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Sample records for ms study suggests

  1. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  2. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  3. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm, a new study suggests. In that setting, Crestor (rosuvastatin) did not prevent either the abnormal heart rhythm ... who were having elective heart surgery to take Crestor or a placebo before surgery. The researchers found ...

  4. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  5. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  6. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... cardiovascular medicine at the University of Oxford in England. "Our study is consistent with the idea that ... report was published May 5 in the New England Journal of Medicine . Dr. Gregg Fonarow, a professor ...

  7. Determination of pinostilbene in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan; Yeo, Samuel Chao Ming; Chuang, Xue Fen; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2016-02-20

    Pinostilbene (3-methoxyresveratrol or trans-3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxystilbene) is a naturally occurring monomethylether analogue of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) that exhibits various pharmacological activities. To further examine its medicinal potential, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of pinostilbene in rat plasma. Heavy Isotope labelled resveratrol was used as an internal standard. The ESI was operated in its negative ion mode while pinostilbene and resveratrol were measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 241→181 and m/z 233→191, respectively. This LC-MS/MS method had excellent selectivity, sensitivity (LLOQ=1ng/ml), accuracy (both intra- and interday analytical recovery within 100±15%) and precision (both intra- and interday RSD < 15%). The matrix effect was insignificant. The pharmacokinetics of pinostilbene was subsequently profiled in Sprague-Dawley rats. Upon intravenous administration (5 or 10mg/kg), pinostilbene displayed rapid clearance (Cl=129±42 or 107±31ml/min/kg) and extremely short mean transit time (MTT=6.24±0.41 or 8.52±1.38min). After oral dosing (50mg/kg), the bioavailability of pinostilbene was limited but highly erratic (F=1.87±2.67%). Pharmacokinetic comparison among pinostilbene, resveratrol and some resveratrol analogues suggested that stilbenes with meta-hydroxyl group(s) may be associated with metabolic instability and subsequently suffer from rapid clearance and low oral bioavailability. The information obtained from this study will facilitate further exploration on pinostilbene as well as other resveratrol analogues. PMID:26771130

  8. Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159814.html Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link It hints at -- but doesn' ... decade before -- and three months following -- a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, new research suggests. Although it's not ...

  9. Identification of a novel PNMA-MS1 gene in marsupials suggests the LTR retrotransposon-derived PNMA genes evolved differently in marsupials and eutherians.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians. PMID:23704700

  10. Exercise May Keep Your Brain 10 Years Younger, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... study suggests. The study found that seniors who got moderate to intense exercise retained more of their ... the next five years, versus older adults who got light exercise or none at all. On average, ...

  11. Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159365.html Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests Researchers say skin cancer in ... aren't likely to boost the risk of melanoma skin cancer, a new study reports. Why the ...

  12. Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... in these patients is likely due to more sun exposure To use the sharing features on this page, ... in some cases. In particular, they suggested that sun exposure may play a big role. The study was ...

  13. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159630.html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests ... encouraged as a form of meaningful social participation. Religion and spirituality may be an underappreciated resource that ...

  14. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  15. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159630.html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests ... encouraged as a form of meaningful social participation. Religion and spirituality may be an underappreciated resource that ...

  16. Study Suggests Causes for Lupus' Impact on Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Study Suggests Causes for Lupus' Impact on Immune System Certain cells seem to malfunction and create inflammation ... that help explain what's going wrong in the immune systems of people with lupus -- insight they hope will ...

  17. Type 1 Diabetes Linked to Epilepsy Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158067.html Type 1 Diabetes Linked to Epilepsy Risk, Study Suggests But the ... Hypoglycemia Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 1 Epilepsy Hypoglycemia About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  18. High Throughput Analytical Techniques for the Determination and Confirmation of Residues of 653 Multiclass Pesticides and Chemical Pollutants in Tea by GC/MS, GC/MS/MS, and LC/MS/MS: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.09.

    PubMed

    Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Cao, Yan-Zhong; Yan, Fang; Li, Yan; Kang, Jian; Chen, Hui; Chang, Qiao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Thirty laboratories from fom North and South America, Europe, and Asia participated in this AOAC collaborative study (15 from China; five from Germany; two each from Italy and the United States; and one each from the Republic of Korea, Canada, Spain, Japan, Belgium, and India). Participants represented government regulatory, commercial testing, university, research institute, and private laboratories. The single-laboratory validated (SLV) tea method was evaluated in the collaborative study to determine the recovery and reproducibility of the method under multilaboratory conditions. Since there were no restrictions regarding the type of analytical instrumentation to use for the analyses, laboratories used a combination of equipment that included GC/MS, GC/MS/MS, and LC/MS/MS instruments from 22 different manufacturers, 21 brands of GC and LC columns, 13 different GC temperature programming profiles, 11 LC gradient elution programs, and six different vendor manufactured SPE cartridges. Even though all the analytical performance parameters for all the 653 compounds had been determined in the SLV study, guidance was obtained from an expert review panel of the AOAC Method-Centric Committee on Pesticide Residues to conduct the multilaboratory collaborative study based on 20 selected compounds that can be analyzed by GC/MS and 20 compounds that can be analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Altogether, 560 samples covering the 40 selected pesticides were analyzed in the study. These samples included green tea and oolong tea samples fortified typically at the European Union maximum residue limit for regulatory guidance and compliance, aged tea samples incurred with 20 pesticides, and green tea and oolong tea samples incurred with five pesticides. The analysis of the 560 samples generated a total of 82 459 test results by the 30 participating laboratories. One laboratory failed to meet the proficiency requirements in the precollaborative study. Therefore, its data submitted for the

  19. Pediatric MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the oral medications in the pediatric population. Network of Pediatric MS Centers The National MS Society ... MS Study Group (2004) and established a nationwide network of six Pediatric MS Centers of Excellence (2006) ...

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MS-275 Exhibits Poor Brain Penetration: Pharmacokinetic Studies of [11C]MS-275 using Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.M.; Hooker, J.M.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Xu, Y.; Shea, C.; Reid, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.

    2009-10-01

    MS-275 (entinostat) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancer. Recent reports have noted that MS-275 can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause region-specific changes in rodent brain histone acetylation. To characterize the pharmacokinetics and distribution of MS-275 in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET), we labeled the carbamate carbon of MS-275 with carbon-11. Using PET, we determined that [{sup 11}C]MS-275 has low uptake in brain tissue when administered intravenously to nonhuman primates. In rodent studies, we observed that pharmacokinetics and brain accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MS-275 were not changed by the coadministration of large doses of unlabeled MS-275. These results, which both highlight the poor brain penetration of MS-275, clearly suggest its limitation as a therapeutic agent for the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of PET at providing brain pharmacokinetic data for HDAC inhibitors. These data are important not only for the development of new compounds for peripheral cancer treatment (where CNS exclusion is often advantageous) but also for the treatment of neurological disorders (where CNS penetration is critical).

  1. Positive and negative ion mode ESI-MS and MS/MS for studying drug-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Frédéric; Pirotte, Sophie; Pauw, Edwin De; Gabelica, Valérie

    2006-07-01

    We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium, cryptolepine, neocryptolepine, m-Amsacrine, proflavine, ellipticine and mitoxantrone) by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode and in the positive ion mode. The apparent solution phase equilibrium binding constants can be determined by measuring relative intensities in the ESI-MS spectrum. While negative ion mode gives reliable results, positive ion mode gives a systematic underestimation of the binding constants and even a complete suppression of the complexes for intercalators lacking functional groups capable of interacting in the grooves. In the second part of the paper we systematically compare MS/MS fragmentation channels and breakdown curves in the positive and the negative modes, and discuss the possible uses and caveats of MS/MS in drug-DNA complexes. In the negative mode, the drugs can be separated in three groups: (1) those that leave the complex with no net charge; (2) those that leave the complex with a negative charge; and (3) those that remain attached on the strands upon dissociation of the duplex due to their positive charge. In the positive ion mode, all complexes fragment via the loss of protonated drug. Information on the stabilization of the complex by drug-DNA noncovalent interactions can be obtained straightforwardly only in the case of neutral drug loss. In all other cases, proton affinity (in the positive ion mode), gas-phase basicity (in the negative ion mode) and coulombic repulsion are the major factors influencing the fragmentation channel and the dissociation kinetics.

  2. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  3. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather.

    PubMed

    Nashy, Elshahat H A; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins. PMID:22225606

  4. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  5. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1984-04-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  6. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, S M

    1984-01-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  7. The application of HPLC-MS/MS to studies of pharmacokinetics and interconversion of isoliquiritigenin and neoisoliquiritigenin in rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fu; Gong, Xiao-Hong; Xiong, Liang; Chen, Jian-Ping; Li, Yun-Xia

    2016-07-01

    A specific and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneously quantification of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) and neoisoliquiritin (NIS) in rat plasma by oral administration. Analytes were analyzed on an Agilent 6460 LC-MS/MS system (Agilent, USA) using an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm). Gradient elution was applied for the analyte separation using a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with a total running time of 12 min. The calibration curves for ISL and NIS showed good linearity in the concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 4.000 μg/mL with correlation coefficients >0.998. The precision, accuracy, recovery and stability were deemed acceptable. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics study of ISL and NIS in rats by single and combination administration. The result showed that Cmax and AUC0→t of ISL were markedly increased from 0.53 to 1.20 μg/mL, and from 69.63 to 200.74 min μg/mL by combination administration. The mean t1/2 value was also prolonged from 64.55 to 203.74 min in the combination group. These results indicated that NIS may have been metabolized to ISL which increased the absorption and extended the elimination of ISL. However, little difference was found for NIS pharmacokinetics parameters between single NIS and the combination group, which suggested that there was no significant biotransformation of ISL to NIS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26577957

  8. Novel LC- ESI-MS/MS method for desvenlafaxine estimation human plasma: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, Pushpa Kumari; Kondru, Venu Gopal Raju; Dannana, Gowri Sankar

    2016-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of desvenlafaxine in human plasma using desvenlafaxine d6 as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a Thermo-BDS hypersil C8 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer: methanol (20:80, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.80 mL/min. Desvenlafaxine and desvenlafaxine d6 were detected with proton adducts at m/z 264.2/58.1 and 270.2/ 64.1 in multiple reaction monitoring positive mode, respectively. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the drug and the IS. The method was linear over the concentration range 1.001-400.352 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.9994. This method demonstrated intra and inter-day precision within 0.7-5.5 and 1.9-6.8%, and accuracy within 95.3-107.4 and 93.4-99.5%. Desvenlafaxine was found to be stable throughout the freeze-thaw cycles, bench-top and long-term matrix stability studies. The developed and validated method can be successfully applied for the bioequivalence/pharmacokinetic studies of desvenlafaxine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:26095112

  9. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding study of chicoric acid by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Xie, Guo; Liu, Qian; Duan, Xiang; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-15

    Chicoric acid is a major active constituent of Echinacea purpurea and has a variety of biological functions. In this study, a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) approach was developed and validated for the determination of chicoric acid in rat plasma and various tissues using ferulic acid as an internal standard (IS). This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding (PPB) study of chicoric acid in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats dosed with 50mg/kg by gastric gavage. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and showed a half-life (t1/2) of 4.53±1.44h, an apparent volume of mean residual time (MRT) of 18.58±4.43h, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 26.14 mghL(-1). The tissue distribution of chicoric acid in rats after gavage administration showed a decreasing tendency in different tissues (liver>lung>kidney>heart>spleen>brain). The PPB rates in rat plasma, human plasma, and bovine serum albumin were 98.3, 96.9, and 96.6%, respectively. These results provide insight for the further pharmacological investigation of chicoric acid. PMID:27479684

  10. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038

  11. Pharmacists Can Manage Some Chronic Conditions Effectively, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine how well pharmacists might perform if they led the management of a person's chronic disease, Wilt ... people. The findings suggest that patients receiving pharmacist-led care were more likely to achieve target goals ...

  12. Zika Infection May Give Future Immunity, Monkey Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks later. "This is good news for vaccine design. It suggests the sort of immunity that occurs ... transmitted via the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. But, transmission of the virus through sex is ...

  13. Proteomic analysis of human epithelial lining fluid by microfluidics-based nanoLC-MS/MS: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Lorenza; Govorukhina, Natalia; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Poolman, Bert; Lodewijk, Monique E; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje; ten Hacken, Nick; Bischoff, Rainer

    2013-09-01

    Microfluidics-based nanoLC-MS/MS (chipLC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify proteins in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), collected during bronchoscopy from the main bronchi of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and healthy controls using microprobes. ELF is a biofluid that is well suited to study pathophysiological processes in the lung, because it contains high concentrations of biologically active molecules. 1D-PAGE followed by in-gel tryptic digestion and chipLC-MS/MS resulted in identification of approximately 300 proteins. A comparative study of ELF from COPD patients and non-COPD controls using chemical stable isotope labeling (iTRAQ®-8Plex) showed that the levels of lactotransferrin, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB 1), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and cofilin-1 differed significantly in ELF from COPD patients and non-COPD controls (p-values < 0.05). These results were reproduced in another, independent set of ELF samples from COPD patients and non-COPD controls and further validated by immunohistochemistry. This study shows the feasibility of performing chipLC-MS/MS and quantitative proteomics in human ELF. PMID:23712570

  14. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  15. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  16. A novel study of screening and confirmation of modafinil, adrafinil and their metabolite modafinilic acid under EI-GC-MS and ESI-LC-MS-MS ionization

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, S.; Ahi, S.; Reddy, I. M.; Kaur, T.; Beotra, A.; Jain, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adrafinil and modafinil have received wide publicity and have become controversial in the sporting world when several athletes were discovered allegedly using these drugs as doping agents. By acknowledging the facts, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned these drugs in sports since 2004. The present study explores the possibility of differentiating adrafinil and modafinil and their major metabolites under electron impact ionization in gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) and electrospray ionization in liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) by studying the fragmentation pattern of these drugs. Materials and Methods: Adrafinil, modafinil and their major metabolite, modafinilic acid were analyzed on EI-GC-MSD and ESI-LC-MS/MS using various individual parameters on both the instruments. The analytical technique and equipment used in the analysis were an Agilent 6890N GC with 5973 mass selective detector for the GC-MSD analysis and an Agilent 1100 HPLC with API-3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for the LC-MS/MS analysis. Validation of both methods was performed using six replicates at different concentrations. Result and Discussion: The results show that adrafinil, modafinil and their major metabolite modafinilic acid could be detected as a single artifact without differentiation under EI-GC-MSD analysis. However, all drugs could be detected and differentiated under ESI-LCMS/MS analysis without any artifaction. The GC-MSD analysis gives a single artifact for both the drugs without differentiation and thus can be used as a marker for screening purposes. Further, the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method developed under LC-MS/MS is fit for the purpose for confirmation of suspicious samples in routine sports testing and in forensic and clinical analysis. PMID:20407560

  17. Pharmacokinetic studies and LC-MS/MS method development of ganciclovir and dipeptide monoester prodrugs in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Sriram; Earla, Ravinder; Cholkar, Kishore; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-09-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is utilized as an anti-herpetic agent. Reports from our laboratory have suggested that dipeptide ester prodrugs of GCV exhibit high affinity towards the oligopeptide transporter hPEPT1 and therefore seem to be promising candidates for the treatment of oral herpes virus infections. In this study, we have examined the bio-availability of a dipeptide prodrug of GCV after oral administration in jugular cannulated Sprague-Dawley rats. A new bio-analytical method was developed with Q-TRAP liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous analysis of GCV, Valine-GCV (VGCV) and Tyrosine-Valine-GCV (YVGCV). Acyclovir (ACV) was used as an internal standard in the analysis. Area under plasma-concentration time curves for total concentration of GCV after oral administration of YVGCV was found to be approximately 200 % more than that of GCV following intestinal absorption. A complete conversion of the dipeptide prodrug (YVGCV) to parent compound, GCV, by hepatic first-pass metabolism was evident due to the absence of intermediate metabolite VGCV and administered prodrug YVGCV. The dipeptide prodrugs of GCV exhibit higher systemic availability of regenerated GCV upon oral administration and thus seem to be promising drug candidate in the treatment of systemic herpes infections. PMID:24943988

  18. Too Much Red Meat Might Harm Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the study's authors. The study adds new data to a conflicting body of evidence on the relationship between protein intake, particularly red meat, and kidney disease, experts noted. "It adds useful and additional information to our knowledge base, but I'm not sure if it necessarily ...

  19. Mammograms May Also Help Spot Heart Disease, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women's Health at Northwell Health in New Hyde Park, N.Y. In the study, about half of ... for Women's Health at Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, N.Y.; April 3, 2016, presentation, American College ...

  20. Pot Habit Early in Life May Alter Brain, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. He said the study results are ... behavioral pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, N.Y.; December 2015, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience HealthDay ...

  1. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... that nourishes the developing fetus, is different in boys and girls. "The placenta is critical for pregnancy success, and ... vary based on whether they are carrying a boy or a girl, the researchers said. The study was published online ...

  2. Social Studies Subgoals and Suggested Essential Student Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The document outlines specific goals of a social studies program (K-12) that are consistent with the generalized goals for education of the State Board of Education in Texas. Prior to presenting these goals, the purposes, method of development of the objectives, and the goals for public school education are outlined. General goals are categorized…

  3. First Major Study Suggests Worth of National "Seal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The first in a series of long-awaited studies indicates that nationally certified teachers are more effective at raising their students' reading and math scores than are teachers who apply for the credential but do not receive it. Although critics have questioned the expenditure of state and district money on National Board for Professional…

  4. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  5. Study Abroad Programs: Probleme und Loesungsvorschlage (Problems and Suggested Solutions)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Kurt W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an apparently very successful study program for Americans, conducted by Michigan State University in Mayen, Rheinland-Pfalz. The small (pop. 22,000) non-university city offered many advantages, including relatively low living costs. All students lived with German families. Various contacts are described, including weekend trips. (Text is…

  6. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    More and more attention has been focused on geological and geomorphological heritage in the past years, leading to several researches in the framework of conservation projects, both at administrative and at scientific level, involving national and international research groups whose purposes are the promotion of Earth Sciences knowledge and the conservation of geological heritage. This paper presents an overview of research and conservation projects in Italy, mainly focused on the geomorphological heritage. Members of the AIGEO Working Group on geomorphosites and cultural landscape analyzed the historical development, methodological issues and main results of these research projects in order to identify possible innovation lines to improve the awareness and knowledge on geodiversity and geoheritage by a wide public, including education, tourism and conservation sectors. In Italy numerous projects of research have been realized with the main aim of geomorphosites inventory and the proposal of assessment methodologies, and so to the improvement and to the analysis of risks and impacts related to their fruition. At an international level, many Italian researchers have also been involved in studies carried out in the Working Group "Geomorphological sites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG). At a national level several research lines are under development, offering different responses to methodological issues within the general topic of geodiversity and geoheritage: Geosites inventories and assessment activities are performed with powerful digital techniques and new reference models: among these, the investigation on the ecologic support role for increasing geomorphosites global value and the elaboration of quantitative assessment methods of the scientific quality of Geomorphosites, carried out specifically for territorial planning. Improvements in field data collection and visual representation of landforms lead to new findings in

  7. [Study on chemical constituents in stems of Nelumbo nucifera by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Kang, Li-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-08-01

    This paper employed UPLC-Electrospray Ionization /Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass /Mass Spectrometry( UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF-MS/MS) to analyze the chemical constituents in the stems of Nelumbo nucifera. The stems of N. nucifera were extracted with 75% methanol, and we applied an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 μm) to UPLC analysis with water methanol-water( containing 0.05% formic acid) in gradient as mobile phase. The eluates were then detected by ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Results indicated that 22 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were indendified. Among them, one alkaloid may be a new compound and a component was found in the Lotus for the first time. We fully identify the composition of the Lotus stems for the first time, Which could provides theoretical foundation for further study and utilization of the medicinal resources. PMID:26790299

  8. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism study of veratramine in mice after oral administration using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Zhang, Jun-Li; Li, Sha-Sha; Shen, Shan; Wang, Jiang-Ying; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-09-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Q-trap-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of veratramine, the major bioactive and neurotoxic component in Veratrum nigrum L. Veratramine and the internal standard (IS) were separated with a Waters Symmetry C18 column and eluted with a gradient mobile phase system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The analysis was performed by using positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Transition ions of m/z 410.2 → 295.2 for veratramine and m/z 426.1 → 113.8 for the IS were monitored. The method was validated with a good linearity in the range of 1-1000 ng/mL and lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL. The precision (CV) of intra- and inter-day ranged from 3.92 to 7.29%, while the accuracy (bias) intra- and inter-day were between -4.78 and 1.65%. The recovery, stability and matrix effect were within the acceptable ranges. Five metabolites of veratramine, including four hydroxylated and one sulfated metabolites, were tentatively identified using predictive MRM-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (predictive MRM-IDA-EPI). The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic study of veratramine in mice after oral administration of veratramine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26972867

  9. A quantitative determination of fluorochloridone in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihong; Shi, Jingmin; Fan, Junpei; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Suhui; Hu, Yue; Wei, Li; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Tang, Liming; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    A precise, high-throughput and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of fluorochloridone (FLC) in rat plasma. The extraction of analytes from plasma samples was carried out by protein precipitation procedure using acetonitrile prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Verapamil was proved as a proper internal standard (IS) among many candidates. The chromatographic separation based on UPLC was well optimized. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization was used with the optimized MS transitions at: m/z 312.0 → 292.0 for FLC and m/z 456.4 → 165.2 for IS. This method was well validated with good linear response (r(2)  > 0.998) observed over the investigated range of 3-3000 ng/mL and with satisfactory stability. This method was also characterized with adequate intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy (within 12%) in the quality control samples, and with high selectivity and less matrix effect observed. Total running time was only 1.5 min. This method has been successfully applied to a pilot FLC pharmacokinetic study after oral administration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663256

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of Isovitexin in rats by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Tan; Li, Hui; Guo, Jiang; Zhao, Qiqing; Xie, Junbo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and credible high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated for the determination of isovitexin in rat plasma and various tissues (including heart, liver, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, brain and cerebellum). The samples were prepared with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, and puerarin was used as the internal standard. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 2.7μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (21:79, v/v). The MS analysis was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electronic spray ionization source (ESI(-)) for quantitative response of isovitexin (431.0→311.0) and puerarin (415.1→295.0). The linearity of isovitexin in all the biosamples was good, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9912 within the corresponding concentration range. The intra- and inter-day precisions in plasma and various tissues were less than 11.80%, and the accuracy (RE %) ranged from -4.89% to 4.78%. The extraction recoveries were in the range of 72.70%-90.81%. The present method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of isovitexin in rats after tail vein injection with 2.0mg/kg of the compound. The pharmacokinetic parameters were demonstrated as followed: the half-life (t1/2) was 1.05±0.325h, the apparent volume of mean residual time (MRT) was 1.229±0.429h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 11.39±5.05μg/mL/h. The results of tissue distribution showed that the main tissue depots for isovitexin in rats were kidney, intestine and liver. The results provided a meaningful insight for the further pharmacological investigation of isovitexin. PMID:25902051

  11. Analytical power of LLE-HPLC-PDA-MS/MS in drug metabolism studies: identification of new nabumetone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nobilis, Milan; Mikušek, Jiří; Szotáková, Barbora; Jirásko, Robert; Holčapek, Michal; Chamseddin, Chamseddin; Jira, Thomas; Kučera, Radim; Kuneš, Jiří; Pour, Milan

    2013-06-01

    Nabumetone is a non-acidic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug. Following oral administration, the prodrug is converted in the liver to 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), which was found to be the principal metabolite responsible for the NSAID effect. The pathway of nabumetone transformation to 6-MNA has not been clarified, with no intermediates between nabumetone and 6-MNA having been identified to date. In this study, a new, as yet unreported phase I metabolite was discovered within the evaluation of nabumetone metabolism by human and rat liver microsomal fractions. Extracts from the biomatrices were subjected to chiral LLE-HPLC-PDA and achiral LLE-UHPLC-MS/MS analyses to elucidate the chemical structure of this metabolite. UHPLC-MS/MS experiments detected the presence of a structure corresponding to elemental composition C15H16O3, which was tentatively assigned as a hydroxylated nabumetone. Identical nabumetone and HO-nabumetone UV spectra obtained from the PDA detector ruled out the presence of the hydroxy group in the aromatic moiety of nabumetone. Hence, the most likely structure of the new metabolite was 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-3-hydroxybutan-2-one (3-hydroxy nabumetone). To confirm this structure, the standard of this nabumetone metabolite was synthesized, its spectral (UV, CD, NMR, MS/MS) and retention properties on chiral and achiral chromatographic columns were evaluated and compared with those of the authentic nabumetone metabolite. To elucidate the subsequent biotransformation of 3-hydroxy nabumetone, the compound was used as a substrate in incubation with human and rat liver microsomal fraction. A number of 3-hydroxy nabumetone metabolites (products of conjugation with glucuronic acid, O-desmethylation, carbonyl reduction and their combination) were discovered in the extracts from the incubated microsomes using LLE-HPLC-PDA-MS/MS experiments. On the other hand, when 3-hydroxy nabumetone was incubated with isolated rat hepatocytes, 6-MNA was

  12. Quantitative determination of euphol in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xu; Li, Yongning; Gao, Dongna; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yanbo

    2014-09-01

    Euphol is a potential pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from Euphorbia kansui. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method to determine euphol in rat plasma was developed based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the first time. The analyte and internal standard (IS), oleanic acid, were extracted from plasma with methanol and chromatographied on a C18 short column eluted with a mobile phase of methanol–water–formic acid (95:5:0.1, v/v/v). Detection was performed by positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selective reaction monitoring mode. This method monitored the transitions m/z 409.0 →109.2 and m/z 439.4 → 203.2 for euphol and IS, respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range 27–9000 ng/mL, with a limit of quantitation of 27 ng/mL. The accuracy was between –7.04 and 4.11%, and the precision was <10.83%. This LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of euphol in rats after intravenous (6 mg/kg) and oral (48 mg/kg) administration. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of euphol was approximately 46.01%. PMID:25237707

  13. Novel and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of sofosbuvir in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Basalious, Emad B; Amin, Mohammed E

    2016-09-01

    A novel and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of sofosbuvir (SF) using eplerenone as an internal standard. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Method validation was performed as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.25-3500 ng/mL for SF. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1 min made it possible to analyze more than 500 human plasma samples per day. A very low quantification limit of SF allowed the applicability of the developed method for determination of SF in a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26821881

  14. Quantification of complanatoside A in rat plasma using LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Yuchen; Wei, Zhouxia; Pang, Li; Wang, Jianmeng

    2016-06-01

    Complanatoside A is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus, and currently it is used as a quality control index for A. complanatus in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. For the first time, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of complanatoside A in rat plasma over the range of 2.3-575 ng/mL. Complanatoside A was extracted from plasma by a protein precipitation procedure, separated by LC and detected by MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization mode. The method was validated for selectivity, carryover, sensitivity, linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect, accuracy, precision and stability studies. The lower limit of quantification was established at 2.3 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions (LLOQ, low-QC, med-QC and high-QC) were <7.9%, and accuracies were between 94.0 and 105.1%. Matrix effect was acceptable (97.9-103.0%) and extraction recovery was reproducible (88.5-94.4%). Complanatoside A was stable in the investigated conditions. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of complanatoside A in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26393341

  15. Determination of cefadroxil in rat plasma and urine using LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion studies.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, In-Bong; Kim, Yu Chul; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2014-02-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin, in rat plasma and urine. Rat samples were deproteinized with methanol, and then injected into the LC-MS/MS system (electro-spray ionization, positive mode) for quantification. Drugs were separated on a Synergi™ 4 μm Polar-RP 80A column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 4 μm) with a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (62:38, v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at m/z 364.1→208.1 (for cefadroxil) and m/z 368.1→174.2 (for cefaclor, the internal standard). Method was specific and linear over the concentration range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Validation parameters for cefadroxil, including accuracy, precision, absolute matrix effect, and stability in rat plasma and urine, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines of the FDA (2001) [16]. Cefadroxil levels in plasma up to 1440 min or 480 min and urine up to 96 h were quantifiable following oral and intravenous cefadroxil administrations to rats at a dose of 2mg/kg, each, suggesting that the method is appropriate for routine pharmacokinetic studies including urinary recovery in rats. PMID:24412692

  16. UPLC-MS/MS assay of 21-aminosteroid (lazaroid U74389G) for application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, P; Ibrahim, F; Chow, D S-L

    2016-04-15

    Lazaroids are potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, a member of the lazaroid family, U-74389G (LAZ) has been shown to have specific radio-protective and anti-proliferative effects. However, there is no quantitative analytical method developed for measuring the therapeutic levels of LAZ for the aforementioned effects. This article highlights the development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LAZ, and its subsequent application in pharmacokinetic studies in rats with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.95 ng/mL. LAZ and internal standard diadzein (IS) were separated using ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH C18 column. Gradient elution was used at a flow rate of 0.45 mL/min with mobile phases consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic in acetonitrile. LAZ (m/z 612→260) and IS (m/z 255→199) were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a positive mode on QTRAP(®) 5500 System. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated as per the US FDA Guidelines for Bio-analytical Validation. LAZ was extracted from rat plasma (100 μL) using protein precipitation by acetonitrile with mean recovery and matrix factor in range of 47.7-56.1%, and 85.6-89.4%, respectively. The calibration curve for LAZ was linear in the range of 1.95-250 ng/mL. The inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision values for LLOQ, low, medium, high and very high concentration QC samples were within ±15%. LAZ was tested under different storage conditions, for short-term bench-top stability (1h and 3h at 25°C), long-term stability (1 month at -80°C), freeze-thaw cycle stability (1 cycle and 3 cycles) and stability of processed samples in auto-sampler (24h at 10°C) with stability values within ±15% range of nominal concentrations. The validated UPLC-MS/MS method was further applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after a single intravenous dose of LAZ at 5 mg/kg. PMID

  17. Identification and characterization of stress degradation products of dronedarone hydrochloride employing LC-UV/PDA, LC-MS/TOF and MS(n) studies.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Renu; Bali, Alka; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-01-25

    Dronedarone HCl was subjected to forced decomposition conditions of hydrolysis (neutral, acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as suggested in the ICH guideline Q1A(R2). The drug showed significant degradation under alkaline hydrolytic and alkaline photolytic conditions while it remained stable in neutral, acidic, thermal and oxidative conditions. In total, six degradation products (I-VI) were formed, which could be separated by chromatography on C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μ, Xterra) column using isocratic elution method. Detection wavelength was selected as 288 nm. Multi-stage (MS(n)) and MS/TOF accurate mass studies were carried out to establish the complete fragmentation pathway of the drug which in turn was utilized in characterization of the products. The degradation pathway of the drug leading to generation of products I-VI was postulated and this has not been reported so far. PMID:26547261

  18. Determination of levocetirizine in human plasma by LC-MS-MS: validation and application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wichitnithad, Wisut; Jithavech, Ponsiree; Sanphanya, Kingkan; Vicheantawatchai, Petploy; Rojsitthisak, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple sample cleanup approach for levocetirizine in human was developed using protein precipitation coupled with LC-MS-MS. Samples were treated with 6% trichloroacetic acid in water prior to LC-MS-MS analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase column with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.5 (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The run time was 3.5 min. Mass parameters were optimized to monitor transitions at m/z [M+H](+) 389.0→201.0 for levocetirizine and m/z [M+H](+) 375.3→201.0 for hydroxyzine as internal standard. The lower limit of quantification and the dynamic range were 1.00 and 1.00-500 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity was good for intraday and interday validations (r(2) ≥ 0.995). The mean recoveries were 59 and 69% for levocetirizine and hydroxyzine, respectively. Matrix effect was acceptable with %CV < 15. Hemolytic effect was negligible. Levocetirizine was stable in human plasma for 27 h at room temperature (25°C), for 16 weeks frozen at -70°C, 4 weeks frozen at -20°C, for 24 h in an autosampler at 15°C and for three freeze/thaw cycles. The validated method was applied in a pharmacokinetic study to determine the concentration of levocetirizine in plasma samples. The study provides a fast and simple bioanalytical method for routine analysis and may be particularly useful for bioequivalence studies. PMID:26084706

  19. Timing of retinal neuronal and axonal loss in MS: a longitudinal OCT study.

    PubMed

    Balk, Lisanne J; Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Albrecht, Philipp; Arnow, Sam; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Tewarie, Prejaas; Killestein, Joep; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Petzold, Axel; Green, Ari J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the timing of central nervous system tissue atrophy in MS by evaluating longitudinal retinal volume changes in a broadly representative cohort with disease duration across the entire arc of disease. In this longitudinal study, 135 patients with MS and 16 healthy reference subjects underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at baseline and 2 years later. Following OCT quality control, automated segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) and macular inner nuclear layer (mINL) was performed. Generalized estimation equations were used to analyze longitudinal changes and associations with disease duration and clinical measures. Participants had a median disease duration at baseline of 16.4 years (range 0.1-45.4). Nearly half (44 %) of the MS patients had previously experienced MS-related optic neuritis (MSON) more than 6 months prior. The MS patients demonstrated a significant decrease over 2 years of the pRNFL (-1.1 µm, 95 % CI 1.4-0.7, p < 0.001) and mGCIPL (-1.1 µm, 95 % CI -1.4 to -0.8, p < 0.001). This thinning was most pronounced early in the course of disease. These findings were irrespective of previous episodes of MSON. No consistent pattern of change was observed for the mINL (-0.03 µm, 95 % CI -0.2 to 0.2, p = 0.795). This longitudinal study demonstrated that injury of the innermost retinal layers is found in MS and that this damage occurs most rapidly during the early stages of disease. The attenuation of atrophy with longer disease duration is suggestive of a plateau effect. These findings emphasize the importance of early intervention to prevent such injury. PMID:27142714

  20. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination, Pharmacokinetic, and Bioavailability Study of Taxifolin in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of its Nanodispersion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Mi, Ying-Ying; Gao, Ming-Jie; Lv, Jin-Nan; Meng, Yong-Hai; Yang, Bing-You; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method based on the Triple Quad system has been developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetics of taxifolin and its nanodispersion in rat plasma. Taxifolin plasma samples along with butylparaben (internal standard) were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, and then separated on a SB-C18 RRHD column (150 mm × 2.1 mm × 1.8 μm) using isocratic elution with a run time of 3.0 min. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) containing 5 mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Quantification of taxifolin was performed by the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with negative atmospheric ionization at m/z 303.0→285.0 for taxifolin and 193.1→92.0 for I.S., respectively. The calibration curve of taxifolin showed good linearity over a concentration range of 5.0-4280 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5.0 ng/mL. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy (percent relative to standard deviation) were all within 8% at three concentration levels. A total recovery of taxifolin and I.S. was beyond 75%. The present LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of taxifolin after intravenous administration of taxifolin, oral administration of its physical mixture and nanodispersion. The absolute bioavailability of taxifolin was calculated as 0.75% for taxifolin nanodispersion and 0.49% for taxifolin, respectively. PMID:27089318

  1. HPLC and MS/MS study of polar contaminants in a wetland adjoining a sour-gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, L.C.; Headley, J.V.; Peru, K.; Spiegel, K.; Gandrass, J.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical methodology was developed for target analyses and broad spectrum characterization of polar contaminants such as nitrogenous and organosulfur compounds in wetlands using the complementary techniques of HPLC with electrochemical (EC) detection and tandem MS with probe and electrospray ionization. Tandem MS was well suited for the identification and quantification of mixtures of polar compounds in water samples and soil extracts, while HPLC-EC provided sensitive detection of compounds transparent to MS detection and conventional methods. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated by studying the removal of polar contaminants from a wetland in western Canada affected by releases of hydrocarbon-rich condensate and free product from an adjoining sour-gas plant. The concern is that the mobile water-soluble polar contaminants may not be as efficiently attenuated by volatilization or adsorption processes as the more hydrophobic hydrocarbons and that some of the polar toxic compounds may break through to contaminate groundwater and surface waters. Samples of groundwater, surface water, and aqueous soil extracts were analyzed to quantify levels of polar contaminants in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons. The use of water extracts reduced the background interference from hydrocarbons and other non-polar compounds that were present in the soil samples. HPLC-EC was used to quantify the target compounds that included monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine and sulfolane-derived compounds while tandem MS was used to identify related compounds and degradation products. Influent concentrations were in the ppm range and discharge concentrations were in the ppb range.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin in mice plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Meng, F; Zhang, Y; Sun, L; Yu, L; Zhang, Z; Peng, S; Guo, J

    2016-07-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to simultaneously quantify three structurally similar flavonoid glycosides - hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin - in mouse plasma. Biosamples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on an AichromBond-AQ C18 column (250 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with methanol-acetonitrile-water-formic acid (20:25:55:0.1) as the mobile phase. Detection of hyperin, reynoutrin, guaijaverin and internal standard [luteolin-7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside] was achieved by ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode using m/z 463 → m/z 300, m/z 433 → m/z 300, m/z 433 → m/z 300 and m/z 579 → m/z 285 transitions, respectively. Linear concentration ranges of calibration curves were 4.0-800.0 ng/mL for hyperin and reynoutrin and 8.0-1600.0 ng/mL for guaijaverin when 100 μL of plasma was analyzed. We used this validated method to study the pharmacokinetics of hyperin, reynoutrin and guaijaverin in mice following oral and intravenous administration. All three quercetin-3-O-glycosides showed poor oral absorption in mice, and the absolute bioavailability of hyperin after oral administration of 100 mg/kg was 1.2%. Pretreatment with verapamil increased the peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve of hyperin, which were significantly higher than the control values. The half-life of hyperin with verapamil was significantly prolonged compared with that of the control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26588877

  3. Study on Pharmacokinetics of Three Preparations from Levistolide A by LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Qing; Lv, Wei-Sheng; Zhang, Yu; Qu, Zhao; Wei, Ren-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chang-Hui; Zhou, Xin-Xin; Li, Wei-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Qi

    2015-09-01

    A rapid sensitive analytical method was established and validated to investigate levistolide A in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry operated in the positive ion mode. Levistilide A (LA) and internal standard (IS) andrographolide (AD), mixed with the plasma sample, were separated on a reversed phase Spursil™ C18 5 µm column. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) were 398.5/381.3 for LA and (m/z) 368.0/351.1 for AD. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 5 to 1,250 ng/mL for oral administration and 10-4,000 for intravenous administration with a correlation coefficient (r) ≥0.9993. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for LA in plasma. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were less than ±15% of the relative standard deviation. In this study, the developed method is successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of LA in rats after oral administration of LA alone, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, and Danggui-Shaoyao-San along with the bioavailability study of LA in rats. Our study shows that low bioavailability (7.5%) is observed after oral administration of LA. Traditional formula compatibility of Danggui-Shaoyao-San could significantly enhance LA bioavailability compared with LA alone and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. PMID:25657289

  4. Multiple sclerosis: a role for astroglia in active demyelination suggested by class II MHC expression and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Moore, G R; Golenwsky, G; Raine, C S

    1990-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tissue was studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy from three cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which evidence of ongoing myelin breakdown could be documented. The study focussed upon the role of glial cells in the pathogenesis of demyelination. In acute MS, demyelination involved the vesicular dissolution of myelin from intact axons and a paucity of fibrillary astrogliosis. Foamy macrophages, many of them probably derived from transformed and recently proliferated microglia, contained recognizable myelin debris and lipid droplets and were abundant throughout the lesions. These cells formed the major phagocytic population and stained positively for class II major histocompatibility complex antigens (HLA-DR; Ia). In acute MS lesions, rounded astrocytes were encountered which possessed membrane-bound compartments enclosing phagocytosed fragments of myelin basic protein-positive debris. Despite the superficial resemblance of these cells to foamy macrophages, the presence of intermediate filaments, glycogen granules and diffuse glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity supported an astroglial identity. Astrocyte processes were involved in myelin removal and invested recently demyelinated axons. Hypertrophic fibrous astrocytes were common in chronic active lesions, were capable of myelin degradation and on occasion, contained myelin debris attached to clathrin-coated pits. These astrocytes were sometimes Ia+. Oligodendrocytes were depleted from the center of active lesions but were numerous at the lesion margin, suggesting survival and proliferation. They stained positively for myelin-associated glycoprotein, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes. However, they were invariably Ia-. The findings confirm and further support a role for the astrocyte as both an antigen presenting cell and a phagocyte in the CNS during MS. PMID:2307980

  5. PyMS: a Python toolkit for processing of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. Application and comparative study of selected tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a technique frequently used in targeted and non-targeted measurements of metabolites. Most existing software tools for processing of raw instrument GC-MS data tightly integrate data processing methods with graphical user interface facilitating interactive data processing. While interactive processing remains critically important in GC-MS applications, high-throughput studies increasingly dictate the need for command line tools, suitable for scripting of high-throughput, customized processing pipelines. Results PyMS comprises a library of functions for processing of instrument GC-MS data developed in Python. PyMS currently provides a complete set of GC-MS processing functions, including reading of standard data formats (ANDI- MS/NetCDF and JCAMP-DX), noise smoothing, baseline correction, peak detection, peak deconvolution, peak integration, and peak alignment by dynamic programming. A novel common ion single quantitation algorithm allows automated, accurate quantitation of GC-MS electron impact (EI) fragmentation spectra when a large number of experiments are being analyzed. PyMS implements parallel processing for by-row and by-column data processing tasks based on Message Passing Interface (MPI), allowing processing to scale on multiple CPUs in distributed computing environments. A set of specifically designed experiments was performed in-house and used to comparatively evaluate the performance of PyMS and three widely used software packages for GC-MS data processing (AMDIS, AnalyzerPro, and XCMS). Conclusions PyMS is a novel software package for the processing of raw GC-MS data, particularly suitable for scripting of customized processing pipelines and for data processing in batch mode. PyMS provides limited graphical capabilities and can be used both for routine data processing and interactive/exploratory data analysis. In real-life GC-MS data processing scenarios PyMS performs as well or better than

  6. Suggested Materials and Themes for a Study of Population in Secondary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Diana Darnall

    The main objective of this thesis is to suggest materials for use in secondary social studies classrooms for improvement of instruction on population and world geography. The thesis provides background information on population, a listing of sources where additional information can be found, and major generalizations, discussion questions, and…

  7. Determination of dihydromyricetin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing; Hou, Xiaolong; Fang, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqing; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Xu; Xie, Xuejia; Shi, Chunyang

    2015-10-10

    Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb among the indigenous people in the Yangtze River region of China. Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the most abundant (approximately 30%) and bioactive constituent in A. grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, and recent studies have demonstrated its various pharmacological activities. In the present study, a first specific, sensitive, rapid and reliable LC-MS/MS method for the determination of DMY in rat plasma was developed and validated. The plasma samples were prepared with protein precipitation method, and chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) using a gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. The mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was conducted in negative ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions at m/z 319.1→192.8 for DMY and m/z 609.0→301.2 for rutin (IS). The plasma concentration profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed after oral administration of dextroisomer and racemate DMY at the dose of 100 mg/kg in rats. The method validation was conducted over the calibration range of 10.0-5000 ng/ml with the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy within 12.0% (RSD) and 5.6% (RE). The recoveries, matrix effect and stability under different conditions were all proved acceptable. The values of Tmax, AUC(0-∞) and Vd were significantly different between the groups of dextroisomer and racemate DMY (P<0.05), and pharmacokinetic results revealed their poor absorptions into blood, probably high tissue distributions and slow elimination processes. The present study will provide helpful information for the further studies and future clinical applications of DMY. PMID:26133104

  8. Quantification of taraxasterol in rat plasma by LC/MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Pang, Li; Dong, Ning; Xu, Dahai; Xu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic triterpene from Taraxacum officinale, is one of the main active constituents of the herb. This study developed and validated a highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of taraxasterol in rat plasma over the range of 9.0-5000 ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 (4.6 × 50 mm, 5.0 µm) column with methanol-isopropanol-water-formic acid (80:10:10:0.1, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase with an isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. After adding cucurbitacin IIa as an internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation using ethyl acetate. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantification of transition ions m/z 409.4 → 137.1 for taraxasterol and m/z 503.4 → 113.1 for IS. The mean recoveries of taraxasterol in rat plasma ranged from 85.3 to 87.2%. The matrix effects for taraxasterol were between 98.5 and 104.0%. Intra- and inter-day precision were both <11.8%, and the accuracy of the method ranged from -7.0 to 12.9%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of taraxasterol after oral administration of 7.75, 15.5 and 31.0 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25873241

  9. Rapid LC-MS/MS method for determination of drotaverine in a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Szende; Gáll, Zsolt; Donáth-Nagy, Gabriella; Borka-Balás, Réka

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of the antispasmodic drug drotaverine in human plasma was developed and validated according to the current bioanalytical guidelines. The internal standard used was imipramine. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 50×3mm, 2.6μm column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase of 65:35 (v/v) formic acid 0.2% (v/v) in water and acetonitrile at 40°C with a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The detection of drotaverine and the internal standard was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using an ion trap mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization, operating in positive mode. The human plasma samples (0.24ml) were deproteinized with methanol and aliquots of 4μl from supernatants obtained after centrifugation were directly injected into the chromatographic system. The method shows a good linearity (r(2)>0.997), precision (CV<6.3%) and accuracy (bias<5.4%) over the range of 2.24-448ng/ml drotaverine in plasma. The recovery was between 91 and 98%. The limit of quantification was 2.24ng/ml. The analysis required only a 3.0min run. The developed and validated method for the determination of drotaverine in human plasma was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study, for analyzing approximately 1000 subject's samples. PMID:25005892

  10. Study Suggests Brain Damage in 40 Percent of Ex-NFL Players

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158243.html Study Suggests Brain Damage in 40 Percent of Ex-NFL Players ... National Football League players may suffer from traumatic brain injuries, a small study suggests. Brain scans of ...

  11. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests Expectant mothers should probably ... pregabalin (Lyrica) may slightly increase the risk for birth defects, a new study suggests. In a small ...

  12. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  13. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify methylergonovine in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Qichao; Liu, Dongming; Ma, Bowen; Zhao, Hengli; Fang, Zengjun; Wang, Haisheng; Lou, Hongxiang

    2016-02-01

    Methylergonovine (ME) is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid that is used for the treatment and prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage. In recent years, methylergonovine has been effective in the control of refractory headaches and is likely to be employed as chemosensitizers for cancer. However, this alkaloid sometimes causes elevated blood pressure. Therefore, a sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of this drug in biological matrices is necessary. In this study, ME was extracted from 500μL plasma samples by a liquid-liquid extraction under alkaline conditions and detected using positive multi-reaction-monitoring mode (+MRM) mass spectrometry. The method was validated according to US FDA guidelines and covered a working range from 0.025 to 10ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.025ng/mL. In conclusion, a rapid, sensitive, selective and accurate quantification by an LC-MS/MS method was developed and successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetics study in female volunteers after a single intramuscular injection or oral administration of a 0.2mg dose of ME maleate. It is suitable for both preclinical and clinical studies on ME. PMID:26760224

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Metformin, Metoprolol and its Metabolites in Rat Plasma by LC-MS-MS: Application to Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-rong; Rao, Zhi; Shi, A-xi; Wang, Ya-feng; Huang, Jing; Han, Miao; Wang, Xin-dong; Jin, Yong-wen; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Qin, Hong-yan; Wu, Xin-an

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of metformin (MTF), metoprolol (MET), α-hydroxymetoprolol (HMT) and O-desmethylmetoprolol (DMT) in rat plasma using paracetamol as an internal standard (IS), respectively. The sample preparation involved a protein-precipitation method with methanol after the addition of IS. The separation was performed on an Agilent HC-C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, using methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid (39:61, v/v) as mobile phase, and total run time was 8.5 min. MS-MS detection was accomplished in multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The monitored transitions were m/z 130.1 → 60.2 for MTF, m/z 268.2 → 116.1 for MET, m/z 284.2 → 116.1 for HMT, m/z 254.2 → 116.1 for DMT and m/z 152.3 → 110.1 for IS. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and recovery over a concentration range of 19.53-40,000 ng/mL for MTF, 3.42-7,000 ng/mL for MET, 2.05-4,200 ng/mL for HMT and 1.95-4,000 ng/mL for DMT, respectively. The analytical method was successfully applied to drug interaction study of MTF and MET after oral administration of MTF and MET. Results suggested that the coadministration of MTF and MET results in a significant drug interaction in rat. PMID:26187926

  15. Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

    2014-02-01

    In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

  16. Simultaneous determination of mangiferin and neomangiferin in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application for pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangjun; Zhao, Jian-Long; Hao, Cong; Yuan, Canli; Tian, Nuan; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Zou, Ruan-Min

    2016-05-30

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine mangiferin and neomangiferin in rat plasma simultaneously. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a Xevo TQD triple quadruple mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The MRM transitions of m/z 423.2→303.1 and m/z 585.0→273.1 were used to quantify for mangiferin and neomangiferin, respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 5-2000ng/mL for mangiferin, and 2-1000ng/mL for neomangiferin in rat plasma, respectively. Only 3.0min was needed for an analytical run. This assay was used to support a preclinical study to investigate the pharmacokinetics of mangiferin and neomangiferin in rats. PMID:26945635

  17. UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of Vilazodone in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia; Hashem, Hanaa; Fouad, Marwa; Tarek, Sally

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of vilazodone in human plasma and for the study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of vilazodone in healthy Egyptian volunteers. With escitalopram as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and preconcentration of analytes from human plasma matrix using diethyl ether. The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 150 mm). Isocratic elution was applied using methanol-0.2% formic acid (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring mode via an electrospray ionization source at m/z 442.21 → 155.23 for vilazodone and m/z 325.14 → 109.2 for escitalopram. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the range of 1-200 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision showed relative standard deviation ≤3.3%. The total run time was 1.5 min. This method was successfully applied for clinical pharmacokinetic investigation, and a preliminary metabolic study was also carried out. PMID:27209054

  18. Integrated Workflow for Structural Proteomics Studies Based on Cross-Linking/Mass Spectrometry with an MS/MS Cleavable Cross-Linker.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Christian; Götze, Michael; Ihling, Christian H; Hage, Christoph; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-08-16

    Cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved as an alternative strategy in structural biology for characterizing three-dimensional structures of protein assemblies and for mapping protein-protein interactions. Here, we describe an integrated workflow for an automated identification of cross-linked products that is based on the use of a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) cleavable cross-linker (containing a 1,3-bis-(4-oxo-butyl)-urea group, BuUrBu) generating characteristic doublet patterns upon fragmentation. We evaluate different fragmentation methods available on an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for three proteins and an E. coli cell lysate. An updated version of the dedicated software tool MeroX was employed for a fully automated identification of cross-links. The strength of our cleavable cross-linker is that characteristic patterns of the cross-linker as well as backbone fragments of the connected peptides are already observed at the MS/MS level, eliminating the need for conducting MS(3) or sequential CID (collision-induced dissociation)- and ETD (electron transfer dissociation)-MS/MS experiments. This makes our strategy applicable to a broad range of mass spectrometers with MS/MS capabilities. For purified proteins and protein complexes, our workflow using CID-MS/MS acquisition performs with high confidence, scoring cross-links at 0.5% false discovery rate (FDR). The cross-links provide structural insights into the intrinsically disordered tetrameric tumor suppressor protein p53. As a time-consuming manual inspection of cross-linking data is not required, our workflow will pave the way for making the cross-linking/MS approach a routine technique for structural proteomics studies. PMID:27428000

  19. Validated LC-MS/MS Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Fimasartan in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Hyun; Oh, Seul; Kim, Hwa Suk; Yi, SoJeong; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn

    2015-09-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of a newly developed antihypertensive agent fimasartan (BR-A657, Kanarb(®)) in human plasma was developed and validated. Fimasartan and internal standard (IS, BR-A563) were extracted by simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile and separated on a Phenyl-Hexyl column (Luna(®), 5 µm, 50 mm × 2.0 mm, Phenomenex) under the gradient conditions of mobile phase A (distilled water with 0.1% formic acid) and mobile phase B (100% acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Detection and quantification were performed by the mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring mode at m/z 500.2 → 221.2 for fimasartan and m/z 524.3 → 204.9 for the IS. The assay was linear over a calibration range of 0.5-500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation of this assay precision was <14.9% and the accuracy exceeded 91.9%. This method provided the necessary sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity to allow the determination of fimasartan after oral administration to healthy Korean male volunteers in several drug-drug interaction studies conducted at the Clinical Trials Center of Seoul National University Hospital. PMID:25616988

  20. UPLC-MS/MS determination of voriconazole in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Huang, Cheng-ke; Sun, Wei; Xiao, Cui; Wang, Zeng-shou

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine voriconazole in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase system composed of acetonitrile and water containing 1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions of m/z 351.0 → 281.5 and m/z 237.1 → 194.2 were used to quantify voriconazole and carbamazepine (internal standard), respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 2.0-1000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL. Only 1.0 min was needed for an analytical run. This fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 200 mg voriconazole to 20 Chinese healthy male volunteers. PMID:24925071

  1. Determination of pinocembrin in human plasma by solid-phase extraction and LC/MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bei; Cao, Guoying; Sun, Taohua; Zhao, Xi; Hu, Xin; Yan, Jiling; Peng, Yueying; Shi, Aixin; Li, Yang; Xue, Wei; Li, Min; Li, Kexin; Liu, Yingfa

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive, fast and specific method for the quantitation of pinocembrin in human plasma based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated. Clonazepam was used as the internal standard (IS). After solid-phase extraction of 500 μL plasma, pinocembrin and the IS were separated on a Luna C8 column using the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-0.3 mm ammonium acetate solution (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min in isocratic mode. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in negative mode by AB SCIEX Qtrap 5500. The assay was linear from 1 to 400 ng/mL, with within- and between-run accuracy (relative error) from -1.82 to 0.54%, and within- and between-run precision (CV) below 5.25%. The recovery was above 88% for the analyte at 1, 50 and 300 ng/mL. This analytical method was successful for the determination of pinocembrin in human plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study of pinocembrin injection in healthy volunteers after intravenous drip administration. PMID:24733513

  2. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: validation and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Aidong; Hang, Taijun; Chen, Suning; Wang, Zhirui; Ding, Likun; Tian, Yun; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Xinxin

    2008-11-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma using clenbuterol as internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were subjected to a simple protein precipitation with methanol. Separation was achieved on a Lichrospher C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm ID, dp 5 microm) using methanol (containing 0.2% of formic acid) and water (containing 0.2% of formic acid) as a mobile phase by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring the ion transitions from m/z 365.9-->348.9 (amoxicillin), m/z 378.9-->263.6 (ambroxol) and m/z 277.0-->203.0 (IS). Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 5-20,000 ng/mL for amoxicillin, and 1-200 ng/mL for ambroxol, with the intra- and inter-run precisions of <9% and the accuracies of 100+/-7%. The method has been validated and applied to pharmacokinetic studies of compound amoxicillin and ambroxol hydrochloride tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:18603398

  3. Determination and validation of hupehenine in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Congcong; Wang, Shuanghu; Huang, Xueli; Liu, Zezheng; Lin, Yingying; Yang, Suping; Ma, Jianshe; Zhou, Yunfang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of hupehenine in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of imperialine as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 416.3 → 98.0 for hupehenine, and m/z 430.3 → 138.2 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 2-2000 ng/mL for hupehenine in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of hupehenine in rat plasma ranged from 92.5 to 97.3%. Relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precision were both <6%. The accuracy of the method was between 92.7 and 107.4%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of hupehenine after either oral or intravenous administration. For the first time, the bioavailability of hupehenine was reported as 13.4%. PMID:26033449

  4. Determination of ulixertinib in mice plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajinish; Suresh, P S; Rudresh, G; Zainuddin, Mohd; Dewang, Purushottam; Kethiri, Ragahava Reddy; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ulixertinib in mice plasma using phenacetin as an internal standard (I.S.) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile:methanol mixture. Chromatographic separation was performed on Atlantis dC18 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (0.2% formic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.60mL/min. Elution of ulixertinib and I.S. occurred at ∼1.07 and 1.20min, respectively. The total chromatographic run time was 2.5min. A linear response function was established in the concentration range of 1.58-2054ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the range of 2.11-11.8 and 5.80-11.4%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice. PMID:27017572

  5. Determination of Apremilast in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS-MS and Its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lian-Guo; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Shujun; Li, Tao; Pan, Yongyang; Lai, Xixi

    2016-09-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of apremilast in rat plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2 mL of acetonitrile to a 0.1 mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.0 min, and the elution of apremilast was at 1.27 min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the respective transitions m/z 461.3 → 257.1 for apremilast and m/z 237.2 → 194.2 for carbamazepine (internal standard). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL. The mean recovery of apremilast in plasma was in the range of 83.2-87.5%. Both intraday and interday precision were <9.6%. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 6.0 mg/kg apremilast in rats. PMID:27165568

  6. Determination of Sertraline in Human Plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zhen; Tian, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Zhu, Kang; Ye, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed to determine sertraline in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient mobile phase system composed of acetonitrile and 1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a XEVO TQD mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions of m/z 306.3 → 275.2 and 326.2 → 291.1 were used to quantify for sertraline and midazolam (internal standard), respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 1.0 ng/mL. Only 2.0 min was needed for an analytical run. This fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after an oral administration of 100 mg sertraline to 20 Chinese healthy male volunteers. PMID:26324195

  7. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of six flavonoids from Fructus Sophorae extract in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lu; Ren, Yanping; Cao, Liang; Sun, Yingguang; Sun, Qian; Sheng, Ning; Yuan, Lin; Zhi, Xuran; Zhang, Lantong

    2012-09-01

    In this study, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of six flavonoids including sophoricoside, genistin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in rat plasma after oral administration of Fructus Sophorae extract using sulfamethalazole as internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C(18) column with a simple linear gradient elution. The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning after electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 431.1/267.9 for sophoricoside and genistin, 269.0/133.0 for genistein, 609.2/300.0 for rutin, 301.0/150.9 for quercetin, 284.9/93.0 for kaempferol and 252.0/155.9 for IS. The total run time was 8.0 min. Full validation of the assay was implemented including specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect. This is the first report on determination of the major flavones in rat plasma after oral administration of Fructus Sophorae extract. The results provided a meaningful basis for the clinical application of this herb. PMID:22867839

  8. An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of vortioxetine in rat plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Er-min; Huang, Chengke; Liang, Bingqing; Yuan, Lingjing; Lan, Tian; Hu, Guoxin; Zhou, Hongyu

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a simple, sensitive and fast ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of vortioxetine in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed with a protein precipitation. The separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The validated method had an excellent linearity in the range of 0.05-20ng/mL (R(2)>0.997) with a lower limit of quantification (0.05ng/mL). The extraction recovery was in the range of 78.3-88.4% for vortioxetine and 80.3% for carbamazepine (internal standard, IS). The intra- and inter-day precision was below 8.5% and accuracy was from -11.2% to 9.5%. No notable matrix effect and astaticism was observed for vortioxetine. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of vortioxetine in rats for the first time, which provides the basis for the further development and application of vortioxetine. PMID:26094207

  9. Bioanalytical LC/MS study of potential bacterial transglycosylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Blanchaert, Bart; Palabiyik, Ismail Murat; Gökbulut, Alper; Wang, Ming-Juan; Dai, Zhong; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial transglycosylation is an interesting target in antibiotic drug development. An in vitro transglycosylation assay was developed and used to search for possible inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin Binding Protein 2-mediated transglycosylation. Since the substrate, Lipid II, has no UV-chromophore, the assay relies on LC coupled to MS for analysis of the incubation mixtures. Extracts from Thymus sipyleus, Salvia verticillata, Salvia virgata and Oolong tea were tested, as well as epigallocatechin gallate and ursolic acid, which are chemical compounds derived from plants. Matrix effects hampered Lipid II quantification in samples treated with very high concentrations of extracts. None of these extracts or isolated compounds appeared to have inhibitory activities towards the transglycosylation function of Penicillin Binding Protein 2. PMID:26782294

  10. Sunitinib LC-MS/MS Assay in Mouse Plasma and Brain Tissue: Application in CNS Distribution Studies.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Rajneet K; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Fisher, James; Elmquist, William F

    2013-12-01

    Sunitinib malate is a multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, currently in clinical trials for glioma. Previously developed methods for preclinical studies in species such as mice have either employed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or did not describe a detailed analytical method, which could be employed by other preclinical laboratories. In this paper, we have developed and validated a simple, sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of sunitinib concentration in mouse plasma and brain tissue homogenate using dasatinib-free base as the internal standard. A single step liquid-liquid extraction method was used for both the matrices. Since sunitinib exhibits light-induced E/Z isomerism, all sample preparation was done in light-protected conditions. Separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column 4.6 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm. The mobile phase consisted of 20 mM ammonium formate (with 0.1 % formic acid): acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) pumped isocratically at a flow rate of 0.25 mL min(-1) with a total run-time of 13 min. The retention times of sunitinib and dasatinib were 7.8 and 5.5 min, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 1.95 to 500 ng mL(-1) in both plasma and brain tissue homogenate with 1.95 ng mL(-1) as the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for both the matrices. Inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision was <15 % for low QC, med QC and high QC and <20 % for LLOQ. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in FVB wild-type mice to determine the plasma and brain concentrations after a single oral sunitinib malate dose of 20 mg kg(-1). PMID:24409000

  11. Photodegradation of the fungicide thiram in aqueous solutions. Kinetic studies and identification of the photodegradation products by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Filipe, O M S; Santos, Sónia A O; Domingues, M Rosário M; Vidal, M M; Silvestre, A J D; Neto, C P; Santos, E B H

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the relevance of photodegradation processes on the persistence of the fungicide thiram in waters was investigated. The photodegradation of thiram in Milli-Q water and in aqueous solutions of humic and fulvic acids, as well as the photodegradation in spiked river water were studied. Both pure thiram and one of its commercial formulations were used to prepare the solutions which were irradiated in a solar light simulator. In general, thiram photodegradation follows pseudo-first order kinetics. The half-life time of thiram 2mgL(-1) in Milli-Q water was 28min. However, the degradation rate of thiram was significantly increased (p=0.02) by the inert components of the thiram commercial formulation as well as by commercial humic acids and by fulvic acids isolated from river water (p<0.004). Thus, the half-life time of thiram decreased to 24min in the presence of the inert formulation components, while, in the presence of both humic and fulvic acids (10mgL(-1)) it decreased to 22min. Furthermore, thiram photodegradation in natural river water showed that there is a significant enhancement of the degradation rate constant of thiram relatively to Milli-Q water, corresponding to a decrease of about 38% in its half-life time. This increase of the degradation rate in river water seems to be higher than that observed in the presence of FA, suggesting that beyond organic matter, other natural river components can increase the thiram photodegradation rate. These results allow us to conclude that photodegradation by solar radiation can be an important degradation pathway of thiram in natural waters. HPLC-MS/MS allowed to identify, for the first time, three products of the photodegradation of thiram in aqueous solution. Three compounds were identified and their structure was corroborated by the MS(n) spectra fragmentation profile. Pathways for the formation of the products from thiram photodegradation are proposed and discussed. PMID:23466090

  12. An improved LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of indapamide in whole blood: application for a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Guilherme Araújo; Pastre, Kátia Isabel Fercondini; Bellorio, Karini Bruno; de Souza Teixeira, Leonardo; de Souza, Weidson Carlo; de Abreu, Fernanda Crunivel; de Santana E Silva Cardoso, Fabiana Fernandes; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio; César, Isabela Costa

    2014-09-01

    An improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of indapamide in human whole blood was developed and validated. Indapamide-d3 was used as internal standard (IS) and liquid-liquid extraction was employed for sample preparation. LC separation was performed on Synergi Polar RP-column (50 × 4.6 mm i.d.; 4 µm) and mobile phase composed of methanol and 5 mm aqueous ammonium acetate containing 1 mm formic acid (60:40), at flow rate of 1 mL/min. The run time was 3.0 min and the injection volume was 20 μL. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using electrospray ion source in negative ionization mode, using the transitions m/z 364.0 → m/z 188.9 and m/z 367.0 → m/z 188.9 for indapamide and IS, respectively. Calibration curve was constructed over the range 0.25-50 ng/mL. The method was precise and accurate, and provided recovery rates >80% for indapamide and IS. The method was applied to determine blood concentrations of indapamide in a bioequivalence study with two sustained release tablet formulations. The 90% confidence interval for the geometric mean ratios for maximum concentration was 95.78% and for the area under the concentration-time curve it was 97.91%. The tested indapamide tablets (Eurofarma Laboratórios S.A.) were bioequivalent to Natrilix®, according to the rate and extent of absorption. PMID:24752891

  13. Simultaneous Quantification of Baricitinib and Methotrexate in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R. S.; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Rangaswamy, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5–250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples PMID:27222609

  14. LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of almotriptan in dialysates: application to rat brain and blood microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Aleti, Raghupathi; Pantangi, Hanumanth Rao; Srikakolapu, Surya Rao; Benade, Vijay; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Vurimindi, Himabindu

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of almotriptan in rat brain and blood dialysates. Almotriptan is a 5HT1B/1D receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine pain. Method consists of rapid gradient elution program with 10mM ammonium formate (pH 3) and acetonitrile on a Xbridge column. The MRM transitions monitored were m/z 336.2-58.1 for almotriptan and m/z 448.2-285.3 for the IS. The assay was linear in the range of 0.1-20 ng/ml, with acceptable precision and accuracy along with adequate sensitivity. The between batch accuracy was in the range of 99.0-104.3% with precision in between 0.6% and 5.8%. Microdialysis is an important sampling technique, with the capability of capturing the concentrations of various analytes in different bio fluids, at a single time point. This method was applied to quantify brain and blood dialysate samples obtained from a microdialysis study of rats treated with almotriptan (10mg/kg, p.o.). In vivo recovery experiments were performed to correct the dialysate concentrations into extracellular concentrations. Mean peak dialysate concentrations of almotriptan were found to be 152 ± 78 and 7.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml in blood and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The brain penetration of almotriptan is characterized by the AUCbrain/AUCblood found to be 0.07 ± 0.05. The results revealed the importance of measuring the unbound almotriptan concentrations in the brain over the blood for understanding its PK/PD relationship. PMID:23666253

  15. Simultaneous Quantification of Baricitinib and Methotrexate in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R S; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Rangaswamy, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples. PMID:27222609

  16. Chemical-Free Cosmetics May Be Safer for Teen Girls, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemical-Free Cosmetics May Be Safer for Teen Girls, Study Suggests Lower levels of hormone-disrupting chemicals ... hormone-disrupting chemicals in the bodies of teen girls, a new study reports. Chemicals widely used in ...

  17. A lead isotope distribution study in swine tissue using ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Wiedmeyer, R.H.; Brown, L.D.; Casteel, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is a serious human health hazard, especially for women of childbearing age, developing fetuses, and young children. Information concerning the uptake and distribution of lead to maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy is poorly documented. A study was designed using domestic swine and lead isotope enrichment methodology to focus on maternal absorption and distribution of lead into bone and soft tissues, including the fetal compartment, under varying conditions of oral lead exposure and during altered physiological states (pregnant vs unbred). Total lead levels and Pb207/Pb206 ratios in bone (femur and vertebra), blood, and soft tissues (liver, kidney, brain) were determined by ICP-MS. Lead in fetal tissues derived from maternal bone could be differentiated from that derived from exogenous dosing. Unbred swine absorbed much less lead than pregnant females receiving the same dose. The accuracy and precision of ICP-MS at the instrumental level and for the entire method (sample collection, digestion, and analysis) were evaluated for both Pb207/Pb206 ratios and total lead. Several changes were suggested in method design to improve both instrumental and total method precision.

  18. Effect of occupation on risk of developing MS: an insurance cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Henrik; Ahlgren, Birgitte; Nærum, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the occupational risks in relation to multiple sclerosis (MS). The immediate background for this research was our finding that there had been a high number of critical illness insurance claims by patients diagnosed with MS within the agricultural segment of a Danish pension fund. Design An open insurance cohort. All payouts for the critical illness insurance from 2002 to 2011 were continuously registered. Settings PensionDanmark; one of Denmark's largest pension funds. Participants PensionDanmark insures more than 300 000 members of the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions against critical illness. All members are insured, and all policies are identical. The total exposure is 3.3 million person-years. Primary outcome measures The incidence of MS. Results During the 10-year period, 389 persons were diagnosed with MS. The crude incidence rate for men was 10.2/100 000; the corresponding figure for women was 16.1/100 000. We found signs of an overall effect of occupation on the risk of developing MS, and the high frequency found within the agricultural segment was attributed to dairy operators, who had an incidence of MS 2.0 times higher than the rest of the study's population (95% CI=1.2 to 3.0). Conclusions Our results indicate some occupational risk factors in MS, and this should be investigated further. PMID:23794592

  19. Trace quantification of 1-triacontanol in beagle plasma by GC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfeng; Fan, Ali; Zhu, Xiaojie; Lu, Yang; Deng, Shuhua; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xijing

    2015-05-01

    1-Triacontanol (TA), a member of long chain fatty alcohol, has recently been received great attention owing to its antitumor activity. In this study, an accurate, sensitive and selective gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of TA in beagle plasma using 1-octacosanal as the internal standard (IS) for the first time. With temperature programming, chromatographic separation was carried out on an HP-5MS column, using helium as carrier gas and argon as collision gas, both at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. TA was analyzed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, with the precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 495.6 → 97.0 and m/z 467.5 → 97.0 for TA and the IS, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation, linearity, intra- and interday precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect of TA were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TA in beagles. PMID:25331188

  20. Study of the effect of sample preparation and cooking on the selenium speciation of selenized potatoes by HPLC with ICP-MS and electrospray ionization MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Borrego, Ana Arias; Peachey, Emma; Hearn, Ruth; O'Connor, Gavin; Barrera, Tamara García; Ariza, José Luis Gómez

    2009-01-14

    The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and leaching with water using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) or boiling was investigated for quantitative Se speciation in selenized potatoes using reversed phase HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. Preliminary identification of selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMeCys), and selenate in extracts of potato skin and flesh was achieved using complementary reversed phase and anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS and retention time matching with standards. The quantitative speciation data revealed a higher percentage of selenomethionine (73% of the total Se) found in the flesh in comparison with skin (containing 21% of the total Se as SeMet). ASE and boiling in water were found to be similar in terms of Se extraction efficiency and profiles. However, ASE was found to be more efficient than boiling with respect to sample cleanup and reduced sample handling. The presence of SeMet at parts per billion levels in selenized potatoes was confirmed by reversed phase HPLC with online ESI MS/MS. PMID:19093878

  1. Enantiospecific determination of arotinolol in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheyuan; Xu, Yanhai; Zheng, Leyi; Zhang, Jingbo; Hong, Zhanying; Shen, Xiaohang

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated for quantification of arotinolol enantiomers in rat plasma using haloperidol as the internal standard. After solid phase extraction of 50.0 μL rat plasma in 96 well plate, a baseline resolution of arotinolol enantiomers was achieved on a CHIRALPAK AD-H column using the mobile phase of n-hexane and ethanol in 0.02% diethylamine (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.550 mL/min within 11.0 min. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode with an ESI source using the transition m/z 372.1 → 316.1 for (±)-arotinolol and m/z 376.1 → 165.1 for haloperidol. The calibration curves of both enantiomers were linear over the range of 1.00-200.0 ng/mL (r(2)>0.992) and the lower limit of quantification was 1.00 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 5.6% to 8.9% for R-(-)-arotinolol and 4.6-7.4% for S-(+)-arotinolol. Accuracy varied from 0.0% to 7.0% for R-(-)-arotinolol and 5.0-10.0% for S-(+)-arotinolol. For R-(-)-arotinolol, the recovery ranged from 87.2% to 99.2% and the matrix factor was 1.03-1.09; for S-(+)-arotinolol, the recovery ranged from 88.0% to 92.4% and the matrix factor was 0.84-0.95, both were not concentration dependent. The method was demonstrated with acceptable accuracy, precision and specificity for the determination of arotinolol enantiomers and has been successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study. PMID:25459927

  2. Simultaneous determination of erlotinib and tamoxifen in rat plasma using UPLC-MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetic interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Maher, Hadir M; Alzoman, Nourah Z; Shehata, Shereen M

    2016-08-15

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that enhances erlotinib (ERL)-induced cytotoxicity in the treatment of NSCLC. ERL and TAM are metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In addition, both drugs have the potential of altering the enzymatic activity through either inhibition (ERL) or induction (TAM). Thus it was expected that pharmacokinetics (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) could be encountered following their co-administration. In this respect, a bioanalytical UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ERL and TAM in rat plasma samples, using ondansetron (OND) as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were prepared using mixed mode cationic solid phase extraction (SPE) STRATA™ -X-C 33μm cartridges with good extraction recovery of both drugs from rat plasma (Er% from -13.92 to -3.32). The drugs were separated on a Waters BEH™ C18 column with an isocratic elution using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and water, each with 0.15% formic acid, in the ratio of 80: 20, v/v. Quantitation was carried out using the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at m/z 394.20>278.04 (ERL), m/z 372.25>72.01 (TAM), and m/z 294.18>170.16 (OND). The method was fully validated as per the FDA guidelines over the concentration range of 0.2-50ng/mL with very low lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.2ng/mL for both ERL and TAM. The intra- and inter-day assay precision (in terms of relative standard deviation, RSD) and accuracy (in terms of percentage relative error, % Er) were evaluated for both drugs and the calculated values evaluated at four different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits (<15%) for concentrations other than LLOQ and 20% for LLOQ. The method was successfully applied to the study of possible PK-DDI following the oral administration of ERL and TAM in a combination, compared to their single administration. PMID:27336702

  3. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests But there was a slightly ... aromatase inhibitors doesn't raise the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new ...

  4. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158441.html Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, ... the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new study suggests. However, the researchers ...

  5. Field-proven transportable GC/MS: Real-world case studies and success stories

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, J.; Gallis, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has evolved into being the preferred technique for analyzing challenging environmental samples in complex matrices. The authors present case studies and successes achieved in applying a field-proven, fully transportable GC/MS system that is conveniently deployed to perform on-site GC/MS analyses with results equivalent to benchtop laboratory systems. This on-site GC/MS analytical capability provides real-time, decision-quality data, while reducing sample handling delays, minimizing laboratory analysis costs, and eliminating sample degradation so that analytical results accurately represent actual on-site conditions. A confidential site in the northeastern US was characterized as having shallow soil PCB contamination.

  6. Mixed-effects statistical model for comparative LC-MS proteomics studies.

    PubMed

    Daly, D S; Anderson, K K; Panisko, E A; Purvine, S O; Fang, R; Monroe, M E; Baker, S E

    2008-03-01

    Comparing a protein's concentrations across two or more treatments is the focus of many proteomics studies. A frequent source of measurements for these comparisons is a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of a protein's peptide ions separated by liquid chromatography (LC) following its enzymatic digestion. Alas, LC-MS identification and quantification of equimolar peptides can vary significantly due to their unequal digestion, separation, and ionization. This unequal measurability of peptides, the largest source of LC-MS nuisance variation, stymies confident comparison of a protein's concentration across treatments. Our objective is to introduce a mixed-effects statistical model for comparative LC-MS proteomics studies. We describe LC-MS peptide abundance with a linear model featuring pivotal terms that account for unequal peptide LC-MS measurability. We advance fitting this model to an often incomplete LC-MS data set with REstricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation, producing estimates of model goodness-of-fit, treatment effects, standard errors, confidence intervals, and protein relative concentrations. We illustrate the model with an experiment featuring a known dilution series of a filamentous ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei protein mixture. For 781 of the 1546 T. reesei proteins with sufficient data coverage, the fitted mixed-effects models capably described the LC-MS measurements. The LC-MS measurability terms effectively accounted for this major source of uncertainty. Ninety percent of the relative concentration estimates were within 0.5-fold of the true relative concentrations. Akin to the common ratio method, this model also produced biased estimates, albeit less biased. Bias decreased significantly, both absolutely and relative to the ratio method, as the number of observed peptides per protein increased. Mixed-effects statistical modeling offers a flexible, well-established methodology for comparative proteomics studies integrating common

  7. A mixed-effects Statistical Model for Comparative LC-MS Proteomics Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Fang, Ruihua; Monroe, Matthew E.; Baker, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Comparing a protein’s concentrations across two or more treatments is the focus of many proteomics studies. A frequent source of measurements for these comparisons is a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of a protein’s peptide ions separated by liquid chromatography (LC) following its enzymatic digestion. Alas, LC-MS identification and quantification of equimolar peptides can vary significantly due to their unequal digestion, separation and ionization. This unequal measurability of peptides, the largest source of LC-MS nuisance variation, stymies confident comparison of a protein’s concentration across treatments. Our objective is to introduce a mixed-effects statistical model for comparative LC-MS proteomics studies. We describe LC-MS peptide abundance with a linear model featuring pivotal terms that account for unequal peptide LC-MS measurability. We advance fitting this model to an often incomplete LC-MS dataset with REstricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation, producing estimates of model goodness-offit, treatment effects, standard errors, confidence intervals, and protein relative concentrations. We illustrate the model with an experiment featuring a known dilution series of a filamentous ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei protein mixture. For the 781 of 1546 T.reesei proteins with sufficient data coverage, the fitted mixed-effects models capably described the LC-MS measurements. The LC-MS measurability terms effectively accounted for this major source of uncertainty. Ninety percent of the relative concentration estimates were within 1/2 fold of the true relative concentrations. Akin to the common ratio method, this model also produced biased estimates, albeit less biased. Bias decreased significantly, both absolutely and relative to the ratio method, as the number of observed peptides per protein increased. Mixed-effects statistical modeling offers a flexible, well-established methodology for comparative proteomics studies integrating common

  8. Laser ionization/MS study of smog formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, A.D.; Lee, C.M.; Quimpo, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI/TOFMS) is a highly sensitive and selective technique which we are using to study atmospheric chemistry kinetics and reaction mechanisms. We are presently focusing our attention on toluene, the most abundant of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the troposphere, in order to understand the oxidation pathways which lead to smog formation. Our most recent results monitoring toluene and products of the OH + toluene reaction will be discussed, as well as our future plans to detect short-lived reaction intermediates, such as the methylhydroxycyclohexadienyl radical, formed by the addition of OH to the aromatic ring of toluene.

  9. Pragmatic Development of Chinese EFL Learners--A Study on FL Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Tongqing

    2014-01-01

    While the number of studies on the pragmatic development of nonnative English speakers has been increasing, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the development of the ability of foreign language learners to perform the suggestion speech act, with even less taking Chinese EFL learners as the target group. The present study examines…

  10. [Clinical study on shortening the birth process using psychological suggestion therapy].

    PubMed

    Hao, T Y; Li, Y H; Yao, S F

    1997-10-01

    To investigate the effect of psychological suggestion therapy on the birth process, a specially designed, prospective study of psychological suggestion ("insubstantial comfort") was undertaken in 120 healthy, full-term primipara with singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation. All cases were randomly divided into 2 groups, the birth processes and final modes of delivery were analyzed in 60 cases interfered with the psychological suggestion therapy and 60 cases with spontaneous birth processes as control group. The results showed that a significant shorter time of the first and second stages of labor in the study group than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Based on this study, it is suggested that the conversation concerning about the evaluation of individual birth process between the mother-to-be and nurse should be controlled carefully for the purpose of advancing of birth process. The nurse should apply the psychological suggestion therapy during the birth process, specially when answering the question raised by mother-to-be about the quantity of the cervical dilataion. It is also suggested that the purpose of the rectal examination taking during the first stage of labor should be given some kind of meaning of psychotherapy. PMID:9495995

  11. Low Reynolds Number Nozzle Flow Study. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Margaret V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study of low Reynolds number nozzle flow was performed. A brief comparison was made between some of the experimental performance data and performance predicted by a viscous flow code. The performance of 15, 20, and 25 deg conical nozzles, bell nozzles, and trumpet nozzles was evaluated with unheated nitrogen and hydrogen. The numerical analysis was applied to the conical nozzles only, using an existing viscous flow code that was based on a slender-channel approximation. Although the trumpet and 25 deg conical nozzles had slightly better performance at lower Reynolds numbers, it is unclear which nozzle is superior as all fell within the experimental error band. The numerical rssults were found to agree with experimental results for nitrogen and for some of the hydrogen data. Some code modification is recommended to improve confidence in the performance prediction.

  12. A direct LC/MS/MS method for the determination of ciclopirox penetration across human nail plate in in vitro penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wei; Fan, Xiaoqing; Sexton, Holly; Heyman, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    Due to severe chelating effect caused by N-hydroxylpyridone group of ciclopirox, there is no published direct HPLC or LC/MS/MS method for the determination of ciclopirox in any in vitro or in vivo matrix. Instead, the time-consuming pre-column derivatization methods have been adapted for indirect analysis of ciclopirox. After overcoming the chelating problem by using K(2)EDTA coated tubes, a direct, sensitive and high-throughput LC/MS/MS method was successfully developed and validated to determine the amount of ciclopirox that penetrated across the nail plate during in vitro nail penetration studies. The method involved adding a chemical analog, chloridazon as internal standard (IS) in K(2)EDTA coated tubes, mixing IS with ciclopirox in a 96-well plate and then proceeding to LC/MS/MS analysis. The MS/MS was selected to monitor m/z 208.0-->135.8 and 221.8-->77.0 for ciclopirox and IS, respectively, using positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated over a concentration range of 8-256 ng/mL, yielding calibration curves with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9991 with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 8 ng/mL. The assay precision and accuracy were evaluated using quality control (QC) samples at three concentration levels. Analyzed concentrations ranged from 101% to 113% of their respective nominal concentration levels with coefficients of variation (CV) below 10.6%. The average recovery of ciclopirox from nail matrix was 101%. The validated method was successfully used to analyze the ciclopirox formulation and in vitro nail penetration samples. PMID:19744810

  13. Determination of HS270, a new histone deacetylase inhibitor, in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS--application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guo-Ping; Chen, Jiang-Ying; Bi, Hui-Chang; Qin, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Chang-Liang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Xiao; Zeng, Gui-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Huang, Min

    2011-11-15

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated to determine HS270, a new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in rat plasma using SAHA as the internal standard (IS). After a single step liquid-liquid extraction with acetoacetate, analytes were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis using positive electro-spray ionization (ESI(+)) under selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypurity C(18) column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d., 5 μm). The MS/MS detection was conducted by monitoring the fragmentation of m/z 392.3→100.1 for HS270, m/z 265.1→232.1 for IS. The method had a chromatographic running time of 2.5 min and linear calibration curves over the concentrations of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of the method was 70.8-82.5% and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-batch precisions were less than 15% for all quality control samples at concentrations of 1.0, 100.0, and 750.0 ng/mL. The validated LC-MS/MS method has successfully applied to a HS270 pharmacokinetic study after oral doses of 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg, and i.v. dose of 5 mg/kg to rats. PMID:21983196

  14. A validated HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of caderofloxacin in human plasma and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianhua; Zhai, Suodi; Duan, Jingli; Yang, Li

    2016-02-01

    A simple, selective and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of caderofloxacin in human plasma. Sparfloxacin was used as the internal standard (IS). After precipitation with methanol and dilution with the mobile phase, the samples were injected into the HPLC-MS/MS system. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax XDB Eclipse C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase of ammonium acetate buffer (20 mm, pH 3.0)-methanol, 45:55 (v/v). The MS/MS analysis was done in positive mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions monitored were m/z 412.3 → 297.1 for caderofloxacin and m/z 393.2 → 292.2 for the IS. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 50.0-8000 ng/mL with an aliquot of 100 μL plasma. The precision of the assay was 2.0-9.4 and 6.6-11.5% for the intra- and inter-run variability, respectively. The intra- and inter-run accuracy (relative error) was 4.4-10.0 and -1.2-4.0%. The total run time was 3.5 min. The assay was fully validated in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration guidance. It was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of caderofloxacin in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26046921

  15. A Visit to a Pig "Hatchery" on the Farm. (A Suggested Unit of Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Objectives for students are provided in this unit of study which suggests diverse learning that can take place in conjunction with a class field trip to a farm specializing in the raising of pigs. Following a brief description of specialization in United States livestock production, the unit lists factual information to be learned, e.g.,…

  16. Development and validation of a UFLC-MS/MS method for the determination of anhydrosafflor yellow B in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shijun; Wu, Liang; Qu, Cheng; Tang, Yuping; Jin, Yi; Li, Shujiao; Shen, Juan; Shi, Xuqin; Shan, Chenxiao; Cui, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Haijun; Qian, Li; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-10-15

    A sensitive ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (UFLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB), a major active water-soluble pigment from Carthamus tinctorius, in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was achieved by protein precipitation of plasma with four volumes of methanol. Rutin was used as the internal standard (IS). The analytes were separated using a C18 column with an 8min gradient elution, followed by mass spectrometric detection using negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the concentration range of 25-10,000ng/mL for AHSYB. Intra-day and inter-day precision variation was less than 6.5%. The relative error of accuracy was within ±9.4%. The mean recovery of AHSYB was higher than 70.9%. The established method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after intravenous (2.5mg/kg) and oral (30mg/kg) dosing of AHSYB in normal rats. And the pharmacokinetic properties of AHSYB in rats with acute blood stasis and the differences between normal and acute blood stasis syndrome rats were also investigated. The results showed that the compound was poorly absorbed (∼0.3%) and the AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and F were all significantly lower (P<0.05) in acute blood stasis syndrome rats, suggesting that disease condition may alter the body metabolism by enhancing metabolite enzyme activity. PMID:26409263

  17. Simultaneous quantification of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its active metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to their pharmacokinetic interaction study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Zheng, Shuangli; Pan, Yongyang; Li, Tao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Shao, Meng-Meng

    2016-09-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 299.2→150.1 for vortioxetine, m/z 407.2→100.3 for carvedilol, m/z 423.2→100.1 for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol and m/z 285.2→193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL for vortioxetine, 0.5-1000ng/mL for carvedilol and 0.1-50ng/mL for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD)<11.6% and the accuracy values ranged from -12.2% to 11.3%. The analytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic interaction study of vortioxetine and carvedilol after oral administration vortioxetine and carvedilol in rats. Results suggested that the co-administration of vortioxetine and carvedilol results in a significant drug interaction in rats. PMID:27262994

  18. Biological activity and ESI MS study of oxaalkyl and hydroksyoxaalkyl lasalocid esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankiewicz, Radosław; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Brzezinski, Bogumił

    2006-02-01

    Eight lasalocid esters (Las1)-(Las8) have been synthesised and their complex formation with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ cations has been studied by ESI MS and PM5 semiempirical method. The ESI MS spectra of the complexes have shown that Las1-8 forms stable 1:1 complexes with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ cations. The ESI MS spectra at higher cone voltage values have revealed the m/ z peaks characteristic of the abstraction of one proton from the complex molecule. The calculated structures of Las1-8 with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ cations are compared with those of the respective 1:1 complexes with monovalent cations. The biological activity of the esters on pathogenic bacteria Ervinia carotovora and fungus Fusariumoxysporum has been studied in vitro and some biological active compounds have been identified. This result can be very important for future applications in agriculture.

  19. Radiofrequency field exposure and cancer: what do the laboratory studies suggest?

    PubMed Central

    Repacholi, M H

    1997-01-01

    Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. These questions have followed scientific reports suggesting that residence near high voltage power lines may to be associated with an increased childhood leukemia risk. Epidemiologic studies have been plagued by poor RF exposure assessment and differences in methodology. There are no high-quality epidemiologic studies that can be used to evaluate health risks from RF exposure. Laboratory studies in this area have been somewhat confusing. Some animal studies suggest that RF fields accelerate the development of sarcoma colonies in the lung, mammary tumors, skin tumors, hepatomas, and sarcomas. A substantial RF-induced increase in lymphoma incidence in transgenic mice exposed for up to 18 months has also been reported. In contrast, other studies have not found carcinogenic effects. These conflicting results indicate the need for more well-conducted studies on laboratory animals, supplemented with high-quality in vitro studies to identify effects that need further research in vivo, and to characterize any acting mechanisms, especially at low RF field levels. This paper provides a review of the laboratory studies and indicates what conclusions about RF-induced cancer can be drawn. PMID:9467083

  20. Depth profiling (ICP-MS) study of trace metal 'grains' in solid asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Avin E; Bassioni, Ghada; Stephen, Sasi; Kühn, Fritz E

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of trace metal 'grains' in asphaltenes could play a significant role in enhancing refining and processing of crudes and also in providing useful information on mechanistic and migratory features linked to asphaltenes. These metals originate directly from interaction of oils with source-rock, mineral matter, and formation water and their accumulation in asphaltene matrices could vary from oil well to oil well. Suitable asphaltene samples were subjected to high-performance ICP-MS laser depth profiling (213 nm) to depths of 50 μm at 5 μm intervals. The study was conducted in the absence of standardization and characteristic intensities originating from the metals of interest were measured. Ten metal profiles were investigated (Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Pb, V, and Ni). The experimental results showed non-uniform distribution of trace metals and identified areas where such metals agglomerate. The data suggested that certain chemical and physical conditions within the structure of asphaltenes are favorable for metal 'grain' formation at specific points. The exact mechanism for this behavior is not clear at this stage, and has considerable scope for future studies, including mathematical modeling simulations of asphaltenes. We also found that solid asphaltenes could be a useful forerunner of scale formation. PMID:21953195

  1. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  2. Development of an LC/MS/MS method in order to determine arctigenin in rat plasma: its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Quanfei; Gu, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhao, Guang-Rong; Liu, Changxiao; Si, Duanyun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma. The MS detection was performed using multiple reaction monitoring at the transitions of m/z 373.2 → 137.3 for arctigenin and m/z 187.1 → 131.0 for psoralen (internal standard) with a Turbo IonSpray electrospray in positive mode. The calibration curves fitted a good linear relationship over the concentration range of 0.2-500 ng/mL. It was found that arctigenin is not stable enough at both room temperature and -80 °C unless mixed with methanol before storage. The validated LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rats. After intravenous injection of 0.3 mg/kg arctigenin injection to rats, the maximum concentration, half-life and area under the concentration-time curve were 323 ± 65.2 ng/mL, 0.830 ± 0.166 and 81.0 ± 22.1 h ng/mL, respectively. PMID:23640910

  3. Preliminary study of urine metabolism in type two diabetic patients based on GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Geng, Fang; Hu, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ye-Qiu; Liu, Jun-Cen; Qi, Yong-Hua; Li, Li-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparative study of type 2 diabetes and healthy controls by metabolomics methods to explore the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes. Methods: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a variety of multivariate statistical analysis methods to the healthy control group 58 cases, 68 cases of Type II diabetes group were analyzed. Chromatographic conditions: DB-5MS column; the carrier gas He; flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, the injection volume 1 uL; split ratio is 100: 1. MS conditions: electron impact (EI) ion source, an auxiliary temperature of 280°C, the ion source 230°C, quadrupole 150°C; mass scan range 30~600 mAu. Results: Established analytical method based on urine metabolomics GC-MS of Type II diabetes, determine the urine succinic acid, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, tyrosine, slanine, acetoace acid, mannose, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, Phenylalanine, fructose, D-glucose, palmi acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly were significantly changed. Conclusion: Based on metabolomics of GC-MS detection and analysis metabolites can be found differences between type 2 diabetes and healthy control group, PCA diagram can effectively distinguish Type II diabetes and healthy control group, with load diagrams and PLS-DA VIP value metabolite screening, the resulting differences in metabolic pathways involved metabolites, including amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and energy metabolism. PMID:27508010

  4. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses' Acceptance and Nonacceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vanessa E C; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-10-01

    Our long-term goal was to ensure nurse clinical decision support works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot project explored factors influencing acceptance/nonacceptance of eight clinical decision support suggestions displayed in an electronic health record-based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high-fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the clinical decision support suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (eight for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted, and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was seven of eight, with only two of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for clinical decision support acceptance was the nurse's belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (100%), with other features providing secondary reinforcement. Reasons for nonacceptance were less clear, with fewer than half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high-quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific clinical decision support selections offer a cost-effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice. PMID:26361268

  5. Forced degradation study of racecadotril: Effect of co-solvent, characterization of degradation products by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, NMR and cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Chiguru, Vishnuvardhan; Lingesh, Allakonda; R, Srinivas; N, Satheeshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Racecadotril, an enkephalinase inhibitor, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under acidic, basic hydrolysis and oxidative stress conditions whereas, it was stable under other stress conditions. A total of seven degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation was optimized on Acquity HSS Cyano (100×2.1mm, 1.8μ) column using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient mode. Six DPs were characterised by LC-MS/MS and DP1 by GC-MS. The major DPs (DP 2 and DP 5) were isolated and characterised by NMR. This is a typical case of degradation where co solvent methanol reacts with racecadotril leading to the formation of pseudo DPs, DP 6 and DP 5. Interestingly the MS/MS spectra of protonated drug, DP 4 and DP 7 showed product ions which were formed due to intramolecular benzyl migrations. In vitro cytotoxic activity studies on isolated DP 2 and DP 5 revealed that the former has no cytotoxic nature, whereas the latter has potential pulmonary and hepatic toxicity. PMID:27209450

  6. USDA-ARS EROSION CONTROL AND WATER QUALITY STUDIES AT HOLLY SPRINGS, MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The erosion control effectiveness of no-till(NT) crops and grass buffer strips studies at MAFES, Holly Springs, MS on idle land being returned to row-crop production provided useful information related to the potential return to row-crop production of land previously in the conservation reserve prog...

  7. Simultaneous determination of roflumilast and its metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application for a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinge; Huang, Jie; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Ji; Kuang, Yun; Hu, Pei

    2016-09-01

    Roflumilast had shown good efficacy and safety in Caucasian COPD patients after oral administration of 0.5mg. The main active metabolite of it is roflumilast N-oxide. A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantitation method was developed for the simultaneous determination of them in human plasma with rather low limits of quantitation for roflumilast (0.02ng/mL) and roflumilast N-oxide (0.04ng/mL). Human plasma samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE), which ensured high recovery and slight matrix effect for the both analytes. This method showed good linearity, accuracy, precision and stability in the range of 0.02-10ng/mL and 0.04-50ng/mL for roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic research in Chinese healthy volunteers after oral administration of 0.25mg, 0.375mg and 0.5mg of roflumilast tablet. PMID:27423044

  8. Determination of pseudoprotodioscin in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Assay development and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Jiefeng; Liu, Mengping; Wang, Junyi; Chen, Zuanguang; Xie, Zhiyong; Yao, Meicun

    2016-07-15

    An original and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of pseudoprotodioscin (PPD) in rat plasma was developed and validated. Digitoxin was applied as an internal standard. Plasma samples were processed by acetonitrile-mediated plasma protein precipitation and chromatographed using a step gradient program on a C18 column (2.1×50mm i.d., 1.7μm). The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile and 0.1mmolL(-1) aqueous lithium acetate mixed with 0.03% formic acid at the flow rate of 0.2mLmin(-1). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were performed for detection and lithium adduct ions were employed with a significant improvement of the response of the analytes in electrospray positive ionization mode. The concentration range of calibration curve was linear over the range 2-5000ngmL(-1). The intra- and inter-day precisions were all less than 11.5% and accuracies were within the range of 94.1-103.5%, and the analytes exhibited no severe matrix effect. The validated method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of PPD after intragastric (50mgkg(-1)) and intravenous (4mgkg(-1)) administration in rats. PPD showed rapid excretion and with bioavailability of simply about 5.7% in rats. PMID:26012509

  9. LC-MS/MS method development for quantification of busulfan in human plasma and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Nadella, Taraka Ramarao; Suryadevara, Vidyadhara; Lankapalli, Sasidhar Reddyvallam; Mandava, Venkata Basaveswara Rao; Bandarupalli, Deepti

    2016-02-20

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of busulfan, in human plasma. busulfan d8 was used as internal standard, added to plasma sample prior to extraction using acetonitrile as a precipitating agent. Chromatographic separation was achieved on phenomenex kinetex C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 2.6μm) with acteonitrile: 10mM ammonium formate buffer (80:20v/v) as an isocratic mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1). Quantitation was performed by transition of 264.1→151.1 (m/z) for busulfan and 272.1→159.1 (m/z) for busulfan d8. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.2ngmL(-1) with a 100μL plasma sample. The concentrations of nine working standards showed linearity between 0.2 and 100ngmL(-1) (r(2)≥0.9986). Chromatographic separation was achieved within 2.0min. The average extraction recoveries of 3quality control concentrations were 92.52% for busulfan and 90.75% for busulfan d8. The coefficient of variation was ≤15% for intra- and inter-batch assays. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Busulfan pharmacokinetics after oral administration. PMID:26736033

  10. The Use of MALDI-TOF-MS and In Silico Studies for Determination of Antimicrobial Peptides' Affinity to Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Santi M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-11-01

    Several methods have been proposed for determining the binding affinity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bacterial cells. Here the utilization of MALDI-TOF-MS was proposed as a reliable and efficient method for high throughput AMP screening. The major advantage of the technique consists of finding AMPs that are selective and specific to a wide range of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, providing a simple reliable screening tool to determine the potential candidates for broad spectrum antimicrobial drugs. As a prototype, amp-1 and -2 were used, showing highest activity toward Gram-negative and -positive membranes respectively. In addition, in silico molecular docking studies with both peptides were carried out for the membranes. In silico results indicated that both peptides presented affinity for DPPG and DPPE phospholipids, constructed in order to emulate an in vivo membrane bilayer. As a result, amp-1 showed a higher complementary surface for Gram-negative while amp-2 showed higher affinity to Gram-positive membranes, corroborating MS analyses. In summary, results here obtained suggested that in vitro methodology using MALDI-TOF-MS in addition to theoretical studies may be able to improve AMP screening quality.

  11. Intellectual impairment, memory impairment, suggestibility and voir dire proceedings: a case study.

    PubMed

    Howells, K; Ward, M

    1994-04-01

    The psychology and psychiatry of interrogation, confession and testimony have recently become the subjects of considerable theoretical analysis, research and professional interest (Gudjonsson, 1992). A case study is reported involving a defendant whose testimony under police interrogation incriminated himself and 13 other defendants in a murder trial. Issues of intellectual impairment, memory impairment, confabulation and suggestibility were addressed in voir dire proceedings, and are described in this paper. The case also demonstrates the importance of psychological tests being administered by suitably qualified personnel. PMID:8028495

  12. A suggestion for quality assessment in systematic reviews of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is important to control the quality level of the observational studies in conducting meta-analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) is a representative tool used for this purpose. We investigated the relationship between high-quality (HQ) defined using NOS and the results of subgroup analysis according to study design. METHODS: We selected systematic review studies with meta-analysis which performed a quality evaluation on observational studies of diet and cancer by NOS. HQ determinations and the distribution of study designs were examined. Subgroup analyses according to quality level as defined by the NOS were also extracted. Equivalence was evaluated based on the summary effect size (sES) and 95% confidence intervals computed in the subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The meta-analysis results of the HQ and cohort groups were identical. The overall sES, which was obtained by combining the sES when equivalence was observed between the cohort and case-control groups, also showed equivalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that it is more reasonable to control for quality level by performing subgroup analysis according to study design rather than by using HQ based on the NOS quality assessment tool. PMID:27156344

  13. A pilot study to improve adherence among MS patients who discontinue treatment against medical advice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Lynch, Sharon; Strober, Lauren; O'Bryan, Sean; Sobotka, Deborah; Thelen, Joan; Ness, Abigail; Glusman, Morgan; Goggin, Kathy; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-04-01

    Between 30 and 50% of MS patients may prematurely discontinue disease modifying therapies. Little research has examined how to best talk with patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether telephone counseling increases disease modifying therapy (DMT) re-initiation among nonadherent patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants were eligible if they had relapsing-remitting disease, had stopped taking a DMT, and had no plan to re-initiate treatment despite a provider recommendation. Following a baseline assessment, 81 patients were randomly assigned to either five 20 min, weekly sessions of Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU) with brief education. At 10 weeks, patients initially assigned to TAU switched over to MI-CBT. Compared to patients in the TAU group, patients undergoing MI-CBT were significantly more likely to indicate they were re-initiating DMT (41.7 vs. 14.3%). These significant results were replicated among patients crossing over from TAU to MI-CBT. Treatment satisfaction was high, with 97% of participants reporting that they would recommend MI-CBT to other patients with MS. Results of this pilot study provide initial support for the use of MI-CBT among MS patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01925690. PMID:26563147

  14. Determination of Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Metabolites in Salmon, Catfish, and Shrimp by LC-MS/MS Using AOAC First Action Method 2012.25: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Andersen, Wendy C

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood. Fourteen laboratories from the United States, Canada, and the European Union member states participated in the study including national and state regulatory laboratories, university and national research laboratories, and private analytical testing laboratories. A variety of LC-MS/MS instruments were used for the analysis. Each participating laboratory received blinded test samples in duplicate of salmon, catfish, and shrimp consisting of negative control matrix; matrix fortified with residues at 0.42, 0.90, and 1.75 μg/kg; and samples of incurred matrix. The analytical results from each participating laboratory were evaluated for both quantitative residue determination and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Results from statistical analysis showed that this method provided excellent trueness (generally ≥90% recovery) and precision (RSDr generally ≤10%, HorRat<1). The Study Directors recommend Method 2012.25 for Final Action status. PMID:26025133

  15. A family history study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggests new candidate genes in schizophrenia and autism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A B

    1994-01-01

    To limit genetic heterogeneity, this study focused on the widely extended pedigrees of Ashkenazi Jewish schizophrenic and autistic probands, to determine if similar causal mechanisms might obtain for both conditions. At least two previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated increased risk for schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jews. The hypothesis posed is that increased prevalence of various rare autosomal recessive diseases among the Ashkenazim might contribute to the increased vulnerability to schizophrenia and to autism in this large genetic isolate. Rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and bleeding disorders were significantly increased among relatives of schizophrenic and autistic probands, compared to relatives of normal probands. These results suggest new candidate loci in schizophrenia and autism, particularly the chromosome 15q23-24 locus of the hexosaminidase A gene, causing various GM2 gangliosidoses, and the 21q22.1-q22.2 loci of the antioxidant, superoxide dismutase gene, and a cytokine receptor gene. PMID:7831415

  16. Asymmetric Tactile Foot Stimulation: How Postural Studies May Suggest New Views of Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Solari, Gabriele; Orsini, Paolo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown hypnotizability-related postural effects of visual suppression and of leg and neck proprioceptive alteration. This study completes this investigation by demonstrating the postural effects of asymmetric tactile foot stimulation in standing participants with different hypnotizability scores. During this stimulation, body sway changed in medium-to-high more than in low-to-medium hypnotizable participants. Findings support the view that high hypnotizability is associated with higher vulnerability of posture to sensory alteration; together with earlier results, they suggest a role of the cerebellum in the observed hypnotizability-related differences and prompt investigation of cerebral structures and factors potentially responsible for both the cognitive and physiological aspects of hypnotizability. PMID:27267675

  17. Quantitative determination of periplocymarin in rat plasma and tissue by LC-MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kaijing; Wang, Xiangyang; Jia, Yumeng; Chu, Yang; Guan, Xiufeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Li, Wei; Pan, Guixiang; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of periplocymarin in biological samples was developed and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of periplocymarin after oral administration of periplocin. Biological samples were processed with ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction, and diazepam was used as the internal standard. Periplocymarin was analyzed on a C18 column with isocratic eluted mobile phase composed of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min (73:27, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive-ion mode electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 535.3→355.1 and 285.1→193.0 for periplocymarin and diazepam, respectively. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL in plasma and tested tissues. The intra-and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were <10.2 and 10.5%, respectively, and accuracies (relative error) were between -6.8 and 8.9%. Recoveries in plasma and tissue were >90%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of periplocymarin in rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663385

  18. A LC-MS/MS method for the determination of stachyose in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Xu, De-Sheng; Liu, Li; Qiu, Fu-Rong; Chen, Jiong-Liang; Xu, Guang-Lin

    2016-05-10

    A sensitive, simple and rapid analytical method based on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spetrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established and validated for the determination of stachyose in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Separation of stachyose and nystose (internal standard, IS) was achieved using acetonitrile-water (55:45, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min for 6min on an Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column with an Asahipak NH2P-50G 4A guard column. Detection and quantification were conducted by LC-MS/MS method in the negative ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions at m/z [M-H](-) 665.4→383.1 for stachyose and 665.5→485.0 for IS, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 100-30000ng/ml with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 100ng/ml. The intra- and inter- day precision were all within 8.7% and the accuracy ranged from 97.2-108.4% and 98.3-102.4%, respectively. Stability studies indicated that stachyose was stable under short-term, long-term and three freeze-thaw storage conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving pulmonary administration of micronized Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharides (RGOS) to rats. PMID:26859612

  19. Photochemical degradation study of polyvinyl acetate paints used in artworks by Py–GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuya; Pintus, Valentina; Schreiner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) homopolymer and PVAc paints mixed with burnt umber, cobalt blue, cadmium red dark, nickel azo yellow and titanium white commonly used for artworks were studied by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Py–GC/MS with single-shot technique was used for the characterization of the thermal degradation of PVAc at different temperatures, while the double-shot technique of Py–GC/MS was used to reveal the differences in the specimens before and after UV ageing, including the changes of detectable amounts of deacetylation product – acetic acid and plasticizers such as diethyl phthalate (DEP). Furthermore, the relative concentration of the pyrolysis products of the paint samples could be measured and compared in the second step of the double-shot Py–GC/MS, which are highly dependent on the presence of pigments and the ageing status of PVAc paints. PMID:23024446

  20. The future of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Thomas O.; Zhang, Qibin; Page, Jason S.; Shen, Yufeng; Callister, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The future utility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discover will be discussed, beginning with a brief description of the evolution of metabolomics and the utilization of the three most popular analytical platforms in such studies: NMR, GC-MS, and LC-MS. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in high-efficiency LC separations, sensitive electrospray ionization approaches, and the benefits to incorporating both in LC-MS-based approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of various quantitative approaches are reviewed, followed by the current LC-MS-based tools available for candidate biomarker characterization and identification. Finally, a brief prediction on the future path of LC-MS-based methods in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies is given. PMID:19177179

  1. Quantitative determination of gracillin by HPLC-MS/MS after oral administration and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Xue, Xuanji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Zengjun; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and credible high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to quantify the concentration of gracillin in rat plasma. The plasma samples were subjected to a direct protein precipitation process with acetonitrile as a precipitant in a single-step. Ginsenoside Rb1 was selected as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of analyte and IS were carried out on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary solvent system containing acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 1mLmin(-1) under a gradient elution mode. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to examine the precursor-to-daughter ion transitions of 1110.3→948.2 for IS and 886.1→739.9 for gracillin, respectively, in a positive electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curve showed a promising linearity over a concentration range of 0.065-800ngmL(-1) with a better regression coefficient of r(2)=0.9960. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of the assay at three quality control levels were all less than 3.48%, while the intra- and inter-day accuracies (as relative error) ranged from -8.43% to 9.74%, whose data were within the acceptable limits. The mean extraction recoveries of analyte from rat plasma were all more than 74.11%, and no notable matrix effect was observed. Stability experiments revealed that gracillin remained stable throughout the analytical procedure under various stored conditions. The above validated method was successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of gracillin orally administrated to rats at three proportion doses. The pharmacokinetic analysis would pave the way for understanding the pharmacological actions and provide a meaningful foundation for further development and application in preclinical and clinical use of

  2. A Two-Stage Association Study Suggests BRAP as a Susceptibility Gene for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoyang; Yuan, Guozhen; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wang, Jidong; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhao, Xingfu; Tian, Lin; Jin, Chunhui; Yuan, Janmin; Zhang, Guofu; Chen, Yaguang; Wang, Lifang; Lu, Tianlan; Yan, Hao; Ruan, Yanyan; Yue, Weihua; Zhang, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP) is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67). In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73). Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) (P  =  0.0039) and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2) (P < 1.0E-4). Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness. PMID:24454952

  3. Assessment of CE-ICP/MS hyphenation for the study of uranyl/protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thi-Ngoc Suong; Bourgeois, Damien; Basset, Christian; Vidaud, Claude; Hagège, Agnès

    2015-06-01

    Identification of uranyl transport proteins is key to develop efficient detoxification approaches. Therefore, analytical approaches have to be developed to cope with the complexity of biological media and allow the analysis of metal speciation. CE-ICP/MS was used to combine the less-intrusive character and high separation efficiency of CE with the sensitive detection of ICP/MS. The method was based on the incubation of samples with uranyl prior to the separation. Electrophoretic buffers were compared to select a 10 mM Tris to 15 mM NaCl buffer, which enabled analyses at pH 7.4 and limited dissociation. This method was applied to the analysis of a serum. Two main fractions were observed. By comparison with synthetic mixtures of proteins, the first one was attributed to fetuin and in a lesser extent to HSA, and the second one to uranyl unbound to proteins. The analysis showed that fetuin was likely to be the main target of uranyl. CE-ICP/MS was also used to investigate the behavior of the fetuin-uranyl complex, in the presence of carbonate, an abundant complexing agent of uranyl in blood. This method enabled association constants determination, suggesting the occurrence of both FETUA(UO2(2+)) and FETUA(UO2(2+))(CO3(2-)) complexes, depending on the carbonate concentration. PMID:25630637

  4. Metal stoichiometry of isolated and arsenic substituted metallothionein: PIXE and ESI-MS study.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Mohanty, Biraja P; Ganger, Renuka; Sudarshan, M; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2013-12-01

    The stoichiometric analysis of the metal induced Metallothionein (MT) is pertinent for understanding the metal-MT interactions. Despite innumerable publications on MT, the literature addressing these aspects is limited. To bridge this gap, PIXE and ESI-MS analysis of the commercial rabbit liver MT1 (an isoform of MT), zinc induced isolated rat liver MT1, apo and Arsenic substituted rabbit liver MT1 have been carried out. These techniques in combination provide information about number and the signature of all the metal ions bound to MT. By using ESI-MS in the rabbit MT1, ions of Zn n MT1 (n = 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7) whereas, in rat MT1, the Zn1MT1 and Zn5MT1 ions are observed. PIXE analysis shows that some copper along with zinc is also present in the rabbit as well as rat MT1 which could not be assessed with ESI-MS. During As metallation reaction with rabbit MT1, with increase in arsenic concentration, the amount of arsenic bound to MT1 also increases, though not proportionally. The presence of both Zn and Cu in MT1 on Zn supplementation can be related to the role of MT in Zn and Cu homeostasis. Further, the presence of partially metallated MT1 suggests that MT1 may donate fractional amount of metal from it's fully metallated form to other proteins where Zn acts as a cofactor. PMID:23917727

  5. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

  6. Multicenter Study Evaluating the Vitek MS System for Identification of Medically Important Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Westblade, Lars F.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Branda, John A.; Bythrow, Maureen; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Sercia, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The optimal management of fungal infections is correlated with timely organism identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is revolutionizing the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens. We present a multicenter study assessing the performance of the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux) in identifying medically important yeasts. A collection of 852 isolates was tested, including 20 Candida species (626 isolates, including 58 C. albicans, 62 C. glabrata, and 53 C. krusei isolates), 35 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, and 191 other clinically relevant yeast isolates; in total, 31 different species were evaluated. Isolates were directly applied to a target plate, followed by a formic acid overlay. Mass spectra were acquired using the Vitek MS system and were analyzed using the Vitek MS v2.0 database. The gold standard for identification was sequence analysis of the D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. In total, 823 isolates (96.6%) were identified to the genus level and 819 isolates (96.1%) were identified to the species level. Twenty-four isolates (2.8%) were not identified, and five isolates (0.6%) were misidentified. Misidentified isolates included one isolate of C. albicans (n = 58) identified as Candida dubliniensis, one isolate of Candida parapsilosis (n = 73) identified as Candida pelliculosa, and three isolates of Geotrichum klebahnii (n = 6) identified as Geotrichum candidum. The identification of clinically relevant yeasts using MS is superior to the phenotypic identification systems currently employed in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:23658267

  7. A novel LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of tenofovir and lamivudine in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Matta, Murali Krishna; Burugula, Laxminarayana; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Inamadugu, Jaswanth Kumar; J V L N, Seshagiri Rao

    2012-10-01

    A new, rapid, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of tenofovir and lamivudine in human plasma using abacavir as an internal standard. An API-4000 LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the analysis. The analytes were extracted from plasma by solid-phase extraction technique using an Oasis HLB cartridge. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on a Chromolith ROD speed C(18) column using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (90:10 v/v) at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. The method was validated as per the FDA guidelines. The calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-600 ng/mL for tenofovir and 25- 4000 ng/mL for lamivudine. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. A run time of 2.8 min consumed for each sample made it possible to analyze more samples per day. The proposed assay method was found to be applicable to a pharmacokinetic study in human male volunteers. PMID:22222724

  8. Quantification of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method: Application to fasting and fed bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Bendas, Ehab R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A

    2016-08-15

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of sofosbuvir (SF) and ledipasvir (LD) in human plasma using eplerenone as an internal standard (IS). Analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique using methyl tertiary butyl ether. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column. Separation was done using a mobile phase formed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. A full validation of the method was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.25-3500ng/ml for SF and 5-2000ng/ml for LD. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A short run time of 2min allows analysis of more than 400 plasma samples per day. The developed method was successfully applied to both fasting and fed bioequivalence studies in healthy human volunteers. PMID:27322631

  9. Development and validation of sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of daclatasvir in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Bendas, Ehab R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of daclatasvir (DAC) in human plasma using sofosbuvir (SOF) as an internal standard (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Precipitation with acetonitrile was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC HSS C18 (50×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column by pumping 10mM ammonium formate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.30ml/min. Method validation was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-4000ng/ml for DAC. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1.2min made it possible to analyze more than 500 human plasma samples per day. The wider range of quantification of DAC allowed the applicability of the developed method for its determination in a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. PMID:27232152

  10. Determination of Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Qin, WeiWei; Wang, Bin; Lu, XiaoPei; Liu, HaiMing; Wang, Li; Qi, WeiLin

    2016-03-20

    An assay based on protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate (STS) in human plasma. After the addition of dehydroepiandrosterone-D5-3-sulfate sodium salt (DHEAS-D5) as internal standard (IS) and formic acid, plasma samples were prepared by one-step protein precipitation with a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol. Isocratic mobile phase consisted of 0.4 mmol/L ammonium formate buffer (16 ppm formic acid)/acetonitrile (40/60, v/v) on a XSELECT™ HSS T3 column. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operating in positive ion and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with the precursor to product ion transitions m/z 373.3→357.1 for STS and m/z 373.0→97.8 for the IS. Calibration curves of STS in human plasma were linear (r=0.9957-0.9998) over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy and precision. The lower limit of quantification in human plasma was 2 ng/mL. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of STS in Chinese healthy male volunteers. PMID:26812478

  11. HPLC and HPLC/MS/MS Studies on Stress, Accelerated and Intermediate Degradation Tests of Antivirally Active Tricyclic Analog of Acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska, Monika A; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Kokot, Zenon J; Ostrowski, Tomasz; Zeidler, Joanna; Muszalska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The degradation behavior of a tricyclic analog of acyclovir [6-(4-MeOPh)-TACV] was determined in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for good clinical practice under different stress conditions (neutral hydrolysis, strong acid/base degradation, oxidative decomposition, photodegradation, and thermal degradation). Accelerated [40±2°C/75%±5% relative humidity (RH)] and intermediate (30±2°C/65%±5% RH) stability tests were also performed. For observation of the degradation of the tested compound the RP-HPLC was used, whereas for the analysis of its degradation products HPLC/MS/MS was used. Degradation of the tested substance allowed its classification as unstable in neutral environment, acidic/alkaline medium, and in the presence of oxidizing agent. The tested compound was also light sensitive and was classified as photolabile both in solution and in the solid phase. However, the observed photodegradation in the solid phase was at a much lower level than in the case of photodegradation in solution. The study showed that both air temperature and RH had no significant effect on the stability of the tested substance during storage for 1 month at 100°C (dry heat) as well as during accelerated and intermediate tests. Based on the HPLC/MS/MS analysis, it can be concluded that acyclovir was formed as a degradation product of 6-(4-MeOPh)-TACV. PMID:26525242

  12. Validation of a confirmatory method of salbutamol in sheep hair by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Decheng, Suo; Wei, Zhang; Yu, Zhang; Genlong, Zhao; Ruigou, Wang; PeiLong, Wang; Xiaoou, Su

    2015-10-10

    A new method for determining salbutamol in hair of sheep by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established. Samples were extracted with 0.1M of HCl solution. The mixture was heated to 60 °C in a water bath and kept at this temperature for 4h. The extracts were purified through SPE method and then dried with nitrogen. Residues were redissolved in mobile phase. The target compound was determined by UPLC-MS/MS with BEH-C18 column. The usefulness and feasibility of different treatment procedures of hair containing salbutamol were evaluated. The range of linearity was 1-100 ng/g. The LOD was 0.3 ng/g, and the LOQ was 1 ng/g. Recoveries were 89-106%, and coefficients of variation were 3.2-13.9%. Pharmacokinetics of salbutamol was studied in healthy sheep after oral administration of 150 μg/kg body weight salbutamol for 21 consecutive days. Salbutamol residues in hair were still detected after 21 days of administration. PMID:25988297

  13. A GC-MS metabolic profiling study of plasma samples from mice on low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Spagou, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios; Wilson, Ian; Raikos, Nikolaos; Greaves, Peter; Edwards, Richard; Nolan, Barbara; Klapa, Maria I

    2011-05-15

    Metabolic profiling of biofluids, based on the quantitative analysis of the concentration profile of their free low molecular mass metabolites, has been playing increasing role employed as a means to gain understanding of the progression of metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry have been established as a strategy for metabolic profiling. Among these, GC-MS, targeting mainly the primary metabolism intermediates, offers high sensitivity, good peak resolution and extensive databases. However, the derivatization step required for many involatile metabolites necessitates specific data validation, normalization and analysis protocols to ensure accurate and reproducible performance. In this study, the GC-MS metabolic profiles of plasma samples from mice maintained on 12- or 15-month long low (10 kcal%) or high (60 kcal%) fat diets were obtained. The profiles of the trimethylsilyl(TMS)-methoxime(MeOx) derivatives of the free polar metabolites were acquired through GC-(ion trap)MS, using [U-(13)C]-glucose as the internal standard. After the application of a recently developed data correction and normalization/filtering protocol for GC-MS metabolomic datasets, the profiles of 48 out of the 77 detected metabolites were used in multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining suggested a decrease in the activity of the energy metabolism with age. In addition, the metabolic profiles indicated the presence of subpopulations with different physiology within the high- and low-fat diet mice, which correlated well with the difference in body weight among the animals and current knowledge about hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:21388899

  14. Longitudinal fMRI studies: Exploring brain plasticity and repair in MS.

    PubMed

    Enzinger, Christian; Pinter, Daniela; Rocca, Maria A; De Luca, John; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Audoin, Bertrand; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly advanced our understanding of cerebral functional changes occurring in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, most of our knowledge regarding brain plasticity and repair in MS as evidenced by fMRI has been extrapolated from cross-sectional studies across different phenotypes of the disease. This topical review provides an overview of this research, but also highlights limitations of existing fMRI studies with cross-sectional design. We then review the few existing longitudinal fMRI studies and discuss the feasibility and constraints of serial fMRI in individuals with MS. We further emphasize the potential to track fMRI changes in evolving disease and the insights this may give in terms of mechanisms of adaptation and repair, focusing on serial fMRI to monitor response to disease-modifying therapies or rehabilitation interventions. Finally, we offer recommendations for designing future research studies to overcome previous methodological shortcomings. PMID:26683590

  15. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. Results 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41–88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for

  16. Efficient approach for the detection and identification of new androgenic metabolites by applying SRM GC-CI-MS/MS: a methandienone case study.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434811

  17. Simultaneous bioanalysis of rasagiline and its major metabolites in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Yang, Leting; Hua, Jing; Xie, Huiru; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2016-06-01

    Rasagiline is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type-B (MAO-B) and has been used both as a monotherapy and in addition to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rasagiline is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, and the following three major metabolites with potential neuroprotective activity have been identified: 1-aminoindan (AI), 3-hydroxy-N-propargyl-1-aminoindan (3-OH-PAI) and 3-hydroxy-1-aminoindan (3-OH-AI). In this study, a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of rasagiline and its major metabolites in human plasma. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The validated method was then applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study after the oral administration of 1mg rasagiline mesylate tablets to six healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:27060436

  18. Snapshots of lignin oxidation and depolymerization in archaeological wood: an EGA-MS study.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Diego; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) was used for the first time to study archaeological wood, in order to investigate its chemical degradation. The archaeological wood was from an oak pile from a stilt house found in the Neolithic 'La Marmotta' village (Lake Bracciano, Rome, Italy). The sampling was performed from the external to the internal part of the pile, following the annual growth rings in groups of five. In addition, sound oak wood and isolated wood components (holocellulose and cellulose) were also analyzed, and the results were used to highlight differences because of degradation. Our study demonstrated that EGA-MS provides information on the thermo-chemistry of archaeological wood along with in-depth compositional data thanks to the use of MS. Our investigations not only highlighted wood degradation in terms of differences between carbohydrates and lignin content, but also showed that lignin oxidation and depolymerization took place in the archaeological wood. Mass spectral data revealed differences among the archaeological samples from the internal to the external part of the pile. An increase in the formation of wood pyrolysis products bearing a carbonyl group at the benzylic position and a decrease in the amount of lignin dimers were observed. These were related to oxidation and depolymerization reactions, respectively. PMID:26456777

  19. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA. PMID:26493848

  20. Clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis: methodological suggestions for assessing radiographs arising from the GRISAR* study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, R; Priolo, F; Cammisa, M; Bacarini, L; Cerase, A; Pasero, G; Ferraccioli, G; Alberighi, O; Antonellini, A; Marubini, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The three x ray assessors of the GRISAR study (blinded to treatment) gave consensual erosion and damage scores to the baseline and 12 month radiographs of 284 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using three different methods: single readings (blinded as to patient and chronological sequence of the x rays), paired readings (blinded as to sequence), and chronologically ordered paired readings. The aim was to evaluate which of these reading procedures is the most appropriate for clinical trials.
METHODS—The progression of the scores obtained using each procedure was compared by means of descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and intra-patient correlation coefficients of pairs of methods. Bootstrap estimates of the variance of the difference in the means of two equally sized random samples were calculated to evaluate the power of the statistical analysis performed to assess the possible treatment effect for both paired and chronological reading methods.
RESULTS—(a)The standard deviations of the paired and chronological readings were similar, but that of the single readings was higher. (b) The knowledge that two x rays were of the same patient accounted for a sizeable proportion of the between method variability. (c) Agreement was satisfactory between the paired and chronological methods for both scores but, between them and the single readings, it was modest for erosions and poor for damage. (d) The bootstrap estimate of the variance of the difference was smaller for the paired than the chronological method, possibly giving it greater power to test treatment effect.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggested that paired readings were the most suitable for evaluating the progression of joint damage in the GRISAR study.

 PMID:9389222

  1. UFLC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic studies of six Saikosaponins in rat plasma after oral administration of Bupleurum Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiangyang; Yan, Kaijing; Chu, Yang; Li, Shuming; Li, Wei; Yan, Xueying; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-30

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six Saikosaponins (SSs) (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSd, SSc, SSf) of Bupleurum Dropping Pills (BDP) in rat plasma using chloramphenicol as the internal standard (IS). The SSs were separated using an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) and detection of these compounds were done by using a Qtrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) source under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. According to regulatory guidelines, the established method was fully validated and results were showed within acceptable limits. The lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) of all analytes were 0.2ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied into a pharmacokinetic study of orally administered BDP in rats. PMID:26970984

  2. Validation Study on a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables and Fruits by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tamaki; Miyamoto, Iori; Uemura, Masako; Nakatani, Tadashi; Kakutani, Naoya; Yamano, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    A validation study was carried out on a rapid method for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits by LC-MS/MS. Preparation of the test solution was performed by a solid-phase extraction technique with QuEChERS (STQ method). Pesticide residues were extracted with acetonitrile using a homogenizer, followed by salting-out and dehydration at the same time. The acetonitrile layer was purified with C18 and PSA mini-columns. The method was assessed for 130 pesticide residues in 14 kinds of vegetables and fruits at the concentration level of 0.01 μg/g according to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result 75 to 120 pesticide residues were determined satisfactorily in the tested samples. Thus, this method could be useful for a rapid and simultaneous determination of multi-class pesticide residues in various vegetables and fruits. PMID:27558229

  3. Approach to the study of C-glycosyl flavones by ion trap HPLC-PAD-ESI/MS/MS: application to seeds of quince (Cydonia oblonga).

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2003-01-01

    Ion trap HPLC-PAD-ESI/MS/MS has been used to study C-glycosyl flavones in quince seeds. Comparative analysis of the ions [(M-H)-60]-, [(M-H)-90]- and [(M-H)-120]- from 6-C- and 8-C-glycosyl flavone isomers, together with their respective retention times, allowed deductions to be made about the nature of the sugar units and the positions of C-glycosylation. Vicenin-2 (6,8-di-C-glucosyl apigenin), lucenin-2 (6,8-di-C-glucosyl luteolin), stellarin-2 (6,8-di-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol), isoschaftoside (6-C-arabinosyl-8-C-glucosyl apigenin), schaftoside (6-C-glucosyl-8-C-arabinosyl apigenin), 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol were identified in quince seed. PMID:14667061

  4. Determination of a potential antitumor quassinoid in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yuan, Yonghui; Cui, Jianchun; Xiao, Tingting; Deng, Zhipeng; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-30

    A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of brusatol in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column using methanol and 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (55:45, v/v). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.0ng/mL for brusatol in plasma. The intra- and inter-day precision for the analyte ranged from 3.2% to 9.2% and 1.3% to 7.8%, and the accuracy was between 97.3% and 108.5%. The method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of brusatol following intravenous injection (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0mg/kg) of brusatol. PMID:26945636

  5. LC-MS/MS method for the determination of haemanthamine in rat plasma, bile and urine and its application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hroch, Miloš; Mičuda, Stanislav; Havelek, Radim; Cermanová, Jolana; Cahlíková, Lucie; Hošťálková, Anna; Hulcová, Daniela; Řezáčová, Martina

    2016-07-01

    Evidence gathered in various studies points to the fact that haemanthamine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has multiple medicinally interesting characteristics, including antitumor, antileukemic, antioxidant, antiviral, anticonvulsant and antimalarial activity. This work presents, for the first time, a universal LC-MS/MS method for analysis of haemanthamine in plasma, bile and urine which has been verified in a pilot pharmacokinetic experiment on rats. Chromatographic separation was performed on a pentafluorophenyl core-shell column in gradient elution mode with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-methanol-ammonium formate buffer. A sample preparation based on liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether was employed with ambelline used as an internal standard. Quantification was performed using LC-MS-ESI(+) in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode. The method was validated according to the European Medicines Agency guideline in a concentration range of 0.1-10 μmol/L in plasma, bile and urine. The concentration-time profiles of haemanthamine in plasma, bile and urine after a single i.v. bolus of 10 mg/kg have been described for the first time. The presented study addresses the lack of information on haemanthamine pharmacokinetics and also introduces a new universal method of haemanthamine analysis in complex biological matrices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26577707

  6. PTR-MS study of esters in water and water/ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2007-04-01

    Esters strongly influence the perceived aroma of alcoholic beverages and their rapid monitoring can play an important role in the quality control of these products. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows the rapid and non invasive monitoring of foodstuff but there is still a lack of information about the proton transfer induced fragmentation and on the effect of high ethanol concentration. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns of 21 esters are reported, most of them for the first time. For linear methyl and ethyl esters the fragmentation dependence on E/N was also evaluated. Acetate esters, with exception of methyl acetate, show as main peaks the characteristic fragment ions at m/z 61 and m/z 43, whereas propanoate esters, but methyl propanoate, exhibit as main peaks the typical signals at m/z 75 and m/z 57. For all the other esters, here reported, the spectra are dominated by the protonated molecular ion. For methyl and ethyl esters we also report, in many cases for the first time, the water-solution/air partition coefficients (Henry's law constant) and the ethanol-solution/air partition coefficients at different ethanol concentrations. The information provided in this work may be useful as a basis for further studies for the identification and quantification of esters in the headspace of alcoholic beverages extending the application field of PTR-MS.

  7. A Population Synthesis Study of the MS+WD Population in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berro, E.; Torres, S.; Camacho, J.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.

    2015-06-01

    Detached white dwarf + main sequence (WD+MS) systems represent the simplest population of post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs), and their ensemble properties carry important information about common-envelope phase. However, most population synthesis studies do not fully consider the effects of the observational selection biases of the samples used to compare with the theoretical simulations. We present a set of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the population of WD+MS binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, which allows us to make a sound comparison with the available observed data. We find that our simulations correctly reproduce the properties of the observed distribution of WD+MS PCEBs. This includes the distribution of orbital periods and of masses of the white dwarf and main sequence stars. These distributions can be correctly reproduced for several choices of the free parameters, although models in which ≤ 10% of the internal energy is used to eject the common envelope, and in which a small common envelope efficiency ≤ 0.3 seem to fit the observational data better. We also find that systems with He-core white dwarfs are over-represented in the observed sample, because of selection effects.

  8. Low Mass MS/MS Fragments of Protonated Amino Acids Used for Distinction of Their 13C- Isotopomers in Metabolic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Dagan, Shai; Somogyi, Árpád; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.

    2013-04-01

    Glu, Gln, Pro, and Ala are the main amino acids involved in ammonia detoxification in mosquitoes. In order to develop a tandem mass spectrometry method (MS2) to monitor each carbon of the above isotopically-labeled 13C-amino acids for metabolic studies, the compositions and origins of atoms in fragments of the protonated amino acid should be first elucidated. Thus, various electrospray (ESI)-based MS2 tools were employed to study the fragmentation of these unlabeled and isotopically-labeled amino acids and better understand their dissociation pathways. A broad range of fragments, including previously-undescribed low m/z fragments was revealed. The formulae of the fragments (from m/z 130 down to m/z 27) were confirmed by their accurate masses. The structures and conformations of the larger fragments of Glu were also explored by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. It was found that some low m/z fragments ( m/z 27-30) are common to Glu, Gln, Pro, and Ala. The origins of carbons in these small fragments are discussed and additional collision induced dissociation (CID) MS2 fragmentation pathways are proposed for them. It was also found that small fragments (≤ m/z 84) of protonated, methylated Glu, and methylated Gln are the same as those of the underivatized Glu and Gln. Taken together, the new approach of utilizing low m/z fragments can be applied to distinguish, identify, and quantify 13C-amino acids labeled at various positions, either in the backbone or side chain.

  9. Simultaneous determination of nimesulide and its four possible metabolites in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application in a study of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Xue, Kai-Lu; Jiao, Xin-Yue; Chen, Qian; Xu, Li; Zheng, Heng; Ding, Yu-Feng

    2016-08-01

    In this study, it was the first time that we simultaneously quantified nimesulide and its possible metabolites M1, M2, M3 and M4 by employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Nimesulide-d5 was used as internal standard (IS) for validation. Analytes and IS were recovered from human plasma by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Prepared plasma samples were analyzed under the same LC-MS/MS conditions, and chromatographic separation was realized by using an Ultimate C18 column, with run time being 5min for each sample. Our results showed that various analytes within their concentration ranges could be quantified accurately by using the method. Mean intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -4.8% to 4.8% (RE), and intra- and inter-assay precision ≤6.2% (RSD). The following parameters were validated: specificity, recovery, matrix effects, dilution integrity, carry-over, sample stability under a variety of storage and handling conditions (room temperature, freezer, freeze-thaw and post-preparative) and stock solution stability. Pharmacokinetics of nimesulide and its metabolites were calculated based on the analysis of samples collected from twelve Chinese healthy volunteers after single oral dose of 100mg nimesulide tablets. By applying the pharmacokinetic determination into human samples, we preliminarily detected a new metabolite of nimesulide (M4*), and the concentration of M4* was relatively higher in plasma. Furthermore, we predicted part of conceivable metabolism pathway in plasma of after oral administration of 100mg nimesulide tablets. This research provided an experimental basis for further studies on metabolic activation and biotransformation of nimesulide, and for more comprehensive conjecture of its metabolic pathways. PMID:27284972

  10. Highly sensitive LC-MS/MS-ESI method for determination of phenelzine in human plasma and its application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Raja Reddy; Jillela, Bhupathi; Ravula, Arun Reddy; Samala, Ramakrishna; Andy, Adinarayana; Ramesh, Mullangi; Rao, Jvln Seshagiri

    2016-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for quantification of the phenelzine (PZ) in 200μL of human plasma using hydroxyzine (HZ) as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. The sample preparation involved the derivatization of PZ using pentaflurobenzaldehyde followed by solid phase extraction process to extract PZ and HZ from human plasma. LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM) using the electro spray ionization technique in positive ion mode and the transitions of m/z 305.1→105.1 and m/z 375.3→201.1 were used to measure the derivative of PZ and IS, respectively. The total run time was 3.5min and the elution of PZ and HZ occurred at 2.53, and 1.92min, respectively; this was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min on an Ace C18 column with a split ratio of 70:30. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation 0.51ng/mL. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 0.51-25.2ng/mL (r>0.995) for PZ. The intra- and inter-day precision values met the acceptance criteria. PZ was stable in the battery of stability studies viz., stock solution, bench-top, auto-sampler, long-term and freeze/thaw cycles. The developed assay method was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans. PMID:27085800

  11. Sensitive LC-MS/MS-ESI method for simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Muppavarapu, Rajendraprasad; Guttikar, Swati; Rajappan, Manavalan; Kamarajan, Kannan; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of montelukast (MT) and fexofenadine (FF) in human plasma (200 μL) using montelukast-d6 (MT-d6 ) and fexofenadine-d10 (FF-d10 ), respectively as an internal standard (IS) as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The chromatographic resolution was achieved on a Chromolith RP18e column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mm ammonium formate-acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. The total run time of analysis was 4 min and elution of MT, FF, MT-d6 and FF-d10 occurred at 2.5, 1.2, 2.4 and 1.2 min, respectively. The standard curve found to be linear in the range 2.00-1000 ng/mL with a coefficient of correlation of ≥0.99 for both the drugs. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision values for MT and FF met the acceptance as per FDA guidelines. MT and FF were found to be stable in a battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, auto-sampler and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The validated assay was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans. PMID:24424850

  12. Pregnancy outcomes in Lebanese women with multiple sclerosis (the LeMS study): a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Jawad; Nassar, Anwar H; Gebeily, Souheil; Kobeissy, Firas; Fares, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Lebanese Multiple Sclerosis (LeMS) study aims to assess the influence of pregnancy and delivery on the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lebanese women. Setting This prospective multicentre study took place in three MS referral university medical centres in Lebanon. Participants Included were 29 women over 18 years who had been diagnosed with MS according to the McDonald criteria, and became pregnant between 1995 and 2015. Participating women should have stopped treatment 3 months before conception and become pregnant after the onset of MS. Women were followed up from 1 year preconceptionally and for 4 years postpartum. Main outcome measures The annualised relapse rates per participant during each 3-month period during pregnancy and each year postpartum were compared with the relapse rate during the year before pregnancy using the paired two-tailed t test. p Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant for all analyses (95% CI). Results 64 full-term pregnancies were recorded. All pregnancies (100%) resulted in live births, with no complications or other diseases. In comparison with the prepregnancy year, in which the mean relapse rate±SE was 0.17±0.07, there was a significant reduction in the relapse rate during pregnancy and in the first year postpartum (p=0.02), but an increase in the rate in the second year postpartum (0.21±0.08). Thereafter, from the third year postpartum through the following fourth year, the annualised relapse rate fell slightly but did not differ from the annualised relapse rate recorded in the prepregnancy year (0.17±0.07). Conclusions Pregnancy in Lebanese women with MS does not seem to increase the risk of complications. No relapses were observed during pregnancy and in the first year postpartum; however, relapses rebounded in the second year postpartum, and over the long term, returned to the levels that preceded pregnancy. PMID:27178979

  13. Localization of sunitinib, its metabolites and its target receptors in tumour-bearing mice: a MALDI-MS imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Torok, S; Vegvari, A; Rezeli, M; Fehniger, T E; Tovari, J; Paku, S; Laszlo, V; Hegedus, B; Rozsas, A; Dome, B; Marko-Varga, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The clinical effects of anti-angiogenic agents remain controversial. Therefore, elucidating the pharmacological properties of these compounds is a pivotal issue. Experimental Approach The effects of treatment with sunitinib on tumour and normal tissues of mice bearing C-26 adenocarcinoma cells were analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS imaging (MALDI-MSI). Expression of the key targets of sunitinib – angiogenic receptors – was studied by immunofluorescent labelling. Key Results MALDI-MS assays showed that sunitinib and its fragment ions were present throughout tumour and normal tissues. Major metabolites were identified in blood and solid tissues, while minor drug metabolites were detectable only in blood. Tumour growth and intratumour VEGF receptor-2 expressions were significantly reduced in sunitinib-treated mice, while the expression of the other targeted receptors, PDGF receptor -α or -β and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, remained unaffected. Within tumour tissue, the close proximity of sunitinib metabolites to the precursor ion suggested in situ metabolism of the administered drug. There were intratumour areas where the signal intensity of sunitinib correlated with expression of VEGF receptor-2. Conclusions and Implications This is the first study that demonstrates MALDI-MSI is a versatile platform to study the intratumour localization of an unlabelled anti-angiogenic drug. The combination of MALDI-MSI and immunofluorescence analysis can provide further insights into the molecular interaction of drug compounds and their targets within tumour tissue. PMID:25363319

  14. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2–15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1–25, Fr. 15–35 and Fr. 15–44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  15. Physiological and Thermal Responses of MS Patients to Head and Vest Cooling: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics and the physiologic changes produced by short term application of the stationary thermal control system used by most clinical institutions. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) Mark VII portable cooling system and a lightweight Head-vest active cooling garment were used to cool the head and chest regions of 4 male and 3 female MS patients (30 to 66 yrs. old) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 24 C), were tested for 60 min. with the liquid cooling garment (LCG) operated at 50 F. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures, heart rate, respiration, and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc., Biolog ambulatory monitor. All temperature responses showed extreme variation among subjects. The cold-sensitive subject's rectal temperature increased initially in response to cooling; the heat sensitive subject's rectal temperature decreased. After 40 min. of cooling and during recovery, all subjects'rectal temperatures decreased. Oral temperatures began to decrease after 30 min. of cooling. After 60 min. of cooling, temperature drops ranged from approx. 0.3 - 0.8 C. Oral temperatures continued to decrease during recovery (approx. 0.2 C). The car temperature of the heat sensitive subject was increased after cooling, other subjects exhibited an ear temperature decrease (0.0 - 0.5 C). These data indicate that head and vest cooling may be used to reduce the oral temperatures of MS patients by the approximate amount needed for symptomatic relief as shown by other researchers. The combination of a small subject population and a large subject variance does not permit us to draw statistical

  16. Is the radiative forcing due to black carbon aerosols as large as some recent studies suggest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, O.; Wang, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Tao, S.; Myhre, G.; Valari, M.; Huneeus, N.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic black carbon aerosols is responsible for a radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari), aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci) and aerosol-snow interactions (RFasi). All estimates are very uncertain but some recent studies (e.g. Chung et al., 2012; Bond et al., 2013) have suggested that global models significantly underestimate aerosol absorption and have applied scaling factors to correct for this underestimation. As a result Bond et al. estimate RFari to be +0.5 (+0.1 to +0.9) Wm-2 for fossil fuel and biofuel only. The fifth assessment report adopted an estimate of +0.4 (+0.05 to +0.8) Wm-2. In this presentation we will show that a number of factors are likely to lead to overestimate the discrepancy in aerosol absorption between observations and models, which questions the need for very large scaling factors to reconcile models with observations. Issues with past methodological include a too small correction for NO2 absorption in AERONET retrievals of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) at 440 nm, representativity errors when comparing outputs from global models with AERONET retrievals, and model biases in aerosol vertical profiles. We will show in particular how a new emission inventory and high-resolution aerosol modelling over Asia can resolve a significant fraction of the discrepancy with observations. Bond, T. C., et al., 2013: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 5380-5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171. Chung, C. E., V. Ramanathan, and D. Decremer, 2012: Observationally constrained estimates of carbonaceous aerosol radiative forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 11624-11629 Geographic distributions of BC emission density (A, MACCity; B, PKU-BC), modeled surface BC concentrations (C, by MACCity/INCA; D, by PKU-BC/INCA-zA), and modeled BC AAOD (E, by MACCity/INCA; F, by PKU-BC/INCA-zA). The

  17. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  18. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Baizhufuling extract and Atractylodis extract by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qili; Yang, Mingjing; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yang; Yu, Zhiguo; Zhao, Yunli

    2015-07-01

    A simple and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, using schisandrin as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.9μm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid-water (50:50, v/v). The detection was carried out by ESI-MS (positive ionization mode) and low-energy collision dissociation tandem mass spectrometric analyses using the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. The quantification was performed using the transitions of the protonated molecule→product ion at m/z 231.0→185.1 for Atractylenolide I, at m/z 233.1→187.1 for Atractylenolide II and at m/z 249.1→231.1 for Atractylenolide III, respectively. Method validation revealed excellent linearity over investigated range together with satisfactory intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, matrix effects and extraction recoveries. This method was successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Baizhufuling extract and Atractylodis extract. PMID:26001909

  19. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of PA-824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Xu, Yue; Liang, Li; Diao, Chunyan; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Shengyong

    2014-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PA-824, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide in rat plasma using metronidazole as internal standard. Sample preparation involved a simple one-step protein precipitation with methanol, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic solvent. The residue was redissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An Inertsil(®) ODS3 C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm), a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.03% TEA (triethylamine) in water (85:15, v/v), and a flow rate of 0.5mL/min were employed, and the total run time was 6.0min. The mass spectrometer was run in positive ion ESI-APCI combined mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to monitor the mass transitions. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, and matrix effect. All validation parameters met the acceptance criteria according to regulatory guidelines. The LLOQ was 1.0μg/mL for pyrazinamide and 0.1μg/mL for PA-824 and moxifloxacin. The recoveries obtained for PA-824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide were ≥85%. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The method had been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of fixed dose administration of PA-824, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide and their combination in SD rat. Significant differences of Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-t) and CLz/F were observed between the single and combined groups after equal dose of PA-824 and moxifloxacin administration, which revealed the possibility of drug-drug interaction (DDI) between the PaMZ combination. PMID:24798753

  20. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed. PMID:26258902

  1. Simultaneous determination of lercanidipine, benazepril and benazeprilat in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a toxicokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keguang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Dujuan; Teng, Yanni; Wei, Chunmin; Wang, Benjie; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Guiyan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Ruichen

    2012-06-15

    We aim to develop a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of lercanidipine, benazepril and benazeprilat in plasma. It is performed on the Agilent 6410 LC-MS/MS under the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization. Gliclazide was used as the internal standard (IS). Analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by solid-phase extraction. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on a Diamond C₁₈(150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% acetic acid-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v), with gradient flow rates: 0.6 mL/min (0-4.55 min); 4.55-4.65 min, 1 mL/min; 1 mL/min (4.65-9.5 min); 9.5-9.6 min, 0.6 mL/min; 0.6 mL/min (9.6-10 min). Method validation demonstrated that the method was of satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy in linear ranges of 1-2000 ng/mL for lercanidipine, 1-2000 ng/mL for benazepril and 1-1600 ng/mL for benazeprilat, respectively. The precision (RSD%) was better than 15, and the lower limit of quantitation was identifiable and reproducible at 1 ng/mL for the three analytes. The plasma samples were stable after being stored for more than 60 days and after two freeze-thaw cycles (-20 to -25 °C). It is demonstrated that this method was successfully applied to samples from a toxicokinetics study of a compound of lercanidipine and benazepril in beagle dogs. PMID:22622066

  2. Comparison of fused-core and conventional particle size columns by LC-MS/MS and UV: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Pabbisetty, Deepthi; Groeber, Elizabeth A; Steenwyk, Rick C; Fast, Douglas M

    2009-10-15

    The chromatographic performance of fused-core (superficially porous) HPLC packing materials was compared with conventional fully porous particle materials for LC-MS/MS analysis of two pharmaceuticals in rat plasma. Two commercially available antidepressants, imipramine and desipramine, were assayed using a conventional analytical C(18) column (5 microm, 2.0 mm x 30 mm) and a fused-core C(18) column (2.7 microm, 2.1 mm x 30 mm). Retention time, column efficiency, pressure drop, resolution, and loading capacity were compared under the same operating conditions. The fused-core column demonstrated reduced assay time by 34% and 2-3-fold increased efficiency (N). Loading capacity up to 25 microl of extract injected on column showed no peak distortion. The registered back-pressure from a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min did not exceed 3400 psi making it compatible with standard HPLC equipment (typically rated to 6000 psi). Two mobile phases were examined, and morpholine as an organic base modifier yielded a 2-5-fold increase in S/N near the limit of detection over triethylamine. The 2.7 microm fused-core column was applied to the analysis of imipramine and desipramine in extracted, protein precipitated rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/ml for both imipramine and desipramine. Intra-run precisions (%CV) and accuracies (%bias) were within +/-7.8% and +/-7.3% at three QC levels and within 14.7% and 14.4% at the LOQ level for both analytes. Following a single method qualification run, the method was applied to the quantitation of pharmacokinetic study samples after oral administration of imipramine to male rats. PMID:19540084

  3. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of four flavonoids from Semen Oroxyli in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sixi; Teng, Shiyong; Zhai, Lijie

    2016-05-01

    Semen Oroxyli, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, has many significant pharmacological activities such as analgesic, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunostimulant activities. A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of four flavonoids (oroxin A, oroxin B, baicalin, and chrysin) of Semen Oroxyli in rat plasma. After the addition of internal standard, plasma samples were pretreated with acetonitrile via a single-step protein precipitation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 column (100mm×2.0mm, 5μm particles) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase of methanol and 2mM ammonium acetate buffer solution (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45mL/min. The analytes were detected without interference in the selection reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The validated method exhibited good linearity over a wide concentration range (r≥0.9958), and the lower limits of quantification were 1.0-5.5ng/mL for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes from rat plasma exceeded 80.6%. The intra- and inter-day precisions at three QC levels were both less than 11.5%, and the accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 10.3%. The LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the four flavonoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Semen Oroxyli extract. PMID:27038401

  4. Development and application of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the pharmacokinetic study of 10-hydroxy camptothecin and hydroxyethyl starch conjugate in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Guofei; Cai, Cuifang; Ren, Tianyang; Tang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose to carry out the pharmacokinetic studies of 10-hydroxy camptothecin (10-HCPT) and hydroxyethyl starch (10-HCPT-HES) conjugate, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated. The analytes, 10-HCPT and the internal standard, Diphenhydramine hydrochloride were extracted with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (95:5, v/v) and separated on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with a linear gradient program. With positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI), the analytes were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.5-2500ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 9.8% and 10.8%, respectively. The accuracy was within 12.1%. The mean recoveries of 10-HCPT at three concentrations of 2.5, 100, 2000ng/mL were higher than 87.2%. Commercial 10-HCPT injection and 10-HCPT-HES conjugate were administered intravenously at an equal dose of 10-HCPT at 0.5mg/kg. The biological half-life of conjugate was increased significantly from 10min to 3.15h and the bioavailability was 40 times higher than 10-HCPT injection. Consequently, the proposed UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was proved to be sensitive, specific and reliable to analyze 10-HCPT in biological samples; 10-HCPT and HES conjugate is a promising strategy for delivery of 10-HCPT with prolonged half time and improved bioavailability. PMID:24140449

  5. Rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of megestrol acetate in human plasma: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hyung; Park, Ji-Sun; Jo, Min-Ho; Park, Mi-Sun; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Cho, Young-Wuk; Shim, Wang-Sup; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-04-01

    A rapid, simple and fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of megestrol acetate in human plasma using tolbutamide as an internal standard (IS) after one-step liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl-ether. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode by monitoring the transitions m/z 385.5 → 267.1 for megestrol acetate and m/z 271.4 → 155.1 for IS. Chromatographic separation was performed on a YMC Hydrosphere C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase, which consisted of 10 mm ammonium formate buffer (adjusted to pH 5.0 with formic acid)-methanol (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The achieved lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio > 10) and the standard calibration curve for megestrol acetate was linear (r > 0.99) over the studied concentration range (1-2000 ng/mL). The proposed method was fully validated by determining its specificity, linearity, LLOQ, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of megestrol acetate after oral administration of a single dose 800 mg of megestrol acetate (Megace™) to five healthy Korean male volunteers under fed conditions. PMID:22961730

  6. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of acacetin in human plasma and its application to a protein binding study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Lee, Taehun; Lee, Hun Seok; Song, Chung Kil; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Maeng, Han-Joo; Yoon, In-Soo

    2016-02-01

    A highly sensitive bioanalytical method for the quantification of acacetin in human plasma was developed and comprehensively validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A minimal volume of human plasma sample (20 μL) was prepared by simple deproteinization with 80 μL of acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed using Kinetex C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) containing 0.1 % formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min over a total run time of 2.0 min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at the mass/charge transitions m/z 285.22 → 242.17 for acacetin and m/z 277.59 → 175.04 for chlorpropamide (internal standard). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-day validation were less than 11.9 %, and the intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from 96.8 to 108 %. Mean recovery of acacetin in human plasma was within the range of 91.5-95.6 %. This validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a human plasma protein binding study that indicated extensive and concentration-independent protein binding of acacetin in human plasma. PMID:26677081

  7. Preclinical Studies Suggest Complex Nutraceutical Strategies May Have Potential for Preventing and Managing Sepsis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of signaling mechanisms triggered by toll receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages, as well as of pertinent cell-culture and rodent studies, suggests that various nutraceuticals may have clinical potential for preventing and treating Gram-negative sepsis. Endotoxin activation of TLR4 results in induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2); tissue factor (TF); and a range of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), that collaborate to generate the clinical picture of sepsis. Upstream activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes importantly to those effects by inducing superoxide production that promotes activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor (NF) κΒ. Bilirubin generated intracellularly by activation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) functions to provide feedback inhibition of NAPDH-oxidase complexes. Exogenous bilirubin, or its precursor, biliverdin, is protective in rodent models of sepsis. One nutraceutical, phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), is a biliverdin derivative that functions as a light-gathering chromophore in cyanobacteria such as spirulina and can be converted intracellularly to a compound structurally homologous to bilirubin that likewise inhibits NADPH-oxidase complexes. In rodent studies, administration of phycocyanin, to which PhyCB is covalently attached, has likewise been shown to be protective in rodent models of sepsis. Other nutraceuticals provide benefits in counteracting the effects of TLR4. Phase 2-inductive nutraceuticals, such as lipoic acid, have the potential to induce HO-1 activity in macrophages, promoting bilirubin production. They may also antagonize the upregulatory impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on macrophage signaling by boosting glutathione synthesis. Another nutraceutical, glycine, helps counter the TLR4-triggered calcium influx that occurs through

  8. Does the Nature of the Experience Influence Suggestibility? A Study of Children's Event Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Camilla; Mega, Carolina; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined effects of event modality on young children's memory and suggestibility. Findings indicated that 5-year-olds were more accurate than 3-year-olds and those participating in the event were more accurate than those either observing or listening to a narrative. Assessment method, level of event learning, delay to testing, and…

  9. CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL TECHNOLOGIES, SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING COURSES OF STUDY IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, CLARENCE E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PUBLICATION IS TO HELP STATES ORGANIZE AND OPERATE PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE VIII OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT OF 1958 FOR THE TRAINING OF CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL TECHNICIANS. SUGGESTED IS A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT WHICH INCLUDES -- (1) IDENTIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) ANALYSIS OF JOB…

  10. Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of glaucine, an isoquinoline alkaloid from Glaucium flavum (Papaveraceae), in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MS(n) and LC-high-resolution MS(n).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Golo M J; Meyer, Markus R; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Maurer, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    Glaucine ((S)-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-1,2,9,10-tetramethoxy-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo [de,g]quinoline) is an isoquinoline alkaloid and main component of Glaucium flavum (Papaveraceae). It was described to be consumed as recreational drug alone or in combination with other drugs. Besides this, glaucine is used as therapeutic drug in Bulgaria and other countries as cough suppressant. Currently, there are no data available concerning metabolism and toxicological analysis of glaucine. To study both, glaucine was orally administered to Wistar rats and urine was collected. For metabolism studies, work-up of urine samples consisted of protein precipitation or enzymatic cleavage followed by solid-phase extraction. Samples were afterwards measured by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to low or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). The phase I and II metabolites were identified by detailed interpretation of the corresponding fragmentations, which were further confirmed by determination of their elemental composition using HR-MS. From these data, the following metabolic pathways could be proposed: O-demethylation at position 2, 9 and 10, N-demethylation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation and combinations of them as well as glucuronidation and/or sulfation of the phenolic metabolites. For monitoring a glaucine intake in case of abuse or poisoning, the O- and N-demethylated metabolites were the main targets for the gas chromatography-MS and LC-MS(n) screening approaches described by the authors. Both allowed confirming an intake of glaucine in rat urine after a dose of 2 mg/kg body mass corresponding to a common abuser's dose. PMID:23303745

  11. Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new psychoactive designer drug 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) in human and rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Achim T; Helfer, Andreas G; Michely, Julian A; Auwärter, Volker; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-09-01

    25I-NBOMe, a new psychoactive substance, is a potent 5-HT2A receptor agonist with strong hallucinogenic potential. Recently, it was involved in several fatal and non-fatal intoxication cases. The aim of the present work was to study its phase I and II metabolism and its detectability in urine screening approaches. After application of 25I-NBOMe to male Wistar rats, urine was collected over 24 h. The phase I and II metabolites were identified by LC-HR-MS/MS in urine after suitable workup. For the detectability studies, standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS/MS were applied to rat and also to authentic human urine samples submitted for toxicological analysis. Finally, an initial CYP activity screening was performed to identify CYP isoenzymes involved in the major metabolic steps. 25I-NBOMe was mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, O,O-bis-demethylation, hydroxylation, and combinations of these reactions as well as by glucuronidation and sulfation of the main phase I metabolites. All in all, 68 metabolites could be identified. Intake of 25I-NBOMe was detectable mainly via its metabolites by both LC-MS approaches, but not by the GC-MS SUSA. Initial CYP activity screening revealed the involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in hydroxylation and CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in O-demethylation. The presented study demonstrated that 25I-NBOMe was extensively metabolized and could be detected only by the LC-MS screening approaches. Since CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 are involved in initial metabolic steps, drug-drug interactions might occur in certain constellations. PMID:26108532

  12. Humane Science Projects: Suggestions for Biology Studies That Are Scientifically Educational and Ethically Non-Controversial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcombe, Jonathan P., Comp.

    This paper lists 35 studies in biology which can be tailored to suit the full range of student age groups and are designed to involve most or all of the key elements of the scientific process (study design, data collection and presentation, and experimental manipulation). Examples of some studies are: (1) study the growth of molds on food items…

  13. Novel possibilities in the study of the salivary proteomic profile using SELDI-TOF/MS technology

    PubMed Central

    ARDITO, FATIMA; PERRONE, DONATELLA; COCCHI, ROBERTO; LO RUSSO, LUCIO; DE LILLO, ALFREDO; GIANNATEMPO, GIOVANNI; LO MUZIO, LORENZO

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an increasing interest in exploring human saliva to identify salivary diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, since the collection of saliva is rapid, non-invasive and stress-free. Diagnostic tests on saliva are common and cost-effective, particularly for patients who need to monitor their hormone levels or the effectiveness of undergoing therapies. Furthermore, salivary diagnostics is ideal for surveillance studies and in situations where fast results and inexpensive technologies are required. The most important constituents of saliva are proteins, the expression levels of which may be modified due to variations of the cellular conditions. Therefore, the different profile of proteins detected in saliva, including their absence, presence or altered levels, is a potential biomarker of certain physiological and/or pathological conditions. A promising novel approach to study saliva is the global analysis of salivary proteins using proteomic techniques. In the present study, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS), one of the most recent proteomic tools for the identification of novel biomarkers, is reviewed. In addition, the possible use of this technique in salivary proteomic studies is discussed, since SELDI technology combines the precision of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/MS proteomic analysis and the high-throughput nature of protein array analysis. PMID:26998108

  14. GC-MS, LC-MS(n), LC-high resolution-MS(n), and NMR studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of mesembrine and mesembrenone, the main alkaloids of the legal high "Kanna" isolated from Sceletium tortuosum.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Golo M J; Wink, Carina S D; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Mesembrine and mesembrenone are the main alkaloids of Sceletium tortuosum, a plant species that was used for sedation and analgesia by the KhoiSan, previously known as Hottentots, a tribe in South Africa. After fermentation, the obtained preparation called "Kanna" or "Kougoed" was used by chewing, smoking, or sniffing. Today, Kanna gains popularity by drug users as legal high. For monitoring such consumption, metabolism studies are mandatory because the metabolites are mostly the analytical targets, especially in urine. Therefore, the metabolism of both alkaloids was investigated in rat urine and pooled human liver preparations after several sample work-up procedures. As both alkaloids were not commercially available, they were isolated from plant material by Soxhlet extraction, and their identity confirmed by NMR. The metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS(n)). Both alkaloids were O- and N-demethylated, dihydrated, and/or hydroxylated at different positions. The phenolic metabolites were partly excreted as glucuronides and/or sulfates. Most of the phase I metabolites identified in rat urine could be detected also in the human liver preparations. After a common user's low dose application of mesembrine, mainly the O- and N demethyl-dihydro, hydroxy, and bis-demethyl-dihydro metabolites, and in case of mesembrenone only the N-demethyl and the N-demethyl-dihydro metabolite could be detected in rat urine using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) by GC-MS or LC-MS(n). Thus, it should be possible to monitor a consumption of mesembrine and/or mesembrenone assuming similar pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:25240931

  15. Development of a validated LC-APCI-MS/MS method to study the plasma and tumor distribution of CHO-PTX intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuejun; Song, Xiaowei; Xu, Jiaming; He, Jiuming; Peng, Jie; Zhang, Xiang; Jin, Dujia; Abliz, Zeper; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation of a cholesterol moiety to active compounds for cancer treatment or diagnosis is an attractive approach for increasing lipophilicity and improving loading into lipid carriers. We developed a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) analytical method to investigate the in vivo plasma and tumor distribution characteristic of a cholesterol-paclitaxel conjugate (CHO-PTX) in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The samples were analyzed in positive ion, multiple reaction monitoring mode. The plasma and tumor tissue samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Docetaxel was used as the internal standard (IS) for sample processing and analysis. MS/MS detection was carried out by monitoring the transitions of m/z 1266.7→369.4 and 330.3 for CHO-PTX, and m/z 808.7→226.4 and 509.1 for IS. The calibration curves were linear over 100-25,000 ng/mL in mouse plasma and tumor homogenate samples. The limit of quantitation of CHO-PTX was 100 ng/mL in both matrices. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%, and the accuracy was between -8.0% and 8.6% for both matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to measure CHO-PTX levels in plasma and tumor tissues in nude mice. The mean tumor concentrations in mice tumor tissues after intravenous administration of CHO-PTX emulsion at a dose equivalent to 20 mg/kg paclitaxel were 2022±630 ng/mL ng/mL, 2516±982 ng/mL, 3056±1438 ng/mL, and 2367±1029 ng/mL at 0.25, 3, 24, and 120 h, respectively. The accumulation of CHO-PTX in the tumor suggests that cholesteryl drug conjugates are a promising approach for medical treatment of various human cancers. PMID:26476881

  16. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study ... prescribed for a range of health problems, including epilepsy, fibromyalgia and anxiety. The new study findings should ...

  17. Beyond the initial 140 ms, lexical decision and reading aloud are different tasks: An ERP study with topographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Zesiger, Pascal; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-11-15

    Most of our knowledge on the time-course of the mechanisms involved in reading derived from electrophysiological studies is based on lexical decision tasks. By contrast, very few ERP studies investigated the processes involved in reading aloud. It has been suggested that the lexical decision task provides a good index of the processes occurring during reading aloud, with only late processing differences related to task response modalities. However, some behavioral studies reported different sensitivity to psycholinguistic factors between the two tasks, suggesting that print processing could differ at earlier processing stages. The aim of the present study was thus to carry out an ERP comparison between lexical decision and reading aloud in order to determine when print processing differs between these two tasks. Twenty native French speakers performed a lexical decision task and a reading aloud task with the same written stimuli. Results revealed different electrophysiological patterns on both waveform amplitudes and global topography between lexical decision and reading aloud from about 140 ms after stimulus presentation for both words and pseudowords, i.e., as early as the N170 component. These results suggest that only very early, low-level visual processes are common to the two tasks which differ in core processes. Taken together, our main finding questions the use of the lexical decision task as an appropriate paradigm to investigate reading processes and warns against generalizing its results to word reading. PMID:26244274

  18. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Assya; Alipieva, Kalina; Kostadinova, Emanuela; Antonova, Daniela; Lacheva, Maria; Gjosheva, Melania; Popov, Simeon; Bankova, Vassya

    2007-01-01

    Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ)-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species. PMID:18096035

  19. Quantification of soy isoflavones and their conjugative metabolites in plasma and urine: an automated and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for use in large-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Sebastian T; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Botting, Nigel; Kulling, Sabine E

    2014-09-01

    The biotransformation of isoflavones by gut microbiota and by drug metabolizing enzymes plays a crucial role in the understanding of their potential health-promoting effects. The purpose of our work was to develop a simultaneous, sensitive, and robust automated ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify the soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein, their conjugative metabolites, as well as their major microbial degradation products in order to provide a method for use in large clinical trials or animal studies. An automated, 96-well solid-phase extraction method was used to extract the isoflavone analytes from plasma and urine. Separation of genistein, daidzein, and 19 of its metabolites, including five glucuronides, seven sulfates, and two sulfoglucuronides, as well as five microbial metabolites, was achieved in less than 25 min using a sub-2 μm particle column and a gradient elution with acetonitrile/methanol/water as mobile phases. Analysis was performed under negative ionization electrospray MS via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Validation was performed according to the analytical method validation guidelines of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) consisting of selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, recovery, matrix effect, and robustness. All validated parameters essentially matched the FDA and ICH requirements. The application of this method to a pharmacokinetic study in postmenopausal women showed that isoflavones are extensively metabolized in vivo. A robust automated analytical approach was developed, which allows the handling of large sample sizes but nevertheless provides detailed information on the isoflavone metabolite profile leading to a better understanding and interpretation of clinical and animal studies. PMID:25103528

  20. Determination and validation of chikusetsusaponin IVa in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Mei-Hua; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CHS-IVa) in rat plasma was established and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated by precipitation of protein with acetonitrile and chromatographed on a Waters Symmetry C18 analytical column (4.6 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.05% formic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The deprotonated molecular ions [M - H](-) were employed in electrospray negative ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.99) over the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for CHS-IVa. The recoveries of CHS-IVa were >92.5% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study of CHS-IVa in rats. For oral administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa increased to a peak value at 0.35 ± 0.14 h, followed by a gradual decrease to the lower limit of quantitation in 24 h. For intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa decreased quickly (t1/2 , 1.59 ± 0.25 h). The absolute bioavailability of CHS-IVa in rats was 8.63%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864353

  1. An LC-MS/MS method for determination of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Wang, Geng-Nan; Fu, Ying; Chang, Qi

    2009-12-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose (DSS), a major active component of traditional Chinese medicine Yuan-Zhi (the roots of Polygala tenuifolia), has significant effects for neuroprotection and improving learning memory. In order to explore the pharmacokinetic properties of DSS so as to further understand its in vivo activities, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of DSS in rat plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the present study. After treatment by protein precipitation, the plasma sample was separated on a C(18) HPLC column and analyzed by a mass spectrometry under positive electrospray ionization. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed to measure the ion transition at m/z 777.4 --> 409.2 for DSS and m/z 557.2 --> 309.1 for forsythin as internal standard. The method was linear over the studied concentration range of 0.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy ranged from 1.4 to 18.4%, and from -3.7 to -9.5%, respectively, for within-day and between-day assay. Extraction recovery was higher than 86.6%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The present method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. DSS was found to have poor oral absorption with only about 0.5% bioavailability. PMID:19517426

  2. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of tofogliflozin in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Matsuno, Megumi; Fukuda, Etsuko; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Tofogliflozin is a novel selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) and has been developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitation of tofogliflozin in rat plasma was developed and validated. The detection was performed using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The SRM transitions were m/z=387.1 [M+H](+)→267.1 for tofogliflozin and m/z=451.2 [M+H](+)→71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard: I.S.). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1mm i.d.×150mm, 5μm size) using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/10mM ammonium acetate (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min and the total run time was 4.0min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for tofogliflozin was 0.5ng/mL with sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of tofogliflozin in rats. This assay method could be a valuable tool for future studies including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:27304784

  3. Simultaneous determination of five components in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in Baihe Zhimu Tang and Zhimu extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolong; Tang, Zhishu; Yang, Jie; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe to treat dry coughing due to yin deficiency and for moisturizing the lungs. Zhimu is an essential ingredient in BZT used to treat inflammation, fever and diabetes. The most important active components in Zhimu are flavonoids such as neomangiferin, mangiferin, and steroid saponins (e.g., timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII, timosaponin AIII). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of mangiferin, neomangiferin, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of BZT and Zhimu extract (ZME). A sensitive, reliable and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine steroid saponins and flavonoids in rat plasma was successfully validated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII between BZT and ZME. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of BZT and our study is the first to study the administration of BZT based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25884551

  4. A population-based study of aerococcal bacteraemia in the MALDI-TOF MS-era.

    PubMed

    Senneby, E; Göransson, L; Weiber, S; Rasmussen, M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of aerococcal bacteraemia in the MALDI-TOF MS-era, to describe the clinical presentation and to determine the MIC values of aerococci for ten antibiotics. Aerococci in blood cultures were identified through searches in the laboratory database for the years 2012-2014. MALDI-TOF MS, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and a PYR test were used for species identification. Patients' medical charts were systematically reviewed. Etests were used to determine MIC values. Seventy-seven patients were identified (Aerococcus urinae n = 49, Aerococcus viridans n = 14, Aerococcus sanguinicola n = 13 and Aerococcus christensenii n = 1) corresponding to incidences of 14 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year (A. urinae) and 3.5 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year (A. sanguinicola and A.viridans). A. urinae was in pure culture in 61 %, A. sanguinicola in 46 % and A. viridans in 36 % of the cases. The A. urinae and A. sanguinicola patients were old and many had urinary tract disorders, and a majority had a suspected urinary tract focus of the bacteraemia. Eighty percent of the A. urinae patients were men. Five A. urinae patients were diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Six patients died within 30 days. Most isolates had low MICs to penicillins and carbapenems. MALDI-TOF MS has led to an increased identification of aerococcal bacteremia. A. urinae remains the most common Aerococcus in blood cultures and in aerococcal IE. PMID:26838685

  5. Spectral study of suggested Apollo sites. [proposals for financial support and the electronic spectra of pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrophotometry (0.3 to 1.1 microns) of visited and proposed Apollo landing sites is presented along with proposals for financial support of the spectral study. The electronic spectra of pyroxenes is investigated along with an interpretation of telescopic spectral reflectivity curves of the moon. Reprints of published articles related to these studies are included.

  6. Validated method to measure yakuchinone A in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yakuchinone A has a plethora of beneficial biological effects. However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) data of yakuchinone A still remain unknown so far. Furthermore, the quantification of yakuchinone A in biological samples has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to develop a new method for the fast, efficient and accurate assessment of yakuchinone A concentration in plasma, as a means for facilitating the PK evaluation of yakuchinone A. Results A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of yakuchinone A in rat plasma. Mass spectrometric and chromatographic conditions were optimized. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. LC separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of methanol–water containing 0.5 mM formic acid (HCOOH) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL/min. ESI-MS spectra were acquired in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The precursor-to-product ion pairs used for MRM of yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B were m/z 313.1 → 137.0 and 311.2 → 117.1, respectively. Low concentration of HCOOH reduced the ion suppression caused by matrix components and clearly improved the analytical sensitivity. Yakuchinone A showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r > 0.99). The accuracy, precision, stability and linearity were found to be within the acceptable criteria. This new method was successfully applied to analyze the rat plasma concentration of parent yakuchinone A after a single oral administration of SuoQuan capsules. Low systemic exposure to parent yakuchinone A was observed. Conclusion The proposed method is sensitive and reliable. It is hoped that this new method will prove useful for the future PK studies. PMID:24422995

  7. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers: Application to a topical administration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Hyeon Gwan; Lee, Young Sung; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-10-15

    This study describes the development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers. Separations were performed on a Zorbax SB C8 column using a binary gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The assay achieved LLOQ of 0.5ng/ml for plasma, 5ng/ml for stratum corneum, and 10ng/ml for epidermis and dermis. This method was applied to a percutaneous absorption study of avobenzone in rats. At 12h following topical application of emulsion and lotion (applied amount of avobenzone 11.7mg/kg), avobenzone was found primarily in the stratum corneum (16.3-17.8%) followed by epidermis (2.0-3.4%) and dermis (0.11-0.15%). Avobenzone was not quantifiable in the plasma samples collected over a 12h sampling period. Given the excellent plasma assay sensitivity, this study provides evidence that the systemic absorption of avobenzone is insignificant, if any, after topical application. PMID:26409261

  8. Simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid, in rat biological matrices by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching: Application to ADME studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Min Gyu; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Paik, Soo Heui; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the development of a simple LC-ESI-MS/MS method with polarity switching for the simultaneous analysis of phenoxyethanol (PE) and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), in rat plasma, urine, and 7 different tissues. The assay was validated to demonstrate the linearity, precision, accuracy, LLOQ, recovery, and stability by using the matrix matched QC samples. The assay achieved the LLOQ of 10 and 20 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for plasma samples and the LLOQ of 20 and 50 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for urine and tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to the percutaneous absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies in rats. The absolute topical bioavailability of PE was 75.4% and 76.0% for emulsion and lotion, respectively. Conversion of PE to PAA was extensive, with the average AUCPAA-to-AUCPE ratio being 4.4 and 5.3 for emulsion and lotion, respectively. The steady-state tissue-to-plasma PE concentration ratio (Kp) was higher than unity for kidney, spleen, heart, brain, and testis and was lower (≤0.6) for lung and liver, while the metabolite Kp ratio was higher than unity for kidney, liver, lung, and testis and was lower (≤0.3) for other tissues. Findings of this study may be useful to evaluate the relationship between exposure and toxic potential of PE in risk assessment. PMID:26452788

  9. Simultaneous determination of ginkgolides A, B, C and bilobalide by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiachun; Li, Dongpo; Hu, Junhua; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong

    2015-12-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba extracts in Traditional Chinese Medicine was relatively recent. In this study, a simple, quick and sensitive LC-MS/MS analytical method was developed for the determination of ginkgolides A, B, C and bilobalide in rat plasma. The analytes were completely separated from the endogenous compounds on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column (50 mm × 3.0 mm, 1.8 µm) using an isocratic elution. The single-run analysis time was as short as 5.0 min. Sample preparation for protein removal was accomplished used a simple methanol precipitation method, after SPE showing a simultaneous extraction and cleanup of extracts allowing for a direct analysis. Extraction recoveries in rat plasma for ginkgolides A, B, C and bilobalide ranged from 75.6% to 89.0%. The calibration curves were determined over the ranges 0.5-20,000 ng/mL for ginkgolides A, B, C and bilobalide respectively. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of the analytes were 0.5 ng/mL. Inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy were below 15% and between 85 and 115%, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study following oral administration of the Ginkgo biloba extracts to the male ICR rats. PMID:26010697

  10. Studying the distribution pattern of selenium in nut proteins with information obtained from SEC-UV-ICP-MS and CE-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2005-03-31

    In this work, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was used to study the association of selenium to proteins present in Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) under five different extraction conditions. As expected, better solubilization of proteins was observed using 0.05molL(-1) sodium hydroxide and 1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in Tris/HCl buffer (0.05molL(-1), pH 8) as compared to 0.05molL(-1) HCl, 0.05molL(-1) Tris/HCl or hot water (60 degrees C). Due to non-destructive character of Tris-SDS treatment, this was applied for studying molecular weight (MW) distribution patterns of selenium-containing nut proteins. Three different SEC columns were used for obtaining complete MW distribution of selenium: Superdex 75, Superdex Peptide, and Superdex 200 were tested with 50mmolL(-1) Tris buffer (pH 8), 150mmolL(-1) ammonium bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.8), phosphate (pH 7.5), and CAPS (pH 10.0) mobile phases. Using Superdex 200 column, the elution of at least three MW fractions was observed with UV detection (200-10kDa) and ICP-MS chromatogram showed the co-elution of selenium with the two earlier fractions. The apparent MWs of these selenium-containing fractions were respectively about 107 and 50kDa, as evaluated from the column calibration. For further characterization of individual selenium species, the defatted nuts were hydrolyzed with proteinase K and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ICP-MS detection. The suitability of CE for the separation of selenite, selenate, selenocystine and selenomethionine in the presence of the nut sample matrix is demonstrated. Complete separation of the above mentioned selenium species was obtained within a migration time of 7min. In the analysis of nut extracts with CE-ICP-MS, selenium was found to be present mainly as selenomethionine. PMID:18969975

  11. LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of edaravone and/or taurine in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dao-quan; Bian, Ting-ting; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Li, Ying; Wu, Xiao-wen; Li, Yin-jie; Du, Qian; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2014-09-01

    Three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were respectively developed and validated for the simultaneous or independent determination of taurine and edaravone in rat plasma using 3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and sulfanilic acid as the internal standards (IS). Chromatographic separations were achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) column. Gradient 0.03% formic acid-methanol, isocratic 0.1% formic acid-methanol (90:10) and 0.02% formic acid-methanol (40:60) were respectively selected as the mobile phase for the simultaneous determination of two analytes, taurine or edaravone alone. The MS acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with a positive and negative electrospray ionization source. The mass transitions monitored were m/z [M + H](+) 175.1 → 133.0 and [M + H](+) 189.2 → 147.0 for edaravone and its IS, m/z [M - H](-) 124.1 → 80.0 and [M - H](-) 172.0 → 80.0 for taurine and its IS, respectively. The validated methods were successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic interaction of taurine and edaravone in rats after independent intravenous administration and co-administration with a single dose. Our collective results showed that there were no significant alterations on the main pharmacokinetic parameters (area under concentration-time curve, mean residence time, half-life and clearance) of taurine and edaravone, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically feasible. PMID:24706508

  12. Structural and Functional Studies Suggest a Catalytic Mechanism for the Phosphotransacetylase from Methanosarcina Thermophila

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence,S.; Luther, K.; Schindelin, H.; Ferry, J.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphotransacetylase (EC 2.3.1.8) catalyzes reversible transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl phosphate to coenzyme A (CoA), forming acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Two crystal structures of phosphotransacetylase from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila in complex with the substrate CoA revealed one CoA (CoA{sup 1}) bound in the proposed active site cleft and an additional CoA (CoA{sup 2}) bound at the periphery of the cleft. The results of isothermal titration calorimetry experiments are described, and they support the hypothesis that there are distinct high-affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD], 20 {micro}M) and low-affinity (KD, 2 mM) CoA binding sites. The crystal structures indicated that binding of CoA{sup 1} is mediated by a series of hydrogen bonds and extensive van der Waals interactions with the enzyme and that there are fewer of these interactions between CoA{sup 2} and the enzyme. Different conformations of the protein observed in the crystal structures suggest that domain movements which alter the geometry of the active site cleft may contribute to catalysis. Kinetic and calorimetric analyses of site-specific replacement variants indicated that there are catalytic roles for Ser{sup 309} and Arg{sup 310}, which are proximal to the reactive sulfhydryl of CoA{sup 1}. The reaction is hypothesized to proceed through base-catalyzed abstraction of the thiol proton of CoA by the adjacent and invariant residue Asp{sup 316}, followed by nucleophilic attack of the thiolate anion of CoA on the carbonyl carbon of acetyl phosphate. We propose that Arg310 binds acetyl phosphate and orients it for optimal nucleophilic attack. The hypothesized mechanism proceeds through a negatively charged transition state stabilized by hydrogen bond donation from Ser{sup 309}.

  13. Structural and Functional Studies Suggest a Catalytic Mechanism for the Phosphotransacetylase from Methanosarcina thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Luther, Kelvin B.; Schindelin, Hermann; Ferry, James G.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphotransacetylase (EC 2.3.1.8) catalyzes reversible transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl phosphate to coenzyme A (CoA), forming acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Two crystal structures of phosphotransacetylase from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila in complex with the substrate CoA revealed one CoA (CoA1) bound in the proposed active site cleft and an additional CoA (CoA2) bound at the periphery of the cleft. The results of isothermal titration calorimetry experiments are described, and they support the hypothesis that there are distinct high-affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD], 20 μM) and low-affinity (KD, 2 mM) CoA binding sites. The crystal structures indicated that binding of CoA1 is mediated by a series of hydrogen bonds and extensive van der Waals interactions with the enzyme and that there are fewer of these interactions between CoA2 and the enzyme. Different conformations of the protein observed in the crystal structures suggest that domain movements which alter the geometry of the active site cleft may contribute to catalysis. Kinetic and calorimetric analyses of site-specific replacement variants indicated that there are catalytic roles for Ser309 and Arg310, which are proximal to the reactive sulfhydryl of CoA1. The reaction is hypothesized to proceed through base-catalyzed abstraction of the thiol proton of CoA by the adjacent and invariant residue Asp316, followed by nucleophilic attack of the thiolate anion of CoA on the carbonyl carbon of acetyl phosphate. We propose that Arg310 binds acetyl phosphate and orients it for optimal nucleophilic attack. The hypothesized mechanism proceeds through a negatively charged transition state stabilized by hydrogen bond donation from Ser309. PMID:16428418

  14. A Course of Study and Suggestions for Curriculum Implementation: Special Classes (EMR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allport, Marion; And Others

    Presented is a course of study for educable mentally retarded (EMR) students at the primary, intermediate, junior high, and senior high levels. The purpose is to define in outline form the general areas of learning experiences able to promote the development of competencies appropriate to EMR students. The objectives of the instructional program,…

  15. SUMMARY OF THE EAU CLAIRE COUNTY YOUTH STUDY AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURSTON, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES A RESEARCH STUDY IN WHICH THE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR OF EQUAL NUMBERS OF TEACHER-APPROVED AND TEACHER-DISAPPROVED YOUNGSTERS WAS ANALYZED IN RELATION TO FAMILY BACKGROUNDS. THE STUDENTS WERE FURTHER DIVIDED EVENLY INTO RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS AND END OF YEAR THIRD-, SIXTH-, AND NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. A SECOND LIST WAS GENERATED 2…

  16. Second IEA Mathematics Study. Suggested Tables of Specifications for the IEA Mathematics Tests. Working Paper I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Wellington (New Zealand).

    This working paper presents specifications for the test items to be used in the second mathematics study to be conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). A content-by-behaviors grid is presented for two population levels, with specifics for each dimension outlines and examples of test items…

  17. The Views and Suggestions of Social Studies Teachers about the Implementation of Drama Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin

    2014-01-01

    Associating knowledge with daily life leads to permanent knowledge, which increases students' success in school. Drama is viewed to be one of the most effective methods that serves a purpose, and many researchers have determined that this method must be included at all levels of education. There are not much studies on social studies…

  18. LC/MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of iridoid glycosides monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid isomers in rat plasma after oral administration of Morinda officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmin; Dong, Jian; Tian, Jingchang; Deng, Zhipeng; Song, Xiujing

    2016-02-01

    Morinda officinalis is a famous traditional Chinese medicine containing iridoid glycoside compounds, such as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid. The aim of the study was to develop a novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the two isomeric iridoid glycosides and then evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Selected-reaction monitoring mode was employed for quantification of two analytes in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear over their respective concentration range with correlation coefficient >0.995 for both analytes. Precision for monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid ranged from 2.5 to 11.9% relative standard deviation, and the accuracy of two analytes was -2.0-3.7 and -6.4-10.7% relative error, respectively. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of M. officinalis extract in rats. The results provided a basis for further research on the bioactivity of M. officinalis. PMID:26053360

  19. A simple LC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of bacopaside I in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruo-Feng; Xiong, Kun; Wen, Si-Min; Song, Zhi-Min; Xu, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Bacopaside I is one of the main pseudojujubogenin glycosides isolated from Bacopa monniera. In the present study, a rapid and robust LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify bacopaside I in rat plasma. After plasma samples were deproteinized by methanol, the post-treatment samples were analyzed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1×50mm, 1.8μm) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (65:35, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization source. This method covered a linearity range of 10-2000ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification of 10ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions of analysis were less than 10.2%, and the accuracies were between -11.1% and 8.4% at the concentrations of 25, 150 and 1800ng/mL. The total run time was 6.0min. This method was successfully applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bacopaside I following intravenous or oral administration to rats. PMID:27270262

  20. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantifying capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in rabbit plasma and tissue: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dimin; Meng, Fanhua; Yu, Lin; Sun, Lu; Sun, Lili; Guo, Jifen

    2015-04-01

    Prescription and nonprescription products for topical management of pain, including cream, lotion and patch forms, contain capsaicin (CAP) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC). There are few in vivo studies on absorption, bioavailability and disposition of CAP and DHC. We established a sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS assay to determine CAP and DHC levels in rabbit plasma and tissue. Bio-samples prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane-dichloromethane-isopropanol (100: 50: 5, v/v/v) mixture were separated by isocratic chromatography with an Extend C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water-formic acid (70: 30: 0.1, v/v/v). The method was linear from 0.125 to 50 ng/mL for a 100 μL bio-sample, and the lower quantification limit was 0.125 ng/mL. Total run time to analyze each sample was 3.5 min. We used this validated method to study pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CAP gel administered topically to rabbits. A very small amount of CAP and DHC was absorbed into the systemic circulation. The highest plasma concentration was 2.39 ng/mL, and the mean peak plasma concentration value after 12 h of CAP gel application was 1.68 ng/mL. Drug concentration in treated skin was relatively high, with low concentration in other tissues. Thus, topical CAP gel had strong local effects and weaker systemic effects. PMID:25088519

  1. Development of a simple LC-MS/MS method for determination of rebamipide in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Shen-Tu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua; Dou, Jing; Xu, Qiyang; Zhou, Huili; Wu, Guolan; Hu, Xingjiang

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for a rebamipide bioequivalence study in healthy Chinese male volunteers. In this method, sample pretreatment involved simple protein precipitation with venlafaxine as the internal standard. Analysis was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column with a concentration range of 6-1200 ng/mL. Rebamipide tablets from Yuanlijian (test, Hangzhou, China) and from Otsuka (reference, Hangzhou, China) were evaluated following a single 300 mg oral dose to 20 healthy volunteers. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of Cmax, AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity) values for the test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax (83.7-118.4%), AUC(0-t) (91.1-113.4%) and AUC(0-infinity) (90.6-113.2%) values for the test and reference products were within the interval (80.0-125.0% for AUC, and 70-143% for Cmax), proposed by State of Food and Drug Administration [SFDA, 2005. China]. It was concluded that the two rebamipide tablets were bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption and the method met the principle of quick and easy clinical analysis. PMID:23210239

  2. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of droxidopa in human plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haidong; Yang, Guangsheng; Zhou, Jinyu; Pei, Jiang; Zhang, Qiangfeng; Song, Xingfa; Sun, Zengxian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of droxidopa in human plasma for the first time. A simple plasma protein precipitation method using methanol containing 3% formic acid was selected, and the separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC™ BEH Amide column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient elution using acetonitrile, ammonium formate buffer and formic acid as mobile phase. The detection of droxidopa and benserazide (internal standard, IS) was performed using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 214.2→m/z 152.0 for droxidopa, and m/z 258.1→m/z 139.1 for IS were used for quantification. A lower limit of quantification of 5.00ng/mL was achieved and the linear curve range was 5.00-4000ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2)) linear regression model. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was less than 10.2%, and the accuracy ranged from 0.1% to 2.1%. Stability, recovery and matrix effects were within the acceptance criteria recommended by the regulatory bioanalytical guidelines. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of droxidopa in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:27311027

  3. Study of the degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions using multiple isotope tracers and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cea, Andrés; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions has been studied. A triple spike solution, containing monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) labelled with a different tin isotope, was added to the sample to calculate the extent of the interconversion reactions among butyltin compounds. Real surface water samples (river water) were collected and stored in glass, polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containers. The presence of light, addition of acetic acid, storage temperature (22, 4 or -18 °C), and the influence of a filtration step were evaluated. Moreover, Milli-Q water with and without the addition of a high concentration of humic acids was prepared in parallel and the results compared to those obtained from the real samples. The water samples were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at two different storage times (2 weeks and 4 months after its preparation) to carry out both a short- and a long-term stability study. The lowest butyltin degradation was obtained when the samples were stored at -18 °C in the dark. Under these conditions, both TBT and DBT showed negligible dealkylation factors after 2 weeks. After 4 months, DBT dealkylation to MBT increased up to 19 % but TBT degradation was not observed. PMID:26545890

  4. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose. PMID:26519688

  5. Simultaneous determination of nine coumarins in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetics studies following oral administration of Fraxini Cortex extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Chunying; Du, Yingfeng; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Qiao; Jin, Shumin

    2016-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine coumarins including aesculin, aesculetin, fraxin, fraxetin, scopoletin, isoscopoletin, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy coumarin, 8-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy coumarin and umbelliferone in rat plasma using nodakenin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation with methanol. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.05% acetic acid). All analytes and IS were quantitated through electrospray ionization in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method was fully validated in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision (intra- and inter-day), matrix effect, recovery as well as the stability of the analyte under various conditions, and the results satisfied the requirements of biological sample measurement. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the nine coumarins in rat plasma after oral administration of Fraxini Cortex aqueous extract, among which the pharmacokinetics of four coumarins including fraxetin, isoscopoletin, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy coumarin and 8-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy coumarin were studied for the first time. PMID:27183215

  6. Study on degradation kinetics of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid in aqueous solutions and identification of its major degradation product by UHPLC/TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qili; Guan, Jiao; Rong, Rong; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-08-10

    A RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the degradation kinetic study of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid (HPABA), a promising anti-inflammatory drug, which would provide a basis for further studies on HPABA. The effects of pH, temperature, buffer concentration and ionic strength on the degradation kinetics of HPABA were discussed. Experimental parameters such as degradation rate constants (k), activation energy (Ea), acid and alkali catalytic constants (k(ac), k(al)), shelf life (t1/2) and temperature coefficient (Q10) were calculated. The results indicated that degradation kinetics of HPABA followed zero-order reaction kinetics; degradation rate constants (k) of HPABA at different pH values demonstrated that HPABA was more stable in neutral and near-neutral conditions; the function of temperature on k obeyed the Arrhenius equation (r = 0.9933) and HPABA was more stable at lower temperature; with the increase of ionic strength and buffer concentration, the stability of HPABA was decreased. The major unknown degradation product of HPABA was identified by UHPLC/TOF-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Results demonstrated that the hydrolysis product was the primary degradation product of HPABA and it was deduced as anthranilic acid. PMID:25935790

  7. LC-MS/MS assay for the determination of lurasidone and its active metabolite, ID-14283 in human plasma and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Katteboina, Mahitej Yadav; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Mullangi, Ramesh; Seelam, Raghunadha Reddy; Satla, Shobha Rani

    2016-07-01

    The authors proposed a sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay procedure for the quantification of lurasidone and its active metabolite, i.e. ID-14283 in human plasma simultaneously using corresponding isotope labeled compounds as internal standards as per regulatory guidelines. After liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether, the analytes were chromatographed on a C18 column using an optimized mobile phase composed of 5 mm ammonium acetate (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile (15:85, v/v) and delivered at a flow rate of 1.00 mL/min. The assay exhibits excellent linearity in the concentration ranges of 0.25-100 and 0.10-14.1 ng/mL for lurasidone and ID-14283, respectively. The precision and accuracy results over five concentration levels in four different batches were well within the acceptance limits. Lurasidone and ID-14283 were found to be stable in battery of stability studies. The method was rapid with the chromatographic run time 2.5 min, which made it possible to analyze 300 samples in a single day. Additionally, this method was successfully used to estimate the in vivo plasma concentrations of lurasidone and ID-14283 obtained from a pharmacokinetic study in south Indian male subjects and the results were authenticated by conducting incurred samples reanalysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26577488

  8. Forced degradation, LC-UV, MS(n) and LC-MS-TOF studies on azilsartan: Identification of a known and three new degradation impurities.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Dhiraj; Kaur, Jasmeen; Paul Kaur, Vaneet; Saini, Balraj; Bansal, Yogita; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-02-20

    In the present study, Azilsartan (AZL) was subjected to ICH recommended forced degradation conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolysis. The drug degraded to four degradation products (I-IV) under acidic, alkaline and water hydrolysis and photolysis. All the four degradation products were resolved in a single run on a C-18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μ) with isocratic elution using mobile phase composed of ammonium formate (20mM, pH 3.0), methanol and acetonitrile (40:5:40% v/v), at a flow rate of 0.8mlmin(-1) at ambient temperature. The products were characterized through +ESI-MS(n) spectra of AZL and LC-MS-TOF studies as 2-ethoxy-3H-benzo-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (I), 2-hydroxy-3-[2'-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-4-ylmethyl]-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid (II, deethylated AZL), 3-[2'-(1H-diazirin-3-yl)-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl]-2-ethoxy-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid (III), and 3-[4'-(2-ethoxy-benzo-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-biphenyl-2-yl]-4H-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-one (IV, decarboxylated AZL). Product I was found to be a known process related impurity whereas the products II-IV were identified as new degradation impurities. The most probable mechanisms for formation of these degradation products were proposed. PMID:26752083

  9. Stereoselective determination of ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 epimers in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Zheng, Yu Fen; Yoo, Young Hyo; Kim, Jeom Yong; Kim, Sun Ok; Jang, Min Jung; Seo, Jae Hong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-06-01

    We developed and validated an accurate and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh2 epimers (R-Rg3, S-Rg3, R-Rh2, and S-Rh2) in rat plasma. Analytes were extracted from 0.1 mL aliquots of rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction, using 2 mL of ethyl acetate. In this assay, dioscin (500 ng/mL) was used as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was conducted using an Acclaim RSLC C18 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm) at 40°C, with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in distilled water and in acetonitrile, a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min, and a total run time of 20 min. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization at m/z 783.4 → 161.1 for R-Rg3 and S-Rg3, m/z 621.3 → 161.1 for R-Rh2 and S-Rh2, and m/z 867.2 → 761.5 for the internal standard. For R-Rg3 and S-Rg3, the lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL, with a linear range up to 500 ng/mL; for R-Rh2 and S-Rh2, the lower limit of quantification was 150 ng/mL, with a linear range up to 6000 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 10.5%, with an accuracy of 86.4-112%. No relevant cross-talk or matrix effect was observed. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 400 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg of BST204, a fermented ginseng extract, to rats. We found that the S epimers exhibited significantly higher plasma concentrations and area under curve values for both Rg3 and Rh2. This is the first report on the separation and simultaneous quantification of R-Rg3, S-Rg3, R-Rh2, and S-Rh2 in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. The method should be useful in the clinical use of ginseng or its derivatives. PMID:23559579

  10. LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of loratadine (Claritin) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkui; Doherty, John; Moench, Paul; Flarakos, Jimmy; Tse, Francis L S

    2015-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of loratadine, an H1 histamine antagonist, in human dried blood spot (DBS) samples following a single self-administered 10 or 20mg oral dose. The samples were produced by spotting approximately 30μl of whole blood onto PE-226 cards. Two 3-mm discs were cut from the DBS samples and extracted using aqueous methanol containing the internal standard. After transfer and drying of the resulting sample extract, the reconstituted residues were chromatographed using a Waters XSelect C18 column and isocratic elution for MS/MS detection. The possible impact due to hematocrit, volume of blood sample spotted, storage temperature, and humidity, on the accuracy of measured DBS results were investigated. The results showed that only spotted blood volume might have an impact; a small volume (10μl) tended to give a larger negative bias in the measured value than the large volume ones (≥20μl). The current method was fully validated over a dynamic range of 0.200-20.0ng/ml with correlation coefficients (r(2)) for three validation batches equal to or better than 0.990. The intra-day accuracy and precision at the LLOQ were -11.5 to 0.0% bias and 6.4 to 8.9% CV, respectively. For the other QC samples (0.600, 3.00, 10.0 and 15.0ng/ml), the precision ranged from 4.2 to 9.8% CV and from 6.3 to 8.1% CV, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day evaluations; the accuracy ranged from -1.7 to 10.0% and 2.7 to 5.3% bias, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day batches. Loratadine is stable in the DBS samples for at least 271 days at ambient temperature in a desiccator, for at least 24h at 60°C and under 80% relative humidity, followed by re-conditioning at ambient temperature in a desiccator. The current methodology has been applied to determine the loratadine levels in DBS samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study to

  11. THC:CBD spray and MS spasticity symptoms: data from latest studies.

    PubMed

    Rekand, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    New clinical experience with 9-delta-tetrahydocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) involving more than an additional 1,000 patients with MS spasticity (approximately 150 in clinical studies and 900 in post-marketing surveillance studies) have become available in 2013 and are reviewed. A randomized, placebo controlled long-term follow-up clinical trial with THC:CBD spray versus placebo demonstrated that it was not associated with cognitive decline, depression or significant mood changes after 12 months of treatment. Furthermore, in a prospective observational pilot study involving 33 patients (60% female) aged 33-68 years and a mean disease duration of 6.6 years, THC:CBD oromucosal spray did not adversely influence standard driving ability in patients with moderate to severe MS spasticity. Other new long term observational data about the use of THC:CBD oromucosal spray in clinical practice are available from patient registries in the UK, Germany and Spain. Findings to date reinforce the efficacy and safety observed in Phase III clinical trials. It is of interest that in practice average dosages used by patients tended to be lower than those reported in clinical studies (5-6.4 vs. >8 sprays/day), and effectiveness was maintained in the majority of patients. Importantly, no additional safety concerns were identified in the registry studies which included findings from patients who have been treated for prolonged periods (in the German/UK registry 45% of patients had >2 years exposure). Thus, these new data support a positive benefit-risk relationship for THC:CBD oromucosal spray during longer-term use. PMID:24457846

  12. Meeting report: suggestions for studies on future health risks following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Tomoko; Schonfeld, Sara J; Abe, Masafumi; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Deltour, Isabelle; Ishida, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Schüz, Joachim; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013, the Radiation Medical Science Center of the Fukushima Medical University and the Section of Environment and Radiation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer held a joint workshop in Fukushima, Japan to discuss opportunities and challenges for long-term studies of the health effects following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This report describes four key areas of discussion -- thyroid screening, dosimetry, mental health, and non-radiation risk factors -- and summarizes recommendations resulting from the workshop. Four recommendations given at the workshop were to: 1) build-up a population-based cancer registry for long-term monitoring of the cancer burden in the prefecture; 2) enable future linkage of data from the various independent activities, particularly those related to dose reconstruction and health status ascertainment; 3) establish long-term observational studies with repeated measurements of lifestyle and behavioural factors to disentangle radiation and non-radiation factors; and 4) implement primary prevention strategies targeted for populations affected by natural disasters, including measures to better understand and address health risk concerns in the affected population. The workshop concluded that coordinated data collection between researchers from different institutes and disciplines can both reduce the burden on the population and facilitate efforts to examine the inter-relationships between the many factors at play. PMID:25889395

  13. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K; Al-Duhaidahawi, Dunya L; Al-Azawi, Khalida F; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance). Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0), followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00). Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree-Fock-based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D) geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds. PMID:26805811

  14. GC-MS based metabolomics study of stems and roots of Ephedra sinica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Mengying; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Min; Huang, Wanqiu; Fan, Hongyan; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian

    2015-10-10

    Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines differ greatly due to the use of different anatomical parts or processing methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and Ephedra sinica (ES) is just a case in point. To better understand different traditional uses of the stems (known as Mahuang, MH) and roots (known as Mahuanggen, MHG) of ES, their therapeutic material basis should be investigated. In this study, ephedrine alkaloids were profiled simultaneously with primary metabolites using GC-MS based metabolomics. Ephedrine (E) has been reported to be the major bioactive constituent in MH for the treatment of asthma. The results showed that compared with MH, MHG contained much lower levels of five ephedrine alkaloids, which may well explain that MHG has not been used as an antiasthmatic. Additionally, these pharmacologically important ephedrine alkaloids exhibited strong positive correlation with five primary metabolites. In conclusion, this study facilitates better understanding of different traditional uses of MH and MHG. PMID:26004227

  15. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. PMID:26489966

  16. Symptom appraisal and healthcare-seeking for symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, N; Birt, L; Banks, J; Emery, J; Mills, K; Johnson, M; Rubin, G P; Hamilton, W; Walter, F M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Timely diagnosis of colorectal cancer is important to improve survival. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to specialist services with symptoms of colorectal cancer. Design Qualitative in-depth interview study. Setting and participants Participants were recruited on referral to gastroenterology clinics (North East and East of England); interviews were conducted soon after referral. We purposively sampled participants to ensure a range of accounts in terms of age, sex, diagnosis and geographical location. Methods Data collection and analysis were underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Framework analysis was used to explore the data within and across cases, focusing on patient beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare influences. Results 40 participants were interviewed (aged 43–87 years, 17 women, 18 diagnosed with colorectal cancer). Patients diagnosed with and without colorectal cancer had similar symptom pathways. We found a range of interacting and often competing biopsychosocial, contextual and cultural influences on the way in which people recognised, interpreted and acted on their symptoms. People attempted to ‘maintain normality’ through finding benign explanations for their symptoms. Bodily changes were appraised within the context of usual bowel patterns, comorbidities and life events, and decisions to seek help were made in relation to expectations about the course of symptoms. The ‘private nature’ of colorectal cancer symptoms could affect both their identification and discussions with others including healthcare professionals. Within the context of the National Health Service, people needed to legitimise appropriate use of healthcare services and avoid being thought of as wasting doctors’ time. Conclusions Findings provide guidance for awareness campaigns on reducing stigma around appraising and discussing bowel movements, and the importance of intermittent

  17. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliya V.; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X.; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Methods Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. Results In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the

  18. Determination of a novel Aurora-A (AurA) kinase AKI603 by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a bioavailability study in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Huang, Lingjie; Gou, Xiaoli; Li, Zhangwei; Chen, Jiangying; Wen, Dingsheng; Jiang, Fulin; Lu, Gui; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Min; Zhong, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of AKI603 in rat plasma has been firstly developed and validated. After a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate, the analytes were separated on C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.9μm, Thermo) by gradient elution with mobile phase of water (A) (containing 5mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) and methanol (B) with a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1) and then analyzed by mass spectrometry in the positive multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The mass transitions monitored were m/z 410.0→352.9, m/z 457.1→367.9 for AKI603 and internal standard (Ly-7z), respectively. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity and lower limit of quantification, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability whose values satisfied the acceptable limits. The calibration curves for AKI603 was linear in concentration ranges of 0.025-5000ngmL(-1). The method has been successfully used to the bioavailability study of AKI603 administered to rats intravenously (2.5mg/kg) or orally (25mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of AKI603 in rats was calculated as 28.7±9.7%. PMID:27070132

  19. High-throughput LC-MS/MS assay for 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid, an active metabolite of nabumetone in human plasma and its application to bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin N; Sharma, Naveen; Sanyal, Mallika; Prasad, Arpana; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2008-11-01

    A simple, precise and accurate assay for the determination of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), an active metabolite of nabumetone in human plasma, was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analyte (6-MNA) and propranolol (internal standard, IS) were extracted from 200 microL aliquot of human plasma via solid-phase extraction employing HLB Oasis cartridges and separated on a Discovery HS C18 (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column. Detection of analyte and IS was done by tandem mass spectrometry with a turbo ion spray interface operating in positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring acquisition mode. The total chromatographic runtime was 3.0 min with retention time for 6-MNA and IS at 1.97 and 1.26 min, respectively. The method was validated over a dynamic linear range of 0.20-60.00 microg/mL for 6-MNA with mean correlation coefficient r > or = 0.9986. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (%CV) across five validation runs (lower limit of quantiation, low-, medium- and high-quality controls and upper limit of quantitation) was less than 7.5%. The accuracy determined at these levels was within -5.8 to +0.2% in terms of percentage bias. The method was successfully applied for a bioequivalence study of 750 mg nabumetone tablet formulation in 12 healthy Indian male subjects under fasted condition. PMID:18651608

  20. Simultaneous determination of ipratropium and salbutamol in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingwen; Ding, Cungang; Ge, Qinghua; Li, Zhou; Zhou, Zhen; Zhi, Xiaojin

    2011-11-15

    A novel, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method with silica-based solid-phase extraction was developed for simultaneous determination of ipratropium (IPR) and salbutamol (SAL) in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shiseido Capcell Pak CR column (SCX:C(18)=1:4, 150 mm × 2.0 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/water (85:15, v/v) containing 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface was conducted via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) under positive ionization mode. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy (within ±115.4%), intra- and inter-day precision (<11.4%) over the concentration range of 8-1612 pg/mL for IPR and 50-10,000 pg/mL for SAL. In addition, stability and matrix effects of IPR and SAL in plasma were evaluated. This method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of compound ipratropium bromide aerosol mainly containing ipratropium bromide (IB) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) after inhalation in rats. PMID:21983198

  1. Determination of Cefalothin and Cefazolin in Human Plasma, Urine and Peritoneal Dialysate by UHPLC-MS/MS: application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in humans.

    PubMed

    Parker, Suzanne L; Guerra Valero, Yarmarly C; Roberts, Darren M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Wallis, Steven C

    2016-06-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of cefazolin and cefalothin in human plasma (total and unbound), urine and peritoneal dialysate has been developed and validated. Total plasma concentrations are measured following protein precipitation and are suitable for the concentration range of 1-500 µg/mL. Unbound concentrations are measured from ultra-filtered plasma acquired using Centrifree(®) devices and are suitable for the concentration range of 0.1-500 µg/mL for cefazolin and 1-500 µg/mL for cefalothin. The urine method is suitable for a concentration range of 0.1-20 mg/mL for cefazolin and 0.2-20 mg/mL for cefalothin. Peritoneal dialysate concentrations are measured using direct injection, and are suitable for the concentration range of 0.2-100 µg/mL for both cefazolin and cefalothin. The cefazolin and cefalothin plasma (total and unbound), urine and peritoneal dialysate results are reported for recovery, inter-assay precision and accuracy, and the lower limit of quantification, linearity, stability and matrix effects, with all results meeting acceptance criteria. The method was used successfully in a pilot pharmacokinetic study with patients with peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, receiving either intraperitoneal cefazolin or cefalothin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26394804

  2. Simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS-based assay for the quantification of dimemorfan in human plasma for use in a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongyi; Peng, Jinfu; Pei, Qi; Yang, Liu; Chen, Jun; Guo, Chengxian; Hua, Ye; Yuan, Hong; Yang, Guoping

    2015-05-01

    Dimemorfan phosphate has been widely used for 40 years throughout the world for the treatment of coughs. This is the first report on the use of an LC-MS/MS-based assay for the determination of dimemorfan in human plasma using estazolam as an internal standard after one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (3 µm, 50 × 2.0 mm) using a fast gradient method, which involves water and methanol as the mobile phase (both containing 0.1% formic acid). Dimemorfan and estazolam were detected with proton adducts at m/z values of 255.8 → 155.1 and 295.0 → 267.0, respectively, in the selected reaction monitoring positive mode. The linear dynamic range of the assay was 0.04-5.00 ng/mL. The chromatographic run time for each plasma sample was <5 min. The method was proven to be accurate, precise, and repeatable. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of dimemorfan in a pharmacokinetic study using healthy Chinese subjects. PMID:25262813

  3. Studies into the phenolic patterns of different tissues of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof B; Glock, Mona P; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-08-01

    In a comprehensive study, more than 60 phenolic compounds were detected in methanolic extracts from different tissues of pineapple infructescence by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) ) as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical workflow combining both methods revealed numerous compounds assigned for the first time as pineapple constituents by their mass fragmentations. Pineapple crown tissue was characterised by depsides of p-coumaric and ferulic acid. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in pineapple pulp extracts were assigned to diverse S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl and S-sinapyl derivatives of glutathione, N-L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and L-cysteine, which were also identified in the peel. The latter was additionally characterised by elevated concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid depsides and glycerides, respectively. Two peel-specific cyanidin hexosides were found. Elevated concentrations of isomeric N,N'-diferuloylspermidines may be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent peel usage for pineapple juice production. Mass fragmentation pathways of characteristic pineapple constituents are proposed, and their putative biological functions are discussed. PMID:26215283

  4. Rapid and simple method for determination of cephradine in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS): application to the bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Jun; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Lee, Heon-Woo; Lee, Myung-Jae; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Tak, Seong-Kun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and simple procedure was developed for the determination of cephradine in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). After trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins from plasma samples, cephradine and cefaclor (the internal standard; IS) were eluted on a CN column. The isocratic mobile phase used consisted of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (25:75:0.1, v/v/v). Cephradine and the IS were both detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode at the transitions: m/z 350.0 --> 90.8 for cephradine and m/z 368.1 --> 106.0 for the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range from 0.05 to 50 microg/ml, and correlation coefficients were greater than 0.996. The coefficient of variation of assay precision was less than 9.36%, and its accuracy ranged from 87.92% to 111.16%. The chromatographic run time for each plasma sample was less than 3 min. The developed method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of cephradine in healthy male volunteers. PMID:19854118

  5. Optimization and Comparison of ESI and APCI LC-MS/MS Methods: A Case Study of Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and their Degradation Products in Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragou, Niki C.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Koupparis, Michael A.

    2011-10-01

    A systematic and detailed optimization strategy for the development of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and their degradation products (M1, DCPMU, DCPU, and DCA) in water, sediment, and mussel is described. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the ion sources parameters. Comparison of ESI and APCI was performed in positive- and negative-ion mode, and the effect of the mobile phase on ionization was studied for both techniques. Special attention was drawn to the ionization of DCA, which presents particular difficulty in API techniques. Satisfactory ionization of this small molecule is achieved only with ESI positive-ion mode using acetonitrile in the mobile phase; the instrumental detection limit is 0.11 ng/mL. Signal suppression was qualitatively estimated by using purified and non-purified samples. The sample preparation for sediments and mussels is direct and simple, comprising only solvent extraction. Mean recoveries ranged from 71% to 110%, and the corresponding (%) RSDs ranged between 4.1 and 14%. The method limits of detection ranged between 0.6 and 3.5 ng/g for sediment and mussel and from 1.3 to 1.8 ng/L for sea water. The method was applied to sea water, marine sediment, and mussels, which were obtained from marinas in Attiki, Greece. Ion ratio confirmation was used for the identification of the compounds.

  6. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of cucurbitacin B in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Waiou; Xu, Dahai; Yan, Weiwei; Wang, Yushi; Zhang, Nan

    2016-04-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), one of the most abundant forms of cucurbitacins, is a promising natural anticancer drug candidate. Although the anticancer activity of CuB has been well demonstrated, information regarding the pharmacokinetics is limited. A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS for CuB was developed and validated using hemslecin A (HeA) as internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. Separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at 35°C using isocratic elution with water-methanol (25:75, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were monitored by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curve was linear (r > 0.995) in a concentration range of 0.3-100 ng/mL with a limit of quantification of 0.3 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were validated by percentage relative error and relative standard deviation, respectively, which were both lower than the limit of 15%. This assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of CuB in Wistar rats. PMID:26207321

  7. Development and Validation of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Human Plasma: Application to a Bioequivalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Jangala, Hemanth; Vats, Poonam; Khuroo, Arshad Hussain; Monif, Tausif

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of amlodipine and valsartan was achieved on the Luna C18 (2)100A (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium formate solution (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved using an electrospray ion interface operating in positive mode, under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.302–20.725 ng/mL for amlodipine and 6.062–18060.792 ng/mL for valsartan. The method has shown good reproducibility, as intra- and interday precisions were within 10% and accuracies were within 8% of nominal values for both analytes. The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of amlodipine and valsartan after oral administration of a fixed dose of the combination. Additionally, as required by the current regulatory bodies, incurred sample reanalysis was performed and found to be acceptable. PMID:25853070

  8. Sensitive method for the determination of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Dixit, Abhishek; Devaraj, V C; Zainuddin, Mohd; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Hallur, Mahanandeesha S; Dewang, Purushottam; Rajagopal, Sridharan; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma (20 μL) using vorinostat as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatography was achieved on Prodigy ODS-2 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (0.2% formic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.38 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 4.1 min and the elution of rocilinostat and IS occurred at ~3.2 and 2.9 min, respectively. A linear response function was established in the concentration range of 0.28-1193 ng/mL in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the ranges of 3.12-8.93 and 6.41-11.6%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26633099

  9. A robust LC-MS/MS method for the determination of pidotimod in different biological matrixes and its application to in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangji; Wang, Qian; Rao, Tai; Shen, Boyu; Kang, Dian; Shao, Yuhao; Xiao, Jingcheng; Chen, Huimin; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-15

    Pidotimod, (R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, was frequently used to treat children with recurrent respiratory infections. Preclinical pharmacokinetics of pidotimod was still rarely reported to date. Herein, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine pidotimod in rat plasma, tissue homogenate and Caco-2 cells. In this process, phenacetin was chosen as the internal standard due to its similarity in chromatographic and mass spectrographic characteristics with pidotimod. The plasma calibration curves were established within the concentration range of 0.01-10.00μg/mL, and similar linear curves were built using tissue homogenate and Caco-2 cells. The calibration curves for all biological samples showed good linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration ranges tested. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD, %) values were below 15% and accuracy (RE, %) was ranged from -15% to 15% at all quality control levels. For plasma, tissue homogenate and Caco-2 cells, no obvious matrix effect was found, and the average recoveries were all above 75%. Thus, the method demonstrated excellent accuracy, precision and robustness for high throughput applications, and was then successfully applied to the studies of absorption in rat plasma, distribution in rat tissues and intracellular uptake characteristics in Caco-2 cells for pidotimod. PMID:27179190

  10. Comprehensive Proteomic Study of the Antiproliferative Activity of a Polyphenol-Enriched Rosemary Extract on Colon Cancer Cells Using Nanoliquid Chromatography-Orbitrap MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Alberto; Artemenko, Konstantin A; Bergquist, Jonas; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a proteomics strategy based on nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) using an Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer together with stable isotope dimethyl labeling (DML) is applied to quantitatively examine relative changes in the protein fraction of HT-29 human colon cancer cells treated with different concentrations of a polyphenol-enriched rosemary extract over the time. The major objective of this study was to gain insights into the antiproliferative mechanisms induced by rosemary polyphenols. Using this methodology, 1909 and 698 proteins were identified and quantified in cell extracts. The polyphenol-enriched rosemary extract treatment changed the expression of several proteins in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Most of the altered proteins are implicated in the activation of Nrf2 transcription factor and the unfolded protein response. In conclusion, rosemary polyphenols induced proteomic changes that were related to the attenuation of aggresome formation and activation of autophagy to alleviate cellular stress. PMID:27103343

  11. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengliang; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Bin; Song, Youxin; Zhu, Naiqiang; Zhao, Long; Liu, Changjian; Meng, Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established and validated to assay the concentrations of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) at an isocratic flow rate of 0.5 mL/min using methanol-10 mm ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The total run time was 5 min for each sample. MS/MS detection was accomplished in selected reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.125-50 ng/mL with lower limit of quantification of 0.125 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <10.1% in terms of coefficient of variation, and the accuracy was within ±11.7% in terms of relative error. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol following intragastric administration of 3.65 mg/kg to Wistar rats. PMID:25611485

  12. Development of a selective and fast LC-MS/MS for determination of WSJ-537, an xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in rat plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianyang; Yang, Tian; Zhang, Donghu

    2016-08-15

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints. A new kind of xanthine oxidase inhibitor, WSJ-537, was developed as a potential drug. In order to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination the concentration of WSJ-537 in rat plasma was developed. After extraction by protein precipitation method with acetonitrile, the chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Venusil ASB C18 column(2.1mm×50mm, 3mm)at a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (33:67, v/v). An electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. The plasma concentration was detected by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode with the target fragment ions m/z 410.2→m/z 368.1 for WSJ-537 and m/z 244.1→m/z 185.0 for the IS. Good linearity was observed in the range of 20-800ngmL(-1) (r=0.9947). The recovery of WSJ-537 in rats plasma was more than 85%. This method was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of 10mg/kg WSJ-537 in rats. PMID:27322629

  13. Development and Validation of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Human Plasma: Application to a Bioequivalence Study.

    PubMed

    Jangala, Hemanth; Vats, Poonam; Khuroo, Arshad Hussain; Monif, Tausif

    2014-09-01

    A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of amlodipine and valsartan was achieved on the Luna C18 (2)100A (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium formate solution (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved using an electrospray ion interface operating in positive mode, under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.302-20.725 ng/mL for amlodipine and 6.062-18060.792 ng/mL for valsartan. The method has shown good reproducibility, as intra- and interday precisions were within 10% and accuracies were within 8% of nominal values for both analytes. The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of amlodipine and valsartan after oral administration of a fixed dose of the combination. Additionally, as required by the current regulatory bodies, incurred sample reanalysis was performed and found to be acceptable. PMID:25853070

  14. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of lercanidipine in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; He, Xiaojing; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lercanidipine (LER) in human plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized with methanol after addition of diazepam (internal standard, IS) and separated on a 38°C Hedera ODS-2 analytical column with a mobile phase of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid at an isocratic flow rate of 400μL/min. The detection was performed on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ESI mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions of m/z 612.2→280.2 for LER and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS, respectively. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.015ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.015-8.0ng/mL. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. This robust method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LER in 59 healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 10mg LER. PMID:27232153

  15. Simultaneous quantification of five steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to the pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Jing; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2014-01-01

    A simple, reliable and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous analyses of the following 5 steroid saponins in rat plasma after the single dose administration of total steroid saponins extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Protodioscin, huangjiangsu A, zingiberensis new saponin, dioscin, and gracillin were quantified using ginsenoside Rb1 as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a single step acetonitrile-mediated protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid under a gradient elution mode at 0.2 mL min−1 using a microsplit after the eluent from the HPLC apparatus. The quantification was accomplished on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive ionization mode. The above five analytes were stable under sample storage and preparation conditions applied in the present study. The linearity, precision, accuracy, and recoveries of the analysis confirmed the requirements for quality-control purposes. After validation, this proposed method was successfully adopted to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of these five analytes. PMID:25201262

  16. Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids causing Cushing Syndrome: Results from a Multicentric Study Suggesting a More Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Margaritora, Stefano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Filosso, Perluigi; Novellis, Pierluigi; Rapicetta, Cristian; Carleo, Francesco; Bora, Giulia; Cesario, Alfredo; Stefani, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio; Paci, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BCs) is a very rare entity. The aim of this study was to revisit the features of a multicenter clinical series to identify significant prognostic factors. Methods From January 2002 to December 2013, the clinical and pathological data of 23 patients (treated in five different institutions) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed to explore the relative weight of potential prognostic factors. Results Median age and male/female ratio were 48 years and 14/9, respectively. Most (> 80%) of the patients presented with CS-related symptoms at diagnosis. Tumor location was peripheral in 13 patients (57%) and central in 10 (43%). All patients but two (treated with chemotherapy) underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Definitive cyto/histology was indicative of typical carcinoid (TC) in 16 cases (70%) and atypical carcinoid (AC) in 7 cases (30%). A complete remission of CS was obtained in 16 cases (70%). Lymph nodal involvement was detected in 11 cases (48%), with N2 disease occurring in 7 (∼ 30% of all cases). Four patients (22%) experienced a relapse of the disease after radical surgery. Overall 5-year survival (long-term survival, LTS) was 60%, better in TCs when compared with AC (LTS: 66 v s. 48%, p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis identified ECOG performance status, cTNM and cN staging, pTNM and pN staging, persistence of CS and relapses (local p = 0.006; distant p = 0.001) as significant prognostic factors in this cohort of patients. Conclusion BCs causing CS are characterized by a high rate of lymph-nodal involvement, a suboptimal prognosis (5-year survival = 60%, 66% in TCs) and a remarkable risk of relapse even after radical resection. Advanced stage, lymph-nodal involvement and the persisting of the CS after treatment correlate with a poor prognosis. PMID:26220696

  17. Water on Mars: A status report and suggestions for further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John; McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-07-01

    The most recent MEPAG review of Mars Special Regions (Rummel et al., 2014) contained the following statement, "Mars' average atmospheric pressure allows for liquid water when it exceeds that of the triple point of water, and at lower altitudes (e.g., Hellas and Argyre Basins) that is commonly the case. Higher temperatures and/or insolation may allow melting or condensation over limited areas for short time periods." Nonetheless, the US National Academies - European Science Foundation review of the MEPAG report disagreed with a preliminary statement regarding the potential for snow fallen on Mars to melt, and thus stated that, "The review committee asserts that pure liquid water simply cannot exist on Mars because the atmosphere is too dry to allow it. The partial pressure of atmospheric water vapor is typically less than 1 Pa near the surface of Mars, whereas the partial pressure of water vapor at the triple point of water is about 600 Pa." This paper will address the discrepancies between what the MEPAG paper actually asserted, and the validity of the arguments in each report and in the literature for and against liquid water on Mars - whether salty or pure (as the Mars-driven snow). Refs: Committee to Review the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions; Space Studies Board; The [US] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; European Space Sciences Committee; European Science Foundation. (2015). Review of the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Rummel, J. D., Beaty, D. W., Jones, M. A., Bakermans, C., Barlow, N. G., Boston, P. J., ... & Wray, J. J. (2014). A New Analysis of Mars "Special Regions": Findings of the Second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2). Astrobiology, 14, 887-968.

  18. Simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and fenofibric acid in human plasma by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization: assay development, validation and application to a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Kallem, Raja Reddy; Mullangi, Ramesh; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2005-09-15

    A simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin (RST) and fenofibric acid (FFA) was developed and validated with 500 microL human plasma using carbamazepine as an internal standard (IS). The assay procedure involved a simple one-step liquid/liquid extraction of RST and FFA and IS from plasma into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated and evaporated under a gentle stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue was reconstituted in the mobile phase and injected onto X-Terra MS C-18 column (4.6 mm x 50 mm, 5.0 microm). Separation of RST, FFA and IS was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M formic acid:acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. The API-3000LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM) using the electrospray ionization technique. Positive ion acquisition chromatographic run was used in the present method. Nominal retention times of RST, FFA and IS were 2.35, 4.70 and 2.32 min, respectively. Absolute recovery of RST, FFA and IS was 74, 61 and 69%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of RST and FFA was 1.00 ng/ml and 0.50 microg/ml, respectively. Response function was established for the range of concentrations 1.00-50.0 ng/ml and 0.50-20.0 microg/ml for RST and FFA, respectively, with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.999 for both the compounds. The inter- and intra-day precision in the measurement of RST quality control (QC) samples 5, 15, 400 and 800 ng/ml, were in the range 8.93-9.37% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and 1.74-16.1% R.S.D., respectively. Similarly, the inter- and intra-day precision in the measurement of FFA quality control (QC) samples 0.5, 1.5, 8.0 and 15.0 microg/ml, were in the range 9.78-11.6% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and 0.22-17.4% R.S.D., respectively. Accuracy in the measurement of QC samples for RST and FFA were in the range 88.1-108 and 87-115%, respectively, of the nominal

  19. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-Hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: Application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxy-flavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less 16.48 % and accuracy is in 77.70–90.64 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.86%, accuracy in 85.08–114.70 % for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.23 %, accuracy is in 110.58–114.2 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.59 %, accuracy in 83.00–89.40% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μL of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  20. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from blood. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61-2500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31-2500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less than 16.5% and accuracy is in 77.7-90.6% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.9%, accuracy in 85.1-114.7% for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.2%, accuracy is in 110.6-114.2% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.6%, accuracy in 83.0-89.4% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μl of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  1. A MALDI-TOF MS study of oligomeric poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide).

    PubMed

    Gies, Anthony P; Nonidez, William K; Ellison, Sparkle T; Ji, Haining; Mays, Jimmy W

    2005-02-01

    MALDI-TOF MS was used to study the end-group distribution of a series of poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide) oligomers which were synthesized using various mole percent ratios of diamine to diacid chloride (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, and 10:90) to clarify results obtained in previous work published in this journal. Oligomers synthesized with excess diamine or excess diacid chloride were found to contain abundances of amine or carboxylate end groups, respectively, as expected. Oligomers synthesized with equal molar ratios of reactants produced cyclic species which were also found in a previous publication as an oligomer in commercially produced, high molecular mass Nomex. PMID:15679344

  2. Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

  3. Identification of recombinant human EPO variants in greyhound plasma and urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Timms, Mark; Steel, Rohan; Vine, John

    2016-02-01

    The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetin alfa (Eprex®), darbepoetin (Aranesp®) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera®) were administered to greyhounds for 7, 10 and 14 days respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for erythropoietin by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting. Limits of confirmation in plasma for western blotting and LC-MS/MS methods ranged from a low of 2.5mIU/mL, and closely matched the sensitivity of ELISA screening. PMID:26290355

  4. A validated LC-MS/MS determination method for the illegal food additive rhodamine B: Applications of a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Rhodamine B is an illegal and potentially carcinogenic food dye. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and separated by UHPLC on a reverse-phase C18e column (100mm×2.1mm, 2μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode at [M](+) ion m/z 443.39→399.28 for rhodamine B and [M+H](+) ion m/z 253.17→238.02 for 5-methoxyflavone as the internal standard. This method was specific and produced linear results over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/mL. All validation parameters, including the inter-day, intra-day, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in rat plasma, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA (2001). This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats; oral administration of 1mg/kg of rhodamine B yielded a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 1.3±0.4h and an elimination half-life of 8.8±1.4h, with a clearance of 229.7±19.4mL/h/kg. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to our understanding of the absorption mechanism of rhodamine B and support additional food safety evaluations. PMID:27131149

  5. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ethoxzolamide in plasma and bioequivalent buffers: Applications to absorption, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Taijun; Ma, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify ethoxzolamide in plasma (EZ) and apply the method to absorption, brain distribution, as well as pharmacokinetic studies. A C18 column was used with 0.1% of formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in water as the mobile phases to resolve EZ. The mass analysis was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode. The results show that the linear range of EZ is 4.88–10,000.00 nM. The intra-day variance is less than 12.43 % and the accuracy is between 88.88–08.00 %. The inter-day variance is less than 12.87 % and accuracy is between 89.27–115.89 %. Protein precipitation was performed using methanol to extract EZ from plasma and brain tissues. Only 40 µL of plasma is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method, which could be completed in less than three minutes. This method was used to study the pharmacokinetics of EZ in SD rats, and the transport of EZ in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing cell culture models. Our data show that EZ is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its entry into the brain may not limited by the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25706567

  6. Application of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of alosetron in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study in healthy males and females.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Darshan V; Patel, Daxesh P; Shah, Jaivik V; Shah, Priyanka A; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2015-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of alosetron (ALO) in human plasma. The assay method involved solid-phase extraction of ALO and ALO 13C-d3 as internal standard (IS) on a LichroSep DVB-HL (30 mg, 1 cm(3) ) cartridge. The chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column using acetonitrile and 2.0 mm ammonium formate, pH 3.0 adjusted with 0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase in an isocratic mode. For quantitative analysis, the multiple reaction monitoring transitions studied were m/z 295.1/201.0 for ALO and m/z 299.1/205.1 for IS in the positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.01-10.0 ng/mL for ALO. Post-column infusion experiment showed no positive or negative peaks in the elution range of the analyte and IS after injection of extracted blank plasma. The extent of ion-suppression/enhancement, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factor, varied from 0.96 to 1.04. The assay recovery was within 97-103% for ALO and IS. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 1.0 mg alosetron tablets in 28 healthy Indian male and female subjects. PMID:25761551

  7. Simultaneous determination of three triterpenes in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of Rhizoma Alismatis extract.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhihong; Ding, Cungang; Li, Zhou; Song, Dingzhong; Yuan, Jie; Hao, Wusi; Ge, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of alisol A (A), alisol A 23-acetate (A23) and alisol A 24-acetate (A24), the major active components in Rhizoma Alismatis extract (RAE), in rat plasma. In brief, plasma samples were extracted by methyl tert-butyl ether and chromatographically separated by using a C18 column. A tandem mass spectrometric detection with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface was conducted via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) under positive ionization mode. This method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy (within ±15.4%), intra- and inter-day precision (CV<11.4%) over the concentration range of 25-5000ng/mL for A, and 5-1000ng/mL for both A23 and A24. The significantly lower detection limit was determined as 25ng/mL for A, 5ng/mL for A23 and A24. This validated method of ours was then used to study the pharmacokinetics of RAE in rat. The elimination half-lives (t1/2) of A, A23 and A24 was determined as 0.75, 0.83 and 0.82h respectively after intravenous injection, and the oral absolute bioavailability of A, A23 and A24 was 43.1±18.1%, 6.3±1.5% and 7.9±1.2%. This new determination method of us for alisols is proven to very useful to study the pharmacological activities of RAE in future. PMID:26613538

  8. Development of a simple LC-MS/MS method for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng; Liu, Jian; Hu, Xing-Jiang; ShenTu, Jian-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for a febuxostat bioequivalence study in healthy Chinese male volunteers. In this method, febuxostat and etodolac (internal standard) were isolated from plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The supernatant was chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C18 (150 x 3.0 mm, 3.5-microm particle size, Agilent) column with a SecurityGuard Inertsil Symmetry C18 column (12.5 x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size, Waters). The lower limit of quantification for febuxostat in 0.2 mL of human plasma was 13.40 ng x mL(-1), and the linearity was achieved over a concentration range from 13.40 to 21440 ng x mL(-1). Febuxostat tablets from Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd (test, Jiangsu, China) and from Takeda pharmaceuticals america, Inc. (reference, Deerfield, IL) were evaluated following a single 80 mg oral dose to 18 healthy volunteers. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) values for the test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. The calculated 90% CIs for the ratio of C(max) (88.7-131.2%), AUC(0-t) (99.2-122.7%) and AUC(0-infinity) (99.5-123.1%) values for the test and reference products were all located within the bioequivalence criteria range (80-125% for AUC, and 70-143% for Ca(mzax)), proposed by State of Food and Drug Administration [SFDA, 2005. China]. It was concluded that the two febuxostat formulations (test and reference) analyzed were bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption and the method met the principle of quick and easy clinical analysis. PMID:23875244

  9. Flow reactor studies of aromatic hydrocarbon photo-oxidation products using on-line gas/particle separation and MS-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Julie

    Particulate matter in the atmosphere is a major pollutant that contributes to climate change, reduced visibility and negative human health impacts. Secondary particulate matter formed from the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons significantly contributes to the particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. However, at this time there is a lack of understanding of the chemical reactions that produce the secondary particulate matter. To further the knowledge in this area, a system was developed to investigate the composition of hydrocarbon photo-oxidation products in the gas and particle phase. The system consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor for hydrocarbon oxidation, a Counter Flow Membrane Denuder (CFMD) for online gas/particle separation and an APCI MS-MS (TAGA 6000E) for composition analysis. This system has been used to study the HO initiated oxidation of three aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, m-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. The products formed during the experiment were a complex mixture of organic species in both the gas and particle phase. A wide variety of species were identified in these experiments including aromatic ring retaining, non-aromatic ring retaining, straight chained and five member ring (furan) products. These products contained both single and multiple functional groups including alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ketone, nitro, quinone, furanone and furandione. Identification of these products provides the ground work for the establishment of a set of hydrocarbon markers for use in ambient studies. Markers can be used for source identification of individual hydrocarbons and classes of hydrocarbons and ultimately for use in pollution control strategies.

  10. A simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of buddlejasaponin IV in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Xu, Hui; Chen, Liping; Tan, Lei

    2016-02-20

    Buddlejasaponin IV (BS-IV), a natural triterpene saponin isolated from several herbal plants, has drawn a lot of attention for its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperlipidemia, and antitumor activities. In this study, a simple and sensitive method for determination of BS-IV in rat plasma was developed for the first time, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Tenacissoside I was used as an internal standard (IS). Separation was achieved on an Agilent Extend-C18 column with gradient elution using methanol-water as mobile phase at a flow rate of 400μL/min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization mode with selection reaction monitoring (SRM) was used to determine BS-IV and IS transitions of 941.4→779.5 and 815.5→755.5, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 3.00ng/mL with a linear range of 3.0-3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were both ≤10.4% for BS-IV, and the average intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -7.2% to 6.7%. The validated assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of BS-IV following oral administration of 3, 6, 12mg/kg and an intravenous administration of 0.9mg/kg to rats. PMID:26774034

  11. Two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods to study the excretion and metabolic interaction of edaravone and taurine in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dao-quan; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Li, Yin-jie; Bian, Ting-ting; Yu, Yan-yan; Du, Qian; Yang, Dong-zhi; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, two independent and complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were respectively developed and validated for the determination of edaravone or taurine in rat urine, feces and bile after intravenous administration, using 3-methyl-l-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and sulfanilic acid as the internal standards (IS). Edaravone was separated on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (100×2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) using methanol and water (containing 5 mM ammonium formate and 0.02% formic acid) as mobile phase, while taurine was performed on a Waters Atlantis HILIC Silica column (150×2.1 mm, 3 μm) using acetonitrile and water (containing 5mM ammonium formate and 0.2% formic acid) as mobile phase. The mass analysis was performed in a Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantification were 173.1→92.2 and 187.2→106.0 for edaravone and its IS, 124.1→80.0 and 172.0→80.0 for taurine and its IS, respectively. The validated methods have been successfully applied to the excretion and metabolism interaction study of edaravone and taurine in rats after independent intravenous administration and co-administration with a single dose. The results demonstrated that there were no significant alternations on the metabolism and cumulative excretion rate of edaravone and taurine, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically viable. PMID:25222743

  12. [A study of the suggestibility effect on eyewitness testimony: discussion on the integration and the coexist hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Kikuno, H

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be obtained with a recognition memory and a source-monitoring test, when an original event consisted of many pictures. In this source-monitoring test subjects identified the source of their memories. Results showed that the suggestibility effect was obtained in the recognition memory but not in the source-monitoring test, suggesting that misleading postevent information did not impair memory of the original event. The results also indicated that the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be caused by misled subjects' decision rather than their integrated memory representation. PMID:7563986

  13. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid and its application to preliminary studies on their detection windows.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Stefan; Speck, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Corneillie, Todd M; Butlin, Nathaniel G; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Serum and urine samples are commonly used for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in biofluids; however, their utilization as analytical matrices for drug abstinence control features some substantial drawbacks. While for blood collection invasive sampling is inevitable, the urinary analysis of synthetic cannabinoids is limited by the lack of available reference standards of the respective major metabolites. Moreover, the long detectability of synthetic cannabinoids in both matrices hampers the identification of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use. This article describes the development, validation and application of an LC/ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid (OF) samples. OF samples were prepared by protein precipitation using ice-cold acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on a Luna Phenyl Hexyl column (50 × 2 mm, 5 μm), while detection was carried out on a QTrap 4000 instrument in positive ionization mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 ng/mL, whereas the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 ng/mL. The method was applied to authentic samples collected during two preliminary studies in order to obtain insights into the general detectability and detection windows of synthetic cannabinoids in this matrix. The results indicate that synthetic cannabinoids are transferred from the blood stream into OF and vice versa only at a very low rate. Therefore, positive OF samples are due to contamination of the oral cavity during smoking. As these drug-contaminations could be detected up to approximately 2 days, neat oral fluid appears to be well suited for detection of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use. PMID:23535743

  14. Simultaneous determination of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and its metabolite in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chenwei; Chen, Yongping; Chen, Weilai; Zhou, Guangyao; Jin, Lingxiang; Zheng, Yi; Lin, Wei; Pan, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS-331007 in rat plasma was developed. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 889.8→130.1 for ledipasvir, m/z 530.3→243.1 for sofosbuvir, m/z 261.5→113.1 for GS-331007 and m/z 285.2→193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 2-500ng/mL for ledipasvir, 10-2000ng/mL for sofosbuvir and 10-2000ng/mL for GS-331007. Total time for each chromatography was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD)<10.2% and the accuracy values ranged from -9.8% to 11.2%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and GS-331007 in rats. PMID:26684720

  15. Simultaneous determination of nintedanib and its metabolite by UPLC-MS/MS in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Qiao, Li-man; Zhang, Yu-niao; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xin-she

    2016-01-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of concentration of nintedanib and its metabolite BIBF 1202 in rat plasma. The nintedanib and its metabolite and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z540.3→113.1 for nintedanib, m/z526.3→113.0 for BIBF 1202 and m/z285.3→193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated for 1.0-200 ng/mL for nintedanib and 0.5-100 ng/mL for BIBF 1202 using 100 μL of plasma sample. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0 min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD) <10.8% and the accuracy values ranged from -11.9% to 10.4%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of nintedanib and BIBF 1202 in rats after oral administration of nintedanib. PMID:26355771

  16. Validated LC-MS/MS assay for the determination of felbinac: Application to a preclinical pharmacokinetics study of felbinac trometamol injection in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Lu; Yang, Wei; Wang, Xisha; Fawcett, J Paul; Sun, Yantong; Gu, Jingkai

    2009-08-15

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of felbinac in rat plasma, bile, urine, feces and tissue. Sample preparation involved liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether-dichloromethane (60:40, v/v). Chromatography of felbinac and the internal standard probenecid was performed within 2min on a Venusil MP C(18) column (100mmx4.6mm i.d., 5microm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (pH 3.0) (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2ml/min. Detection by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring of the transitions of felbinac at m/z 211.1-->167.0 and of probenecid at m/z 283.9-->239.9 was linear over the concentration range 5-5000ng/ml with a lower limit of quantitation of 5ng/ml using a sample volume of only 50microl. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) were < or =7.3% and < or =6.4%, respectively, and accuracy (as relative error, R.E.) was in the range -2.1 to 7.4%. Recoveries and matrix effects were satisfactory in all the biological matrices examined. The method was applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study in rat involving a single intravenous injection of felbinac trometamol. PMID:19376665

  17. Validated LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of vardenafil in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lake, Simon T; Altman, Phillip M; Vaisman, Jack; Addison, Russell S

    2010-08-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) assay has been developed for the quantitative analysis of vardenafil in human plasma. Vardenafil and the internal standard, alprazolam, were extracted from 0.2 mL aliquots of alkalinized plasma by a single solvent extraction into hexane : dichloromethane. Reversed-phase chromatographic separation was affected by gradient elution with mobile phases consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate pH 7.0 (solvent A) and methanol (100%, solvent B), delivered at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The analytes were detected by using an electrospray ion source on a 4000 QTrap triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive ionization mode. The mass transitions were m/z 489.3 --> 312.2 for vardenafil and m/z 309.2 --> 281.0 for alprazolam. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients > or = 0.995. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 5.4% in terms of relative standard deviation and the accuracy was within 12.7% in terms of relative error. The lower limit of quantitation was set at 0.2 ng/mL. The high sensitivity and acceptable performance of the assay allowed its application to the analysis of plasma samples obtained following the oral administration of vardenafil to healthy male volunteers in a pharmacokinetic study. PMID:20033891

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rat after intravenous and oral administration by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuping; Teng, Liang; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xuemei; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Context The β-carboline alkaloid harmane is widely distributed in common foods, beverages and hallucinogenic plants. Harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases. However, little information on its dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics in vivo is currently available. Objective This study investigates the dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its metabolites in rats in vivo. Materials and methods A highly selective, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and well-validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of harmane and its uncertain endogenous metabolite harmine, as well as for semiquantitative determination of 10 harmane metabolites in rats after intravenous injection and oral administration of harmane at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, respectively. Results The calibration curves of harmane and harmine showed excellent linearity within the concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Ten metabolites, including harmane but not harmine, were detected and identified after intravenous and oral administration of harmane. The absolute bioavailability of harmane following an oral dose was 19.41 ± 3.97%. According to the AUC0-t values of all the metabolites, the metabolic levels of phase II metabolites were higher than those of phase I metabolites, and the sulphation pathways were the dominant metabolic routes for harmane in both routes of administration. Discussion and conclusion The pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its 10 metabolites in rats were determined. Sulphate conjugation was the predominant metabolic process of harmane in rats. PMID:26730489

  19. Simultaneous determination of four furostanol glycosides in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to PK study after oral administration of Dioscorea nipponica extracts.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Dai, Cong; Liu, Mengping; Chen, Jiefeng; Chen, Zuanguang; Xie, Zhiyong; Yao, Meicun

    2016-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of four furostanol glycosides in rat plasma was established and validated. Ginsenoside Rb1 was used as an internal standard. Plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and chromatographed on a C18 column (2.1×50 mm i.d., 2.6 μm) using a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.03% formic acid and 0.1 mM lithium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Lithium adduct ions were employed to enhance the response of the analytes in electrospray positive ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r>0.999) over the range of 10-20,000 ng/mL for protodioscin and 2-4000 ng/mL for protogracillin, pseudoprotodioscin and pseudoprotogracillin. The recoveries of the whole analytes were more than 80.3% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. Meanwhile, the intra- and inter-day precisions were all less than 10.7% and accuracies were within the range of -8.1-12.9%. The four saponins showed rapid excretion and relative high plasma concentrations when the validated method was applied to the PK study of Dioscorea nipponica extracts by intragastric administration at low, medium and high dose to rats. Moreover, the T(1/2) and AUC(0-t) of each compound turned out to behave in a dose-dependent pattern by comparing them at different dose levels. PMID:26433169

  20. Validated LC--MS/MS method for determination of YH-8, a novel PKnB inhibitor, in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qianqian; Pang, Jing; Li, Guoqing; Li, Congran; Yang, Xinyi; Yu, Liyan; Wang, Yucheng; Li, Jian; You, Xuefu

    2015-01-01

    (E)-Methyl-4-aryl-4-oxabut-2-enoate (YH-8) is a novel PKnB protein kinase inhibitor with good anti-tuberculosis activity. To evaluate its pharmacokinetics in rats, a sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC--MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of YH-8 in rat plasma for the first time. Samples were pre-treated using a liquid--liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and the chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column by gradient elution with methanol--water as the mobile phase. YH-8 was detected using a tandem mass spectrometer in positive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Method validation revealed good linearity over the range of 1–500 ng/mL for YH-8 with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision of YH-8 assay in rat plasma samples were 2.0%–6.8%, with accuracy of the method being 100.69%–106.18%. Stability test showed that when spiked into rat plasma, YH-8 was stable for 12 h at room temperature, for up to 15 days at −70 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. Extracted samples were found to be stable over 12 h in an auto-sampler. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of YH-8 in rats after oral administration at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. PMID:26579477

  1. Study of spatial and temporal distribution of antimicrobial in water and sediments from caging fish farms by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sérgio H; Francisco, Jeane G; Andrade, Graziela C R M; Botelho, Rafael G; Figueiredo, Leila A; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2016-09-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 12 antimicrobials in sediment and surface water was developed and validated. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal antimicrobials distributions in the sediment and in the water of four fish farms located in the hydroelectric dam of Ilha Solteira Reservoir in Brazil were investigated over four seasons in three sampling sites: at the fish cages, 100 and 1,000 m downstream far from the cages. The method was performed using an Agilent Zorbax 80 SB-C8 column (9.4 × 15 mm, 5 µm) as the loading column, and the Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) as a separation column within a run time of 13 min. The limits of quantification were less than 9 ng·L(-1) for the antibiotics in water and 16 µg·kg(-1) in sediment; the recovery ranged from 80 to 119%, with a variation coefficient less than 11%, and the repeatability was lower than 15%. Oxytetracycline was found in the water in all sample seasons. However, florfenicol was identified in April and October 2013 and January 2014, and tetracycline was present in July 2013. Regarding the sediment, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were found in all sampling periods, but chlortetracycline was only identified in January 2014. The spatial distribution of antimicrobials showed that the main pollution source came from the fish farms. This study demonstrated that the proposed method is reliable for the monitoring of antimicrobials in water and sediments and it showed contamination in both matrices from Ilha Solteira Reservoir. PMID:27249158

  2. Development and validation of a rapid LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of netupitant and palonosetron in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingzhen; Ni, Yang; Li, Shihong; Du, Juan; Li, Huqun; Zhou, Ying; Li, Weiyong; Chen, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was firstly developed and validated for simultaneous determination of netupitant and palonosetron in human plasma using ibrutinib as the internal standard (IS). Following liquid-liquid extraction, the compounds were eluted isocratically on a Phenomenex C18 column (50mm×2.0mm, 3μm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9.0) (89:11, v/v) at the flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 579.5→522.4 for netupitant, m/z 297.3→110.2 for palonosetron and m/z 441.2→138.1 for IS. Chromatographic run time was 2.5min per injection, which made it possible to analyze more than 300 of samples per day. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 5-1000ng/mL for netupitant and 0.02-10ng/mL for palonosetron in plasma. The values for both within- and between-day precision and accuracy were well within the generally accepted criteria for analytical methods (<15%). Selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect, recovery and carry-over effect were evaluated for all analytes. The method is simple, rapid, and has been applied successfully to a pharmacokinetic study of netupitant and palonosetron in healthy volunteers. PMID:27294531

  3. Simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma by a sensitive LC-MS/MS method: application to the pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Hong, Zhanying; Wu, Yiwen; Wei, Hua; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2009-02-20

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma. After the addition of diphenhydramine, the internal standard (IS), plasma samples were extracted with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analysis was performed on a Ultimate AQ-C18 (4.6mm x 100mm, 5microm) column using a mobile phase consisting of a 80/20 mixture of methanol/water containing 0.0005% formic acid pumped at 0.3mlmin(-1). The analytes and the IS were detected in positive ionization mode and monitoring their precursor-->product ion combinations of m/z 416-->309, 311-->259, and 256-->167, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear ranges of the assay were 0.1-50 and 0.1-20ngml(-1) for rupatadine and desloratadine, respectively. The lower limits of reliable quantification for both rupatadine and desloratadine were 0.1ngml(-1), which offered high sensitivity and selectivity. The within- and between-run precision was less than 7.2%. The accuracy ranged from -9.2% to +6.4% and -7.2% to +7.2% for rupatadine and desloratadine in quality control samples at three levels, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rupatadine and its major metabolite after oral administration of 10, 20 and 40mg rupatadine tablets to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:19059745

  4. Quantitative determination of microbicidal spermicide 'nonoxynol-9' in rabbit plasma and vaginal fluid using LC-ESI-MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chhonker, Yashpal S; Chandasana, Hardik; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Gupta, Gopal; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2014-08-15

    Nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a microbicidal spermicide, has been in use as an over-the-counter contraceptive since the 1960s. A detailed account of its pharmacokinetic profile using highly sensitive detection method has not been reported yet. We developed and validated a rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for N-9 detection in plasma and simulated vaginal fluid. The analytes were quantified using reverse phase Thermo Accucore C18 (150 mm × 4.6mm, 5 μm) column with isocratic elution using acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in triple distilled water (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase. The ionization was optimized using ESI (+) and selectivity was achieved by tandem mass spectrometric analysis using MRM transition, m/z 617.4→133.2 for N-9 and m/z 180.1→138.1 for phenacetin. The method was linear over the range 0.195-100 ng/mL. The method was accurate and precise with intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy (% bias) of less than ± 15% and precision (% CV) of <15% for N-9. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) 4.87 ± 0.37 ng/mL was achieved 1.0h after vaginal application with terminal half-life 1.45 ± 0.07 h in rabbits. The validated method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study of N-9 in rabbits after vaginal administration. PMID:25016165

  5. Method development for quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Annonacin is an environmental neurotoxin identified in the pulp of several fruits of the Annonaceae family (for example in Annona muricata, Asimina triloba), whose consumption was linked with the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. Pharmacokinetic parameters of this molecule are unknown. A method for its quantification in Rat plasma was developed, using its analogue annonacinone as an internal standard. Extraction from plasma was performed using ethylacetate with a good recovery. Quantification was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in SRM mode, based on the loss of the γ-methyl-γ-lactone (-112amu) from the sodium-cationized species [M+Na](+) of both annonacin and internal standard. The limit of quantification was 0.25ng/mL. Despite strong matrix effects, a good linearity was obtained over two distinct ranges 0.25-10ng/mL and 10-100ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were lower than 10%, while accuracy was within ±10%. This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the Rat. After oral administration of 10mg/kg annonacin, a Cmax of 7.9±1.5ng/mL was reached at Tmax 0.25h; T1/2 was 4.8±0.7h and apparent distribution volume was 387.9±64.6L. The bioavailability of annonacin was estimated to be 3.2±0.3% of the ingested dose. PMID:26444335

  6. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of biflorin in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Jun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jang, Dae Sik; Yang, Liang; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2015-11-10

    A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of biflorin in rat plasma. Using naringin as an internal standard, plasma samples were subjected to a direct protein precipitation process using methanol. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Gemini C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. Biflorin was analyzed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The precursor/product ion pairs were m/z 353.0/205.0 and m/z 579.0/271.0 for biflorin and the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-2000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 7.3% and the accuracy ranged from 96.5 to 103.3%. No significant variation was observed in the stability tests. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of biflorin after the intravenous and oral administration of biflorin to rats. The half-life and oral bioavailability of biflorin were determined as 3.4h and 43%, respectively. This is the first report on the quantitative determination of biflorin in rat plasma as well as the pharmacokinetic characterization of biflorin, which should provide a meaningful foundation for further preclinical and clinical applications of biflorin. PMID:26263054

  7. Development and validation of an LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of naproxen and sumatriptan in human plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Brêtas, Juliana Machado; César, Isabela Costa; Brêtas, Camila Machado; Teixeira, Leonardo de Souza; Bellorio, Karini Bruno; Mundim, Iram Moreira; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2016-06-01

    A sensitive and fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of naproxen and sumatriptan in human plasma. A simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure, with a mixture of ethyl acetate, methyl tert-butyl ether, and dichloromethane (4:3:3, v/v), was used for the cleanup of plasma. Naratriptan and aceclofenac were employed as internal standards. The analyses were carried out using an ACE C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm i.d.; particle size 5 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of 2 mM aqueous ammonium acetate with 0.025 % formic acid and methanol (38:62, v/v). A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source in the positive mode was set up in the selective reaction monitoring mode to detect the ion transitions m/z 231.67 → m/z 185.07, m/z 296.70 → m/z 157.30, m/z 354.80 → m/z 215.00, and m/z 336.80 → m/z 97.94 for naproxen, sumatriptan, aceclofenac, and naratriptan, respectively. The method was validated and proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and selective over the ranges of 2.5-130 μg mL(-1) for naproxen and 1-50 ng mL(-1) for sumatriptan. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study with simultaneous administration of naproxen sodium and sumatriptan succinate tablet formulations in healthy volunteers. PMID:27020929

  8. Development of a LC-MS/MS method to analyze 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenine, and application to pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong-Wu; Jiang, Xi-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Introduction 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive indolealkylamine substance that has been used for recreational purpose and may lead to fatal toxicity. While 5-MeO-DMT is mainly inactivated via deamination, it is O-demethylated to an active metabolite, bufotenine. Quantitation of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine is essential to understand the exposure to and the effects of drug and metabolite. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine in mouse serum. Methods A simple protein precipitation method coupled with an optimal gradient elution was used for sample preparation and separation. Detection of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine was accomplished using multiple reaction monitoring of m/z 219.2→174.2 and 205.2→160.2, respectively, in the positive ion mode. 5-Methyl-N,N-dimethyltrypamine (m/z 203.2→158.3) was used as internal standard for quantification. Accuracy and precision were determined after the analyses of quality control samples. Validated assay was then employed to determine drug and metabolite concentrations in serum samples collected from mice at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (2 mg/kg). Results With a total run time of 9 min, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine were eluted at 2.8 and 5.6 min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0.90–5,890 ng/mL (1.12–7,360 pg on-column) for 5-MeO-DMT and 2.52–5,510 ng/mL (3.14–6,890 pg) for bufotenine. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15% for both analytes. The recovery of each analyte from 20 µL of serum containing 8.08, 72.7 and 655 ng/mL of 5-MeO-DMT and 7.56, 68.1 and 613 ng/mL of bufotenine was more than 75%. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the systemic exposure (area under the curve) to metabolite bufotenine was about 1/14 of that to 5-MeO-DMT. Conclusion This LC-MS/MS method is a sensitive and reliable assay for quantitation of blood 5

  9. Development of a LC-MS/MS method to analyze 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenine, and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong-Wu; Jiang, Xi-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION: 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive indolealkylamine substance that has been used for recreational purpose and may lead to fatal toxicity. While 5-MeO-DMT is mainly inactivated via deamination, it is O-demethylated to an active metabolite, bufotenine. Quantitation of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine is essential to understand the exposure to and the effects of drug and metabolite. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine in mouse serum. METHODS: A simple protein precipitation method coupled with an optimal gradient elution was used for sample preparation and separation. Detection of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine was accomplished using multiple reaction monitoring of m/z 219.2→174.2 and 205.2→160.2, respectively, in the positive ion mode. 5-Methyl-N,N-dimethyltrypamine (m/z 203.2→158.3) was used as internal standard for quantification. Accuracy and precision were determined after the analyses of quality control samples. Validated assay was then employed to determine drug and metabolite concentrations in serum samples collected from mice at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (2 mg/kg). RESULTS: With a total run time of 9 min, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine were eluted at 2.8 and 5.6 min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0.90-5,890 ng/mL (1.12-7,360 pg on-column) for 5-MeO-DMT and 2.52-5,510 ng/mL (3.14-6,890 pg) for bufotenine. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15% for both analytes. The recovery of each analyte from 20 µL of serum containing 8.08, 72.7 and 655 ng/mL of 5-MeO-DMT and 7.56, 68.1 and 613 ng/mL of bufotenine was more than 75%. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the systemic exposure (area under the curve) to metabolite bufotenine was about 1/14 of that to 5-MeO-DMT. CONCLUSION: This LC-MS/MS method is a sensitive and reliable assay for quantitation of blood 5-Me

  10. MS Patients May Be Prone to Other Chronic Illnesses, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to have other chronic ... journal news release. Marrie is director of the Multiple Sclerosis Clinic at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, ...

  11. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of metoprolol and its metabolites, α-hydroxymetoprolol and O-desmethylmetoprolol, in rat plasma: application to the herb-drug interaction study of metoprolol and breviscapine.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhi; Ma, Yan-rong; Qin, Hong-yan; Wang, Ya-feng; Wei, Yu-hui; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Wang, Xing-dong; Wu, Xin-an

    2015-09-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of metoprolol (MET), α-hydroxymetoprolol (HMT) and O-desmethylmetoprolol (DMT) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation, then the separation of the analytes was performed on an Agilent HC-C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and post-column splitting (1:4) was used to give optimal interface flow rates (0.2 mL/min) for MS detection; the total run time was 8.5 min. Mass spectrometric detection was achieved using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source interface in positive ionization mode. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and recovery over a concentration range of 3.42-7000 ng/mL for MET, 2.05-4200 ng/mL for HMT and 1.95-4000 ng/mL for DMT. The analytical method was successfully applied to herb-drug interaction study of MET and breviscapine after administration of breviscapine (12.5 mg/kg) and MET (40 mg/kg). The results suggested that breviscapine have negligible effect on pharmacokinetics of MET in rats; the information may be beneficial for the application of breviscapine in combination with MET in clinical therapy. PMID:25753317

  12. A method for quantification of volatile organic compounds in blood by SPME-GC-MS/MS with broader application: From non-occupational exposure population to exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Cabecinha, Ashley; Harvie, Jeromy; Jin, Zhiyun; Marchand, Axelle; Tardif, Robert; Nong, Andy; Haddad, Sami

    2015-06-15

    Humans are continuously exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as these chemicals are ubiquitously present in most indoor and outdoor environments. In order to assess recent exposure to VOCs for population-based studies, VOCs are measured in the blood of participants. This work describes an improved method to detect 12 VOCs by head-space solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SPME-GC-MS/MS). This method was applied to the analysis of trihalomethanes, styrene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene) in a population-based biomonitoring study (Canadian Health Measures Survey). The method showed good linearity (>0.990) in the range of 0.010-10μg/L and detection limits between 0.007 and 0.027μg/L, precision better than 25% and good accuracy (±25%) based on proficiency testing materials. Quality Control data among runs over a 7 month period showed %RSD between 14 and 25% at low levels (∼0.03μg/L) and between 9 and 23% at high levels (∼0.4μg/L). The method was modified to analyze samples from a pharmacokinetic study in which 5 healthy volunteers were exposed to single, binary and quaternary mixtures of CTEX (chloroform, ethylbenzene, toluene and m-xylene), thus the expected concentration in blood was 1 order of magnitude higher than those found in the general population. The method was modified by reducing the sample size (from 3g to 0.5g) and increasing the upper limit of the concentration range to 395μg/L. Good linearity was found in the range of 0.13-395μg/L for toluene and ethylbenzene and 0.20-609μg/L for m/p-xylene. Quality control data among runs over the period of the study (n=13) were found to vary between 7 and 25%. PMID:25965874

  13. An LC-IMS-MS Platform Providing Increased Dynamic Range for High-Throughput Proteomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Livesay, Eric A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Prior, David C.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput approach and platform using 15 minute reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations in conjunction with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) measurements was evaluated for the rapid analysis of complex proteomics samples. To test the separation quality of the short LC gradient, a sample was prepared by spiking twenty reference peptides at varying concentrations from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL into a tryptic digest of mouse blood plasma and analyzed with both a LC-Linear Ion Trap Fourier Transform (FT) MS and LC-IMS-TOF MS. The LC-FT MS detected thirteen out of the twenty spiked peptides that had concentrations ≥100 ng/mL. In contrast, the drift time selected mass spectra from the LC-IMS-TOF MS analyses yielded identifications for nineteen of the twenty peptides with all spiking levels present. The greater dynamic range of the LC-IMS-TOF MS system could be attributed to two factors. First, the LC-IMS-TOF MS system enabled drift time separation of the low concentration spiked peptides from the high concentration mouse peptide matrix components, reducing signal interference and background, and allowing species to be resolved that would otherwise be obscured by other components. Second, the automatic gain control (AGC) in the linear ion trap of the hybrid FT MS instrument limits the number of ions that are accumulated to reduce space charge effects and achieve high measurement accuracy, but in turn limits the achievable dynamic range compared to the IMS-TOF instrument. PMID:20000344

  14. An LC-IMS-MS Platform Providing Increased Dynamic Range for High-Throughput Proteomic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Livesay, Eric A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Prior, David C.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-02-05

    A high-throughput approach and platform using 15 minute reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations in conjunction with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) measurements was evaluated for the rapid analysis of complex proteomics samples. To test the separation quality of the short LC gradient, a sample was prepared by spiking twenty reference peptides at varying concentrations from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL into a tryptic digest of mouse blood plasma and analyzed with both a LC-Linear Ion Trap Fourier Transform (FT) MS and LC-IMS-TOF MS. The LC-FT MS detected thirteen out of the twenty spiked peptides that had concentrations ≥100 ng/mL. In contrast, the drift time selected mass spectra from the LC-IMS-TOF MS analyses yielded identifications for nineteen of the twenty peptides with all spiking level present. The greater dynamic range of the LC-IMS-TOF MS system could be attributed to two factors. First, the LC-IMS-TOF MS system enabled drift time separation of the low concentration spiked peptides from the high concentration mouse peptide matrix components, reducing signal interference and background, and allowing species to be resolved that would otherwise be obscured by other components. Second, the automatic gain control (AGC) in the linear ion trap of the hybrid FT MS instrument limits the number of ions that are accumulated to reduce space charge effects, but in turn limits the achievable dynamic range compared to the TOF detector.

  15. ESI-MS studies of palladium (II) complexes with 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)cytosine/cytosinato ligands.

    PubMed

    Kobetić, Renata; Gembarovski, Dubravka; Visnjevac, Aleksandar; Zinić, Biserka; Gabelica-Marković, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    The mononuclear complex Pd(1-TosC-N3)(2)Cl(2) (2) containing 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)cytosine (1) as a ligand, as well as dinuclear complexes Pd(2)(1-TosC(-)-N3,N4)(4) (3) and Pd(2)(1-TosC(-)-N3,N4)(2)DMSO(2)Cl(2) (4) containing the ligand anion (1-TosC(-)), was mass analyzed by electrospray ionization ion trap MS/MS and high resolution MS. Complexes 3 and 4 were obtained by recrystallization of 2 from DMF and DMSO, respectively. The behavior of complex 2 in different solutions was monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Under the applied ESI-MS conditions, complex 2 in methanol reorganized itself dominantly as new complex 3 and the solvent did not coordinate the formed species. In H(2)O/DMSO, CH(3)CN/DMSO and CH(3)OH/DMSO solutions, complex 2 formed several new species with solvent molecules involved in their structure, e.g. complex 4 was formed as the major product. The newly formed species were also examined by LC-MS-DAD, confirming the solvent induced reorganization and the solution instability of complex 2. PMID:19882593

  16. GC-MS-based metabolomic study on the antidepressant-like effects of diterpene ginkgolides in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zihong; Bai, Shunjie; Shen, Peng; Hu, Qingchuan; Wang, Xingfa; Dong, Meixue; Wang, Wei; Li, Juan; Cheng, Ke; Zhang, Shuxiao; Zou, Dezhi; Han, Yu; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), including EGb-761, have been suggested to have antidepressant activity based on previous behavioral and biochemical analyses. However, because GBE contain many constituents, the mechanisms underlying this suggested antidepressant activity are unclear. Here, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of diterpene ginkgolides (DG), an important class of constituents in GBE, and studied their effects in the mouse hippocampus using a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach. Mice were randomly divided into five groups and injected daily until testing with 0.9% NaCl solution, one of three doses of DG (4.06, 12.18, and 36.54mg/kg), or venlafaxine. Sucrose preference (SPT) and tail suspension (TST) tests were then performed to evaluate depressive-like behaviors in mice. DG (12.18 and 36.54mg/kg) and venlafaxine (VLX) administration significantly increased hedonic behavior in mice in the SPT. DG (12.18mg/kg) treatment also shortened immobility time in the TST, suggestive of antidepressant-like effects. Significant differences in the metabolic profile in the DG (12.18mg/kg) compared with the control or VLX group indicative of an antidepressant-like effect were observed using multivariate analysis. Eighteen differential hippocampal metabolites were identified that discriminated the DG (12.18mg/kg) and control groups. These biochemical changes involved neurotransmitter metabolism, oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and kynurenic acid, providing clues to the therapeutic mechanisms of DG. Thus, this study showed that DG has antidepressant-like activities in mice and shed light on the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of diterpene ginkgolides on behavior, providing an important drug candidate for the treatment of depression. PMID:27498146

  17. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS as markers for ethanol intake: application in a drinking study.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Marc; Schröck, Alexandra; König, Stefan; Schürch, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The forensic utility of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in dried blood spots (DBS) as short-term confirmatory markers for ethanol intake was examined. An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of FAEEs in DBS was developed and validated to investigate FAEE formation and elimination in a drinking study, whereby eight subjects ingested 0.66-0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood was taken every 1.5-2 h, BAC was determined, and dried blood spots were prepared, with 50 μL of blood, for the determination of FAEEs. Lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were between 15 and 37 ng/mL for the four major FAEEs. Validation data are presented in detail. In the drinking study, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate proved to be the two most suitable markers for FAEE determination. Maximum FAEE concentrations were reached in samples taken 2 or 4 h after the start of drinking. The following mean peak concentrations (c̅ max) were reached: ethyl myristate 14 ± 4 ng/mL, ethyl palmitate 144 ± 35 ng/mL, ethyl oleate 125 ± 55 ng/mL, ethyl stearate 71 ± 21 ng/mL, total FAEEs 344 ± 91 ng/mL. Detectability of FAEEs was found to be on the same time scale as BAC. In liquid blood samples containing ethanol, FAEE concentrations increase post-sampling. This study shows that the use of DBS fixation prevents additional FAEE formation in blood samples containing ethanol. Positive FAEE results obtained by DBS analysis can be used as evidence for the presence of ethanol in the original blood sample. Graphical Abstract Time courses for fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations in DBS and ethanol concentrations for subject 1 over a period of 7 h. Ethanol ingestion occured during the first hour of the time course. PMID:26968564

  18. Simultaneous determination of ten flavonoids of crude and wine-processed Radix Scutellariae aqueous extracts in rat plasma by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-Bing; Qian, Xiao-Cui; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Li, Jun-Song; Yang, Guang-Ming; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2015-07-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS) is a herbal medicine with various pharmacological activities to treat inflammation, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, etc. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of 10 flavonoids - scutellarin, scutellarein, chrysin, wogonin, baicalein, apigenin, wogonoside, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, oroxylin A and baicalin - from RS aqueous extracts in rat plasma with propyl paraben as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The validated method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r >0.9935). The intra- and interday assay variabilities were <9.5% and <12.4% for all analytes, respectively. The extraction recovery ranged from 71.2 to 89.7% for each analyte and IS. This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic comparision after oral administration of crude and wine-processed RS aqueous extracts. There were significant differences in some pharmacokinetic parameters of most analytes between crude and wine-processed RS. This suggested that wine-processing exerted effects absorption of most flavonoids. PMID:25545174

  19. Collection, storage, and filtration of in vivo study samples using 96-well filter plates to facilitate automated sample preparation and LC/MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Berna, M; Murphy, A T; Wilken, B; Ackermann, B

    2002-03-01

    The benefits of high-throughput bioanalysis within the pharmaceutical industry are well established. One of the most significant bottlenecks in bioanalysis is transferring in vivo-generated study samples from their collection tubes during sample preparation and extraction. In most cases, the plasma samples must be stored frozen prior to analysis, and the freeze/thaw (F/T) process introduces thrombin clots that are capable of plugging pipets and automated liquid-transfer systems. A new approach to dealing with this problem involves the use of Ansys Captiva 96-well 20-microm polypropylene filter plates to collect, store frozen, and filter plasma samples prior to bioanalysis. The samples are collected from the test subjects, and the corresponding plasma samples are placed directly into the wells of the filter plate. Two Duoseal (patent pending) covers are used to seal the top and bottom of the plate, and the plate is stored at down to -70 degrees C. Prior to sample analysis, the seals are removed and the plate is placed in a 96-well SPE manifold. As the plasma thaws, it passes (by gravity or mild vacuum) through the polypropylene filter into a 96-well collection plate. A multichannel pipet or automated liquid-transfer system is used to transfer sample aliquots without fear of plugging. A significant advantage of this approach is that, unlike other methods, issues related to incomplete pipetting are virtually eliminated. The entire process is rapid since thawing and filtering take place simultaneously, and if a second F/T cycle is required for reanalysis, it is not necessary to refilter the samples (additional clotting was not observed after three F/T cycles). This technique was tested using monkey, rat, and dog plasma and sodium heparin and EDTA anticoagulants. To assess the possibility of nonspecific binding to the polypropylene filter, a variety of drug candidates from diverse drug classes were studied. Validation data generated for two Lilly compounds from distinct

  20. Quantitative analysis of tenuifolin concentrations in rat plasma and tissue using LC⬜MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Li, Xiaotian; Li, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yinhui; Yang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jingjing; Yao, Di; Liu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoxin; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate reversed-phased liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC⬜MS/MS) in negative ion mode was developed and validated for the quantification of tenuifolin in rat plasma and tissue. A single step protein precipitation by methanol was used to prepare plasma and tissue homogenate samples. Tenuifolin and polydatin (internal standard, IS) were separated by HPLC using a C18 column and an isocratic mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water containing 0.05% formic acid (42:58, v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min for 6 min. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative electrospray ionization mode. The transition monitored were m/z [M↙H](↙) 679.4 ⠙ 455.4 for tenuifolin and m/z [M↙H](↙) 389.0 ⠙ 227.2 for IS, respectively. Calibration curves were recovered over a concentration range of 0.5⬜1000 ng/ml for plasma, heart, liver, lung and kidney, 0.5⬜200 ng/ml for spleen, and 0.5⬜50 ng/ml for brain, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/ml for plasma and tissue homogenates. The inter-day precision (R.S.D.) was less than 12.9% and intra-day precision R.S.D. was less than 13.4%, while the inter-day accuracy (R.E.) was ranged from ↙7.20 to 6.87% and intra-day accuracy (R.E.) was ranged from ↙6.20 to 8.04% in plasma and tissue homogenates. This method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of pure tenuifolin in rat. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that poor absorption into systemic circulation was observed after rat was administered orally tenuifolin, and the absolute bioavailability was low (0.83 ± 0.28%). The results of tissue distribution showed the higher tenuifolin concentrations were found in liver, kidney and heart, and the small amount of drug was distributed quickly into the brain tissue at 5 min after the intravenous injection of tenuifolin

  1. LC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetics study of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and Radix Puerariae extract

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Yuan, Jin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gegenqinlian decoction (GQD) is a famous traditional medicine recipe. It is composed of four herbs including Radix Puerariae (GG), Radix Scutellariae (HQ), Rhizoma Coptidis (HL) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), which is widely used for treating gastro-intestinal disorders in the clinical practice of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of puerarin and daidzein in rats following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Thus, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK C18 analytical column (100 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) by linear gradient elution, with water (0.1% formic acid)-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Results: The calibration curves were linear over a range of 7.80-1560 ng/mL for puerarin and 6.30-1260 ng/mL for daidzein. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 13.6% and their average recoveries was in the range of 77.8% and 88.6% for puerarin and was between 76.3 and 86.8% for daidzein, respectively. Conclusion: The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of puerarin and daidzein after oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that puerarin and daidzein from Gegenqinlian Decoction were absorbed more effectively with slower elimination in rat plasma than that from Radix Puerariae extract. These results revealed that as far as the Radix Puerariae extract was concerned, it is very valuable to

  2. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application in the pharmacokinetic study of Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Dong; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhong, Linda Li-Dan; Li, Yan-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Ho, Hing-Man; Zhang, Man; Lin, Shu-Hai; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Tao; Mi, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan (MZRW) is a classic Chinese formula which has been used to treat human constipation in China for over 2000 years. In order to make good and rational use of this formula in the future, this paper presents the first attempt to track the pharmacokinetic features of MZRW in rat using rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Ten chemical components of MZRW, namely, rhein, emodin, aloe emodin, hesperidin, naringin, amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, magnolol and honokiol, were simultaneously determined in rat plasma after a single oral administration (10g/kg body weight) of MZRW to rats. Geniposide and liquiritin were used as internal standards. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm). The detection was conducted by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. Two highest abundant MRM transitions without interference were optimized for each analyte. This method was well validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. All calibration curves had good linearity (r(2)>0.995) over the concentration range from 3.9 to 125.0ng/mL for emodin, 3.9-500.0ng/mL for amygdalin, 2.0-4000.0ng/mL for naringin and hesperidin, 3.9-2000.0ng/mL for magnolol, 7.8-2000.0ng/mL for rhein and 3.9-4000.0ng/mL for albiflorin, paeoniflorin, aloe emodin and honokiol. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) was within 15%, the accuracy (relative error) ranged from -13.6% to 15.1%, and the lower limit of quantification in plasma ranged between 2.0ng/mL and 7.8ng/mL. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were satisfactory. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these ten compounds after oral administration of MZRW to rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each compound can facilitate clinical studies in the future. PMID:26231677

  3. GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Vinod; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a commonly used pesticide against aphids and accumulates in plant parts, maximum in leaves. Present study was conducted to check the efficiency of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) for reduction of this pesticide in the leaves of Brassica juncea L. plants raised from 24-EBL pre-soaked seeds and grown in soils supplemented with IMI. Leaves were analyzed for IMI residues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content were determined by spectrophotometry. Soil containing 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil resulted in 88.66 μg/g fresh weight (FW) of IMI residue in the leaves, which was maximum decrease to 35.31 μg/g FW (60.17 %), when seeds were pre-soaked in 100 nM 24-EBL. In this treatment (350 mg IMI/kilogram soil + 100 nM 24-EBL), GSH content, GR, POD, and GST activities were increased by 42.30, 34.5, 20.5, and 13.4 %, respectively, as compared to plants grown in soils amended with 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil. PMID:27068909

  4. Nano-structured Pt embedded in acidic salts of heteropolymolybdate matrices: MS EXAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Dsoke, Sonia; Marassi, Roberto; Di Cicco, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A structural study of Pt nano-catalysts is presented in the paper. The innovation in the case of the considered catalytic materials resides in the use a meso-microporous inorganic matrix of heteropolyacid salt of composition X2.5H0.5YMo12O40 where X = Rb, Cs and Y = P, Si as a catalyst support. Metallic nanoparticles were created by platinum ions reduction in a hot H2/Argon stream and were mainly located into matrix pores. As the porous structure can be controlled by the type and content of the cation used, the desired/optimal Pt nanoparticle size can be precisely defined by using a proper heteropolyacid salt composition. Multiple-scattering extended X-ray absorption fine structure (MS EXAFS) analysis was applied to obtain the relation between the matrix composition and the size of the catalyst nanoparticles. The results showed that it was only the secondary structure form of the heteropolymolybdate salt (i.e. Rb or Cs cations) that influenced the metallic nanoparticle size. The smaller the X atom ionic radii, the larger the mean diameter of the embedded Pt nanoparticles.

  5. Topotecan dynamics, tautomerism and reactivity--1H/13C NMR and ESI MS study.

    PubMed

    Hyz, Karolina; Kawecki, Robert; Bednarek, Elzbieta; Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech

    2010-08-01

    Topotecan (TPT) is in clinical use as an antitumor agent, hycamtin. Because of this, it requires both biologically and chemically useful information to be available. TPT acts by binding to the covalent complex formed by nicked DNA and topoisomerase I. This has a poisonous effect since inserted into the single-strand nick and TPT inhibits its religation. We used NMR to trace TPT dynamics, tautomerism and solvolysis products in various solvents and conditions. Chemical stability was assessed in methanol and DMSO as compared to water, and the regioselectivity of the N- and O-methylation was studied using various alkylating agents. The reaction products of quaternization of the nitrogen atom and methylation of the oxygen atom were characterized by means of ESI MS, (1)H/(13)C-HMBC and -HSQCAD NMR. We have focused on the NMR characterization of TPT with an anticipation that its aggregation, tumbling properties and the intramolecular dipolar interactions will be a common feature for other compounds described in this article. These features can also be useful in tracing the interactions of this class of topoisomerase I (TopoI) poisons with DNA. Moreover, the results explained shed light on the recently disclosed problem of lack of stability of TPT in the heart tissue homogenate samples using the analytical assays developed for this class of compounds carried out in the presence of methanol. PMID:20623719

  6. Pyrolysis GC-MS and NMR studies of humics in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, R.M.; Fan, T.W.M.; Lane, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment ``humics`` play a major role in sorption and chemical reactions of organic and metal pollutants, as well as of nutrients, detritus, and other naturally-occurring chemicals. Not surprisingly, the chemical structure of humics is very important in this regard. The problem is, humics are among the most complex and least-understood substances in the world. This is because the primary structure is heterologous, unlike most other macromolecules which are polymeric; thus, researchers could not obtain coherent structures to identify with properties. However, recent advances in NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis GC-MS have enabled researchers to begin relating primary and higher order structural motifs germane to the chemistry of the refractory humics. The authors have explored various means of sediment extraction for humics analysis by these techniques, including direct analysis of unextracted sediments. Marine sediments from near produced water discharges, salt marshes, and dredge material were surveyed. The study has revealed interpretive pitfalls, depending on the method of humic extraction. These difficulties are expected since the approach is at its infancy, but the overall approach is clearly useful in probing the humic structure profile of marine sediments.

  7. Kinetic Intermediates of Holo- and Apo-Myoglobin Studied Using HDX-TIMS-MS and Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almeida, Raybel; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the kinetic intermediates of holo- and apomyoglobin were studied by correlating the ion-neutral collision cross section and time resolved H/D back exchange rate simultaneously in a trapped ion mobility spectrometer coupled to a mass spectrometer (HDX-TIMS-MS). The high mobility resolution of the TIMS cell permitted the observation of multiple IMS bands and complementary molecular dynamics simulations resulted in the assignment of candidate structures for each experimental condition studied (e.g., holo [M+8H]+8–[M+9H]+9 and apo [M+9H]+9–[M+19H]+19). Inspection of the kinetic intermediates suggests that the tertiary structure of apomyoglobin unfolds quickly upon the loss of the Fe protoporphyrin IX that stabilizes the interactions between the A, G, and H helices. In the absence of the porphyrin heme, the apomyoglobin unfolds to Xn kinetic intermediates that vary in the extent of unfolding as a result of the observed charge state. PMID:25690175

  8. Kinetic Intermediates of Holo- and Apo-Myoglobin Studied Using HDX-TIMS-MS and Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almeida, Raybel; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, the kinetic intermediates of holo- and apo-myoglobin were studied by correlating the ion-neutral collision cross section and time resolved H/D back exchange rate simultaneously in a trapped ion mobility spectrometer coupled to a mass spectrometer (HDX-TIMS-MS). The high mobility resolution of the TIMS cell permitted the observation of multiple IMS bands and complementary molecular dynamics simulations resulted in the assignment of candidate structures for each experimental condition studied (e.g., holo [M + 8H]+8-[M + 9H]+9 and apo [M + 9H]+9-[M + 19H]+19). Inspection of the kinetic intermediates suggests that the tertiary structure of apomyoglobin unfolds quickly upon the loss of the Fe protoporphyrin IX that stabilizes the interactions between the A, G, and H helices. In the absence of the porphyrin heme, the apomyoglobin unfolds to Xn kinetic intermediates that vary in the extent of unfolding as a result of the observed charge state.

  9. Collagen-based proteinaceous binder-pigment interaction study under UV ageing conditions by MALDI-TOF-MS and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Navas, Natalia; Kuckova, Stepanka; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on acquiring information on the degradation process of proteinaceous binders due to ultra violet (UV) radiation and possible interactions owing to the presence of historical mineral pigments. With this aim, three different paint model samples were prepared according to medieval recipes, using rabbit glue as proteinaceus binders. One of these model samples contained only the binder, and the other two were prepared by mixing each of the pigments (cinnabar or azurite) with the binder (glue tempera model samples). The model samples were studied by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to their mass spectra obtained with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The complementary use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to study conformational changes of secondary structure of the proteinaceous binder is also proposed. Ageing effects on the model samples after up to 3000 h of UV irradiation were periodically analyzed by the proposed approach. PCA on MS data proved capable of identifying significant changes in the model samples, and the results suggested different aging behavior based on the pigment present. This research represents the first attempt to use this approach (PCA on MALDI-TOF-MS data) in the field of Cultural Heritage and demonstrates the potential benefits in the study of proteinaceous artistic materials for purposes of conservation and restoration. PMID:22431458

  10. Development of a UPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method for the pharmacokinetic study of (-)-epiafzelechin, a flavan-3-ol with osteoprotective activity, in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Chun; Law, Man Chun; Wong, Man Sau; Chan, Tak Hang

    2014-09-15

    (-)-Epiafzelechin is a flavan-3-ol commonly found in plant source. Biological studies suggested that (-)-epiafzelechin may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and bone-protective effect. However, it's in vivo efficacy remains to be demonstrated. A specific detection method for (-)-epiafzelechin was successfully developed by using UPLC-MS/MS to quantify the amount of (-)-epiafzelechin present in mice plasma after a liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate. The separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column with a 16 min gradient elution protocol consisting of water (0.1%, v/v, formic acid) and 0-70% ACN (0.1%, v/v, formic acid). The lower limit of quantitation for (-)-epiafzelechin was found to be 12.5 ng/mL. This method exhibited a good linearity (r(2)=0.992). The intra-day and inter-day precision were within 12%, while the accuracy was between 97.6 and 113. 4%. A quantity of 10mg/kg synthetic (-)-epiafzelechin was administered to C57BL/6J mice by intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections and the blood was collected at different time points. The plasma was then analyzed by the UPLC-MS/MS method, and the plasma drug concentration-time curves for i.v. and i.p. (-)-epiafzelechin injection were constructed. The maximum concentrations (Cmax) of (-)-epiafzelechin in blood by i.v. and i.p. injection were found to be 10.6 and 6.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the time for reaching Cmax in i.p. injection was found to be 15 min. The distribution half-lives of (-)-epiafzelechin after i.v. and i.p. injection were found to be 7.0 and 12.6 min, respectively. Some of the PK parameters were found to be similar in both i.v. and i.p. injections of (-)-epiafzelechin owing to its high solubility in water. PMID:25108364

  11. Simultaneous determination of six flavonoids from Paulownia tomentosa flower extract in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Li, Haiyan; Yan, Chong; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-26

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six components including apigenin, quercetin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, 3'-methoxyluteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, and tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in rat plasma using formononetin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a ZORBAX SB-Aq column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 2mM aqueous ammonium acetate. All analytes and IS were quantitated through electrospray ionization in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions were as follows: m/z 269.1→117.2 for apigenin, m/z 301.2→151.2 for quercetin, m/z 431.3→311.2 for apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, m/z 463.2→300.2 for quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, m/z 461.3→283.1 for 3'-methoxyluteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, m/z 491.3→313.1 for tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and m/z 267.2→252.2 for IS, respectively. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity with correlation coefficient (r)>0.995. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD) at three QC levels were both less than 14.0% and the accuracies ranged from 89.8% to 113.8%. The extraction recoveries of six compounds ranged from 82.3% to 92.5%. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the six components in male rat plasma after oral administration of Paulownia tomentosa flower extract. PMID:25531870

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Bosentan, Glimepiride, HYBOS and M1 in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS-MS and its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengchun; Song, Wenjie; Wang, Shuanghu; Chen, Qiulei; Pan, Peipei; Xu, Tao; Hu, Guoxin; Zheng, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bosentan (BOS), glimepiride (GLP), hydroxyl bosentan (HYBOS) and hydroxyl glimepiride (M1) in rat plasma using one-step protein precipitation was developed and validated. After addition of ambrisentan as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used in sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm particle size, Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA) and inline 0.2 μm stainless steel frit filter (Waters Corp.) with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with gradient elution. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C. Only 4 min was needed for an analytical run. The retention times were ∼3.29 min for BOS, 3.56 min for GLP, 1.42 min for HYBOS, 1.53 min for M1 and 3.22 min for IS. Electrospray ionization source was employed and operated in positive-ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring mode was applied to target fragment ions m/z 552 → 202, m/z 568 → 202, m/z 491 → 352, m/z 507 → 352 and m/z 379 → 347 for BOS, HYBOS, GLP, M1 and IS, respectively. The assay was validated over concentration ranges of 25-5,000 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9984) for BOS, 1-200 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9999) for GLP, 0.5-100 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9999) for HYBOS and 0.1-20 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9984) for M1. Intra- and interday precision values for replicate quality control samples were within 14.2% for all analytes during the assay validation. Mean quality control accuracy values were within -3.3 to 14.4% of nominal values for all analytes. The mean recoveries of BOS, GLP, HYBOS, M1 and ambrisentan from the plasma exceeded 90.4%. The analytes were stable in rat plasma for at least 2 h at room temperature, 30 days at -40°C and following at least three freeze-thaw cycles (-40°C to room temperature). This method was

  13. Simultaneous determination of andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide in dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a dog pharmacokinetic study of Andrographis paniculata tablet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-fang; Fu, Shu-jun; Gu, Sheng-pan; Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Zhen-zhong; He, Xin; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-15

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determinate andrographolide (AP), dehydroandrographolide (DP), and neoandrographolide (NP) in plasma of beagle dogs after oral administration of Andrographis paniculata tablet (A. paniculata). The analytes and bilobalide (internal standard) were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) by using gradient elution consisting of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min in 7min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was performed to quantify data under monitoring precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 348.8→286.9, 330.9→107.9, 479.1→160.8 and 325.0→163.0 for AP, DP, NP and internal standard (IS) at negative ion mode, respectively. This method was developed at linearity ranging from 0.50 to 250ng/mL for AP, 1.00 to 500ng/mL for DP and 0.20 to 100ng/mL for NP. The accuracy of each analyte ranged between 94.8% and 107.1% and the precision was within 14.6%. No significant matrix effect was observed. AP, DP and NP were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied in the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile of AP, DP and NP in beagle dogs after oral administration of A. paniculata tablet (49.5mg for AP, 7.0mg for DP, 22.0mg for NP). Biological half-life (t1/2) was 2.08±0.99, 3.13±1.19 and 1.07±0.38h for AP, DP and NP, respectively. The areas under curves (AUC0-t) of AP, DP and NP was 494.50±150.64, 26.01±8.72 and 78.78±18.29ngh/mL, respectively. PMID:25864014

  14. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester). PMID:26675875

  15. Customizing Process to Align with Purpose and Program: The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program Evaluative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, V. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    How did the 2003 Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Ocean Sciences Program customize evaluative methodology and instruments to align with program goals and processes? How is data captured to document cognitive and affective impact? How are words and numbers utilized to accurately illustrate programmatic outcomes? How is compliance with implicit and explicit funding regulations demonstrated? The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program case study provides insightful responses to each of these questions. MS PHD'S was developed by and for underrepresented minorities to facilitate increased and sustained participation in Earth system science. Key components of this initiative include development of a community of scholars sustained by face-to-face and virtual mentoring partnerships; establishment of networking activities between and among undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students, scientists, faculty, professional organization representatives, and federal program officers; and provision of forums to address real world issues as identified by each constituent group. The evaluative case study of the 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program consists of an analysis of four data sets. Each data set was aligned to document progress in the achievement of the following program goals: Goal 1: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will successfully market, recruit, select, and engage underrepresented student and non-student participants with interest/ involvement in Ocean Sciences; Goal 2: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by quantitative analysis of user-feedback; Goal 3: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by qualitative analysis of user-feedback, and; Goal 4: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will develop a constituent base adequate to demonstrate evidence of interest, value, need and sustainability in

  16. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of five tripterygium pyridine alkaloids in dog plasma and its application to their pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of tripterygium glycosides tablets.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng-xiang; Song, Min; Yang, Da-song; Shi, Jin-fang; Di, Bin; Hang, Tai-jun

    2015-05-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five pyridine alkaloids contained in tripterygium glycosides tablets (triptolide, wilforine, wilforgine, wilfording and wilfortrine) in dog plasma. The analysis was carried out on a Sepax GP-Phenyl column using a mixture of methanol and 10mmol/L ammonium formate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid (75:25, v/v) as the mobile phase pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0mL/min. All MS data were obtained in the positive ESI mode with selective multiple reaction monitoring of ion transitions. The method was fully validated to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.2-1000ng/mL for triptolide and 0.05-1000ng/mL for the other four pyridine alkaloids. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.6% and 14.0%, respectively, and the relative error (RE, %) were all less than 13.1%. The method was successfully applied to multi-components pharmacokinetic study of the five pyridine alkaloids in beagle dogs after a single oral administration of 3mg/kg and 30mg/kg tripterygium glycosides tablets, respectively, and a multiple oral administration of 30mg/kg for 6 consecutive days. PMID:25855315

  17. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  18. Laser ablation-ICP-MS depth profiling to study ancient glass surface degradation.

    PubMed

    Panighello, Serena; Van Elteren, Johannes T; Orsega, Emilio F; Moretto, Ligia M

    2015-05-01

    In general the analysis of archeological glass represents a challenge for a wide variety of objects because of the presence of physical and/or chemical damage on the surface of the artifact, also known as weathering or corrosion. To retrieve accurate bulk elemental information by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the original, pristine glass needs to be "reached", thereby penetrating the alteration layer which is often more than 10 μm thick. To study this alteration layer the laser was operated in the drilling mode, either with a low (1 Hz) or a high (10 Hz) pulse repetition rate for a period of 50 s yielding detailed spatial information for ca. 20 elements over a shallow depth (ca. 5 μm) or less-detailed spatial information for 50-60 elements over a greater depth (ca. 50 μm). Quantitative elemental depth profiles (in wt%) were obtained with the so-called sum normalization calibration protocol, based on summation of the elements as their oxides to 100 wt%. We were able to associate the increase of SiO2 (in wt%) in the alteration layer to the volumetric mass density change in the glass as a result of depletion of Na2O and K2O. Also the interaction of the number of laser shots with the alteration layer is shown experimentally via depth measurements using profilometry. Chemical and physical changes in four ancient glass artifacts, directly and indirectly measureable by laser drilling, were studied as a function of internal and external factors such as age, composition, and exposure conditions. PMID:25716469

  19. Government in Emergency. Suggestions for Including Civil Defense Principles in the Social Studies Curriculum, Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This handbook contains suggestions for teaching the facts, principles, and behaviors relevant to civil defense in social studies classes, grades 1-12. These classes were chosen as the entry point for civil defense education because the core of the civil defense concept is government in action with other community agencies to save lives and…

  20. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  1. VALIDATION STUDIES OF THERMAL EXTRACTION-GC/MS APPLIED TO SOURCE EMISSIONS AEROSOLS: 1. SEMIVOLATILE ANALYTE--NONVOLATILE MATRIX INTERACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work develops a novel validation approach for studying how non-volatile aerosol matrices of considerably different chemical composition potentially affect the thermal extraction (TE)/GC/MS quantification of a wide range of trace semivolatile organic markers. The non-volatil...

  2. MS 1512 cB58: A case study of star formation, metal enrichment and superwinds in Lyman break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Rix, Samantha A.; Steidel, Chuck C.; Hunt, Matthew P.; Shapley, Alice E.; Adelberger, Kurt L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z = 3, when the universe was still in its ‘teen years’. I illustrate recent progress in this field with the latest observations of the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512- cB58.

  3. Design Study of an Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Interface for GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Hendrik; Kroll, Kai; Haberer, Kirsten; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten; Peterson, Amelia; Makarov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This contribution reports on the development of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source interfacing a gas chromatograph (GC) with a bench-top Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer (MS). We present efforts on method development aiming at high temperature stability (325°C), constant low impurity levels upon prolonged source operation, and efficient reaction volume irradiation combined with minimum peak broadening. The performance throughout each iterative development step was carefully assessed. The final GC-APPI-MS setup demonstrated femtogram-on-column sensitivity and chromatographic peaks of Gaussian shape with base peak widths <2 s for even the highest boiling compounds present in different EPA standard mixtures.

  4. msCompare: A Framework for Quantitative Analysis of Label-free LC-MS Data for Comparative Candidate Biomarker Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Hoekman, Berend; Breitling, Rainer; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Data processing forms an integral part of biomarker discovery and contributes significantly to the ultimate result. To compare and evaluate various publicly available open source label-free data processing workflows, we developed msCompare, a modular framework that allows the arbitrary combination of different feature detection/quantification and alignment/matching algorithms in conjunction with a novel scoring method to evaluate their overall performance. We used msCompare to assess the performance of workflows built from modules of publicly available data processing packages such as SuperHirn, OpenMS, and MZmine and our in-house developed modules on peptide-spiked urine and trypsin-digested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. We found that the quality of results varied greatly among workflows, and interestingly, heterogeneous combinations of algorithms often performed better than the homogenous workflows. Our scoring method showed that the union of feature matrices of different workflows outperformed the original homogenous workflows in some cases. msCompare is open source software (https://trac.nbic.nl/mscompare), and we provide a web-based data processing service for our framework by integration into the Galaxy server of the Netherlands Bioinformatics Center (http://galaxy.nbic.nl/galaxy) to allow scientists to determine which combination of modules provides the most accurate processing for their particular LC-MS data sets. PMID:22318370

  5. Characterization of stress degradation products of duloxetine hydrochloride employing LC-UV/PDA and LC-MS/TOF studies.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Renu; Bali, Alka; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-03-20

    Duloxetine HCl was subjected to forced degradation under conditions of hydrolysis (neutral, acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as suggested in the ICH guideline Q1A(R2). The drug showed significant degradation under acidic, alkaline and aqueous hydrolytic as well as photolytic conditions. The drug remained stable under thermal and oxidative stress conditions. In total, seventeen degradation products (I-XVII) were formed under varied conditions, which could be separated by chromatography of respective degraded solutions on C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm; 5 μ, Nulceodur) column using isocratic elution method. Detection wavelength was selected as 290 nm. MS/TOF accurate mass studies were carried out to establish the complete fragmentation pathway of the drug and degradation products, which, in turn, was utilized in characterization of the products. The degradation pathway of the drug leading to generation of fifteen products I-X, XII-XIII, XV-XVII was postulated and this has not been reported so far. PMID:26775018

  6. Photostability of alpha-tocopherol ester derivatives in solutions and liposomes. Spectroscopic and LC-MS studies.

    PubMed

    Neunert, Grazyna; Szwengiel, Artur; Walejko, Piotr; Witkowski, Stanislaw; Polewski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    α-Tocopherol (Toc) is known to degrade to the tocopheroxyl radicals (Toc) by exposure to UV light irradiation. In the present study, the stability of Toc ester derivatives exposed to UV light was investigated and compared with Toc in organic solution and in phospholipid vesicles. To follow the depletion of Toc and its esters the absorbance and fluorescence methods were applied whereas degradation products were detected using LC-MS method. The irradiation with UVB light of air-equilibrated solutions of di-α-Tocopheryl malonate (DTMO), α-Tocopheryl malonate (TMO) and α-Tocopheryl succinate (TS) strongly modifies their absorption and fluorescence spectra. Upon UVB irradiation, absorption band at 279/285nm becomes less pronounced indicating the photodegradation of esters. During irradiation, the fluorescence maximum of esters at 305nm shifts to 326nm, a maximum characteristic for Toc. Photorecovery of Toc from its esters derivatives was finally confirmed by LC-MS method. Among studied esters, only α-tocopheryl nicotinate (TN) did not undergo depletion and appeared resistant to UVB radiation. Kinetic studies indicated that photoinduced transformation occurs through the first order consecutive reaction chain mechanism. The photodissociation of Toc esters in the liposomes occurred with one order of magnitude slower than in organic solvents. Using MS/MS method it was found that final stable product of irradiation was α-tocopheryl quinone (TQ), an animal and plant metabolite of Toc. PMID:27107331

  7. Application of laser microdissection ICP-MS for high resolution elemental mapping in mouse brain tissue: a comparative study with laser ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, J Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Mapping of elements in biological tissue by laser induced mass spectrometry is a fast growing analytical methodology in life sciences. This method provides a multitude of useful information of metal, nonmetal, metalloid and isotopic distribution at major, minor and trace concentration ranges, usually with a lateral resolution of 12-160 µm. Selected applications in medical research require an improved lateral resolution of laser induced mass spectrometric technique at the low micrometre scale and below. The present work demonstrates the applicability of a recently developed analytical methodology - laser microdissection associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LMD ICP-MS) - to obtain elemental images of different solid biological samples at high lateral resolution. LMD ICP-MS images of mouse brain tissue samples stained with uranium and native are shown, and a direct comparison of LMD and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS imaging methodologies, in terms of elemental quantification, is performed. PMID:25476347

  8. Stability studies on trans-rosmarinic acid and GC-MS analysis of its degradation product.

    PubMed

    Razboršek, Maša Islamčević

    2011-07-15

    The stability of trans-rosmarinic acid (trans-RA, an important phenolic compound with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral properties) exposed to different stress conditions (daylight, higher temperatures, different solvents, and humidity) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse the degraded samples, and structural identification of degradation products was assigned based upon MS fragmentation pattern. The GC-MS method was validated in terms of linearity, precision as repeatability, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and recovery. The stability experiments were performed on pure trans-RA and on trans-RA present in commercially available rosemary extract. The cis-isomer of RA was the only degradation product. The results showed that trans-RA was readily isomerized into its cis-form within a few hours when dissolved in ethanol, methanol or tetrahydrofuran, and exposed to darkness or daylight at different temperatures. Isomerization took place to a greater extent in protic than in aprotic solvents. Trans-RA in the solid state was found to be stable for up to three months under all tested conditions. The described GC-MS method was also applied to the determination of trans-RA in eight different species of Lamiaceae family. PMID:21515014

  9. Biosynthesis of castor oil studied by the regiospecific analysis of castor triacylglycerols by ESI-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on the glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the ...

  10. Post-acquisition filtering of salt cluster artefacts for LC-MS based human metabolomic studies.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A; Renaud, J B; Gloor, G B; Reid, G; Sumarah, M W

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has emerged as one of the most widely used platforms for untargeted metabolomics due to its unparalleled sensitivity and metabolite coverage. Despite its prevalence of use, the proportion of true metabolites identified in a given experiment compared to background contaminants and ionization-generated artefacts remains poorly understood. Salt clusters are well documented artefacts of electrospray ionization MS, recognized by their characteristically high mass defects (for this work simply generalized as the decimal numbers after the nominal mass). Exploiting this property, we developed a method to identify and remove salt clusters from LC-MS-based human metabolomics data using mass defect filtering. By comparing the complete set of endogenous metabolites in the human metabolome database to actual plasma, urine and stool samples, we demonstrate that up to 28.5 % of detected features are likely salt clusters. These clusters occur irrespective of ionization mode, column type, sweep gas and sample type, but can be easily removed post-acquisition using a set of R functions presented here. Our mass defect filter removes unwanted noise from LC-MS metabolomics datasets, while retaining true metabolites, and requires only a list of m/z and retention time values. Reducing the number of features prior to statistical analyses will result in more accurate multivariate modeling and differential feature selection, as well as decreased reporting of unknowns that often constitute the largest proportion of human metabolomics data. PMID:27606010

  11. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of a novel anti-candidal agent-thiosemicarbazide derivative of isoniazid (TSC-INH) by validated UPLC-MS/MS assay.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ezzeldin, Essam; Bhat, Mashooq A; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Rashood, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for rapid determination of thiosemicarbazide derivative of isoniazid (TSC-INH), a potent anti-candidal agent in rat plasma, tissues, urine and feces. All biological samples were prepared by protein precipitation method using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity BEH™ C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column using gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The MRM transitions were monitored at m/z 305.00→135.89 for TSC-INH and m/z 380.08→316.03 for IS in ESI negative mode. All validation parameter results were within the acceptable range described in guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the compound TSC-INH was orally active with 66% absolute bioavailability in rats. It was rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentration of 1985.92 ng/mL achieved within 1 h after single oral dose (10 mg/kg) administration. TSC-INH exhibited rapid distribution across the body with highest levels in liver and lungs. Penetration in brain tissues suggests that TSC-INH crossed the blood brain barrier. Only 5.23% of the orally administered drug was excreted as unconverted form in urine and feces implying that TSC-INH was metabolized extensively before excretion. With the preliminary knowledge of in vivo pharmacokinetics and disposition properties, this study will be beneficial for further development of compound TSC-INH in future studies. PMID:26355768

  12. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for quantitative analysis of TCBA-TPQ, a novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, and application in a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jun-Xian, YU; Voruganti, Sukesh; Dan-Dan, LI; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Nag, Subhasree; Xu, Su; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    We have recently designed and synthesized several novel iminoquinone anticancer agents that have entered preclinical development for the treatment of human cancers. Herein we developed and validated a quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for one of the lead novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, TCBA-TPQ, and conducted a pharmacokinetic study in laboratory rats. Our results indicated that the HPLC-MS/MS method was precise, accurate, and specific. Using this method, we carried out in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the pharmacological properties of TCBA-TPQ and plasma pharmacokinetics in rats. Our results provide a basis for future preclinical and clinical development of this promising anticancer marine analog. PMID:26233847

  13. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for quantitative analysis of TCBA-TPQ, a novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, and application in a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xian; Voruganti, Sukesh; Li, Dan-Dan; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Nag, Subhasree; Xu, Su; Velu, Sadanandan E; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-07-01

    We have recently designed and synthesized several novel iminoquinone anticancer agents that have entered preclinical development for the treatment of human cancers. Herein we developed and validated a quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for one of the lead novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, TCBA-TPQ, and conducted a pharmacokinetic study in laboratory rats. Our results indicated that the HPLC-MS/MS method was precise, accurate, and specific. Using this method, we carried out in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the pharmacological properties of TCBA-TPQ and plasma pharmacokinetics in rats. Our results provide a basis for future preclinical and clinical development of this promising anticancer marine analog. PMID:26233847

  14. Impact history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite: Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikov, A. V.; Andronikova, I. E.; Hill, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals from two fragments of the LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite were conducted. The fragments are impact breccias, one fragment contains both chondritic and shock vein lithologies, and the other contains shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melts. The chondritic lithology and shock veins display very similar opaque mineral compositions. The mineral compositions in the impact-melt breccias are distinctly different. The brecciated state of the Chelyabinsk meteorite suggests strong involvement of shock-related processes during the evolution of the parent body. Multiple heavy impact events occurred on the parent asteroid and on the Chelyabinsk meteoroid itself over the time period from ca. 4.5 Ga until ca. 1.2 Ma. The shock veins were produced in situ on the parent body. The impact-melt breccias could have formed because of the dramatic impact to the parent LL-chondrite body that could be partly disintegrated. The fragment containing shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melt lithologies preserves a record of melting, volatilization, partial degassing, and quenching of the molten material. The abundance and size (up to 1 mm) of the vesicles suggest that the impact melt must have been buried at some depth after formation. After impact and subsequent melting occurred, the impact-induced pressure on the shallow asteroid interior was released that caused "boiling" of volatiles and generation of S-rich bubbles. Such an impact excavated down to depths of the body generating multiple fragments with complicated histories. These fragments reaccumulated into a gravitational aggregate and formed the parental meteoroid for the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

  15. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of the extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and quantification of bioactive components by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Önder, Ferah Cömert; Ay, Mehmet; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-11-01

    In this research, antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from Humulus lupulus L. were compared by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays. The amount of total phenolic components determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be highest for 25% aqueous ethanol (9079 ± 187.83 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and methanol-1 (directly) (8343 ± 158.39 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) extracts. The n-hexane extract of H. lupulus exhibited the greatest with DPPH (14.95 ± 0.03 μg Trolox equivalent/g sample). The highest phenolic content in the ethanolic extract could be the major contributor to its highest CUPRAC activity (3.15 ± 0.44 mmol Trolox equivalent/g sample). Methanol-2 (n-hexane, acetone, and methanol) and methanol-3 (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts, respectively, exhibited the most potent ABTS (7.35 ± 0.03 mM Trolox equivalent) and FRAP (1.56 ± 0.35 mmol Fe(2+)/g sample) activities. Some of the components from the crude extracts were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. Comparative screening of antioxidant activities of H. lupulus extracts and quantification of some major components by LC-MS/MS, qualitatively analysis of the reported ones which were optimal under negative ion SIM mode and coinjection, are going to be valuable for food and health applications. PMID:24079371

  16. Development of Chiral LC-MS Methods for small Molecules and Their Applications in the Analysis of Enantiomeric Composition and Pharmacokinetic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Meera Jay Desai

    2004-12-19

    used to simultaneously separate all 19 native amino acids enantiomerically in less than 20 minutes, making it suitable for complex biological analysis. The previously developed amino acid method was then used to enantiomerically separate theanine, a free amino acid found in tea leaves. Native theanine was found to have lower limits of detection and better sensitivity over derivatized theanine samples. The native theanine method was then used to determine the enantiomeric composition of six commercially available L-theanine products. Five out of the six samples were found to be a racemic mixture of both D- and L-theanine. Concern over the efficacy of these theanine products led to our final study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of theanine in rats using LC-ESI/MS. Rats were administered D-, L, and QL-theanine both orally and intra-peritoneally. Oral administration data demonstrated that intestinal absorption of L-theanine was greater than that of D-theanine, while i.p. data showed equal plasma uptake of both isomers. This suggested a possible competitive binding effect with respect to gut absorption. Additionally, it was found that regardless of administration method, the presence of the other enantiomer always decreased overall theanine plasma concentration. This indicated that D- and L- theanine exhibit competitive binding with respect to urinary reabsorption as well. The large quantities of D-theanine detected in the urine suggested that D-themine was eliminated with minimal metabolism, while L-theanine was preferentially reabsorbed and metabolized to ethylamine. Clearly, the metabolic fate of racemic theanine and its individual enantiomers was quite different, placing into doubt the utility of the commercial theanine products.

  17. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of SB-505124 in rat plasma: Application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Yuandong; Zhang, Quan; Li, Yanping; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Ding, Rui; Sun, Xun

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the quantification of the novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitor SB-505124 in rat plasma and then validated. Plasma samples were prepared by simple protein precipitation. Separation was performed on a Diamonsil ODS chromatography column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid. SB-505124 and the internal standard doxorubicin were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 336.2→320.1 and 544.2→397.2, respectively. Calibration curve was linear (r>0.9996) over a concentration range of 10-5000 ng/mL with the lower quantification limit of 10 ng/mL. Both intra- and inter-day precision were within 6.5% and trueness were not more than 3.1%. Extraction recovery and matrix effect were within acceptable limits. Stability tests showed that SB-505124 and the IS remained stable throughout the analytical procedure. The validated LC-MS/MS method was then used to analyze the pharmacokinetics of SB-505124 administered to rats intravenously (8 mg/kg) or orally (10 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability of SB-505124 was calculated as 76.4%, indicating the potential of SB-505124 as an orally administered drug. PMID:26363490

  18. Nested data independent MS/MS acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Data independent acquisition (DIA) attempts to provide comprehensive MS/MS data while providing a cycle time that is capable of following the elution profile of chromatographic peaks. Currently available MS technology is not yet fully capable of fulfilling these expectations. This paper suggests a new multiplex-based approach to more closely achieve this objective. Customized scans have been programmed for a Q Orbitrap instrument. Multiple nonadjacent mass range segments are sequentially collected (cut out) by the quadrupole. These combined mass ranges undergo fragmentation, and the resulting product ions are analyzed as a whole by the Orbitrap analyzer. The systematical variation of the mass range segments (nested design) permits the mathematical assignment of the observed product ions within a narrow precursor mass range. The proposed approach allows the use of mass windows that are narrower than those in conventional DIA (SWATH). A unique aspect of the proposed approach is the fact that halving the mass window width requires the addition of only a single multiplexed scan. This is different from conventional DIA, which requires the number of mass windows to be doubled in order to achieve the same objective. This paper shows that for a given cycle time, the proposed nested DIA technique produces significantly less chimeric product ion spectra than conventional DIA. However, further improvements from the programming, and most likely the hardware side, are still required in order to achieve the aim of comprehensive MS/MS. Graphical Abstract Schematic of nested design. PMID:27188447

  19. Study on Environmental Causes and SNPs of MTHFR, MS and CBS Genes Related to Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Ning; Sun, Xiaoru; Yu, Rongbin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Yuming; Wang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are among the most common birth defects in China. Environmental causes and folate metabolism changes may alter susceptibility to CHD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relevant risk-factors of children with CHD and their mothers. Methods 138 children with CHD and 207 normal children for controls were recruited. Their mothers were also enlisted in this study and interviewed following a questionnaire about their pregnant history and early pregnancy situation. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) of mothers and children were genotyped. Results There were significant differences in the gender of children, occupation of mothers, family history with CHD, history of abortion, history of adverse pregnancy, early pregnancy health, fetus during pregnancy, pesticide exposure and drug exposure in CHD group and control group ( P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for above factors, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with their offspring CHD risk in mothers. Compared with the mothers whose MTHFR were rs1801131 AA and AC genotypes, the mothers who got a mutation of MTHFR rs1801131 CC genotypes had a 267% increase in risk of given birth of a CHD children (OR=3.67,95%CI=1.12-12.05). Meanwhile, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in children (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.00-2.44 in additive model). Conclusions Besides mothers’ social and fertility characteristics, our results suggested that the genetic variants in folate metabolism pathway might be one of the most related risk-factors of CHD. MTHFR rs1801131 were identified as loci in Chinese population that were involved in CHD. PMID:26035828

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  1. Fragmentation pathways and mechanisms of aromatic compounds in atmospheric pressure studied by GC-DMS and DMS-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendler, Shai; Lambertus, Gordon R.; Dunietz, Barry D.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.; Miller, Raanan A.; Sacks, Richard D.

    2007-06-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is a highly sensitive sensing technology capable of selecting and detecting ions based on the difference between ion mobility at high and low electric field. The combination of a micro-fabricated DMS with gas chromatography (GC) has allowed extensive investigation of the ion chemistry and collisionally induced dissociation (CID) of diaryl molecules on a millisecond timescale at temperatures up to 130 °C. DMS-pre-filtered time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used to verify the chemical composition of the ion species resolved by GC-DMS. This work focuses on the fragmentation of diaryl compounds, including diphenyl methane (DPM) and bibenzyl (BB), using information from the DMS and DMS-MS spectra of a series of aromatic compounds. Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the geometry and the energy along the reaction coordinate for the loss of benzene from DPM·H+ and BB·H+ for comparison with GC-DMS and DMS-MS experimental results and with previously reported chemical ionization MS. DPM-H+ is observed to undergo field-induced fragmentation in the DMS to produce C7H7+(Bz+) and unobserved neutral benzene with a low energy barrier. In contrast, BB·H+ fragments to C8H9+ and benzene with a higher energy barrier. Calculated barriers and experimental results are in qualitative agreement. Depletion of the ionized fragments in favor of ion-neutral clusters was also observed at higher concentrations. It is suggested that CID in DMS can further enhance DMS analytical performance.

  2. Study of vortex-assisted MSPD and LC-MS/MS using alternative solid supports for pharmaceutical extraction from marketed fish.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Gabriel I; Soares, Karina L; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2015-06-01

    A procedure based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of 15 pharmaceuticals from fish samples with determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated. Florisil, C18, diatomaceous earth, chitin, and chitosan were evaluated as solid supports. Best results were obtained with 0.5 g of diatomaceous earth, 0.5 g of sodium sulfate, and 5 mL of methanol. Analytical recoveries ranged from 58 to 128 % with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 15 %. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values for the 15 compounds ranged from 5 to 1000 ng g(-1). The method under investigation has shown to be a simple and fast extraction tool with minimum instrumentation and low amount of reagent, resulting in method low cost. Besides, alternative materials, such as chitin and chitosan, which were applied to the dispersion step for the first time, were found to be interesting alternatives. PMID:25910883

  3. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to quantify in plasma the analgesic candidate PT-31 following a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Bessegato, T C; Niehues, M; Buqui, G A; Lopes, N P; Pitta, I R; Galdino, S L; Dalla Costa, T

    2016-06-01

    A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to determine PT-31, an analgesic drug candidate, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Analyses were performed using a UHPLC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive ionization mode using a C18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile (68:31, v/v) containing 0.1% acetic acid eluting in a gradient mode with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Plasma samples were deproteinized with cold acetonitrile containing 0.01% TFA (1:2, v/v) and 50 μL of the supernatant were injected into the system. PT-31 and phenytoin (internal standard) retention times were roughly 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. Linear standard curves were plotted for the 0.01-10 µg/mL concentration range, with a coefficient of determination > 0.99. The method's precision was over 88%. Maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 14.6% and 11.6%, respectively. Interfering substances were not detected in the chromatogram, indicating that the method was specific. PT-31 stability was assessed under different temperature and storage settings. The method was used to characterize PT-31 plasma pharmacokinetics following administration of 5 mg/kg i.v. to Wistar rats. Therefore, the method described is sensitive, linear, precise and specific enough to determine PT-31 in preclinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26379109

  4. Development and validation of a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for ondansetron quantification in human plasma and its application in comparative bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Roberto F; Salvadori, Myriam C; Azevedo, Cristina P; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Borges, Diego C; Moreno, Ronílson A; Sverdloff, Carlos E; Borges, Ney C

    2010-11-01

    The validation of a high throughput and specific method using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray (ES+) ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for ondansetron quantification in human plasma is described. Human plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using methyl tert-butyl ether and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The limit of quantification was 0.2 ng/mL and the method was linear in the range 0.2-60 ng/mL. The intra-assay precisions ranged from 1.6 to 7.7%, while inter-assay precisions ranged from 2.1 to 5.1%. The intra-assay accuracies ranged from 97.5 to 108.2%, and the inter-assay accuracies ranged from 97.3 to 107.0%. The analytical method was applied to evaluate the relative bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations containing 8 mg of ondansetron each in 25 healthy volunteers using a randomized, two-period crossover design. The geometric mean and respective 90% confidence interval (CI) of ondansetron test/reference percent ratios were 90.15% (81.74-99.44%) for C(max) and 93.11% (83.01-104.43%) for AUC(₀-t). Based on the 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for C(max) and AUC(₀-inf), it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference one with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of ondansetron. PMID:20954214

  5. Plasma metabonomics study on toxicity biomarker in rats treated with Euphorbia fischeriana based on LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfeng; Man, Hongxue; Gao, Jian; Liu, Xinfeng; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Jiayu; Gao, Kuo; Li, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Baosheng

    2016-09-01

    Lang-du (LD) has been traditionally used to treat human diseases in China. Plasma metabolic profiling was applied in this study based on LC-MS to elucidate the toxicity in rats induced by injected ethanol extract of LD. LD injection was given by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0 g kg(-1) body weight per day to rats. The blood biochemical levels of alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, creatinine, serum β2-microglobulin and low-density lipoprotein increased in LD-injected rats, and the levels of total protein and albumin decreased in these groups. The metabolic profiles of the samples were analyzed by multivariate statistics analysis, including principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolic characters in rats injected with LD were perturbed in a dose-dependent manner. By OPLS-DA, 18 metabolites were served as the potential toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, LD treatment resulted in an increase in the p-cresol, p-cresol sulfate, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) (18:0), LPE (16:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0) and 12-HETE concentrations, and a decrease in hippuric acid, cholic acid and N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine. These results suggested that chronic exposure to LD could cause a disturbance in lipids metabolism and amino acids metabolism, etc. Therefore, an analysis of the metabolic profiles can contribute to a better understanding of the adverse effects of LD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26856302

  6. North Atlantic weather regimes: A synoptic study of phase space. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orrhede, Anna Karin

    1990-01-01

    In the phase space of weather, low frequency variability (LFV) of the atmosphere can be captured in a large scale subspace, where a trajectory connects consecutive large scale weather maps, thus revealing flow changes and recurrences. Using this approach, Vautard applied the trajectory speed minimization method (Vautard and Legras) to atmospheric data. From 37 winters of 700 mb geopotential height anomalies over the North Atlantic and the adjacent land masses, four persistent and recurrent weather patterns, interpreted as weather regimes, were discernable: a blocking regime, a zonal regime, a Greenland anticyclone regime, and an Atlantic regime. These regimes are studied further in terms of maintenance and transitions. A regime survey unveils preferences regarding event durations and precursors for the onset or break of an event. The transition frequencies between regimes vary, and together with the transition times, suggest the existence of easier transition routes. These matters are more systematically studied using complete synoptic map sequences from a number of events.

  7. LC-MS based screening and targeted profiling methods for complex plant: coffee a case study.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Jeane Santos; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Pacheco, Sidney; de Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz; de Rezende, Claudia Moraes

    2012-11-01

    In the recent years the way of thinking about human health necessarily passes by human food. Recent discoveries are not only concerned about valuable biomolecules but also contaminants. Thus, the screening of substances in animal and vegetable matrices by analytical techniques is focused on the presence and absence of target substance. In both cases, the majority of these substances are present as traces or in very low levels. Contaminants could be naturally present in the food, inserted on it or even developed on it as a consequence of food processing or cooking. Pesticides, mycotoxins, dioxins, acrylamide, Sudan red, melamine and now 4(5)-methylimidazole can be, at present, be listed as some of the world big problems related to food contaminants and adulterants. With the development of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), in the last few decades, analysis of some food contaminants in trace levels trace become less laborious, more accurate and precise. The multiple approach of those techniques make possible to obtain many results in one single run. On the other hand, European Union (2002/657/EC) established regulations for analytical methods regarding mass spectrometry as detection tool, showing the importance of this technique in food quality control. The EU criteria uses identification points (IPs) that could be achieved basically with four product ions (including molecular ion) or reduced with the use of high resolution equipments. This kind of mass spectrometers made the IPs criteria more accessible, as the exact mass information is a differential tool. In view of this the aim of this review is to present the actual scenario for mass spectrometry analysis in a complex vegetable food matrix such as roasted coffee, with emphasis on needs and challenges regarding the LC-MS technique in order to meet and contribute to food safety standards in this complex matrix. PMID:22519371

  8. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  10. Laser ICP-MS study of trace element partitioning between olivine, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubier, M.; Grove, T. L.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Trace element contents in natural minerals such as plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene can be used to correct melt compositions for fractionation and estimate the redox state of magmas. In order to appropriately address fractionation in the different magmatic settings, high precision, fO2 controlled measurements at low pressures and variable temperature of mineral-melt trace element partition coefficients are needed. This study consists of 0.1 Mpa experiments on two starting compositions, a normal MORB AII96-18-1 from the Kane Fracture Zone and a basaltic andesite 85-44 from Mt Shasta. The starting compositions were enriched in 13 elements by addition of elemental standard solutions. The experiments were carried out at MIT in a vertical-tube DelTech quenching furnace with a CO2-H2 gas atmosphere. Both isothermal and cooling rate experiments, as well as non-doped experiments, were performed. The range in temperature was 1150-1175°C for the MORB and 1155-1190°C for the basaltic andesite. The different fO2 conditions were QFM, NNO, and NNO+2. Glasses, olivine, plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals in the run products were analyzed by laser ICP-MS using a variety of calibration glass and mineral standards. Clinopyroxene crystals were too small to be analyzed accurately for their trace element contents. Fe and Na loss in our experiments is generally low and unlikely to have significant effects on the liquidus temperature. For the MORB composition, the average values for the Ol/Melt exchange distribution coefficient KD Fe-Mg (0.28±0.01), Cpx/Melt KD Fe-Mg (0.24±0.01) and Plg/Melt KD Ca-Na (0.94±0.03) attest for the achievement of chemical equilibrium. Similarly, for the basaltic andesite, the average values are Ol/Melt KD Fe-Mg = 0.28±0.01, Cpx/Melt KD Fe-Mg = 0.291±0.005, Opx/Melt KD Fe-Mg = 0.275±0.015 and Plg/Melt KD Ca-Na = 1.03±0.1. Cooling experiments systematically show different phase proportions, mineral compositions and partition

  11. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study.

    PubMed

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents. PMID:26244343

  12. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study

    PubMed Central

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents. PMID:26244343

  13. Applications of MALDI-TOF MS to large-scale human mtDNA population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María; Cerný, Viktor; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA variation in populations is commonly carried out in many fields of biomedical research. We propose the analysis of mitochondrial DNA coding region SNP (mtSNP) variation to a high level of phylogenetic resolution based on MALDI-TOF MS. The African phylogeny has been chosen to test the applicability of the technique but any other part of the worldwide phylogeny (or any other mtSNP panel) could be equally suitable for MALDI-TOF MS genotyping. SNP selection thus aimed to fully cover all the mtSNPs defining major and minor branches of the known African tree, including, macro-haplogroup L, and haplogroups M1, and U6. A total of 230 mtSNPs were finally selected. We used tests samples collected from two different African locations, namely, Mozambique and Chad Basin. Different internal genotyping controls and other indirect approaches (e.g. phylogenetic checking coupled with automatic sequencing) were used in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the technique, which resulted to be 100% using samples previously subjected to whole genome amplification. The advantages of the MALDI-TOF MS are also discussed in comparison with other popular methods such as minisequencing, highlighting its high-throughput nature, which is particularly suitable for case-control medical studies, forensic databasing or population and anthropological studies. PMID:19862743

  14. Degradation kinetics study of cabozantinib by a novel stability-indicating LC method and identification of its major degradation products by LC/TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyong; Xu, Xue; Feng, Chao; Shi, Yuanyuan; Liu, Wenyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Junying

    2014-09-01

    The chemical stability of cabozantinib (CBZ) was investigated using a novel stability-indicating LC method. Forced degradation of CBZ was carried out under acidic, basic, thermal, oxidative and photolytic stress conditions. Hydrolysis and oxidation were the primary pathways for this compound and three major unknown degradation products were characterized by LC/TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS. The major oxidative degradation product was isolated by preparative LC and identified by UV, HRMS and NMR techniques to be N-{4-[(N-oxide-6,7-dimethoxyquinolin-4-yl)oxy]phenyl}-N'-(4-fluorophenyl)-cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and then successfully applied to investigate the degradation kinetics of CBZ. Degradation of CBZ followed first-order kinetics under all experimental conditions. A V-shaped pH-rate profile over the pH range 2-10 was observed with maximum stability at pH 6. The effect of temperature on the rate of CBZ degradation was characterized using the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy for hydrolysis was 57.31kJmol(-1) in alkaline solution. PMID:24992215

  15. Study on Seismogenesis of 2013 Ms5.1 Badong Earthquake in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zeng, Z.; Xu, S.; He, C.

    2015-12-01

    On 16 December, 2013, an earthquake of Ms5.1 occurred in Badong County, the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. We collected all the 150 published focal mechanism solutions (FMS) and inversed the tectonic stress field in Badong, the Three Gorges Dam and Huangling anticline area using the software SATSI (Hardebeck and Michael, 2006). Inversion results show that the orientations of maximum principle stress axis (σ1) in Badong plunge to NNE or SSW. Detailed characteristics of the stress field indicate that the σ1 axis is almost vertical in the center of Huangling anticline and turns horizontal to the west. As to deep structures, we studied the satellite gravity anomalies of 8-638 order in this area using the EIGEN-6C2 model provided by ICGRM. Combining the seismic sounding profile through the epicenter of Badong earthquake and the petrology data, we reinterpreted the deep structure in the study area. The results show that the deep crust in Badong is unstable and the deep material's upwelling leads to Huangling anticline continued uplifting, which is consistent with the result indicated from the stress filed. Both of them provide energy for the preparation of earthquake. The FMS shows that Gaoqiao Fault is the causative fault of this Ms5.1 earthquake. Field investigations indicated that the lithology and fracture characteristic in Badong is beneficial to reservoir water infiltration. Before the earthquake, reservoir water level raised to 175m, the highest storage level, which increased the loading. Based on above researches, we believe that the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake is controlled by deep tectonic environment and stress field in shallow crust. The reservoir water infiltration and uploading increase generated by water storage of the Three Gorges area reduced the strength of Gaoqiao Fault and changed its stress state. These factors jointly promoted an abrupt movement of the fault in the critical stress state, and triggered the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake.

  16. A rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS-MS method for the quantification of zolpidem tartrate in human EDTA plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dendhi Chandrapal; Bapuji, Akula Tukaram; Rao, Vepakomma Suryanarayana; Himabindu, Vurimindi; Ravinder, Sreedasyam

    2012-07-01

    A rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of zolpidem in human EDTA plasma using ondansetron (IS) as an internal standard. The analyte and IS were extracted from human plasma using ethyl acetate and separated on a C18 column (Inertsil-ODS, 5 µm, 4.6 × 50 mm) interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The mobile phase, which consisted of a mixture of methanol and 20 mM ammonium formate (pH 5.00 ± 0.05; 75:25 v/v), was injected at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The retention times of zolpidem and IS were approximately 1.76 and 1.22. The LC run time was 3 min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring used the [M + H](+) ions m/z 308.13 → 235.21 for zolpidem and m/z 294.02 → 170.09 for the ondansetron, respectively. Five freeze-thaw cycles was established at -20 and -70°C.The linearity of the response/concentration curve was established in human EDTA plasma over the concentration range 0.10-149.83 ng/mL. The lower detection limit [(signal-to-noise (S/N) > 3] was 0.04 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification (S/N > 10) was 0.10 ng/mL. This LC-MS-MS method was validated with intra-batch and inter-batch precision of 0.52-8.66.The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy was 96.66-106.11. Recovery of zolpidem in human plasma was 87.00% and IS recovery was 81.60%. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters were T(max) (h) = (1.25 ± 0.725), C(max) (ng/mL) (127.80 ± 34.081), AUC(0→t), = (665.37 ± 320.982) and AUC(0→∞), 686.03 ± 342.952, respectively. PMID:22689921

  17. MS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  18. A validated LC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of methotrexate and tofacitinib in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kuldeep; Giri, Kalpeshkumar; Dhiman, Vinay; Dixit, Abhishek; Zainuddin, Mohd; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TFB) in rat plasma (50 μL) using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS), as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. After a solid-phase extraction procedure, the separation of the analytes and IS was performed on a Chromolith RP₁₈e column using an isocratic mobile phase of 5 m m ammonium acetate (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) using flow-gradient with a total run time of 3.5 min. The detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode, using the transitions of m/z 455.2 → 308.3, m/z 313.2 → 149.2 and m/z 180.3 → 110.2 for MTX, TFB and IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.49-91.0 and 0.40-74.4 ng/mL for MTX and TFB, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision values for MTX and TFB were <15% at low quality control (QC), medium QC and high QC and <20% at lower limit of quantification. The validated assay was applied to derive the pharmacokinetic parameters for MTX and TFB post-dosing of MTX and TFB orally and intravenously to rats. PMID:25298296

  19. [Study of multi-residue method for determining pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products was examined. Five mL water was added to 5 g sample in a polypropylene tube, and the tube was left to stand at room temperature for 30 min. Then, 20 mL acetonitrile was added to the sample. The mixture was homogenized in a high-speed homogenizer, followed by salting out with 1 g NaCl and 4 g anhydrous MgSO4. After centrifugation, the organic layer was purified on a graphitized carbon/PSA cartridge column. After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol-water and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The recoveries of 93 pesticides fortified into 5 kinds of processed foods [Chinese cabbage kimchi, marmalade, raisin, umeboshi (pickled plum) and worcester sauce] were examined at the concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg/g (n=5). The recoveries of 61 pesticides in all foods were 70-120% with relative standard deviation below 20% at both concentrations. Seventy-four processed foods obtained from markets in Japan were examined with this method. Pesticide residues over the maximum residue limit (0.01 μg/g) were detected in 2 processed foods. PMID:24389475

  20. Determination of cyanidin 3-glucoside in rat brain, liver and kidneys by UPLC/MS-MS and its application to a short-term pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fornasaro, Stefano; Ziberna, Lovro; Gasperotti, Mattia; Tramer, Federica; Vrhovšek, Urška; Mattivi, Fulvio; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins exert neuroprotection in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, no details regarding their brain-related pharmacokinetics are so far available to support claims about their direct neuronal bioactivity as well as to design proper formulations of anthocyanin-based products. To gather this missing piece of knowledge, we intravenously administered a bolus of 668 nmol cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) in anaesthetized Wistar rats and shortly after (15 s to 20 min) we collected blood, brain, liver, kidneys and urine samples. Extracts thereof were analysed for C3G and its expected metabolites using UPLC/MS-MS. The data enabled to calculate a set of pharmacokinetics parameters. The main finding was the distinctive, rapid distribution of C3G in the brain, with an apparently constant plasma/brain ratio in the physiologically relevant plasma concentration range (19-355 nM). This is the first report that accurately determines the distribution pattern of C3G in the brain, paving the way to the rational design of future tests of neuroprotection by C3G in animal models and humans. PMID:26965389

  1. Determination of Pinaverium Bromide in Human Plasma by a Sensitive and Robust UPLC-MS-MS Method and Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mexican Subjects.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Díaz de León-Cabrero, Manuel; Torres-Roque, Irma; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2015-09-01

    A high-throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used to extract pinaverium and itraconazole (as internal standard) from 500 µL plasma samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile-5 mM ammonium formate (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase. Isocratic elution at 0.3 mL/min was used. Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a XEVO TQ-S by multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions monitorized were as follows: m/z 511.2 → 230 for pinaverium bromide, and m/z 705.29 → 392.18 for the itraconazole. The method was validated over a concentration range of 12-12,000 pg/mL. The chromatographic method runtime is 2.5 min and was applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics of pinaverium bromide after the oral administration of 100 mg to healthy Mexican subjects. PMID:25862744

  2. Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Kanai, Setsuko; Matsushima, Yoko; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut. PMID:24025214

  3. Determination of cyanidin 3-glucoside in rat brain, liver and kidneys by UPLC/MS-MS and its application to a short-term pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Fornasaro, Stefano; Ziberna, Lovro; Gasperotti, Mattia; Tramer, Federica; Vrhovšek, Urška; Mattivi, Fulvio; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins exert neuroprotection in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, no details regarding their brain-related pharmacokinetics are so far available to support claims about their direct neuronal bioactivity as well as to design proper formulations of anthocyanin-based products. To gather this missing piece of knowledge, we intravenously administered a bolus of 668 nmol cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) in anaesthetized Wistar rats and shortly after (15 s to 20 min) we collected blood, brain, liver, kidneys and urine samples. Extracts thereof were analysed for C3G and its expected metabolites using UPLC/MS-MS. The data enabled to calculate a set of pharmacokinetics parameters. The main finding was the distinctive, rapid distribution of C3G in the brain, with an apparently constant plasma/brain ratio in the physiologically relevant plasma concentration range (19–355 nM). This is the first report that accurately determines the distribution pattern of C3G in the brain, paving the way to the rational design of future tests of neuroprotection by C3G in animal models and humans. PMID:26965389

  4. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An Ultra-Light-Weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 (normalized counts per second/parts per billion by volume) during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR Time-of-Flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S/CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has

  5. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-10-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An ultra-light-weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR time-of-flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S / CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has demonstrated that PTR-MS can make reliable measurements of

  6. Suggestions for successful piggybacking of biogeochemical studies onto regional to national-scale environmental monitoring programs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.; Elliott, E.

    2013-12-01

    The main thrust of our research for >20 years has been the tracing of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems using a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach. Many of these studies have been conducted at the regional to national scale by piggybacking on existing large-scale water quality, air, and ecological monitoring programs managed by federal and state agencies, as part of large collaborative teams. Isotopes are a potentially powerful component of monitoring and assessment programs aimed at quantifying and mitigating alterations to environments from human activities because locations exhibiting unusually high rates of biogeochemical cycling or elevated pollution levels usually have distinctive isotopic compositions that are suggestive or diagnostic of the reactions and pollution sources. Among the many challenges of piggybacking our studies onto monitoring programs that are collecting and analyzing samples for their own objectives is integrating different kinds of data collected at a range of different spatial and temporal scales. There are a number of issues to consider, including testing whether the isotope and/or chemical data of interest are 'gradational' in composition over the temporal and/or spatial scales of the sampling efforts or the questions being addressed. Spatial patterns of compositions in some environments (e.g., lakes and airmasses) are relatively easy to present as contour maps because the media are well connected and relatively isotropic. In contrast, rivers are characterized by linear connections of water, chemical constituents, and biota because of the unidirectional flow of water. Construction of concentration maps and isoscapes using datasets from many adjacent rivers makes implicit assumptions about the connectivity of isolated rivers that may not be supported by the data, or be supported equivalently for different constituents (e.g., water isotopes vs nitrate isotopes), requiring careful testing of models

  7. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26984270

  8. Studies on the content of heavy metals in Aries River using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Voica, Cezara Kovacs, Melinda Feher, Ioana

    2013-11-13

    Among the industrial branches, the mining industry has always been an important source of environmental pollution, both aesthetically and chemically. Through this paper results of ICP-MS characterization of Aries River Basin are reported. Mining activities from this area has resulted in contamination of environment and its surrounding biota. This is clearly evidenced in analyzed water samples, especially from Baia de Aries site where increased amount of trace elements as Cr, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb and U were founded. Also in this site greater amount of rare earth elements was evidenced also. Through monitoring of Aries River from other non-mining area it was observed that the quantitative content of heavy metals was below the maximum permissible levels which made us to conclude that the water table wasn't seriously affected (which possibly might be attributed to the cessation of mining activities in this area from a few years ago)

  9. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure. PMID:26201074

  10. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure. PMID:26201074

  11. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L; Finucane, Hilary K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kennedy, James L; Knight, Jo

    2016-09-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been interpreted as strong genetic evidence supporting the immune hypothesis. However, global pathway analyses provide inconsistent evidence of immune involvement in schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether genetic data support an immune etiology per se. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that variation in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated with schizophrenia, we identify 6 immune candidates (DPP4, HSPD1, EGR1, CLU, ESAM, NFATC3) encoding proteins with alternative, nonimmune roles in the brain. While our findings do not refute evidence that has accumulated in support of the immune hypothesis, they suggest that genetically mediated alterations in immune function may not play a major role in schizophrenia susceptibility. Instead, there may be a role for pleiotropic effects of a small number of immune genes that also regulate brain development and plasticity. Whether immune alterations drive schizophrenia progression is an important question to be addressed by future research, especially in light of the growing interest in applying immunotherapies in schizophrenia. PMID:27242348

  12. Determination of mesalazine, a low bioavailability olsalazine metabolite in human plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Banda, Jagadeesh; Lakshmanan, Ramalingam; Katepalli, Ramesh Babu; Reddy Venati, Uday Kumar; Koppula, Ramesh; Shiva Prasad, V V S

    2016-01-01

    Olsalazine sodium, salicylate derivative (prodrug) is effectively bioconverted to mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA), which has an anti-inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis. In this article, a novel highly sensitive and selective method was developed and validated to determine mesalazine in human plasma using a derivatization technique to enhance the signal intensity by using ultra- high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization interface. The sample preparation consisted of a derivatization with propionyl anhydride followed by liquid liquid extraction (LLE) to remove the interference and minimize the matrix effect of human plasma. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of the negative ion was performed and the transitions of m/z 208.1→107.0 and m/z 211.1→110.1 were used to measure the derivative of mesalazine and mesalazine-d3. The chromatographic separation was achieved using kinetex XB-C18 (100×4.6mm 2.6μ) analytical column with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase with a gradient elution. Nominal retention times of mesalazine and IS were 3.08 and 3.07min, respectively. Absolute recovery was found to be between 82-95% for analyte and about 78% for IS. The standard curves was linear (r(2)>0.995) in the concentration range 0.10 to 12.0ng/mL with lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in human plasma was 0.10ng/mL. The average intra-day/inter-day precision values (%CV) were in the range from 0.6-2.9 % and 1.3-3.8 %, respectively, while the average accuracy value was 103.8-107.2%. This method has been successfully applied to the human pharmacokinetics of olsalazine sodium 250mg capsules following single oral administration. PMID:26606108

  13. A HPLC-MS/MS method for determination of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues: Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Longdong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Ke; Zhou, Hongjian; Duan, Yayun; Zheng, Wei; Xie, Wenlin

    2016-03-20

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues with puerarin as the internal standard. The separation was performed on a Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was performed by MRM with m/z [M-H](-) 783.3→427.2 for 6'''-feruloylspinosin and m/z [M-H](-) 415.4→295.4 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves covered over a concentration range of 20-2000 ng/mL in plasma and various tissues samples (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, cerebrum and cerebellum) with good linearity (r(2)≥0.9914). Both the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.70%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -5.80% to 4.93%. The extraction recoveries were within 75.21-92.96%, and the matrix effect ranged from 87.21% to 113.44%. Compared with spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin was distributed in rats faster whereas more slowly eliminated from the plasma. 6'''-Feruloylspinosin could be distributed rapidly and widely in various tissues, and transfer across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, both 6'''-feruloylspinosin and spinosin could enhance the expression of GABAAα1, GABAAα5, GABABR1 mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons significantly, indicating the bioactivity mechanism of 6'''-feruloylspinosin was involved in the GABA receptors. PMID:26780157

  14. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of trantinterol and its major metabolite in rat plasma and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjuan; Qin, Feng; Xiong, Zhili; Fu, Xiaohuan; Ma, Chao

    2015-09-01

    Trantinterol is a novel β2-adrenoceptor agonist, currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of asthma. We developed and validated an liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of trantinterol and its major metabolite, 1-carbonyl trantinterol (SPFFCOOH), in rat plasma. Aliquots (100μL) of heparinized plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation used an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) and acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 310.9→m/z 237.9 for trantinterol, m/z 324.9→m/z 251.9 for SPFFCOOH and m/z 368.0→m/z 294.0 for bambuterol (internal standard, IS) were used for quantification. The calibration curves were obtained in the concentration of 0.25-100ng/mL for both trantinterol and SPFFCOOH. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations, RSD) values were below 15% and accuracy (relative error, RE) was from -4.3% to 6.6% at all quality control (QC) levels. The method was successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetics of trantinterol and SPFFCOOH in male and female Wistar rats after a single oral administration of trantinterol. PMID:26245359

  15. Determination of Mycophenolic acid in the vitreous humor using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method: application of intraocular pharmacokinetics study in rabbit eyes with ophthalmic implantable device.

    PubMed

    Martins Duarte Byrro, Ricardo; de Oliveira Fulgêncio, Gustavo; Rocha Chellini, Paula; da Silva Cunha, Armando; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2013-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive agent widely used in the treatment of solid organ transplant rejection. The success of MPA in the treatment of inflammatory intraocular diseases has been reported in recent literature. The treatment of inflammatory eye diseases in the posterior chamber is a challenge due to the anatomy of the eye, which presents certain barriers to drug access. Thus, the bioavailability of drugs in the eye is quite low, and successful drug delivery may well represent a key limiting factor to attaining a successful therapeutic strategy. Ophthalmic controlled drug delivery offers the potential to enhance the efficacy of treatment for pathological conditions. Thus, a novel delivery system based on a biodegradable polymeric device, which can be implanted inside the eye and deliver MPA directly to the target, is being developed. Specific analytical methods to determine the use of effective drugs within the eye are needed to characterize this device. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitation of MPA in the vitreous humor of rabbits was developed and validated. The vitreous was collected from rabbits, extracted by a protein precipitation extraction procedure and then separated on a C18 column with a mobile phase comprised of 0.15% aqueous acetic acid and methanol (60:40, v/v). The calibration curve was constructed within the range of 3-10,000 ng/mL for MPA. The mean R.S.D. values for the intra-run and inter-run precision were 5.15% and 4.35%. The mean accuracy value was 100.16%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the MPA concentration in the vitreous humor of rabbits treated with an ocular implantable device. PMID:23797039

  16. Biotransformation and detectability of the designer drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) studied in urine by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-high-resolution-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Markus R; Braun, Tina; Turcant, Alain; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a hallucinogenic designer drug of the phenethylamine class, the so-called 2Cs, named according to the ethyl spacer between the nitrogen and the aromatic ring. The aims of the present work were to identify the phases I and II metabolites of 2C-P. In addition, the detectability of 2C-P and its metabolites in urine as proof of an intake in clinical or forensic cases was tested. According to the identified metabolites, the following pathways were proposed: N-acetylation; deamination followed by reduction to the corresponding alcohol and oxidation to carbonic acid; mono- and bis-hydroxylation at different positions; mono- and bis-O-demethylation, followed by glucuronidation, sulfation, or both; and combination of these steps. Proof of an intake of a common user's dose of 2C-P was possible by both standard urine screening approaches, the GC-MS as well as the LC-MS(n) approach. PMID:25120185

  17. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. PMID:27262365

  18. Studies on Inhibition of Respiratory Cytochrome bc1 Complex by the Fungicide Pyrimorph Suggest a Novel Inhibitory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yu-Mei; Esser, Lothar; Zhou, Fei; Li, Chang; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Chang-An; Qin, Zhao-Hai; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP) or ubiquinone reduction (QN) site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site. PMID:24699450

  19. Can urban regeneration programmes assist coping and recovery for people with mental illness? Suggestions from a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Prince, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Researchers and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that urban socio-environmental conditions can affect the development and course of numerous health problems. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact an urban regeneration programme can have on everyday functioning, coping and recovery for people with a mental illness. We were also interested in discerning which component parts of the regeneration are the most important in positively affecting people with mental illness. These questions were explored through an in-depth qualitative case study of the Gospel Oak neighbourhood in London, which recently underwent an intensive urban regeneration programme. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with residents living with a mental illness (n = 16). Relevant participant observation was also conducted. Participants reported that interventions that improved community safety were by far the most important in affecting everyday coping and functioning. Interventions that improved the quantity and quality of shared community facilities had a positive, but milder effect on mental health. Component parts that appeared to have little effect included environmental landscaping and greater community involvement in decision-making processes. Most participants reported that their mental illness was a consequence of severe insults over the life-span, for example childhood neglect or family breakdown. Thus, the regeneration was seen as something that could assist coping, but not something that could significantly contribute to complete recovery. Our results thus suggest that urban regeneration can have a mild impact on people with mental illness, but this appears to be outweighed by life-span experience of severe individual-level risk factors. That said, some of our findings converge with other studies indicating that community safety and community facilities can play a role in positively affecting mental health. Further ethnographic and epidemiological research is

  20. Genome-wide association study in East Asians suggests UHMK1 as a novel bone mineral density susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Park, Hyojung; Zhang, Lei; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Ye An; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Pei, Yu-Fang; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hui; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Deng, Hong-Wen; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Soo

    2016-10-01

    To identify genetic variants that influence bone mineral density (BMD) in East Asians, we performed a quantitative trait analysis of lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD in a Korean population-based cohort (N=2729) and follow-up replication analysis in a Chinese Han population and two Caucasian populations (N=1547, 2250 and 987, respectively). From the meta-analysis of the stage 1 discovery analysis and stage 2 replication analysis, we identified four BMD loci that reached near-genome-wide significance level (P<5×10(-7)). One locus on 1q23 (UHMK1, rs16863247, P=4.1×10(-7) for femoral neck BMD and P=3.2×10(-6) for total hip BMD) was a novel BMD signal. Interestingly, rs16863247 was very rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency<0.01), indicating that this association could be specific to East Asians. In gender specific analysis, rs1160574 on 1q32 (KCNH1) was associated with femoral neck BMD (P=2.1×10(-7)) in female subjects. rs9371538 in the known BMD region on 6q25 ESR1 was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=5.6×10(-9)). rs7776725 in the known BMD region on 7q31 WTN16 was associated with total hip BMD (P=8.6×10(-9)). In osteoblasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was increased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown decreased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression increased its differentiation. In osteoclasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was decreased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown increased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression decreased its differentiation. In conclusion, our genome-wide association study identified the UHMK1 gene as a novel BMD locus specific to East Asians. Functional studies suggest a role of UHMK1 on regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:27424934

  1. MS Based Metabonomics

    SciTech Connect

    Want, Elizabeth J.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    1. Gas chromatography-(GC)-MS was the most commonly used MS-based method for small molecule analysis in the 1970s and 1980s. It is still used today for the detection of many metabolic disorders and plays a strong role in plant metabonomics. Liquid chromatography (LC)-MS approaches have grown in popularity for metabolite studies, due to simpler sample preparation, reduced analysis times through the introduction of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS and the ability to observe a wider range of metabolites. This chapter will discuss the role of MS in metabonomics, the techniques involved in this exciting area, and the current and future applications of the field. The various bioinformatics tools and multivariate analysis techniques used to maximize information recovery and to aid in the interpretation of the very large data sets typically obtained in metabonomics studies will also be discussed. While there are many different MS-based approaches utilized in metabonomics studies, emphasis will be placed on more established methods.

  2. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  3. A GC-MS-based metabolomics study on the tubers of commercial potato cultivars upon storage.

    PubMed

    Uri, Csilla; Juhász, Zsófia; Polgár, Zsolt; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

    2014-09-15

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a system for the detection of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and fatty acids, we characterised six commercial potato cultivars (Hópehely, Katica, Lorett, Somogyi kifli, Vénusz Gold, and White Lady) with different pedigrees, starch contents, cooking types, and dormancy periods, in five developmental stages from harvest to sprouting. The tubers were stored at 20-22°C in the dark. The metabolite data were subjected to principal component analysis. No correlation between metabolite contents of freshly harvested tubers and starch content or cooking type of the cultivars was detected. The storage decreased the fructose and sucrose and increased the proline concentrations of tubers. Irrespective of the length of dormancy a substantial difference in metabolite composition at each time point upon storage was detected in each cultivar except Somogyi kifli, the only cultivar amongst those tested with a pure Solanum tuberosum origin and A cooking type. PMID:24767057

  4. GC-MS study of compounds isolated from Coffea arabica flowers by different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo René; Cárdenas-Vargas, Silvia; Saavedra-Barrera, Rogerio; Durán, Diego Camilo

    2013-09-01

    Headspace (HS), extractive, and distillative methods were employed to isolate volatile and semivolatile compounds from fresh Coffea arabica flowers. Static HS solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), microwave-assisted HS-SPME (MW-HS-SPME) with simultaneous hydrodistillation, and extraction with hexane or supercritical CO2 -isolated mixtures in which around 150 different chemical substances were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS analysis. n-Pentadecane (20-37% relative peak area, RPA) was the most abundant compound in the HS fractions from fresh flowers, followed by 8-heptadecene (8-20% RPA) and geraniol (6-14% RPA). Hydrocarbons (mostly C13 -C30 paraffins) were the predominant compound class in all the sorptive extractions (HS-SPME, MW-HS-SPME, distillate), followed by terpenoids or oxygenated compounds (which varied with the isolation technique). Caffeine, a distinctive component of coffee fruits and beans, was also found in relatively high amounts in the supercritical CO2 extract of C. arabica flowers. PMID:23801537

  5. FD-MS studies of samarium-based oligomerization of ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Greaves, J.; DeCoster, D.M.; Evans, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) samarium complexes such as (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm, [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm({mu}-H)]{sub 2} and (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(THF){sub 2} can be used to catalyze polymerization of ethylene without a co-catalyst such as trialkyaluminum compounds or methylalumoxanes as required in the Ziegler-Natta systems. The polyethylene produced is insoluble and therefore of high molecular weight (>150,000 daltons). It is difficult to understand the basic steps in the polymerization processes and the influence that reaction conditions have on the process and the products because of the rapid polymerization rate of the reaction. In addition, while analysis of the molecular characteristics would assist in this understanding, the high molecular weight and insolubility of the product renders it particularly difficult to analyze. However, in the presence of hydrogen the molecular is limited by hydrogenolysis. The resulting ethylene oligomers have molecular weights in approximately the 300-1000 dalton range and thus are amenable to characterization by FD-MS.

  6. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A.; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-06-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process.

  7. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer.

    PubMed

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27300717

  8. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A.; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process.

  9. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Tao, Guizhou; Gao, Hang; Li, Keyan; Zhang, Yazhuo; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and precision was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside (QGG) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A Venusil® ASB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d. 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 787.3/301.3 for QGG, and 725.3/293.3 for internal standard. The linear range was 7.32-1830 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the limit of quantification was 7.32 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than ±15%. At low, medium and high quality control concentrations, the recovery and matrix effect of the analyte and IS were in the range of 89.06-92.43 and 88.58-97.62%, respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetic study of QGG in Sprague-Dawley rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26848536

  10. ESI MS, spectroscopic and PM5 semiempirical studies of Colchicine complexes with lithium, sodium and potassium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurek, Joanna; Boczoń, Władysław; Przybylski, Piotr; Brzezinski, Bogumił

    2007-11-01

    The colchicine complexes with Li +, Na + and K + cations have been synthesized and studied by ESI MS, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR and PM5 semiempirical methods. It has been shown that colchicine forms stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry with monovalent metal cations. For Li + cations also formation of the 2:1 stoichiometry complexes has been detected. The most stable structures of the complexes are those in which the acetamide groups are involved in the coordination process. The structures of the colchicine complexes with Li +, Na + and K + cations are visualized and discussed in details.

  11. Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shefali; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) is a dicopper enzyme that plays a vital role in the amidation of glycine-extended pro-peptides. One of the crucial aspects of its chemistry is the transfer of two electrons from an electron-storing and -transferring site (CuH) to the oxygen binding site and catalytic center (CuM) over a distance of 11 Å during one catalytic turnover event. Here we present our studies of the first electron transfer (ET) step (reductive phase) in wild-type (WT) PHM as well as its variants. Stopped flow was used to record the reduction kinetic traces using the chromophoric agent N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) as the reductant. The reduction was found to be biphasic in the WT PHM with an initial fast phase (17.2 s(-1)) followed by a much slower phase (0.46 s(-1)). We were able to ascribe the fast and slow phase to the CuH and CuM sites, respectively, by making use of the H242A and H107AH108A mutants that contain only the CuH site and CuM site, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the redox potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry were 270 mV (CuH site) and -15 mV (CuM site), but binding of substrate (Ac-YVG) was found to alter both potentials so that they converged to a common value of 83 mV. Substrate binding also accelerated the slow reductive phase by ~10-fold, an effect that could be explained at least partially by the equalization of the reduction potential of the copper centers. Studies of H108A showed that the ET to the CuM site is blocked, highlighting the role of the H108 ligand as a component of the reductive ET pathway. Strikingly, the rate of reduction of the H172A variant was unaffected despite the rate of catalysis being 3 orders of magnitude slower than that of the WT PHM. These studies strongly indicate that the reductive phase and catalytic phase ET pathways are different and suggest a bifurcated ET pathway in PHM. We propose that H172 and Y79 form part of an alternate pathway for the catalytic phase

  12. Validation of a Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Exemestane and Its Metabolites, 17β-Hydroxyexemestane and 17β-Hydroxyexemestane-17-O-β-D-Glucuronide: Application to Human Pharmacokinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Sok-Hwei; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Lau, Jie-Ying Amelia; Wan, Seow-Ching; Lee, Soo-Chin; Ho, Paul C.; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2015-01-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the evaluation of exemestane pharmacokinetics and its metabolites, 17β-dihydroexemestane (active metabolite) and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide (inactive metabolite) in human plasma. Their respective D3 isotopes were used as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using Thermo Fisher BDS Hypersil C18 analytic HPLC column (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was delivered at a rate of 0.5 mL/min by gradient elution with 0.1 % aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. The column effluents were detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Mass transitions 297 > 121 m/z, 300 > 121 m/z, 299 > 135 m/z, 302 > 135 m/z, 475 > 281 m/z, and 478 > 284 m/z were monitored for exemestane, exemestane-d3, 17β-dihydroexemestane, 17β-dihydroexemestane-d3, 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide, and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide-d3 respectively. The assay demonstrated linear ranges of 0.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, for exemestane; and 0.2 – 15.0 ng/mL, for 17β-dihydroexemestane and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide, with coefficient of determination (r2) of > 0.998. The precision (coefficient of variation) were ≤10.7%, 7.7% and 9.5% and the accuracies ranged from 88.8 to 103.1% for exemestane, 98.5 to 106.1% for 17β-dihydroexemestane and 92.0 to 103.2% for 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetics/dynamics study in breast cancer patients receiving exemestane 25mg daily orally. For a representative patient, 20.7% of exemestane in plasma was converted into 17β-dihydroexemestane and 29.0% of 17β-dihydroexemestane was inactivated as 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide 24 hours after ingestion of

  13. Quantification of pravastatin acid, lactone and isomers in human plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pediatric pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, Leon; Gibson, Kim T; Leeder, J Steven; Wagner, Jonathan B

    2016-02-15

    An ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of pravastatin and major metabolites, 3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin, pravalactone and 3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone, in human plasma has been developed and validated. Aliquots of (100μL) plasma in EDTA were diluted in pH 4.5 (0.1M buffer) to stabilize the analytes and subjected to hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase extraction on 96 well μelution plates. Extracted samples were evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in pH 4.5 buffer. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Cortecs™ C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.8μm), using gradient elution with a blend of acetonitrile and 10mM methylammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) switching between positive/negative electrospay ionization (ESI). Pravastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin, and internal standards [(2)H3]-pravastatin, and [(2)H3]-3'α-hydroxy-pravastatin were monitored in negative ESI mode at ion transitions m/z 423.2→321.1 and 426.2→321.1, respectively. Positive ESI mode was used for the detection of pravalactone, 3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone, and internal standards [(2)H3]-pravalactone, and [(2)H3]-3'α-hydroxy-pravalactone at ion transitions m/z 438.2→183.1 and 441.2→269.1 respectively. The method was linear for all analytes in the concentration range 0.5-200nM with intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of ≤5.2% and accuracy (as relative error) of ≤8.0% at all quality control levels. The method was successfully applied to the investigation of pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin and its metabolites in children after an oral dose of 20-40mg. PMID:26849185

  14. An improved LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of pyrazinamide, pyrazinoic acid and 5-hydroxy pyrazinoic acid in human plasma for a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyanka A; Sharma, Primal; Shah, Jaivik V; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the plasma levels of PZA and its two active metabolites, pyrazinoic acid (PA) and 5-hydroxy pyrazinoic acid (5-OH PA) were determined by a sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method. The analytes and their labeled internal standards were extracted from 200μL plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether: diethyl ether (90:10, v/v) under acidic conditions. Their separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) column using methanol and 0.1% acetic acid (65:35, v/v) as the mobile phase within 4.0min. Detection and quantitation were done by multiple reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer following the transitions, m/z 124.1→81.1,m/z 125.0→80.9 and m/z 141.0→81.0 for PZA, PA and 5-OH PA respectively in the positive ionization mode. All the analytes were baseline resolved with a resolution factor of 3.3 and 6.4 between PZA and its metabolites, PA and 5-OH PA respectively. The calibration curves were linear from 0.100-30.0μg/mL, 0.03-9.00μg/mL and 0.002-0.600μg/mL for PZA, PA and 5-OH PA respectively with r(2)≥0.9980 for all the analytes. The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy and precision (% CV) across quality controls varied from 93.5-106.7% and 1.10-4.57 respectively for all the analytes. The mean extraction recovery of PZA, PA and 5-OH PA was 83.7%, 89.2% and 80.8% respectively, which was consistent at higher as well as lower concentration levels. The% change in the stability of analytes under different storage conditions ranged -6.7 to 7.1 for all the analytes. The method was applied to assess the comparative bioavailability of a 500mg PZA test and reference formulation in healthy subjects. The assay reproducibility was also tested by reanalysis of 22 incurred subject samples. PMID:26945134

  15. A study of whirlin isoforms in the mouse vestibular system suggests potential vestibular dysfunction in DFNB31-deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Pranav Dinesh; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Vashist, Deepti; Jones, Sherri M; Jones, Timothy A; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-15

    The DFNB31 gene plays an indispensable role in the cochlea and retina. Mutations in this gene disrupt its various isoforms and lead to non-syndromic deafness, blindness and deaf-blindness. However, the known expression of Dfnb31, the mouse ortholog of DFNB31, in vestibular organs and the potential vestibular-deficient phenotype observed in one Dfnb31 mutant mouse (Dfnb31(wi/wi)) suggest that DFNB31 may also be important for vestibular function. In this study, we find that full-length (FL-) and C-terminal (C-) whirlin isoforms are expressed in the vestibular organs, where their stereociliary localizations are similar to those of developing cochlear inner hair cells. No whirlin is detected in Dfnb31(wi/wi) vestibular organs, while only C-whirlin is expressed in Dfnb31(neo/neo) vestibular organs. Both FL- and C-whirlin isoforms are required for normal vestibular stereociliary growth, although they may play slightly different roles in the central and peripheral zones of the crista ampullaris. Vestibular sensory-evoked potentials demonstrate severe to profound vestibular deficits in Dfnb31(neo/neo) and Dfnb31(wi/wi) mice. Swimming and rotarod tests demonstrate that the two Dfnb31 mutants have balance problems, with Dfnb31(wi/wi) mice being more affected than Dfnb31(neo/neo) mice. Because Dfnb31(wi/wi) and Dfnb31(neo/neo) mice faithfully recapitulate hearing and vision symptoms in patients, our findings of vestibular dysfunction in these Dfnb31 mutants raise the question of whether DFNB31-deficient patients may acquire vestibular as well as hearing and vision loss. PMID:26420843

  16. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

    PubMed Central

    Sajeesh, Thankarajan; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%), the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P < 0.001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+)-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments. PMID:24672339

  17. Development, optimization and validation of a highly sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of amlodipine, benazeprile and benazeprilat in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Badr, Kamal A

    2014-09-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine (AML), benazepril (BEN) and benazeprilat (BNT) using eplerenone and torsemide as internal standards (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Sample preparation involves both extraction and precipitation techniques. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.45ml/min. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.1-5ng/ml for AML; 5-1200ng/ml for both BEN and BNT. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A run time of 2.5min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. PMID:24863555

  18. Escherichia coli Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein: NanoESI-MS Studies of Salt-Modulated Subunit Exchange and DNA Binding Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Claire E.; Jergic, Slobodan; Lo, Allen T. Y.; Wang, Yao; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Beck, Jennifer L.

    2013-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are ubiquitous oligomeric proteins that bind with very high affinity to single-stranded DNA and have a variety of essential roles in DNA metabolism. Nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) was used to monitor subunit exchange in full-length and truncated forms of the homotetrameric SSB from Escherichia coli. Subunit exchange in the native protein was found to occur slowly over a period of hours, but was significantly more rapid in a truncated variant of SSB from which the eight C-terminal residues were deleted. This effect is proposed to result from C-terminus mediated stabilization of the SSB tetramer, in which the C-termini interact with the DNA-binding cores of adjacent subunits. NanoESI-MS was also used to examine DNA binding to the SSB tetramer. Binding of single-stranded oligonucleotides [one molecule of (dT)70, one molecule of (dT)35, or two molecules of (dT)35] was found to prevent SSB subunit exchange. Transfer of SSB tetramers between discrete oligonucleotides was also observed and is consistent with predictions from solution-phase studies, suggesting that SSB-DNA complexes can be reliably analyzed by ESI mass spectrometry.

  19. [Proteomics studies on arthritis by SELDI-TOF-MS: identification of the S100 proteins family as proteins of interest].

    PubMed

    De Seny, D; Ribbens, C; Cobraiville, G; Meuwis, M A; Marée, R; Geurts, P; Wehenkel, L; Louis, E; Merville, M P; Fillet, M; Malaise, M G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical proteomics is a technical approach studying the entire proteome expressed by cells, tissues or organs. It describes the dynamics of cell regulation by detecting molecular events related to diseases development. Proteomic techniques focus mainly on identification of new biomarkers or new therapeutic targets. It is a multidisciplinary approach using medical, biological, bioanalytical and bioinformatics knowledges. A strong collaboration between these fields allowed SELDI-TOF-MS proteomics studies to be performed at the CHU and the University of Liège, in GIGA-Research facilities. The aim of these studies was driven along three main axes of research related to the identification of biomarkers specific to a studied pathology, to a common biological pathway and, finally, to a treatment response. This work was presented in the setting of the "Synthèse CHU 2009" meeting. PMID:20085013

  20. Coronavirus mRNA transcription: UV light transcriptional mapping studies suggest an early requirement for a genomic-length template.

    PubMed Central

    Yokomori, K; Banner, L R; Lai, M M

    1992-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) synthesizes seven to eight mRNAs, each of which contains a leader RNA derived from the 5' end of the genome. To understand the mechanism of synthesis of these mRNAs, we studied how the synthesis of each mRNA was affected by UV irradiation at different time points after infection. When MHV-infected cells were UV irradiated at a late time in infection (5 h postinfection), the syntheses of the various mRNAs were inhibited to different extents in proportion to the sizes of the mRNAs. Analysis of the UV inactivation kinetics revealed that the UV target size of each mRNA was equivalent to its own physical size. In contrast, when cells were irradiated at 2.5 or 3 h postinfection, there appeared to be two different kinetics of inhibition of mRNA synthesis: the synthesis of every mRNA was inhibited to the same extent by a small UV dose, but the remaining mRNA synthesis was inhibited by additional UV doses at different rates for different mRNAs in proportion to RNA size. The analysis of the UV inactivation kinetics indicated that the UV target sizes for the majority of mRNAs were equivalent to that of the genomic-size RNA early in the infection. These results suggest that MHV mRNA synthesis requires the presence of a genomic-length RNA template at least early in the infection. In contrast, later in the infection, the sizes of the templates used for mRNA synthesis were equivalent to the physical sizes of each mRNA. The possibility that the genomic-length RNA required early in the infection was used only for the synthesis of a polymerase rather than as a template for mRNA synthesis was ruled out by examining the UV sensitivity of a defective interfering (DI) RNA. We found that the UV target size for the DI RNA early in infection was much smaller than that for mRNAs 6 and 7, which are approximately equal to or smaller in size than the DI RNA. This result indicates that even though DI RNA and viral mRNAs are synthesized by the same polymerase, m

  1. Simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetylcorynoline in human urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to a urinary excretion study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijuan; Zheng, Lu; Cheng, Minlu; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-03-01

    Corynoline and acetycorynoline, the major active components derived from Corydalis bungeana Herba, showed multiple pharmacological activities. However, quantification of the two compounds in human urine has not been reported. A simple liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human urine has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from urine samples by simple liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2C18 column with the mobile phase of water (containing 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (28:72, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 368.1→289.1 for corynoline, m/z 410.2→289.2 for acetycorynoline and m/z 380.2→243.2 for donepezil (internal standard), respectively. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficients>0.9970) over the concentration ranges of 3.0-3000pg/mL for corynoline and 3.0-1000pg/mL for acetycorynoline. The established method was highly sensitive with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 3.0pg/mL for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was lower than 10% in terms of relative standard deviation for the low, medium, and high quality control samples, and lower than 16% for the LLOQ samples of the analytes. The accuracy was within ±10% in terms of relative error for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion study after oral administration of the Chinese medicine formula Shuanghua Baihe tablets in healthy volunteers. The urinary excretion profiles of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human were first reported. The results of this study suggest that renal excretion was not the main excretion pathway of corynoline and acetycorynoline in humans. PMID:26882127

  2. Analytical Approaches Based on Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to Study Organic Materials in Artworks and Archaeological Objects.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-02-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), after appropriate wet chemical sample pre-treatments or pyrolysis, is one of the most commonly adopted analytical techniques in the study of organic materials from cultural heritage objects. Organic materials in archaeological contexts, in classical art objects, or in modern and contemporary works of art may be the same or belong to the same classes, but can also vary considerably, often presenting different ageing pathways and chemical environments. This paper provides an overview of the literature published in the last 10 years on the research based on the use of GC/MS for the analysis of organic materials in artworks and archaeological objects. The latest progresses in advancing analytical approaches, characterising materials and understanding their degradation, and developing methods for monitoring their stability are discussed. Case studies from the literature are presented to examine how the choice of the working conditions and the analytical approaches is driven by the analytical and technical question to be answered, as well as the nature of the object from which the samples are collected. PMID:27572989

  3. In vitro duodenal lipolysis of lipid-based drug delivery systems studied by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wulff-Pérez, Miguel; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Martín-Rodríguez, Antonio; de Vicente, Juan; Gálvez-Ruíz, María J

    2014-04-25

    Oral drug delivery systems based on lipids are biodegraded in a process called lipolysis to release free fatty acids and monoglycerides. The rate of this lipolysis is usually measured by pH titration. Nevertheless, this technique has some limitations, such as not providing any information about the actual composition of the lipolytic products. In this study, we propose a method to analyze these products during and after lipolysis using HPLC. For the first time, HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS have been used to investigate in vitro duodenal lipolysis of long- and medium-chain triglycerides nanoemulsions. These results have been compared with pH titration, revealing the complementarity of both techniques. The main free fatty acids and monoglycerides produced were effectively identified and quantified as they were formed and after the lipolysis experiment and subsequent ultracentrifugation. The release of fatty acids during lipolysis was qualitatively similar between the compared techniques, although a partial precipitation of medium chain fatty acids could be revealed with HPLC-MS. In addition, the release of two hydrophobic compounds with health benefits, oleoylethanolamide and carnosic acid, was investigated. In conclusion, this study may serve as a starting point for subsequent investigations regarding biodegradation and absorption of lipid-based drug delivery systems using HPLC. PMID:24560636

  4. Suggested Guidelines for the Development of Courses of Study in Health Education for Junior and Senior High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Both personal and societal aims were cited as the motivating factors for the prototypical, comprehensive health education program outlined here. Cautions and recommendations concerning the program's implementation comprise the introduction. Preliminary material includes a suggested teaching format and a flexible grade placement scheme. The program…

  5. A Corpus-Based System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion for Spanish Learners in Taiwan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hui-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Compared with English learners, Spanish learners have fewer resources for automatic error detection and revision and following the current integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), we combined corpus-based approach and CALL to create the System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion (SEDRS) for learning Spanish. Through…

  6. Cognitive impairment in MS: rehabilitation approaches.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, P; Rosti-Otajärvi, E

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in 45%-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Like other symptoms of MS, cognitive deficits are highly variable. Slowed information processing and memory and learning dysfunction are regarded as the most frequent cognitive deficits in MS. Both white and gray matter damages have been suggested to contribute to cognitive impairments in MS. There is no direct relationship between cognitive deficits and physical disability, disease duration or course of the disease. In addition to cognitive impairments, neuropsychiatric symptoms are observed in MS, the most common being alterations in mood state. Neurobehavioral deficits have multidimensional effects on the activities of daily living and quality of life. Consequently, attention should be paid to early diagnosis and treatment. Based on studies on cognitive retraining and more multimodal neuropsychological rehabilitation, both approaches show promise in the treatment of cognitive impairments and their harmful effects. This review introduces the frequency and characteristics of cognitive impairments, as well as main findings on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation in MS. PMID:27580900

  7. Functional magnetic resonance connectivity studies in infants born preterm: suggestions of proximate and long-lasting changes in language organization.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soo Hyun; Scheinost, Dustin; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen; Dai, Feng; Sze, Gordon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated neuroimaging strategies demonstrate alterations in functional connectivity at school age, adolescence, and young adulthood in individuals born preterm. Recent data suggest these alterations are present in the postnatal period prior to term-equivalent age in neonates born preterm. Likewise, functional organization increases across development, but the influence of preterm birth on this fundamental infrastructure is immediate and unchanging. This article briefly reviews the current methods of measuring functional connectivity throughout development in those born preterm, and the association of functional connectivity with language disorders. Taken together, these data suggest that the effects of preterm birth on the functional organization of language in the developing brain are both proximate and long-lasting. PMID:27027605

  8. LC-MS based metabolomics and chemometrics study of the toxic effects of copper on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Farrés, Mireia; Piña, Benjamí; Tauler, Romà

    2016-08-01

    Copper containing fungicides are used to protect vineyards from fungal infections. Higher residues of copper in grapes at toxic concentrations are potentially toxic and affect the microorganisms living in vineyards, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the response of the metabolic profiles of S. cerevisiae at different concentrations of copper sulphate (control, 1 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM) was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Peak areas of the MCR-ALS resolved elution profiles in control and in Cu(ii)-treated samples were compared using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and PLS-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the intracellular metabolites best contributing to sample discrimination were selected and identified. Fourteen metabolites showed significant concentration changes upon Cu(ii) exposure, following a dose-response effect. The observed changes were consistent with the expected effects of Cu(ii) toxicity, including oxidative stress and DNA damage. This research confirmed that LC-MS based metabolomics coupled to chemometric methods are a powerful approach for discerning metabolomics changes in S. cerevisiae and for elucidating modes of toxicity of environmental stressors, including heavy metals like Cu(ii). PMID:27302082

  9. Chemometric study of the influence of instrumental parameters on ESI-MS analyte response using full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, M. A.; Schug, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between instrumental parameters in two mass spectrometers equipped with conventional electrospray ion sources (Thermo LCQ Deca XP and Shimadzu LCMS 2010). Four major parameters (spray voltage, ion transfer capillary temperature, ion transfer capillary voltage, and tube lens voltage) were investigated in both instruments for their contribution to analyte response, leading to a total of 16 experiments performed for each instrument. Significant parameters were identified by plotting the cumulative probability of each treatment against the estimated effects in normal plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on ESI-MS analyte response. The results reveal a number of important interactions in addition to the main effects for each instrument. In all the experiments performed, the tube lens voltage (or Q-array dc voltage in LCMS 2010) was found to have significant effects on analyte response in both instruments. The tube lens voltage was also found to interact with the capillary temperature in the case of the LCQ Deca XP and with the spray voltage in the case of the LCMS 2010. The results of these experiments provide important considerations in the instrumental optimization of ionization response for ESI-MS analysis.

  10. Using Hypnotic Suggestion to Model Loss of Control and Awareness of Movements: An Exploratory fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, David A.; Bell, Vaughan; Koppel, Cristina; Mehta, Mitul A.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The feeling of voluntary control and awareness of movement is fundamental to our notions of selfhood and responsibility for actions, yet can be lost in neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. delusions of control, non-epileptic seizures) and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g. attributions of spirit possession). The brain processes involved remain poorly understood. We used suggestion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate loss of control and awareness of right hand movements in 15 highly hypnotically suggestible subjects. Loss of perceived control of movements was associated with reduced connectivity between supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor regions. Reduced awareness of involuntary movements was associated with less activation in parietal cortices (BA 7, BA 40) and insula. Collectively these results suggest that the sense of voluntary control of movement may critically depend on the functional coupling of SMA with motor systems, and provide a potential neural basis for the narrowing of awareness reported in pathological and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena. PMID:24205198

  11. Development and utilization of a combined LC-UV and LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of tegafur and 5-fluorouracil in human plasma to support a phase I clinical study of oral UFT®/leucovorin.

    PubMed

    Peer, Cody J; McManus, Terence J; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Petros, William P

    2012-06-01

    Tegafur is a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug widely used outside the United States to treat colorectal cancer as well as cancers of the head and neck. The resulting plasma concentrations of tegafur are much higher than those of 5-FU; thus, analytical methods are needed that are sensitive enough to detect low plasma concentrations of 5-FU and robust enough to simultaneously analyze tegafur. Previous LC-MS/MS methods have either failed to demonstrate the ability to simultaneously measure low 5-FU and high tegafur plasma levels, or failed to be applicable in clinical studies. Our goal was to develop a method capable of measuring low concentrations of 5-FU (8-200 ng/ml) and high concentrations of tegafur (800-20,000 ng/ml) in human plasma and to subsequently evaluate the utility of the method in patient samples collected during a phase I clinical study where oral doses of either 200mg or 300 mg UF®/LV (uracil and tegafur in a 4:1 molar ratio plus leucovorin) were administered. A combined LC-MS/MS and LC-UV method was developed utilizing negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization (API). The method provides an accuracy and precision of <10% and <6%, respectively, for both analytes. Material recoveries from the liquid-liquid extraction technique were 97-110% and 86-91% for tegafur and 5-FU, respectively. Utilization of this method to determine tegafur and 5-FU plasma concentrations followed by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses successfully estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (C(MAX), t(MAX) and AUC(0-10h)) in the clinical study patients. Overall, this method is ideal for the simultaneous bioanalysis of low levels of 5-FU and relatively higher levels of its prodrug, tegafur, in human plasma for clinical pharmacokinetic analysis. PMID:22565063

  12. Inclusion complex of a new propiconazole derivative with β-cyclodextrin: NMR, ESI–MS and preliminary pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Marangoci, Narcisa; Mares, Mihai; Silion, Mihaela; Fifere, Adrian; Varganici, Cristian; Nicolescu, Alina; Deleanu, Calin; Coroaba, Adina; Pinteala, Mariana; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel inclusion complex of the propiconazole nitrate (NO3PCZ) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared by treatment of propiconazole (PCZ) with an acidic nitrating agent. The formation of NO3PCZ and its inclusion complex with β-CD has been studied by NMR, ESI–MS, TGA, DSC methods. Using the undecoupled signal in the HMBC correlation spectra, almost identical coupling constants of CH from trizolic ring of PCZ and NO3PCZ compounds (1J(HC)3=207 Hz, 1J(CH)5=214 Hz, for PCZ; 1J(HC)3=208 Hz and 1J(CH)5=215 Hz, for NO3PCZ) were determined, confirming that the geometry of the heterocyclic skeleton is identical in both the forms. The 1:1 stoichiometry of the complex was determined by ESI–MS and was confirmed using Scott's equation in DMSO and Higuchi and Connors equation in water. The solubility curve obtained for NO3PCZ in presence of β-CD in distilled water was constructed, resulting in a solubility diagram of AL type. Solubility of NO3PCZ in water was determined by DLS studies. The results showed that NO3PCZ was encapsulated within the β-CD cavity with a binding constant of 330 M-1 in DMSO and 975 M-1 in water. Preliminary pharmacological studies showed higher antifungal activities for NO3PCZ and its inclusion complex, compared with its PCZ analog. The acute toxicity of the complex is smaller than the pure or modified drug, recommending the inclusion complex as future promising therapeutic agents. PMID:25755979

  13. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline in human plasma: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hotha, Kishore Kumar; Ravindranath, L K; Veera, K N Jaya; Kumar, K Kishore; Reddy, Y Ramachandra; Jagadeesh, B; Rao, D V Narayana; Bharathi, D Vijaya; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of nortriptyline (NTP) and 10-hydroxynortriptyline (OH-NTP) in human plasma (250 µL) using carbamazepine as an internal standard (IS). LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray ionization technique. A simple liquid-liquid extraction process was used to extract NTP, OH-NTP and IS from human plasma. The total run time was 2.5 min and the elution of NTP, OH-NTP and IS occurred at 1.44, 1.28 and 1.39 min, respectively; this was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 20 mm ammonium acetate : acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min on a HyPURITY C(18) column. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 1.09 ng/mL for both NTP and OH-NTP. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 1.09-30.0 ng/mL (r > 0.998) for both NTP and OH-NTP. The intra- and inter-day precision values for NTP and OH-NTP met the acceptance as per FDA guidelines. NTP and OH-NTP were stable in a battery of stability studies, i.e. bench-top, auto-sampler and freeze-thaw cycles. The developed assay was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans. PMID:20853465

  14. A Multi-Center Controlled Study of the Acute and Chronic Effects of Cooling Therapy for MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, Bernadette; Schwid, Steven W.; Cutter, Gary; Murray, Ronald; Bowen, James; Pellegrino, Richard; Guisado, Raul; Webbon, Bruce W.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To determine the acute and chronic effects of cooling therapy on patients with MS using objective functional performance measures and self-assessed measures of fatigue. Cooling demyelinated nerves can reduce conduction block, potentially improving symptoms of MS. Significant acute and chronic effects of cooling have not been demonstrated in a multi-center, controlled, blinded study using objective measures of neurologic function. Patients (N=84) with definite MS, mild to moderate disability (EDSS less than 6.0), and self-reported heat sensitivity were enrolled at 5 study sites. Acute effects of cooling were assessed by randomly assigning subjects to high-dose or low-dose cooling for one hour using an active cooling vest and cap (Life Enhancement Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Settings were individualized to maintain the cooling garments at 55 F for the high-dose treatment and 70 F for the low-dose treatment. Both patients and examining investigators were blinded to treatment assignments. The MSFC and visual acuity/contrast sensitivity were assessed before and 30 minutes after treatment. The following week, subjects had an identical visit with the alternate cooling treatment. Chronic effects of cooling were assessed by randomly assigning the same subjects to unblinded daily home cooling or observation for 4 weeks. All subjects completed the Rochester Fatigue Diary (RFD) twice weekly and subjective measures of strength, cognition, and energy level daily. At the end of the period, subjects completed the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and underwent another high-dose cooling session with assessment of the MSFC and vision. After a one-week washout period, subjects crossed over to the alternate 4-week treatment. Oral temperatures were reduced with both acute treatments (0.8 +/- .06 F, high and 0.5 +/- .06 F, low). While mean MSFC did not change significantly during individual cooling sessions, post hoc analysis pooling the 3 high-dose cooling sessions revealed an

  15. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  16. Comparative studies of Remazol Brillant Blue removal by immobilized organisms; investigation of metabolites by GC/MS and FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Topuz, Merve Canpolat

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from textile industries. Treatment of effluents from dye-based industries poses a major problem, and biotreatment with white rot fungi seems to be a viable option. The biological treatment of synthetic dyes at a low cost and in the shortest possible time is used especially in dye and textile industries and leads to pollution in the wastewater dumped into the environment by these industries. For this study, decolorization of the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilized Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus plicatilis was investigated. This dye was removed 100% (dye concentration: 10.0 mg/L) by both immobilized organisms. Extracellular ligninolytic enzyme activities were also measured during the decolorization. There was an attempt to identify metabolites with FTIR spectrometry and GC/MS at the end of the decolorization. These results indicated that the samples did not include any detectable metabolite. PMID:25905752

  17. X-ray Crystallographic Studies of Substrate Binding to Aristolochene Synthase Suggest a Metal Ion Binding Sequence for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shishova,E.; Yu, F.; Miller, D.; Faraldos, J.; Zhao, Y.; Coates, R.; Allemann, R.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

    2008-01-01

    The universal sesquiterpene precursor, farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), is cyclized in an Mg2+-dependent reaction catalyzed by the tetrameric aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus to form the bicyclic hydrocarbon aristolochene and a pyrophosphate anion (PPi) coproduct. The 2.1- Angstroms resolution crystal structure determined from crystals soaked with FPP reveals the binding of intact FPP to monomers A-C, and the binding of PPi and Mg2+B to monomer D. The 1.89- Angstroms resolution structure of the complex with 2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate (2F-FPP) reveals 2F-FPP binding to all subunits of the tetramer, with Mg2+Baccompanying the binding of this analogue only in monomer D. All monomers adopt open activesite conformations in these complexes, but slight structural changes in monomers C and D of each complex reflect the very initial stages of a conformational transition to the closed state. Finally, the 2.4- Angstroms resolution structure of the complex with 12,13-difluorofarnesyl diphosphate (DF-FPP) reveals the binding of intact DF-FPP to monomers A-C in the open conformation and the binding of PPi, Mg2+B, and Mg2+C to monomer D in a predominantly closed conformation. Taken together, these structures provide 12 independent 'snapshots' of substrate or product complexes that suggest a possible sequence for metal ion binding and conformational changes required for catalysis.

  18. Intrinsic Functional Hypoconnectivity in Core Neurocognitive Networks Suggests Central Nervous System Pathology in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Marcie L; Zinn, Mark A; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-09-01

    Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) was recorded from nineteen EEG channels in nine patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and 9 healthy controls to assess current source density and functional connectivity, a physiological measure of similarity between pairs of distributed regions of interest, between groups. Current source density and functional connectivity were measured using eLORETA software. We found significantly decreased eLORETA source analysis oscillations in the occipital, parietal, posterior cingulate, and posterior temporal lobes in Alpha and Alpha-2. For connectivity analysis, we assessed functional connectivity within Menon triple network model of neuropathology. We found support for all three networks of the triple network model, namely the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and the default mode network (DMN) indicating hypo-connectivity in the Delta, Alpha, and Alpha-2 frequency bands in patients with ME compared to controls. In addition to the current source density resting state dysfunction in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal and posterior cingulate, the disrupted connectivity of the CEN, SN, and DMN appears to be involved in cognitive impairment for patients with ME. This research suggests that disruptions in these regions and networks could be a neurobiological feature of the disorder, representing underlying neural dysfunction. PMID:26869373

  19. Studies of Peptide:N-glycnase-p97 Interaction Suggest that p97 Phosphorylation Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao,G.; Zhou, X.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Schindelin, H.; Lennarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    During endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, the multifunctional AAA ATPase p97 is part of a protein degradation complex. p97 associates via its N-terminal domain with various cofactors to recruit ubiquitinated substrates. It also interacts with alternative substrate-processing cofactors, such as Ufd2, Ufd3, and peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) in higher eukaryotes. These cofactors determine different fates of the substrates and they all bind outside of the N-terminal domain of p97. Here, we describe a cofactor-binding motif of p97 contained within the last 10 amino acid residues of the C terminus, which is both necessary and sufficient to mediate interactions of p97 with PNGase and Ufd3. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of PNGase in complex with this motif provides detailed insight into the interaction between p97 and its substrate-processing cofactors. Phosphorylation of p97's highly conserved penultimate tyrosine residue, which is the main phosphorylation site during T cell receptor stimulation, completely blocks binding of either PNGase or Ufd3 to p97. This observation suggests that phosphorylation of this residue modulates endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation activity by discharging substrate-processing cofactors.

  20. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC. PMID:26777878

  1. A Study of the Presence of Gunshot Residue in Pittsburgh Police Stations using SEM/EDS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Leah; Brown, Kyle; Castellano, Holly; Wetzel, Stephanie J

    2016-07-01

    Due to possible secondary transfer of gunshot residue (GSR) onto a suspect in police custody prior to sampling, a baseline must be created for the amount of GSR present. With an increase of "lead free" ammunition, testing for both gunpowder and primer GSR is relevant. Seventy samples were collected using carbon-coated adhesive stubs from four Pittsburgh Police Stations and vehicles to investigate these locations as sources of secondary GSR contamination. These seventy samples were analyzed for primer GSR using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. One primer GSR particle was detected; no sample was classified as positive for primer GSR. These same samples were then analyzed for gunpowder GSR using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to test for akardite II, ethylcentralite, diphenylamine, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-nitrodiphenylamine, and 4-nitrodiphenylamine. Ethylcentralite was quantifiable in two test samples. These results suggest there is a negligible potential for secondary transfer of primer and gunpowder GSR. PMID:27364271

  2. A comparative study of ballpoint ink ageing parameters using GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Agnès; Magnolon, Sophie; Weyermann, Céline

    2015-07-01

    For more than a decade scientists tried to develop methods capable of dating ink by monitoring the loss of phenoxyethanol (PE) over time. While many methods were proposed in the literature, few were really used to solve practical cases and they still raise much concern within the scientific community. In fact, due to the complexity of ink drying processes it is particularly difficult to find a reliable ageing parameter to reproducibly follow ink ageing. Moreover, systematic experiments are required in order to evaluate how different factors actually influence the results over time. Therefore, this work aimed at evaluating the capacity of four different ageing parameters to reliably follow ink ageing over time: (1) the quantity of solvent PE in an ink line, (2) the relative peak area (RPA) normalising the PE results using stable volatile compounds present in the ink formulation, (3) the solvent loss ratio (R%) calculated from PE results obtained by the analyses of naturally and artificially aged samples, (4) a modified solvent loss ratio version (R%*) calculated from RPA results. After the determination of the limits of reliable measurements of the analytical method, the repeatability of the different ageing parameters was evaluated over time, as well as the influence of ink composition, writing pressure and storage conditions on the results. Surprisingly, our results showed that R% was not the most reliable parameter, as it showed the highest standard deviation. Discussion of the results in an ink dating perspective suggests that other proposed parameters, such as RPA values, may be more adequate to follow ink ageing over time. PMID:25989257

  3. A study of turbulence near thunderstorm tops. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantley, Kim Christine

    1989-01-01

    It has been known for many years that turbulence significant for aviation often occurs near thunderstorm tops. However, that turbulence is not well-predicted because of an incomplete understanding of the processes which generate it and because of inadequate observations. The current study seeks to alleviate these problems via: (1) a comprehensive review of recent theoretical and experimental studies related to turbulence near thunderstorm tops (TNTT), and (2) three case studies designed to examine the feasibility of using data derived from commercial aircraft to study TNTT. The literature review revealed extensive evidence which showed that convection often produces significant barrier effects; several mesoscale phenomena capable of producing turbulence may occur, depending on wind and stability conditions near the thunderstorm tops. These include two- and three-dimensional lee waves, rotors, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and Karman vortices. Conventional meteorological data were combined with data derived from the aircraft flight tapes to produce quantitative descriptions of the turbulence and its mesoscale environment for the three cases.

  4. LC-MS Analysis of Human Platelets as a Platform for Studying Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Worth, Andrew J; Marchione, Dylan M; Parry, Robert C; Wang, Qingqing; Gillespie, Kevin P; Saillant, Noelle N; Sims, Carrie; Mesaros, Clementina; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Blair, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    Perturbed mitochondrial metabolism has received renewed interest as playing a causative role in a range of diseases. Probing alterations to metabolic pathways requires a model in which external factors can be well controlled, allowing for reproducible and meaningful results. Many studies employ transformed cellular models for these purposes; however, metabolic reprogramming that occurs in many cancer cell lines may introduce confounding variables. For this reason primary cells are desirable, though attaining adequate biomass for metabolic studies can be challenging. Here we show that human platelets can be utilized as a platform to carry out metabolic studies in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. This approach is amenable to relative quantification and isotopic labeling to probe the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Availability of platelets from individual donors or from blood banks makes this model system applicable to clinical studies and feasible to scale up. Here we utilize isolated platelets to confirm previously identified compensatory metabolic shifts in response to the complex I inhibitor rotenone. More specifically, a decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by an increase in fatty acid oxidation to maintain acetyl-CoA levels. Our results show that platelets can be used as an easily accessible and medically relevant model to probe the effects of xenobiotics on cellular metabolism. PMID:27077278

  5. A validated enantioselective LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of a major chiral metabolite of an achiral 11-β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 inhibitor in human plasma: Application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael T; Ji, Qin C; Iacono, Lisa; Dang, Oanh; Noren, Marzena; Bruce, John; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    BMS-823778 is a potent 11-β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD-1) inhibitor and a potential therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to enable reliable separation and quantification of both enantiomers of a chiral hydroxy metabolite (BMT-094817) in human plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction in a 96-well plate format, chromatographic separation of the metabolite enantiomers was achieved by isocratic elution on a Chiralpak IA-3 column. Chromatographic conditions were optimized to ensure separation of both metabolite enantiomers. Metabolite enantiomers and stable isotope-labeled (SIL) internal standards were detected by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The LC-MS/MS assay was validated over a concentration range of 0.200-200ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay precision values for replicate quality control samples were less than 9.9% for both enantiomers during the assay validation. Mean quality control accuracy values were within ±7.3%. Assay recoveries were high (>75%) and consistent across the assay range. The metabolite enantiomers were stable in human blood for 2h on ice. The analytes were also stable in human plasma for 25h at room temperature, 34days at -20°C and -70°C, and following five freeze-thaw cycles. No interconversion of the metabolite enantiomers was detected under any bioanalytical stress conditions, from blood collection/processing through extracted sample storage. The validated assay was successfully applied to the quantification of both metabolite enantiomers in human plasma in support of a human pharmacokinetic study. PMID:27100678

  6. A UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.

    PubMed

    He, Bosai; Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Xiao, Feng; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-10-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR) decoction, consisting of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription, clinically used for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, the main active ingredients in SZR decoction, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Analytes and IS were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1, 6 and 1 ng/mL for spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of ferulic acid was observed between two groups, while absorptions of spinosin and mangiferin in insomnic group were significantly lower than those in normal group. PMID:23019165

  7. A selected ion flow tube study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+- with some phenols, phenyl alcohols and cyclic carbonyl compounds in support of SIFT-MS and PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2004-12-01

    We have carried out a selected ion flow tube (SIFT) study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+- with the following 10 compounds: 2-hydroxyphenol, 2-, 3- and 4-methylphenol (o-, m- and p-cresol, respectively), 4-ethylphenol, 1-phenylmethanol (benzyl alcohol), 1- and 2-phenylethanol, 1,4-benzoquinone and cyclohexanone. The primary purpose of this work was to extend the kinetics database to allow these compounds (M), to be analysed in air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The initial step in all the H3O+ reactions is exothermic proton transfer to produce MH+ ions, which are observed as the only products for seven of the ten reactions, but for the three aromatic alcohols, H2O molecule elimination occurred from the nascent MH+ ions producing the corresponding hydrocarbon ion. This is an essential point to recognise when exploiting proton transfer to analyse these compounds using SIFT-MS and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, PTR-MS. NO+ reacts with six of the compounds via non-dissociative charge transfer producing M+ ions and this is a valuable route to their analysis by SIFT-MS. In the case of the NO+/quinone reaction, adduct formation occurs giving NO+M product ions, whilst for the remaining three reactions two or more ion products were formed. All the O2+- reactions proceeded via charge transfer with multiple ion products in most cases. A sample analysis is carried out to indicate the value of simultaneous use of both H3O+ and NO+ precursor ions to analyse a mixture containing some of these compounds.

  8. Scanning electron microscopy study of adhesion in sea urchin blastulae. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowther, Susan D.

    1988-01-01

    The dissociation supernatant (DS) isolated by disaggregating Strongylocentrotus purpuratus blastulae in calcium- and magnesium-free seawater specifically promotes reaggregation of S. purpuratus blastula cells. The purpose of this study was to use scanning electron microscopy to examine the gross morphology of aggregates formed in the presence of DS to see if it resembles adhesion in partially dissociated blastulae. A new reaggregation procedure developed here, using large volumes of cell suspension and a large diameter of rotation, was utilized to obtain sufficient quantities of aggregates for scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that aggregates formed in the presence of DS resemble partially dissociated intact embryos in terms of the direct cell-cell adhesion observed. DS did not cause aggregation to form as a result of the entrapment of cells in masses of extracellular material. These studies provide the groundwork for further studies using transmission electron microscopy to more precisely define the adhesive contacts made by cells in the presence of the putative adhesion molecules present in DS.

  9. Metabonomic profiling in studying anti-osteoporosis effects of strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in rats by GC/TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Li, Xiaotian; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Di; Wang, Guangji; A, Jiye; Sun, Jianguo; Li, Jing; Liu, Yinhui; Wang, Yonglu; Ying, Hanjie

    2013-10-15

    A novel strontium salt compound strontium fructose 1, 6-diphosphate (FDP-Sr) has been proved to have highly effective for bone loss via dual effects of stimulating bone formation and suppressing bone absorption. In the present study, metabolomic approach was used to identify and study potential biomarkers associated with the effect and safety of FDP-Sr. The metabolomic profiles of bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in a rat model was described to attain a system-level map of the shift on the metabolic response in plasma using GC/TOF-MS, after FDP-Sr was orally administered at the dose of 110 mg/kg/day for the prevention and 220 mg/kg/day for the treatment. Meanwhile, bone turnover biomarkers and bone mineral density were investigated to identify the specific changes of potential anti-osteoporosis effects of FDP-Sr. The differences in metabolic profiles between osteoporosis rats and FDP-Sr treated rats were well observed by the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to the MS spectra. Some metabolites including homocysteine, arachidonic acid, alanine, and hydroxyproline, which significantly changed during osteoporosis progression could be effectively reversed after FDP-Sr therapy. Of course some metabolites such as uric acid, glyceric acid, octadecadienoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and hexadecanoic acid were not found to reverse significantly after FDP-Sr administration. These results delineated the FDP-Sr effects-related metabolic alterations in the bone loss rats, suggesting that metabonomic analysis could provide helpful information on the new potential biomarkers relating to the mechanism of anti-osteoporosis action and side effects of FDP-Sr against estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:23872379

  10. Structural Studies of Bacterioferritin B from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Suggest a Gating Mechanism for Iron Uptake via the Ferroxidase Center

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Lovell, Scott; Yao, Huili; Battaile, Kevin P.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Gee, Casey E.; Rivera, Mario

    2010-03-16

    The structure of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (Pa BfrB) has been determined from crystals grown from protein devoid of core mineral iron (as-isolated) and from protein mineralized with {approx}600 iron atoms (mineralized). Structures were also obtained from crystals grown from mineralized BfrB after they had been soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution (Fe soak) and in separate experiments after they had been soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution followed by a soak in a crystallization solution (double soak). Although the structures consist of a typical bacterioferritin fold comprised of a nearly spherical 24-mer assembly that binds 12 heme molecules, comparison of microenvironments observed in the distinct structures provided interesting insights. The ferroxidase center in the as-isolated, mineralized, and double-soak structures is empty. The ferroxidase ligands (except His130) are poised to bind iron with minimal conformational changes. The His130 side chain, on the other hand, must rotate toward the ferroxidase center to coordinate iron. In comparison, the structure obtained from crystals soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution displays a fully occupied ferroxidase center and iron bound to the internal, Fe{sub (in)}, and external, Fe{sub (out)}, surfaces of Pa BfrB. The conformation of His130 in this structure is rotated toward the ferroxidase center and coordinates an iron ion. The structures also revealed a pore on the surface of Pa BfrB that likely serves as a port of entry for Fe{sup 2+} to the ferroxidase center. On its opposite end, the pore is capped by the side chain of His130 when it adopts its 'gate-closed' conformation that enables coordination to a ferroxidase iron. A change to its 'gate-open', noncoordinative conformation creates a path for the translocation of iron from the ferroxidase center to the interior cavity. These structural observations, together with findings obtained from iron incorporation measurements in solution, suggest that

  11. Structural studies of bacterioferritin B from Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest a gating mechanism for iron uptake via the ferroxidase center .

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Saroja K; Lovell, Scott; Yao, Huili; Battaile, Kevin P; Fischer, Christopher J; Gee, Casey E; Rivera, Mario

    2010-02-16

    The structure of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (Pa BfrB) has been determined from crystals grown from protein devoid of core mineral iron (as-isolated) and from protein mineralized with approximately 600 iron atoms (mineralized). Structures were also obtained from crystals grown from mineralized BfrB after they had been soaked in an FeSO(4) solution (Fe soak) and in separate experiments after they had been soaked in an FeSO(4) solution followed by a soak in a crystallization solution (double soak). Although the structures consist of a typical bacterioferritin fold comprised of a nearly spherical 24-mer assembly that binds 12 heme molecules, comparison of microenvironments observed in the distinct structures provided interesting insights. The ferroxidase center in the as-isolated, mineralized, and double-soak structures is empty. The ferroxidase ligands (except His130) are poised to bind iron with minimal conformational changes. The His130 side chain, on the other hand, must rotate toward the ferroxidase center to coordinate iron. In comparison, the structure obtained from crystals soaked in an FeSO(4) solution displays a fully occupied ferroxidase center and iron bound to the internal, Fe((in)), and external, Fe((out)), surfaces of Pa BfrB. The conformation of His130 in this structure is rotated toward the ferroxidase center and coordinates an iron ion. The structures also revealed a pore on the surface of Pa BfrB that likely serves as a port of entry for Fe(2+) to the ferroxidase center. On its opposite end, the pore is capped by the side chain of His130 when it adopts its "gate-closed" conformation that enables coordination to a ferroxidase iron. A change to its "gate-open", noncoordinative conformation creates a path for the translocation of iron from the ferroxidase center to the interior cavity. These structural observations, together with findings obtained from iron incorporation measurements in solution, suggest that the ferroxidase

  12. Predictors of diagnostic neuroimaging delays among adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute stroke in Ontario: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Kapral, Moira K.; Li, Shudong; Fang, Jiming; Moody, Alan R.; Krahn, Murray; Laupacis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have examined the timeliness of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, but less is known about door-to-imaging time. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the timing of neuroimaging among patients with suspected acute stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, and to examine factors associated with delays in neuroimaging. Methods: We included all patients 18 years and older with suspected acute stroke seen at hospitals with neuroimaging capacity within the Ontario Stroke Registry between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2011. We used a hierarchical, multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between patient and hospital factors and the likelihood of receiving timely neuroimaging (≤ 25 min) after arrival in the emergency department. Results: A total of 13 250 patients presented to an emergency department with stroke-like symptoms during the study period. Of the 3984 who arrived within 4 hours after symptom onset, 1087 (27.3%) had timely neuroimaging. The factors independently associated with an increased likelihood of timely neuroimaging were less time from symptom onset to presentation, more severe stroke, male sex, no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, arrival to hospital from a setting other than home and presentation to a designated stroke centre or an urban hospital. Interpretation: A minority of patients with stroke-like symptoms who presented within the 4-hour thrombolytic treatment window received timely neuroimaging. Neuroimaging delays were influenced by various patient and hospital factors, some of which are modifiable. PMID:27398382

  13. A GC/MS study of the drying of ballpoint pen ink on paper.

    PubMed

    Weyermann, Céline; Kirsch, Dieter; Costa Vera, César; Spengler, Bernhard

    2007-05-24

    The determination of the age of an ink entry from a questioned document is often an essential problem and a controversial issue in forensic sciences. Therefore, it is important to understand the aging process of the different components found in ink. The aim of this work was to study the drying process of ballpoint ink, characterised by the disappearance of volatile solvents from the ink entry. Phenoxyethanol is of particularly high interest as it is found in more than 80% of the blue ballpoint pens at different concentrations. Liquid extraction followed by splitless gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion mode was used to measure the quantitative decrease of solvents from ink entries made with a blue Parker ballpoint pen. Quantities of ethoxyethoxyethanol, dipropylene glycol, phenoxyethanol and phenoxyethoxyethanol were studied in ink entries up to 1.5 years old, thus allowing to calculate aging curves for this particular pen. The low quantities of solvents (in the microgram range for a 1 cm ballpoint entry) were found to decrease quickly after deposition of the ink on paper through the competitive processes of evaporation and diffusion. Losses of up to 75% of solvents were observed after a few seconds. The amount of ethoxyethanol stopped decreasing after about 10 days (quantities reached the nanogram range for a 1 cm ballpoint entry), while the aging curves of dipropylene glycol, phenoxyethanol and phenoxyethoxyethanol level off considerably after 2 weeks. It was observed that ethoxyethanol, dipropylene glycol and phenoxyethanol can also migrate from one sheet of paper to another if placed close enough (e.g. in a book or a stack of papers), therefore contamination from fresh ink strokes from other paper sheets has to be taken into account for those solvents. In this paper we demonstrate that differentiation between fresh ink (<2 weeks) and older inks is possible under laboratory storage conditions. For real cases samples, more parameters have to

  14. LC-MS study of ruthenium catalysts of water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabieva, Z. M.; Martynenko, V. M.; Temnova, M. L.; Yakutkina, O. V.; Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, A. E.

    2014-05-01

    Catalysts of water oxidation for artificial photosynthesis, formed from the binuclear oxysulfate ruthenium(IV) complex K4[Ru2(SO4)2(μ-SO4)2(μ-O)2] · 2H2O, are studied via chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is shown that these new catalysts do not contain organic ligands and are more stable and active than the familiar blue dimer [(bpy)2Ru(OH)2]2O4+ and its analogues. It is found that adamantane-like tetra-nuclear and octanuclear ruthenium clusters are active catalysts that oxidize water to oxygen and oxozone O4, respectively.

  15. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alexandre C; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Mancini, Daiana T; Oliveira, Maria C; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-25

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal=Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH(0)(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results. PMID:25222323

  16. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoli, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.; Mancini, Daiana T.; Oliveira, Maria C.; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-01

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal = Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH0(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results.

  17. Photobacterium profundum under Pressure: A MS-Based Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan, Thierry; Rayner, Joe; Roy, Marcia M.; Spagnolo, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium profundum SS9 is a Gram-negative bacterium, originally collected from the Sulu Sea. Its genome consists of two chromosomes and a 80 kb plasmid. Although it can grow under a wide range of pressures, P. profundum grows optimally at 28 MPa and 15°C. Its ability to grow at atmospheric pressure allows for both easy genetic manipulation and culture, making it a model organism to study piezophily. Here, we report a shotgun proteomic analysis of P. profundum grown at atmospheric compared to high pressure using label-free quantitation and mass spectrometry analysis. We have identified differentially expressed proteins involved in high pressure adaptation, which have been previously reported using other methods. Proteins involved in key metabolic pathways were also identified as being differentially expressed. Proteins involved in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were up-regulated at high pressure. Conversely, several proteins involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway were up-regulated at atmospheric pressure. Some of the proteins that were differentially identified are regulated directly in response to the physical impact of pressure. The expression of some proteins involved in nutrient transport or assimilation, are likely to be directly regulated by pressure. In a natural environment, different hydrostatic pressures represent distinct ecosystems with their own particular nutrient limitations and abundances. However, the only variable considered in this study was atmospheric pressure. PMID:23741291

  18. A pre-clinical pharmacokinetic study in rats of three naturally occurring iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I, II and III, using a validated simultaneous HPLC-MS/MS assay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianwei; Xue, Bingyang; Ma, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Ming; Liu, Lei; Yao, Di; Qi, Huanhuan; Wang, Yonglu; Ying, Hanjie; Wu, Zimei

    2015-07-01

    A selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Picroside-I, II, and III in rat plasma and tissue homogenate to aid the pre-clinical studies. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD AQ C18 column using a gradient elution program with a mobile phase consisting of 2mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The detection was achieved using a triple quadrupole tandem MS in negative ionization multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. One-step protein precipitation was selected for plasma and tissue sample preparation while liquid-liquid extraction failed to achieve satisfactory recoveries. The calibration curves of all three analytes in either plasma or tissue homogenate showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.5-500ng/mL with a limit of quantitation at 0.5ng/mL. Both the intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were within ±10%. The extraction recoveries were >70%, and the relative matrix effect ranged from 80.4% to 107.4% in all the biological samples. All the analytes were stable in matrices for at least 24h at room temperature, or 21 days in frozen. Three freeze/thaw cycles did not cause degradation. The method was successfully applied for quantification of the three iridoid glycosides in the collected plasma and various tissues following intravenous administration in rats. Picroside-I, II, and III were all eliminated rapidly with large volume of distribution. Among the three glycosides, Picroside-II showed the highest liver uptake, and only Picroside-I and II were found to get across the blood brain barrier (BBB). These results were consistent with their hepatoprotective or neuroprotective effects reported clinically. With the aid of the efficient and reliable simultaneous LC-ESI-MS/MS assay this pharmacokinetic study provided insights into their therapeutic targets of these

  19. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Kirsten, Holger; Liu, Jingyu; Priebe, Lutz; Wolf, Christiane; Karbalai, Nazanin; Gollub, Randy; White, Tonya; Roessner, Veit; Müller, Kathrin U; Paus, Tomas; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Scholz, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328). A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170) on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10) had p-values between 6.75×10(-6) and 8.3×10(-7). Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings. Identification of

  20. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Kirsten, Holger; Liu, Jingyu; Priebe, Lutz; Wolf, Christiane; Karbalai, Nazanin; Gollub, Randy; White, Tonya; Roessner, Veit; Müller, Kathrin U.; Paus, Tomas; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Scholz, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328). A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170) on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10) had p-values between 6.75×10−6 and 8.3×10−7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings. Identification of

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Propeller Spinner/Shank Interference. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A fundamental experimental and theoretical investigation into the aerodynamic interference associated with propeller spinner and shank regions was conducted. The research program involved a theoretical assessment of solutions previously proposed, followed by a systematic experimental study to supplement the existing data base. As a result, a refined computational procedure was established for prediction of interference effects in terms of interference drag and resolved into propeller thrust and torque components. These quantities were examined with attention to engineering parameters such as two spinner finess ratios, three blade shank forms, and two/three/four/six/eight blades. Consideration of the physics of the phenomena aided in the logical deduction of two individual interference quantities (cascade effects and spinner/shank juncture interference). These interference effects were semi-empirically modeled using existing theories and placed into a compatible form with an existing propeller performance scheme which provided the basis for examples of application.

  2. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  3. Review of sample preparation strategies for MS-based metabolomic studies in industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2016-09-28

    Fermentation and cell culture biotechnology in the form of so-called "cell factories" now play an increasingly significant role in production of both large (e.g. proteins, biopharmaceuticals) and small organic molecules for a wide variety of applications. However, associated metabolic engineering optimisation processes relying on genetic modification of organisms used in cell factories, or alteration of production conditions remain a challenging undertaking for improving the final yield and quality of cell factory products. In addition to genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic workflows, analytical metabolomics continues to play a critical role in studying detailed aspects of critical pathways (e.g. via targeted quantification of metabolites), identification of biosynthetic intermediates, and also for phenotype differentiation and the elucidation of previously unknown pathways (e.g. via non-targeted strategies). However, the diversity of primary and secondary metabolites and the broad concentration ranges encompassed during typical biotechnological processes means that simultaneous extraction and robust analytical determination of all parts of interest of the metabolome is effectively impossible. As the integration of metabolome data with transcriptome and proteome data is an essential goal of both targeted and non-targeted methods addressing production optimisation goals, additional sample preparation steps beyond necessary sampling, quenching and extraction protocols including clean-up, analyte enrichment, and derivatisation are important considerations for some classes of metabolites, especially those present in low concentrations or exhibiting poor stability. This contribution critically assesses the potential of current sample preparation strategies applied in metabolomic studies of industrially-relevant cell factory organisms using mass spectrometry-based platforms primarily coupled to liquid-phase sample introduction (i.e. flow injection, liquid

  4. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  5. A study of the polarization of light scattered by vegetation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover and grass in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of leaves were measured. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The light scattered from the upper leaf surface was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for qualitatively but not quantitatively by the Fresnel reflection coefficients modified by a shadowing function of the form cos sup2 (g/2), where g is the phase angle. Findings indicate that the polarization of light scattered by vegetation is a more complex process than previously thought, and that besides the surface-scattered component of light, the volume-scattered and multiply-scattered components also contribute significantly to the polarization.

  6. Experimental Study of Bypass Transition in a Boundary Layer. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Obrien, James E.; Reshotko, Eli

    1988-01-01

    A detailed investigation to compare the boundary layer transition process in a low intensity disturbance environment to that in an environment in which the disturbances are initially non-linear in amplitude was conducted using a flat plate model. The transition mechanism based on linear growth of Tollmien Schlichting (T-S) waves was associated with a freestream turbulence level of 0.3 percent; however, for a freestream turbulence intensity of 0.65 percent and higher, the bypass transition mechanism prevailed. The results of detailed measurements acquired to study and compare the two transition mechanisms indicate that there exists a critical value for the peak rms of the velocity fluctuations within the boundary layer of approximately 3 to 3.5 percent of the freestream velocity. Once the unsteadiness within the boundary layer reached this critical value, turbulent bursting initiated, regardless of the transition mechanism. The two point correlations and simultaneous time traces within the transition region illustrate the features of a turbulent burst and its effect on the surrounding flowfield.

  7. Exploration of polar lipid accumulation profiles in Euglena gracilis using LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral library constructed in silico.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takumi; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Rai; Nakazawa, Masami; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori; Ohta, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    A rapid protocol for polar lipid profiling was applied to Euglena gracilis lipid metabolism by LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral similarity search tool. The similarity search results suggested anoxia-induced polar lipid metabolism in Euglena characterized by the accumulation of differential lipid classes, carbon chain lengths, and unsaturated bond numbers. The informatics-supported MS spectral search provides an alternative option for global lipid profiling studies. PMID:25036478

  8. MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of choline/ethanolamine plasmalogens via promotion of alkali metal adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Otoki, Yurika; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-11-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been used for the analysis of plasmalogen (Pls), a physiologically important class of vinyl ether-linked phospholipid. However, MS/MS generally causes little fragmentation of Pls, especially choline Pls (PC-Pls). Previous MS/MS studies reported an increased formation of product ions of PC-Pls (and also ethanolamine Pls (PE-Pls)) in the presence of 'alkali metals.' Therefore, use of alkali metals considerably leads to the development of a method for analysis of both PC- and PE-Pls. In this study, this notion was evaluated using quadrupole-time-of-flight MS/MS and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with MS/MS. Results from MS/MS confirmed that alkali metals (e.g., sodium) produced significant fragmentation of PC-Pls and PE-Pls. A number of structure-diagnostic product ions exhibiting high intensities were observed under optimized MS/MS conditions using alkali metals. Moreover, the ability to selectively and sensitively identify PC-Pls and PE-Pls at the molecular species level in biological samples (rat brain and heart) was demonstrated using LC-MS/MS. Therefore, the herein developed method appears to be a powerful tool for analyzing Pls and may provide a better understanding of their physiological roles in vivo. PMID:26447938

  9. Simultaneous quantification of tenofovir, emtricitabine, rilpivirine, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in mouse biological matrices by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Prathipati, Pavan Kumar; Mandal, Subhra; Destache, Christopher J

    2016-09-10

    Combination antiretroviral (cARV) treatment is more common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In many instances, treatment regimen includes two or more combination of drugs from six different classes. Some of the antiretroviral combination medications are under study at preclinical and clinical stages. A precise method is required to quantify the drug concentration in biological matrices to study pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution profile in animals and/or humans. We have developed and validated a sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of selected antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir (TNF), emtricitabine (FTC), rilpivirine (RPV), dolutegravir (DTG) and elvitegravir (EVG) in mouse biological matrices. This method involves a solid phase extraction, simple isocratic chromatographic separation using Restek Pinnacle DB BiPh column (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and mass spectrometric detection by an API 3200 Q Trap instrument. The total run time for each sample was 6min. The method was validated in the concentration range of 5-2000ng/mL for FTC, RPV, DTG, EVG and 10-4000ng/mL for TNF respectively with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9976. The results of intra and inter-run assay precision and accuracy were within acceptance limits for all the five analytes. This method was used to support the study of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profile of nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs in mice. PMID:27497648

  10. Study on the pharmacokinetics profiles of polyphyllin I and its bioavailability enhancement through co-administration with P-glycoprotein inhibitors by LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Zhu, Si-Can; Shakya, Shailendra; Mao, Qian; Ding, Chuan-Hua; Long, Min-Hui; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-03-25

    Polyphyllin I (PPI), one of the steroidal saponins in Paris polyphylla, is a promising natural anticancer candidate. Although the anticancer activity of PPI has been well demonstrated, information regarding the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability is limited. In this study, a series of reliable and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed and successfully applied to determinate PPI in rat plasma, cell incubation media and cell homogenate. Then the pharmacokinetics of PPI in rats was studied and the result revealed that PPI was slowly eliminated with low oral bioavailability (about 0.62%) at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and when co-administrated with verapamil (VPL) and cyclosporine A (CYA), the oral bioavailability of PPI could increase from 0.62% to 3.52% and 3.79% respectively. In addition, in vitro studies showed that with the presence of VPL and CYA in Caco-2 cells, the efflux ratio of PPI decreased from 12.5 to 2.96 and 2.22, and the intracellular concentrations increased 5.8- and 5.0-fold respectively. These results demonstrated that PPI, with poor oral bioavailability, is greatly impeded by P-gp efflux, and inhibition of P-gp can enhance its bioavailability. PMID:25590941

  11. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Results Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1) timely access to information on various subjects; (2) better visual representations of dental problems; (3) access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4) accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1) dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2) little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3) source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4) dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Conclusions Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs for better visual

  12. Structure-function studies of a Melanocarpus albomyces laccase suggest a pathway for oxidation of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kallio, J P; Auer, S; Jänis, J; Andberg, M; Kruus, K; Rouvinen, J; Koivula, A; Hakulinen, N

    2009-10-01

    Melanocarpus albomyces laccase crystals were soaked with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, a common laccase substrate. Three complex structures from different soaking times were solved. Crystal structures revealed the binding of the original substrate and adducts formed by enzymatic oxidation of the substrate. The dimeric oxidation products were identified by mass spectrometry. In the crystals, a 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone and a C-O dimer were observed, whereas a C-C dimer was the main product identified by mass spectrometry. Crystal structures demonstrated that the substrate and/or its oxidation products were bound in the pocket formed by residues Ala191, Pro192, Glu235, Leu363, Phe371, Trp373, Phe427, Leu429, Trp507 and His508. Substrate and adducts were hydrogen-bonded to His508, one of the ligands of type 1 copper. Therefore, this surface-exposed histidine most likely has a role in electron transfer by laccases. Based on our mutagenesis studies, the carboxylic acid residue Glu235 at the bottom of the binding site pocket is also crucial in the oxidation of phenolics. Glu235 may be responsible for the abstraction of a proton from the OH group of the substrate and His508 may extract an electron. In addition, crystal structures revealed a secondary binding site formed through weak dimerization in M. albomyces laccase molecules. This binding site most likely exists only in crystals, when the Phe427 residues are packed against each other. PMID:19563811

  13. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

    2013-07-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  14. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential

    PubMed Central

    Greco, G.; Lanero, T. Svaldo; Torrassa, S.; Young, R.; Vassalli, M.; Cavaliere, A.; Rolandi, R.; Pelucchi, E.; Faimali, M.; Davenport, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  15. Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Catherine; Bertrand, Samuel; Blanchet, Elodie; Peigné, Mathilde; Robiou du Pont, Thibaut; Guitton, Yann; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed at studying metabolome variations of marine fungal strains along their growth to highlight the importance of the parameter “time” for new natural products discovery. An untargeted time-scale metabolomic study has been performed on two different marine-derived Penicillium strains. They were cultivated for 18 days and their crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-HRMS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) each day. With the example of griseofulvin biosynthesis, a pathway shared by both strains, this work provides a new approach to study biosynthetic pathway regulations, which could be applied to other metabolites and more particularly new ones. Moreover, the results of this study emphasize the interest of such an approach for the discovery of new chemical entities. In particular, at every harvesting time, previously undetected features were observed in the LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) data. Therefore, harvesting times for metabolite extraction should be performed at different time points to access the hidden metabolome. PMID:27213411

  16. Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Bertrand, Samuel; Blanchet, Elodie; Peigné, Mathilde; Robiou du Pont, Thibaut; Guitton, Yann; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    This work aimed at studying metabolome variations of marine fungal strains along their growth to highlight the importance of the parameter "time" for new natural products discovery. An untargeted time-scale metabolomic study has been performed on two different marine-derived Penicillium strains. They were cultivated for 18 days and their crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-HRMS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) each day. With the example of griseofulvin biosynthesis, a pathway shared by both strains, this work provides a new approach to study biosynthetic pathway regulations, which could be applied to other metabolites and more particularly new ones. Moreover, the results of this study emphasize the interest of such an approach for the discovery of new chemical entities. In particular, at every harvesting time, previously undetected features were observed in the LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) data. Therefore, harvesting times for metabolite extraction should be performed at different time points to access the hidden metabolome. PMID:27213411

  17. Conventional and Mendelian randomization analyses suggest no association between lipoprotein(a) and early atherosclerosis: the Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Magnussen, Costan G; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Loo, Britt-Marie; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an established risk factor for coronary disease and stroke, but mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We examined the association of Lp(a) with early atherosclerosis by using conventional epidemiologic analysis and a Mendelian randomization analysis. The latter utilized genetic variants that are associated with Lp(a) to estimate causal effect. Methods A prospective population-based cohort study of 939 men and 1141 women was conducted. Lp(a) was measured repeatedly at mean ages 17 and 38 years. Measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at mean ages 32 and 38 years were used to determine the level and 6-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Lp(a)-related genetic variant, rs783147, was identified by a genome wide association analysis (P = 3.1 × 10−58), and a genetic score was constructed based on 10 Lp(a)-related variants. Mendelian randomization test was performed using a two-stage instrumental variables analysis. Results rs783147 and the genetic score were strong instruments for nonconfounded Lp(a) levels (F-statistics 269.6 and 446.0 in the first-stage instrumental variable analysis). However, Lp(a) levels were not associated with the levels of or change in IMT or FMD in any of the conventional and instrumental variables tests. The null finding was observed both with rs783147 and the genetic score as instruments and remained unchanged after adjustment for clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, HDL and LDL cholesterol, ApoB, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes and smoking. Conclusions Data from conventional and Mendelian randomization analyses provide no support for early atherogenic effects of increased Lp(a) levels. PMID:21078622

  18. A rapid and simple UPLC-MS-MS method for determination of glipizide in human plasma and its application to bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangjun; Zheng, Shuang-li; Wang, Yingfei; Wang, Rong; Ye, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the determination of glipizide in human plasma samples using carbamazepine as the internal standard (IS) from bioequivalence assays. Sample preparation was accomplished through protein precipitation with methanol, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient profile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using an QTrap5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions of m/z 446.1 → 321.0 and m/z 237.1 → 194.2 were used to quantify for glipizide and IS. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 10-1,500 ng/mL for glipizide in human plasma. Only 1.0 min was needed for an analytical run. The method was applied to a bioequivalence study of two drug products containing glipizide in human plasma samples. PMID:24771054

  19. A highly efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of afatinib in human plasma: application to a metabolic stability study.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Adnan A; Abdelhameed, Ali S; Darwish, Hany W; Attwa, Mohamed W; Al-Shakliah, Nasser S

    2016-08-01

    Afatinib (AFT) is a new tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer. In the present study, a simple, specific, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method for the quantification of AFT in human plasma, was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was accomplished on a reversed-phase Luna(®) -PFP 100 Å column (50 × 2.0 mm; 3.0 μm) maintained at ambient temperature. Isocratic elution was carried out using acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v) containing 10 mm ammonium formate buffer (pH 4.5) adjusted with formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min(-1) . The analytes were monitored by electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method yields a linear calibration plot (r(2)  = 0.9997) from a quantification range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with the lower limit of quantification and lower limit of detection of 1.29 and 0.42 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were estimated and found to be in the ranges of 1.53-4.11% for precision and -2.80-0.38% for accuracy. Finally, quantification of afatinib in a metabolic stability study in rat liver microsomes was achieved through the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683307

  20. Simultaneous quantification of naproxcinod and its active metabolite naproxen in rat plasma using LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowei; Shang, Weiding; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Na; Hao, Yanxia; Wang, Yabo; Sun, Mengmeng; Du, Yumin; Cao, Deying; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Qingwen

    2015-01-26

    In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine naproxcinod and naproxen concentrations in rat plasma for the first time. Plasma samples were prepared by simple one-step extraction with methanol for protein precipitation using only 50 μL plasma. Separation was performed on a Synergi Fusion-RP C18 column with a run time of 4 min. Naproxcinod, naproxen and internal standard concentrations were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions at m/z 348.2→302.2, 231.1→185.1 and 271.2→203.1, respectively. The calibration curves were linear, with all correlation coefficients being ≥0.9952, in the range of 1.00-400 ng/mL for naproxcinod and 20.0-8000 ng/mL for naproxen. Their accuracy was in the range of -8.1% to 8.7%, and the intra- and inter-day variations were ≤4.53%. The mean extraction recovery of all analytes was more than 93.1% efficient. Stability testing showed that naproxcinod and naproxen remained stable during the whole analytical procedure. After validation, the method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of naproxcinod and naproxen in rats. The AUC0-∞ of naproxen was 74.6 times larger than that of naproxcinod, which indicated that naproxcinod was rapidly metabolized into naproxen in rats. PMID:25550191

  1. Study on the simultaneous determination of seven benzoylurea pesticides in Oolong tea and their leaching characteristics during infusing process by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chen, JinFa; Guo, Ying; Li, JianRong; Yang, YiQiang; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2014-01-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 7 benzoylurea pesticides (chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, fluazuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and triflumuron) in the manufactured Oolong tea leaves and its infusion was described. The method has a LOD of 0.03-1.00ng/mL, a recovery of 90.4-103% for made tea and 90.3-102% for tea-infused liquid, respectively. By using the proposed method, the leaching characteristics of above 7 pesticides during infusing process were investigated. The experimental results revealed that: (1) diflubenzuron can be most easily extracted out during infusing process, followed by triflumuron, teflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron and fluazuron. (2) The leaching of flufenoxuron and chlorfluazuron during infusing process seems to be controlled by only their solubility, whereas, the leaching of other 5 benzoylurea insecticides was primarily controlled by their partitioning coefficient between made tea and hot water. The results of this study are helpful for the accurate evaluation of the safety of Oolong tea. PMID:24054259

  2. Development and Validation of a Sensitive LC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of Adefovir in Human Serum and Urine: Application to a Clinical Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Shen, Lu; Zhan, Ying; Xiao, Qing-Qing; Yang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of adefovir (PMEA,9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine) concentration in human serum and urine. The analysis was performed on a negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The monitored transitions were set at m/z 272.0 → 134.0 and m/z 276.0 → 149.8 for PMEA and internal standard, respectively. After protein precipitation, samples were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase Dikma Diamonsil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 µm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1 mM ammonium formate buffer-methanol. The calibration curves were linear over the serum concentration range 0.5-1,000 ng/mL and urine concentration range 2.0-1,000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision values of PMEA in both serum and urine were lower than 18.16% for low quality control and 13.70% for medium and high quality control. The accuracy, recovery, matrix factor and stability were also within the acceptable limits. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of following oral administration of single dose of pradefovir mesylate (10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg) and adefovir dipivoxil (10 mg) to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26657410

  3. Simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Peperomia dindygulensis Miq. extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-zhi; Liang, Jing-yu; Wen, Hong-mei; Shan, Chen-xiao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in Peperomia dindygulensis extract, including peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma. Arctigenin was used as the internal standard. The separation was performed on an Innovation™ Polar-RP C18 column by a gradient elution within a runtime of 7min. The mobile phase consisted of A (methanol) and B (0.1% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was accomplished by using positive ion TurboIonSpray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9972. The lower limits of quantification were 1.1ng/mL for peperomin A, 1.24ng/mL for peperomin B, 1.02ng/mL for peperomin C, 1.91ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 1.27ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin C. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was within 15% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -11.7% to 10.3%. This simple and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma after oral administration of P. dindygulensis extract. PMID:24295907

  4. Determination of 3-α-hydroxytibolone in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: application for a pharmacokinetic study after administration of a tibolone formulation.

    PubMed

    de Santana e Silva Cardoso, Fabiana Fernandes; César, Isabela Costa; Mundim, Iram Moreira; de Souza Teixeira, Leonardo; da Silva, Enikson Pontes; Bonfim, Ricardo Rodrigues; Gomes, Sandro Antônio; Ferreira, Denys Pires; Lopes, Aderimar Rogério Batista; Pascoal, Helifas Duarte; de Souza, Weidson Carlo; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2013-11-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of 3-α-hydroxy tibolone, in human plasma, after oral administration of a tablet formulation containing tibolone (2.5 mg). 3-α-Hydroxy tibolone was extracted by a liquid-liquid procedure, using cyproterone acetate as internal standard and chlorobutane as extraction solvent. After extraction, samples were submitted to a derivatization step with p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate. A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (72:28 v/v) was used and chromatographic separation was achieved using Agilent XDB C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm i.d.; 5 µm particle size), at 40°C. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in negative mode for 3-α-hydroxy tibolone and in positive mode for cyproterone acetate. The fragmentation transitions were m/z 510.2 → m/z 170.1 and m/z 417.0 → m/z 357.1 for 3-α-hydroxy tibolone and cyproterone acetate, respectively. Calibration curves were constructed over the range 100-30,000 pg/mL and the method was shown to be specific, precise and accurate, with a mean recovery rate of 94.2% for 3-α-hydroxy tibolone. No matrix effect or carry-over was detected in the samples. The validated method was applied in a pharmacokinetic study with a tibolone formulation in healthy female volunteers. PMID:23813413

  5. Validated LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of nalbuphine in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Jing; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, R H; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Peng, W X

    2011-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of nalbuphine concentrations in human plasma has been developed. Samples (1 mL) were extracted using a Strata™-X solid phase extraction cartridges. Chromatographic separation of nalbuphine and naloxone (internal standard) was achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex PFP (2.6 μm, 100 A, 100 × 2.1 mm) column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid, 15 mM ammonium acetate in deionized water and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v). The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min and the total run time was 2 min. Detection of the analytes was achieved using positive ion electrospray ionization via multiple reactions monitoring mode. The mass transitions were m/z 358 → 340 for nalbuphine and m/z 328 → 310 for naloxone. The assay was linear over the concentration range 0.50-500.00 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients ≥0.995. The lower limit of quantitation was set at 0.5 ng/mL plasma based on an average signal-to-noise ratio of 44.79. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 8.07% in terms of relative standard deviation and accuracy ranged from 94.97 to 106.29% at all quality control levels. The method was applied successfully to determine nalbuphine concentrations in human plasma samples obtained from subjects receiving intravenous administration of nalbuphine. The method is rapid, sensitive, selective and directly applicable to human pharmacokinetic studies involving nalbuphine. PMID:21337353

  6. Determination of Cefixime by a Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method and Identification of its Related Substances by LC-MS/MS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour, Zahra; Pourabdollahi, Hakimeh; Rafati, Hasan; Abdollahpour, Asem; Bashour, Yusef; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cefixime is an important cephalosporin antibiotic that easily decomposes and releases different related substances in preparation and storage steps. The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of cefixime in the presence of its related substances generated from thermal stress in the bulk drug. The chromatographic conditions were comprised of a reversed-phase C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of water: acetonitrile (85:15 v/v, with 0.5% formic acid) and ultraviolet detection (UV). Some thermal degradation products were identified using a proposed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Five peaks (A, B, C, D, and E impurities based on British Pharmacopoeia) were known and a few unknown peaks appeared in the thermal stress solution of cefixime. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot of the LC-UV method showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range 0.9–1000.0 μg mL−1. The recovery of the optimized method was between 94.6 and 98.4% and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 3.3%. The obtained results shown in the LC-UV proposed method can be conveniently used in a quality control laboratory for routine analysis of cefixime for the assay and related substances, as well as for the evaluation of stability samples of bulk drugs. PMID:23833715

  7. High-Throughput Chiral LC-MS/MS Method Using Overlapping Injection Mode for the Determination of Pantoprazole Enantiomers in Human Plasma with Application to Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengni; Jiang, Huafang; Wang, Yiya; Liu, Yinli; Shen, Xiaohang; Liang, Wenzhong; Hong, Zhanying

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and high-throughput chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of R-pantoprazole and S-pantoprazole in human plasma. Sample extraction was carried out by using ethyl acetate liquid-liquid extraction in 96-well plate format. The separation of pantoprazole enantiomers was performed on a CHIRALCEL OJ-RH column and an overlapping injection mode was used to achieve a run time of 5.0 min/sample. The mobile phase consisted of 1) 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol: acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) and 2) 20 mM ammonium acetate in water. Isocratic elution was used with flow rate at 500 μL/min. The enantiomers were quantified on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with m/z 382.1/230.0 for pantoprazole and m/z 388.4/230.1 for pantoprazole-d7. Linearity from 20.0 to 5000 ng/mL was established for each enantiomer (r(2)  > 0.99). Extraction recovery ranged from 91.7% to 96.4% for R-pantoprazole and from 92.5% to 96.5% for S-pantoprazole and the IS-normalized matrix factor was 0.98 to 1.07 for R-pantoprazole and S-pantoprazole, respectively. The method was demonstrated with acceptable accuracy, precision, selectivity, and stability and the method was applied to support a pharmacokinetic study of a phase I clinical trial of racemic pantoprazole in healthy Chinese subjects. Chirality 28:569-575, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27349958

  8. Exploratory studies of PM10 receptor and source profiling by GC/MS and principal component analysis of temporally and spatially resolved ambient samples.

    PubMed

    Jeon, S J; Meuzelaar, H L; Sheya, S A; Lighty, J S; Jarman, W M; Kasteler, C; Sarofim, A F; Simoneit, B R

    2001-05-01

    For a recent exploratory study of particulate matter (PM) compositions, origins, and impacts in the El Paso/Juarez (Paso del Norte) airshed, the authors relied on solvent extraction (SX)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) procedures to characterize 24-hr quartz fiber (QF) filter samples obtained from nine spatially distributed high-volume (Hi-Vol) PM10 samplers as well as on thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS methods to characterize 45 time-resolved (2-hr) filter samples obtained with modified 1-m3/hr PM10 samplers. Principal component analysis and related chemometric techniques were used for data reduction and data fusion as well as for multiway data correlation. A high degree of correspondence (R2 = 0.821) was found between the rapid TD-GC/MS method (which can be carried out on 2-hr filter slices containing only microgram amounts of sample) and conventional SX-GC/MS procedures. The four main source patterns of organic PM components observed in GC/MS profiles of both temporally and spatially resolved receptor samples obtained in the El Paso/Juarez border airshed during the study period are interpreted to represent (1) vehicular emissions plus resuspended urban dust; (2) biomass combustion; (3) native vegetation detritus and resuspended agricultural dust; and (4) waste burning. Moreover, principal component analysis of combined, variance-weighted, temporally resolved TD-GC/MS data and spatially resolved SX-GC/MS data was used to determine approximate source locations for specific PM components identified in time-resolved receptor sample profiles. The same approach can be used to determine approximate circadian concentration profiles of specific PM components identified in spatially resolved receptor sample profiles. PMID:11355465

  9. Investigation of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues using ELISA and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique N; Aguiar, Waldemir S; Gouvêa, Raquel; de Oliveira, Andréa M G; Barreto, Fabiano; Pereira, Virgínia L A; Aquino, Maria Helena C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of an enrofloxacin ELISA test kit to detect the presence of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues compared with LC-MS/MS. Broiler tissues from 72 samples consisting of 60 breast muscle, six pools of livers (500 g each) and six pools of kidneys (500 g each) were obtained from six different slaughterhouses. Breast muscle from 10 carcasses and pools of livers and kidneys from approximately 200 carcasses of the same flock were collected from each slaughterhouse. ELISA and HPLC were used to identify and quantify the contamination of the samples with enrofloxacin. A total of 72% of the analysed samples contained enrofloxacin residues detected by the ELISA and 22.2% were detected by LC-MS/MS. The mean values of enrofloxacin contamination found in chicken breast by ELISA and HPLC were 8.63 and 12.25 μg kg(-1), respectively. None of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 100 μg kg(-1) by both methods set by the European Union as well as the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. All positive samples for enrofloxacin residues detected by LC-MS/MS were also positive by ELISA. These data confirm the efficiency of the ELISA test, and suggest its use as a screening method for enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues due to its quick results, low price and ease of applicability. PMID:26930030

  10. LC-MS metabolomics from study design to data-analysis – using a versatile pathogen as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Maya; Vanaerschot, Manu; Jankevics, Andris; Cuypers, Bart; Breitling, Rainer; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to significant improvements in LC-MS technology, metabolomics is increasingly used as a tool to discriminate the responses of organisms to various stimuli or drugs. In this minireview we discuss all aspects of the LC-MS metabolomics pipeline, using a complex and versatile model organism, Leishmania donovani, as an illustrative example. The benefits of a hyphenated mass spectrometry platform and a detailed overview of the entire experimental pipeline from sampling, sample storage and sample list set-up to LC-MS measurements and the generation of meaningful results with state-of-the-art data-analysis software will be thoroughly discussed. Finally, we also highlight important pitfalls in the processing of LC-MS data and comment on the benefits of implementing metabolomics in a systems biology approach. PMID:24688684

  11. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori

    2016-08-16

    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at http

  12. Trace Element Study of MORB Glasses from 14¡ã-16¡ãN along Mid-Atlantic Ridge by LA-ICP- MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzoi, C. A.; Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.; Lapen, T.

    2007-12-01

    A comparison of 20 MORB glasses from 14°-16° N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using both solution-based and in situ laser ablation-based ICP-MS trace element analyses on the same samples was conducted. Li, Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb,Lu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, and U were analyzed using the Varian 810 quadrupole ICP-MS. The instrument features a 90 degree ion mirror and low noise double-off-axis quadrupole that allows high sensitivity and low backgrounds. Precision in term of relative standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements for both methods based on repeated analyses of USGS BIR-1G and BHVO-2G glass standards and Max Planck KL-2G glass standard is within 5 % for all trace elements with the exception of Pb, which averaged 12 %. Measured trace element abundances are within 2% of recommended standard values using both solution and laser ablation methods. Comparison between the analyte concentrations obtained by solution-based ICP-MS and in situ microanalysis by laser ablation reveals little systematic differences in abundances(<5% for all elements). The two-method correlation and strong repeatability of the results indicate that rapid in situ trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS is likely to become a preferred method of trace element analysis for MORB glasses. Our geochemical results and previous studies of MORB glasses in the region of the MAR between 14°-16°N show that basalts are characterized isotopic and incompatible element enrichment.The nature of the enrichment has been the topic of significant discussion and speculation because a specific mantle plume is not well defined in the region. Likewise the magma supply is probably small in the region as the magmatic crust is interpreted to be very thin in most of the area studied. Integrated studies of major element, trace element, and isotopic variations among basalts, gabbroic rocks and igneous and residual ultramafic

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in chemical analysis--a case study of ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca; Epstein, Malka; Fajgelj, Ales; Ellison, Stephen L R

    2014-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in a chemical analysis was used for determination of distributions of the error quantification scores (scores of likelihood and severity, and scores of effectiveness of a laboratory quality system in prevention of the errors). The simulation was based on modeling of an expert behavior: confident, reasonably doubting and irresolute expert judgments were taken into account by means of different probability mass functions (pmfs). As a case study, 36 scenarios of human errors which may occur in elemental analysis of geological samples by ICP-MS were examined. Characteristics of the score distributions for three pmfs of an expert behavior were compared. Variability of the scores, as standard deviation of the simulated score values from the distribution mean, was used for assessment of the score robustness. A range of the score values, calculated directly from elicited data and simulated by a Monte Carlo method for different pmfs, was also discussed from the robustness point of view. It was shown that robustness of the scores, obtained in the case study, can be assessed as satisfactory for the quality risk management and improvement of a laboratory quality system against human errors. PMID:25159436

  14. A Targeted Metabolomics MRM-MS Study on Identifying Potential Hypertension Biomarkers in Human Plasma and Evaluating Acupuncture Effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingxiao; Yu, Zheng; Deng, Shufang; Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Liang; Guo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Lin; Cai, Dingjun; Wen, Bo; Wu, Qiaofeng; Liang, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of metabolic abnormality in hypertension is increasingly recognized, but its biomarkers are not clearly identified. In this study, 47 chemical compounds recorded by literature were employed as target metabolites of essential hypertension (EH). We detected their content in the plasma of EH patients and healthy subjects by using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (MRM-MS). After screening the most altered compounds, acupuncture was used to treat patients for 3 months and these plasma metabolites were tested again. The results showed that oleic acid (OA) and myoinositol (MI) were the most important differential metabolites between the hypertensive plasma and the healthy plasma. They were also closely correlated with 24-hour blood pressure and nocturnal dipping. Moreover, plasma OA and MI could be restored to normal levels by acupuncture, accompanying with reduction of 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure [from 145.10 ± 9.28 mm Hg to 140.70 ± 9.59 mm Hg (P < 0.0001), and 88.35 ± 7.92 mm Hg to 85.86 ± 7.95 mm Hg (P = 0.0024), respectively] and improvement of circadian blood pressure rhythm. This study demonstrated that plasma OA and MI were potential hypertension biomarkers and they could be used to preliminarily assess the treating effects such as acupuncture. PMID:27181907

  15. A Targeted Metabolomics MRM-MS Study on Identifying Potential Hypertension Biomarkers in Human Plasma and Evaluating Acupuncture Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingxiao; Yu, Zheng; Deng, Shufang; Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Liang; Guo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Lin; Cai, Dingjun; Wen, Bo; Wu, Qiaofeng; Liang, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of metabolic abnormality in hypertension is increasingly recognized, but its biomarkers are not clearly identified. In this study, 47 chemical compounds recorded by literature were employed as target metabolites of essential hypertension (EH). We detected their content in the plasma of EH patients and healthy subjects by using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (MRM-MS). After screening the most altered compounds, acupuncture was used to treat patients for 3 months and these plasma metabolites were tested again. The results showed that oleic acid (OA) and myoinositol (MI) were the most important differential metabolites between the hypertensive plasma and the healthy plasma. They were also closely correlated with 24-hour blood pressure and nocturnal dipping. Moreover, plasma OA and MI could be restored to normal levels by acupuncture, accompanying with reduction of 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure [from 145.10 ± 9.28 mm Hg to 140.70 ± 9.59 mm Hg (P < 0.0001), and 88.35 ± 7.92 mm Hg to 85.86 ± 7.95 mm Hg (P = 0.0024), respectively] and improvement of circadian blood pressure rhythm. This study demonstrated that plasma OA and MI were potential hypertension biomarkers and they could be used to preliminarily assess the treating effects such as acupuncture. PMID:27181907

  16. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) based metabolomics study on colour stability of ovine meat.

    PubMed

    Subbaraj, Arvind K; Kim, Yuan H Brad; Fraser, Karl; Farouk, Mustafa M

    2016-07-01

    Meat colour is one of the cues available to the consumer to gauge overall meat quality and wholesomeness. Colour stability of meat is determined by several factors both inherent to the animal and post-slaughter conditions, including ageing, storage/packaging and display times. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) based metabolomics study was undertaken to identify and compare polar metabolites between ovine meat samples that were exposed to different durations of ageing, storage conditions, and display times. Primary metabolites comprising amino acids, sugars, nucleotides, nucleosides, organic acids and their breakdown products were mainly identified as discriminating factors. For the first time, boron complexes of sugar and malic acid were also tentatively identified. As expected, most compounds identified were related to myoglobin chemistry, and compounds with antioxidant properties were found in higher levels in colour stable samples. Supplementary studies identifying semi-polar, non-polar and volatile compounds will provide a holistic understanding of the chemical basis of colour stability in ovine meat. PMID:26986230

  17. A quantitative LC-MS/MS method for determining ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Ito, Yukako; Yano, Kyoka; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Ipragliflozin is a highly potent and selective sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, a novel class of hypoglycemic agents. The aim of the present study was to establish a new highly sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of ipragliflozin in rat plasma and apply this method to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Empagliflozin was used as an internal standard (I.S.) and liquid-liquid extraction was conducted using tert-butyl methyl ether. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1mm i.d.×150mm, 5μm in size) with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. An API 3200 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring was used to detect ipragliflozin and I.S. transitions: m/z 422.0 [M+NH4](+)→151.0 for ipragliflozin and m/z 451.2 [M+H](+)→71.0 for I.S. Inter- and intra-day accuracies and precisions were within ±15%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ipragliflozin in rats. This assay method may contribute to assessment of novel SGLT2 inhibitors using the rat as an animal model. PMID:26209767

  18. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ethoxzolamide in blood, brain tissue, and bioequivalent buffers: applications to absorption, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Taijun; Ma, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K; Hu, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify ethoxzolamide in plasma (EZ) and apply the method to absorption, brain distribution, as well as pharmacokinetic studies. A C₁₈ column was used with 0.1% of formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in water as the mobile phases to resolve EZ. The mass analysis was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode. The results show that the linear range of EZ is 4.88-10,000.00 nM. The intra-day variance is less than 12.43% and the accuracy is between 88.88 and 108.00%. The inter-day variance is less than 12.87% and accuracy is between 89.27 and 115.89%. Protein precipitation was performed using methanol to extract EZ from plasma and brain tissues. Only 40 μL of plasma is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method, which could be completed in less than three minutes. This method was used to study the pharmacokinetics of EZ in SD rats, and the transport of EZ in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing cell culture models. Our data show that EZ is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its entry into the brain may not limited by the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25706567

  19. Validation of UHPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of kaempferol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and application to in vitro blood-brain barrier and intestinal drug permeability studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Afrapoli, Fahimeh; Oufir, Mouhssin; Walter, Fruzsina R; Deli, Maria A; Smiesko, Martin; Zabela, Volha; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Sedative and anxiolytic-like properties of flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin, and of some of their intestinal metabolites, have been demonstrated in pharmacological studies. However, routes of administration were shown to be critical for observing in vivo activity. Therefore, the ability to cross intestinal and blood-brain barriers was assessed in cell-based models for kaempferol (KMF), and for the major intestinal metabolite of KMF, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA). Intestinal transport studies were performed with Caco-2 cells, and blood-brain barrier transport studies with an immortalized monoculture human model and a primary triple-co-culture rat model. UHPLC-MS/MS methods for KMF and 4-HPAA in Ringer-HEPES buffer and in Hank's balanced salt solution were validated according to industry guidelines. For all methods, calibration curves were fitted by least-squares quadratic regression with 1/X(2) as weighing factor, and mean coefficients of determination (R(2)) were >0.99. Data obtained with all barrier models showed high intestinal and blood-brain barrier permeation of KMF, and no permeability of 4-HPAA, when compared to barrier integrity markers. PMID:27281582

  20. Development and validation a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of agomelatine and its metabolites, 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meizhen; Tang, Fang; Xie, Feifan; Lv, Yisha; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zhi; Cheng, Zeneng

    2015-10-15

    A novel sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method for the determination of agomelatine, 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine in human plasma was developed and validated. After simple protein precipitation, the analytes were separated on a Phenomenex ODS3 column (4.6×150 mm, 5μm, Phenomenex, USA) with mobile phase consisted of methanol and 5mM ammonium formate solution (containing 0.2% formic acid) at a ratio of 70:30 (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. The MS acquisition was performed in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode with a positive electrospray ionization source. The mass transitions monitored were m/z 244.1→185.1, m/z 230.1→171.1, m/z 260.1→201.1 and m/z 180.1→110.1 for agomelatine, 7-desmethyl-agomelatine, 3-hydroxy-agomelatine and internal standard (phenacetin), respectively. The method was validated for specificity, linearity and lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. The calibration curves for agomelatine, 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine in human plasma were linear over concentration ranges of 0.0457-100ng/mL, 0.1372-300ng/mL and 0.4572-1000ng/mL, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracies data met the acceptance criteria of FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The developed method has been successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26409931

  1. PTR-MS monitoring of odour emissions from composting plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia; Odorizzi, Gino; Aprea, Eugenio; Mott, Daniela; Marini, Federico; Autiero, Gianmarco; Rotondo, Giampaolo; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2004-12-01

    We studied the possibility of monitoring with proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) odours emitted in various situations related to composting plants of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., waste storage, waste management, and biofilters. Comparison of PTR-MS volatile profiles of the gaseous mixtures entering and exiting a biofilter suggests the possibility of fast and reliable monitoring biofilter efficiency. Moreover, we investigated the relationships between the olfactometric assessment of odour concentration and PTR-MS spectral line intensity finding a positive correlation between the former and several masses and their overall intensity. The application of multivariate calibration methods allows to determine odour concentrations based only on PTR-MS instrumental data. The possibility of avoiding the use of time consuming and expensive olfactometric methods and applications in monitoring waste treatments plants and, in particular, of biofilters is suggested.

  2. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of ketoconazole in human plasma: Application to a clinical study of the exposure to ketoconazole in patients after topical administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keli; Wu, Yao; Chi, Zhiyan; Shu, Chang; Li, Lingjun; Wei, Jun; Tao, Lei; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ketoconazole in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a single step liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate. The chromatography separation was carried out on a Hedera CN (150mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column with isocratic elution using acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion electrospray ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions of 531.2→489.3 and 286.1→217.1 for ketoconazole and letrozole (the internal standard), respectively. The method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 0.01-12ng/mL for ketoconazole. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy of ketoconazole were all within the acceptable criteria. The method was successfully applied to a clinical study of the exposure to ketoconazole in Chinese seborrheic dermatitis patients after topical administration of two ketoconazole formulations of foam and lotion, respectively. The study results showed that there was little systemic absorption of ketoconazole in patients for the two formulations, and the ketoconazole foam and lotion are safe therapeutic drugs for seborrheic dermatitis patients. PMID:27379747

  3. Development and validation of a simple, sensitive and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the determination of guanfacine, a selective α2A -adrenergicreceptor agonist, in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Li, Ning; Sun, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei; Dai, Yu; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chunfeng; Wang, Suilou; Chen, Xijing

    2013-12-01

    A simple, practical, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated for the quantitation of guanfacine in beagle dog plasma. After protein precipitation by acetonitrile, the analytes were separated on a C18 chromatographic column by methanol and water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid with a gradient elution. The subsequent detection utilized a mass spectrometry under positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring of guanfacine and enalaprilat (internal standard) at m/z 246.2 → 159.0 and m/z 349.2 → 205.9, respectively. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.1-20 ng/mL for guanfacine in dog plasma and the lower limit of quantification of this method was 0.1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <10.8% relative standard deviation with an accuracy of 92.9-108.4%. The matrix effects ranged from 89.4 to 100.7% and extraction recoveries were >90%. Stability studies showed that both analytes were stable during sample preparation and analysis. The established method was successfully applied to an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs after a single oral dose of 4 mg guanfacine extended-release tablets. PMID:23832392

  4. Formulation of sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis, L.) monoterpenes into chitosan hydrogels and permeation study with GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Kodadová, Alexandra; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Ťažký, Anton; Oremusová, Jarmila; Grančai, Daniel; Mikuš, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the formulation of natural drugs into hydrogels. For the first time, compounds from the sage essential oil were formulated into chitosan hydrogels. A sample preparation procedure for hydrophobic volatile analytes present in a hydrophilic water matrix along with an analytical method based on the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and applied for the evaluation of the identity and quantity of essential oil components in the hydrogels and saline samples. The experimental results revealed that the chitosan hydrogels are suitable for the formulation of sage essential oil. The monoterpene release can be effectively controlled by both chitosan and caffeine concentration in the hydrogels. Permeation experiment, based on a hydrogel with the optimized composition [3.5% (w/w) sage essential oil, 2.0% (w/w) caffeine, 2.5% (w/w) chitosan and 0.1% (w/w) Tween-80] in donor compartment, saline solution in acceptor compartment, and semi-permeable cellophane membrane, demonstrated the useful permeation selectivity. Here, (according to lipophilicity) an enhanced permeation of the bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic and antiseptic properties (eucalyptol, camphor and borneol) and, at the same time, suppressed permeation of toxic thujone (not exceeding its permitted applicable concentration) was observed. These properties highlight the pharmaceutical importance of the developed chitosan hydrogel formulating sage essential oil in the dermal applications. PMID:24931183

  5. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of biomass and food waste to produce aromatics: Analytical Py-GC/MS study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Min, Min; Ding, Kuan; Xie, Qinglong; Ruan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of corn stalk and food waste (FW) was carried out to produce aromatics using quantitative pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and ZSM-5 zeolite in the hydrogen form was employed as the catalyst. Co-CFP temperature and a parameter called hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/C(eff) ratio) were examined for their effects on the relative content of aromatics. Experimental results showed that co-CFP temperature of 600 °C was optimal for the formation of aromatics and other organic pyrolysis products. Besides, H/C(eff) ratio had an important influence on product distribution. The yield of total organic pyrolysis products and relative content of aromatics increased non-linearly with increasing H/C(eff) ratio. There was an apparent synergistic effect between corn stalk and FW during co-CFP process, which promoted the production of aromatics significantly. Co-CFP of biomass and FW was an effective method to produce aromatics and other petrochemicals. PMID:25864028

  6. GC-MS studies on extracts and distillates from Posidonomia shales (FRG) and from fossil wood out of these shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, W.; Hernanto, A. R.; Heller, W.; Schallies, M.

    1984-12-01

    In this study Posidonomia shale extracts, Posidonomia shale distillates and extracts of fossil wood (gagat) found in these shales were seperated on GC and identified by GC-MS. Samples were obtained from Dotternhausen oil shale formation (FRG) belonging to LIAS epsilon (Toarcien). Main components were n-alkanes ranging from C7 to C27 with a maximum at C17 for shales and two maxima at C17 and C9 respectively for fossil wood. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons present in shales and fossil wood as well were 2,6,10-trimethyltridecane, 2,6,10-trimethylpentadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) and 2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane (phytane). Numerous low molecular weight cycloalkanes with 6 to 9 carbon atoms were present in fossil wood. Of these, the main constituent could also be found in shales. Also aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were numerous in the low boiling fraction of extracts of fossil wood. The results obtained are discussed with respect to the maturity of the Dotternhausen sediments.

  7. A simple LC-MS method for determination of cyasterone in rat plasma: application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqiang; Li, Guangyu; Zhao, Jinsong; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Zaoxia; Su, Guanfang

    2016-06-01

    A simple, specific, and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for determination of cyasterone in rat plasma was developed in our laboratory. Cucurbitacin B was used as an internal standard (IS). After protein precipitation with twofold volume of acetonitrile, the analyte and IS were separated on a Luna C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 3.0 µm; Phenomenex) by isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode; selected ion monitoring scan mode was used for quantification, and the target ions m/z 543.3 for cyasterone and m/z 581.3 for IS were chosen. Good linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0.40-400 ng/mL for cyasterone in rat plasma. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <7.4%. This method was proved to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies after oral (5.0 mg/kg) or intravenous (0.5 mg/kg) administration of cyasterone in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26390114

  8. A UHPLC-TOF/MS method based metabonomic study of total ginsenosides effects on Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yingge; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ling; Di, Xin; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-11-10

    A metabonomic method was established to find potential biomarkers and study the metabolism disturbance in Alzheimer disease animal model. Total ginsenosides, as potential agent in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation, was also studied to learn the regulation mechanism to plasma metabolites in model animals. In experiment, amyloid beta 1-42 was occupied to form Alzheimer disease animal model. After drug administration, animals were evaluated by Morris water maze behavior test and sacrificed. Plasma samples were then analyzed using UHPLC-TOF/MS method to determine the endogenous metabolites. Behavior test results revealed that the spatial learning and memory abilities were deficit in model mice, and total ginsenosides could improve cognition abilities in dose-dependent manners. Principal component analysis showed that model and sham were divided into two groups, which means the metabolic network of mice was disturbed after modeling. Accordingly, 19 biomarkers were found and identified. In model group, the levels of proline, valine, tryptophan, LPC (14:0), LPC (15:0), LPC (15:1), LPC (17:0), LPC (18:2), LPC (18:3) and LPC (20:4) were up-regulated, while the levels of acetylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, vaccenylcarnitine, phytosphingosine, N-eicosanoylethanolamine, hexadecenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and octadecadienoic acid were down-regulated. The levels of these metabolites were recovered in different degrees after total ginsenosides administration. Combining with behavior study results, total ginsenosides could ameliorate both cognition symptoms and metabolic changes in model animals. This metabonomic approach provided a feasible way to understand the endogenous alterations of AD and to study the pharmacodynamic activity of novel agents. PMID:26210744

  9. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  10. Effects of a Hypnotic Induction and an Unpleasantness-Focused Analgesia Suggestion on Pain Catastrophizing to an Experimental Heat Stimulus: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tomonori; Nakae, Aya; Sasaki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is associated with greater levels of pain. While many studies support the efficacy of hypnosis for pain, the effect on pain catastro