain, and liver) and in the drip. The toxicological analyses were performed through two analytical methods, differing in derivatization reaction and in instrumentation: silylation for gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), as routinely performed in our laboratory for this kind of analyses (lower limits of quantification-LLOQ-in urine and blood: 0.3 and 5ng/ml); for liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) an innovative azo-coupling derivatization (LLOQ: 0.0004 and 0.1ng/ml). This latter produces an azo-derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282Da) highly ionizable in electro-spray ion source, both in negative and positive ionizations. These two methods were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of this new LC-MS/MS analysis. An acidic hydrolysis (HCl 6N, 100°C, and 1h) was performed for the biological samples (1ml or 1g) irrespective of the analytical method applied. The drip content was extracted adding phosphate buffer (pH 8) and a dichloromethane/ethylacetate 8:2 (v:v) mixture. Derivatization steps were: silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)+tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for GC-MS; regarding LC-MS/MS, azo-coupling reaction with the aryl-diazonium salt (0-5°C, and 30min). The analyses were achieved in selected-ion monitoring for GC-MS (m/z, 235,250,73 propofol"; m/z, 252,267,27 propofol-d17) and in multiple reaction monitoring ([M-H](-): m/z 283→241,77, azo-propofol; m/z 299→251,77, azo-propofol-d17) for LC-MS/MS. Autopsy showed no significant findings

  15. Derivatization for the simultaneous LC/MS quantification of multiple neurotransmitters in extracellular fluid from rat brain microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minli; Fang, Chengwei; Smagin, Gennady

    2014-11-01

    Quantification of amino acid based neurotransmitters in extracellular fluids, such as those in the neuron synapse, presents a challenge to the analytical chemistry because of the absence of UV- or fluorescence-detectable functional groups and the low sensitivity in mass spectrometric detection. This report describes a novel use of the succinimide reagent, N-α-Boc-l-tryptophan hydroxysuccinimide ester (Boc-TRP), for the pre-column derivatization to simultaneously quantify multiple neurotransmitters in the rat brain microdialysis samples. The Boc-TRP derivatization was rapid and quantitative in phosphate the buffer (pH 7.4) at room temperature. The derivatized neurotransmitters were suitable for rapid LC/MS quantification with less than 3-min chromatographic separation. The Boc-group in the derivatized product generated unique fragmentation patterns in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis under Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode and significantly increased the specificity and sensitivity. The derivatization and rapid LC/MS quantification method developed in this study showed a linear dynamic range from single digit nM to 1000nM with coefficient greater than 0.990. At the LOQ, the accuracy ranged from 95 to 108% and the precision (CV%) was less than 20%. Since there was no concentration and reconstitution in the sample workup process, this derivatization approach simplified the neurotransmitter quantification of the brain microdialysis samples. PMID:25200427

  16. Detection of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in hair: validation of GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods and application to a real case.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Argo, Antonina; Procaccianti, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Furlanetto, Sandra; Mari, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were validated for quantifying endogenous and exogenous hair concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). The GC-MS method is based on overnight extraction of 25 mg hair in NaOH at 56 °C, liquid/liquid extraction in ethylacetate and trimethylsylil derivatization; analysis is by electron ionization and single ion monitoring of three ions. The LC-MS/MS method entails a rapid digestion of 25 mg hair with NaOH at 75 °C for 40 min, liquid/liquid extraction in ethylacetate and reconstitution of the extract in the LC mobile phase; negative ion electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis are employed for the LC-MS/MS detection. In both cases, GHB-d6 is used as an internal standard. The endogenous amount in "blank" hair are estimated by the standard addition method. Limits of detection are 0.4 and 0.5 ng/mg for GC-MS and LC-MS/MS respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0.6 ng/mg for both methods; the GC-MS method proved to be linear in the range 1-50 ng/mg whereas linearity was demonstrated from 0.6 to 50 ng/mg for the LC-MS/MS; imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 23% for quality controls samples. The two methods were applied to a real case of a man addicted to GHB; the drug concentration in segments from 17 cm hair strand well correlated with self-reported use of GHB in different periods of his life. Performances of the two methods were similar. PMID:22884787

  17. Detection and quantification of gas-phase oxidized mercury compounds by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colleen P.; Lyman, Seth N.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Allen, Tanner; O'Neil, Trevor L.

    2016-05-01

    Most mercury pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, and the location and bioavailability of deposited mercury largely depends on poorly understood atmospheric chemical reactions that convert elemental mercury into oxidized mercury compounds. Current measurement methods do not speciate oxidized mercury, leading to uncertainty about which mercury compounds exist in the atmosphere and how oxidized mercury is formed. We have developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based system for identification and quantification of atmospheric oxidized mercury compounds. The system consists of an ambient air collection device, a thermal desorption module, a cryofocusing system, a gas chromatograph, and an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer. It was able to separate and identify mercury halides with detection limits low enough for ambient air collection (90 pg), but an improved ambient air collection device is needed. The GC/MS system was unable to quantify HgO or Hg(NO3)2, and data collected cast doubt upon the existence of HgO in the gas phase.

  18. Balancing robust quantification and identification for iTRAQ: application of UHR-ToF MS.

    PubMed

    Ow, Saw Yen; Noirel, Josselin; Salim, Malinda; Evans, Caroline; Watson, Rod; Wright, Phillip C

    2010-06-01

    iTRAQ reagents allow the simultaneous multiplex identification and quantification of a large number of proteins. Success depends on effective peptide fragmentation in order to generate both peptide sequence ions (higher mass region, 150-2200 m/z) and reporter ions (low mass region, 113-121 m/z) for protein identification and relative quantification, respectively. After collision-induced dissociation, the key requirements to achieve a good balance between the high and low m/z ions are effective ion transmission and detection across the MS/MS mass range, since the ion transmission of the higher m/z range competes with that of the low m/z range. This study describes an analytical strategy for the implementation of iTRAQ on maXis UHR-Qq-ToF instruments, and discusses the impact of adjusting the MS/MS ion transmission parameters on the quality of the overall data sets. A technical discussion highlights a number of maXis-specific parameters, their impact of quantification and identification, and their cross-interactions. PMID:20352625

  19. Antibody-free workflows for protein quantification by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wilffert, Daniel; Bischoff, Rainer; van de Merbel, Nico C

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-free approaches for quantitative LC-MS/MS-based protein bioanalysis are reviewed and critically evaluated, and compared with the more widely used immunoaffinity-based approaches. Antibody-free workflows will be divided into four groups and discussed in the following order: direct analysis of signature peptides after proteolytic digestion; enrichment of target proteins and signature peptides by fractionated protein precipitation; enrichment of target proteins and signature peptides by reversed-phase and ion-exchange solid-phase extraction; and enrichment of target proteins and signature peptides by (antibody-free) affinity-solid-phase extraction. PMID:25871591

  20. Development and clinical application of an LC-MS-MS method for mescaline in urine.

    PubMed

    Björnstad, Kristian; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof

    2008-04-01

    Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine) is an hallucinogenic psychoactive substance present in several species of cacti. Mescaline has a documented use dating back 5700 years. In more recent years, the interest in hallucinogenic designer drugs such as ecstasy has also triggered interest in the naturally occurring mescaline. This study was undertaken to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of mescaline in human urine samples and to apply this method to routine testing in patient samples. For the screening procedure, chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5-microm HyPURITY C(18) column, using a methanol gradient in ammonium acetate buffer. The MS-MS analysis was performed using selected reaction monitoring; the transitions monitored were m/z 212.3 --> m/z 180.3 for mescaline and m/z 221.3 --> m/z 186.3 for the deuterated internal standard (mescaline-d(9)). The detection limit for mescaline in urine matrix was 3-5 microg/L, the upper limit of quantification was 10,000 microg/L, and the total coefficient of variation for spiked samples containing 10 to 1025 microg/L was < 8.5%. The confirmation procedure included a sample clean-up by solid-phase extraction on a C(18) cartridge, and one extra transition for mescaline (m/z 212.3 --> m/z 195.2) was monitored. The LC-MS-MS method was found to be sensitive and specific for the routine detection of mescaline in urine. Among 462 urine samples collected from young people with alcohol or drug problems, 32% were positive for illicit drugs, but none for mescaline. PMID:18397574

  1. Segmentation of precursor mass range using "tiling" approach increases peptide identifications for MS1-based label-free quantification.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Catherine E; Potts, Gregory K; Ulbrich, Arne; Westphall, Michael S; Atwood, James A; Coon, Joshua J; Weatherly, D Brent

    2013-03-01

    Label-free quantification is a powerful tool for the measurement of protein abundances by mass spectrometric methods. To maximize quantifiable identifications, MS(1)-based methods must balance the collection of survey scans and fragmentation spectra while maintaining reproducible extracted ion chromatograms (XIC). Here we present a method which increases the depth of proteome coverage over replicate data-dependent experiments without the requirement of additional instrument time or sample prefractionation. Sampling depth is increased by restricting precursor selection to a fraction of the full MS(1) mass range for each replicate; collectively, the m/z segments of all replicates encompass the full MS(1) range. Although selection windows are narrowed, full MS(1) spectra are obtained throughout the method, enabling the collection of full mass range MS(1) chromatograms such that label-free quantitation can be performed for any peptide in any experiment. We term this approach "binning" or "tiling" depending on the type of m/z window utilized. By combining the data obtained from each segment, we find that this approach increases the number of quantifiable yeast peptides and proteins by 31% and 52%, respectively, when compared to normal data-dependent experiments performed in replicate. PMID:23350991

  2. New Method for the Analysis of Flukicide and Other Anthelmintic Residues in Bovine Milk and Liver using LC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been d...

  3. Matrine and oxymatrine in corroborant plant extracts and fertilizers: HPLC/MS-MS method development and single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scarangella, Michele; Lazzaro, Francesco; Scordino, Monica; Picariello, Giavanna; Leotta, Claudia; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    A reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC/MS-MS) has been developed and validated for detection of alkaloids matrine and oxymatrine in fertilizer with labeled enhancer plant defense activities. The analytical method was validated statistically. The results show a strong matrix effect, requiring quantification by standard addition method. The regression lines showed r(2) > 0.994. Recoveries ranging from 97 to 104% were obtained for the fortification level of 0.01% wt wt(-1) and the relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 4% (n = 10). The limits of detection were below 0.0001% wt wt(-1), while the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.0004% wt wt(-1). The method is currently applied in ICQRF Laboratory of Catania on fertilized and corroborant plant extract collected in the Italian market in the frame of MIPAAF institutional quality control activity, with the aim to dectect these unpermitted active substances. PMID:26252197

  4. Identification and quantification of coumarins in Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) Koch by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Sylvia; Zehl, Martin; Picker, Paolo; Urban, Ernst; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2011-05-11

    The rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) Koch (masterwort) are traditionally used in the alpine region as ingredient of liqueurs and bitters, and as a herbal drug. A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of its main coumarins, oxypeucedanin hydrate, oxypeucedanin, ostruthol, imperatorin, osthole, isoimperatorin, and ostruthin. Fast HPLC separation could be achieved on an Acclaim C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3 μm) using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile-water modified with 0.01% acetic acid. The quantification by HPLC-DAD was performed with imperatorin as external standard and validated to demonstrate selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The content of the main coumarins was quantitated in various batches of commercial and field-collected rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium, as well as in beverages prepared thereof. PMID:21425828

  5. Relative quantification of amine-containing metabolites using isobaric N,N-dimethyl-leucine (DiLeu) reagents via LC-ESI-MS/MS and CE-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ling; Zhong, Xuefei; Greer, Tyler; Ye, Hui; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based relative quantification by isobaric labeling is a useful technique to compare different metabolic expression levels in biological systems. For the first time, we have labeled primary and secondary amine-containing small molecules using 4-plex isobaric N,N-dimethyl-leucine (DiLeu) to perform relative quantification. Good labeling efficiency and quantification accuracy were demonstrated with a mixture of 12 metabolite standards including amino acids and small molecule neurotransmitters. Labeling amine-containing metabolites with DiLeu reagents also enabled the separation of polar metabolites by nanoRPLC and improved the detection sensitivity by CE-ESI-MS. The 4-plex DiLeu labeling technique combined with LC-MS/MS and CE-MS/MS platforms were applied to profile and quantify amine-containing metabolites in mouse urine. The variability of concentrations of identified metabolites in urine samples from different mouse individuals was illustrated by the ratios of reporter ion intensities acquired from online data-dependent analysis. PMID:25429371

  6. Quantification of monosialogangliosides in human plasma through chemical derivatization for signal enhancement in LC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianyang; Liu, Danting; Xin, Baozhong; Cechner, Karen; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Aimin

    2016-07-27

    Gangliosides are found in abundance in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Their metabolic disruption and dysfunction are associated with various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In order to improve our understanding of the etiology of these diseases, analytical ganglioside assays with sufficient specificity and sensitivity in relevant biological matrices are required. In the present work we have developed and validated a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determining monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 present in human plasma. Compared with our previous method, this method enhanced, by 15 fold, MS responses of the analytes by employing 2-(2-Pyridilamino)-ethylamine (PAEA) & 4-(4, 6-Dimethoxy-1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM)-based derivatization. The analytes and internal standards were derivatized with PAEA&DMTMM after extraction from plasma using a protein precipitation procedure. They were then purified using liquid-liquid partitioning. When the samples were then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we achieved superior sensitivity and specificity. This method was evaluated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, accuracy, and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). The validated method was successfully applied to monitor monosialoganglioside levels in the plasma from patients with GM3 synthase deficiency. With significantly increased sensitivity, we have, for the first time, detected a significant amount of GM3 in the affected patients. PMID:27251946

  7. Identification and Quantification Analysis on the Chemical Constituents from Traditional Mongolian Medicine Flos Scabiosae Using UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS Combined with UHPLC-QqQ-MS.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Li, Tianer; He, Mingzhen; Li, Zhifeng; Tan, Ting; Zhang, Wugang; Li, Yan; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a systematic method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Flos Scabiosae (FS). First, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed for the identification of the multi-constituents in FS. A total of 48 compounds (9 phenolic acids, 24 flavonoids, 8 iridoids and 7 others) were unambiguously or tentatively identified, including 25 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids) identified in FS for the first time. Second, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 10 phenolic compounds. Ten compounds, either with high contents or strong bioactivities, were chosen as markers. This analytical method was validated through intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, with respective relative standard deviations <4.43, <8.64, <4.60 and <3.65%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were <1.09 and <16.96 ng/mL, respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.47 to 103.94% .Then the validated method was applied to determine 10 batches of FS. The results indicated that the new method can be applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of FS. PMID:27107093

  8. Rapid quantification of major reaction products formed during thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Humpula, James F; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Vismeh, Ramin; Jones, A Daniel; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2011-04-15

    Accurate quantification of reaction products formed during thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass would lead to a better understanding of plant cell wall deconstruction for production of cellulosic biofuels and biochemicals. However, quantification of some process byproducts, most notably acetamide, acetic acid and furfural, present several analytical challenges using conventional liquid chromatography methods. Therefore, we have developed a high-throughput gas chromatography based mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method in order to quantify relevant compounds without requiring time-consuming sample derivatization prior to analysis. Solvent extracts of untreated, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated and dilute-acid treated corn stover were analyzed by this method. Biomass samples were extracted with acetone using an automated solvent extractor, serially diluted and directly analyzed using the proposed GC-MS method. Acetone was the only solvent amongst water, methanol and acetonitrile that did not contain detectable background levels of the target compounds or facilitate a buildup of plant-derived residues in the GC injector, which decreased analytical reproducibility. Quantitative results were based on the method of standard addition and external standard calibration curves. PMID:21444255

  9. A UPLC-MS/MS Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Etonogestrel

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tiffany; Petrie, Kelsey; Shim, Joonho; Abildskov, Kirsten M.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.; Cremers, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Etonogestrel is a progestin used in the contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing and the subdermal implant Implanon. A sensitive method for measuring etonogestrel is useful for further investigating the progestin’s pharmacokinetics with these alternative contraceptive formulations as well as generating important information about possible continued efficacy or potential failure to remove the subdermal implant. Methods Standards and serum samples were spiked with D8 progesterone (internal standard) and subsequently extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and reconstituted in 25% methanol with formic acid. Etonogestrel was analyzed by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode with a run time of 5.5 minutes using a C18 BEH column. The mobile phase was a gradient of water:acetonitrile, with 0.1% formic acid. The method was applied successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of etonogestrel during vaginal ring use. The method was also used in routine patient care to assess etonogestrel levels. Results The method is linear from 50pg/ml to 2000pg/ml. The limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) are 25 and 50pg/ml respectively. There was no observed ionization suppression within the linear range of the assay and the average recovery was 87%. Serum etonogestrel levels of n=3 subjects were all within the linear range of the assay for a total study period of 42 days after insertion of the ring. Of n=20 patients with non-palpable subdermal implants, n=13 had etonogestrel levels > 25 pg/mL, while n=7 had levels < 25 pg/mL. Conclusions We developed a rapid, sensitive, and robust UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of etonogestrel in serum that is useful to study the progestin’s pharmacokinetics and inform physicians about successful implantation or potential failure to remove a subdermal device. PMID:24081205

  10. A validated LC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of methotrexate and tofacitinib in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kuldeep; Giri, Kalpeshkumar; Dhiman, Vinay; Dixit, Abhishek; Zainuddin, Mohd; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TFB) in rat plasma (50 μL) using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS), as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. After a solid-phase extraction procedure, the separation of the analytes and IS was performed on a Chromolith RP₁₈e column using an isocratic mobile phase of 5 m m ammonium acetate (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) using flow-gradient with a total run time of 3.5 min. The detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode, using the transitions of m/z 455.2 → 308.3, m/z 313.2 → 149.2 and m/z 180.3 → 110.2 for MTX, TFB and IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.49-91.0 and 0.40-74.4 ng/mL for MTX and TFB, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision values for MTX and TFB were <15% at low quality control (QC), medium QC and high QC and <20% at lower limit of quantification. The validated assay was applied to derive the pharmacokinetic parameters for MTX and TFB post-dosing of MTX and TFB orally and intravenously to rats. PMID:25298296

  11. Multidimensional Separation Using HILIC and SCX Pre-fractionation for RP LC-MS/MS Platform with Automated Exclusion List-based MS Data Acquisition with Increased Protein Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Meng, Zhen; Edman-Woolcott, Maria; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Zandi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics is one of the most widely used analytical platforms for global protein discovery and quantification. One of the challenges is the difficulty of identifying low abundance biomarker proteins from limited biological samples. Extensive fractionation could expand proteomics dynamic range, however, at the cost of high sample and time consumption. Extensive fractionation would increase the sample need and the labeling cost. Also quantitative proteomics depending on high resolution MS have the limitation of spectral acquisition speed. Those practical problems hinder the in-depth quantitative proteomics analysis such as tandem mass tag (TMT) experiments. We found the joint use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and strong cation exchange Chromatography (SCX) prefractionation at medium level could improve MS/MS efficiency, increase proteome coverage, shorten analysis time and save valuable samples. In addition, we scripted a program, Exclusion List Convertor (ELC), which automates and streamlines data acquisition workflow using the precursor ion exclusion (PIE) method. PIE reduces redundancy of high abundance MS/MS analyses by running replicates of the sample. The precursor ions detected in the initial run(s) are excluded for MS/MS in the subsequent run. We compared PIE methods with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) methods running replicates without PIE for their effectiveness in quantifying TMT-tagged peptides and proteins in mouse tears. We quantified a total of 845 proteins and 1401 peptides using the PIE workflow, while the DDA method only resulted in 347 proteins and 731 peptides. This represents a 144% increase of protein identifications as a result of PIE analysis. PMID:26807013

  12. High-throughput and rapid quantification of lipids by nanoflow UPLC-ESI-MS/MS: application to the hepatic lipids of rabbits with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Lee, Jong Cheol; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and high-throughput quantification method (approximately 300 lipids within 20 min) was established using nanoflow ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and applied to the quantitative profiling of the hepatic lipids of rabbits with different metabolic conditions that stimulate the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among the metabolic conditions of rabbits in this study [inflammation (I), high-cholesterol diet (HC), and high-cholesterol diet combined with inflammation (HCI)], significant perturbation in hepatic lipidome (>3-fold and p < 0.01) was observed in the HC and HCI groups, while no single lipid showed a significant change in group I. In addition, this study revealed a dramatic increase (>2-fold) in relatively high-abundant monohexosylceramides (MHCs), sphingomyelins (SMs), and triacylglycerols (TGs) in both the HC and HCI groups, especially in MHCs as all 11 MHCs increased by larger than 3- to 12-fold. As the levels of the relatively high-abundant lipids in the above classes increased, the total lipidome level of each class increased significantly by approximately 2-fold to 5-fold. Other classes of lipids also generally increased, which was likely induced by the increase in mitogenic and nonapoptotic MHCs and SMs, as they promote cell proliferation. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the level of apoptotic ceramides (Cers) was observed, which agreed with the general increase in total lipid level. As distinct changes in hepatic lipidome were observed from HC groups, this suggests that HC or HCI is highly associated with NAFLD but not inflammation alone itself. Graphical Abstract Schematic of lipidomic analysis from hepatic tissue using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS and nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:27178550

  13. Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shokati, Touraj; Bodenberger, Nicholas; Gadpaille, Holly; Schniedewind, Björn; Vinks, Alexander A; Jiang, Wenlei; Alloway, Rita R; Christians, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is the cornerstone of most immunosuppressive treatment protocols after solid organ transplantation in the United States. Tacrolimus is a narrow therapeutic index drug and as such requires therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment based on its whole blood trough concentrations. To facilitate home therapeutic drug and adherence monitoring, the collection of dried blood spots is an attractive concept. After a finger stick, the patient collects a blood drop on filter paper at home. After the blood is dried, it is mailed to the analytical laboratory where tacrolimus is quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in combination with a simple manual protein precipitation step and online column extraction. For tacrolimus analysis, a 6-mm disc is punched from the saturated center of the blood spot. The blood spot is homogenized using a bullet blender and then proteins are precipitated with methanol/0.2 M ZnSO4 containing the internal standard D2,(13)C-tacrolimus. After vortexing and centrifugation, 100 µl of supernatant is injected into an online extraction column and washed with 5 ml/min of 0.1 formic acid/acetonitrile (7:3, v:v) for 1 min. Hereafter, the switching valve is activated and the analytes are back-flushed onto the analytical column (and separated using a 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile gradient). Tacrolimus is quantified in the positive multi reaction mode (MRM) using a tandem mass spectrometer. The assay is linear from 1 to 50 ng/ml. Inter-assay variability (3.6%-6.1%) and accuracy (91.7%-101.6%) as assessed over 20 days meet acceptance criteria. Average extraction recovery is 95.5%. There are no relevant carry-over, matrix interferences and matrix effects. Tacrolimus is stable in dried blood spots at RT and at +4 °C for 1 week. Extracted samples in the autosampler are stable at +4 °C for at least 72 hr. PMID:26575262

  14. Mass spectrometric imaging - Quantification strategies for created bio-images measured by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Johannes; Zitek, Andreas; Tschegg, Stefanie; Mingler, Bernhard; Weinberg, Annelie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been an emerging methodology in the analysis of biological matrices. A challenging step is the quantification and data processing to generate quantitative displays (bio-images) by avoiding analytical artefacts derived from image processing. Moreover, the procedure gets more challenging when features to be monitored are in the range or even smaller as compared to the size of the laser spot as the spatial resolution of the laser ablation system typically lies in the µm range (2 - 300 µm spot size). Here, we present the application of LA-ICP-MSI to biological tissues (bones) for the investigation of the distribution of alloying elements in bone material after the implantation of a Mg-based pin into the femur of rats. For the quantification of the elemental content, in-house standards were prepared by co-precipitation of the alloying elements (Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Zn, Zr, and Yb) in a hydroxyapatite matrix. The capability of this quantification approach was validated by comparative measurements of certified reference materials (SRM 1486, pressed into pellets for direct LA-ICP-MS analysis). ArcGIS® was used for the first time as standard tool for the spatially distinct statistical analysis of chemical data in so called "zones of interest".

  15. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method to determine clopidogrel in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangyi; Dong, Chunxia; Shen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Mengqi; Gui, Yuzhou; Zhou, Qinyi; Yu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative method for clopidogrel using online-SPE tandem LC-MS/MS was developed and fully validated according to the well-established FDA guidelines. The method achieves adequate sensitivity for pharmacokinetic studies, with lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) as low as 10 pg/mL. Chromatographic separations were performed on reversed phase columns Kromasil Eternity-2.5-C18-UHPLC for both methods. Positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed for signal detection and a deuterated analogue (clopidogrel-d 4) was used as internal standard (IS). Adjustments in sample preparation, including introduction of an online-SPE system proved to be the most effective method to solve the analyte back-conversion in clinical samples. Pooled clinical samples (two levels) were prepared and successfully used as real-sample quality control (QC) in the validation of back-conversion testing under different conditions. The result showed that the real samples were stable in room temperature for 24 h. Linearity, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect on spiked QC samples and stability tests on both spiked QCs and real sample QCs stored in different conditions met the acceptance criteria. This online-SPE method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 75 mg single dose clopidogrel tablets in 48 healthy male subjects. PMID:26904399

  16. Tutorial examples for uncertainty quantification methods.

    SciTech Connect

    De Bord, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    This report details the work accomplished during my 2015 SULI summer internship at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. During this internship, I worked on multiple tasks with the common goal of making uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods more accessible to the general scientific community. As part of my work, I created a comprehensive numerical integration example to incorporate into the user manual of a UQ software package. Further, I developed examples involving heat transfer through a window to incorporate into tutorial lectures that serve as an introduction to UQ methods.

  17. Quantification of reactive carbonyl compounds in icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis fluids by combined UHPLC-DAD and -MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Gensberger-Reigl, Sabrina; Huppert, Jochen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-01-25

    During heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids, the glucose component is partially degraded. The formed glucose degradation products impair biocompatibility and limit the long-term application of PD fluids. As an alternative to glucose, icodextrin, a polyglucose, is used as osmotic agent in PD fluids. After targeted screening for reactive carbonyl compounds, NMR- and MS-analyses very recently revealed 4-deoxyglucosone (4-DG), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), 3,4-dideoxypentosone (3,4-DDPS), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) as main polyglucose degradation products (pGDPs) in icodextrin-based PD fluids. Now, the present study established and validated a UHPLC method with DAD as well as a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the first-time quantification of those five major pGDPs in commercial icodextrin PD fluids after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine. Thus, 4-DG was identified to be the main degradation product (in concentrations up to 20 μM). In contrast to the values measured in glucose-based products, the concentration of 3-DGal (≤ 16 μM) was higher than the concentration of 3-DG (≤ 7 μM) indicating different reaction pathways starting from polyglucose compared to glucose. The compounds 3,4-DDPS and 5-HMF were present in minor quantities (≤ 0.3 μM each). PMID:26540628

  18. Development of a LC-MS/MS method to monitor palmitoyl peptides content in anti-wrinkle cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chirita, Raluca-Ioana; Chaimbault, Patrick; Archambault, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Isabelle; Elfakir, Claire

    2009-05-01

    Palmitoyl peptides are anti-aging agents widely used in cosmetics. This article describes the development of a LC-MS/MS analytical procedure that allows, after a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, their unambiguous detection in cosmetic formulation. MS/MS detection is shown to be specific regarding placebo formulations. Limits of quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision of the method were estimated. The results presented show that palmitoyl peptides can be thus reliably assayed. The palmitoylated pentapeptide palmitoyl-lysyl-threonyl-threonyl-lysyl-serine (pal-KTTKS) was assayed in anti-wrinkle creams using palmitoyl-glycyl-histidyl-lysine (pal-GHK) as internal standard. From the results obtained, the influence of the formulation on pal-KTTKS availability is evidenced. PMID:19393372

  19. Novel LC- ESI-MS/MS method for desvenlafaxine estimation human plasma: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, Pushpa Kumari; Kondru, Venu Gopal Raju; Dannana, Gowri Sankar

    2016-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of desvenlafaxine in human plasma using desvenlafaxine d6 as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a Thermo-BDS hypersil C8 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer: methanol (20:80, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.80 mL/min. Desvenlafaxine and desvenlafaxine d6 were detected with proton adducts at m/z 264.2/58.1 and 270.2/ 64.1 in multiple reaction monitoring positive mode, respectively. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the drug and the IS. The method was linear over the concentration range 1.001-400.352 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.9994. This method demonstrated intra and inter-day precision within 0.7-5.5 and 1.9-6.8%, and accuracy within 95.3-107.4 and 93.4-99.5%. Desvenlafaxine was found to be stable throughout the freeze-thaw cycles, bench-top and long-term matrix stability studies. The developed and validated method can be successfully applied for the bioequivalence/pharmacokinetic studies of desvenlafaxine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:26095112

  20. Comparison Study of MS-HRM and Pyrosequencing Techniques for Quantification of APC and CDKN2A Gene Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Migheli, Francesca; Stoccoro, Andrea; Coppedè, Fabio; Wan Omar, Wan Adnan; Failli, Alessandra; Consolini, Rita; Seccia, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Miccoli, Paolo; Mathers, John C.; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of cost-effective techniques for the quantification of DNA methylation biomarkers. We analyzed 90 samples of surgically resected colorectal cancer tissues for APC and CDKN2A promoter methylation using methylation sensitive-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) and pyrosequencing. MS-HRM is a less expensive technique compared with pyrosequencing but is usually more limited because it gives a range of methylation estimates rather than a single value. Here, we developed a method for deriving single estimates, rather than a range, of methylation using MS-HRM and compared the values obtained in this way with those obtained using the gold standard quantitative method of pyrosequencing. We derived an interpolation curve using standards of known methylated/unmethylated ratio (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of methylation) to obtain the best estimate of the extent of methylation for each of our samples. We observed similar profiles of methylation and a high correlation coefficient between the two techniques. Overall, our new approach allows MS-HRM to be used as a quantitative assay which provides results which are comparable with those obtained by pyrosequencing. PMID:23326336

  1. Evaluation of an automatic multiple sclerosis lesion quantification tool in an informatics-based MS e-folder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The chronic nature of MS necessitates multiple MRI studies to track disease progression. We have presented an imaging informatics decision-support system, called MS eFolder, designed to integrate patient clinical data with MR images and a computer-aided detection (CAD) component for automatic white matter lesion quantification. The purpose of the MS eFolder is to comprehensively present MS patient data for clinicians and radiologists, while providing a lesion quantification tool that can be objective and consistent for MS tracking in longitudinal studies. The MS CAD algorithm is based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) principles and has been integrated within the eFolder system. Currently, the system has been completed and the CAD algorithm for quantifying MS lesions has undergone the expert evaluation in order to validate system performance and accuracy. The evaluation methodology has been developed and the data has been collected, including over 100 MS MRI cases with various age and ethnic backgrounds. The preliminary results of the evaluation are expected to include sensitivity and specificity of lesion and non-lesion voxels in the white matter, the effectiveness of different probability thresholds for each voxel, and comparison between CAD quantification results and radiologists' manual readings. The results aim to show the effectiveness of a MS lesion CAD system to be used in a clinical setting, as well as a step closer to full clinical implementation of the eFolder system.

  2. A validated LC-MS-MS method for simultaneous identification and quantitation of rodenticides in blood.

    PubMed

    Bidny, Sergei; Gago, Kim; David, Mark; Duong, Thanh; Albertyn, Desdemona; Gunja, Naren

    2015-04-01

    A rapid, highly sensitive and specific analytical method for the extraction, identification and quantification of nine rodenticides from whole blood has been developed and validated. Commercially available rodenticides in Australia include coumatetralyl, warfarin, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, diphacinone and chlorophacinone. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC TQD system operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to conduct the analysis. Two different ionization techniques, ES+ and ES-, were examined to achieve optimal sensitivity and selectivity resulting in detection by MS-MS using electrospray ionization in positive mode for difenacoum and brodifacoum and in negative mode for all other analytes. All analytes were extracted from 200 µL of whole blood with ethylacetate and separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH-C18 column using gradient elution. Ammonium acetate (10 mM, pH 7.5) and methanol were used as mobile phases with a total run time of 8 min. Recoveries were between 70 and 105% with limits of detection ranging from 0.5 to 1 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was 2 ng/mL for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear within the range 2-200 ng/mL for all analytes with the coefficient of determination ≥0.98. The application of the proposed method using liquid-liquid extraction in a series of clinical investigations and forensic toxicological analyses was successful. PMID:25595137

  3. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  4. Measurement of Intracellular Ribavirin Mono-, Di- and Triphosphate Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Jimmerson, Leah C.; Ray, Michelle L.; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.; Klein, Brandon; Rower, Joseph E.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a nucleoside analog used to treat a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. RBV undergoes intracellular phosphorylation to a mono- (MP), di- (DP), and triphosphate (TP). The phosphorylated forms have been associated with the mechanisms of antiviral effect observed in vitro, but the intracellular pharmacology of the drug has not been well characterized in vivo. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of intracellular RBV MP, DP, and TP in multiple cell matrix types. For this method, the individual MP, DP, and TP fractions were isolated from lysed intracellular matrix using strong anion exchange solid phase extraction, dephosphorylated to parent RBV, desalted and concentrated and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The method utilized a stable labeled internal standard (RBV-13C5) which facilitated accuracy (% deviation within ±15%) and precision (coefficient of variation of ≤15%). The quantifiable linear range for the assay was 0.50 to 200 pmol/sample. The method was applied to the measurement of RBV MP, DP, and TP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), and dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from patients taking RBV for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:25555148

  5. LC-APCI-MS/MS Quantification and Topical Bioavailability of Chloroacetamide in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Shin, Beom Soo; Lee, Jeong Pyo; Choi, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Sang Min; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-08-01

    Chloroacetamide (CAA) is a preservative used in various cosmetic, personal care and household products. Due to the hazard potential for allergic reaction and reproductive toxicity, CAA is being considered a high priority for screening assessment and toxicological re-evaluation. This study describes the development of a highly specific and sensitive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of CAA in rat plasma and its application to a topical bioavailability study. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C8 column using a highly aqueous mobile phase with a binary gradient elution. The assay was linear in the concentration range of 5-2,500 ng/mL (r ≥ 0.995) using a small sample volume (100 µL). Applicability of the assay was demonstrated in a bioavailability study in rats after i.v. injection (0.5 or 2 mg/kg) and topical application (7.02 mg/kg). Average elimination half-life and clearance ranged from 26.6 to 30.5 min and 53.9 to 57.3 mL/min/kg, respectively. Upon topical application, CAA was slowly but steadily absorbed for a prolonged time period (12 h). The topical bioavailability was 53.5 and 48.3% for emulsion and lotion, respectively. The developed assay may be useful to examine the relationship between exposure and toxic potential of CAA in risk assessment. PMID:25523464

  6. Bacterial Porphyrin Extraction and Quantification by LC/MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Stefano; Imlay, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Heme is an iron-containing porphyrin which acts as a prosthetic group in several enzymes involved in disparate functions, such as respiration and H2O2-scavenging. Escherichia coli is able to produce heme endogenously since it contains all the enzymes involved in the nine-step biosynthesis pathway, which in absence of stress and in iron-replete media proceeds unabated. However, we recently showed that two steps are affected by H2O2 stress (Mancini and Imlay, 2015). To compensate, two enzymes, namely the ferrochelatase (HemH) and an isozyme of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemF), are activated by the H2O2-responsive regulator OxyR. Genetic mutations that block either adaptation cause the intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrinogen III, the substrates of HemH and HemF, respectively. We here describe a method used to extract and quantify protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III, the product of the spontaneous oxidation of coproporphyrinogen III.

  7. Simultaneous extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata using microwave-assisted extraction combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants. PMID:26041227

  8. Simultaneous detection of lysine metabolites by a single LC-MS/MS method: monitoring lysine degradation in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Pena, Izabella A; Marques, Lygia A; Laranjeira, Angelo B A; Yunes, José A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of lysine degradation metabolites in plasma is necessary for the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases such as pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. The principal metabolites involved in the disease are related to the first steps of lysine oxidation, either through the saccharopine or the pipecolate pathways. Currently, there are three different analytical methods used to assess the content of these metabolites in urine and plasma, but they require different sample preparations and analytical equipment. Here, we describe a protocol that calls for a simple sample preparation and uses liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of underivatized l-saccharopine, l-aminoadipic acid, l-pipecolic acid, piperideine-6-carboxylate, l-glutamic acid, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate in plasma samples. To validate the method we analyzed the time course degradation after intraperitoneal injection of l-lysine in C57BL/6/J mice. We observed that the degradation of lysine through the saccharopine pathway reached a maximum within the first 2 h. At this time point there was an increase in the levels of the metabolites saccharopine, aminoadipic acid, and pipecolic acid by 3-, 24- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared to time zero levels. These metabolites returned to basal levels after 4-6 h. In conclusion, we have developed a LC-MS/MS approach, which allows simultaneous analysis of lysine degradation metabolites without the need for derivatization. PMID:27026869

  9. Identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and 5 non-phthalate plasticizers in PVC medical devices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-02-15

    A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given. PMID:24480330

  10. Identification and quantification of acidosis inducing metabolites in cases of alcohols intoxication by GC-MS for emergency toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hložek, Tomáš; Bursová, Miroslava; Coufal, Pavel; Čabala, Radomír

    2015-10-10

    A simple, cost effective, and fast gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) for simultaneous measurement of formic acid, glycolic acid, methoxyacetic acid, ethoxyacetic acid and 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid in serum and urine was developed and validated. This multi-analyte method is highly suitable for clinical and emergency toxicology laboratory diagnostic, allowing identification and quantification of five most common acidosis inducing organic acids present in cases of alcohol intoxication. Furthermore, when patients are admitted to emergency unit at late stage of toxic alcohol intoxication, the concentration of parent compound may be already low or not detectable. This new method employs a relatively less used class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates, allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of carboxylic acids within seconds. The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 5 min. The optimal conditions of derivatization procedure have been found using chemometric approach (design of experiment). The calibration dependence of the method was proved to be quadratic in the range of 25-3000 mg L(-1), with adequate accuracy (97.3-108.0%) and precision (<12.8%). The method was successfully applied for identification and quantification of the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units. PMID:26001161

  11. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in grapes by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS on a semimicro separation scale.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Isabella; Bello, Cristiano; De Rossi, Antonella; Corradini, Danilo

    2008-10-01

    Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a semimicro separation scale was employed to develop a straightforward method for the simultaneous separation, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds occurring in whole berries of Vitis vinifera, which comprise phenolic acids, flavonols, catechins, stilbenes, and anthocyanins. A C-18 narrow bore column of 150 x 2.0 mm I.D. and a semimicro photodiode array detector (PDA) cell of 2.5 microL, in conjunction with a mass spectrometry detector equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS) to confirm peak identification, were employed. The C-18 narrow bore column was eluted by a multisegment gradient of increasing concentration of acetonitrile in water-formic acid solution that was optimized on the basis of the results of a study carried out to evaluate the influence of mobile phase composition and gradient shape on separation performance and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS. The identification of individual phenolic compounds was performed on the basis of their retention times and both UV-visible and mass spectra, acquired by a mass spectrometer (MS) equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, employed in conjunction with the PDA detector. Libraries comprising retention times, UV-visible, and mass spectra for major phenolic compounds expected in grape berries were made by subjecting solutions of each phenolic standard to the optimized RP-HPLC method. Quantification of individual compounds was performed by the external standard method using a six point regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance of each analyte determined by the PDA spectra. The RP-HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity of calibration graphs, limits of detection, limits of quantification, repeatability, and accuracy, which was evaluated by a recovery study. The developed method was successfully applied to identify the phenolic compounds

  12. Identification and quantification of components in extracts of Uncaria tomentosa by HPLC-ES/MS.

    PubMed

    Montoro, P; Carbone, V; Quiroz, J de Dioz Zuniga; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    2004-01-01

    The two main classes of secondary metabolites, alkaloids and quinovic acid glycosides, of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a Peruvian plant commonly known as 'uña de gato', have been analysed. Separation of the alkaloidal fraction was achieved using a solid phase extraction method based on cationic exchange, and an analytical method employing HPLC-ES/MS has been developed. Quantitative data for commercial wild bark, cultivated bark and leaves are reported. The analysis of quinovic acid glycosides was performed directly on the crude extract using both a fast analytical method based on flow injection ES/MS, and a more complete analytical technique using HPLC-MS. PMID:14979528

  13. Bioanalytical validation for simultaneous quantification of non-aromatic steroids in follicular fluid from cattle via ESI-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Martin; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walz, Christina; Spitschak, Marion; Brenmoehl, Julia; Vanselow, Jens; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    The family of steroid hormones is quite attractive for the approach of phenotype monitoring in farm animals. Therefore, we developed a new protocol for the quantitative analysis of natural steroids in follicular fluid from dairy cows. The corresponding steroid profile, which consists of progesterone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, testosterone, and androstenedione covering three distinct steroid classes, was determined by LC/MS. Quantification is achieved by use of steroid standards diluted in steroid-free follicular fluid as calibrators. Thus, the new protocol does not require deuterated standards. In order to correct for conditional performance of the analytical system we have used dexamethasone as an internal standard. The method was validated according to EMA guidelines. Within- and between-day variations were below 20% for most parameters assessed. All steroids assessed had lower limits of quantification in the range of 2.1 to 4.4ng/ml. We have established a simple and sensitive analytical system in order to step towards a broader and cost-efficient phenotyping analysis in follicular fluid from dairy cows. PMID:26600283

  14. Development of analytical strategies using U-HPLC-MS/MS and LC-ToF-MS for the quantification of micropollutants in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wille, Klaas; Kiebooms, Julie A L; Claessens, Michiel; Rappé, Karen; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Noppe, Herlinde; Van Praet, Nander; De Wulf, Eric; Van Caeter, Peter; Janssen, Colin R; De Brabander, Hubert F; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2011-05-01

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and pesticides, are important environmental contaminants. To obtain more information regarding their presence in marine organisms, an increasing demand exists for reliable analytical methods for quantification of these micropollutants in biotic matrices. Therefore, we developed extraction procedures and new analytical methods for the quantification of 14 pesticides, 10 PFCs, and 11 pharmaceuticals in tissue of marine organisms, namely blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). This paper presents these optimized analytical procedures and their application to M. edulis, deployed at five stations in the Belgian coastal zone. The methods consisted of a pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for pharmaceuticals and pesticides, and of a liquid extraction using acetonitrile and SPE, followed by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for PFCs. The limits of quantification of the three newly optimized analytical procedures in M. edulis tissue varied between 0.1 and 10 ng g(-1), and satisfactory linearities (≥0.98) and recoveries (90-106%) were obtained. Application of these methods to M. edulis revealed the presence of five pharmaceuticals, two PFCs, and seven pesticides at levels up to 490, 5, and 60 ng g(-1), respectively. The most prevalent micropollutants were salicylic acid, paracetamol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, chloridazon, and dichlorvos. PMID:21442366

  15. A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the stereospecific determination of efonidipine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Deng, Ming; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Jingyi; Zhao, Hongna; Zhang, Lina; Tong, Yang; Liu, Huichen

    2016-04-15

    Efonidipine hydrochloride is a new generation dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blocker designed to inhibit both T-type and L-type Ca(2+) channels. Efonidipine possesses a chiral carbon and is clinically administered as a racemate. In the present study, an enantioselective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method of determining efonidipine enantiomers in human plasma was developed and validated to characterize the stereoselective pharmacokinetics. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Chiral separation was optimized on a CHIRALPAK(®) ID column using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (60:40, v/v). Detection was using MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using the transitions of m/z 632.3→91.1 for efonidipine enantiomers, and m/z 493.3→117.2 for cilnidipine (internal standard). The calibration curves were linear over 0.100-20.0ng/mL for each enantiomer. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for each enantiomer was established at 0.100ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 12.1% for each enantiomer in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD), and accuracies were between -5.0% and 5.0% in terms of relative error (RE) for each enantiomer. No chiral inversion was observed during sample storage, preparation procedure and analysis. The validated method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of efonidipine in healthy subjects after oral administration of 40mg (20mg×2) efonidipine hydrochloride tablets. PMID:26845200

  16. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify methylergonovine in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Qichao; Liu, Dongming; Ma, Bowen; Zhao, Hengli; Fang, Zengjun; Wang, Haisheng; Lou, Hongxiang

    2016-02-01

    Methylergonovine (ME) is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid that is used for the treatment and prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage. In recent years, methylergonovine has been effective in the control of refractory headaches and is likely to be employed as chemosensitizers for cancer. However, this alkaloid sometimes causes elevated blood pressure. Therefore, a sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of this drug in biological matrices is necessary. In this study, ME was extracted from 500μL plasma samples by a liquid-liquid extraction under alkaline conditions and detected using positive multi-reaction-monitoring mode (+MRM) mass spectrometry. The method was validated according to US FDA guidelines and covered a working range from 0.025 to 10ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.025ng/mL. In conclusion, a rapid, sensitive, selective and accurate quantification by an LC-MS/MS method was developed and successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetics study in female volunteers after a single intramuscular injection or oral administration of a 0.2mg dose of ME maleate. It is suitable for both preclinical and clinical studies on ME. PMID:26760224

  17. Simultaneous quantification of five steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to the pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Jing; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2014-01-01

    A simple, reliable and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous analyses of the following 5 steroid saponins in rat plasma after the single dose administration of total steroid saponins extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Protodioscin, huangjiangsu A, zingiberensis new saponin, dioscin, and gracillin were quantified using ginsenoside Rb1 as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a single step acetonitrile-mediated protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid under a gradient elution mode at 0.2 mL min−1 using a microsplit after the eluent from the HPLC apparatus. The quantification was accomplished on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive ionization mode. The above five analytes were stable under sample storage and preparation conditions applied in the present study. The linearity, precision, accuracy, and recoveries of the analysis confirmed the requirements for quality-control purposes. After validation, this proposed method was successfully adopted to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of these five analytes. PMID:25201262

  18. Ferromagnetic particles as a rapid and robust sample preparation for the absolute quantification of seven eicosanoids in human plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Anna Catharina; Bruegel, Mathias; Maier, Barbara; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Kleinhempel, Alisa; Teupser, Daniel; Grimm, Stefanie H; Vogeser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We used ferromagnetic particles as a novel technique to deproteinize plasma samples prior to quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of seven eicosanoids [thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGD2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 11-HETE, 12-HETE, arachidonic acid (AA)]. A combination of ferromagnetic particle enhanced deproteination and subsequent on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE) realized quick and convenient semi-automated sample preparation-in contrast to widely used manual SPE techniques which are rather laborious and therefore impede the investigation of AA metabolism in larger patient cohorts. Method evaluation was performed according to a protocol based on the EMA guideline for bioanalytical method validation, modified for endogenous compounds. Calibrators were prepared in ethanol. The calibration curves were found to be linear in a range of 0.1-80ngmL(-1) (TXB2, PGE2, PGD2), 0.05-40ngmL(-1) (5-HETE, 11-HETE), 0.5-400ngmL(-1) (12-HETE) and 25-9800ngmL(-1) (AA). Regarding all analytes and all quality controls, the resulting precision data (inter-assay 2.6 %-15.5 %; intra-assay 2.5 %-15.1 %, expressed as variation coefficient) as well as the accuracy results (inter-assay 93.3 %-125 %; intra-assay 91.7 %-114 %) were adequate. Further experiments addressing matrix effect, recovery and robustness, yielded also very satisfying results. As a proof of principle, the newly developed LC-MS/MS assay was employed to determine the capacity of AA metabolite release after whole blood stimulation in healthy blood donors. For this purpose, whole blood specimens of 5 healthy blood donors were analyzed at baseline and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced blood cell activation. In several baseline samples some eicosanoids levels were below the Lower Limit of Quantification. However, in the stimulated samples all chosen eicosanoids (except PGD2) could be quantified. These results, in context with those obtained in validation, demonstrate the

  19. LC-MS/MS method development for quantitative analysis of acetaminophen uptake by the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Balsano, Evelyn; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen is a pharmaceutical, frequently found in surface water as a contaminant. Bioremediation, in particular, mycoremediation of acetaminophen is a method to remove this compound from waters. Owing to the lack of quantitative analytical method for acetaminophen in aquatic organisms, the present study aimed to develop a method for the determination of acetaminophen using LC-MS/MS in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. The method was then applied to evaluate the uptake of acetaminophen by M. hiemalis, cultured in pellet morphology. The method was robust, sensitive and reproducible with a lower limit of quantification of 5 pg acetaminophen on column. It was found that M. hiemalis internalize the pharmaceutical, and bioaccumulate it with time. Therefore, M. hiemalis was deemed a suitable candidate for further studies to elucidate its pharmaceutical tolerance and the longevity in mycoremediation applications. PMID:26950900

  20. Comparison of analysis methods for airway quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.

    2012-03-01

    Diseased airways have been known for several years as a possible contributing factor to airflow limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). Quantification of disease severity through the evaluation of airway dimensions - wall thickness and lumen diameter - has gained increased attention, thanks to the availability of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). Novel approaches have focused on automated methods of measurement as a faster and more objective means that the visual assessment routinely employed in the clinic. Since the Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) method of airway measurement was introduced two decades ago [1], several new techniques for quantifying airways have been detailed in the literature, but no approach has truly become a standard for such analysis. Our own research group has presented two alternative approaches for determining airway dimensions, one involving a minimum path and the other active contours [2, 3]. With an increasing number of techniques dedicated to the same goal, we decided to take a step back and analyze the differences of these methods. We consequently put to the test our two methods of analysis and the FWHM approach. We first measured a set of 5 airways from a phantom of known dimensions. Then we compared measurements from the three methods to those of two independent readers, performed on 35 airways in 5 patients. We elaborate on the differences of each approach and suggest conclusions on which could be defined as the best one.

  1. Development and validation of UHPLC-MS/MS method for determination of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples and the role of matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Vlčková, Hana; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-10-10

    A complete analytical procedure combining optimized tea infusion preparation and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for routine quantification of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples. The preparation of tea infusions was optimized in terms of temperature, time and water-to-tea ratio in green, white and black teas. The catechins were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in a run of only 4 min including equilibration of the system. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was fully validated in terms of inter/intra-day precision, accuracy, linearity (r(2)>0.9991), range (50-5000 ng/ml), LOD (1.5-7.5 ng/ml) and LOQ (5-25 ng/ml). Validation of the method included also the determination of the matrix effects that were evaluated in both flavored and unflavored green, white and black teas. Dilution of the resulting tea infusions appeared to be crucial for the matrix effects and also for subsequent catechin quantification in real tea samples in order to fit into the linear range of the UHPLC-MS/MS method. This complete procedure for catechin quantification was finally applied to real sample analysis represented by 70 commercial tea samples. PMID:26025813

  2. An improved method for analysis of glucosylceramide species having cis-8 and trans-8 isomers of sphingoid bases by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Hideyasu; Watanabe, Masayuki

    2012-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) approaches have enabled high selectivity and sensitivity for the identification and quantification of glucosylceramide molecular species. Here we demonstrate that HPLC-ESI-MS/MS is an efficient method for characterizing plant glucosylceramide species having the cis-8 and trans-8 isomers of sphingoid bases. Complete baseline separation was achieved using a high-carbon-content octadecylsilyl column and a simple binary gradient comprising methanol and water. The result of 2-hydroxy fatty acid composition achieved by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was compared with that achieved by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), indicating that the two methods yield similar molar compositions. The current method should be applicable to seeking the active components of glucosylceramide species from plant materials in response to biological challenges. PMID:23108960

  3. A validated LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid[S

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Rohini; Jiang, Hui; Farhat, Nicole Y.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Woolery, Myra; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Porter, Forbes D.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Ory, Daniel S.; Jiang, Xuntian

    2015-01-01

    24(S)-hydroxycholesterol [24(S)-HC] is a cholesterol metabolite that is formed almost exclusively in the brain. The concentrations of 24(S)-HC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or plasma might be a sensitive marker of altered cholesterol metabolism in the CNS. A highly sensitive 2D-LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the quantification of 24(S)-HC in human plasma and CSF. In the development of an assay for 24(S)-HC in CSF, significant nonspecific binding of 24(S)-HC was observed and resolved with the addition of 2.5% 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into CSF samples. The sample preparation consists of liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether and derivatization with nicotinic acid. Good linearity was observed in a range from 1 to 200 ng/ml and from 0.025 to 5 ng/ml, for plasma and CSF, respectively. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the calibration curve ranges. Stability of 24(S)-HC was reported under a variety of storage conditions. This method has been successfully applied to support a National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trial of HP-β-CD in Niemann-Pick type C1 patients, in which 24(S)-HC is used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker. PMID:25866316

  4. Development and validation of a sensitive assay for the quantification of imatinib using LC/LC-MS/MS in human whole blood and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Klawitter, Jelena; Zhang, Yan Ling; Klawitter, Jost; Anderson, Nora; Serkova, Natalie J; Christians, Uwe

    2009-12-01

    We developed and validated a semi-automated LC/LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of imatinib in human whole blood and leukemia cells. After protein precipitation, samples were injected into the HPLC system and trapped onto the enrichment column (flow 5 mL/min); extracts were back-flushed onto the analytical column. Ion transitions [M + H](+) of imatinib (m/z = 494.3 --> 394.3) and its internal standard trazodone (372.5 --> 176.3) were monitored. The range of reliable response was 0.03-75 ng/mL. The inter-day precisions were: 8.4% (0.03 ng/mL), 7.2% (0.1 ng/mL), 6.5% (1 ng/mL), 8.2% (10 ng/mL) and 4.3% (75 ng/mL) with no interference from ion suppression. Autosampler stability was 24 hs and samples were stable over three freeze-thaw cycles. This semi-automated method is simple with only one manual step, uses a commercially available internal standard, and has proven to be robust in larger studies. PMID:19517424

  5. Sulfathiazole: analytical methods for quantification in seawater and macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nebot, Carolina; Nunes, Margarida; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of the interconnection between pharmaceutical residues, human health, and aquaculture has highlighted the concern with the potential harmful effects it can induce. Furthermore, to better understand the consequences more research is needed and to achieve that new methodologies on the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals are necessary. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. Among the most prescribed are sulfonamides, with sulfathiazole being the selected compound to be investigated in this study. In the environment, macroalgae are an important group of producers, continuously exposed to contaminants, with a significant role in the trophic web. Due to these characteristics are already under scope for the possibility of being used as bioindicators. The present study describes two new methodologies based on liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfathiazole in seawater and in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Results show both methods were validated according to international standards, with MS/MS detection showing more sensitivity as expected with LODs of 2.79ng/g and 1.40ng/mL for algae and seawater, respectively. As for UV detection the values presented were respectively 2.83μg/g and 2.88μg/mL, making it more suitable for samples originated in more contaminated sites. The methods were also applied to experimental data with success with results showing macroalgae have potential use as indicators of contamination. PMID:25473819

  6. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. PMID:27451219

  7. Quantification of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Standard Reference Materials Using GC×GC/ToF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Carlos; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is the first to quantify complex PAH mixtures in NIST SRMs using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/ToF-MS), with and without extract cleanup, and reports previously unidentified PAH isomers in the NIST SRMs. We tested a novel, high orthogonality GC column combination (LC-50×NSP-35), as well as with a commonly used column combination (Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17) for the quantification of a complex mixture of 85 different PAHs, including parent (PAHs), alkyl- (MPAHs), nitro- (NPAHs), oxy- (OPAHs), thio- (SPAHs), bromo- (BrPAHs), and chloro-PAHs (ClPAHs) in extracts from two standard reference materials: NIST SRM1650b (diesel particulate matter), with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 (diesel particulate extract), with and without extract cleanup. The LC-50×NSP-35 column combination resulted in an average absolute percent difference of 33.8%, 62.2% and 30.8% compared to the NIST certified PAH concentrations for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, while the Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17 resulted in an absolute percent difference of 38.6%, 67.2% and 79.6% for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, respectively. This GC×GC/ToF-MS method increases the number of PAHs detected and quantified in complex environmental extracts using a single chromatographic run. Without clean-up, 7 additional compounds were detected and quantified in NIST SRM1975 using the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination. These results suggest that the use of the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination in GC×GC/ToF-MS not only results in better chromatographic resolution and greater orthogonality for the separation of complex PAH mixtures, but can also be used for the accurate quantification of complex PAH mixtures in environmental extracts without cleanup. PMID:23932031

  8. QuEChERS-based method for the determination of carbamate residues in aromatic herbs by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Nantia, Edouard Akono; Moreno-González, David; Manfo, Faustin P T; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    A new reliable, fast and highly sensitive method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of 28 carbamates in aromatic herbs. A modified QuEChERS-based method was optimized for the extraction of carbamate residues from a wide variety of fresh herbal products. The proposed method allowed recoveries higher than 72%, achieving quantification limits of 2μgkg(-1), therefore below maximum residue limits established for this type of samples. The combination of QuEChERS with UHPLC-MS/MS introduces a high-throughput methodology for the monitoring of these residues in this type of matrices scarcely explored. The analysis of the real samples revealed that several samples sold in the European Union and in the North West region of Cameroon contain pesticides in concentrations below the maximum residue limits. PMID:27596428

  9. Validation and uncertainties evaluation of an isotope dilution-SPE-LC-MS/MS for the quantification of drug residues in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Brieudes, V; Lardy-Fontan, S; Lalere, B; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Budzinski, H

    2016-01-01

    The present work describes the development and validation of a reference method conducted at the French National Institute of Metrology (LNE) for the quantitative determination of psychoactive compounds in the dissolved fraction of surface waters. More specifically an isotope dilution-SPE-LC-MS/MS based method has been implemented for the characterization of a broad range of analytes belonging to different classes of psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants, stimulants, opiates and opioids, anticonvulsants, anti-dementia drugs, analgesics as well as the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in the low ng L(-1) range of concentration. Full validation of the method was performed following procedures described by the French standard NF T90-210. Limits of quantification between 0.14 and 3.54 ng L(-1) were obtained. Method recoveries from 71 to 123% were observed with standard deviation below 10% in intermediate precision conditions. Accuracy was determined for every compound: measurement errors were between -4 and +1% and standard deviations in intermediate precision conditions were included within a 1-9% interval. Finally, measurement uncertainties were evaluated following the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). Expanded uncertainties (k=2) ranged from 2% for carbamazepine, EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine) and venlafaxine to 17% for diazepam. The validated method was implemented to Seine river surface waters demonstrating its fitness for purpose. All compounds were detected and 22 out of 25 analytes were quantified. More specifically, measured concentration ranged from 0.39 ng L(-1) for MDMA (3,4-methylene-dioxy-N-methylamphetamine) to 182 ng L(-1) for gabapentine. PMID:26695245

  10. An automatic quantification system for MS lesions with integrated DICOM structured reporting (DICOM-SR) for implementation within a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Colin; Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease affecting the central nervous system characterized by pathologic changes including demyelination and axonal injury. MR imaging has become the most important tool to evaluate the disease progression of MS which is characterized by the occurrence of white matter lesions. Currently, radiologists evaluate and assess the multiple sclerosis lesions manually by estimating the lesion volume and amount of lesions. This process is extremely time-consuming and sensitive to intra- and inter-observer variability. Therefore, there is a need for automatic segmentation of the MS lesions followed by lesion quantification. We have developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to identify the MS lesions. The segmentation algorithm is accelerated by parallel computing using Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for practical implementation into a clinical environment. Subsequently, characterized quantification of the lesions is performed. The quantification results, which include lesion volume and amount of lesions, are stored in a structured report together with the lesion location in the brain to establish a standardized representation of the disease progression of the patient. The development of this structured report in collaboration with radiologists aims to facilitate outcome analysis and treatment assessment of the disease and will be standardized based on DICOM-SR. The results can be distributed to other DICOM-compliant clinical systems that support DICOM-SR such as PACS. In addition, the implementation of a fully automatic segmentation and quantification system together with a method for storing, distributing, and visualizing key imaging and informatics data in DICOM-SR for MS lesions improves the clinical workflow of radiologists and visualizations of the lesion segmentations and will provide 3-D insight into the distribution of lesions in the brain.

  11. Identification and quantification of constituents of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Bergonzi, M C; Righeschi, C; Isacchi, B; Bilia, A R

    2012-09-15

    A simple, rapid and specific HPLC method was carried out for the analysis of characteristic constituents in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi), namely iridoids, caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives and crocins. The separation was successfully obtained using a C(18) column by gradient elution with mixtures of methanol and water as mobile phases; detection wavelength was set at 240 nm for iridoid glycosides, 315 nm for quinic acid derivatives and 438 nm for crocins. The analytical method was validated and the quantification of active compounds, namely iridoids, was performed. Linearity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were also reported. This assay was successfully applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of five commercial samples of G. jasminoides Ellis. PMID:23107748

  12. An automated, highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of the opiate antagonist naltrexone and its major metabolite 6beta-naltrexol in dog and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Claudia; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Zhang, Yan Ling; Johnson, Gillian; Gasparic, Antje; Christians, Uwe

    2008-10-15

    To support animal studies and clinical pharmacokinetic trials, we developed and validated an automated, specific and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol in the same run. In human plasma, the assay had a lower limit of quantitation of only 5pg/mL. This was of critical importance to follow naltrexone pharmacokinetics during its terminal elimination phase. The assay had the following key performance characteristics for naltrexone in human plasma: range of reliable quantification: 0.005-100ng/mL (r2>0.99), inter-day accuracy (0.03ng/mL): 103.7% and inter-day precision: 10.1%. There were no ion suppression, matrix interferences or carry-over. PMID:18805072

  13. Simultaneous quantification of hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin in mice plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Meng, F; Zhang, Y; Sun, L; Yu, L; Zhang, Z; Peng, S; Guo, J

    2016-07-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to simultaneously quantify three structurally similar flavonoid glycosides - hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin - in mouse plasma. Biosamples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on an AichromBond-AQ C18 column (250 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with methanol-acetonitrile-water-formic acid (20:25:55:0.1) as the mobile phase. Detection of hyperin, reynoutrin, guaijaverin and internal standard [luteolin-7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside] was achieved by ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode using m/z 463 → m/z 300, m/z 433 → m/z 300, m/z 433 → m/z 300 and m/z 579 → m/z 285 transitions, respectively. Linear concentration ranges of calibration curves were 4.0-800.0 ng/mL for hyperin and reynoutrin and 8.0-1600.0 ng/mL for guaijaverin when 100 μL of plasma was analyzed. We used this validated method to study the pharmacokinetics of hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin in mice following oral and intravenous administration. All three quercetin-3-O-glycosides showed poor oral absorption in mice, and the absolute bioavailability of hyperin after oral administration of 100 mg/kg was 1.2%. Pretreatment with verapamil increased the peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve of hyperin, which were significantly higher than the control values. The half-life of hyperin with verapamil was significantly prolonged compared with that of the control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26588877

  14. A versatile targeted metabolomics method for the rapid quantification of multiple classes of phenolics in fruits and beverages.

    PubMed

    Vrhovsek, Urska; Masuero, Domenico; Gasperotti, Mattia; Franceschi, Pietro; Caputi, Lorenzo; Viola, Roberto; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2012-09-12

    Compelling evidence of the health benefits of phenolic compounds and their impact on food quality have stimulated the development of analytical methods for the identification and quantification of these compounds in different matrices in recent years. A targeted metabolomics method has been developed for the quantification of 135 phenolics, such as benzoates, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, stilbenes, dihydrochalcones, and flavonoids, in fruit and tea extracts and wine using UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS. Chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of the compounds over a period of 15 min, and MRM transitions were selected for accurate quantification. The method was validated by studying the detection and quantification limits, the linearity ranges, and the intraday and interday repeatability of the analysis. The validated method was applied to the analysis of apples, berries, green tea, and red wine, providing a valuable tool for food quality evaluation and breeding studies. PMID:22468648

  15. Quantification of Docetaxel in Serum Using Turbulent Flow Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TFC-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, Christopher A; Marzinke, Mark A; Clarke, William A

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel is a second-generation taxane and is used clinically as an anti-neoplastic agent in cancer chemotherapy via an anti-mitotic mechanism. Its efficacy is limited to a narrow therapeutic window. Inappropriately high concentrations may cause erythema, fluid retention, nausea, diarrhea, and neutropenia. As a result, dosing recommendations have changed from high dosage loading every 3 weeks to lower dosage loading weekly. We describe a method that can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of docetaxel levels using turbulent flow liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (TFC-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The method is rapid, requiring only 6.3 min per analytical run following a simple protein crash. The method requires only 100 μL of serum. Concentrations of docetaxel were quantified by a calibration curve relating the peak-area ratio of docetaxel to a deuterated internal standard (docetaxel-D9). The method was linear from 7.8 to 1000 ng/mL, with imprecision ≤6.2 %. PMID:26660181

  16. Bioanalytical method validation considerations for LC-MS/MS assays of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Jeffrey X; Vazvaei, Faye; Jenkins, Rand

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the recommendations of a group of industry scientists in validating regulated bioanalytical LC-MS/MS methods for protein therapeutics in a 2015 AAPSJ White Paper. This group recommends that most of the same precision and accuracy validation criteria used for ligand-binding assays (LBAs) be applied to LC-MS/MS-based assays where proteins are quantified using the LC-MS/MS signal from a surrogate peptide after proteolytic digestion (PrD-LCMS methods). PrD-LCMS methods are generally more complex than small molecule LC-MS/MS assays and may often include LBA procedures, leading to the recommendation for a combination of chromatographic and LBA validation strategies and appropriate acceptance criteria. Several key aspects of this bioanalytical approach that are discussed in the White Paper are treated here in additional detail. These topics include selectivity/specificity, matrix effect, digestion efficiency, stability and critical reagent considerations. PMID:26110712

  17. Analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado using a modified QuEChERS method with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chamkasem, Narong; Ollis, Lisa W; Harmon, Tiffany; Lee, Sookwang; Mercer, Greg

    2013-03-13

    A simple and high-throughput screening method for the analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado ( Persea americana ) by LC-(+)-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS is presented. A modified QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to improve the extraction recovery of highly lipophilic pesticides. Extracts from minced avocados after acetonitrile (MeCN) extraction were directly injected to LC-MS/MS, whereas other GC-amenable compounds were treated with the modified QuEChERS procedure for GC-MS/MS analysis. The average recoveries for 79 pesticides quantified by LC-MS/MS at 10, 50, and 200 ng/g fortifying levels were 86.1% or better (with maximum RSD at 9.2%), whereas GC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated 70.2% or better (RSD < 18%) for average recovery from 57 compounds at the same spike levels. The application of LC- and GC-MS/MS combined with the improved extraction procedures led to the current method, which can quantitate these pesticides even if they are present in avocados below the targeted action level by FDA. This method demonstrated the improved recovery of several challenging lipophilic pesticides in highly fat-rich avocados. PMID:23362971

  18. Multi-residue method for detecting coccidiostats at carry-over level in feed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Delahaut, Ph; Pierret, G; Ralet, N; Dubois, M; Gillard, N

    2010-06-01

    A multi-residue HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction, detection and confirmation of the 11 coccidiostats referenced by Regulation 2009/8/EC (lasalocid sodium, narasin, salinomycin sodium, monensin sodium, semduramicin sodium, maduramicin ammonium alpha, robenidine hydrochloride, decoquinate, halofuginone hydrobromide, nicarbazin, and diclazuril) in feedstuffs at carry-over level. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats below target concentration. The method was in-house validated and meets all criteria of European legislation (2002/657/EC). The precision of the method was determined under repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility conditions; RSD(r) and RSD(R) were below the maximum permitted values for every tested concentration. The specificity was checked by analysing representative blank samples and blank samples fortified with potentially interfering substances (benzimidazoles, corticosteroides, triphenylmethane dyes, quinolones, nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, phenicols); no interference were found. Concerning quantification, a quadratic regression model was fitted to every calibration curve with a regression coefficient r2 above 0.99 on each data set. Finally, the expanded uncertainty U was calculated with data obtained within the laboratory while applying the method during validation and in routine tests. PMID:20198524

  19. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for measurement of organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in air sampling matrices.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Dills, Russell L; Yu, Jianbo; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for determination of levels of the organophosphorus (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos (CPF), azinphos methyl (AZM), and their oxygen analogs chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) and azinphos methyl-oxon (AZM-O) on common active air sampling matrices. XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF) matrices were extracted with acetonitrile containing stable-isotope labeled internal standards (ISTD). Analysis was accomplished in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode, and analytes in unknown samples were identified by retention time (±0.1 min) and qualifier ratio (±30% absolute) as compared to the mean of calibrants. For all compounds, calibration linearity correlation coefficients were ≥0.996. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.15-1.1 ng/sample for CPF, CPF-O, AZM, and AZM-O on active sampling matrices. Spiked fortification recoveries were 78-113% from XAD-2 active air sampling tubes and 71-108% from PUF active air sampling tubes. Storage stability tests also yielded recoveries ranging from 74-94% after time periods ranging from 2-10 months. The results demonstrate that LC-MS/MS is a sensitive method for determining these compounds from two different matrices at the low concentrations that can result from spray drift and long range transport in non-target areas following agricultural applications. In an inter-laboratory comparison, the limit of quantification (LOQ) for LC-MS/MS was 100 times lower than a typical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. PMID:24328542

  20. A fast and reliable method for GHB quantitation in whole blood by GC-MS/MS (TQD) for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use since the 1960s. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market. A fully validated, sensitive and reproducible method for the quantification of GHB by methanolic precipitation and GC-MS/MS (TQD) in whole blood is presented. Using 100μL of whole blood, obtained results included a LOD and LLOQ of 0.1mg/L and a recovery of 86% in a working range between 0.1 and 100mg/L. This method is sensitive and specific to detect the presence of GHB in small amounts of whole blood (both ante-mortem or post-mortem), and is, to the authors' knowledge, the first GC-MS-MS TQD method that uses different precursor ions and product ions for the identification of GHB and GHB-D6 (internal standard). Hence, this method may be especially useful for the study of endogenous values in this biological sample. PMID:26678181

  1. HPLC-MS/MS method validation for the detection of carbadox and olaquindox in poultry and swine feedingstuffs.

    PubMed

    Souza Dibai, Wagner Lutero; de Alkimin Filho, Juarez Fabiano; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; Sampaio de Assis, Débora Cristina; Camargos Lara, Leonardo José; de Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves; de Vasconcelos Cançado, Silvana

    2015-11-01

    Carbadox (CBX) and olaquindox (OLA) were used in poultry and swine feed for growth promotion, to improve feed efficiency and increase the rate of weight gain. However, the use of these agents in feedingstuffs was prohibited because of concerns about their toxicity. Regulatory laboratories are required to have suitably validated analytical methods to ensure compliance with the ban. A quantitative and confirmatory method for determining the presence of CBX and OLA in poultry and swine feed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized, and validated. The analytes extraction was performed with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (1:1v/v) and cleanup with hexane and C18 (dispersive phase). The method was evaluated by the following parameters: specificity, linearity, matrix effect, decision limits (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LoD), limits of quantification (LoQ) and measurement uncertainty. The validated method presented a broad linear study range and no significant matrix effect. The limit of detection (LoD) was defined at 9 μg kg(-1) for CBX and 80 μg kg(-1) for OLA, and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was defined at 12 μg kg(-1) and 110 μg kg(-1) for CBX and OLA, respectively. The accuracy of the method was adequate for CBX and OLA. The recovery values found in the repeatability conditions were 99.41% for CBX and 104.62% for OLA. Under intralaboratory reproducibility conditions, the values were 98.63% for CBX and 95.07% for OLA. It was concluded that the performance parameters demonstrated total method adequacy for the detection and quantification of CBX and OLA in poultry and swine feedingstuffs. PMID:26452885

  2. Development and validation of an UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of mycotoxins in grass silages.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Cormac; O'Kiely, Pádraig; Elliott, Chris; Danaher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) multi-mycotoxin analytical method was developed to simultaneously identify and quantify 20 mycotoxins in grass silages, inclusive of mycotoxins that are currently regulated in European Union feeds. Extraction of mycotoxins from dried grass silages was performed using of a modified QuEChERS extraction employing an acidified aqueous extraction (0.1 N HCl) with no further clean-up. Following chromatographic separation, analytes were detected using a fast polarity-switching MS/MS method that allowed both positive and negative ions to be analysed from a single injection, thus the reducing time and cost of analysis. The limits of detection and quantification ranged between 3 µg kg(-1) DM (aflatoxin B1, beauvericin and enniatin A and A1) and 200 µg kg(-1) DM (deoxynivalenol), and between 10 µg kg(-1) DM (aflatoxin B1, beauvericin and enniatin A1) and 500 µg kg(-1) DM (deoxynivalenol), respectively. Inter-assay accuracy and precision ranged between 90% and 107% and between 3.9% and 15.0% CV, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed through the application to a range of incurred samples in an inter-laboratory study. PMID:26374621

  3. Simultaneous Quantification of Baricitinib and Methotrexate in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R. S.; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Rangaswamy, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5–250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples PMID:27222609

  4. Simultaneous Quantification of Baricitinib and Methotrexate in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R S; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Rangaswamy, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples. PMID:27222609

  5. Acoustic processing method for MS/MS experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whymark, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustical methods in which intense sound beams can be used to control the position of objects are considered. The position control arises from the radiation force experienced when a body is placed in a sound field. A description of the special properties of intense sound fields useful for position control is followed by a discussion of the more obvious methods of position, namely the use of multiple sound beams. A new type of acoustic position control device is reported that has advantages of simplicity and reliability and utilizes only a single sound beam. Finally a description is given of an experimental single beam levitator, and the results obtained in a number of key levitation experiments.

  6. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with (34)S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and (34)S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m(sp)/m(sam)) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5-3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the application of species-unspecific isotope dilution GE-LA-ICP-MS has the potential to offer reliable, direct and simultaneous quantification of proteins after conventional 1D and 2D gel electrophoretic separations. PMID:26073803

  7. Prospective Comparison of Liver Stiffness Measurements between Two Point Shear Wave Elastography Methods: Virtual Touch Quantification and Elastography Point Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyunsuk; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Materials and Methods Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ2 analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Conclusion Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement. PMID:27587964

  8. Development and application of a method for the analysis of 9 mycotoxins in maize by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Xiao, Chunxia; Guo, Jing; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Laping; Yue, Tianli

    2013-11-01

    A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 , and AFG2 ), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), and T2-toxin in maize. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile: water: acetic acid (79 : 20 : 1), and then further cleaned-up using OASIS HLB cartridge. Optimum conditions for the extraction and chromatographic separation were investigated. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked maize ranged from 68.3% to 94.3%. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.64 μg/kg and from 0.03 to 2.12 μg/kg, respectively. The LC-MS/MS method has also been successfully applied to 60 maize samples, which were collected from Shaanxi Province of China. Twenty-four of the total 60 samples (40%) were contaminated with at least 1 of these 9 mycotoxins. Occurrence of mycotoxins were 6.7%, 1.7%, 3.3%, 6.7%, 1.7%, 23.3%, and 3.3% for AFB1 , AFB2 , OTA, ZEA, DON, FB1 , and T2-toxin, respectively. The results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the simultaneous determination of these mycotoxins in maize matrix. PMID:24245893

  9. Improved 6-Plex Tandem Mass Tags Quantification Throughput Using a Linear Ion Trap-High-Energy Collision Induced Dissociation MS(3) Scan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jane M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The use of tandem mass tags (TMT) as an isobaric labeling strategy is a powerful method for quantitative proteomics, yet its accuracy has traditionally suffered from interference. This interference can be largely overcome by selecting MS(2) fragment precursor ions for high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) MS(3) analysis in an Orbitrap scan. While this approach minimizes the interference effect, sensitivity suffers due to the high AGC targets and long acquisition times associated with MS(3) Orbitrap detection. We investigated whether acquiring the MS(3) scan in a linear ion trap with its lower AGC target would increase overall quantification levels with a minimal effect on precision and accuracy. Trypsin-digested proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tagged with 6-plex TMT reagents. The sample was subjected to replicate analyses using either the Orbitrap or the linear ion trap for the HCD MS(3) scan. HCD MS(3) detection in the linear ion trap vs Orbitrap increased protein identification by 66% with minor loss in precision and accuracy. Thus, the use of a linear ion trap-HCD MS(3) scan during a 6-plex TMT experiment can improve overall identification levels while maintaining the power of multiplexed quantitative analysis. PMID:27377715

  10. Chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method development for the detection of salbutamol in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sue Hay; Lee, Warren; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Tan, Soo Choon

    2016-07-01

    A sequential solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of salbutamol enantiomers in porcine urine. Porcine urine samples were hydrolysed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia and then subjected to a double solid-phase extraction (SPE) first using the Abs-Elut Nexus SPE and then followed by the Bond Elut Phenylboronic Acid (PBA) SPE. The salbutamol enantiomers were separated using the Astec CHIROBIOTIC™ T HPLC column (3.0mm×100mm; 5μm) maintained at 15°C with a 15min isocratic run at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mobile phase constituted of 5mM ammonium formate in methanol. Salbutamol and salbutamol-tert-butyl-d9 (internal standard, IS) was monitored and quantified with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method showed good linearity for the range of 0.1-10ng/mL with limit of quantification at 0.3ng/mL. Analysis of the QC samples showed intra- and inter-assay precisions to be less than 5.04%, and recovery ranging from 83.82 to 102.33%. PMID:27232053

  11. Ultra-trace quantification method for chlordecone in human fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Bichon, Emmanuelle; Guiffard, Ingrid; Vénisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-08-21

    Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) considered as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) as it persists in the environment, bio-accumulates through the food web, causes adverse effects to human health and the environment and transports across international boundaries far from its sources. The atypical physico-chemical properties of chlordecone make its inclusion in classical analytical approaches non applicable. The aim of our work was to include chlordecone in a multi organochlorine residue method preventing any degradation during the analytical process and thus allowing quantification at ppt (ngkg(-1) or ngL(-1)) levels for a wide range of OCPs in breast milk, human serum and adipose tissue. After GC-HRMS vs. MS/MS and EI vs. APCI comparisons, the major improvement in terms of sensitivity was found in decreasing the length and film thickness of the gas chromatography column. Thanks to a linear correlation between relative response and quantity of chlordecone injected, LC-(ESI-)-MS/MS was finally preferred. An acetonitrile based gradient optimized on a C30 coreshell HPLC column has led to reaching limits of quantification as low as 8ngL(-1), 25pgmL(-1) and 0.2ngg(-1) fat for breast milk, serum and adipose tissue, respectively, allowing multiresidue OCP quantification at concentration levels compatible with biomonitoring purposes and pre-requisites. PMID:26184709

  12. High precision quantification of human plasma proteins using the automated SISCAPA Immuno-MS workflow.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Morteza; Leigh Anderson, N; Pope, Matthew E; Yip, Richard; Pearson, Terry W

    2016-09-25

    Efficient robotic workflows for trypsin digestion of human plasma and subsequent antibody-mediated peptide enrichment (the SISCAPA method) were developed with the goal of improving assay precision and throughput for multiplexed protein biomarker quantification. First, an 'addition only' tryptic digestion protocol was simplified from classical methods, eliminating the need for sample cleanup, while improving reproducibility, scalability and cost. Second, methods were developed to allow multiplexed enrichment and quantification of peptide surrogates of protein biomarkers representing a very broad range of concentrations and widely different molecular masses in human plasma. The total workflow coefficients of variation (including the 3 sequential steps of digestion, SISCAPA peptide enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis) for 5 proteotypic peptides measured in 6 replicates of each of 6 different samples repeated over 6 days averaged 3.4% within-run and 4.3% across all runs. An experiment to identify sources of variation in the workflow demonstrated that MRM measurement and tryptic digestion steps each had average CVs of ∼2.7%. Because of the high purity of the peptide analytes enriched by antibody capture, the liquid chromatography step is minimized and in some cases eliminated altogether, enabling throughput levels consistent with requirements of large biomarker and clinical studies. PMID:26772726

  13. Characterization and quantification of major constituents of Xue Fu Zhu Yu by UPLC-DAD-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei; Qi, Aidi

    2012-03-25

    Xue Fu Zhu Yu (XFZY), a classic recipe in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been demonstrated to show protective effects on cardiovascular system. For quality control of XFZY products, qualitative analysis using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS) was undertaken. Twenty-eight compounds from XFZY were simultaneously detected; among them, seventeen compounds were unequivocally identified, and another eight compounds were tentatively characterized. According to qualitative results, a new method for quantitative analysis of XFZY has been established by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). Twelve representative compounds unequivocally identified were used as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid (FA), naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin (NH), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), which were derived from nine of eleven herbs of XFZY except Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Jiegeng) and Bupleurum chinense DC. (Chaihu). This UPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery tests. Quality control of XFZY products in total fourteen samples by four dosage forms was examined by this method, and results confirmed its feasibility and reliability in practice. PMID:22264846

  14. QUANTIFICATION OF 2,4-D ON SOLID-PHASE EXPOSURE SAMPLING MEDIA BY LC/MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...

  15. Validation of a method for the determination of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443204

  16. A multiclass multiresidue LC-MS/MS method for analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine kidney

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased efficiency permitted by multiclass, multiresidue methods has made such approaches very attractive to laboratories involved in monitoring veterinary drug residues in animal tissues. In this current work, evaluation of a multiclass multiresidue LC-MS/MS method in bovine kidney is describ...

  17. Quantification of derivatives of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) migrated from can coatings into tuna by HPLC/fluorescence and MS detection.

    PubMed

    Berger, U; Oehme, M; Girardin, L

    2001-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method combined with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection in series is presented for the separation and quantification of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) derivatives in extracts from food can coatings, tuna and oil. Fifteen samples of tuna cans bought in four European countries were investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode (APCI(+)-MS) allowed to tentatively identify BADGE and NOGE related compounds originating from reactions of the glycidyl ethers with bisphenols, phenol, butanol, water and hydrochloric acid. Quantification was based on the external standard method and fluorescence detection. Mass fractions up to 3.7 micrograms/g were found for hydrochlorination products of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE + 2HCl) in tuna. Furthermore, total migration quantities of phenolic ether compounds were estimated. The highest values found were 20 micrograms/g in tuna and 43 micrograms/g in the oil phase. PMID:11225353

  18. Segmentation of precursor mass range using ‘tiling’ approach increases peptide identifications for MS1-based label-free quantification

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Catherine E.; Potts, Gregory K.; Ulbrich, Arne; Westphall, Michael S.; Atwood, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Weatherly, D. Brent

    2013-01-01

    Label-free quantification is a powerful tool for the measurement of protein abundances by mass spectrometric methods. To maximize quantifiable identifications, MS1-based methods must balance the collection of survey scans and fragmentation spectra while maintaining reproducible extracted ion chromatograms (XIC). Here we present a method which increases the depth of proteome coverage over replicate data-dependent experiments without the requirement of additional instrument time or sample pre-fractionation. Sampling depth is increased by restricting precursor selection to a fraction of the full MS1 mass range for each replicate; collectively, the m/z segments of all replicates encompass the full MS1 range. Although selection windows are narrowed, full MS1 spectra are obtained throughout the method, enabling the collection of full mass range MS1 chromatograms such that label-free quantitation can be performed for any peptide in any experiment. We term this approach “binning” or “tiling” depending on the type of m/z window utilized. By combining the data obtained from each segment, we find that this approach increases the number of quantifiable yeast peptides and proteins by 31% and 52%, respectively, when compared to normal data-dependent experiments performed in replicate. PMID:23350991

  19. Identification of phenolic compounds in Equisetum giganteum by LC-ESI-MS/MS and a new approach to total flavonoid quantification.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Leandro N; Debenedetti, Silvia L; Schwanz, Thiago G; Bassani, Valquiria L; Henriques, Amélia T

    2013-02-15

    Equisetum giganteum L., commonly called "giant horsetail", is an endemic species of Latin America. Its aerial parts have been widely used in ethnomedicine as a diuretic and in herbal medicine and food supplements as a raw material. The phenolic composition of E. giganteum stems was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD) and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), which identified caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids and styrylpyrones. The most abundant glycosilated flavonoids in this sample were kaempferol derivatives. Other rare phenolic components, namely, quercetin-3-O-(caffeoyl)-glucoside and 3-hydroxyhispidin-3,4'-di-O-glucoside, were reported for first time in the Equisetum genus. An LC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoid aglycones in E. giganteum obtained after hydrolysis was developed and validated. The method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes, with regression coefficients above 0.998, LOD ≥ 0.043μg mL(-1), LOQ ≥ 0.158 μg mL(-1) and recovery rates of 96.89-103.33% and 98.22-102.49% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the intra- and inter-day precision was ≤ 3.75%. The hydrolysis process was optimized by central composite rotational design and response surface analysis. The second-order response models for the aglycones contents were as follows: quercetin (μg g(-1))=24.8102+55.2823 × HCl+0.776997 × Time-7.23852 × HCl(2)-7.46528E-04 × Time(2)-0.229167 × HCl × Time; kaempferol (μg g(-1))=-9.66755+974.822 × HCl+11.8059 × Time-130.612 × HCl(2)-0.0125694×Time(2) -3.22917 × HCl × Time, with estimated optimal conditions of 1.18 M HCl and 205 min of hydrolysis. The results obtained with these new methods were compared to those from a spectrophotometric assay used to determine the total flavonoids in the Equisetum arvense monograph (Horsetail, British Pharmacopoeia 2011

  20. Analysis of 18 urinary mercapturic acids by two high-throughput multiplex-LC-MS/MS methods.

    PubMed

    Pluym, Nikola; Gilch, Gerhard; Scherer, Gerhard; Scherer, Max

    2015-07-01

    Mercapturic acids (MAs) are metabolic end products formed from conjugates between glutathione and electrophilic compounds. MAs are, therefore, suitable biomarkers of exposure to toxicants, which are either electrophiles by themselves or metabolized to electrophilic intermediates. We developed and validated two LC-MS/MS methods which allow the complementary, rapid, and sensitive determination of MAs derived from acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylene, ethylene oxide, vinyl chloride, propylene oxide, styrene, toluene as well as methylating and ethylating agents. Since separate determinations of single or small groups of MAs are time-consuming and expensive, we multiplexed several individual methods into two LC-MS/MS methods covering 18 individual mercapturic acids. Method validation according to FDA guidelines showed excellent results in terms of robustness, accuracy, and sensitivity of the methods. Moreover, the use of a minimal, simple, and straightforward sample cleanup procedure further accelerated the analytical workflow, which allows a time- and cost-efficient analysis of up to 18 MAs derived from various toxicants in environmental levels. The methods were applied to urine samples derived from a strictly diet-controlled clinical study, including 25 smoking and 25 non-smoking subjects. Significant increase in the urine concentrations in smokers as compared to non-smokers (p < 0.01; Student t test) was observed for 13 individual MAs. Moreover, a dose dependence was obtained for the majority of the analytes. In conclusion, the newly developed assays represent a powerful tool for the fast and reliable quantification of 18 MAs in clinical studies. A first method application suggests several suitable biomarkers for nine relevant toxicants in tobacco smoke. PMID:25935678

  1. A quick colorimetric method for total lipid quantification in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-06-01

    Discovering microalgae with high lipid productivity are among the key milestones for achieving sustainable biodiesel production. Current methods of lipid quantification are time intensive and costly. A rapid colorimetric method based on sulfo-phospho-vanillin (SPV) reaction was developed for the quantification of microbial lipids to facilitate screening for lipid producing microalgae. This method was successfully tested on marine thraustochytrid strains and vegetable oils. The colorimetric method results correlated well with gravimetric method estimates. The new method was less time consuming than gravimetric analysis and is quantitative for lipid determination, even in the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and glycerol. PMID:27050419

  2. DeepQuanTR: MALDI-MS-based label-free quantification of proteins in complex biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Tim; Neri, Dario; Roesli, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    The quantification of changes in protein abundance in complex biological specimens is essential for proteomic studies in basic and applied research. Here we report on the development and validation of the DeepQuanTR software for identification and quantification of differentially expressed proteins using LC-MALDI-MS. Following enzymatic digestion, HPLC peptide separation and normalization of MALDI-MS signal intensities to the ones of internal standards, the software extracts peptide features, adjusts differences in HPLC retention times and performs a relative quantification of features. The annotation of multiple peptides to the corresponding parent protein allows the definition of a Protein Quant Value, which is related to protein abundance and which allows inter-sample comparisons. The performance of DeepQuanTR was evaluated by analyzing 24 samples deriving from human serum spiked with different amounts of four proteins and eight complex samples of vascular proteins, derived from surgically resected human kidneys with cancer following ex vivo perfusion with a reactive ester biotin derivative. The identification and experimental validation of proteins, which were differentially regulated in cancerous lesions as compared with normal kidney, was used to demonstrate the power of DeepQuanTR. This software, which can easily be used with established proteomic methodologies, facilitates the relative quantification of proteins derived from a wide variety of different samples. PMID:20455210

  3. Analysis of Thiodiglycol: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS777

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Koester, C

    2008-07-24

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for the analysis of thiodiglycol, the breakdown product of the sulfur mustard HD, in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS777 (hereafter referred to as EPA CRL SOP MS777). This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to verify the analytical procedures described in MS777 for analysis of thiodiglycol in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS777 can be determined.

  4. High-throughput assay for simultaneous quantification of the plasma concentrations of morphine, fentanyl, midazolam and their major metabolites using automated SPE coupled to LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ghassabian, Sussan; Moosavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Valero, Yarmarly Guerra; Shekar, Kiran; Fraser, John F; Smith, Maree T

    2012-08-15

    A rapid LC-MS/MS assay method for simultaneous quantification of morphine, fentanyl, midazolam and their major metabolites: morphine-3-β-D-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-β-D-glucuronide (M6G), norfentanyl, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1-OH-MDZ) and 4-hydroxymidazolam (4-OH-MDZ) in samples of human plasma has been developed and validated. Robotic on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) instrumentation was used to elute the eight analytes of interest from polymeric SPE cartridges to which had been added aliquots (150 μL) of human plasma and aliquots (150 μL) of a mixture of two internal standards, viz. morphine-d3 (200 ng/mL) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam-d5 (50 ng/mL) in 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9.25). Cartridges were washed using 10% methanol in ammonium acetate buffer, pH 9.25 (1 mL, 2 mL/min) before elution with mobile phase comprising 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B) with a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min using an 11.5 min run time. The analytes were separated on a C18 X-Terra® analytical column. The linear concentration ranges were 0.5-100 ng/mL for fentanyl, norfentanyl and midazolam; 1-200 ng/mL for 4-hydroxymidazolam, 2.5-500 ng/mL for 1'-hydroxymidazolam and 3.5-700 ng/mL for morphine, M3G, and M6G. The method showed acceptable within-run and between-run precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) and accuracy <20%) for quality control (QC) samples spiked at concentrations of 80% and 50% of the ULOQ, 3 times higher than the LLOQ, and also at the LLOQ. Furthermore, analytes were stable in samples (after mixing with internal standard) for at least 48 h in the autosampler (except for 4-hydroxymidazolam which decreased by 22% after 24 h), 5 h at room temperature and after three cycles of freeze and thaw. No autosampler carry-over was observed and the absolute recovery (the area ratio of analyte in plasma relative to that in ammonium acetate buffer 50 mM, pH 9.25) was in the range 40% (midazolam) to 110% (morphine). The assay was applied successfully to

  5. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23173950

  6. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg−1 and 0.96 µg L−1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg−1) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L−1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment

  7. Quantification of organic eluates from polymerized resin-based dental restorative materials by use of GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Vibeke Barman; Moe, Grete; Skålevik, Rita; Jensen, Einar; Lygre, Henning

    2007-05-01

    Residual monomers, additives and degradation products from resin-based dental restorative materials eluted into the oral cavity may influence the biocompatibility of these materials. Emphasis has been placed on studies addressing cytotoxic, genotoxic and estrogenic potential of these substances. A prerequisite for analyzing the potential of exposure to eluted compounds from dental materials is reliable quantification methods, both real time and accelerated measurements. The purpose of the present study was to quantify nine eluates; 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ), camphorquinone (CQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (DMABEE), triethylene glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), oxybenzone (HMBP) and drometrizole (TIN P) leaching from specimens of four commonly used resin-based dental materials in ethanol and an aqueous solution. All analyses were performed by use of GC/MS, each component was quantified separately and the results presented in microg mm(-2). This study has shown that elution from various materials differs significantly, not only in the types of eluates, but also regarding amounts of total and of single components. A high amount of HMBP, a UV stabilizer with potential estrogenic activity, was detected from one material in both solutions. PMID:17127109

  8. [Multiresidue method for pesticides and veterinary drugs in bovine milk using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mizue; Kozutsumi, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Michiko; Kanbashi, Miho; Nakamura, Ruka; Sato, Yoshio; Endo, Mitsuharu

    2008-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed to detect 342 pesticides and veterinary drugs contaminating bovine milk at the maximum residue limits (MRLs) defined in the "positive list system". Sample preparation was performed by extracting the analytes with acetonitrile, followed by salting-out with sodium chloride. For some pesticides, the extract was further cleaned up by n-hexane partitioning and PSA cartridge column chromatography. GC/MS-EI or -NCI was used to determine pesticide residues, while LC/MS/MS-ESI was applicable to the determination of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. The variation of the recoveries of these drugs at MRL was relatively wide; however the relative standard deviations of the recovery of each drug were within 28%, suggesting that the present method is good enough for use as a screening test for contaminants at the MRLs. These results show that this method is useful for multiresidue analysis of numerous pesticides and veterinary drugs in bovine milk. PMID:18633208

  9. Quantitative analysis of unconjugated and total bisphenol A in human urine using solid-phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS: method implementation, method qualification and troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Buscher, Brigitte; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Markham, Dan A; Budinsky, Robert A; Dimond, Stephen S; Nath, Rajesh V; Snyder, Stephanie A; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the presented investigation was to document challenges encountered during implementation and qualification of a method for bisphenol A (BPA) analysis and to develop and discuss precautions taken to avoid and to monitor contamination with BPA during sample handling and analysis. Previously developed and published HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of unconjugated BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (2010) 293-303) [17] and total BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (2014) 194-203) [20] in human urine were combined and transferred into another laboratory. The initial method for unconjugated BPA was developed and evaluated in two independent laboratories simultaneously. The second method for total BPA was developed and evaluated in one of these laboratories to conserve resources. Accurate analysis of BPA at sub-ppb levels is a challenging task as BPA is a widely used material and is ubiquitous in the environment at trace concentrations. Propensity for contamination of biological samples with BPA is reported in the literature during sample collection, storage, and/or analysis. Contamination by trace levels of BPA is so pervasive that even with extraordinary care, it is difficult to completely exclude the introduction of BPA into biological samples and, consequently, contamination might have an impact on BPA biomonitoring data. The applied UPLC-MS/MS method was calibrated from 0.05 to 25ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml for unconjugated BPA and 0.2ng/ml for total BPA, respectively, in human urine. Finally, the method was applied to urine samples derived from 20 volunteers. Overall, BPA can be analyzed in human urine with acceptable recovery and repeatability if sufficient measures are taken to avoid contamination throughout the procedure from sample collection until UPLC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26465088

  10. Analysis of Ethanolamines: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS888

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Vu, A; Koester, C

    2008-10-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method titled 'Analysis of Diethanolamine, Triethanolamine, n-Methyldiethanolamine, and n-Ethyldiethanolamine in Water by Single Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): EPA Method MS888'. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in 'EPA Method MS888' for analysis of the listed ethanolamines in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of 'EPA Method MS888' can be determined.

  11. LC-MS-MS Method for Stimulants in Wastewater During Football Games.

    PubMed

    Gul, Waseem; Stamper, Brandon J; Godfrey, Murrell; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2016-03-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of amphetamines and cocaine (Coc) in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Seven stimulant-type drugs and metabolites were analyzed. These drugs included amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (Meth), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), Coc and benzoylecgonine (BE, the major metabolite of Coc). These drugs were chosen because of their widespread use. Wastewater samples were collected at both the Oxford Waste Water Treatment Plant in Oxford, Mississippi (MS) and the University Wastewater Treatment Plant in University, MS. Samples were collected on weekends in which the Ole Miss Rebel football team held home games (Vaught-Hemingway Stadium, University, MS 38677). The collected samples were analyzed using a validated method and found to contain Amp, Meth, MDMA, Coc and BE. The concentrations of Amp and BE significantly rose in the university wastewater during football games. PMID:26538543

  12. LC-MS-MS Method for Analysis of Opiates in Wastewater During Football Games II.

    PubMed

    Gul, Waseem; Stamper, Brandon; Godfrey, Murrell; Gul, Shahbaz W; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2016-06-01

    Continuing our previous studies analyzing drugs of abuse in municipal wastewater, a method was developed for the analysis of opiates in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Eight opiate drugs and metabolites were analyzed including codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM, the primary urinary metabolite of heroin), morphine, norhydrocodone (the primary urinary metabolite of hydrocodone), oxycodone and oxymorphone. These drugs were chosen because of their widespread abuse. Wastewater samples were collected at both the Oxford Waste Water Treatment Plant in Oxford, Mississippi (MS) and the University Wastewater Treatment Plant in University, MS. These wastewater samples were collected on weekends in which the Ole Miss Rebel football team held home games (Vaught-Hemingway Stadium, University, MS 38677). The collected samples were analyzed using a validated method and found to contain codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, norhydrocodone, oxycodone and oxymorphone. None of the samples contained 6-MAM. PMID:27052850

  13. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks☆

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks co-registered to 3DT1 images, yield grey and white matter volumes comparable to precise lesion masks. Methods 2DT2 lesion masks were linearly co-registered to 20 3DT1-images of MS patients, with nearest-neighbor (NNI), and tri-linear interpolation. As gold-standard, lesion masks were manually outlined on 3DT1-images. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling were applied with each lesion mask. Grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were quantified with FSL-FAST, and deep gray matter (DGM) volumes using FSL-FIRST. Volumes were compared between lesion mask types using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results Lesion-filling with gold-standard lesion masks compared to native images reduced GM overestimation by 1.93 mL (p < .001) for LEAP, and 1.21 mL (p = .002) for FSL-lesion_filling. Similar effects were achieved with NNI lesion masks from 2DT2. Global WM underestimation was not significantly influenced. GM and WM volumes from NNI, did not differ significantly from gold-standard. GM segmentation differed between lesion masks in the lesion area, and also elsewhere. Using the gold-standard, FSL-FAST quantified as GM on average 0.4% of the lesion area with LEAP and 24.5% with FSL-lesion_filling. Lesion-filling did not influence DGM volumes from FSL-FIRST. Discussion These results demonstrate that for global GM volumetry, precise lesion masks on 3DT1 images can be replaced by co-registered 2DT2 lesion masks. This makes lesion-filling a feasible method for GM atrophy measurements in MS. PMID:24567908

  14. Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS666

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Koester, C

    2008-05-14

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for analysis of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl, and methomyl in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS666. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in MS666 for analysis of carbamate pesticides in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS666 can be determined.

  15. Rapid and sensitive quantification of levoglucosan in aerosols by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPAEC-positive ESI-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Daichi; Furuichi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Oku, Yuichiro; Funasaka, Kunihiro

    2015-12-01

    A convenient quantification method for underivatized levoglucosan, which is a tracer for biomass burning influenced particulate matter (PM), has been established using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled to positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ((+)ESI-MS). Levoglucosan was chromatographically separated from its isomers (mannosan and galactosan) and detected selectively with positive ESI-MS. Limits of detection and quantification for this method were 0.40 and 1.3 ng mL-1, respectively. A comparison of simultaneous measurements by this method and conventional derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed a good linearity with a slope of 1.008 and a determination coefficient of 0.9932. The developed method was applied to ambient suspended particulate matter hourly collected by continuous particulate monitors at 10 stations. The hourly concentration of levoglucosan during August 9-11, 2011, was 1.7-918 ng m-3 and its distribution indicated the transportation of biomass burning aerosols of a forest fire. This is the first report of horizontal distribution of the hourly levoglucosan concentration in Japan.

  16. A fast and sensitive method for quantifying lumefantrine and desbutyl-lumefantrine using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Silva, A V; Mwebaza, N; Ntale, M; Gustafsson, L L; Pohanka, A

    2015-11-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantification of lumefantrine (LUM) and its metabolite desbutyl-lumefantrine (DBL) in human plasma. Sample preparation was done by protein precipitation using acetonitrile containing deuterated lumefantrine (LUM-d18) and desbutyl-lumefantrine (DBL-d9) as internal standards. Total chromatography time was 2.2min using an Hypersil Gold C18 column (20×2.1mm, 1.9μm), with a gradient using 0.5% formic acid in water (mobile phase A) and 0.5% formic acid in methanol (mobile phase B) at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The mass spectrometric quantification was performed in positive electro spray ionization (ESI+) mode using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Measuring range was 21-529ng/mL for LUM and 1.9-47ng/mL for DBL in plasma. Inter- and intra-assay precision was within 10% coefficient of variation (CV) for all levels of both LUM and DBL. Accuracy was within ±10% for all levels of both LUM and DBL. This method requires 100μL plasma volume and its short retention times allow a high throughput. Samples were stable for a week at +5°C, and up to six months -20°C. The method was successfully applied for plasma LUM and DBL determination in children under 5 years of age with uncomplicated malaria, up to 28 days after a standard 3-day treatment with artemether-lumefantrine. PMID:26447936

  17. Accumulation of three important bioactive compounds in different plant parts of Withania somnifera and its determination by the LC-ESI-MS-MS (MRM) method.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, Narendra A; Makasana, Jayanti; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment was conducted to study the accumulation pattern and determination of three important bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanolide-A (WD) and its determination by the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method in root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of these three important bioactive compounds, having same molecular weight. The multiple reaction monitoring method was established by two transitions for each analyte and intense transition used for quantification. Separation of the three analytes was achieved within a run time of 5 min on an RP-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water in an isocratic condition. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for identification and quantification of WA, WO and WD in different plant parts such as roots, stems, fruits and leaves of W. somnifera. The accumulation of WA was highest in leaves samples (8.84 ± 0.37 mg/g) and it was 2.23, 5.85 and 27.26 times higher than its concentration in fruits, stems and roots, respectively. WO and WD contents were highest (0.44 ± 0.016 and 0.72 ± 0.016 mg/g, respectively) in root. PMID:26153381

  18. Orthogonal analytical methods for botanical standardization: Determination of green tea catechins by qNMR and LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, José G.; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C.; Jaki, Birgit U.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:23870106

  19. An LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of individual sphingolipid species in B cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Si; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Dielschneider, Rebecca F; Gibson, Spencer B; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2016-09-15

    Comprehensive profiling of sphingolipids is of great importance for clinical and pharmaceutical studies. An LC/MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous separation and quantification of individual sphingolipid species including ceramides, dihydroceramides, glucosylceramides, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphinganine and sphinganine-1-phosphate. All target individual sphingolipid species were separated and quantified in a single chromatographic run of <20min. Method validation results indicated that calibration curves were linear in the range of 2.5-10,000nM for ceramides and glucosylceramides, 10-10,000nM for dihydroceramides, 5-10,000nM for sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphinganine and sphinganine-1-phosphate, respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5nM to 5nM. Accuracies of 92.5-113% with precisions of 0.3-8.0% RSD were obtained for all of the standards over a wide range of concentrations. The application of this method was demonstrated using B cells collected from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients (n=5) and healthy donors (n=4). 17 sphingolipid species were successfully characterized and quantified in the lipid extract. This is a rapid method that could be readily adapted to lipidomic investigations of sphingolipids in other bio-fluids and tissues. PMID:27450899

  20. A rapid LC-MS/MS method for quantitative profiling of fatty acids, sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in grapes.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Anna; Chitarrini, Giulia; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Masuero, Domenico; Soini, Evelyn; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of lipids in plants is influenced by genotype and phenotype. Despite being a very important class of plant metabolites, knowledge of grape lipids is still very limited to date, with the exception of those located in seeds. Few investigations of grape lipids have shown that their profile depends on grape maturity, the variety and their location in the berry. Recent advances in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry have paved the way for faster analysis of lipids with minimal sample preparation. Here we describe a validation method for the extraction, identification and quantification of different classes of grape lipids: fatty acids, sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids using liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method was validated for 33 lipids, with linearity range (R(2)=0.95-1.00), LOQ (0.003-14.88 ng mL(-1)) and intraday and interday repeatability being evaluated for each lipid. The lipid profiling method developed was successfully applied to the analysis of 18 grape samples (10 red grape and 8 white grape varieties) from 4 different genetic groups: Vitis vinifera, Vitis non-vinifera, Muscat and hybrid; 33 lipids were identified and quantified. This method, which can be easily expanded to include further compounds and other plant tissues, is the starting point for analysis of the lipid profile in different grape tissues, an essential goal for better understanding the role of lipids in grape physiology. PMID:26048823

  1. Development and UFLC-MS/MS Characterization of a Product-Specific Standard for Phenolic Quantification of Maple-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-01

    The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products. PMID:27101225

  2. Methods and approaches for the comprehensive characterization and quantification of cellular proteomes using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Shama P.; Olivier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics has been proposed as one of the key technologies in the postgenomic era. So far, however, the comprehensive analysis of cellular proteomes has been a challenge because of the dynamic nature and complexity of the multitude of proteins in cells and tissues. Various approaches have been established for the analyses of proteins in a cell at a given state, and mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be an efficient and versatile tool. MS-based proteomics approaches have significantly improved beyond the initial identification of proteins to comprehensive characterization and quantification of proteomes and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Despite these advances, there is still ongoing development of new technologies to profile and analyze cellular proteomes more completely and efficiently. In this review, we focus on MS-based techniques, describe basic approaches for MS-based profiling of cellular proteomes and analysis methods to identify proteins in complex mixtures, and discuss the different approaches for quantitative proteome analysis. Finally, we briefly discuss novel developments for the analysis of PTMs. Altered levels of PTM, sometimes in the absence of protein expression changes, are often linked to cellular responses and disease states, and the comprehensive analysis of cellular proteome would not be complete without the identification and quantification of the extent of PTMs of proteins. PMID:18162499

  3. An Improved LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Eleven Bioactive Constituents for Quality Control of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and Its Related Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; He, Jun; Liu, Er-wei; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2015-01-01

    An improved LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive constituents of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and its related preparations. It was the first report on the quantification of bioactive constituents in different preparations of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis by LC-MS/MS analytical method. These samples were separated with an Agilent Zorbax Extend reversed-phase C18 column (1.8 μm, 4.6 × 100 mm) by linear gradient elution using aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL min−1. The eleven bioactive constituents showed good regression (R > 0.990) within test ranges and the recoveries were in the range of 87.1–110%. The limit of detections and quantifications for most of the major constituents were less than 0.5 and 1.0 ng mL−1, respectively. All results indicated that the developed method could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and related preparations. PMID:26078992

  4. A LC-MS/MS method for the determination of stachyose in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xu, De-Sheng; Liu, Li; Qiu, Fu-Rong; Chen, Jiong-Liang; Xu, Guang-Lin

    2016-05-10

    A sensitive, simple and rapid analytical method based on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spetrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established and validated for the determination of stachyose in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Separation of stachyose and nystose (internal standard, IS) was achieved using acetonitrile-water (55:45, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min for 6min on an Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column with an Asahipak NH2P-50G 4A guard column. Detection and quantification were conducted by LC-MS/MS method in the negative ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions at m/z [M-H](-) 665.4→383.1 for stachyose and 665.5→485.0 for IS, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 100-30000ng/ml with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 100ng/ml. The intra- and inter- day precision were all within 8.7% and the accuracy ranged from 97.2-108.4% and 98.3-102.4%, respectively. Stability studies indicated that stachyose was stable under short-term, long-term and three freeze-thaw storage conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving pulmonary administration of micronized Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharides (RGOS) to rats. PMID:26859612

  5. Validation and Application of an LC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of Ceftizoxime in Human Serum and Urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zheng, Xin; Zhong, Wen; Chen, Jia; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Ceftizoxime sodium is a third-generation cephalosporin available for parenteral administration, which is mainly excreted through urine. A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ceftizoxime in human serum and urine. The samples were purified by protein precipitation and separated on an XTerra Phenyl column (4.6 × 50 mm, 5 µm). Electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used to monitor the ion transitions at m/z 383.9/227.0. The results revealed that the method had excellent selectivity. The linear range covered from 2.50 to 10,000 ng/mL in serum and from 0.500 to 50.0 µg/mL in urine, respectively. Intra-batch and inter-batch precisions (in terms of relative standard deviation) were all <15% and the accuracies (in terms of relative error) were within the range of ± 15%. The lower limit of quantification, stability and extraction recovery were also validated and satisfied the criteria of validation. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Chinese elderly healthy subjects after intravenous administration. The Cmax values in serum were 34,721.3 ± 5,697.3 ng/mL. Serum concentrations declined with t1/2 of 2.57 ± 0.22 h. PMID:26896348

  6. An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of vortioxetine in rat plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Er-min; Huang, Chengke; Liang, Bingqing; Yuan, Lingjing; Lan, Tian; Hu, Guoxin; Zhou, Hongyu

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a simple, sensitive and fast ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of vortioxetine in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed with a protein precipitation. The separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The validated method had an excellent linearity in the range of 0.05-20ng/mL (R(2)>0.997) with a lower limit of quantification (0.05ng/mL). The extraction recovery was in the range of 78.3-88.4% for vortioxetine and 80.3% for carbamazepine (internal standard, IS). The intra- and inter-day precision was below 8.5% and accuracy was from -11.2% to 9.5%. No notable matrix effect and astaticism was observed for vortioxetine. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of vortioxetine in rats for the first time, which provides the basis for the further development and application of vortioxetine. PMID:26094207

  7. Analysis of prasugrel active metabolite R-138727 in human plasma: a sensitive, highly selective and fast LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Sreekanth; Datla, Peda Varma; Kodali, Geetha; Seru, Ganapaty

    2016-05-01

    A cost effective, sensitive, simple, and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of the prasugrel metabolite in human plasma. Following solid phase extraction, the analyte (prasugrel active metabolite; R-138727) and internal standard (emtricitabine) were separated using a mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode on a reverse phase C18 column and were analyzed by an LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M+H](+) ions, m/z 498.3-206.0 for R-138727 and m/z 248.2-130.1 for the internal standard. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.2-120ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of 5.0%. This LC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-batch and inter-batch precision and accuracy. Results for precision and accuracy are in range of 3.9-9.6% and 95.2-102.2% respectively. This validated method is simple and repeatable to use in bioequivalence/pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:27038402

  8. [Rapid determination of illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines with DCBI-MS/MS method].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Liao, Peng; Tian, Qing-Qing; Sun, Wen-Jian; Chen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A novel rapid method for detection of the illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines was developed with the desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry (DCBI-MS) technique. The DCBI conditions including temperature and sample volume were optimized according to the resulting mass spectra intensity. Matrix effect on 9 beta2-agonists additives was not significant in the proposed rapid determination procedure. All of the 9 target molecules were detected within 1 min. Quantification was achieved based on the typical fragment ion in MS2 spectra of each analyte. The method showed good linear coefficients in the range of 1-100 mg x L(-1) for all analytes. The relative deviation values were between 14.29% and 25.13%. Ten claimed antitussive and antiasthmatic health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines from local pharmacies were analyzed. All of them were negative with the proposed DCBI-MS method. Without tedious sample pretreatments, the developed DCBI-MS is simple, rapid and sensitive for rapid qualification and semi-quantification of the illicit beta2-agonist additives in health foods and traditional Chinese patent medicines. PMID:23600151

  9. Rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of tea catechins and folates.

    PubMed

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Gaudreau, Alain; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature. PMID:24734959

  10. Macroscopic inspection of ape feces: what's in a quantification method?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Caroline A; McGrew, William C

    2014-06-01

    Macroscopic inspection of feces has been used to investigate primate diet. The limitations of this method to identify food-items to species level have long been recognized, but ascertaining aspects of diet (e.g., folivory) are achievable by quantifying food-items in feces. Quantification methods applied include rating food-items using a scale of abundance, estimating their percentage volume, and weighing food-items. However, verification as to whether or not composition data differ, depending on which quantification method is used during macroscopic inspection, has not been done. We analyzed feces collected from ten adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We compare dietary composition totals obtained from using different quantification methods and ascertain if sieve mesh size influences totals calculated. Finally, this study validates findings from direct observation of feeding by the same individuals from whom the fecal samples had been collected. Contrasting diet composition totals obtained by using different quantification methods and sieve mesh sizes can influence folivory and frugivory estimates. However, our findings were based on the assumption that fibrous matter contained pith and leaf fragments only, which remains to be verified. We advocate macroscopic inspection of feces can be a valuable tool to provide a generalized overview of dietary composition for primate populations. As most populations remain unhabituated, scrutinizing and validating indirect measures are important if they are to be applied to further understand inter- and intra-species dietary variation. PMID:24482001

  11. Development of LC-MS/MS method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea and coffee samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation “dilute and shoot” approach, and LC-MS/MS triple qu...

  12. Label-free LC-MS method for the identification of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Richard E; Knierman, Michael D; Gelfanova, Valentina; Butler, Jon P; Hale, John E

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies are pursuing biomarkers as a means to increase the productivity of drug development. Quantifying differential levels of proteins from complex biological samples like plasma or cerebrospinal fluid is one specific approach being used to identify markers of drug action, efficacy, toxicity, etc. Academic investigators are also interested in markers that are diagnostic or prognostic of disease states. We report a comprehensive, fully automated, and label-free approach to relative protein quantification including: sample preparation, proteolytic protein digestion, LCMS/MS data acquisition, de-noising, mass and charge state estimation, chromatographic alignment, and peptide quantification via integration of extracted ion chromatograms. Additionally, we describe methods for transformation and normalization of the quantitative peptide levels in multiplexed measurements to improve precision for statistical analysis. Lastly, we outline how the described methods can be used to design and power biomarker discovery studies. PMID:18287776

  13. Silica stationary phase-based on-line sample enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS for the quantification of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Yang, Chae Ha; Lee, Sooyeun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of trace levels of endogenous compounds remains challenging despite advancements in analytical technologies. In particular, monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are polar compounds with low molecular weights, which complicates the optimization of retention and detection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Microdialysis is an important sampling technique to collect extracellular fluid from the brain of living animals. However, the very low basal concentrations of the neurotransmitters, small sample volume (maximum 30 μL) and the absence of matrix-matching calibrators are limitations of a microdialysate as an analytical sample. In the present study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the quantification of DA, 5-HT and their main metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens shell. To improve the method sensitivity and accuracy, on-line sample enrichment using silica stationary phase was employed, before which any other sample pretreatment was not performed. The validation results proved the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. The lower limits of quantification were 0.025, 0.1, 0.5, 25 and 2.5 ng/mL for 5-HT, DA, 5-HIAA, HVA and DOPAC, respectively. This is a powerful analytical method to determine endogenous concentrations of those compounds in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens and will be very useful to further study on the pathophysiological functions of monoamine neurotramsmitters in vivo. PMID:27155302

  14. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality. PMID:25388555

  15. [LC/ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of macrocyclic lactone parasiticides in livestock products and fish].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Yoshimi, Yukiko; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    An LC/ESI (positive-mode)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 8 macrocyclic lactones (abamectin B1a, abamectin 8,9-Z isomer B1a, emamectin benzoate B1a, emamectin benzoate 8,9-Z isomer B1a, ivermectin, eprinomectin B1a, doramectin and moxidectin) in animal tissues, egg, milk and honey. The separation was achieved on a TSK-GEL ODS 100 V column (2.0 x 50 mm, 3 microm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, and 0.1 mM ammonium formate-0.1% formic acid in water, at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min with gradient elution. Linear calibration plots were obtained with high correlation coefficients (r=0.998-0.999). The LOQ and LOD ranged from 0.02-1.5 ng/mL and 0.1-5 ng/mL, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 70.8-117.1% with associated RSD values<15% (n=10) for repeatability and reproducibility. The spiking levels for recoveries and RSDs met the validation criteria for Japanese maximum residue limits (MRLs). Based on these results, the proposed analytical method has been proven to be highly efficient and suitable for routine determinations of macrocyclic lactones in animal food matrices. PMID:20208403

  16. UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of Vilazodone in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia; Hashem, Hanaa; Fouad, Marwa; Tarek, Sally

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of vilazodone in human plasma and for the study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of vilazodone in healthy Egyptian volunteers. With escitalopram as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and preconcentration of analytes from human plasma matrix using diethyl ether. The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 150 mm). Isocratic elution was applied using methanol-0.2% formic acid (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring mode via an electrospray ionization source at m/z 442.21 → 155.23 for vilazodone and m/z 325.14 → 109.2 for escitalopram. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the range of 1-200 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision showed relative standard deviation ≤3.3%. The total run time was 1.5 min. This method was successfully applied for clinical pharmacokinetic investigation, and a preliminary metabolic study was also carried out. PMID:27209054

  17. Comparison of Two Methods for Anthocyanin Quantification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between ...

  18. Comparison of Two Methods for Anthocyanin Quantification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between t...

  19. Comparison of Two Methods for Anthocyanin Quantification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between...

  20. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Lauren E; Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Loscos, Natalia; Feng, Hui; Cleary, Michael T; Sacks, Gavin L

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP)) are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%-109%) and precision (5%-11% RSD) were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines), V. labruscana (Niagara), and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White). Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L) were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines. PMID:26154886

  1. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Ludlow, Andrew T.; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library’s heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality. PMID:27048884

  2. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library's heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality. PMID:27048884

  3. Determination and quantification of 2'-O-fucosyllactose and 3-O-fucosyllactose in human milk by GC-MS as O-trimethylsilyl-oxime derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Réka; Szarka, Szabolcs; Béni, Szabolcs

    2015-11-10

    Human milk oligosaccharides possess various biological functions by protecting the infant from several bacterial and viral infections, modulating the immune system, serving as prebiotics and also contributing to the brain development. Hence, huge effort is underway by manufacturers to produce infant formulas enriched with human milk oligosaccharides which could mimic its diverse biological role the most. For this purpose, quantification of the natural oligosaccharide composition of the human milk is a key task. This study reports a fit for purpose GC-MS method for the quantification of the TMS ether oxime derivatives of 2'-O-fucosyllactose and 3-O-fucosyllactose, the two most abundant trisaccharides in human milk. The EI fragmentation pattern of the linkage isomers is discussed in details, focusing also on specific fragment ions. The GC-MS method with external standard calibration was applied for the monitoring of concentration changes of the trisaccharides throughout the first week of lactation in human milks samples collected from two volunteers. The results showed high concentration of both 2'-FL (4525-6266μg/mL in donor A and 2694-3551μg/mL in donor B) and 3-FL (271-441μg/mL in donor A and 99-208μg/mL in donor B), while no significant change has been observed throughout the one-week lactation period. The presented GC-MS method can serve as a quality control technique for the infant formulas and also offers an alternative to existing chromatographic methods to investigate HMOs in milk samples. PMID:26291789

  4. GC/TOF-MS as a new method for halocarbon observation in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obersteiner, Florian; Boenisch, Harald; Hoker, Jesica; Engel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The need for halocarbon measurements in the atmosphere arose with the anthropogenic emission of CFCs beginning in the 1950s and the discovery of their ozone depleting potential in the 1980s. CFCs were replaced by HCFCs and are nowadays replaced by HFCs, with new compounds continuously being developed and introduced to the atmosphere. While not being harmful to the ozone layer, HFCs are still greenhouse gases and many tend to be hazardous to human health at high concentration. They can also serve as tracers to study atmospheric transport at low concentration, making high precision measurement interesting to atmospheric studies. Gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) is still a new method in the field of atmospheric halocarbon measurement compared to the well-established GC/QP(quadrupole)-MS. The QP-MS is indeed a very stable and easy-to-operate instrument but also limited by mass resolution and either mass range or sensitivity. We will present the general applicability of GC/TOF-MS to regular halocarbon observation by a time series of halocarbon measurements from the Taunus Observatory (Kleiner Feldberg, Germany) and the implementation of a second, high-resolution (max. R=4000) TOF-MS system. Both GC/TOF-MS systems are characterized with respect to reproducibility, non-linearity and limits of detection (LOD). Furthermore, the advantages of a higher mass resolution are demonstrated with respect to LOD, substance identification and substance quantification.

  5. Development and validation of an LC-ESI/MS/MS method with precolumn derivatization for the determination of betulin in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiwei; Guo, Na; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yu; Ding, Weimin; Zhang, Dehui; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2013-11-15

    Neutral pentacyclic triterpenes with only one or two hydroxyl groups, such as betulin, are not easily ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI). However, because betulin is reactive and neutral, derivatization may improve ionization efficiency. In the present study, the potency of different derivatization reagents was evaluated and p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI) was proven to be the optimal. The derivative generated by the reaction of betulin with PTSI was ionizable and fragmentable in the negative mode by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Based on this chemical derivatization, an LC-ESI/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of betulin in rat plasma. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, derivatized with PTSI, separated on an ACQ UPLC BEH phenyl column, and analyzed in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve was linear over the betulin concentration range 2.5-200ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5ng/mL. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within ±15%. Betulin recoveries were 86.7% or higher at three quality control levels (5, 50, and 160ng/mL). This validated method was subsequently applied to a pharmacokinetic study of betulin in rat plasma after oral administration. PMID:24095874

  6. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of SB-505124 in rat plasma: Application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Yuandong; Zhang, Quan; Li, Yanping; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Ding, Rui; Sun, Xun

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the quantification of the novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitor SB-505124 in rat plasma and then validated. Plasma samples were prepared by simple protein precipitation. Separation was performed on a Diamonsil ODS chromatography column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid. SB-505124 and the internal standard doxorubicin were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 336.2→320.1 and 544.2→397.2, respectively. Calibration curve was linear (r>0.9996) over a concentration range of 10-5000 ng/mL with the lower quantification limit of 10 ng/mL. Both intra- and inter-day precision were within 6.5% and trueness were not more than 3.1%. Extraction recovery and matrix effect were within acceptable limits. Stability tests showed that SB-505124 and the IS remained stable throughout the analytical procedure. The validated LC-MS/MS method was then used to analyze the pharmacokinetics of SB-505124 administered to rats intravenously (8 mg/kg) or orally (10 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability of SB-505124 was calculated as 76.4%, indicating the potential of SB-505124 as an orally administered drug. PMID:26363490

  7. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  8. Quantification of Bufadienolides in Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaves and Manufactured Products by UHPLC-ESIMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Oufir, Mouhssin; Seiler, Christina; Gerodetti, Manon; Gerber, Julia; Fürer, Karin; Mennet-von Eiff, Monica; Elsas, Siegward-M; Brenneisen, Rudolf; von Mandach, Ursula; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative assay for determination of the main bufadienolides bersaldegenin-1-acetate (1), bersaldegenin-3-acetate (2), bryophyllin A (3), and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (4) in Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves and manufactured products was developed and validated. The assay involved extraction by pressurised liquid extraction, followed by quantification by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. The ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method was applied to various batches of leaves harvested on several dates from plants grown at two locations (Brazil and Germany). In addition, press juices prepared from plants cultivated in Germany and Brazil were analysed. The total bufadienolide content ranged from 16.28 to 40.50 mg/100 g dry weight in leaves from plants grown in Brazil. The total content of these four bufadienolides was significantly lower in plants cultivated in Germany (3.78-12.49 mg/100 g dry weight, resp.). The total amounts of bufadienolides were 0.091-0.163 mg/100 mL and 0.89-1.16 mg/100 mL in press juices obtained from plants cultivated in Germany and Brazil, respectively. When analysing single leaves from individual plants, the content of bufadienolides was markedly higher in young leaves. For comparative purposes, the content of these bufadienolides was also determined in Bryophyllum daigremontianum and Bryophyllum tubiflorum. Bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (4) was predominant in the leaves of B. daigremontianum and in the stems of B. tubiflorum, while the leaves of B. tubiflorum contained very low amounts of 1-4. PMID:26132852

  9. Tandem DART™ MS Methods for Methadone Analysis in Unprocessed Urine.

    PubMed

    Beck, Rachel; Carter, Patrick; Shonsey, Erin; Graves, David

    2016-03-01

    Current methods of methadone analysis in untreated urine are traditionally limited to enzyme immunoassays (EIA) while confirmation techniques require specimen processing (i.e., sample clean-up) before analyzing by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS or LC-MS-MS). EIA and traditional confirmation techniques can be costly and, at times inefficient. As an alternative approach, we present Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) coupled with both time-of-flight and triple quadrupole linear ion trap (Q-TRAP™) mass spectrometers for screening and confirming methadone in untreated urine specimens. These approaches require neither expensive kits nor sample clean-up for analysis. More importantly, the total combined analysis time for both screening and confirmation methods was <5 min per sample; in contrast to the 3-5 day process required by traditional EIA, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS techniques. To examine the fundamental protocol and its applicability for routine drug screening, studies were performed that included limits of detection, precision, selectivity and specificity, sample recovery and stability and method robustness. The methods described in this report were determined to be highly specific and selective; allowing for detection of methadone at 250 ng/mL, consistent with cutoffs for current EIA techniques (300 ng/mL). The results reported here demonstrate the DART™ MS platform provides rapid and selective methadone analysis and the potential for providing savings of both time and resources compared with current analysis procedures. PMID:26590378

  10. Analysis of Phosphonic Acids: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS999

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Vu, A; Koester, C

    2008-10-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method titled Analysis of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate, Ethyl Hydrogen Dimethylamidophosphate, Isopropyl Methylphosphonic Acid, Methylphosphonic Acid, and Pinacolyl Methylphosphonic Acid in Water by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry: EPA Version MS999. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in EPA Method MS999 for analysis of the listed phosphonic acids and surrogates in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of EPA Method MS999 can be determined.

  11. Quantification of Raspberry Aroma by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry (SBSE GC-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry aroma has been studied, but reliable quantification is challenging by traditional methods. The Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) technology allows for simple sample preparation paired with minimal extraction time to establish a volatile spectrum. The objective of this study is to develo...

  12. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  13. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of the extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and quantification of bioactive components by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Önder, Ferah Cömert; Ay, Mehmet; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-11-01

    In this research, antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from Humulus lupulus L. were compared by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays. The amount of total phenolic components determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be highest for 25% aqueous ethanol (9079 ± 187.83 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and methanol-1 (directly) (8343 ± 158.39 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) extracts. The n-hexane extract of H. lupulus exhibited the greatest with DPPH (14.95 ± 0.03 μg Trolox equivalent/g sample). The highest phenolic content in the ethanolic extract could be the major contributor to its highest CUPRAC activity (3.15 ± 0.44 mmol Trolox equivalent/g sample). Methanol-2 (n-hexane, acetone, and methanol) and methanol-3 (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts, respectively, exhibited the most potent ABTS (7.35 ± 0.03 mM Trolox equivalent) and FRAP (1.56 ± 0.35 mmol Fe(2+)/g sample) activities. Some of the components from the crude extracts were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. Comparative screening of antioxidant activities of H. lupulus extracts and quantification of some major components by LC-MS/MS, qualitatively analysis of the reported ones which were optimal under negative ion SIM mode and coinjection, are going to be valuable for food and health applications. PMID:24079371

  14. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of (-)-securinine in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Wabuyele, Simuli L; Wald, David; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    (-)-Securinine (SE) is a major alkaloid found in plant Securinega suffruticosa, which has a wide range of pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-parasitic and central nervous system stimulating effects, etc. To aid the pharmacological study of SE, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of SE in mouse plasma. In this method, plasma samples were first prepared with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction using cold acetonitrile (-20°C) and 2.00 M ammonium acetate. Separation of SE and the internal standard (IS) from sample matrix was achieved on a Gemini Nx C18 column using 40% acetonitrile and 60% 10.0mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.200 mL min(-1). Quantification of SE was accomplished with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using mass transitions m/z 218.1→84.1 for SE, and m/z 204.1→70.2 for the IS. This method has a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.600 ng mL(-1) and a linear calibration range up to 600 ng mL(-1) in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-run accuracy (%RE) and precision (%CV) were ≤ ± 6% and 6%, respectively. The IS normalized matrix factors from six lots of plasma matrices ranged 0.92-1.07, and the recoveries of plasma SE were 99-109%. The validated method has been applied to the measurement of SE in plasma samples of a mouse study. PMID:24786218

  15. A LC-MS-MS method to detect recombinant bovine somatotropin misuse in buffalos.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Mazzi, Marco; Boselli, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandra; Donzelli, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a peptide hormone used to increase milk yield in cows and buffalos. In Europe, its use has been banned. However, rbST is sometimes illegally included in zootechnical practices for profit purposes, undermining the fair trade and the law prescriptions. For this reason, efficient and reliable analytical techniques are required to contrast rbST misuse. A few LC-MS-MS methods have been developed to detect, in cow serum, methyonil-rbST, one of the two main rbST forms available on the market. The other form, which is widespread, is identical to the most abundant variant of bovine somatotropin (bST) and differs from the buffalo somatotropin for one amino acid in the N-terminus. For this reason, it is technically possible to distinguish both rbST forms in serum of buffalos. In this work, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS-based method, capable to quantify, with a high sensitivity and selectivity, the methyonil-rbST and the other bST-identical recombinant form in buffalo serum, previously purified using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The method was internally validated and used to analyse 152 serum samples, collected from eight buffalos administered with rbST for a period of 3 months, according to conventional protocols. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of the method in the detection of illegal hormonal treatments. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27146507

  16. A novel method for the quantification of quinic acid in food using stable isotope dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Erk, Thomas; Bergmann, Hannah; Richling, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Organic acids play an important role in the flavor and taste of plant-derived foods. Quinic acid (QA) is one of the major acids. In the past, several methods like HPLC/UV, GC, and capillary electrophoresis were used for identification and quantification of QA. For the first time, a novel, sensitive, and selective method for the quantification of QA in food using stable isotope dilution analysis with HPLC/MS/MS has been established. Uniformly labeled 13C-QA was used as a standard to reduce sample preparations and to overcome matrix and ionization effects. The method was used to determine the QA content of red wines, instant coffees, and cloudy apple juices. QA contents of instant coffees were 64.4 and 63.6 g/kg powder. The concentrations in red wines were 24.0 and 25.1 mg/L, and 1493.3 and 1705.2 mg/L in cloudy apple juices. PMID:19610361

  17. A column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method for mucopolysaccharidosis type I analysis in a multiplex assay for the simultaneous newborn screening of six lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Antonina; Legnini, Elisa; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Corbetta, Carlo; Tomanin, Rosella; Scarpa, Maurizio; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders comprise a group of rare genetic diseases in which a deficit of specific hydrolases leads to the storage of undegraded substrates in lysosomes. Impaired enzyme activities can be assessed by MS/MS quantification of the reaction products obtained after incubation with specific substrates. In this study, a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method for multiplex screening in dried blood spot of the lysosomal enzymes activities was developed. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B and Pompe diseases were simultaneously assayed. Dried blood spots were incubated with substrates and internal standards; thereafter, supernatants were collected with minor manipulations. Samples were injected, trapped into an online perfusion column and, by a six-port valve, switched online through the C18 analytical column to perform separation of metabolites followed by MS/MS analysis. A total of 1136 de-identified newborn screening samples were analyzed to determine references for enzymes activity values. As positive controls, we analyzed dried blood spots from three patients with Pompe, one with Fabry, one with Krabbe disease and two with MPS I, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the cutoff values measured for newborns, except for an MPS I patient after successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24449175

  18. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2011-06-01

    Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2″-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug. PMID:21298259

  19. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. CITP/CZE-nanoESI-SRM MS via a novel sheathless interface for high sensitivity sample quantification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Lee, Cheng S.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

    2013-01-01

    A novel sheathless CITP/CZE-MS interface featuring a large i.d. separation capillary and a detachable small i.d. porous ESI emitter was developed in this study to simultaneously achieve large sample loading capacity and stable nanoESI operation. Crucial operating parameters, including sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation window, were systematically investigated to attain optimum CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. The performance of CITP/CZE-nanoESI-MS using the new sheathless interface was evaluated for its achievable low limit of quantification (LOQ) by analyzing targeted peptides, leu-enkephalin and angiotensin II, spiked in a BSA tryptic digest matrix at different concentrations. A linear dynamic range spanning 4.5 orders of magnitude and a 10 pM LOQ with measurement reproducibility at CV < 22% were obtained experimentally for both targeted peptides, representing a 5-fold sensitivity improvement as compared to using the sheath liquid interface developed previously.1 PMID:23789856

  1. Accurate Quantification of Selenoprotein P (SEPP1) in Plasma Using Isotopically Enriched Seleno-peptides and Species-Specific Isotope Dilution with HPLC Coupled to ICP-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Deitrich, Christian L; Cuello-Nuñez, Susana; Kmiotek, Diana; Torma, Frank Attila; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Fisicaro, Paola; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2016-06-21

    A novel strategy for the absolute quantification of selenium (Se) included in selenoprotein P (SEPP1), an important biomarker for human nutrition and disease, including diabetes and cancer, is presented here for the first time. It is based on the use of species-specific double isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDA) in combination with HPLC-ICP-MS/MS for the determination of protein bound Se down to the peptide level in a complex plasma matrix with a total content of Se of 105.5 μg kg(-1). The method enabled the selective Se speciation analysis of human plasma samples without the need of extensive cleanup or preconcentration steps as required for traditional protein mass spectrometric approaches. To assess the method accuracy, two plasma reference materials, namely, BCR-637 and SRM1950, for which literature data and a reference value for SEPP1 have been reported, were analyzed using complementary hyphenated methods and the species-specific approach developed in this work. The Se mass fractions obtained via the isotopic ratios (78)Se/(76)Se and (82)Se/(76)Se for each of the Se-peptides, namely, ENLPSLCSUQGLR (ENL) and AEENITESCQUR (AEE) (where U is SeCys), were found to agree within 2.4%. A relative expanded combined uncertainty (k = 2) of 5.4% was achieved for a Se (as SEPP1) mass fraction of approximately 60 μg kg(-1). This work represents a systematic approach to the accurate quantitation of plasma SEPP1 at clinical levels using SSIDA quantification. Such methodology will be invaluable for the certification of reference materials and the provision of reference values to clinical measurements and clinical trials. PMID:27108743

  2. A novel HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of astemizole and its major metabolite in dog or monkey plasma and application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Back, Hyun-moon; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byungjeong; Seo, Joung-Wook; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2015-10-10

    Astemizole (AST), a second-generation antihistamine, is metabolized to desmethyl astemizole (DEA), and although it has been removed from the market for inducing QT interval prolongation, it has reemerged as a potential anticancer and antimalarial agent. This report describes a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of AST and DEA in beagle dog and cynomolgus monkey plasma with simple preparation method and short retention time. Prior to HPLC analyses, the plasma samples were extracted with simple liquid-liquid extraction method. The isocratic mobile phase was 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA dissolved in acetonitrile) and 20 mM ammonium acetate (94:6) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and diphenhydramine used as internal standard. In MS/MS analyses, precursor ions of the analytes were optimized as protonated molecular ions: [M+H](+). The lower limit of quantification of astemizole was 2.5 ng/mL in both species and desmethyl astemizole were 7.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL in dog and monkey plasma, respectively. The accuracy, precision, and stability of the method were in accordance with FDA guidelines for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Finally this validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in dogs and monkeys after oral administration of 10 mg/kg AST. PMID:26037160

  3. Rapid LC-MS/MS method for determination of drotaverine in a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Szende; Gáll, Zsolt; Donáth-Nagy, Gabriella; Borka-Balás, Réka

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of the antispasmodic drug drotaverine in human plasma was developed and validated according to the current bioanalytical guidelines. The internal standard used was imipramine. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 50×3mm, 2.6μm column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase of 65:35 (v/v) formic acid 0.2% (v/v) in water and acetonitrile at 40°C with a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The detection of drotaverine and the internal standard was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using an ion trap mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization, operating in positive mode. The human plasma samples (0.24ml) were deproteinized with methanol and aliquots of 4μl from supernatants obtained after centrifugation were directly injected into the chromatographic system. The method shows a good linearity (r(2)>0.997), precision (CV<6.3%) and accuracy (bias<5.4%) over the range of 2.24-448ng/ml drotaverine in plasma. The recovery was between 91 and 98%. The limit of quantification was 2.24ng/ml. The analysis required only a 3.0min run. The developed and validated method for the determination of drotaverine in human plasma was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study, for analyzing approximately 1000 subject's samples. PMID:25005892

  4. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for analysis of interconvertible Z/E isomers of the novel anticancer agent, Bp4eT.

    PubMed

    Stariat, Ján; Kovaríková, Petra; Klimes, Jirí; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2010-05-01

    This study was focused on a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method development for quantification of a novel potential anticancer agent, 2-benzoylpyridine 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4eT), in aqueous media. Solid Bp4eT was found to consist predominantly of the Z isomer, while in aqueous media, both isomers coexist. Sufficient separation of both isomers was achieved on a Synergi 4u Polar RP column with a mobile phase composed of 2 mM ammonium formate, acetonitrile, and methanol (30:63:7; v/v/v). The photo diode array analysis of both isomers demonstrated different absorption spectra which hindered UV-based quantification. However, an equal and reproducible response was found for both isomers using an MS detector, which enables the determination of the total content of Bp4eT (i.e., both E- and Z- isomeric forms) by summation of the peak areas of both isomers. 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT) was selected as the internal standard. Quantification was performed in selective reaction monitoring using the main fragments of [M+H](+) (240 m/z for Bp4eT and 229 m/z for N4mT). The method was validated over 20-600 ng/ml. This procedure was applied to a preformulation study to determine the proper vehicle for parenteral administration. It was found that Bp4eT was poorly soluble in aqueous media. However, the solubility can be effectively improved using pharmaceutical cosolvents. In fact, a 1:1 mixture of PEG 300/0.14 M saline markedly increased solubility and may be a useful drug formulation for intravenous administration. This investigation further accelerates development of novel anticancer thiosemicarbazones. The described methods will be useful for analogs currently under development and suffering the same analytical issue. PMID:20127082

  5. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification.

    PubMed

    AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Mehdi, Abeer Yousaf; Hafeez, Muhammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future. PMID:24987169

  6. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification

    PubMed Central

    AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Mehdi, Abeer Yousaf; Hafeez, Muhammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future. PMID:24987169

  7. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous screening of seven water-soluble vitamins in processing semi-coarse wheat flour products.

    PubMed

    Nurit, Eric; Lyan, Bernard; Piquet, Agnès; Branlard, Gérard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Wheat is the second largest crop cultivated around the world and constitutes a major part of the daily diet in Europe. It is therefore important to determine the content of micronutrient in wheat and wheat-based food products to define the contribution of wheat-based foods to the nutrition of the consumers. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and rapid method based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins in various wheat-based food materials. The vitamins present in the test material were separated in less than 15 min by using a reverse-phase C18 column, and analyzed by positive ion electrospray selected reaction monitoring MS/MS. The MS response for all the vitamins was linear over the working range (0.05 to 9 μg/mL) with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.991 and 1. Limits of quantification in the different food materials ranged from 0.09 to 3.5 μg/g. Intra-day and inter-day precision were found satisfactory. The developed method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the water-soluble vitamin natural content of different semi-coarse wheat flours and in their corresponding baking products. PMID:25701425

  8. A novel method for quantification of human hemoglobin from dried blood spots by use of tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaowen; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Zhaojian; Liu, Hao; Wang, Xingbin; Wang, Ming; Zou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of human hemoglobin (Hb) is essential for diagnosis of anemia, especially for screening for thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The main methods currently used for quantification of Hb, including spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and electrochemical assays, are all based on the structural integrity of Hb, which could be affected by hemolysis and degradation. When used for disease screening, whole blood specimens cannot meet requirements for sample collecting, transport, and storage. Here, we report a novel MS-MS method for quantification of Hb from dried blood spots (DBS) by use of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Proteospecific peptides from α-globin chains were selected after tryptic digestion. The precursor → product ion transitions of representative peptides were studied to identify the best choice with regard to sensitivity and chromatographic properties. For quantification, stable isotope-labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The concentration of Hb in each sample was obtained by calculation on the basis of established equations. The precision of the method was within 15 % and accuracy was in the range -7 to 13.0 %. Compared with routine clinical results obtained by use of the automated hematology analyzer (AHA) assay, the correlation, r (2), was >0.993. When used for determination of anemia levels the sensitivity of the assay was 95.7 % and specificity 96.5 %. Our new approach for quantification of the concentration of Hb from DBS is feasible, and precision is acceptable. The method could be used for determination of anemia levels when screening for hemoglobin disorders. Graphical Abstract Quantification of human hemoglobin from digested dried blood spot samples using tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26345440

  9. Identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids in the genus Sarcocapnos by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Suau, R; Cabezudo, B; Valpuesta, M; Posadas, N; Diaz, A; Torres, G

    2005-01-01

    Six cularine alkaloids, cularicine, O-methylcularicine, celtisine, cularidine, cularine and celtine, three isocularine alkaloids, sarcophylline, sarcocapnine and sarcocapnidine, and five non-cularine alkaloids, glaucine, protopine, ribasine, dihydrosanguinarine and chelidonine, were identified and quantified by GC-MS in nine taxa of the genus Sarcocapnos (Fumariaceae). The chemotaxonomic significance of the results is discussed. PMID:16223088

  10. HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods for metabolite profiling of propolis extracts.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Pinetti, Diego; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2011-07-15

    In this study, the composition of polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) in propolis extracts was investigated by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS by comparing the performance of ion trap and triple quadrupole mass analyzers. The analyses were carried out on an Ascentis C(18) column (250mm×4.6mm I.D., 5μm), with a mobile phase composed by 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Overall, the UV spectra, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 40 compounds. In the case of flavonoids, the triple quadrupole mass analyzer provided more collision energy if compared with the ion trap, originating product ions at best sensitivity. The HPLC method was validated in agreement with ICH guidelines: the correlation coefficients were >0.998; the limit of detection was in the range 1.6-4.6μg/ml; the recovery range was 96-105%; the intra- and inter-day %RSD values for retention times and peak areas were found to be <0.3 and 1.9%, respectively. The developed technique was applied to the analysis of hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis available on the Italian market. Although the chromatographic profile of the analyzed samples was similar, the quantitative analysis indicated that there is a great variability in the amount of the active compounds: the content of total phenolic acids ranged from 0.17 to 16.67mg/ml and the level of total flavonoids from 2.48 to 41.10mg/ml. The proposed method can be considered suitable for the phytochemical analysis of propolis extracts used in phytotherapy. PMID:21497475

  11. Why do Ladybugs Smell Bad? In-vivo Quantification of Odorous Insect Kairomones with SPME and Multidimensional GC-MS-Olfactometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; O'Neal, Matthew E.

    2009-05-01

    Winemakers, small fruit growers, and homeowners are concerned with noxious compounds released by multicolored Asian ladybird beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). New method based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry—olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O) system was developed for extraction, isolation and simultaneous identification of compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of live H. axyridis. Four methoxypyrazines (MPs) were identified in headspace volatiles of live H. axyridis as those responsible for the characteristic odor: 2, 5-dimethy1-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP), 2-isopropy1-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-sec-buty1-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP), and 2-isobuty1-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of H. axyridis releasing DMMP and the first report of this compound being a component of the H. axyridis characteristic odor. Quantification of three MPs (IPMP, SBMP and IBMP) emitted from live H. axyridis were performed using external calibration with HS-SPME and direct injections. A linear relationship (R2>0.9958 for all 3 MPs) between MS response and concentration of standard was observed over a concentration range from 0.1 ng L-1 to 0.05 μg L-1 for HS-SPME-GC-MS. The method detection limits (MDL) based on multidimensional GC-MS approach for three MPs were estimated to be between 0.020 ng L-1. to 0.022 ng L-1. This methodology is applicable for in vivo determination of odor-causing chemicals associated with emissions of volatiles from insects.

  12. Why do Ladybugs Smell Bad? In-vivo Quantification of Odorous Insect Kairomones with SPME and Multidimensional GC-MS-Olfactometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; O'Neal, Matthew E.

    2009-05-23

    Winemakers, small fruit growers, and homeowners are concerned with noxious compounds released by multicolored Asian ladybird beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). New method based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry--olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O) system was developed for extraction, isolation and simultaneous identification of compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of live H. axyridis. Four methoxypyrazines (MPs) were identified in headspace volatiles of live H. axyridis as those responsible for the characteristic odor: 2, 5-dimethy1-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP), 2-isopropy1-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-sec-buty1-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP), and 2-isobuty1-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of H. axyridis releasing DMMP and the first report of this compound being a component of the H. axyridis characteristic odor. Quantification of three MPs (IPMP, SBMP and IBMP) emitted from live H. axyridis were performed using external calibration with HS-SPME and direct injections. A linear relationship (R{sup 2}>0.9958 for all 3 MPs) between MS response and concentration of standard was observed over a concentration range from 0.1 ng L{sup -1} to 0.05 {mu}g L{sup -1} for HS-SPME-GC-MS. The method detection limits (MDL) based on multidimensional GC-MS approach for three MPs were estimated to be between 0.020 ng L{sup -1}. to 0.022 ng L{sup -1}. This methodology is applicable for in vivo determination of odor-causing chemicals associated with emissions of volatiles from insects.

  13. Method validation and analysis of nine dithiocarbamates in fruits and vegetables by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Christensen, H B; Petersen, A; Sloth, J J; Poulsen, M E

    2013-01-01

    An analytical method for separation and quantitative determination of nine dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in fruits and vegetables by using LC-MS/MS was developed, validated and applied to samples purchased in local supermarkets. The nine DTCs were ziram, ferbam, thiram, maneb, zineb, nabam, metiram, mancozeb and propineb. Validation parameters of mean recovery for two matrices at two concentration levels, relative repeatability (RSDr), relative within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) and LOD were obtained for the nine DTCs. The results from the analysis of fruits and vegetables served as the basis for an exposure assessment within the given commodities and a risk assessment by comparing the calculated exposure to the acceptable daily intake and acute reference dose for various exposure groups. The analysis indicated positive findings of DTCs in apples, pears, plums, table grapes, papaya and broccoli at concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/kg to 2.69 mg/kg expressed as the equivalent amount of CS2. None of the values exceeded the Maximum residue level (MRL) set by the European Union, and furthermore, it was not possible to state whether illegal use had taken place or not, because a clear differentiation between the various DTCs in the LC-MS/MS analysis was lacking. The exposure and risk assessment showed that only for maneb in the case of apples and apple juice, the acute reference dose was exceeded for infants in the United Kingdom and for children in Germany, respectively. PMID:23799268

  14. Development of high-throughput multi-residue method for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs monitoring in swine muscle by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Tamara S; Barreto, Fabiano; Meneghini, Leonardo; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    A reliable and simple method for the detection and quantification of residues of 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a metamizole metabolite in swine muscle was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (ACN) in solid-liquid extraction followed by a low-temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) process at -20 ± 2°C. After evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted with hexane and a mixture of water:acetonitrile (1:1). LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase (RP18) column with gradient elution using water (phase A) and ACN (phase B) both containing 1 mmol l(-)(1) ammonium acetate (NH4COO) with 0.025% acetic acid. Analysis was carried out on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray interface in negative and positive mode in a single run. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The matrix effect and linearity were evaluated. Decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy and repeatability of the method are also reported. The proposed method proved to be simple, easy and adequate for high-throughput analysis and was applied to routine analysis by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. PMID:27268755

  15. Development and validation of a selective, sensitive and stability indicating UPLC-MS/MS method for rapid, simultaneous determination of six process related impurities in darunavir drug substance.

    PubMed

    A, Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy; Yusop, Zulkifli; Jaafar, Jafariah; Aris, Azmi B; Majid, Zaiton A; Umar, Khalid; Talib, Juhaizah

    2016-09-01

    In this study a sensitive and selective gradient reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six process related impurities viz., Imp-I, Imp-II, Imp-III, Imp-IV, Imp-V and Imp-VI in darunavir. The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column using gradient elution of acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and 5.0mM ammonium acetate containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were operated simultaneously using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the quantification of all six impurities in darunavir. The developed method was fully validated following ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, robustness and sample solution stability. The method was able to quantitate Imp-I, Imp-IV, Imp-V at 0.3ppm and Imp-II, Imp-III, and Imp-VI at 0.2ppm with respect to 5.0mg/mL of darunavir. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of LOQ to 250% for all six impurities. The correlation coefficient obtained was >0.9989 in all the cases. The accuracy of the method lies between 89.90% and 104.60% for all six impurities. Finally, the method has been successfully applied for three formulation batches of darunavir to determine the above mentioned impurities, however no impurity was found beyond the LOQ. This method is a good quality control tool for the trace level quantification of six process related impurities in darunavir during its synthesis. PMID:27262107

  16. An HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of the active metabolites of febuxostat (67M-1, 67M-2 and 67M-4) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiru; Wang, Zhijun; Deng, Ke; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling; Lv, Guoyu

    2014-11-01

    An HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determination of the active metabolites (67M-1, 67M-2 and 67M-4) in human plasma using clopidogrel as the internal standard was developed and validated. The compounds were extracted by protein precipitation using acetonitrile and separated using a C8 column by a gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode with m/z transitions of 333.1-261.0, 333.1-261.0, 347.0-261.0 and 322.2-184.1 for 67M-1, 67M-2, 67M-4 and clopidogrel (Internal Standard), respectively. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification of this method was 0.5 ng/mL and the calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.5-150 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-run precision was less than 11.67% and 8.64%, respectively, with the accuracy between 98.33% and 108.38%. The samples were stable under all the tested conditions. This method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of febuxostat in healthy Chinese volunteers following oral administration of 40 mg and 80 mg febuxostat. PMID:25222745

  17. Volatile organic silicon compounds in biogases: development of sampling and analytical methods for total silicon quantification by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Chottier, Claire; Chatain, Vincent; Julien, Jennifer; Dumont, Nathalie; Lebouil, David; Germain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Current waste management policies favor biogases (digester gases (DGs) and landfill gases (LFGs)) valorization as it becomes a way for energy politics. However, volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiCs) contained into DGs/LFGs severely damage combustion engines and endanger the conversion into electricity by power plants, resulting in a high purification level requirement. Assessing treatment efficiency is still difficult. No consensus has been reached to provide a standardized sampling and quantification of VOSiCs into gases because of their diversity, their physicochemical properties, and the omnipresence of silicon in analytical chains. Usually, samplings are done by adsorption or absorption and quantification made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this objective, this paper presents and discusses the optimization of a patented method consisting in VOSiCs sampling by absorption of 100% ethanol and quantification of total Si by ICP-OES. PMID:25379538

  18. Volatile Organic Silicon Compounds in Biogases: Development of Sampling and Analytical Methods for Total Silicon Quantification by ICP-OES

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Jennifer; Dumont, Nathalie; Lebouil, David; Germain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Current waste management policies favor biogases (digester gases (DGs) and landfill gases (LFGs)) valorization as it becomes a way for energy politics. However, volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiCs) contained into DGs/LFGs severely damage combustion engines and endanger the conversion into electricity by power plants, resulting in a high purification level requirement. Assessing treatment efficiency is still difficult. No consensus has been reached to provide a standardized sampling and quantification of VOSiCs into gases because of their diversity, their physicochemical properties, and the omnipresence of silicon in analytical chains. Usually, samplings are done by adsorption or absorption and quantification made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this objective, this paper presents and discusses the optimization of a patented method consisting in VOSiCs sampling by absorption of 100% ethanol and quantification of total Si by ICP-OES. PMID:25379538

  19. Dissipation kinetics and degradation mechanism of amicarbazone in soil revealed by a reliable LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maofeng; Han, Wei; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Fan, Liangxiu; Tang, Hongxia; Wang, Weimin; Han, Lijun; Zhao, Zhihui; Song, Weiguo; Han, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of amicarbazone (AMZ) and its two major metabolites including desamino amicarbazone (DA) and isopropyl-2-hydroxy-DA-amicarbazone (Ipr-2-OH-DA-AMZ) in soil for the first time. Targeted analytes were extracted and purified using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure, and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with a total run time of 9 min. The established approach was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.99), recovery (84-96 ), sensitivity (limits of quantification at 5-10 μg kg(-1)), and precision (RSDs ≤12 %). Based on the methodological advances, the subsequent dissipation kinetics and degradation mechanism of amicarbazone in soil were thoroughly investigated in an illumination incubator. As revealed, AMZ was easily degraded with the half-lives of 13.9-19.7 days in soil. Field trial results of AMZ (40 g a.i. ha(-1)) in Shanghai showed that the residues of AMZ and its metabolite Ipr-2-OH-DA-AMZ decreased from 0.505 mg kg(-1) (day 50) to 0.038 mg kg(-1) (day 365) and from 0.099 mg kg(-1) (day 50) to 0.028 mg kg(-1) (day 365), respectively, while the content of DA increased from 0.097 mg kg(-1) (day 50) to 0.245 mg kg(-1) (day 365). This study provided valuable data to understand the toxicity of AMZ and substantially promote its safe application to protect environment and human health. PMID:26139399

  20. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of sotalol in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiping; Yu, Siyuan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Liu, Yang; Zhai, Suodi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xianhua

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive, rapid and robust HPLC method with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) detection has been developed and validated for the quantification of sotalol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were precipitated with acetonitrile before analysis. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Atlantis hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography Silica column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) with a gradient mobile phase of 10 mm NH4 COOH (containing 0.2% of formic acid) as buffer A and acetonitrile as mobile phase B. Sotalol (m/z 273.2 → 255.1) and atenolol (the internal standard, IS, m/z 267.2 → 190.1) were monitored under positive ionization mode with 5500 QTRAP. Retention time of sotalol and the IS were 2.69 and 3.43 min, respectively. The linear range was 5-500 nm based on the analysis of 0.1 mL of plasma. The intrabatch precision ranged from 1.2 to 6.1%, and the inter-batch precision was from 3.3 to 6.5%. The coefficient of variation of IS-normalized matrix factor was 7.6%. Experiments for stability were performed and the analyte was sufficiently stable. A run time of 6 min for each injection made it possible to analyze a high throughput of plasma samples. The assay was successfully applied to the determination of sotalol in rat plasma after a micro-dose oral administration. PMID:25582386

  1. Validated LC-MS-MS Method for Multiresidual Analysis of 13 Illicit Phenethylamines in Amniotic Fluid.

    PubMed

    Burrai, Lucia; Nieddu, Maria; Carta, Antonio; Trignano, Claudia; Sanna, Raimonda; Boatto, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination in amniotic fluid (AF) of 13 illicit phenethylamines, including 12 compounds never investigated in this matrix before. Samples were subject to solid-phase extraction using; hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges which gave good recoveries and low matrix effects on analysis of the extracts. The quantification was performed by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The water-acetonitrile mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid, used with a C18 reversed phase column, provided adequate separation, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio for the analytes and the internal standard. The final optimized method was validated according to international guidelines. A monitoring campaign to assess fetal exposure to these 13 substances of abuse has been performed on AF test samples obtained from pregnant women. All mothers (n = 194) reported no use of drugs of abuse during pregnancy, and this was confirmed by the analytical data. PMID:26755540

  2. UPLC-UV-MS(E) analysis for quantification and identification of major carotenoid and chlorophyll species in algae.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Magnúsdóttir, Manuela; Brynjólfson, Sigurður; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    A fast method for quantification and identification of carotenoid and chlorophyll species utilizing liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry has been demonstrated and validated for the analysis of algae samples. This method allows quantification of targeted pigments and identification of unexpected compounds, providing isomers separation, UV detection, accurate mass measurements, and study of fragment ions for structural elucidation in a single run. This is possible using parallel alternating low- and high-energy collision spectral acquisition modes, which provide accurate mass full scan chromatograms and accurate mass high-energy chromatograms. Here, it is shown how this approach can be used to confirm carotenoid and chlorophyll species by identification of key diagnostic fragmentations during high-energy mode. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of Dunaliella salina samples during defined red LED lighting growth conditions, identifying 37 pigments including 19 carotenoid species and 18 chlorophyll species, and providing quantification of 7 targeted compounds. Limit of detections for targeted pigments ranged from 0.01 ng/mL for lutein to 0.24 ng/mL for chlorophyll a. Inter-run precision ranged for of 3 to 24 (RSD%) while inter-run inaccuracy ranged from -17 to 11. PMID:23052878

  3. Steaming-induced chemical transformations and holistic quality assessment of red ginseng derived from Panax ginseng by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)-based multicomponent quantification fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Luo, Dan; Cheng, Yi-jun; Ma, Jin-fang; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2012-08-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the steaming-induced chemical transformation of red ginseng manufactured from fresh ginseng by means of simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analyses with a combinative high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)) technique. Thirty-six ginsenosides were identified in red ginseng and white ginseng by comparing the mass spectrum and/or matching the empirical molecular formula with that of known published compounds, and 11 of them were determined to be newly generated during the red ginseng preparatory process. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, and decarboxylation at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6 of the original ginsenosides through the mimic process of steaming and heating in laboratory. The multicomponent quantification fingerprint of ginseng was also established by HPLC-UV method, and the contents of 12 ginsenosides in red and white ginsengs from different sources were determined simultaneously. The ratio of the total content of determined malonyl ginsenosides to the corresponding neutral ginsenosides (T(m-PPD)/T(PPD)) in white ginseng ranged from 0.46 to 0.62 and from 0 to 0.19 in red ginseng. The validated method is expected to provide an effective approach to standardize the processing procedures of ginseng products and regulate the usage of ginseng in Traditional Chinese Medical prescription. PMID:22839102

  4. A sensitive method for the determination of hordenine in human serum by ESI⁺ UPLC-MS/MS for forensic toxicological applications.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Irina; Brauers, Gernot; Temme, Oliver; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We present the determination of the alkaloid hordenine and its forensic relevance as a qualitative and quantitative marker for beer consumption. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of hordenine in human serum samples was developed and validated. The application was tested with serum samples after enzymatic cleavage. After addition of the synthesized internal standard hordenine-D 4, a liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane and diethyl ether was performed. Chromatographic separation was conducted with a Waters Acquity® UPLC system with gradient elution on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5-μm particle size). For quantification, a Waters Acquity® TQ detector (version SNC 627) with a positive electrospray ionization probe and multiple reaction monitoring mode was used. A flow rate of 0.4 ml/min was applied. The retention time for both the analyte and the internal standard was 3.67 min. Linearity was demonstrated from 0.2 to 16 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.999). The lower limit of quantification was 0.3 ng/ml in serum. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries for low and high concentrations were within acceptable limits of 75-125% and 50%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge there is no corresponding method for the determination of hordenine by UPLC-MS/MS in serum. By our drinking studies we demonstrate that beer consumption leads to detectable hordenine concentrations in serum and observed a linear elimination of total hordenine correlating to blood alcohol concentration, which shows that hordenine can be used as a reliable qualitative and quantitative marker for beer consumption. The validated method was successfully applied to serum from actual forensic cases. PMID:26869341

  5. A novel screening method for 64 new psychoactive substances and 5 amphetamines in blood by LC-MS/MS and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco P; Palumbo, Diego; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Fioravanti, Alessia; Catalani, Valeria; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-09-10

    Identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS), both in biological and non-biological samples, represent a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. NPS are increasingly emerging on illegal drug market. Many cases of co-consumption of NPS and other substances have also been reported. Hence, the development of analytical methods aiming at the detection of a broad-spectrum of compounds (NPS and "traditional" drugs) could be helpful. In this paper, a fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS (28 synthetic cannabinoids, 19 synthetic cathinones, 5 phenethylamines, 3 indanes, 2 piperazines, 2 tryptamines, 2 phencyclidine, methoxetamine, ketamine and its metabolite) and 5 amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine - MDEA-) by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described. This method is very fast, easy to perform and cheap as it only requires the deproteinization of 200μL of blood sample with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation is achieved with a C18 column. The analysis is very sensitive, with limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.5ng/mL. The method is linear from 1 to 100ng/mL and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was always above 0.9900. Precision and accuracy were acceptable at any quality control level and recovery efficiency range was 72-110%. Matrix effects did not negatively affect the analytical sensitivity. This method was successfully applied to three real cases, allowing identification and quantification of: mephedrone and methamphetamine (post-mortem); ketamine, MDMA and MDA (post-mortem); AB-FUBINACA (ante-mortem). PMID:27490334

  6. A Simple and Rapid LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of BMCL26 a Novel Anti-Parasitic Agent in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Voggu, Ramakrishna R; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Bin; Guo, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    BMCL26 is a potential drug derived from nimesulide, which has exhibited the substantial anti-parasitic activity in various cell lines. To conduct various pharmacological and toxicological properties of this drug, we developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS method for its quantification in accordance with the FDA guidelines. Protein precipitation with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes along with the internal standard (JCC76) from rat plasma. It was found that the calibration curve of the method had an excellent linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9993) for the analyte concentration ranging from 0.5 to 100 ng/mL with acceptable inter- and intra-assay, precision, accuracy and stability. The matrix effect and extraction recovery were in the range of 101.30–110.10% and 90.16– 105.00%, respectively. This LC-MS/MS method is simple and rapid and can be used in the future pharmaceutical studies of BMCL26. PMID:26823991

  7. β-lactam antibiotics residues analysis in bovine milk by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jank, L; Hoff, R B; Tarouco, P C; Barreto, F; Pizzolato, T M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the development and validation of a simple method for the detection and quantification of six β-lactam antibiotics residues (ceftiofur, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in bovine milk using a fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LLE consisted of the addition of acetonitrile to the sample, followed by addition of sodium chloride, centrifugation and direct injection of an aliquot into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was performed in a C(18) column, using acetonitrile and water, both with 0.1% of formic acid, as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Limits of detection ranged from 0.4 (penicillin G and penicillin V) to 10.0 ng ml(-1) (ceftiofur), and linearity was achieved. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported. PMID:21988179

  8. Development and validation of sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of daclatasvir in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Bendas, Ehab R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of daclatasvir (DAC) in human plasma using sofosbuvir (SOF) as an internal standard (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Precipitation with acetonitrile was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC HSS C18 (50×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column by pumping 10mM ammonium formate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.30ml/min. Method validation was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-4000ng/ml for DAC. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1.2min made it possible to analyze more than 500 human plasma samples per day. The wider range of quantification of DAC allowed the applicability of the developed method for its determination in a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. PMID:27232152

  9. 'Dilute-and-shoot' RSLC-MS-MS method for fast detection of nerve and vesicant chemical warfare agent metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Igor; Braun, Arcady; Stavrianidi, Andrey; Baygildiev, Timur; Shpigun, Oleg; Oreshkin, Dmitry; Rybalchenko, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive screening method based on fast liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (RSLC-MS-MS) has shown the feasibility of separation and detection of low concentration β-lyase metabolites of sulfur mustard and of nerve agent phosphonic acids in urine. The analysis of these compounds is of interest because they are specific metabolites of the chemical warfare agents (CWAs), sulfur mustard (HD), sarin (GB), soman (GD), VX and Russian VX (RVX). The 'dilute-and-shoot' RSLC-MS-MS method provides a sensitive and direct approach for determining CWA exposure in non-extracted non-derivatized samples from urine. Chromatographic separation of the metabolites was achieved using a reverse phase column with gradient mobile phases consisting of 0.5% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Identification and quantification of species were achieved using electrospray ionization-tandem mass-spectrometry monitoring two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each compound. The method demonstrates linearity over at least two orders of magnitude and had detection limits of 0.5 ng/mL in urine. PMID:25326204

  10. The parallel reaction monitoring method contributes to a highly sensitive polyubiquitin chain quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Tanaka, Keiji Saeki, Yasushi

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •The parallel reaction monitoring method was applied to ubiquitin quantification. •The ubiquitin PRM method is highly sensitive even in biological samples. •Using the method, we revealed that Ufd4 assembles the K29-linked ubiquitin chain. -- Abstract: Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational protein modification that is implicated in a diverse array of cellular functions. Although cells contain eight structurally distinct types of polyubiquitin chains, detailed function of several chain types including K29-linked chains has remained largely unclear. Current mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantification methods are highly inefficient for low abundant atypical chains, such as K29- and M1-linked chains, in complex mixtures that typically contain highly abundant proteins. In this study, we applied parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), a quantitative, high-resolution MS method, to quantify ubiquitin chains. The ubiquitin PRM method allows us to quantify 100 attomole amounts of all possible ubiquitin chains in cell extracts. Furthermore, we quantified ubiquitylation levels of ubiquitin-proline-β-galactosidase (Ub-P-βgal), a historically known model substrate of the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. In wild-type cells, Ub-P-βgal is modified with ubiquitin chains consisting of 21% K29- and 78% K48-linked chains. In contrast, K29-linked chains are not detected in UFD4 knockout cells, suggesting that Ufd4 assembles the K29-linked ubiquitin chain(s) on Ub-P-βgal in vivo. Thus, the ubiquitin PRM is a novel, useful, quantitative method for analyzing the highly complicated ubiquitin system.

  11. New method for caffeine quantification by planar chromatography coupled with electropray ionization mass spectrometry using stable isotope dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Mario; Morlock, Gertrud

    2007-01-01

    A new high-performance thin-layer chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPTLC/ESI-MS) method for the quantification of caffeine in pharmaceutical and energy drink samples was developed using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA). After sample preparation, samples and caffeine standard were applied on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates and over-spotted with caffeine-d3 used for correction of the plunger positioning. After chromatography, densitometric detection was performed by UV absorption at 274 nm. The bands were then eluted by means of a plunger-based extractor into the ESI interface of a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer. For quantification by MS the [M+H]+ ions of caffeine and caffeine-d3 were recorded in the positive ion single ion monitoring (SIM) mode at m/z 195 and 198, respectively. The calibration showed a linear regression with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9998. The repeatability (RSD, n=6) in matrix wasmethod accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results obtained by HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS with those from the validated HPTLC/UV method. The results for pharmaceutical and energy drink samples were (ng/band) 99.82+/-3.75 and 338.09+/-4.87 by HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS and 104.74+/-1.51 and 334.86+/-5.63 by HPTLC/UV. According to the F-test (homogeneity of variances) and the t-test (comparison of means) the two methods show no significant difference. The detection and quantification limits were 75 and 250 microg L-1 (0.75 and 2.5 ng/band), respectively, which were a factor of 13 lower than those established for HPTLC/UV. The positioning error (RSD+/-6%) was calculated by comparing HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS with HPTLC/ESI-MS. However, using SIDA the positioning error was nullified. HPTLC/SIDA-ESI-MS was demonstrated to be a

  12. Evaluation of iTRAQ and SWATH-MS for the Quantification of Proteins Associated with Insulin Resistance in Human Duodenal Biopsy Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Sylvie; Fournier, Frédéric; Nehmé, Benjamin; Kelly, Isabelle; Tremblay, André; Lemelin, Valéry; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Droit, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. In order to assess whether insulin resistance affects the proteins involved in lipid metabolism, we used two mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics techniques to compare the intestinal proteome of 14 IR patients to that of 15 insulin sensitive (IS) control patients matched for age and waist circumference. A total of 3886 proteins were identified by the iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) mass spectrometry approach and 2290 by the SWATH-MS strategy (Serial Window Acquisition of Theoretical Spectra). Using these two methods, 208 common proteins were identified with a confidence corresponding to FDR < 1%, and quantified with p-value < 0.05. The quantification of those 208 proteins has a Pearson correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.728 across the two techniques. Gene Ontology analyses of the differentially expressed proteins revealed that annotations related to lipid metabolic process and oxidation reduction process are overly represented in the set of under-expressed proteins in IR subjects. Furthermore, both methods quantified proteins of relevance to IR. These data also showed that SWATH-MS is a promising and compelling alternative to iTRAQ for protein quantitation of complex mixtures. PMID:25950531

  13. Evaluation of Acrylamide in Food from China by a LC/MS/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Hong; Xia, En-Qin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Deng, Gui-Fang; Zou, Zhi-Fei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is potential carcinogenic compound that possesses neurotoxicity activity. In this study, the levels of acrylamide in 123 selected food samples from China was evaluated using a LC/MS/MS method. One hundred and fifteen (115) out of 123 samples showed positive levels of acrylamide in the range of 0.41 to 4,126.26 µg/kg. Generally, the highest acrylamide levels were found in fried products, such as potato, prawn strips and rice crust, with average values of 604.27, 341.40, and 201.51 µg/kg, respectively. Heated protein-rich food also showed some acrylamide content (ranging from 2.31 to 78.57 µg/kg). The results revealed that a potential acrylamide public health risk occurred in processed snacks, as well as the food consumed daily. This study supplied new information on acrylamide content of a variety of heat-treated foods from China. PMID:23202837

  14. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of droxidopa in human plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haidong; Yang, Guangsheng; Zhou, Jinyu; Pei, Jiang; Zhang, Qiangfeng; Song, Xingfa; Sun, Zengxian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of droxidopa in human plasma for the first time. A simple plasma protein precipitation method using methanol containing 3% formic acid was selected, and the separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC™ BEH Amide column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient elution using acetonitrile, ammonium formate buffer and formic acid as mobile phase. The detection of droxidopa and benserazide (internal standard, IS) was performed using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 214.2→m/z 152.0 for droxidopa, and m/z 258.1→m/z 139.1 for IS were used for quantification. A lower limit of quantification of 5.00ng/mL was achieved and the linear curve range was 5.00-4000ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2)) linear regression model. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was less than 10.2%, and the accuracy ranged from 0.1% to 2.1%. Stability, recovery and matrix effects were within the acceptance criteria recommended by the regulatory bioanalytical guidelines. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of droxidopa in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:27311027

  15. Simultaneous detection of antibiotics and other drug residues in the dissolved and particulate phases of water by an off-line SPE combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS: Method development and application.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Ines; Caria, Giovanni; Ouddane, Baghdad; Ghorbel-Abid, Ibtissem; Ternane, Riadh; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Net, Sopheak

    2016-09-01

    Due to their widespread use in human and animal healthcare, antibiotics and other drug residues are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Given their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and public health, the quantification of environmental drug residues has become a necessity. Various analysis techniques have been found to be suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, quantification can be difficult because these compounds are present at trace or ultra-trace levels. Consequently, the accuracy of environmental analyses depends on both the efficiency and the robustness of the extraction and quantification method. In this work, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS was applied to the simultaneous extraction and quantification of 26 pharmaceutical products, including 18 antibiotics, dissolved in a water phase. Optimal conditions were determined and then applied to assess the contamination level of the targeted drug residues in water collected from four sites in Northern France: a river, the input and output of an aerated lagoon, and a wastewater treatment plant. Drug residues associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) were also quantified in this work using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with an on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS system in order to complete an assessment of the degree of total background pollution. PMID:27151499

  16. Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) Quantification of Nine Target Indoles in Sparkling Wines.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Rebeca; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Buxaderas, Susana; Riu-Aumatell, Montserrat; Castellari, Massimo; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2016-06-15

    An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine target indoles in sparkling wines. The proposed method requires minimal sample pretreatment, and its performance parameters (accuracy, repeatability, LOD, and matrix effect) indicate that it is suitable for routine analysis. Four indoles were found at detectable levels in commercial Cava samples: 5-methoxytryptophol (5MTL), tryptophan (TRP), tryptophan ethyl ester (TEE), and N-acetylserotonin (NSER). Two of them, NSER and 5MTL, are reported here for the first time in sparkling wines, with values of 0.3-2 and 0.29-29.2 μg/L, respectively. In the same samples, the contents of melatonin (MEL), serotonin (SER), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-OHTRP), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5OHIA), and 5-methoxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5MIA) were all below the corresponding limits of detection. PMID:27148823

  17. Applications and challenges in using LC-MS/MS assays for quantitative doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanliang; Lu, Jianghai; Zhang, Yinong; Tian, Ye; Yuan, Hong; Xu, Youxuan

    2016-06-01

    LC-MS/MS is useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 'doped' biological samples from athletes. LC-MS/MS-based assays at low-mass resolution allow fast and sensitive screening and quantification of targeted analytes that are based on preselected diagnostic precursor-product ion pairs. Whereas LC coupled with high-resolution/high-accuracy MS can be used for identification and quantification, both have advantages and challenges for routine analysis. Here, we review the literature regarding various quantification methods for measuring prohibited substances in athletes as they pertain to World Anti-Doping Agency regulations. PMID:27241820

  18. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determination of p-phenylenediamine and its metabolites in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Cromarty, Duncan; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2015-08-01

    In some developing countries, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is used in combination with Henna as hair dye or skin decoration. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and its metabolites N-acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N,N-diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD) in human blood. Acetanilide was used as an internal standard (IS). The LC-MS/MS was operated under multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray positive ionization technique. The transition ions m/z 109→92, m/z 151→92, m/z 193→92, and m/z 136→77 were selected for the quantification of PPD, MAPPD, DAPPD, and IS, respectively. The linear range was 10-2000ng/mL for all the compounds. The absolute recoveries were 51.94, 56.20 and 54.88% for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision were lower than 14% (RSD), and the bias of the assay was lower than 15% for all the compounds. The stability studies demonstrated that critical degradation for PPD in blood samples and autosampler occurred after 6h, while MAPPD and DAPPD were stable in blood samples and the autosampler up to 48h and 24h, respectively. This newly developed method allows for the detection of PPD and its metabolites in blood samples in the clinical and forensic setting. PMID:26073911

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the direct detection of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) esters in edible oils.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Ridge, Clark D; Begley, Timothy H

    2014-12-01

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the detection and quantification of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) esters in edible oils. The target compounds are potentially carcinogenic contaminants formed during the processing of edible oils. As the 2-MCPD esters that occur most frequently in refined edible oils were not commercially available, standards were synthesized with identity and purity (95+%) confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and (1)H NMR. Target analytes are separated from edible oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracts are then analyzed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). The method has been validated for 11 2-MCPD diesters and 3 2-MCPD monoesters in soybean oil, olive oil, and palm oil using an external calibration curve. The ranges of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 79-106% (3-13% RSD) for the 2-MCPD diesters and 72-108% (4-17% RSD) for the 2-MCPD monoesters, with limits of quantitation at or below 30 ng/g for the diesters and 90 ng/g for the monoesters. PMID:25383913

  20. LC-MS/MS screening method for designer amphetamines, tryptamines, and piperazines in serum.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2010-04-01

    Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, derivatives of well-known designer drugs as well as new psychoactive compounds have been sold on the illicit drug market and have led to intoxications and fatalities. The LC-MS/MS screening method presented covers 31 new designer drugs as well as cathinone, methcathinone, phencyclidine, and ketamine which were included to complete the screening spectrum. All but the last two are modified molecular structures of amphetamine, tryptamine, or piperazine. Among the amphetamine derivatives are cathinone, methcathinone, 3,4-DMA, 2,5-DMA, DOB, DOET, DOM, ethylamphetamine, MDDMA, 4-MTA, PMA, PMMA, 3,4,5-TMA, TMA-6 and members of the 2C group: 2C-B, 2C-D, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, and 2C-T-7. AMT, DPT, DiPT, MiPT, DMT, and 5MeO-DMT are contained in the tryptamine group, BZP, MDBP, TFMPP, mCPP, and MeOPP in the piperazine group. Using an Applied Biosystems LC-MS/MS API 365 TurboIonSpray it is possible to identify all 35 substances. After addition of internal standards and mixed-mode solid-phase extraction the analytes are separated using a Synergi Polar RP column and gradient elution with 1 mM ammonium formate and methanol/0.1% formic acid as mobile phases A and B. Data acquisition is performed in MRM mode with positive electro spray ionization. The assay is selective for all tested substances. Limits of detection were determined by analyzing S/N-ratios and are between 1.0 and 5.0 ng/mL. Matrix effects lie between 65% and 118%, extraction efficiencies range from 72% to 90%. PMID:20069283

  1. Method for factor analysis of GC/MS data

    DOEpatents

    Van Benthem, Mark H; Kotula, Paul G; Keenan, Michael R

    2012-09-11

    The method of the present invention provides a fast, robust, and automated multivariate statistical analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) data sets. The method can involve systematic elimination of undesired, saturated peak masses to yield data that follow a linear, additive model. The cleaned data can then be subjected to a combination of PCA and orthogonal factor rotation followed by refinement with MCR-ALS to yield highly interpretable results.

  2. Quantitation of brinzolamide in dried blood spots by a novel LC-QTOF-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Foivas, Anargyros; Malenović, Anđelija; Kostić, Nađa; Božić, Marija; Knežević, Miroslav; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2016-02-01

    In the current study, a rapid and sensitive LC-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of brinzolamide in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. This novel sample collection, storage and transfer technique was suitable for analyzing a drug with high distribution into red blood cells and negligible plasma levels. The method included an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (90:10, v/v) and detection in positive electrospray mode (ESI+). The flow rate was adjusted to 0.350mL/min yielding retention times of 1.7min for both brinzolamide and internal standard (IS) rabeprazole on a Cyano analytical column, respectively. The validation of the proposed method over the concentration range 0.500-20.0μg/mL was performed in compliance with EMEA and FDA guidelines, assessing all major performance characteristics. Inter- and intra- assay precisions were less than 14%, while inter- and intra- assay accuracies varied from 92.2 to 111%. No matrix effect was observed and the mean brinzolamide extraction recovery was 93.5%. The method was successfully applied to real DBS samples from patients in steady state condition, receiving brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension 1% (w/v) for several months. Initial concentrations were corrected due to hematocrit effect, using image processing algorithm written in Matlab. PMID:26669612

  3. Multi-mycotoxin stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for Fusarium toxins in cereals.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mycotoxin stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was developed for 14 Fusarium toxins including modified mycotoxins in cereals (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, T2-toxin, enniatin B, enniatin B1, enniatin A1, enniatin A, beauvericin, fusarenone X, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and zearalenone). The chromatographic separation of the toxins with particular focus on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside was achieved using a C18-hydrosphere column. An expedient sample preparation method was developed that uses solid-phase extraction for the purification of trichothecenes combined with zearalenone, enniatins, and beauvericin and provides excellent validation data. Linearity, intra-day precision, inter-day precision, and recoveries were ≥0.9982, 1-6%, 5-12%, and 79-117%, respectively. Method accuracy was verified by analyzing certified reference materials for deoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, and T2-toxin with deviations below 7%. The results of this method found barley malt samples from 2012, 2013, and 2014 frequently contaminated with high concentrations of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, and its modified mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside. Samples from 2012 were especially contaminated. Fusarenone X was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. PMID:26514672

  4. Development and application of a QuEChERS-based extraction method for the analysis of 55 pesticides in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Velhote, Susana; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    A method for quantitative determination of 55 pesticides in a bivalve matrix was established, based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction and using gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap (IT) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Accomplishing the European SANCO guidelines, this method was validated using 5 g of homogenized soft tissue, allowing the quantification of pesticides at ng/g of wet weight (ww). Quantification limits and recovery rates ranged from 0.33 to 10.3 μg/L and from 78 to 119 %, respectively. As an important mollusc, not only from an ecological perspective but also for food consumption, the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana) was sampled at three strategical sites (Ria Formosa Lagoon, in the south of Portugal) during 2012-2013, over six campaigns. A total of 2160 animals were pooled by place and sex. No statistical differences were found among sites or between sexes. Forty percent of the sampled pools were above quantification limits, reaching total annual average concentrations of ∑800 ng/g ww. Additionally, 83 % of the selected compounds showed concentrations above the legal limits set by the European Directive 2013/39/EU. In conclusion, the applied method was successful and proved that bivalves were contaminated by the selected pesticides. In future work, this methodology can be used to monitor body burdens and obtain data for predicting impacts in shellfish consumers. Graphical Abstract Resume of pesticides extraction and analyses process from S. plana. PMID:27032408

  5. A new HILIC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of carbidopa, levodopa, and its metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Raquel de Oliveira; Pontes, Flávia Lada Degaut; Marson, Breno Maurício; Ribeiro, Rômulo Pereira; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Cardoso, Marco André; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2014-09-15

    Monitoring of the plasmatic levels of levodopa (LEV) and carbidopa (CAR) is necessary to adjust the dose of these drugs according to the individual needs of Parkinson's disease patients. To support drug therapeutic monitoring, a method using HILIC mode and LC-MS/MS was developed for the simultaneous determination of carbidopa, levodopa, and its metabolites (3-o-methyldopa (3-OMD) and dopamine (DOPA)) in human plasma. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM) using the electrospray ionization technique. After straightforward sample preparation via protein precipitation, an Atlantis HILIC (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm, Waters, USA) column were used for separation under the isocratic condition of acetonitrile/water (79:21, v/v) containing 0.05% formic acid and 3 mmol/L ammonium formate and the total run time was 7 min. Deuterated LEV was used as internal standard for quantification. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 75 ng/mL for LEV, 65 ng/mL for CAR and 3-OMD, and 20 ng/mL for DOPA. The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 75-800 ng/mL for LEV, 65-800 ng/mL for CAR and 3-OMD, and 20-400 ng/mL for DOPA (r>0.99). The assay was accurate and precise, with inter-assay and intra-assay accuracies within ±13.44% of nominal and inter-assay and intra-assay precision≤13.99%. All results were within the acceptance criteria of the US FDA and ANVISA guidelines for method validation. LEV, CAR, 3-OMD and DOPA were stable in the battery of stability studies, long-term, bench-top, autosampler, and freeze/thaw cycles. Samples from patients undergoing treatment were analyzed, and the results indicated that this new method is suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:25063927

  6. Isotope dilution quantification of ultratrace gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine species using HPLC with enhanced ICP-MS detection by ultrasonic nebulisation or carbon-loaded plasma.

    PubMed

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Ovejero Bendito, María del Carmen; Cámara, Carmen; Evans, Linda; Hearn, Ruth; Moesgaard, Sven

    2008-04-01

    A method for the accurate determination of ultratrace selenium species of relevance to cancer research, such as gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine (gamma-glutamyl-SeMC), using species-specific double isotope dilution analysis (IDA) with HPLC-ICP-MS is reported for the first time. The (77)Se-enriched gamma-glutamyl-SeMC spike was produced in-house by collecting the fraction at the retention time of the gamma-glutamyl-SeMC peak from a chromatographed aqueous extract of (77)Se-enriched yeast, pooling the collected fractions and freeze-drying the homogenate. The Se content of this spike was characterised using reverse isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and the isotopic composition of this spike was checked prior to quantification of the natural abundance dipeptide species in garlic using speciated IDA. The extraction of the gamma-glutamyl-SeMC species in water was performed in a sonication bath for 2 h after adding an appropriate quantity of (77)Se-enriched gamma-glutamyl-SeMC to 50 mg of garlic to give optimal (78)Se/(77)Se and (82)Se/(77)Se ratios of 1.5 and 0.6, respectively. The effect of ultrasonic nebulisation, in comparison with the loading of the ICP with carbon (through the addition of methane gas on-line), on the detection of Se associated with gamma-glutamyl-SeMC using collision/reaction cell ICP-MS with hydrogen as collision gas was investigated. Sensitivity enhancements of approximately fourfold and twofold were achieved using USN and methane mixed plasma, respectively, in comparison with conventional nebulisation and conventional Ar ICP-MS. However, an approximately twofold improvement in the detection limit was achieved using both approaches (42 ng kg(-1) for (78)Se using peak height measurements). The use of species-specific IDMS enabled quantification of the dipeptide species at ng g(-1) levels (603 ng g(-1) Se) in the complex food matrix with a relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 4) of 4.5%, which was approximately half that obtained

  7. Technological and Analytical Methods for Arabinoxylan Quantification from Cereals.

    PubMed

    Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2016-04-25

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is the major nonstarch polysaccharide contained in various types of grains. AX consists of a backbone of β1.4D-xylopyranosyl residues with randomly linked αlarabinofuranosyl units. Once isolated and included as food additive, AX affects foodstuff attributes and has positive effects on human health. AX can be classified into waterextractable and waterunextractable AX. For isolating AX out of their natural matrix, a range of methods was developed, adapted, and improved. This review presents a survey of the commonly used extraction methods for AX by the influence of different techniques. It also provides a brief overview of the structural and technological impact of AX as a dough additive. A concluding section summarizes different detection methods for analyzing and quantification AX. PMID:25629383

  8. A surrogate accelerated multicanonical Monte Carlo method for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keyi; Li, Jinglai

    2016-09-01

    In this work we consider a class of uncertainty quantification problems where the system performance or reliability is characterized by a scalar parameter y. The performance parameter y is random due to the presence of various sources of uncertainty in the system, and our goal is to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of y. We propose to use the multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) method, a special type of adaptive importance sampling algorithms, to compute the PDF of interest. Moreover, we develop an adaptive algorithm to construct local Gaussian process surrogates to further accelerate the MMC iterations. With numerical examples we demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve several orders of magnitudes of speedup over the standard Monte Carlo methods.

  9. Quantification of Arginine and Its Methylated Derivatives in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOS), thus the production of nitric oxide (NO) is based on arginine availability. Arginine is methylated through the activity of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT1 and PRMT2), to form asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA). These compounds have gained interest in recent years due to their influence on NO production rates and association with cardiovascular and renal diseases. The accurate and precise measurement of arginine and its methylated derivatives is needed for research studies investigating their role(s) in NO bioavailability and development of disease. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying arginine, ADMA, and SDMA requiring only 50 μL of plasma. The sample preparation involves addition of internal standards (ADMA-d7 for ADMA and SDMA, and (13)C6 -arginine for arginine) prior to protein precipitation with LCMS grade acetonitrile. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at 50 °C. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Arginine, ADMA, and SDMA are separated using an isocratic HPLC method on a 3 μM silica analytical column. MS/MS detection is performed in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 203 to m/z 70 for ADMA and SDMA, m/z 210 to m/z 77 for ADMA-d7, m/z 175 to m/z 70 for arginine, and m/z 181 to m/z 74 for (13)C6-arginine. PMID:26602113

  10. Stochastic methods for uncertainty quantification in radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtl, Erin D; Prinja, Anil K; Warsa, James S

    2009-01-01

    The use of generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions is investigated for uncertainty quantification in radiation transport. The gPC represents second-order random processes in terms of an expansion of orthogonal polynomials of random variables and is used to represent the uncertain input(s) and unknown(s). We assume a single uncertain input-the total macroscopic cross section-although this does not represent a limitation of the approaches considered here. Two solution methods are examined: The Stochastic Finite Element Method (SFEM) and the Stochastic Collocation Method (SCM). The SFEM entails taking Galerkin projections onto the orthogonal basis, which, for fixed source problems, yields a linear system of fully -coupled equations for the PC coefficients of the unknown. For k-eigenvalue calculations, the SFEM system is non-linear and a Newton-Krylov method is employed to solve it. The SCM utilizes a suitable quadrature rule to compute the moments or PC coefficients of the unknown(s), thus the SCM solution involves a series of independent deterministic transport solutions. The accuracy and efficiency of the two methods are compared and contrasted. The PC coefficients are used to compute the moments and probability density functions of the unknown(s), which are shown to be accurate by comparing with Monte Carlo results. Our work demonstrates that stochastic spectral expansions are a viable alternative to sampling-based uncertainty quantification techniques since both provide a complete characterization of the distribution of the flux and the k-eigenvalue. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, unlike perturbation methods, SFEM and SCM can handle large parameter uncertainty.

  11. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila. PMID:26873217

  12. Method Development and Validation for UHPLC-MS-MS Determination of Hop Prenylflavonoids in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolic, Dejan; Dahl, Jeffrey H.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer, and hop extracts containing prenylated compounds such as xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin are under investigation as dietary supplements for cancer chemoprevention and for the management of hot flashes in menopausal women. To facilitate clinical studies of hop safety and efficacy, a selective, sensitive, and fast ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the hop prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 6-prenylnaringenin, and 8-prenylnaringenin in human serum. The analytical method requires 300 μL of human serum which is processed using liquid-liquid extraction. UHPLC separation was carried out in 2.5 min with gradient elution using a reversed phase column containing 1.6 μm packing material. Prenylflavonoids were measured using negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation and selected reaction monitoring. The method was validated and showed good accuracy and precision with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.50 ng/mL for XN (1.4 nM) and 1.0 ng/mL for 6-PN (2.8 nM), XN and IX (2.9 nM) in serum for each analyte. PMID:23451393

  13. Fast HPLC-MS/MS Method for Determining Penicillin Antibiotics in Infant Formulas Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Barreiro, Rocío; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Regal, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The dairy cattle may suffer from different infections relatively often, but the inflammation of the mammary gland is very important to the farmer. These infections are frequently treated with penicillin antimicrobial drugs. However, their use may result in the presence of residues in animal products, such as milk powder and/or infant formulas, and it represents a potential risk for consumers. To monitor this, the EU has defined safe maximum residue limits (MRLs) through Commission Regulation (EU) number 37/2010. Although LC-MS is a trustful option for confirmation and quantification of antibiotics, the analysis of real samples with complex matrices frequently implies previous clean-up steps. In this work, precipitation polymerization has been used and different molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbents were tested and optimized for the fast and simultaneous solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of eight common penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and nafcillin). The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the applicability of these polymers as sorbents for the extraction of penicillins at MRL levels in milk powder (infant formulas) was proved. The limits of detection and quantification were below the legal tolerances, except for LOQ for oxacillin and cloxacillin. PMID:25785233

  14. Fast HPLC-MS/MS Method for Determining Penicillin Antibiotics in Infant Formulas Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Barreiro, Rocío; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Regal, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The dairy cattle may suffer from different infections relatively often, but the inflammation of the mammary gland is very important to the farmer. These infections are frequently treated with penicillin antimicrobial drugs. However, their use may result in the presence of residues in animal products, such as milk powder and/or infant formulas, and it represents a potential risk for consumers. To monitor this, the EU has defined safe maximum residue limits (MRLs) through Commission Regulation (EU) number 37/2010. Although LC-MS is a trustful option for confirmation and quantification of antibiotics, the analysis of real samples with complex matrices frequently implies previous clean-up steps. In this work, precipitation polymerization has been used and different molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbents were tested and optimized for the fast and simultaneous solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of eight common penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and nafcillin). The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the applicability of these polymers as sorbents for the extraction of penicillins at MRL levels in milk powder (infant formulas) was proved. The limits of detection and quantification were below the legal tolerances, except for LOQ for oxacillin and cloxacillin. PMID:25785233

  15. Unique pentafluorobenzylation and collision-induced dissociation for specific and accurate GC-MS/MS quantification of the catecholamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zoerner, Alexander A; Heusser, Karsten; Gutzki, Frank M; Mitschke, Anja; Tank, Jens; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    In the human body, the catecholamine norepinephrine is mainly metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) which therefore serves as an important biomarker for norepinephrine's metabolism. Most data on DHPG concentrations in human plasma and urine has been generated by using HPLC-ECD or GC-MS technologies. Here, we describe a stable-isotope dilution GC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of DHPG in human urine using trideutero-DHPG (d(3)-DHPG) as internal standard and a two-step derivatization process with pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Two pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were obtained and identified, i.e., two isomeric DHPG-PFB-(TMS)(3) derivatives and the later eluting DHPG-tetrafluorobenzyl-(TMS)(2) derivative, i.e., DHPG-TFB-(TMS)(2). To our knowledge the DHPG-TFB-(TMS)(2) derivative and the underlying reaction have not been reported previously. In this reaction both vicinal aromatic hydroxyl groups of DHPG react with PFB-Br to form a heterocyclic seven-membered [1,4]dioxepin compound. The DHPG-TFB-(TMS)(2) derivative was used for quantitative GC-MS/MS analysis in the electron-capturing negative-ion chemical ionization mode by selected-reaction monitoring of m/z 351 from m/z 401 for DHPG and of m/z 352 from m/z 404 for d(3)-DHPG. Validation experiments on human urine samples spiked with DHPG in a narrow (0-33 nM) and a wide range (0-901 nM) revealed high recovery (86-104%) and low imprecision (RSD; 0.01-2.8%). LOD and relative LLOQ (rLLOQ) values of the method for DHPG were determined to be 76 amol and 9.4%, respectively. In urine of 28 patients suffering from chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, DHPG was measured at a mean concentration of 238 nM (38.3 μg/g creatinine). The DHPG concentration in the respective control group of 40 healthy subjects was measured to be 328 nM (39.2 μg/g creatinine). Given the unique derivatization reaction and collision

  16. Establishment of LC-MS methods for the analysis of palmitoylated surfactant proteins.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Takeshi; Shindou, Hideo; Kita, Yoshihiro; Otsubo, Eiji; Ikeda, Kazushige; Chida, Shoichi; Weaver, Timothy E; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-07-01

    The surfactant proteins (SPs), SP-B and SP-C, are important components of pulmonary surfactant involved in the reduction of alveolar surface tension. Quantification of SP-B and SP-C in surfactant drugs is informative for their quality control and the evaluation of their biological activity. Western blot analysis enabled the quantification of SP-B, but not SP-C, in surfactant drugs. Here, we report a new procedure involving chemical treatments and LC-MS to analyze SP-C peptides. The procedure enabled qualitative analysis of SP-C from different species with discrimination of the palmitoylation status and the artificial modifications that occur during handling and/or storage. In addition, the method can be used to estimate the total amount of SP-C in pulmonary surfactant drugs. The strategy described here might serve as a prototype to establish analytical methods for peptides that are extremely hydrophobic and behave like lipids. The new method provides an easy measurement of SP-C from various biological samples, which will help the characterization of various experimental animal models and the quality control of surfactant drugs, as well as diagnostics of human samples. PMID:26022805

  17. Correlation of Two Anthocyanin Quantification Methods: HPLC and Spectrophotometric Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method and HPLC are methods that are commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins in a sample. This study was conducted to establish a relationship between the two analytical methods. Seven juice samples containing an array of different individu...

  18. Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products.

    PubMed

    S Haglund, Peter; Löfstrand, Karin; Siek, Kevin; Asplund, Lillemor

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gas chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenated natural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominated anthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzed for comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scripts were used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the two-dimensional chromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for several classes of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. The sample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments, facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification. Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and hydroxyl-PBDDs, permitting the environmental occurrence and fate of such compounds to be studied. PMID:24349937

  19. Monitoring of chronic Cannabis abuse: an LC-MS/MS method for hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Protti, Michele; Conti, Matteo; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2013-03-25

    An advanced analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), has been developed for the identification and determination in hair of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol together with its major metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Since the latter is formed endogenously, it allows the assessment of chronic use excluding passive exposure to Cannabis. The sample pre-treatment procedure is based on a feasible incubative extraction followed by a liquid-liquid extraction step. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution with a formic acid/acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The limits of quantitation and of detection were 3pg/mg and 1pg/mg, respectively, for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples from Cannabis abusers; the analyte concentrations found ranged from 55 to 100pg/mg for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and from 5 to 10pg/mg for 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Accuracy studies also gave satisfactory results (recovery>87%), thus confirming the suitability of the assay for chronic consumption monitoring. PMID:23305934

  20. Simultaneous quantification of tenofovir, emtricitabine, rilpivirine, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in mouse biological matrices by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Prathipati, Pavan Kumar; Mandal, Subhra; Destache, Christopher J

    2016-09-10

    Combination antiretroviral (cARV) treatment is more common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In many instances, treatment regimen includes two or more combination of drugs from six different classes. Some of the antiretroviral combination medications are under study at preclinical and clinical stages. A precise method is required to quantify the drug concentration in biological matrices to study pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution profile in animals and/or humans. We have developed and validated a sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of selected antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir (TNF), emtricitabine (FTC), rilpivirine (RPV), dolutegravir (DTG) and elvitegravir (EVG) in mouse biological matrices. This method involves a solid phase extraction, simple isocratic chromatographic separation using Restek Pinnacle DB BiPh column (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and mass spectrometric detection by an API 3200 Q Trap instrument. The total run time for each sample was 6min. The method was validated in the concentration range of 5-2000ng/mL for FTC, RPV, DTG, EVG and 10-4000ng/mL for TNF respectively with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9976. The results of intra and inter-run assay precision and accuracy were within acceptance limits for all the five analytes. This method was used to support the study of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profile of nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs in mice. PMID:27497648

  1. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  2. [Determination of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS method].

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Song, Bo; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2007-03-01

    Ambroxol and clenbuterol were extracted from human plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, ambroxol was separated on a Zorbax XDB-C18 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface after oral administration of a compound preparation. Clenbuterol was separated on a Zorbax XDB-C8 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization interface. Diphenhydramine is used as the internal standard. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for ambroxol and clenbuterol were 0.080 - 400 microg x L(-1) and 5.0 - 5 000 ng x L(-1), respectively. The lower limits of quantification were 0.080 microg x L(-1) for ambroxol and 5.0 ng x L(-1) for clenbuterol, individually. The inter-day and intra-day precision (RSD) across three validation run over the entire concentration range was below 7.5%, and the accuracy (RE) was within +/- 2.5% for both ambroxol and clenbuterol. The methods were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma after oral administration of a compound preparation containing 60 mg ambroxol hydrochloride and 40 microg clenbuterol hydrochloride. The method was proved to be highly sensitive, selective and suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of different compound preparations containing ambroxol and clenbuterol. PMID:17520832

  3. Title: The validation of Cryogenic Laser Ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) methods by comparison to laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS methods, for the analysis of metals in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R.; Darrah, T. H.; Horton, M.

    2009-12-01

    ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) are well established techniques for the analysis of metals in geological and environmental samples. LA-ICP-MS is commonly used in geological applications to determine the spatial distribution of metal concentrations at small sampling intervals (as low as 10 microns). However, measurement of metals in water-rich, soft biological tissues typically requires samples to be digested into solutions, obfuscating spatial variations in metal concentrations. The cryogenic cell solidifies (by freezing) soft tissue, allowing these tissues to be analyzed by laser ablation for spatial variations in metal concentration. The cell is temperature programmable and capable of maintaining a sample at any temperature between -35C and 25C throughout prolonged analysis. We validate the cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) method using NIST Glass SRM 612. We also compare metal concentration data analyzed by cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS), LA-ICP-MS, and solution based ICP-MS, for human and rodent brain samples. The cryogenic laser ablation cell will expand analytical capabilities for measuring spatial distribution and concentration of metals incorporated into biological tissues.

  4. 21 CFR 530.24 - Procedure for announcing analytical methods for drug residue quantification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for announcing analytical methods for...-Producing Animals § 530.24 Procedure for announcing analytical methods for drug residue quantification. (a) FDA may issue an order announcing a specific analytical method or methods for the quantification...

  5. Natural chlorate in the environment: application of a new IC-ESI/MS/MS method with a Cl¹⁸O₃-internal standard.

    PubMed

    Balaji Rao, Balaji Rao; Hatzinger, Paul B; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C; Andraski, Brian J; Eckardt, Frank D; Jackson, W Andrew

    2010-11-15

    A new ion chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI/MS/MS) method has been developed for quantification and confirmation of chlorate (ClO₃⁻) in environmental samples. The method involves the electrochemical generation of isotopically labeled chlorate internal standard (Cl¹⁸O₃⁻) using ¹⁸O water (H₂¹⁸O) he standard was added to all samples prior to analysis thereby minimizing the matrix effects that are associated with common ions without the need for expensive sample pretreatments. The method detection limit (MDL) for ClO₃⁻ was 2 ng L⁻¹ for a 1 mL volume sample injection. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze ClO₃⁻ in difficult environmental samples including soil and plant leachates. The IC-ESI/MS/MS method described here was also compared to established EPA method 317.0 for ClO₃⁻ analysis. Samples collected from a variety of environments previously shown to contain natural perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) occurrence were analyzed using the proposed method and ClO₃⁻ was found to co-occur with ClO₄⁻ at concentrations ranging from < 2 ng L⁻¹ in precipitation from Texas and Puerto Rico to >500 mg kg⁻¹ in caliche salt deposits from the Atacama Desert in Chile. Relatively low concentrations of ClO₃⁻ in some natural groundwater samples (0.1 µg L⁻¹) analyzed in this work may indicate lower stability when compared to ClO₄⁻ in the subsurface. The high concentrations ClO₃⁻ in caliches and soils (3-6 orders of magnitude greater) as compared to precipitation samples indicate that ClO₃⁻, like ClO₄⁻, may be atmospherically produced and deposited, then concentrated in dry soils, and is possibly a minor component in the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine. PMID:20968289

  6. Natural chlorate in the environment: Application of a new IC-ESI/MS/MS method with a Cl18O3- internal standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rao, Balaji; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Andraski, Brian J.; Eckardt, Frank D.; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A new ion chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI/MS/MS) method has been developed for quantification and confirmation of chlorate (ClO3-) in environmental samples. The method involves the electro-chemical generation of isotopically labeled chlorate internal standard (Cl18O3-) using 18O water (H218O). The standard was added to all samples prior to analysis thereby minimizing the matrix effects that are associated with common ions without the need for expensive sample pretreatments. The method detection limit (MDL) for ClO3- was 2 ng L-1 for a 1 mL volume sample injection. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze ClO3- in difficult environmental samples including soil and plant leachates. The IC-ESI/MS/MS method described here was also compared to established EPA method 317.0 for ClO3- analysis. Samples collected from a variety of environments previously shown to contain natural perchlorate (ClO 4-) occurrence were analyzed using the proposed method and ClO3- was found to co-occur with ClO4- at concentrations ranging from <2 ng L-1 in precipitation from Texas and Puerto Rico to >500 mg kg-1 in caliche salt deposits from the Atacama Desert in Chile. Relatively low concentrations of ClO3- in some natural groundwater samples (-1) analyzed in this work may indicate lower stability when compared to ClO4- in the subsurface. The high concentrations of ClO3- in caliches and soils (3-6 orders of magnitude greater) as compared to precipitation samples indicate that ClO3-, like ClO4-, may be atmospherically produced and deposited, then concentrated in dry soils, and is possibly a minor component in the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine.

  7. Identification and quantification of glutathione and phytochelatins from Chlorella vulgaris by RP-HPLC ESI-MS/MS and oxygen-free extraction.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina B D; Hayward, Allison R; Hutchinson, Thomas C; Emery, R J Neil

    2009-10-01

    Phytochelatins are short, cysteine-containing, detoxification peptides produced by plants, algae, and fungi in response to heavy metal exposure. These peptides auto-oxidize easily. Current extraction protocols do not adequately address losses of phytochelatins because of their oxidation and the use of indirect methods for quantification. Method enhancements include the use of an argon environment during extraction to reduce auto-oxidation, the use of glycine-(13)C2-labeled glutathione as an internal standard, and an electrospray ionization source with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer as a detector. The method-detection limits were 0.081 microM for glutathione, 0.440 microM for phytochelatin 2, and 0.120 microM for phytochelatin 3. These detection limits were comparable to similar studies and were not compromised incorporating these adjustments. The use of a labeled internal standard and an inert gaseous environment during sample preparation greatly improved calibration linearity and sensitivity. Furthermore, phytochelatin degradation was significantly reduced and more accurately tracked. Previous studies involving phytochelatin analyses have likely been subject to higher variability caused by this propensity for phytochelatins to degrade rapidly in air. The method adjustments were simple and cost-effective and allowed phytochelatin analyses to be performed for hours at a time with minimal auto-oxidation. PMID:19688341

  8. LC-MS/MS method for the determination of haemanthamine in rat plasma, bile and urine and its application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hroch, Miloš; Mičuda, Stanislav; Havelek, Radim; Cermanová, Jolana; Cahlíková, Lucie; Hošťálková, Anna; Hulcová, Daniela; Řezáčová, Martina

    2016-07-01

    Evidence gathered in various studies points to the fact that haemanthamine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has multiple medicinally interesting characteristics, including antitumor, antileukemic, antioxidant, antiviral, anticonvulsant and antimalarial activity. This work presents, for the first time, a universal LC-MS/MS method for analysis of haemanthamine in plasma, bile and urine which has been verified in a pilot pharmacokinetic experiment on rats. Chromatographic separation was performed on a pentafluorophenyl core-shell column in gradient elution mode with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-methanol-ammonium formate buffer. A sample preparation based on liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether was employed with ambelline used as an internal standard. Quantification was performed using LC-MS-ESI(+) in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode. The method was validated according to the European Medicines Agency guideline in a concentration range of 0.1-10 μmol/L in plasma, bile and urine. The concentration-time profiles of haemanthamine in plasma, bile and urine after a single i.v. bolus of 10 mg/kg have been described for the first time. The presented study addresses the lack of information on haemanthamine pharmacokinetics and also introduces a new universal method of haemanthamine analysis in complex biological matrices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26577707

  9. Extraction, thermal cleanup, and GC/MS quantification with disposable solid extractants: application to hydrophobic analytes in aqueous surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Begnaud, Frédéric; Debonneville, Christian; Chaintreau, Alain

    2011-02-01

    Fragranced consumer products are generally formulated together with surfactants. In application, these products are often highly diluted with water. Analyzing trace amounts of fragrance ingredients in such mixtures is challenging and usually requires either time-consuming sample cleanup or extensive cleaning of the trapping device to avoid memory effect and cross-contamination between samples. To overcome these limitations, a new disposable extraction device has been developed to be used in combination with a thermodesorption-GC-MS unit. Made of PDMS foam cylinders, it efficiently extracts trace amounts of hydrophobic compounds from complex aqueous solutions and provides an online sample cleanup, thanks to the controlled desorption temperature, which allows retaining the low volatile constituents of the matrix within the absorptive foam. Combined with a stable isotope dilution assay, accurate quantifications of Cetalox(®), Muscenone™, Helvetolide(®), Polysantol(®), Dartanol, and Myrrhone(®) from aqueous solution containing surfactant and from water from the aeration tank of a sewage plant were successfully conducted. LOQ varied between 1 and 25 ppb (20% confidence interval, α = 0.1). PMID:21254400

  10. The development and assessment of high-throughput mass spectrometry-based methods for the quantification of a nanoparticle drug delivery agent in cellular lysate.

    PubMed

    Buse, Joshua; Purves, Randy W; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko; Zhang, Haixia; Mulligan, Christopher C; Peru, Kerry M; Bailey, Jonathan; Headley, John V; El-Aneed, Anas

    2014-11-01

    The safe use of lipid-based drug delivery agents requires fast and sensitive qualitative and quantitative assessment of their cellular interactions. Many mass spectrometry (MS) based analytical platforms can achieve such task with varying capabilities. Therefore, four novel high-throughput MS-based quantitative methods were evaluated for the analysis of a small organic gene delivery agent: N,N-bis(dimethylhexadecyl)-1,3-propane-diammonium dibromide (G16-3). Analysis utilized MS instruments that detect analytes using low-resolution tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis (i.e. QTRAP or linear ion trap in this work) or high-resolution MS analysis (i.e. time of flight (ToF) or Orbitrap). Our results indicate that the validated fast chromatography (FC)-QTRAP-MS/MS, FC- LTQ-Orbitrap-MS, desorption electrospray ionization-collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS/MS and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-ToF/ToF-MS MS methods were superior in the area of method development and sample analysis time to a previously developed liquid chromatography (LC)-CID-MS/MS. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the abilities of five MS-based quantitative methods that target a single pharmaceutical analyte. Our findings indicate that, in comparison to conventional LC-CID-MS/MS, the new MS-based methods resulted in a (1) substantial reduction in the analysis time, (2) reduction in the time required for method development and (3) production of either superior or comparable quantitative data. The four new high-throughput MS methods, therefore, were faster, more efficient and less expensive than a conventional LC-CID-MS/MS for the quantification of the G16-3 analyte within tissue culture. When applied to cellular lysate, no significant change in the concentration of G16-3 gemini surfactant within PAM212 cells was observed between 5 and 53 h, suggesting the absence of any metabolism/excretion from PAM212 cells. PMID:25395133

  11. Simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS-based assay for the quantification of dimemorfan in human plasma for use in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongyi; Peng, Jinfu; Pei, Qi; Yang, Liu; Chen, Jun; Guo, Chengxian; Hua, Ye; Yuan, Hong; Yang, Guoping

    2015-05-01

    Dimemorfan phosphate has been widely used for 40 years throughout the world for the treatment of coughs. This is the first report on the use of an LC-MS/MS-based assay for the determination of dimemorfan in human plasma using estazolam as an internal standard after one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (3 µm, 50 × 2.0 mm) using a fast gradient method, which involves water and methanol as the mobile phase (both containing 0.1% formic acid). Dimemorfan and estazolam were detected with proton adducts at m/z values of 255.8 → 155.1 and 295.0 → 267.0, respectively, in the selected reaction monitoring positive mode. The linear dynamic range of the assay was 0.04-5.00 ng/mL. The chromatographic run time for each plasma sample was <5 min. The method was proven to be accurate, precise, and repeatable. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of dimemorfan in a pharmacokinetic study using healthy Chinese subjects. PMID:25262813

  12. A new quantification method for assessing plasma concentrations of pemetrexed and its polyglutamate metabolites.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Marcel P; Visser, Sabine; van Dijk, Evert; Aerts, Joachim G J V; Stricker, Bruno H; Luider, Theo M

    2016-09-01

    Currently no quantification method exists for potentially therapeutically relevant polyglutamate metabolites of the drug pemetrexed which is used for the treatment of lung carcinoma patients. We developed and tested an LC-MS/MS-based analytical assay that uses isotope-labeled internal standards to quantify pemetrexed and its (poly)glutamate metabolites in clinical human plasma samples of lung carcinoma patients. UHPLC chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry showed an LLOQ of 0.2nmol/L for pemetrexed and an LLOQ of 0.5nmol/L for the two metabolites (one glutamate and two glutamate moieties covalently bound to the pemetrexed molecule, for which no other quantification methods have previously been published). The recoveries for PMTX and its metabolites ranged between 30% and 67%. Precision and accuracy at a concentration of 20nmol/L for all four analytes was well below 15% CV. The precision (RSD) in the biological replicates of the separate days (within-run precision) as well as the reproducibility over several days (between-run precision), tested in the range of 5-250nmol/L, were all below 15%. Autosampler, benchtop and freeze-thaw cycle stability of the analytes was also demonstrated. To illustrate the new assay in a relevant biological context, concentrations of pemetrexed and the two metabolites were quantified in plasma samples of lung carcinoma patients treated with pemetrexed. The assay is straightforward, relatively easy to perform, and has potential for use in therapeutic drug monitoring in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. PMID:27209449

  13. Drug detection and quantification directly from tissue using novel ionization methods for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beixi; Dearring, Chenelle L; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Solvent assisted ionization inlet (SAII) and matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) were used to quantify rapidly an antipsychotic drug, clozapine, directly from surfaces with minimal sample preparation. This simple surface analysis method based on SAII- and MAIV-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed to allow the detection of endogenous lipids, metabolites, and clozapine directly from sections of mouse brain tissue. A rapid surface assessment was achieved by SAII with the assistance of heat applied to the mass spectrometer inlet. MAIV provided an improved reproducibility without the need of a heated inlet. In addition, isotope dilution and standard addition were used without sample clean-up, and the results correlate well with liquid chromatography tandem MS using sample work-up. Using the simple surface methods, standard solutions containing clozapine and a deuterated internal standard (clozapine-d8) at different concentration ratios were used in the extraction and quantification of clozapine from brain tissue sections of a drug-treated mouse using different tissue thicknesses. The amount of clozapine extracted by these surface methods was independent of tissue thickness. PMID:26307700

  14. Validated method for the quantification of free and total carnitine, butyrobetaine, and acylcarnitines in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Paul E; Stoll, Maria S K; Ingalls, Stephen T; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L

    2015-09-01

    A validated quantitative method for the determination of free and total carnitine, butyrobetaine, and acylcarnitines is presented. The versatile method has four components: (1) isolation using strong cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, (2) derivatization with pentafluorophenacyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, (3) sequential ion-exchange/reversed-phase (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography [(U)HPLC] using a strong cation-exchange trap in series with a fused-core HPLC column, and (4) detection with electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS). Standardized carnitine along with 65 synthesized, standardized acylcarnitines (including short-chain, medium-chain, long-chain, dicarboxylic, hydroxylated, and unsaturated acyl moieties) were used to construct multiple-point calibration curves, resulting in accurate and precise quantification. Separation of the 65 acylcarnitines was accomplished in a single chromatogram in as little as 14 min. Validation studies were performed showing a high level of accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. The method provides capabilities unavailable by tandem MS procedures, making it an ideal approach for confirmation of newborn screening results and for clinical and basic research projects, including treatment protocol studies, acylcarnitine biomarker studies, and metabolite studies using plasma, urine, tissue, or other sample matrixes. PMID:26270397

  15. Determination of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Li; Lou, Dan; Zhang, Dong-Tao; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Huan-Jie

    2016-08-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rat plasma. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1 % formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 436.1 → 145.1 for rivaroxaban, m/z 460.0 → 443.1 for apixaban, m/z 548.2 → 366.1 for edoxaban and m/z 285.2 → 193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 1.0-200 ng/mL for rivaroxaban, 1.0-100 ng/mL for apixaban and 1.0-500 ng/mL for edoxaban. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.5 min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations <10.5 % and the accuracy values ranged from -9.9 to 11.3 %. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rats. PMID:27116356

  16. Simultaneous quantification of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline)adenosine and its principal metabolites in hamster blood by LC-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yufei; Wang, Baolian; Wu, Xiangmeng; Li, Sheng; Hu, Jinping; Wang, Dongmei; Zhu, Haibo; Li, Yan

    2016-06-01

    2',3',5'-Tri-O-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline)adenosine (IMM-H007, once called WS070117) is being developed as a novel anti-hyperlipidemia agent for its high efficacy and low toxicity. In this study, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous quantification of IMM-H007 and its two major metabolites (3S,4R,5R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(6-((3-hydroxyphenyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahdrofuran-3,4-diol (M1) and ((2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-((3-hydroxyphenyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl dihydrogen phosphate (MP) in hamster blood. An analogue of IMM-H007, WS070119 was used as the internal standard. Blood samples were prepared by a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on a ReproSil-Pur 120C18 column (3μm, 2mm×100mm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol/water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v) in a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. Detection was carried out on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The monitored transitions were 486.2→228.1 for IMM-H007, 360.0→228.0 for M1, 440.0→228.0 for MP and 374.1→242.0 for the internal standard, respectively. Satisfactory linearity was obtained for the analytes over the range of 1-500ng/mL for IMM-H007, 2-1000ng/mL for M1 and 10-5000ng/mL for MP. The lower limits of the quantification (LLOQs) were 1ng/mL for IMM-H007, 2ng/mL for M1 and 10ng/mL for MP. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD, %) of the analytes were within 14.2%, and the accuracy (RE, %) ranged from -9.4% to 10.7%. The average recoveries of the analytes were more than 80.0%. The analytes were proved to be stable during given storage, preparation, and analytic procedures. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study in hamsters after oral administration of IMM-H007. PMID:27082762

  17. Quantification in MALDI-MS imaging: what can we learn from MALDI-selected reaction monitoring and what can we expect for imaging?

    PubMed

    Porta, Tiffany; Lesur, Antoine; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Quantification by mass spectrometry imaging (Q-MSI) is one of the hottest topics of the current discussions among the experts of the MS imaging community. If MSI is established as a powerful qualitative tool in drug and biomarker discovery, its reliability for absolute and accurate quantification (QUAN) is still controversial. Indeed, Q-MSI has to deal with several fundamental aspects that are difficult to control, and to account for absolute quantification. The first objective of this manuscript is to review the state-of-the-art of Q-MSI and the current strategies developed for absolute quantification by direct surface sampling from tissue sections. This includes comments on the quest for the perfect matrix-matched standards and signal normalization approaches. Furthermore, this work investigates quantification at a pixel level to determine how many pixels must be considered for accurate quantification by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), the most widely used technique for MSI. Particularly, this study focuses on the MALDI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in rastering mode, previously demonstrated as a quantitative and robust approach for small analyte and peptide-targeted analyses. The importance of designing experiments of good quality and the use of a labeled compound for signal normalization is emphasized to minimize the signal variability. This is exemplified by measuring the signal for cocaine and a tryptic peptide (i.e., obtained after digestion of a monoclonal antibody) upon different experimental conditions, such as sample stage velocity, laser power and frequency, or distance between two raster lines. Our findings show that accurate quantification cannot be performed on a single pixel but requires averaging of at least 4-5 pixels. The present work demonstrates that MALDI-SRM/MSI is quantitative with precision better than 10-15 %, which meets the requirements of most guidelines (i.e., in bioanalysis or toxicology) for

  18. Using Visualized Matrix Effects to Develop and Improve LC-MS/MS Bioanalytical Methods, Taking TRAM-34 as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Pao, Li-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Matrix effects (MEs) continue to be an obstacle in the development of the LC-MS/MS method, with phospholipids being the major cause of MEs. Changing the mobile phase has been a common strategy to reduce MEs; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. "In-source multiple-reaction monitoring" (IS-MRM) for glycerophosphocholines (PCs) has been commonly applied in many bioanalytical methods. "Visualized MEs" is a suitable term to describe the application of IS-MRM to visualize the elution pattern of phospholipids. We selected a real case to discuss the relationship of MEs and phospholipids in different mobile phases by quantitative, qualitative, and visualized MEs in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis. The application of visualized MEs not only predicts the ion-suppression zone but also helps in selecting an appropriate (1) mobile phase, (2) column, (3) needle wash solvent for the residue of analyte and phospholipids, and (4) evaluates the clean-up efficiency of sample preparation. The TRAM-34 LC-MS/MS method, improved by using visualized MEs, was shown to be a precise and accurate analytical method. All data indicated that the use of visualized MEs indeed provided useful information about the LC-MS/MS method development and improvement. In this study, an integrative approach for the qualitative, quantitative, and visualized MEs was used to decipher the complexity of MEs. PMID:25909956

  19. Development and validation of an on-line multidimensional SPE-LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of Tetrandrine in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Sena; Morello, Rosa; Boos, Karl-Siegfried

    2015-04-15

    On-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) is becoming an increasingly widespread technique in the clean-up of complex matrices such as body fluids, prior to chromatographic analysis. The use of small SPE columns instead of disposable SPE cartridges allows multiple injections and complete automation. In addition, it decreases the cost of consumables and improves the quality of the overall analysis. Coupling of SPE with HPLC combines sample preparation and separation in one system. In this paper a validated on-line multidimensional (MD) SPE-LC-MS/MS method is described for the determination of Tetrandrine (model drug) in human blood samples. The developed method showed the applicability of direct injection of plasma samples to an on-line MD-SPE-LC-MS/MS system to determine small molecules i.e. drugs. The experimental design is unique. Quantification was through tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The limit of detection was calculated as 31.98 ng/mL. The linear range of the method was between 40.0 and 800.0 ng/mL. Pharmacokinetic parameters are usually determined by analysis of drug concentrations in plasma rather than whole blood. Parameters determined using plasma data may be misleading if concentrations of drug differ between plasma and red blood cells. We successfully applied the developed method for the determination of the distribution coefficient of the model drug Tetrandrine between human red blood cells and blood plasma proteins. The determination of distribution coefficient study results demonstrated that the developed method can provide direct and accurate measurement of RBC partitioning in a model drug and could be applied for screening of other compounds for potential high RBC partition, predicting potential drug toxicity and investigating mechanisms associated with RBC partitions. PMID:25746132

  20. Simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study of Longhu Rendan pills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianming; Ding, Liqing; Jin, Huajia; Shi, Rong; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jiasheng; Li, Yifei; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid from Longhu Rendan pills in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a gradient of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid containing 0.2 mm ammonium acetate as mobile phase. The analytes were quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in selected reaction monitoring mode and switching the electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. The calibration curves of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid were linear over the concentration ranges of 5-2000, 5-2000, 0.5-200, 0.5-200, 0.25-100, 0.25-100, 0.025-10 and 0.50-200 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions and accuracies were <11.6 and 91.9-108.2%, respectively, for all analytes. Matrix effects for all analytes were between 88.2 and 114.2%. Stability testing showed that all analytes were stable in plasma at 24 °C for 3 h, at 4 °C for 24 h, after three freeze-thaw cycles, and at -80 °C for 15 days. The method was successfully applied to an in vivo study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of multiple nonvolatile compounds following intragastric administration of Longhu Rendan pills to rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26613237

  1. Simultaneous quantification of chlorogenic acid and taurocholic acid in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Gu, Pan; Liu, Rui-Juan; Cheng, Min-Lu; Wu, Yao; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Peng-Cheng; Ding, Li

    2016-04-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and taurocholic acid (TCA) in human plasma using hydrochlorothiazide as the internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column with a gradient elution using 10 mmol·L(-1) of ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.5% of formic acid - acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL·min(-1). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring in negative ESI mode. The method was fully validated over the concentration ranges of 0.1-10 ng·mL(-1) for CGA and 2-150 ng·mL(-1) for TCA. It was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of CGA and TCA in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets (SBTs). In the single-dose study, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax) and elimination half-life (t1/2) of CGA were (0.763 8 ± 0.542 0) ng·mL(-1), (1.0 ± 0.5) h, and (1.3 ± 0.6) h, respectively. In the multiple-dose study, the Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 of CGA were (0.663 7 ± 0.583 3) ng·mL(-1), (1.1 ± 0.5) h, and (1.4 ± 0.7) h, respectively. For TCA, no significant characteristic increasing plasma TCA concentration-time curve was found in the volunteers after oral administration of SBTs, indicating its complicated process in vivo as an endogenous ingredient. PMID:27114321

  2. Evaluation of a new method for stenosis quantification from 3D x-ray angiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betting, Fabienne; Moris, Gilles; Knoplioch, Jerome; Trousset, Yves L.; Sureda, Francisco; Launay, Laurent

    2001-05-01

    A new method for stenosis quantification from 3D X-ray angiography images has been evaluated on both phantom and clinical data. On phantoms, for the parts larger or equal to 3 mm, the standard deviation of the measurement error has always found to be less or equal to 0.4 mm, and the maximum measurement error less than 0.17 mm. No clear relationship has been observed between the performances of the quantification method and the acquisition FoV. On clinical data, the 3D quantification method proved to be more robust to vessel bifurcations than its 3D equivalent. On a total of 15 clinical cases, the differences between 2D and 3D quantification were always less than 0.7 mm. The conclusion is that stenosis quantification from 3D X-4ay angiography images is an attractive alternative to quantification from 2D X-ray images.

  3. Validated methods for determination of neurotransmitters and metabolites in rodent brain tissue and extracellular fluid by reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Lundanes, Elsa; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere

    2016-08-15

    Fast and sensitive methods for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), the two DA-metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), serotonin (5-HT) and the 5-HT-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rodent brain tissue (1.0-4000nM) and extracellular fluid (ECF) (0.5-2000nM) based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) have been developed. Of the three different sample preparation methods for brain tissue samples tested, a simple and rapid protein precipitation procedure with formic acid was found to give the best results. The neurotransmitters (NTs) and NT metabolites were separated using UHPLC with an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.8μm particle size) with acidic mobile phase. Gradient elution with methanol was used and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The total run time was 5.2min including equilibration time. The methods were validated by determining calibration model, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), matrix effects (ME), carry-over and stability. Surrogate analytes were used to enable determination of the recovery and ME of the endogenous analytes in brain tissue. The methods were applied for determination of NTs at basal levels in rodent brain ECF and brain tissue homogenate. The developed methods are valuable tools in the studies of mechanisms of drugs of abuse, and neurologic and psychiatric disease. PMID:27336704

  4. AN IMPROVED HPLC-MS/MS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ISOXAFLUTOLE (BALANCE) AND ITS METABOLITES IN SOILS AND FORAGE PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analytical method using turbo-spray and heat-nebulizer high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of isoxaflutole (IXF) and its two metabolites, diketonitrile (DKN) and the benzoic acid metabolite (BA), at sub 'g/kg levels in soil a...

  5. Development of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of chlortetracycline degradation in swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed capable of simultaneously measuring chlortetracycline (CTC), epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC) and isochlortetracycline (ICTC), as well as other structurally related tetracyclines in swine manur...

  6. Development of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of chlortetracycline degradation in swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed capable of simultaneously measuring chlortetracycline (CTC), epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC), isochlortetracycline (ICTC), oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in swine manure. A simple sample pr...

  7. A Software Toolkit and Interface for Performing Stable Isotope Labeling and Top3 Quantification Using Progenesis LC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Brownridge, Philip; Xia, Dong; Mackay, Katherine; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F.; Kenyani, Jenna; Harman, Victoria; Beynon, Robert J.; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Numerous software packages exist to provide support for quantifying peptides and proteins from mass spectrometry (MS) data. However, many support only a subset of experimental methods or instrument types, meaning that laboratories often have to use multiple software packages. The Progenesis LC-MS software package from Nonlinear Dynamics is a software solution for label-free quantitation. However, many laboratories using Progenesis also wish to employ stable isotope-based methods that are not natively supported in Progenesis. We have developed a Java programming interface that can use the output files produced by Progenesis, allowing the basic MS features quantified across replicates to be used in a range of different experimental methods. We have developed post-processing software (the Progenesis Post-Processor) to embed Progenesis in the analysis of stable isotope labeling data and top3 pseudo-absolute quantitation. We have also created export ability to the new data standard, mzQuantML, produced by the Proteomics Standards Initiative to facilitate the development and standardization process. The software is provided to users with a simple graphical user interface for accessing the different features. The underlying programming interface may also be used by Java developers to develop other routines for analyzing data produced by Progenesis. PMID:22888986

  8. Rapid method for the quantification of hydroquinone concentration: chemiluminescent analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Shen, Chia-Yao; Padma, V Vijaya; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    Topical hydroquinone serves as a skin whitener and is usually available in cosmetics or on prescription based on the hydroquinone concentration. Quantification of hydroquinone content therefore becomes an important issue in topical agents. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the commonest method for determining hydroquinone content in topical agents, but this method is time-consuming and uses many solvents that can become an environmental issue. We report a rapid method for quantifying hydroquinone content by chemiluminescent analysis. Hydroquinone induces the production of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of basic compounds. Hydrogen peroxide induced by hydroquinone oxidized light-emitting materials such as lucigenin, resulted in the production of ultra-weak chemiluminescence that was detected by a chemiluminescence analyzer. The intensity of the chemiluminescence was found to be proportional to the hydroquinone concentration. We suggest that the rapid (measurement time, 60 s) and virtually solvent-free (solvent volume, <2 mL) chemiluminescent method described here for quantifying hydroquinone content may be an alternative to HPLC analysis. PMID:25693839

  9. Chemical quantification and antioxidant assay of four active components in Ficus hirta root using UPLC-PAD-MS fingerprinting combined with cluster analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root of Ficus hirta (RFH) is widely consumed in China as a plant-derived popular food. However, contents of the active constituents of RFH are unknown, and the chemical as well as bioactive properties of RFH may be affected by growing area. In order to ensure the standard efficacy of health products made with RFH, its active constituents should firstly be determined and, secondly, a means of assessing samples for their contents of these constituents is needed. Results Four active components, including two coumarins, namely psoralen and bergapten, and two flavonoids, namely luteolin and apigenin, in twenty RFH samples were quantified using a new ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry (UPLC-PAD-MS) method, and the content level in descending order was psoralen > bergapten > luteolin > apigenin. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation and cluster analysis were used to assess geographical origin of RFH, and the results revealed a high level of similarity for the tested RFH samples obtained from Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi provinces and Hong Kong. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potencies of the four components, and the results clearly demonstrated that luteolin was most effective; apigenin exhibited a moderate potency, whereas psoralen and bergapten possessed little effect against free radical reactions. Structure-activity relationship of the components was elucidated, and the 3′-hydroxyl group of luteolin was found to be directly responsible for its antioxidant activity. Conclusion The present UPLC-PAD-MS method and DPPH radical scavenging assay performed well for the purpose of constituent quantification and antioxidant assay. Global profiles were highly similar for RFH samples from different origins. Both the coumarins and flavonoids were involved in the health benefit of RFH. PMID:23835498

  10. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. PMID:24814508

  11. Validated LC--MS/MS method for determination of YH-8, a novel PKnB inhibitor, in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qianqian; Pang, Jing; Li, Guoqing; Li, Congran; Yang, Xinyi; Yu, Liyan; Wang, Yucheng; Li, Jian; You, Xuefu

    2015-01-01

    (E)-Methyl-4-aryl-4-oxabut-2-enoate (YH-8) is a novel PKnB protein kinase inhibitor with good anti-tuberculosis activity. To evaluate its pharmacokinetics in rats, a sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC--MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of YH-8 in rat plasma for the first time. Samples were pre-treated using a liquid--liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and the chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column by gradient elution with methanol--water as the mobile phase. YH-8 was detected using a tandem mass spectrometer in positive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Method validation revealed good linearity over the range of 1–500 ng/mL for YH-8 with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision of YH-8 assay in rat plasma samples were 2.0%–6.8%, with accuracy of the method being 100.69%–106.18%. Stability test showed that when spiked into rat plasma, YH-8 was stable for 12 h at room temperature, for up to 15 days at −70 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. Extracted samples were found to be stable over 12 h in an auto-sampler. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of YH-8 in rats after oral administration at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. PMID:26579477

  12. Application of a validated LC-MS/MS method for JWH-073 and its metabolites in blood and urine in real forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Serkan; Ozturk, Yeter Erol; Yeter, Oya; Alpertunga, Buket

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids, which were synthesized to improve the therapeutic effects of cannabis, have become a major issue when they are abused. They have different chemical structures from tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but similar effects on endocannabinoid receptors. "Spice" named products have more serious side effects than cannabis and can even cause death. These mixtures are prepared by spraying chemicals onto small pieces of herbs and are being dishonestly sold as "natural" and "legal" products over the internet. Their popularity is continuously increasing. Studies on detecting synthetic cannabinoids in biological samples as well as pharmacology and toxicology studies of these chemicals are very limited. A fast, specific and robust method for the detection and quantification of JWH-073, JWH-073 N-butanoic acid, and JWH-073 N-(4-hydroxybutyl) in blood and urine has been developed that uses solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. This method has been validated in terms of its linearity (0.1-50 ng/mL), selectivity, intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV<10%), recovery (75-95%), limits of detection (LODs) (0.08-0.13 ng/mL), and limits of quantification (LOQs) (0.11-0.17 ng/mL). Matrix effects, stability, and process efficiency parameters of this method have also been assessed. This method was applied to 2596 authentic samples received by the Department of Toxicology (Istanbul) in the Presidency of Council of Forensic Medicine (Turkey) between September 1, 2012, and February 28, 2015. PMID:26360591

  13. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus A G; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g(-1) of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of (13)C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with (13)C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when (13)C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO3 (v v(-1)) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g(-1). Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried aqueous

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Computational Approaches to Relative Protein Quantification Using Peptide Peak Intensities in Label-free LC-MS Proteomics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, Melissa M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Metz, Thomas O.; Pounds, Joel G.; Rodland, Karin D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Smith, Richard D.; Waters, Katrina M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2013-02-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is widely used to identify and quantify peptides in complex biological samples. In particular, label-free shotgun proteomics is highly effective for the identification of peptides and subsequently obtaining a global protein profile of a sample. As a result, this approach is widely used for discovery studies. Typically, the objective of these discovery studies is to identify proteins that are affected by some condition of interest (e.g. disease, exposure). However, for complex biological samples, label-free LC-MS proteomics experiments measure peptides and do not directly yield protein quantities. Thus, protein quantification must be inferred from one or more measured peptides. In recent years, many computational approaches to relative protein quantification of label-free LC-MS data have been published. In this review, we examine the most commonly employed quantification approaches to relative protein abundance from peak intensity values, evaluate their individual merits, and discuss challenges in the use of the various computational approaches.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its active metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to their pharmacokinetic interaction study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Zheng, Shuangli; Pan, Yongyang; Li, Tao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Shao, Meng-Meng

    2016-09-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 299.2→150.1 for vortioxetine, m/z 407.2→100.3 for carvedilol, m/z 423.2→100.1 for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol and m/z 285.2→193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL for vortioxetine, 0.5-1000ng/mL for carvedilol and 0.1-50ng/mL for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD)<11.6% and the accuracy values ranged from -12.2% to 11.3%. The analytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic interaction study of vortioxetine and carvedilol after oral administration vortioxetine and carvedilol in rats. Results suggested that the co-administration of vortioxetine and carvedilol results in a significant drug interaction in rats. PMID:27262994

  16. Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation Hyphenated ICP-MS as an Alternative to Cloud Point Extraction for Quantification of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Speciation: Application for Nanoparticles with a Protein Corona.

    PubMed

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Linder, Sean W

    2015-07-21

    Production and application of nanoparticles in consumer products is at an all-time high due to the emerging field of nanotechnology. Direct detection and quantification of trace levels of nanoparticles within consumer products is very challenging and problematic. Although multiple methodologies are available for this purpose, each method has its own set of limitations. Herein, we developed an analytical platform consisting of asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for the speciation and quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles at the ng/kg level (ppt). AF4 is utilized to concentrate the nanoparticles, and ICP-MS acts as the detector. The protein corona that forms upon exposure of nanoparticles to bovine serum albumin was utilized as a nanoparticle stabilization and AF4 recovery enhancement mechanism. Speciation of silver ions and nanoparticles was achieved with the assistance of penicillamine as a complexation ligand. The effect of nanoparticle size, surface coating, and ionization state toward the detection and quantification of the developed methodology was evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 4 ng/kg with the application of a 5 mL sample loop. Further application of this developed methodology on environmentally relevant samples was demonstrated by the analysis of Arkansas River water spiked with silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle spiked into humic acid solution (50 mg/L) at an environmentally relevant level. PMID:26095720

  17. Simultaneous development of six LC-MS-MS methods for the determination of multiple analytes in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Naidong, Weng; Bu, Haizhi; Chen, Yu Luan; Shou, Wilson Z; Jiang, Xiangyu; Halls, Timothy D J

    2002-06-15

    Traditional sequential single analyte method development is both time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this report, a concept of simultaneously developing multiple liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods were proposed. Mass spectrometric and chromatographic conditions as well as sample preparation methods for all analytes were optimized concurrently. Mass spectrometric conditions for six analytes, i.e. clonidine (CLO), albuterol (ALB), fentanyl (FEN), ritonavir (RIT), naltrexone (NAL), and loratadine (LOR), were established simultaneously using the Sciex Analyst software. LC-MS-MS sensitivities obtained using gradient elution methods on reversed-phase Inertsil ODS3 and normal phase Betasil silica columns were compared. Sample extraction methods using protein precipitation, liquid/liquid extraction, or solid-phase extraction (SPE) were evaluated. Recovery of analytes was determined. Matrix effects and interference due to endogenous compounds were investigated. Selection of a potential internal standard was discussed. PMID:12049976

  18. LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for mycotoxin determination in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Diana Di Mavungu, Jose; Monbaliu, Sofie; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Callebaut, Alfons; Robbens, Johan; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2009-06-01

    A multi-analyte method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of mycotoxins in food supplements is presented. The analytes included A and B trichothecenes (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin), aflatoxins (aflatoxin-B(1), aflatoxin-B(2), aflatoxin-G(1) and aflatoxin-G(2)), Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altenuene), fumonisins (fumonisin-B(1), fumonisin-B(2) and fumonisin-B(3)), ochratoxin A, zearalenone, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin. Optimization of the simultaneous extraction of these toxins and the sample pretreatment procedure, as well as method validation were performed on maca (Lepidium meyenii) food supplements. The results indicated that the solvent mixture ethyl acetate/formic acid (95:5, v/v) was the best compromise for the extraction of the analytes from food supplements. Liquid-liquid partition with n-hexane was applied as partial clean-up step to remove excess of co-extracted non-polar components. Further clean-up was performed on Oasis HLB cartridges. Samples were analysed using an Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Micromass Quattro Micro triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operated in the positive-ion mode. Limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.3-30 ng g(-1) and 1-100 ng g(-1), respectively. Recovery yields were above 60% for most of the analytes, except for nivalenol, sterigmatocystine and the fumonisins. The method showed good precision and trueness. Analysis of different food supplements such as soy (Glycine max) isoflavones, St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), garlic (Allium sativum), Ginkgo biloba, and black radish (Raphanus niger) demonstrated the general applicability of the method. Due to different matrix effects observed in different food supplement samples, the standard addition approach was applied to

  19. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of PA-824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Xu, Yue; Liang, Li; Diao, Chunyan; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Shengyong

    2014-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PA-824, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide in rat plasma using metronidazole as internal standard. Sample preparation involved a simple one-step protein precipitation with methanol, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic solvent. The residue was redissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An Inertsil(®) ODS3 C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm), a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.03% TEA (triethylamine) in water (85:15, v/v), and a flow rate of 0.5mL/min were employed, and the total run time was 6.0min. The mass spectrometer was run in positive ion ESI-APCI combined mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to monitor the mass transitions. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, and matrix effect. All validation parameters met the acceptance criteria according to regulatory guidelines. The LLOQ was 1.0μg/mL for pyrazinamide and 0.1μg/mL for PA-824 and moxifloxacin. The recoveries obtained for PA-824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide were ≥85%. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The method had been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of fixed dose administration of PA-824, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide and their combination in SD rat. Significant differences of Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-t) and CLz/F were observed between the single and combined groups after equal dose of PA-824 and moxifloxacin administration, which revealed the possibility of drug-drug interaction (DDI) between the PaMZ combination. PMID:24798753

  20. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of four flavonoids from Semen Oroxyli in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sixi; Teng, Shiyong; Zhai, Lijie

    2016-05-01

    Semen Oroxyli, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, has many significant pharmacological activities such as analgesic, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunostimulant activities. A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of four flavonoids (oroxin A, oroxin B, baicalin, and chrysin) of Semen Oroxyli in rat plasma. After the addition of internal standard, plasma samples were pretreated with acetonitrile via a single-step protein precipitation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 column (100mm×2.0mm, 5μm particles) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase of methanol and 2mM ammonium acetate buffer solution (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45mL/min. The analytes were detected without interference in the selection reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The validated method exhibited good linearity over a wide concentration range (r≥0.9958), and the lower limits of quantification were 1.0-5.5ng/mL for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes from rat plasma exceeded 80.6%. The intra- and inter-day precisions at three QC levels were both less than 11.5%, and the accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 10.3%. The LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the four flavonoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Semen Oroxyli extract. PMID:27038401

  1. Highly sensitive LC-MS/MS-ESI method for determination of phenelzine in human plasma and its application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Raja Reddy; Jillela, Bhupathi; Ravula, Arun Reddy; Samala, Ramakrishna; Andy, Adinarayana; Ramesh, Mullangi; Rao, Jvln Seshagiri

    2016-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for quantification of the phenelzine (PZ) in 200μL of human plasma using hydroxyzine (HZ) as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. The sample preparation involved the derivatization of PZ using pentaflurobenzaldehyde followed by solid phase extraction process to extract PZ and HZ from human plasma. LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM) using the electro spray ionization technique in positive ion mode and the transitions of m/z 305.1→105.1 and m/z 375.3→201.1 were used to measure the derivative of PZ and IS, respectively. The total run time was 3.5min and the elution of PZ and HZ occurred at 2.53, and 1.92min, respectively; this was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min on an Ace C18 column with a split ratio of 70:30. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation 0.51ng/mL. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 0.51-25.2ng/mL (r>0.995) for PZ. The intra- and inter-day precision values met the acceptance criteria. PZ was stable in the battery of stability studies viz., stock solution, bench-top, auto-sampler, long-term and freeze/thaw cycles. The developed assay method was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans. PMID:27085800

  2. A LC-MS method to quantify tenofovir urinary concentrations in treated patients.

    PubMed

    Simiele, Marco; Carcieri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Ariaudo, Alessandra; Sciandra, Mauro; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonora, Stefano; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-10-10

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a prodrug of tenofovir used in the treatment of HIV and HBV infections: it is the most used antiretroviral worldwide. Tenofovir is nucleotidic HIV reverse trascriptase inhibitor that showed excellent long-term efficacy and tolerability. However renal and bone complications (proximal tubulopathy, hypophosphatemia, decreased bone mineral density, and reduced creatinine clearance) limit its use. Tenofovir renal toxicity has been suggested as the consequence of drug entrapment in proximal tubular cells: measuring tenofovir urinary concentrations may be a proxy of this event and it may be used as predictor of tenofovir side effects. No method is currently available for quantifying tenofovir in this matrix: then, the aim of this work was to validate a new LC-MS method for the quantification of urinary tenofovir. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a gradient (acetonitrile and water with formic acid 0.05%) on an Atlantis 5 μm T3, 4.6 mm × 150 mm, reversed phase analytical column. Detection of tenofovir and internal standard was achieved by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode. Calibration ranged from 391 to 100,000 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 391 ng/mL and the limit of detection was 195 ng/mL. Mean recovery of tenofovir and internal standard were consistent and stable, while matrix effect resulted low and stable. The method was tested on 35 urine samples from HIV-positive patients treated with tenofovir-based HAARTs and did not show any significant interference with antiretrovirals or other concomitantly administered drugs. All the observed concentrations in real samples fitted the calibration range, confirming the capability of this method for the use in clinical routine. Whether confirmed in ad hoc studies this method may be used for quantifying tenofovir urinary concentrations and help managing HIV-positive patients treated with tenofovir. PMID:25997174

  3. Quantification and remote detection of nitro explosives by helium plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS) on a modified atmospheric pressure source designed for electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihua; Pavlov, Julius; Attygalle, Athula B

    2012-07-01

    Helium Plasma Ionization (HePI) generates gaseous negative ions upon exposure of vapors emanating from organic nitro compounds. A simple adaptation converts any electrospray ionization source to a HePI source by passing helium through the sample delivery metal capillary held at a negative potential. Compared with the demands of other He-requiring ambient pressure ionization sources, the consumption of helium by the HePI source is minimal (20-30 ml/min). Quantification experiments conducted by exposing solid deposits to a HePI source revealed that 1 ng of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on a filter paper (about 0.01 ng/mm(2)) could be detected by this method. When vapor emanating from a 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) sample was subjected to helium plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS), a peak was observed at m/z 268 for (RDX●NO(2))(-). This facile formation of NO(2)(-) adducts was noted without the need of any extra additives as dopants. Quantitative evaluations showed RDX detection by HePI-MS to be linear over at least three orders of magnitude. TNT samples placed even 5 m away from the source were detected when the sample headspace vapor was swept by a stream of argon or nitrogen and delivered to the helium plasma ion source via a metal tube. Among the tubing materials investigated, stainless steel showed the best performance for sample delivery. A system with a copper tube, and air as the carrier gas, for example, failed to deliver any detectable amount of TNT to the source. In fact, passing over hot copper appears to be a practical way of removing TNT or other nitroaromatics from ambient air. PMID:22791251

  4. Quantification of camalexin, a phytoalexin from Arabidopsis thaliana: a comparison of five analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Beets, Caryn; Dubery, Ian

    2011-12-15

    Camalexin is a phytoalexin of Arabidopsis thaliana and an important component of inducible defenses. Accurate quantification of low concentrations suffers from interference by structurally related metabolites. A. thaliana plants were induced with silver nitrate and camalexin was extracted using methanol and identified and quantified by (i) TLC as a blue fluorescent band, (ii) microtiter plate-based fluorescence spectroscopy, (iii) GC on a midpolar column coupled to flame ionization detection, (iv) C(18) HPLC coupled to a photodiode detector, and (v) UPLC coupled to a mass spectrometer detector. Standard curves over the range of 0.1-15 μg ml(-1) gave R(2) values from 0.996 to 0.999. The different methods were compared and evaluated for their ability to detect and quantify increasing concentrations (<0.4-8 μgg(-1) FW) of camalexin. Each of the techniques presented advantages and disadvantages with regard to accuracy, precision, interference, analytical sensitivity, and limits of detection. TLC is a good qualitative technique for the identification of camalexin and fluorescence spectroscopy is subject to quenching when performed on crude extracts. Comparable results were obtained with GC-FID, HPLC-PDA, and UPLC-MS, with UPLC-MS having the added advantage of short analysis times and detection based on accurate mass. PMID:21910963

  5. Determination of paraquat and diquat: LC-MS method optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; Vela, Giovana M E; de Kok, André; Scholten, Jos M; Dias, Jonatan V; Cardoso, Carmem D; Concenço, Germani; Vivian, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    This study describes the optimization and single-laboratory validation of a single residue method for determination of two bipyridylium herbicides, paraquat and diquat, in cowpeas by UPLC-MS/MS in a total run time of 9.3min. The method is based on extraction with an acidified methanol-water mixture. Different extraction parameters (extraction solvent composition, temperature, sample extract filtration, and pre-treatment of the laboratory sample) were evaluated in order to optimize the extraction method efficiency. Isotopically labeled internal standards, Paraquat-D6 and Diquat-D4, were used and added to the test portions prior to extraction. The method validation was performed by analyzing spiked samples at three concentrations (10, 20 and 50μgkg(-1)), with seven replicates (n=7) for each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of analytical curves, accuracy (trueness as recovery % and precision as RSD%), instrument and method limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) and matrix effects were determined. Average recoveries obtained for diquat were between 77 and 85% with RSD values ⩽20%, for all spike levels studied. On the other hand, paraquat showed average recoveries between 68 and 103% with RSDs in the range 14.4-25.4%. The method LOQ was 10 and 20μgkg(-1) for diquat and paraquat, respectively. The matrix effect was significant for both pesticides. Consequently, matrix-matched calibration standards and using isotopically labeled (IL) analogues as internal standards for the target analytes are required for application in routine analysis. The validated method was successfully applied for cowpea samples obtained from various field studies. PMID:27173559

  6. LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS identification and LC-DAD quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera peltata.

    PubMed

    Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Fischer, Sonja; Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The herb of Drosera peltata, commonly named the shield sundew, is used as an antitussive in phytotherapy, although the plants' composition has not been determined in detail so far. Hence, in this study, we present a validated, sensitive, reliable, and cheap narrow-bore LC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in this herbal drug. In addition, the structures of 13 compounds have been elucidated by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and offline NMR experiments after isolation: herbacetin-3-O-glucoside (1), gossypitrin (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin-7-O-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-glucoside (6), herbacetin-7-O-glucoside (7), astragalin (8), gossypetin (9), herbacetin (10), quercetin (11), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (12), and kaempferol (13). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 have been identified in D. peltata for the first time, and compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 have not been detected in any Drosera species before. PMID:23831703

  7. Nonpolar organic compounds in fine particles: quantification by thermal desorption-GC/MS and evidence for their significant oxidation in ambient aerosols in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian Zhen; Huang, X H Hilda; Ho, Steven S H; Bian, Qijing

    2011-12-01

    Nonpolar organic compounds (NPOCs) in ambient particulate matter (PM) commonly include n-alkanes, branched alkanes, hopanes and steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The recent development of thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) has greatly reduced time and labor in their quantification by eliminating the laborious solvent extraction and sample concentration steps in the traditional approach that relies on solvent extraction. The simplicity of the TD-GCMS methods has afforded us concentration data of NPOCs in more than 90 aerosol samples in two aerosol field studies and 20 vehicular emissions-dominated source samples in Hong Kong over the past few years. In this work, we examine the interspecies relationships between select NPOCs and their concentration ratios to elemental carbon (EC) among the ambient samples and among the source samples. Our analysis indicates that hopanes were mainly from vehicular emissions and they were significantly oxidized in ambient PM. The hopane/EC ratio in ambient samples was on average less than half of the ratio in vehicular emissions-dominated source samples. This highlights the necessity in considering oxidation loss in applying organic tracer data in source apportionment studies. Select PAH/EC ratio-ratio plots reveal that PAHs had diverse sources and vehicular emissions were unlikely a dominant source for PAHs in Hong Kong. Biomass burning and other regional sources likely dominated ambient PAHs in Hong Kong. PMID:21983947

  8. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of acacetin in human plasma and its application to a protein binding study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Lee, Taehun; Lee, Hun Seok; Song, Chung Kil; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Maeng, Han-Joo; Yoon, In-Soo

    2016-02-01

    A highly sensitive bioanalytical method for the quantification of acacetin in human plasma was developed and comprehensively validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A minimal volume of human plasma sample (20 μL) was prepared by simple deproteinization with 80 μL of acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed using Kinetex C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) containing 0.1 % formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min over a total run time of 2.0 min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at the mass/charge transitions m/z 285.22 → 242.17 for acacetin and m/z 277.59 → 175.04 for chlorpropamide (internal standard). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-day validation were less than 11.9 %, and the intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from 96.8 to 108 %. Mean recovery of acacetin in human plasma was within the range of 91.5-95.6 %. This validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a human plasma protein binding study that indicated extensive and concentration-independent protein binding of acacetin in human plasma. PMID:26677081

  9. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. PMID:27507459

  10. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs (89Y, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 157Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb and 175Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001–1.000 μg∙L−1 with r2 > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009–0.010 μg∙L−1 and 0.029–0.037 μg∙L−1, the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L−1), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L−1), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L−1) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L−1) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend

  11. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs ((89)Y, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (157)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb and (175)Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001-1.000 μg ∙ L(-1) with r² > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009-0.010 μg ∙ L(-1) and 0.029-0.037 μg ∙ L(-1), the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg ∙ L(-1)), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg ∙ L(-1)), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg ∙ L(-1)) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg ∙ L(-1)) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and

  12. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A.

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  13. NMR method for accurate quantification of polysorbate 80 copolymer composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Aifa; Meng, Yang; Ning, Tingting; Yang, Huaxin; Ding, Lixia; Xiao, Xinyue; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    (13)C NMR spectroscopic integration employing short relaxation delays and a 30° pulse width was evaluated as a quantitative tool for analyzing the components of polysorbate 80. (13)C NMR analysis revealed that commercial polysorbate 80 formulations are a complex oligomeric mixture of sorbitan polyethoxylate esters and other intermediates, such as isosorbide polyethoxylate esters and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) esters. This novel approach facilitates the quantification of the component ratios. In this study, the ratios of the three major oligomers in polysorbate 80 were measured and the PEG series was found to be the major component of commercial polysorbate 80. The degree of polymerization of -CH2CH2O- groups and the ratio of free to bonded -CH2CH2O- end groups, which correlate with the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the polymer, were analyzed, and were suggested to be key factors for assessing the likelihood of adverse biological reactions to polysorbate 80. The (13)C NMR data suggest that the feed ratio of raw materials and reaction conditions in the production of polysorbate 80 are not well controlled. Our results demonstrate that (13)C NMR is a universal, powerful tool for polysorbate analysis. Such analysis is crucial for the synthesis of a high-quality product, and is difficult to obtain by other methods. PMID:26356097

  14. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  15. Sewage-based epidemiology in monitoring the use of new psychoactive substances: Validation and application of an analytical method using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; Maho, Walid; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-09-01

    Sewage-based epidemiology (SBE) employs the analysis of sewage to detect and quantify drug use within a community. While SBE has been applied repeatedly for the estimation of classical illicit drugs, only few studies investigated new psychoactive substances (NPS). These compounds mimic effects of illicit drugs by introducing slight modifications to chemical structures of controlled illicit drugs. We describe the optimization, validation, and application of an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of seven NPS in sewage: methoxetamine (MXE), butylone, ethylone, methylone, methiopropamine (MPA), 4-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Sample preparation was performed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. The LC separation was done with a HILIC (150 x 3 mm, 5 µm) column which ensured good resolution of the analytes with a total run time of 19 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was between 0.5 and 5 ng/L for all compounds. The method was validated by evaluating the following parameters: sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recoveries and matrix effects. The method was applied on sewage samples collected from sewage treatment plants in Belgium and Switzerland in which all investigated compounds were detected, except MPA and PMA. Furthermore, a consistent presence of MXE has been observed in most of the sewage samples at levels higher than LLOQ. PMID:25655588

  16. An LC-MS/MS method for determination of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Wang, Geng-Nan; Fu, Ying; Chang, Qi

    2009-12-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose (DSS), a major active component of traditional Chinese medicine Yuan-Zhi (the roots of Polygala tenuifolia), has significant effects for neuroprotection and improving learning memory. In order to explore the pharmacokinetic properties of DSS so as to further understand its in vivo activities, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of DSS in rat plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the present study. After treatment by protein precipitation, the plasma sample was separated on a C(18) HPLC column and analyzed by a mass spectrometry under positive electrospray ionization. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed to measure the ion transition at m/z 777.4 --> 409.2 for DSS and m/z 557.2 --> 309.1 for forsythin as internal standard. The method was linear over the studied concentration range of 0.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy ranged from 1.4 to 18.4%, and from -3.7 to -9.5%, respectively, for within-day and between-day assay. Extraction recovery was higher than 86.6%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The present method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. DSS was found to have poor oral absorption with only about 0.5% bioavailability. PMID:19517426

  17. UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of bisphenol A and its chlorinated derivatives, bisphenol S, parabens, and benzophenones in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Navalón, A

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, a new method based on a sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and monochloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, and tetrachlorobisphenol A), four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben), and six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8, and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) in human urine samples, followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, is validated. An enzymatic treatment allows determining the total content of the target EDCs. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-(13)C6, benzophenone-d10, and bisphenol A-d16 were used as surrogates. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 ng mL(-1) and interday variabilities (evaluated as relative standard deviations) from 2.0 to 13.8% were obtained. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94 to 106%. A good linearity, for concentrations up to 300 ng mL(-1) for parabens and 40 ng mL(-1) for benzophenones and bisphenols, was also obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human urine samples from 20 randomly selected individuals. PMID:24710638

  18. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of tofogliflozin in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Matsuno, Megumi; Fukuda, Etsuko; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Tofogliflozin is a novel selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) and has been developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitation of tofogliflozin in rat plasma was developed and validated. The detection was performed using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The SRM transitions were m/z=387.1 [M+H](+)→267.1 for tofogliflozin and m/z=451.2 [M+H](+)→71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard: I.S.). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1mm i.d.×150mm, 5μm size) using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/10mM ammonium acetate (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min and the total run time was 4.0min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for tofogliflozin was 0.5ng/mL with sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of tofogliflozin in rats. This assay method could be a valuable tool for future studies including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:27304784

  19. Development and Validation of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Human Plasma: Application to a Bioequivalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Jangala, Hemanth; Vats, Poonam; Khuroo, Arshad Hussain; Monif, Tausif

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of amlodipine and valsartan was achieved on the Luna C18 (2)100A (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium formate solution (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved using an electrospray ion interface operating in positive mode, under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.302–20.725 ng/mL for amlodipine and 6.062–18060.792 ng/mL for valsartan. The method has shown good reproducibility, as intra- and interday precisions were within 10% and accuracies were within 8% of nominal values for both analytes. The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of amlodipine and valsartan after oral administration of a fixed dose of the combination. Additionally, as required by the current regulatory bodies, incurred sample reanalysis was performed and found to be acceptable. PMID:25853070

  20. UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement.

    PubMed

    Proietto Galeano, Michele; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Pantò, Valentina; Morabito, Giovanni; Chiappara, Elena; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40 μg/kg). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5 μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0 μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10 μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16-19% for the 40 μg/kg fortification level. PMID:26904611

  1. UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Proietto Galeano, Michele; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Pantò, Valentina; Morabito, Giovanni; Chiappara, Elena; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40 μg/kg). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5 μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0 μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10 μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16–19% for the 40 μg/kg fortification level. PMID:26904611

  2. Development and Validation of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Human Plasma: Application to a Bioequivalence Study.

    PubMed

    Jangala, Hemanth; Vats, Poonam; Khuroo, Arshad Hussain; Monif, Tausif

    2014-09-01

    A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of amlodipine and valsartan was achieved on the Luna C18 (2)100A (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium formate solution (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved using an electrospray ion interface operating in positive mode, under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.302-20.725 ng/mL for amlodipine and 6.062-18060.792 ng/mL for valsartan. The method has shown good reproducibility, as intra- and interday precisions were within 10% and accuracies were within 8% of nominal values for both analytes. The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of amlodipine and valsartan after oral administration of a fixed dose of the combination. Additionally, as required by the current regulatory bodies, incurred sample reanalysis was performed and found to be acceptable. PMID:25853070

  3. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of lercanidipine in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; He, Xiaojing; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lercanidipine (LER) in human plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized with methanol after addition of diazepam (internal standard, IS) and separated on a 38°C Hedera ODS-2 analytical column with a mobile phase of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid at an isocratic flow rate of 400μL/min. The detection was performed on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ESI mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions of m/z 612.2→280.2 for LER and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS, respectively. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.015ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.015-8.0ng/mL. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. This robust method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LER in 59 healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 10mg LER. PMID:27232153

  4. Development and validation of a RP-UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the chiral separation and determination of flavanone, naringenin and hesperetin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Irena; Hejniak, Judyta; Magiera, Sylwia

    2016-10-01

    A quick and sensitive RP-UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the separation of flavanone, naringenin and hesperetin enantiomers was developed. The separation of analytes was performed using a Chiralpak AD-3R column, and methanol was used as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionisation source. Positive ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used. The developed method showed satisfactory linearity with determination coefficients greater than 0.996 in the concentration ranges of 2.5-100.0ngmL(-1) for naringenin and flavanone enantiomers and 0.5-100.0ngmL(-1) for hesperetin enantiomers. The limits of quantification varied from 0.1 to 2.0ngmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were below 15%, and the accuracy varied from -13.6% to 13.5%. The described method was successfully applied for the chiral separation and determination of flavonoid enantiomers in real samples of spices and herbal root. Due to the occurrence of the natural compounds in the forms of free aglycones and their glycosides, these samples were subjected to hydrolysis in order to obtain free aglycones from the glycosylated forms. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis techniques were also compared. In the course of this study, the enzymatic hydrolysis technique was selected. PMID:27474296

  5. A rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of oleanolic acid in rat plasma and liver tissue: application to plasma and liver pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Xue; Chu, Chao-Sen; Zhu, Jia-Yu; Yang, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Yu-Tao; Yang, Xing-Hao

    2016-04-01

    A reliable high-throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for oleanolic acid (OA) determination in rat plasma and liver tissue using glycyrrhetic acid as the internal standard (IS). Plasma and liver homogenate samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase system. The detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9997) within the tested concentration ranges. The lower limit of quantification for plasma and liver tissue was ≤0.75 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy deviations were within ±15% in plasma and liver tissue. The mean extraction recoveries ranged from 80.8 to 87.0%. In addition, the carryover, matrix effect, stability and robustness involved in the method were also validated. The method was successfully applied to the plasma and hepatic pharmacokinetics of OA after oral administration to rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26234772

  6. Validated method to measure yakuchinone A in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yakuchinone A has a plethora of beneficial biological effects. However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) data of yakuchinone A still remain unknown so far. Furthermore, the quantification of yakuchinone A in biological samples has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to develop a new method for the fast, efficient and accurate assessment of yakuchinone A concentration in plasma, as a means for facilitating the PK evaluation of yakuchinone A. Results A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of yakuchinone A in rat plasma. Mass spectrometric and chromatographic conditions were optimized. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. LC separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of methanol–water containing 0.5 mM formic acid (HCOOH) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL/min. ESI-MS spectra were acquired in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The precursor-to-product ion pairs used for MRM of yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B were m/z 313.1 → 137.0 and 311.2 → 117.1, respectively. Low concentration of HCOOH reduced the ion suppression caused by matrix components and clearly improved the analytical sensitivity. Yakuchinone A showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r > 0.99). The accuracy, precision, stability and linearity were found to be within the acceptable criteria. This new method was successfully applied to analyze the rat plasma concentration of parent yakuchinone A after a single oral administration of SuoQuan capsules. Low systemic exposure to parent yakuchinone A was observed. Conclusion The proposed method is sensitive and reliable. It is hoped that this new method will prove useful for the future PK studies. PMID:24422995

  7. Quantification of pravastatin acid, lactone and isomers in human plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pediatric pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, Leon; Gibson, Kim T; Leeder, J Steven; Wagner, Jonathan B

    2016-02-15

    An ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of pravastatin and major metabolites, 3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin, pravalactone and 3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone, in human plasma has been developed and validated. Aliquots of (100μL) plasma in EDTA were diluted in pH 4.5 (0.1M buffer) to stabilize the analytes and subjected to hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase extraction on 96 well μelution plates. Extracted samples were evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in pH 4.5 buffer. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Cortecs™ C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.8μm), using gradient elution with a blend of acetonitrile and 10mM methylammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) switching between positive/negative electrospay ionization (ESI). Pravastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin, and internal standards [(2)H3]-pravastatin, and [(2)H3]-3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin were monitored in negative ESI mode at ion transitions m/z 423.2→321.1 and 426.2→321.1, respectively. Positive ESI mode was used for the detection of pravalactone, 3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone, and internal standards [(2)H3]-pravalactone, and [(2)H3]-3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone at ion transitions m/z 438.2→183.1 and 441.2→269.1 respectively. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range 0.5-200nM with intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of ≤5.2% and accuracy (as relative error) of ≤8.0% at all quality control levels. The method was successfully applied to the investigation of pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin and its metabolites in children after an oral dose of 20-40mg. PMID:26849185

  8. Development of complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for chemical characterization of pharmaceutical packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Petruševski, V; Jolevska, S T; Ribarska, J T; Chachorovska, M; Petkovska, A; Ugarković, S

    2016-05-30

    The chemical characterization of plastics for pharmaceutical packaging has been subject to ever increasing regulatory scrutiny, the reasons for which being: a) plastic additives and degradation products can be extremely hazardous to the patients' health (especially patients on chronic therapy) and b) they offer no therapeutic or formulatory benefit whatsoever. The last decade has seen the issuing of several books, monographs and guidelines dealing with extractables and leachables, however the amount of scientific work done so far is still fairly small (the majority of it performed by only a few research groups), with only a small number of methods published in the literature. This work focuses on developing a set of two complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for simultaneous separation, detection, identification and quantification of a wide variety of packaging additives and degradants, the second method specifically targeting a group of compounds known as polymeric hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), which are known to be notoriously difficult to separate and analyze with standard analytical techniques. The methods are capable of detecting plastic additives present in low ppb concentrations, from samples extracted in solvents with various polarities and pH values. Both methods were developed and optimized using system suitability mixtures comprised of 9 additives commonly encountered in plastic materials, and their practical applicability tested on a variety of extracts from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP), where several additives were successfully separated, detected and identified. PMID:26966896

  9. Development, validation and clinical application of an online-SPE-LC-HRMS/MS for simultaneous quantification of phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and its active metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lihua; Fan, Yuanjie; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Kai; Yin, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    A simple and efficient bioanalytical method for simultaneous determination of phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), and its active metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (CBZE) in human plasma using online solid phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrum (HRMS) under targeted MS/MS (t-MS(2)) analysis mode has been developed. The procedure integrated an automated sample clean-up of human plasma by Oasis®HLB SPE cartridge, a separation by ZORBAX SB-C18 analysis column, and a quantification by Q-Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap. The total running time was 13min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of PB, PHT, CBZ, and CBZE were 0.008, 0.008, 0.0016 and 0.0016μgmL(-1) respectively and the linearities were in the range of 0.008-2.500, 0.008-2.500, 0.0016-0.500 and 0.0016-0.500μgmL(-1) respectively. The mean recovery was between 91.82% and 108.27% and the matrix effect was between 93.29% and 102.09%. The relative standard deviations of interday and intraday were less than 6.41%. The method has been successfully applied in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of four Chinese epilepsy patients. This fully automated, simple, sensitive and reliable online-SPE-LC-HRMS/MS method serves well for TDM of PB, PHT, CBZ and CBZE at clinics for either single or combination treatment. PMID:27343581

  10. Collaborative validation of the quantification method for suspected allergens and test of an automated data treatment.

    PubMed

    Chaintreau, Alain; Cicchetti, Esmeralda; David, Nathalie; Earls, Andy; Gimeno, Pascal; Grimaud, Béatrice; Joulain, Daniel; Kupfermann, Nikolai; Kuropka, Gryta; Saltron, Frédéric; Schippa, Christine

    2011-10-28

    Previous publications investigated different data treatment strategies for quantification of volatile suspected allergens by GC/MS. This publication presents the validation results obtained on "ready to inject" samples under reproducibility conditions following inter-laboratory ring-testing. The approach is based on the monitoring of three selected ions per analyte using two different GC capillary columns. To aid the analysts a decisional tree is used for guidance during the interpretation of the analytical results. The method is evaluated using a fragrance oil concentrate spiked with all suspected allergens to mimic the difficulty of a real sample extract or perfume oil. At the concentrations of 10 and 100mg/kg, imposed by Directive 76/768/EEC for labeling of leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics, the mean bias is +14% and -4%, respectively. The method is linear for all analytes, and the prediction intervals for each analyte have been determined. To speed up the analyst's task, an automated data treatment is also proposed. The method mean bias is slightly shifted towards negative values, but the method prediction intervals are close to that resulting from the decisional tree. PMID:21945622

  11. A sensitive and rapid ultra HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous detection of clopidogrel and its derivatized active thiol metabolite in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Peer, Cody J; Spencer, Shawn D; VanDenBerg, Dustin A H; Pacanowski, Michael A; Horenstein, Richard B; Figg, William D

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive, selective, and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of clopidogrel (Plavix(®)) and its derivatized active metabolite (CAMD) in human plasma. Derivatization of the active metabolite in blood with 2-bromo-3'-methoxy acetophenone (MPB) immediately after collection ensured metabolite stability during sample handling and storage. Following addition of ticlopidine as an internal standard and simple protein precipitation, the analytes were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC™ sub-2 μm-C(18) column via gradient elution before detection on a triple-quadrupole MS with multiple-reaction-monitoring via electrospray ionization. The method was validated across the clinically relevant concentration range of 0.01-50 ng/mL for parent clopidogrel and 0.1-150 ng/mL (r(2)=0.99) for CAMD, with a fast run time of 1.5 min to support pharmacokinetic studies using 75, 150, or 300 mg oral doses of clopidogrel. The analytical method measured concentrations of clopidogrel and CAMD with accuracy (%DEV) <±12% and precision (%CV) of <±6%. The method was successfully applied to measure the plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and CAMD in three subjects administered single oral doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg clopidogrel. It was further demonstrated that the derivatizing agent (MPB) does not affect clopidogrel levels, thus from one aliquot of blood drawn clinically, this method can simultaneously quantify both clopidogrel and CAMD with sensitivity in the picogram per mL range. PMID:22169056

  12. Sensitive LC-MS/MS-ESI method for simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Muppavarapu, Rajendraprasad; Guttikar, Swati; Rajappan, Manavalan; Kamarajan, Kannan; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of montelukast (MT) and fexofenadine (FF) in human plasma (200 μL) using montelukast-d6 (MT-d6 ) and fexofenadine-d10 (FF-d10 ), respectively as an internal standard (IS) as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The chromatographic resolution was achieved on a Chromolith RP18e column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mm ammonium formate-acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. The total run time of analysis was 4 min and elution of MT, FF, MT-d6 and FF-d10 occurred at 2.5, 1.2, 2.4 and 1.2 min, respectively. The standard curve found to be linear in the range 2.00-1000 ng/mL with a coefficient of correlation of ≥0.99 for both the drugs. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision values for MT and FF met the acceptance as per FDA guidelines. MT and FF were found to be stable in a battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, auto-sampler and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The validated assay was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans. PMID:24424850

  13. METHOD 544. DETERMINATION OF MICROCYSTINS AND NODULARIN IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY (LC/MS/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...

  14. Systematic development of a group quantification method using evaporative light scattering detector for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwang Jin; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Ahn, Jongsung; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-09-01

    The determination for the contents of multi-components in ginseng products has come to the fore by demands of in-depth information, but the associated industries confront the high cost of securing pure standards for the continuous quality evaluation of the products. This study aimed to develop a prospective high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products without a considerable change from the conventional gradient analysis. We investigated the effects of mobile phase composition and elution bandwidth, which are potential variables affecting the ELSD response in the gradient analysis. Similar ELSD response curves of nine major ginsenosides were obtained under the identical flow injection conditions, and the response increased as the percentage of organic solvent increased. The nine ginsenosides were divided into three groups to confirm the effect of elution bandwidth. The ELSD response significantly decreased in case of the late eluted ginsenoside in the individual groups under the isocratic conditions. With the consideration of the two important effects, stepwise changes of the gradient condition were carried out to reach a group quantification method. The inconsistent responses of the nine ginsenosides were reconstituted to three normalized responses by the stepwise changes of the gradient condition, and this result actualized relative quantification in the individual groups. The availability was confirmed by comparing the ginsenoside contents in a base material of ginseng products determined by the direct and group quantification method. The largest difference in the determination results from the two methods was 8.26%, and the difference of total contents was only 0.91%. PMID:27262109

  15. Evaluation of Normalization Methods on GeLC-MS/MS Label-Free Spectral Counting Data to Correct for Variation during Proteomic Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Emine; Shuford, Christopher M.; Franck, William L.; Dean, Ralph A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2011-12-01

    Normalization of spectral counts (SpCs) in label-free shotgun proteomic approaches is important to achieve reliable relative quantification. Three different SpC normalization methods, total spectral count (TSpC) normalization, normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF) normalization, and normalization to selected proteins (NSP) were evaluated based on their ability to correct for day-to-day variation between gel-based sample preparation and chromatographic performance. Three spectral counting data sets obtained from the same biological conidia sample of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae were analyzed by 1D gel and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). Equine myoglobin and chicken ovalbumin were spiked into the protein extracts prior to 1D-SDS- PAGE as internal protein standards for NSP. The correlation between SpCs of the same proteins across the different data sets was investigated. We report that TSpC normalization and NSAF normalization yielded almost ideal slopes of unity for normalized SpC versus average normalized SpC plots, while NSP did not afford effective corrections of the unnormalized data. Furthermore, when utilizing TSpC normalization prior to relative protein quantification, t-testing and fold-change revealed the cutoff limits for determining real biological change to be a function of the absolute number of SpCs. For instance, we observed the variance decreased as the number of SpCs increased, which resulted in a higher propensity for detecting statistically significant, yet artificial, change for highly abundant proteins. Thus, we suggest applying higher confidence level and lower fold-change cutoffs for proteins with higher SpCs, rather than using a single criterion for the entire data set. By choosing appropriate cutoff values to maintain a constant false positive rate across different protein levels (i.e., SpC levels), it is expected this will reduce the overall false negative rate, particularly for proteins with

  16. A HPLC-MS/MS method for determination of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues: Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Longdong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Ke; Zhou, Hongjian; Duan, Yayun; Zheng, Wei; Xie, Wenlin

    2016-03-20

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues with puerarin as the internal standard. The separation was performed on a Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was performed by MRM with m/z [M-H](-) 783.3→427.2 for 6'''-feruloylspinosin and m/z [M-H](-) 415.4→295.4 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves covered over a concentration range of 20-2000 ng/mL in plasma and various tissues samples (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, cerebrum and cerebellum) with good linearity (r(2)≥0.9914). Both the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.70%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -5.80% to 4.93%. The extraction recoveries were within 75.21-92.96%, and the matrix effect ranged from 87.21% to 113.44%. Compared with spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin was distributed in rats faster whereas more slowly eliminated from the plasma. 6'''-Feruloylspinosin could be distributed rapidly and widely in various tissues, and transfer across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, both 6'''-feruloylspinosin and spinosin could enhance the expression of GABAAα1, GABAAα5, GABABR1 mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons significantly, indicating the bioactivity mechanism of 6'''-feruloylspinosin was involved in the GABA receptors. PMID:26780157

  17. Online solid phase extraction LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides and its applicability to surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Gulkowska, Anna; Buerge, Ignaz J; Poiger, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    A sensitive and selective analytical method, based on online solid phase extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS, was developed and validated to determine traces of several recently introduced fungicides in surface water and wastewater. The list of target analytes included eight succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (bixafen, boscalid, fluopyram, flutolanil, fluxapyroxad, isopyrazam, penflufen, and penthiopyrad), and two other fungicides with different modes of action, fenpyrazamine and fluopicolide. Detection and quantification limits in various matrices were in the range of 0.1 to 2 and 0.5 to 10 ng/L, respectively. Moderate signal suppression was observed in surface water (≤15%) and wastewater (≤25%) and was well compensated by the selected internal standard. The intra- and inter-day precisions were generally <10 and <20%, respectively. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on the occurrence of fungicides in the river Glatt, Switzerland, that drains a catchment area of 419 km(2) with a substantial proportion of agricultural land. Of the studied compounds, only boscalid and fluopicolide were detected in flow-proportional weekly composite samples, generally at low concentrations up to 15 and 5 ng/L, respectively. While fluopicolide was detected in only 30% of the samples above the LOD of 0.5 ng/L, boscalid was detected in all samples analyzed between March and October 2012. PMID:25146353

  18. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantifying capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in rabbit plasma and tissue: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dimin; Meng, Fanhua; Yu, Lin; Sun, Lu; Sun, Lili; Guo, Jifen

    2015-04-01

    Prescription and nonprescription products for topical management of pain, including cream, lotion and patch forms, contain capsaicin (CAP) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC). There are few in vivo studies on absorption, bioavailability and disposition of CAP and DHC. We established a sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS assay to determine CAP and DHC levels in rabbit plasma and tissue. Bio-samples prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane-dichloromethane-isopropanol (100: 50: 5, v/v/v) mixture were separated by isocratic chromatography with an Extend C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water-formic acid (70: 30: 0.1, v/v/v). The method was linear from 0.125 to 50 ng/mL for a 100 μL bio-sample, and the lower quantification limit was 0.125 ng/mL. Total run time to analyze each sample was 3.5 min. We used this validated method to study pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CAP gel administered topically to rabbits. A very small amount of CAP and DHC was absorbed into the systemic circulation. The highest plasma concentration was 2.39 ng/mL, and the mean peak plasma concentration value after 12 h of CAP gel application was 1.68 ng/mL. Drug concentration in treated skin was relatively high, with low concentration in other tissues. Thus, topical CAP gel had strong local effects and weaker systemic effects. PMID:25088519

  19. Sensitive method for the determination of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Dixit, Abhishek; Devaraj, V C; Zainuddin, Mohd; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Hallur, Mahanandeesha S; Dewang, Purushottam; Rajagopal, Sridharan; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma (20 μL) using vorinostat as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatography was achieved on Prodigy ODS-2 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (0.2% formic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.38 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 4.1 min and the elution of rocilinostat and IS occurred at ~3.2 and 2.9 min, respectively. A linear response function was established in the concentration range of 0.28-1193 ng/mL in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the ranges of 3.12-8.93 and 6.41-11.6%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26633099

  20. Development and validation of a CE-MS method for the targeted assessment of amino acids in urine.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Karina T; Mekahli, Djalila; Tavares, Marina F M; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2016-04-01

    A CE-ESI-MS method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative analysis of amino acids (AA) in urine. Experimental parameters related to the CE-MS interface, BGE, and mass spectrometer (MS) settings were optimized providing a good separation of 27 AA, including the isomers L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-alloisoleucine, in less than 30 min. The sheath liquid was composed by 0.50% formic acid in 60% (v,v) methanol-water delivered at a flow rate of 5 μL/min. The BGE consisted of 0.80 mol/L formic acid at pH 1.96 and 15% methanol. A pH stacking procedure was implemented to enhance sensitivity (a 12.5% NH4 OH solution was injected at 0.5 psi/9 s prior to samples injected at 0.6 psi/20 s). The proposed method was validated according to FDA and ICH protocols exhibiting acceptable parameters. Analytical curves presented coefficients of determination from 0.996 to 0.9997 (with large F statistics and low p-values). LODs and quantification ranged from 0.63 to 29 μmol/L and from 1.9 to 86 μmol/L, respectively. Practical repeatability was obtained for all AA with coefficients of variation better than 0.55% CV (migration time) and 1.7% CV (peak area ratios; methionine sulfone as internal standard). Recoveries of AA in spiked urine ranged from 92.0 to 123% with few exceptions. Moreover, a successful quantification of AA in pooled control and test urine samples, which compose a vesicoureteral reflux cohort, was achieved showing the potential applicability of the proposed method for targeted metabolomics studies using CE-ESI-MS with an Ion Trap as mass analyzer. PMID:26826549

  1. Identification and determination of the major constituents in Kai-Xin-San by UPLC-Q/TOF MS and UFLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; He, Bosai; Sui, Zhenyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-07-01

    In order to have overall chemical material information of Kai-Xin-San (KXS), the reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra-fast liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS) methods were developed for the identification and determination of the major constituents in KXS. Moreover, the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was also applied to screen for multiple absorbed components in rat plasma after oral administration of KXS. The UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was achieved on Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass and operated in the negative ion mode. Good separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. A total of 92 compounds in KXS were identified or tentatively characterized based on their exact molecular weights, fragmentation patterns, and literature data. A total of 26 compounds including 23 prototype components and three metabolites were identified in rat plasma after oral administration of KXS. Then, 16 major bioactive constituents were chosen as the benchmark substances to evaluate the quality of KXS. Their quantitative analyses were performed by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode(MRM). The analysis was completed with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min within 35 min. The simple and fast method was validated and showed good linearity, precision, and recovery. Furthermore, the method was successful applied for the determination of 16 compounds in KXS. All results would provide essential data for identification and quality control of active chemical constituents in KXS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434806

  2. Characterization of surfactants in an oil-in-water emulsion-based vaccine adjuvant using MS and HPLC-MS: structural analysis and quantification.

    PubMed

    Cotte, Jean-François; Sonnery, Sylvain; Martial, Fabien; Dubayle, Jean; Dalençon, François; Haensler, Jean; Adam, Olivier

    2012-10-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) techniques were developed to characterize two surfactants, cetheareth-12 and sorbitan oleate, used to manufacture AF03, an emulsified oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant. MS was first used to characterize the chemical structure and determine the composition of the two surfactants. The two surfactants appeared as complex products, in particular with respect to the nature of the fatty alcohols and the distribution of the number of ethylene oxides in cetheareth-12, and with respect to the different sorbitan-bound fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids) in sorbitan oleate. Subsequently, once the ions of interest were determined and selected, HPLC-MS was developed and optimized to quantify and to "quality control" the two surfactants as raw materials and as ingredients in the final O/W emulsion bulk and filled products. PMID:22713283

  3. Quantification of strontium in human serum by ICP-MS using alternate analyte-free matrix and its application to a pilot bioequivalence study of two strontium ranelate oral formulations in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Man; Zhang, Lina; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and accurate ICP-MS method using alternate analyte-free matrix for calibration standards preparation and a rapid direct dilution procedure for sample preparation was developed and validated for the quantification of exogenous strontium (Sr) from the drug in human serum. Serum was prepared by direct dilution (1:29, v/v) in an acidic solution consisting of nitric acid (0.1%) and germanium (Ge) added as internal standard (IS), to obtain simple and high-throughput preparation procedure with minimized matrix effect, and good repeatability. ICP-MS analysis was performed using collision cell technology (CCT) mode. Alternate matrix method by using distilled water as an alternate analyte-free matrix for the preparation of calibration standards (CS) was used to avoid the influence of endogenous Sr in serum on the quantification. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, carry-over, matrix effects, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, precision and accuracy, and stability. Instrumental linearity was verified in the range of 1.00-500ng/mL, corresponding to a concentration range of 0.0300-15.0μg/mL in 50μL sample of serum matrix and alternate matrix. Intra- and inter-day precision as relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 8.0% and accuracy as relative error (RE) was within ±3.0%. The method allowed a high sample throughput, and was sensitive and accurate enough for a pilot bioequivalence study in healthy male Chinese subjects following single oral administration of two strontium ranelate formulations containing 2g strontium ranelate. PMID:25023847

  4. Stability-indicating simultaneous determination of paracetamol and three of its related substances using a direct GC/MS method.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek; Awad, Tamer; Clark, C Randall

    2009-01-01

    A simple, direct, and selective stability-indicating GC/MS procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PR) and three of its related substances: 4-aminophenol (4-AP), acetanilide (AD), and 4'-chloroacetanilide (4-CA). The method involved resolution of the underivatized compounds using a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane (Rtx-1) column, and MS detection was carried out in the electron-impact mode. The four compounds were completely resolved in less than 11 min. The fragmentation pathways for the four compounds were described, and the structures of the major fragment ions peaks were proposed. Quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed method including linearity, range, precision, accuracy, and detection and quantification limits were statistically validated. Calibration curves were linear over the ranges 75-500, 25-350, 25-350, and 25-350 microg/mL for PR, 4-AP, AD, and 4-CA, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PR and its related substances in laboratory-prepared mixtures of different proportions. Also, it was applied for the assay of PR in several commercially available pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries of 98.95-100.76%. PMID:20166578

  5. LC/MS/MS as a potential method for characterizing bacterial contamination during spacecraft assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, L.; Basic, C.; Schubert, W.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of outer bodies of interest to life's origins requires stringent measures to prevent contamination of these bodies with Earth life forms. Procedures are taken to vigorously clean spacecraft before launch. We are exploring MS to measure contamination during spacecraft assembly.

  6. [Metabolites and metabolic pathways of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomal investigated by using UPLC-MS/MS method in vitro].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Rui-Xing; Song, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Mesaconitine was incubated with rat liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolites of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method with high resolution power. A typical reaction mixture of 100 mol L-1 Tris-HCI buffer (pH 7.4) containing 0.5 gL-1 microsomal protein and 50 micro molL-1 mesaconitine was prepared. The above reaction mixture was divided into six groups, and the volume of each group was 200 micro L. The incubation mixture was pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 min and the reactions were initiated by adding NADPH generating system. After 90 min incubation at 37 degrees C, 200 micro L of acetonitrile was added to each group to stop the reaction. The metabolites of mesaconitine were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS method. Mesaconitine and 6 metabolites M1-M6 were found in the incubation system. The structures were characterized according to the data from MS/MS spectra and literatures. The metabolic reactions of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes included the demethylation, deacetylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation. The major metabolic pathways of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were determined by UPLC-MS/MS on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode combined with specific inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, including alpha-naphthoflavone (CYP1A2), quinine (CYP2D), diethyldithiocarbamate (CYP2E1), ketoconazole (CYP3A) and sulfaphenazole (CYP2C), separately. Mesaconitine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A. CYP2C and CYP2D were also more important CYP isoforms for the metabolism reactions of mesaconitine, but CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 haven't any contribution to MA metabolism in rat liver microsomes. PMID:24689241

  7. Evaluation of the Coat-A-Count sup 125 I fentanyl RIA: Comparison of sup 12 5I RIA and GC/MS-SIM for quantification of fentanyl in case urine specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, V.W.; Caplan, Y.H. )

    1990-09-01

    The Coat-A-Count solid phase {sup 125}I Fentanyl Radioimmunoassay was evaluated with respect to linearity and precision using equine urine fortified with fentanyl and then compared with a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for quantification of fentanyl in urine. The RIA assay was found to be linear over the urine fentanyl concentration range of 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL and precise with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 9.6 to 19.3%. The RIA calibrators, ranging in fentanyl concentrations from 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL, and controls, at mean fentanyl concentrations of 0.46 and 1.32 ng/mL, were compared by both the RIA and GC/MS methods. The cross-reactivity with the {sup 125}I RIA test was determined for the fentanyl metabolites, norfentanyl and hydroxyfentanyl, and found to be 5% and 35%, respectively. The illicit fentanyl analogs were found to show significant cross-reactivity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The {sup 125}I RIA was compared to GC/MS quantifications of fentanyl in 35 positive and 20 negative case urine specimens.

  8. A quantitative determination of fluorochloridone in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihong; Shi, Jingmin; Fan, Junpei; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Suhui; Hu, Yue; Wei, Li; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Tang, Liming; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    A precise, high-throughput and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of fluorochloridone (FLC) in rat plasma. The extraction of analytes from plasma samples was carried out by protein precipitation procedure using acetonitrile prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Verapamil was proved as a proper internal standard (IS) among many candidates. The chromatographic separation based on UPLC was well optimized. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization was used with the optimized MS transitions at: m/z 312.0 → 292.0 for FLC and m/z 456.4 → 165.2 for IS. This method was well validated with good linear response (r(2)  > 0.998) observed over the investigated range of 3-3000 ng/mL and with satisfactory stability. This method was also characterized with adequate intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy (within 12%) in the quality control samples, and with high selectivity and less matrix effect observed. Total running time was only 1.5 min. This method has been successfully applied to a pilot FLC pharmacokinetic study after oral administration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663256

  9. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  10. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  11. Review: DNA oxidation, its consequences and efficacy of GC-MS and SPME-GC-MS for In Vitro quantification of DNA oxidative products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Himansha; Udawat, Abhishek; Franklin, Tony; Sarathi, Sai Partha

    2012-10-01

    DNA oxidation could be one of the main factors contributing to DNA damage, eventually leading to carcinogenesis, mutations or non-carcinogenic diseases such as Parkinsonís and Alzheimerís. Only recently has the focus turned towards identifying oxidative products of DNA and their consequences. Metabolism activities in vitro produce reactive radicals, which can break DNA strands to cause lesions. These lesions could also act as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. This review provides an insight of the DNA oxidation mechanism, its harmful consequences and the advantages/disadvantages of available techniques to quantify such DNA oxidative products, focussing mainly on the use GC-MS along with derivatization reaction. In addition, the review also discusses the use of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) before conducting GC-MS as a potential assay to overcome the discrepancies involved in using GC-MS alone for the identification of DNA oxidative products.

  12. A comprehensive quantification method for eicosanoids and related compounds by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with high speed continuous ionization polarity switching.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masaki; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kohira, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Hamano, Fumie; Tokuoka, Suzumi M; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-07-15

    Fatty acids and related metabolites, comprising several hundreds of molecular species, are an important target in disease metabolomics, as they are involved in various mammalian pathologies and physiologies. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis, which is capable of monitoring hundreds of compounds in a single run, has been widely used for comprehensive quantification. However, it is difficult to monitor a large number of compounds with different ionization polarity, as polarity switching requires a sub-second period per cycle in classical mass spectrometers. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a comprehensive quantification method for eicosanoids and related compounds by using LC/MS with high-speed continuous ionization polarity switching. The new method employs a fast (30ms/cycle) continuous ionization polarity switching, and differentiates 137 targets either by chromatography or by SRM transition. Polarity switching did not affect the lower limits of quantification, which ranged similarly from 0.5 to 200pg on column. Lipid extracts from mouse tissues were analyzed by this method, and 65 targets were quantitatively detected in the brain, including 6 compounds analyzed in the positive ion mode. We demonstrated that a fast continuous ionization polarity switching enables the quantification of a wide variety of lipid mediator species without compromising the sensitivity and reliability. PMID:26046978

  13. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC`s PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  14. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H. )

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on t