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Sample records for mt ho ni

  1. Reentrant superconductivity in HoNi5-NbN-HoNi5 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gyanendra; Joshi, P. C.; Hossain, Z.; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-08-01

    Superconductivity (S) and ferromagnetism (F) are probed through transport and magnetization measurements in nanometer scale HoNi5-NbN (F-S) bilayers and HoNi5-NbN-HoNi5 (F-S-F) trilayers. The choice of materials has been made on the basis of their comparable ordering temperatures and strong magnetic anisotropy in HoNi5. We observe the normal state reentrant behavior in resistance vs. temperature plots of the F-S-F structures just below the superconducting transition in the limited range of HoNi5 layer thickness dHN (20\\ \\text{nm}) when d_{\\textit{NbN}} is fixed at{}\\simeq 10\\ \\text{nm} . The reentrance is quenched by increasing the out-of-plane (H_{\\perp} ) magnetic field and transport current where as in-plane (H_{\\parallel} ) field of \\leq 1500\\ \\text{Oe} has no effect on the reentrance. The origin of the reentrant behavior seen here in the range T_{\\textit{Curie}}/T_C \\leq 0.92 is attributed to a delicate balance between the magnetic exchange energy and the condensation energy in the interfacial regions of the trilayer.

  2. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties in Ho and Ni co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, Y. P.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline Bi1-xHoxFe1-yNiyO3 (x = 0, 0.1; y = 0, 0.03), which were prepared by the solid-state method, have been investigated. The powder X-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples are polycrystalline and show rhombohedral perovskite structure. The micro-Raman scattering studies confirm that Bi0.9Ho0.1Fe0.97Ni0.03O3 has a compressive lattice distortion induced by the simultaneous substitution of Ho and Ni ions at A and B-sites, respectively. From the magnetization dependences at room temperature, Bi0.9Ho0.1Fe0.97Ni0.03O3 has enhanced magnetization (0.2280 emu/g) and low coercive field (280 Oe). It was revealed that the Ni dopant plays an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties and the Ho dopant favors the magnetic exchange interactions in the co-doped ceramic.

  3. Superconductivity and magnetism in (Ho xY 1- x)Ni 2B 2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversmann, K.; Handstein, A.; Fuchs, G.; Cao, L.; Müller, K.-H.

    1996-02-01

    Superconducting and magnetic properties of polycrystalline samples of the pseudoquarternary system (Ho xY 1- x)Ni 2B 2C have been investigated by resistance and susceptibility measurements. A linear depression of the superconducting transition temperature with increasing magnetic ordering temperatures was found by variation of the Ho content providing evidence for magnetic pair breaking. This behaviour is analogous to the known scaling with the de Gennes factor of the rare earth elements in the family of quaternary RNi 2B 2C compounds. Both cases are described by a common scaling behaviour including the superconducting and magnetic transition temperatures. A reetrrant behaviour observed for Ho contents x>0.5 results in maximum in the temperature dependence of the upper critical field Hc2( T). These results are compared with Hc2( T) data of the RNi 2B 2C family ( R=Tm,Er).

  4. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties in Ho and Ni co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, B. W.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1; y = 0, 0.03), which were prepared by the solid-state method, have been investigated. The powder X-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples are polycrystalline and show rhombohedral perovskite structure. The micro-Raman scattering studies confirm that Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has a compressive lattice distortion induced by the simultaneous substitution of Ho and Ni ions at A and B-sites, respectively. From the magnetization dependences at room temperature, Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has enhanced magnetization (0.2280 emu/g) and low coercive field (280 Oe). It was revealed that the Ni dopant plays an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties and the Ho dopant favors the magnetic exchange interactions in the co-doped ceramic.

  5. Effect of Crystal Fields in Ho1 - xDyxNi2B2 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    2013-03-01

    From the anisotropy and the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities of Ho1 - x Dyx Ni2B2 C system with magnetic field H perpendicular or parallel to c-axis, the crystalline electric field (CEF) effect has been studied and the magnetic exchange interaction constant Jex of rare-earth ions perpendicular to the c-axis estimated for 0 <=x <=1. The crystalline electric field parameter, B02, the first Steven parameter and the most dominant term in this system, are determined from the high-temperature-limit anisotropic Weiss temperatures of the magnetic susceptibilities and there is a broad minimum around x ~ 0.3, where superconducting transition temperature, TC, and Néel temperature, TN, are almost same.

  6. Study of morphology and magnetic properties of the HoNi{sub 3} crystalline and ball-milled compound

    SciTech Connect

    Bajorek, Anna; Skornia, Paweł; Prusik, Krystian; Wojtyniak, Marcin; Chełkowska, Grażyna

    2015-03-15

    The morphology and magnetic properties of the HoNi{sub 3} crystalline and ball-milled intermetallic compounds are presented. The polycrystalline HoNi{sub 3} bulk compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral PuNi{sub 3} — type of crystal structure and indicates ferrimagnetic arrangement with the Curie temperature of T{sub C} = 57 ± 2 K, the helimagnetic temperature T{sub h} = 23 ± 2 K with the total saturation magnetic moment of 6.84 μ{sub B}/f.u. at 2 K. The use of the ball-milling method leads to the formation of HoNi{sub 3} nanoflakes with typical thickness of less than 100 nm prone to agglomeration upon milling. The increase of grinding duration leads to the reduction in crystallite size, which was confirmed by various complementary microscopical and diffraction studies. Moreover, the increase in milling duration results in the emergence of the relatively small coercivity (H{sub C}), remanence (M{sub r}) and a variation of the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The ball-milling method exhibits significant potential for producing RT{sub 3} nanopowders. • The AFM method was used for the first time in analysis of R–T nanoflakes morphology. • HoNi{sub 3} compound forms polycrystalline and textured nanoflakes evolving upon milling. • The decrease in crystallite size via grinding is confirmed by XRD, TEM and AFM. • The magnetic parameters were sensitive to the extension of pulverization b.

  7. High-field magnetic properties of Ho 2Fe 15M 2 compounds (M  Al, Ga, Ni and Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Tang, N.; Li, W. Z.; Qin, W. D.; Pan, H. Y.; Nasunjilegal, B.; Yang, F. M.; de Boer, F. R.

    1996-07-01

    The crystalline structure and magnetic properties of the Ho 2Fe 15M 2 compounds with M  Al, Si, Ni, and Ga have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns on powder samples show that all compounds crystallize in the Th 2Ni 17-type structure. The substitution of Al and Ga for Fe leads to an increase in the lattice constants a and c, but a decrease for Si substitution. Substitution of all the M elements for Fe leads to an increase in the Curie temperature and to a decrease in the saturation magnetization. The exchange coupling constants JHoT between Ho and transition metal spins are found to be almost independent of the substituting atom.

  8. Microscopic changes in HoNi2B2C due to thermal treatment and its effect on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dertinger, A.; Dinnebier, R. E.; Kreyssig, A.; Stephens, P. W.; Pagola, S.; Loewenhaupt, M.; van Smaalen, S.; Braun, H. F.

    2001-05-01

    The low-temperature properties of HoNi2B2C strongly depend on its thermodynamic state established via thermal treatment. We present high resolution x-ray powder diffraction data taken on a pair of polycrystalline samples with identical chemical composition (HoNi2B2.1C) but annealed at different temperatures, namely, at 800 and at 1100 °C. Their superconducting transition temperatures differ by more than 10%. Rietveld refinement and difference Fourier analysis reveal subtle differences in the atomic parameters and in the electron density on the carbon site. Furthermore, a new atomic site can be identified for both samples, which is partially occupied with the lighter atoms boron or carbon.

  9. Electric and magnetic properties of Al86Ni8R6 (R=Sm, Gd, Ho) alloys in liquid and amorphous states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V.; Svec, P.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Mikhailov, V.; Sidorova, E.; Son, L.

    2016-06-01

    Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of Al86Ni8Sm6, Al86Ni8Gd6 and Al86Ni8Ho6 alloys are studied in a wide temperature range including amorphous, crystalline and liquid states. The negative value of resistivity temperature coefficient in amorphous ribbons is explained by the structural separation starting much before the beginning of their crystallization. The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho atoms are found to be essentially lower than for R3+ ions. The results are discussed in supposition of directed bonds between rare earth and aluminum atoms.

  10. Complex Structures in the Reentrant Phase Diagram of HoNi_2B_2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, J.; Zhang, J.; Olinger, A., Jr.; Metlushko, V.; Delong, L.; Canfield, P.

    1996-03-01

    HoNi_2B_2C exhibits a resistive onset to superconductivity near 9.0 K, followed by transitions to incommensurate magnetic order (IMO) at 6.0 K and 5.5 K, and commensurate antiferromagnetic order (AFM) at TN = 5.2 K. Vibrating reed (VR) and resistance data reveal two previously unobserved lines of magnetic anomalies in both the upper superconducting (SC) and lower reentrant SC regions for H || a*b*. The wide region between the upper onset of SC and the first magnetic anomaly reflects weak vortex pinning, possibly due to a subtle buildup of IMO from well above 8K. The interplay between SC and magnetic order is evident in abrupt displacements of transition lines to IMO near their crossing with the reentrant normal transition line for 5.2

  11. Angular dependence of metamagnetic transitions in HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, P.C.; Budko, S.L.; Cho, B.K.; Lacerda, A.; Farrell, D.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Kalatsky, V.A.; Pokrovsky, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed measurements of M(2 K, H, {theta}) of HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, where {theta} is the angle that the applied field H makes with the [110] axis while remaining perpendicular to the crystallographic c axis, reveal three metamagnetic transitions with angular dependences H{sub c1}=(4.1{plus_minus}0.1 kG)/cos({theta}), H{sub c2}=8.4{plus_minus}0.2 kG/cos({phi}), and H{sub c3}=(6.6{plus_minus}0.2 kG)/sin({phi}), where {phi}={theta}{minus}45 is the angle from the [100] axis. The high-field saturated moment, M{sub sat}{approx}10{mu}{sub B}cos{theta} is consistent with the local moments being confined to the [110] direction. The locally saturated moments for fields between H{sub ci} (i=1,2,3) also manifest angular dependences that are consistent with combinations of local moments along [110] axes. Analysis of these data lead us to infer that the net distribution of moments is ({up_arrow}{down_arrow}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}) for H{lt}H{sub c1}, ({up_arrow}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}) for H{sub c1}{lt}H{lt}H{sub c2}, ({up_arrow}{up_arrow}{r_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{r_arrow}) for H{sub c2}{lt}H{lt}H{sub c3}, and ({up_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}) for H{gt}H{sub c3}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Influence of Ni substitution at B-site for Fe3+ ions on morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of HoFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Zubida; Majid, Kowsar; Ikram, Mohd.; Sultan, Khalid; Mir, Sajad Ahmad; Asokan, K.

    2016-05-01

    Present study reports the effect of Ni substitution at B-site in HoFeO3 on the morphological, optical and magnetic properties. These compounds were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope reveals an increase in average grain sizes with Ni concentration. Absorption and emission spectra show redshift in band gap with increase in Ni ion concentrations. The Tauc plots show direct allowed transitions. Temperature-dependent magnetization studies on these compounds revealed the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. There is separation between temperature at which zero-field-cooled and field-cooled occurs at varied temperature with Ni substitution. The separation effect is related to the impact of the paramagnetic Ho3+ ions, whose magnitude becomes more prominent at higher temperature. The value of squareness ratio in these materials is below 0.5 indicating presence of multidomain structures.

  13. The structure of new nickel(I) oxides: LnSr 5Ni 3O 8 (Ln = Y, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Attfield, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    Stoichiometric oxides of 3d 9 nickel(I), LnSr 5Ni 3O 8 (Ln = Y, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm), have been prepared through the hydrogen reduction of LnSr 5Ni 3O 11, resulting in a change from a tetragonal K 2NiF 4 type structure to an orthorhombic Sr 2CuO 3 arrangement in which {1}/{3} of the bridging oxygen atoms are missing from chains of apex-linked nickel oxide square planes.

  14. Magnetic structures of R5Ni2In4 and R11Ni4In9 ( R = Tb and Ho): Strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2015-11-09

    In this study, the magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R = Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings.

  15. Magnetic Interactions in the Double Perovskites R2NiMnO6 (R = Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) Investigated by Neutron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Retuerto, María; Muñoz, Ángel; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio; Mompeán, Federico J; Fernández-Díaz, María Teresa; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier

    2015-11-16

    R2NiMnO6 (R = Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) perovskites have been prepared by soft-chemistry techniques followed by high oxygen-pressure treatments; they have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and magnetic measurements. In all cases the crystal structure is defined in the monoclinic P21/n space group, with an almost complete order between Ni(2+) and Mn(4+) cations in the octahedral perovskite sublattice. The low temperature NPD data and the macroscopic magnetic measurements indicate that all the compounds are ferrimagnetic, with a net magnetic moment different from zero and a distinct alignment of Ni and Mn spins depending on the nature of the rare-earth cation. The magnetic structures are different from the one previously reported for La2NiMnO6, with a ferromagnetic structure involving Mn(4+) and Ni(2+) moments. This spin alignment can be rationalized taking into account the Goodenough-Kanamori rules. The magnetic ordering temperature (TCM) decreases abruptly as the size of the rare earth decreases, since TCM is mainly influenced by the superexchange interaction between Ni(2+) and Mn(4+) (Ni(2+)-O-Mn(4+) angle) and this angle decreases with the rare-earth size. The rare-earth magnetic moments participate in the magnetic structures immediately below TCM. PMID:26513539

  16. S-shaped decanuclear heterometallic [Ni8Ln2] complexes [Ln(III) = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho]: theoretical modeling of the magnetic properties of the gadolinium analogue.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Chakraborty, Amit; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Pardo, Emilio; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-07-14

    The reaction of 8-quinolinol-2-carboaldoxime (LH2) with Ni(II) and Ln(III) salts afforded the heterometallic decanuclear compounds [Ni8Dy2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)6](ClO4)2·16H2O (1), [Ni8Gd2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](NO3)2·12H2O (2), [Ni8Ho2(μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(H2O)4(MeOH)2](ClO4)2·2MeOH·12H2O (3) and [Ni8Tb2 (μ3-OH)2(L)8(LH)2(MeOH)4(OMe)2]·2CH2Cl2·8H2O (4). While compounds 1-3 are dicationic, compound 4 is neutral. These compounds possess an S-shaped architecture and comprise a long chain of metal ions bound to each other. In all the complexes, the eight Ni(II) and two Ln(III) ions of the multimetallic ensemble are hold together by two μ3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)) and two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) whereas compound 4 has two μ3-OH, eight dianionic (L(2-)), two monoanionic oxime ligands (LH(-)) and two terminal methoxy (MeO(-)) ligands. The central portion of the S-shaped molecular wire is made up of an octanuclear Ni(II) ensemble which has at its two ends the Ln(III) caps. Magnetic studies on 1-4 reveal that the magnetic interactions between neighboring metal ions are negligible at room temperature. On the other hand, at lower temperatures in all the compounds anti-ferromagnetic interactions seem to be dominated. Analysis of the magnetic data for the Gd(III) derivative indicates Ni(II)-Ni(II) anti-ferromagnetic interactions and Gd(III)-Ni(II) ferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures. A theoretical density functional study on the magnetic behavior of the Gd(III) derivative suggests that while the weak ferromagnetic interaction between Gd(III) and Ni(II) is in line with the expectation of the magnetic interactions between orthogonal d and f orbitals, antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) interactions are related to the wide Ni-O-Ni angles (∼102°) and quasi-planar conformation of the Ni2O2 core. PMID:24876072

  17. Electronic structure of the Np MT 5 ( M = Fe, Co, Ni; T = Ga, In) series of neptunium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of the electronic structure of the Np MGa5 ( M = Fe, Co, Ni) series of neptunium compounds, whose crystal structure is similar to that of the known family of Pu115 superconductors, was studied by the LDA + U + SO method. The calculations took into account both the strong electron correlations and the spin‒orbit coupling in the 5 f shell of neptunium. For the first time, the electronic structure was calculated for a hypothetical series of compounds in which gallium is replaced with indium. Parameters of the crystal structure of the given series were obtained using the relationship between the parameters of the crystal structure of the earlier-studied compounds PuCoGa5 and PuCoIn5. The analysis of the electronic structure and characteristics of neptunium ions calculated in the framework of the LDA + U + SO method showed that the neptunium ions in Np MIn5 with M = Fe, Co, and Ni should have an electron configuration closer to f 4, but a spin and magnetic characteristics close to those in Np MGa5.

  18. Metal-insulator transitions, structural and microstructural evolution of RNiO{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Y) perovskites: Evidence for room-temperature charge disproportionation in monoclinic HoNiO{sub 3} and YNiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Casais, M.T.; Arangda, M.A.G.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.

    1999-05-26

    RNiO{sub 3} nickelates have been prepared under high oxygen pressure (R = Sm, Eu, Gd) or high hydrostatic pressure (R = Dy, Ho, Y) in the presence of KClO{sub 4}. The samples have been investigated at room temperature (RT) by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction to follow the evolution of the crystal structures and microstructures along the series. The distortion of the orthorhombic (space group Pbnm) perovskite progressively increases along the series, leading for the smallest Ho{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} cations to a subtle monoclinic distortion (space group P2{sub 1}/n) which implies the splitting of the Ni positions in the crystal. This symmetry was confirmed by neutron powder diffraction; the crystal structures for R = Ho and Y were refined simultaneously from RT synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data. In both perovskites the oxygen octahedra around Ni1 and Ni2 positions are significantly distorted, suggesting the manifestation of Jahn-Teller effect, which is almost absent in the nickelates` of lighter rare earths. The very distinct mean Ni-O bond distances observed for Ni1 and Ni2 atoms at RT, in the insulating regime, suggest the presence of a charge disproportionation effect, considered as driving force for the splitting of the Ni positions. The metal-insulator (MI) transitions for RNiO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Dy, Ho, Y), above room temperature, have been characterized by DSC. The transition temperatures for Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y oxides in the heating runs are 510.7, 563.9, 572.7, and 581.9 K, respectively. The increasing rate of T{sub MI} for Dy, Ho, and Y materials is lower than that expected from the variation of T{sub MI} for the larger rare earth perovskites. This is probably related to the subtle monoclinic distortion found for Ho and Y nickelates. The high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder patterns have revealed changes in the microstructure along the series. Powder patterns for orthorhombic RNiO{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) display asymmetric tails for

  19. Mo2NiB2-type {Gd, Tb, Dy)2Ni2.35Si0.65 and La2Ni3-type {Dy, Ho}2Ni2.5Si0.5 compounds: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    The crystal structure of new Mo2NiB2-type {Gd, Tb, Dy}2Ni2.35Si0.65 (Immm, No. 71, oI10) and La2Ni3-type {Dy, Ho}2Ni2.5Si0.5 (Cmce No. 64, oC20) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. Magnetization measurements show that the Mo2NiB2-type Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65 undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at 66 K, whereas isostructural Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 52 K and a field-induced metamagnetic transition at low temperatures. Neutron diffraction study shows that, in zero applied field, Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 exhibits c-axis antiferromagnetic order with propagation vector K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] below its magnetic ordering temperature and Tb magnetic moment reaches a value of 8.32(5) μB at 2 K. The La2Ni3-type Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5 exhibits ferromagnetic like transition at 42 K with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and field induced metamagnetic transition below 17 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Gd2Ni2.35Si0.65, Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 and Dy2Ni2.5Si0.5 is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of -14.3 J/kg K, -5.3 J/kg K and -10.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 66 K, 52 K and 42 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Tb2Ni2.35Si0.65 and Dy2Ni2.35Si0.65 is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +12.8 J/kg K and +9.9 J/kg K, respectively at 7 K for a field change of 50 kOe.

  20. Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} compounds: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S.K.

    2015-05-15

    The crystal structure of new Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} (Immm, No. 71, oI10) and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} (Cmce No. 64, oC20) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. Magnetization measurements show that the Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at ~66 K, whereas isostructural Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at ~52 K and a field-induced metamagnetic transition at low temperatures. Neutron diffraction study shows that, in zero applied field, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} exhibits c-axis antiferromagnetic order with propagation vector K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] below its magnetic ordering temperature and Tb magnetic moment reaches a value of 8.32(5) μ{sub B} at 2 K. The La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} exhibits ferromagnetic like transition at ~42 K with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and field induced metamagnetic transition below ~17 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65}, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of −14.3 J/kg K, −5.3 J/kg K and −10.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 66 K, 52 K and 42 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +12.8 J/kg K and ~+9.9 J/kg K, respectively at 7 K for a field change of 50 kOe. - Graphical abstract: The (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} supplement the series of Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type rare earth compounds, whereas the (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} supplement the series of La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type rare

  1. Pentanuclear heterometallic {Ni2Ln3} (Ln = Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho) assemblies. Single-molecule magnet behavior and multistep relaxation in the dysprosium derivative.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Bag, Prasenjit; Kroener, Wolfgang; Gieb, Klaus; Müller, Paul

    2013-11-18

    The reaction between Ln(III) chloride and NiCl2·4H2O salts in presence of a multidentate sterically unencumbered ligand, (E)-2,2'-(2-hydroxy-3-((2-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)-5-methylbenzylazanediyl)diethanol (LH4) leads to the synthesis of four isostructural pentanuclear hetereometallic complexes [Ni2Dy3(LH)4]Cl (1), [Ni2Gd3(LH)4]Cl (2), [Ni2Tb3(LH)3(LH2)]Cl2 (3), [Ni2 Ho3 (LH)3 (LH2)]Cl2 (4) with unprecedented topology. Here the two compounds 1 are 2 are monocationic and crystallize in chiral space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1) whereas compounds 3 and 4 are dicationic and crystallize in achiral space group P2(1)/n. The total metal framework, {Ni2Ln3} unit is held by four triply deprotonated ligands [LH](3-) in 1 and 2 whereas in case of 3 and 4 three triply deprotonated [LH](3-) and one doubly deprotonated [LH2](2-) ligands are involved. In these complexes both the lanthanide ions and the nickel(II) ions are doubly bridged and the bridging is composed of oxygen atoms derived from either phenolate or ethoxide groups. The analysis of SQUID measurements reveal a high magnetic ground state and a slow relaxation of the magnetization with two relaxation regimes for 1. For the thermally activated regime we found an effective energy barrier of U(eff) = 85 K. Micro Hall probe loop measurements directly proof the single-molecule magnet (SMM) nature of 1 with a blocking temperature of T(B) = 3 K and an open hysteresis for sweep rates faster than 50 mT/s. PMID:24236759

  2. Evolution of magnetic layers stacking sequence within the magnetic structure of Ho(CoxNi1-x)2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElMassalami, M.; Takeya, H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Gomes, A. M.; Paiva, T.; dos Santos, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of Co substitution on the magnetic structure of Ho(CoxNi1-x)2B2C (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) using neutron diffraction, magnetization and specific heat studies. Different modes are stabilized: an AFM k=(0,0,1) mode for x=0.2, a spiral k=(0,0,0.49) mode for x=0.4, a spiral k=(0,0,0.26) mode for x=0.6, and a FM k=(0,0,0) mode for x=0.8. Recalling that for x=0.0, k=(0,0,1) while for x=1.0, k=(0,0,0), then all these magnetic structures can be visualized as a variation in the stacking sequence, along the z-axis, of the intra-planar FM-coupled Ho sheets as such Co substitution controls the z-component of the k=(0,0,ux) vector where ux=0,0.26,0.49, or 1. We discuss this inference and the observation that in spite of such a diversity of magnetic structures, the critical temperatures and the saturated moments are only weakly influenced by substitution.

  3. Electric Transport in R2MGe6 Ternary Compounds (R=La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho; M=Mn, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    M. Konyk; B. Kuzhel; Yu. Stadnyk; Yu. Gorelenko; Ya. Mudryk; A. Waskiv

    2007-04-29

    Polycrystalline samples of the intermetallic compounds La{sub 2}MnGe{sub 6}, Ce{sub 2}MnGe{sub 6}, La{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}, Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}, and R{sub 2}NiGe{sub 6} (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho), which belong to the Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6} type of structure (Amm2 or Cm2m space group), were studied by means of the electrical resistivity and differential thermopower measurements. They exhibit the metallic-like behavior in the temperature range from 5 to 290 K. The peculiarities in both resistivity and thermopower temperature dependencies correlate with corresponding magnetic transition T{sub tr} temperatures.

  4. Indium flux synthesis of RE4Ni2InGe4 (RE = Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm): an ordered quaternary variation on the binary phase Mg5Si6.

    PubMed

    Salvador, James R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2006-09-01

    The quaternary compounds RE4Ni2InGe4 (RE = Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) were obtained as large single crystals in high yields from reactions run in liquid In. The title compounds crystallize in the monoclinic C2/m space group with the Mg(5)Si(6) structure type with lattice parameters a = 15.420(2) A, b = 4.2224(7) A, c = 7.0191(11) A, and beta = 108.589(2) degrees for Dy4Ni2InGe4, a = 15.373(4) A, b = 4.2101(9) A, c = 6.9935(15) A, and beta = 108.600(3) degrees for Ho4Ni2InGe4, a = 15.334(7) A, b = 4.1937(19) A, c = 6.975(3) A, and beta =108.472(7) degrees for Er4Ni2InGe4, and a = 15.253(2) A, b = 4.1747(6) A, c = 6.9460(9) A, and beta = 108.535(2) degrees for Tm4Ni2InGe4. RE4Ni2InGe4 formed in liquid In from a melt that was rich in the rare-earth component. These compounds are polar intermetallic phases with a cationic rare-earth substructure embedded in a transition metal and main group matrix. The rare-earth atoms form a highly condensed network, leading to interatomic distances that are similar to those found in the elemental lanthanides themselves. The Dy and Ho analogues display two maxima in the susceptibility, suggesting antiferromagnetic ordering behavior and an accompanying spin reorientation. The Er analogue shows only one maximum in the susceptibility, and no magnetic ordering was observed for the Tm compound down to 2 K. PMID:16933908

  5. Rare earth-copper-magnesium compounds RECu 9Mg 2 ( RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) with ordered CeNi 3-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solokha, P.; Pavlyuk, V.; Saccone, A.; De Negri, S.; Prochwicz, W.; Marciniak, B.; Różycka-Sokołowska, E.

    2006-10-01

    A series of ternary compounds RECu 9Mg 2 ( RE=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb) have been synthesized via induction melting of elemental metal ingots followed by annealing at 400 °C for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) was used for examining microstructure and phase composition. These phases crystallize with an ordered version of the binary hexagonal structure type first reported for CeNi 3. The crystal structure was solved for TbCu 9Mg 2 from single crystal X-ray counter data (TbCu 9Mg 2-structure type, P6 3/mmc-space group, hP24-Pearson symbol, a=0.49886 (7) nm, c=1.61646 (3) nm, RF=0.0474 for 190 unique reflections). The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns of RECu 9Mg 2 confirmed the same crystal structure for the reported rare earth metals. The unit cell volumes for RECu 9Mg 2 smoothly follow the lanthanide contraction. The existence of a RECu 9Mg 2 phase was excluded for RE=Er and Tm under the investigated experimental conditions.

  6. Magnetic structures of R5Ni2In4 and R11Ni4In9 ( R = Tb and Ho): Strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2015-11-09

    In this study, the magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R = Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings.

  7. Magnetic structures of R 5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 (R  =  Tb and Ho): strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Dhar, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R 5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R  =  Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R 5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings. A transition at T C  =  125 K in Tb5Ni2In4 [κ 1  =  (0, 0, 0)] leads to a ferro/ferrimagnetic order where the magnetic ordering in one of the three R-sublattices leads to the ordering of another one; the third sublattice stays non-magnetic. New magnetic Bragg peaks appearing below T N  =  20 K can be indexed with the incommensurate magnetic propagation vector κ 2  =  (0, 0.636, ½) at T N  =  20 K a cycloidal spin order, which acts mostly upon the third R-sublattice, occurs. Ho5Ni2In4 establishes first antiferromagnetism [κ  =  (0, 0, 0)] at T N  =  31 K on two R-sublattices; then the system becomes ferro/ferrimagnetic at T C  =  25 K with the third sublattice ordering as well. Tb11Ni4In9 has three magnetic transitions at T C  =  135 K, T N1  =  35 K and at T N2  =  20 K they are respectively coupled to the appearance of different propagation vectors [κ 1  =  (0, 0, 0), κ 2  =  (0, 0, ½), κ 3  =  (0, 1, ½)], which themselves are operating differently on the five different R-sublattices. Two sublattices remain mostly ferromagnetic down to lowest temperature while the three others are predominantly coupled antiferromagnetically. In Ho11Ni4In9 a purely antiferromagnetic order, described by four different

  8. Mt. St. Helens Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Len

    1992-01-01

    Provides a personal account of one science teacher's participation in a teacher workshop in which teachers learned about volcanic development, types of eruption, geomorphology, plate tectonics, volcano monitoring, and hazards created by volcanoes by examining Mt. St. Helens. Provides a graphic identifying volcanoes active since 1975. (MDH)

  9. pT7MT, a metallothionein 2A-tagged novel prokaryotic fusion expression vector.

    PubMed

    Marikar, Faiz M M T; Fang, Lei; Jiang, Shu-Han; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2007-05-01

    In the present article, a novel fusion expression vector for Escherichia coli was developed based on the pTORG plasmid, a derivative of pET32a. This vector, named pT7MT (GenBank Accession No DQ504436), carries a T7 promoter and it drives the downstream gene encoding Metallothionein 2A (MT2A). There are in-framed multiple cloning sites (MCS) downstream of the MT2A gene. A target gene can be cloned into the MCS and fused to the C-terminal of the MT2A gene in a compatible open reading frame (ORF) to achieve fusion expression. The metal-binding capability of MT2A allows the purification of fusion proteins by metal chelating affinity chromatogralhy, known as Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Using this expression vector, we successfully got the stable and high-yield expression of MT2A-GST and MT2A-Troponin I fusion proteins. These two proteins were easily purified from the supernatant of cell lysates by one-step Ni2+ -affinity chromatography. The final yields of MT2A-GST and MT2A-Troponin I were 30 mg/l and 28 mg/l in LB culture, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest that pT7MT can be applied as a useful expression vector for stable and high-yield production of fusion proteins. PMID:18051292

  10. Heteromeric MT1/MT2 Melatonin Receptors Modulate Photoreceptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Kenkichi; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Journé, Anne-Sophie; Kamal, Maud; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Dussaud, Sébastien; Gbahou, Florence; Yettou, Katia; Liu, Cuimei; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Jockers, Ralf; Tosini, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The formation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers elicits signaling diversification and holds great promise for improved drug selectivity. Most studies have been conducted in heterologous expression systems; however, in vivo validation is missing from most cases thus questioning the physiological significance of GPCR heteromerization. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors have been shown to exist as homo- and heteromers in vitro. We show here that the effect of melatonin on rod photoreceptor light sensitivity is mediated by melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor heteromers. This effect involves activation of the heteromer-specific PLC/PKC pathway and is abolished in MT1−/− and MT2−/− mice as well as in mice overexpressing a non-functional MT2 receptor mutant that competes with the formation of functional MT1/MT2 heteromers in photoreceptor cells. This study establishes the essential role of melatonin receptor heteromers in retinal function and supports the physiological importance of GPCR heteromerization. Finally, our work may have important therapeutic implications, as the heteromer complex may provide a unique pharmacological target to improve photoreceptor functioning and to extend the viability of photoreceptors during aging. PMID:24106342

  11. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Mt. St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Movie

    This 3-D anaglyph image of Mt. St. Helens volcano combines the nadir-looking and back-looking band 3 images of ASTER. To view the image in stereo, you will need blue-red glasses. Make sure to look through the red lens with your left eye. Figure 1: This ASTER image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The image is centered at 46.2 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude.

    Movie: The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a natural color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  14. Systematic Study of a Family of Butterfly-Like {M2Ln2} Molecular Magnets (M = Mg(II), Mn(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II); Ln = Y(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Er(III)).

    PubMed

    Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Chilton, Nicholas F; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E P; McInnes, Eric J L

    2015-06-15

    A family of 3d-4f [M(II)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) "butterflies" (where M(II) = Mg, Co, Ni, and Cu; Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) and [Mn(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-O)2(O2C(t)Bu)10](2-) molecules (where Ln(III) = Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) has been synthesized and characterized through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and ab initio calculations. All dysprosium- and some erbium-containing tetramers showed frequency-dependent maxima in the out-of-phase component of the susceptibility associated with slow relaxation of magnetization, and hence, they are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). AC susceptibility measurements have shown that the SMM behavior is entirely intrinsic to the Dy and Er sites and the magnitude of the energy barrier is influenced by the interactions between the 4f and the 3d metal. A trend is observed between the strength of the 3d-4f exchange interaction between and the maximum observed in the χ″M(T). PMID:26016421

  15. Mt. Trumbull and Mt. Logan wilderness management plan. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The plan provides management guidance for the Mt. Trumbull and Mt. Logan Wildernesses. Because these two areas have very similar resource characteristics and management issues, they are being managed under one plan. Throughout the development of this plan, the Arizona Wilderness Act of 1984 and the Wilderness Act of 1964 are used to guide the development of objectives, policies and the kind, type and method of management actions needed to maintain or enhance the wilderness resources and values.

  16. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabei; Clough, Shannon J; Hutchinson, Anthony J; Adamah-Biassi, Ekue B; Popovska-Gorevski, Marina; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, or 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is synthesized and released by the pineal gland and locally in the retina following a circadian rhythm, with low levels during the day and elevated levels at night. Melatonin activates two high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2, to exert beneficial actions in sleep and circadian abnormality, mood disorders, learning and memory, neuroprotection, drug abuse, and cancer. Progress in understanding the role of melatonin receptors in the modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms has led to the discovery of a novel class of melatonin agonists for treating insomnia, circadian rhythms, mood disorders, and cancer. This review describes the pharmacological properties of a slow-release melatonin preparation (i.e., Circadin®) and synthetic ligands (i.e., agomelatine, ramelteon, tasimelteon), with emphasis on identifying specific therapeutic effects mediated through MT1 and MT2 receptor activation. Discovery of selective ligands targeting the MT1 or the MT2 melatonin receptors may promote the development of novel and more efficacious therapeutic agents. PMID:26514204

  17. Mt. Etna Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Vis/NIR Image CloseupFigure 2: Difference Image

    October 2002 Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of SO2 injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    This image was made from a sensor on the AIRS instrument that is sensitive to the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. The visible/near infrared data show the smoke plume from Mt. Etna. The view is of Europe and the central Mediterranean with Italy in the center. Since the visible/near infrared sensor on AIRS is sensitive to wavelengths that are different than the human eye, vegetated regions appear red (compare the red color of Europe with the tan desert of North Africa in the lower left). Figure 1 is a closer view of Sicily and shows a long, brownish smoke plume extending across the Mediterranean to Africa. This is consistent with the enhanced feature in the difference image in Figure 2 and helps validate the information inferred from that image.

    Figure 2 clearly shows the SO2 plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to SO2. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the SO2 feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The

  18. Nonsuperconductivity and magnetic features of the intermetallic borocarbide HoCo2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, R. E.; Massalami, M. El

    1999-08-01

    Intrigued by the exotic features of the low-temperature superconducting and magnetic phase diagram of HoNi2B2C, this work searched for similar features in the isomorphous HoCo2B2C [LuNi2B2C-type structure, a=3.500(3) Å, c=10.590(9) Å]. In contrast to the former, no superconductivity is observed down to 30 mK, indicative of a relative lattice stiffening and a reduction in N(EF). The magnetic ordering of the Ho sublattice sets in at TN=5.4(1) K (Co-sublattice carries no magnetic moment). The magnetic entropy up to 10 K is suggestive of an electronic ground-state doublet. No field-induced cascade of magnetic phase transitions was observed in the range 1.8 KHo3+ nuclear Schottky-type contribution: the derived hyperfine parameters are comparable to that of those of HoNi2B2C and Ho metal. The T1 event, evident also in χac(T), is probably a manifestation of an order-to-order magnetic phase transition.

  19. HOED: Hypermedia Online Educational Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, E.; Olivie, H.

    This paper presents HOED, a distributed hypermedia client-server system for educational resources. The aim of HOED is to provide a library facility for hyperdocuments that is accessible via the world wide web. Its main application domain is education. The HOED database not only holds the educational resources themselves, but also data describing…

  20. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Joy L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  1. Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mt. SAC Research Briefs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    These Research Briefs examine Mt. San Antonio College District's (MSAC's) (California) enrollment trends. Over the last few years, the district has drawn a large number of students from surrounding areas; however, there are concerns as to whether this fact will remain the same as new forms of educational techniques such as distance education and…

  2. Tropospheric HO determination by FAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hard, T. M.; Obrien, R. J.; Chan, C. Y.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.

    1986-12-01

    In the detection of tropospheric HO by laser excited fluorescence, and alternative air-sampling method, named FAGE (Fluorescence Assay with Gas Expansion) was introduced. Here the air is expanded through a nozzle prior to excitation, in order to improve the ratio of the HO signal to the scattered, fluorescent, and photolytic backgrounds. The improvement comes from the differing pressure dependence of the intensities of these four terms, as well as the distinguishability of their temporal waveforms at low pressures when excited by a pulsed laser. HO has been excited by a YAG/dye laser. Other lasers and pumping paths may perform as well or better in this method. With FAGE, chemical modulation of the HO signal was achieved by hydrocarbon addition to the nozzle flow, converting photolytic HO from an interference to a background. Chemical calibration of the instrumental response to external HO was also achieved, by hydrocarbon decay, at HO concentrations within the ambient range.

  3. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  4. Melanesian mtDNA Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Hodgson, Jason A.; Stoltz, Matthew; Koki, George; Horvat, Gisele; Zhadanov, Sergey; Schurr, Theodore G.; Merriwether, D. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2) from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups). Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at ∼30–50,000 years before present (YBP), and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval ∼3,500–8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal) Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved. PMID:17327912

  5. Onboard Photo of Mt. Everest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, was delighted in capturing this image of Mt. Everest in the Himalayan Range from aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The mountain is near frame center. Because the photo was taken close to orbital sunrise, the low sun angle gave tremendous relief to the mountains. Named for Sir George Everest, the British surveyor-general of India, Mount Everest is the tallest point on earth. Standing 29,028 feet tall, it is 5 1/2 miles above sea level. Mount Everest is located half in Nepal and half in Tibet.

  6. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  7. HO:LULF and HO:LULF Laser Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Morrison, Clyde A. (Inventor); Filer, Elizabeth D. (Inventor); Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A laser host material LULF (LuLiF4) is doped with holmium (Ho) and thulium (Tm) to produce a new laser material that is capable of laser light production in the vicinity of 2 microns. The material provides an advantage in efficiency over conventional Ho lasers because the LULF host material allows for decreased threshold and upconversion over such hosts as YAG and YLF. The addition of Tm allows for pumping by commonly available GaAlAs laser diodes. For use with flashlamp pumping, erbium (Er) may be added as an additional dopant. For further upconversion reduction, the Tm can be eliminated and the Ho can be directly pumped.

  8. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.

    In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16

  9. Layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.2O2: A new triple (H+/O2-/e-) conducting cathode for low temperature proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liangdong; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with proton conducting electrolytes (H-SOFCs) show great potential for more efficient energy conversion over their oxygen ionic conducting counterparts at temperatures below 650 °C, providing a comparably high performance cathode material can be available. A brief review of current development of cathode materials shows that materials with triple (oxygen ionic, protonic, and electronic) conducting properties are most promising for H-SOFCs. In this work, a triple-conducting LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 (LNCO) with layered structure, allowing simultaneous conduction of intrinsic oxygen ion and electron as well as the extrinsic proton, is proposed as a cathode material for H-SOFC. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of LNCO shows the good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with a considerably low activation energy of 0.88 eV, and an evident water uptake capability those facilitate the cathode reaction process. Fuel cells using LNCO cathode on a BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3 proton-conducting electrolyte render a peak power density of 410 mW cm-2 at 650 °C under H2/air condition, which is higher than most of the typical cathode materials reported with similar cell configurations. This work also demonstrated a new series of simple and low cost cathode materials simultaneously possessing interesting triple-conduction and good ORR activities for low temperature H-SOFCs.

  10. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.

    This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.

    The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.

    Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets

  11. {sup 163}Ho based experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, Loredana

    2015-07-15

    The analysis of the endpoint region of the calorimetrically measured {sup 163}Ho electron capture spectrum is a very promising way to determine the mass of the electron neutrino. The achievable sensitivity of {sup 163}Ho-based experiments and the experimental challenges will be presented. Three large collaborations aim at developing large scale experiments able to reach sub-eV sensitivity. Presently pilot experiments are performed to demonstrate the possibility to calorimetrically measure high precision and high statistics {sup 163}Ho spectra. The different approaches as well as the state of the art of the experimental efforts for the three collaborations will be discussed.

  12. The ascent of Mt. Everest.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, DeWitt C

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this Spring, I reread the account of the 1924 attempt of Mallory and Irvine to summit the highest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest. Apart from the recurring mystery of whether the English climbers actually achieved their goal before disappearing on the upper reaches of the mountain, what emerged for me were the many failed attempts (including two earlier ones of their own) before the summit was finally conquered by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953. This put me in mind of the current efforts to once more try to implement the concept of interprofessional education and teamwork in the solution to our many problems in delivering quality health care to all our citizens. The recurring calls in every recent report on health care by the Institute of Medicine and other national groups for greater implementation of collaborative practice models and interprofessional education (IPE) have reawakened the hope that this time, at last, we might succeed. But looming over the horizon, like the storm clouds constantly shrouding the summit of Everest, are the oft-dashed hopes that resurfaced throughout the last century; such that the course of IPE and IPP (interprofessional practice) often has been described as one of successive cycles of "boom and bust." PMID:21174038

  13. Magnetic excitations in tetragonal HoCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Moze, O.; Osborn, R.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic excitations in tetragonal HoCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The temperature and Q dependence of the excitations measured at 8 K confirm that they can be attributed to crystal field (CF) dipolar transitions experienced by the Ho ion. The analysis of the neutron spectroscopy data for HoCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is simplified by the fact that the CF coefficients have already been determined for the series RX{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (R=rare earth, X=Cu, Ni) by neutron spectroscopy. In addition, electronic band structure calculations and experimental determinations of the electric field gradient for numerous compounds of the type RT{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (T=Cr, Cu, Ni) show that the first-order CF coefficient, A{sub 2}{sup 0}, changes sign when passing from the series RX{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (X=Cr, Ni) to RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. In the light of this information, the available neutron spectroscopy data for HoCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are presented and discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors: ligands, models, oligomers, and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zlotos, Darius P; Jockers, Ralf; Cecon, Erika; Rivara, Silvia; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

    2014-04-24

    Numerous physiological functions of the pineal gland hormone melatonin are mediated via activation of two G-protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. The melatonergic drugs on the market, ramelteon and agomelatine, as well as the most advanced drug candidates under clinical evaluation, tasimelteon and TIK-301, are high-affinity nonselective MT1/MT2 agonists. A great number of MT2-selective ligands and, more recently, several MT1-selective agents have been reported to date. Herein, we review recent advances in the field focusing on high-affinity agonists and antagonists and those displaying selectivity toward MT1 and MT2 receptors. Moreover, the existing models of MT1 and MT2 receptors as well as the current status in the emerging field of melatonin receptor oligomerization are critically discussed. In addition to the already existing indications, such as insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, and depression, new potential therapeutic applications of melatonergic ligands including cardiovascular regulation, appetite control, tumor growth inhibition, and neurodegenerative diseases are presented. PMID:24228714

  15. Compact Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal pumping by laser diodes increases efficiency. Improved holmium:yttrium lithium fluoride laser radiates as much as 56 mW of power at wavelength of 2.1 micrometer. New Ho:YLF laser more compact and efficient than older, more powerful devices of this type. Compact, efficient Ho:YLF laser based on recent successes in use of diode lasers to pump other types of solid-state lasers.

  16. Forensic mass screening using mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Szibor, Reinhard; Plate, Ines; Schmitter, Herrmann; Wittig, Holger; Krause, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    At the forensic autopsy of a sexual murder victim, some trace hairs, possibly belonging to the perpetrator, were saved. Initially, the analysis of a pubic hair shaft only revealed the presence of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotype profile consisting of the (CA)(6) allele and the complete hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) sequence. Later, typing of some further telogene trace hairs, which had been stored for several years, yielded a nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) profile. We used both the mtDNA haplotype and the STR profile to start a DNA mass screening project involving 2,335 male citizens of the relevant communities. MtDNA screening was carried out by using the CA repeat amplification in combination with an SNP typing procedure based on the restriction site analysis of amplified d-loop sequences. The aim of our paper is to put mass screening with mtDNA up for discussion. PMID:16583247

  17. Volcanic earthquake swarms at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Ueki, Sadato; Juergen, Kienle

    1985-04-01

    Mount Erebus is an active volcano in Antarctica located on Ross Island. A convecting lava lake occupies the summit crater of Mt. Erebus. Since December 1980 the seismic activity of Mt. Erebus has been continuously monitored using a radio-telemetered network of six seismic stations. The seismic activity observed by the Ross Island network during the 1982-1983 field season shows that: (1)Strombolian eruptions occur frequently at the Erebus summit lava lake at rates of 2-5 per day; (2)centrally located earthquakes map out a nearly vertical, narrow conduit system beneath the lava lake; (3)there are other source regions of seismicity on Ross Island, well removed from Mt. Erebus proper. An intense earthquake swarm recorded in October 1982 near Abbott Peak, 10 km northwest of the summit of Mt. Erebus, and volcanic tremor accompanying the swarm, may have been associated with new dike emplacement at depth.

  18. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  19. Magnetocaloric effect in a cluster-glass system Ho5Pd2-xNix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoizumi, Saori; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Morita, Kengo; Tamaki, Akira

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the effect of chemical pressure on the large magnetocaloric effect in Ho5 Pd2, we conducted X-ray diffraction, magnetization, and specific heat measurements on Ho5Pd2-xNix(0≤ x ≤ 1.0) rare-earth intermetallic compounds. The linear x dependence of the lattice constant a suggests that Ni is replaced with Pd in the case of Ho5Pd2-xNix (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5). The spin-glass transition temperature Tg and paramagnetic Curie temperature θP indicate a weak oscillatory x dependence. However, the magnetic entropy change —ΔSm and the relative cooling power (RCP) are rapidly suppressed with increasing x. These large reductions in —ΔSm and RCP cannot be explained only in terms of normal Ruderman-Kittel- Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY)-type indirect exchange interactions.

  20. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  1. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  2. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  3. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  4. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  5. Topics in Ho Morphophonology and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucilowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Ho, an under-documented North Munda language of India, is known for its complex verb forms. This dissertation focuses on analysis of several features of those complex verbs, using data from original fieldwork undertaken by the author. By way of background, an analysis of the phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Ho is first presented. Ho has…

  6. Human Gastroenteropancreatic Expression of Melatonin and Its Receptors MT1 and MT2

    PubMed Central

    Söderquist, Fanny; Hellström, Per M.; Cunningham, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim The largest source of melatonin, according to animal studies, is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but this is not yet thoroughly characterized in humans. This study aims to map the expression of melatonin and its two receptors in human GI tract and pancreas using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. Method Gene expression data from normal intestine and pancreas and inflamed colon tissue due to ulcerative colitis were analyzed for expression of enzymes relevant for serotonin and melatonin production and their receptors. Sections from paraffin-embedded normal tissue from 42 individuals, representing the different parts of the GI tract (n=39) and pancreas (n=3) were studied with immunohistochemistry using antibodies with specificity for melatonin, MT1 and MT2 receptors and serotonin. Results Enzymes needed for production of melatonin are expressed in both GI tract and pancreas tissue. Strong melatonin immunoreactivity (IR) was seen in enterochromaffin (EC) cells partially co-localized with serotonin IR. Melatonin IR was also seen in pancreas islets. MT1 and MT2 IR were both found in the intestinal epithelium, in the submucosal and myenteric plexus, and in vessels in the GI tract as well as in pancreatic islets. MT1 and MT2 IR was strongest in the epithelium of the large intestine. In the other cell types, both MT2 gene expression and IR were generally elevated compared to MT1. Strong MT2, IR was noted in EC cells but not MT1 IR. Changes in gene expression that may result in reduced levels of melatonin were seen in relation to inflammation. Conclusion Widespread gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors in the GI tract and pancreas is in agreement with the multiple roles ascribed to melatonin, which include regulation of gastrointestinal motility, epithelial permeability as well as enteropancreatic cross-talk with plausible impact on metabolic control. PMID:25822611

  7. Effect of Ho substitution on structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.; Babu, P. D.

    2014-05-07

    Structure and magnetic properties of trivalent Ho substituted BiFeO{sub 3} (Ho{sub x}Bi{sub 1−x}FeO{sub 3}) have been studied for the compositional range x = 0 to 0.2. The structure remains in rhombohedral R3c for x < 0.15, and further increase in x results a structural transition to orthorhombic Pnma. The decrease in Raman modes and the appearance of new mode at 475 cm{sup −1} confirms the structural changes. Ho doping at Bi site breaks the spin cycloid of BiFO{sub 3} and leads to the observation of ferromagnetic order at low temperatures. With increase in temperature, the M-H curves exhibit a pinching leading to double hysteresis loops. A minimum is observed in M-T curves for low fields at compensation temperature (Θ{sub C}) and H{sub C} attains a maximum close to Θ{sub C}. Variation of H{sub C} with temperature is discussed in terms of a model consisting of two sublattices. The improved magnetic properties achieved by Ho doping enhance the potential of BiFeO{sub 3} for multiferroic applications.

  8. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    PubMed Central

    Kowald, Gregory R.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Blindauer, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs)—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II), Cd(II), or Cu(I)) in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II) and Zn(II). Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II), expressions in the presence of Zn(II) yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II) or Zn(II) are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo. PMID:26742040

  9. Pressure dependence on the remanent magnetization of Fe-Ni alloys and Ni metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingguo; Gilder, Stuart Alan; Maier, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    We measured the acquisition of magnetic remanence of iron-nickel alloys (Fe64Ni36, Fe58Ni42, and Fe50Ni50) and pure Ni under pressures up to 23 GPa at room temperature. Magnetization decreases markedly for Fe64Ni36 between 5 and 7 GPa yet remains ferromagnetic until at least 16 GPa. Magnetization rises by a factor of 2-3 for the other compositions during compression to the highest applied pressures. Immediately upon decompression, magnetic remanence increases for all Fe-Ni alloys while magnetic coercivity remains fairly constant at relatively low values (5-20 mT). The amount of magnetization gained upon complete decompression correlates with the maximum pressure experienced by the sample. Martensitic effects best explain the increase in remanence rather than grain-size reduction, as the creation of single domain sized grains would raise the coercivity. The magnetic remanence of low Ni Invar alloys increases faster with pressure than for other body-centered-cubic compositions due to the higher magnetostriction of the low Ni Invar metals. Thermal demagnetization spectra of Fe64Ni36 measured after pressure release broaden as a function of peak pressure, with a systematic decrease in Curie temperature. Irreversible strain accumulation from the martensitic transition likely explains the broadening of the Curie temperature spectra, consistent with our x-ray diffraction analyses.

  10. Delayed cutaneous wound closure in HO-2 deficient mice despite normal HO-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lundvig, Ditte M S; Scharstuhl, Alwin; Cremers, Niels A J; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; te Paske, Jeroen; van Rheden, René; van Run-van Breda, Coby; Regan, Raymond F; Russel, Frans G M; Carels, Carine E; Maltha, Jaap C; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing can lead to scarring, and aesthetical and functional problems. The cytoprotective haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes degrade haem into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. HO-1 deficient mice suffer from chronic inflammatory stress and delayed cutaneous wound healing, while corneal wound healing in HO-2 deficient mice is impaired with exorbitant inflammation and absence of HO-1 expression. This study addresses the role of HO-2 in cutaneous excisional wound healing using HO-2 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we show that HO-2 deficiency also delays cutaneous wound closure compared to WT controls. In addition, we detected reduced collagen deposition and vessel density in the wounds of HO-2 KO mice compared to WT controls. Surprisingly, wound closure in HO-2 KO mice was accompanied by an inflammatory response comparable to WT mice. HO-1 induction in HO-2 deficient skin was also similar to WT controls and may explain this protection against exaggerated cutaneous inflammation but not the delayed wound closure. Proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation were similar in both two genotypes. Next, we screened for candidate genes to explain the observed delayed wound closure, and detected delayed gene and protein expression profiles of the chemokine (C-X-C) ligand-11 (CXCL-11) in wounds of HO-2 KO mice. Abnormal regulation of CXCL-11 has been linked to delayed wound healing and disturbed angiogenesis. However, whether aberrant CXCL-11 expression in HO-2 KO mice is caused by or is causing delayed wound healing needs to be further investigated. PMID:25224969

  11. 27 CFR 9.123 - Mt. Veeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mt. Veeder. 9.123 Section 9.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.123...

  12. Polyborides with Th 2NiB 10-Type Structure: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic and Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitschko, Wolfgang; Konrad, Thomas; Hartjes, Klaus; Lang, Arne; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter

    2000-10-01

    The new rare-earth nickel polyborides R2NiB10 (R=Y, Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho) were prepared by reacting cold-pressed pellets of the elemental components in an arc-melting furnace, followed by annealing in evacuated silica tubes. They crystallize with the orthorhombic Th2NiB10-type structure, which was refined from X-ray powder diffractometer data of Ce2NiB10 (a=565.4(1) pm, b=1125.8(2) pm, c=419.6(1) pm) and Nd2NiB10 (a=561.4(1) pm, b=1119.2(2) pm, c=417.7(1) pm). The magnetic properties of these polyborides and also of Th2CoB10 and Th2NiB10 were determined with a superconducting quantum interference magnetometer between 2 and 400 K with magnetic flux densities up to 5.5 T. Y2NiB10, Th2CoB10, and Th2NiB10 are Pauli paramagnetic. The others show Curie-Weiss behavior with magnetic moments corresponding to those of the free R3+ ions, with the exception of Ce2NiB10, where cerium has a mixed valence and Sm2NiB10 with the van Vleck paramagnetic Sm3+ ion. Antiferromagnetic order was observed for the compounds R2NiB10 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho) with Néel temperatures ranging between 8 K for Pr2NiB10 and 33 K for Gd2NiB10. Tb2NiB10, Dy2NiB10, and Ho2NiB10 are metamagnetic. Electrical resistivity measurements reflect the magnetic ordering temperatures and indicate metallic behavior for all compounds.

  13. Effect of curvature on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni film deposited on self-assembled nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Tripathi, S.; Gupta, Dileep; Halder, N.; Tripathi, J.

    2016-05-01

    Important experimental findings and their impact on physical properties of Ni thin film are presented with the focus on structural and magnetic property investigations. For this purpose, Ni film (40 nm) was deposited on polystyrene nanospheres (PS, diameter 800 nm) using electron beam evaporation technique simultaneously with a similar reference film on plane Si substrate. The structural properties of the films measured using XRD technique show nanocrystalline growth of Ni on both size PS spheres with an average grain size of ˜ 78 nm, while high crystallinity was observed in the film deposited onto plane Si substrate. A lower coercivity (9 mT) was observed in the Ni/(800 nm) PS as compared to the film deposited on 530 nm PS (23 mT) (our earlier study) and Ni/Si (20 mT). The observed changes in structural and magnetic properties are attributed to the curvature induced modifications at atomic level.

  14. Ferroelectricity and competing interactions in Ho-deficient non-stoichiometric orthorhombic HoMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Xie, Y. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the consequences of the Ho-deficient non-stoichiometry in orthorhombic HoMnO{sub 3} in terms of microscopic mechanisms for ferroelectricity modulation. It is suggested that the Ho-deficiency (then Mn excess) results in Ho-vacancies and then Mn occupation of the Ho-site with increasing non-stoichiometry. The Ho-deficiency enhances the Mn-Mn symmetric exchange striction by suppressing the independent Ho-Ho interaction, and thus benefits to the induced Ho spin ordering against the independent Ho spin ordering. The symmetric Ho-Mn exchange striction is thus enhanced by this induced Ho spin ordering, leading to remarkably enhanced ferroelectric polarization as observed. This work presents an alternative scheme to modulate the multiferroicity in rare-earth manganites of strong 4f-3d coupling.

  15. MT1-MMP dependent repression of the tumor suppressor SPRY4 contributes to MT1-MMP driven melanoma cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Zhang, Keman; Osman, Iman; Honda, Kord; Jobava, Rauli; Bedogni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for metastatic patients remains poor. We previously showed that Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the drivers of melanoma metastasis. Classically, MT1-MMP regulates a verity of cellular functions including cell-to-cell interaction and cell-to-matrix communication. Recently, MT1-MMP has been found to also modulate gene expression. To specifically assess MT1-MMP dependent gene regulation in melanoma, microarray gene expression analysis was performed in a melanoma cell line whose metastatic properties depend on the activity of MT1-MMP. We identified the tumor suppressor gene SPRY4 as a new transcriptional target of MT1-MMP that is negatively regulated by the protease. Knockdown of MT1-MMP enhances SPRY4 expression at the mRNA and protein level. SPRY4 expression inversely correlates with that of MT1-MMP in melanoma samples and importantly, correlates with melanoma patient survival. SPRY4 modulates MT1-MMP dependent cell migration such that inhibition of SPRY4 rescues cell migration that has been impaired by MT1-MMP knock down. MT1-MMP decreases SPRY4 in part through an MMP2/RAC1 axis we previously show promotes cell motility downstream of MT1-MMP. These results identify the tumor suppressor SPRY4 as a novel molecular effector of MT1-MMP affecting melanoma cell motility. PMID:26392417

  16. Tm:YLF Pumped Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Walsh, Brian M.; Axenson, Theresa J.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG lasers pumped by a Tm:YLF laser demonstrated a 3.4 mJ threshold and 0.41 slope efficiency, incident optical to laser output energy. Results for numerous rod lengths, Ho concentrations, and output mirror reflectivities are presented.

  17. Expanding Our Understanding of mtDNA Deletions.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; Vincent, Amy E; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-07-12

    Clonal expansion of mtDNA deletions compromises mitochondrial function in human disease and aging, but how deleterious mtDNA genomes propagate has remained unclear. In this issue (Gitschlag et al., 2016) and in a recent Nature publication, C. elegans studies implicate the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and offer mechanistic insights into this process. PMID:27411002

  18. Mt. St. Helens and Spirit Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    high resolution 1000 pixel-wide image Snow still covered the peaks of the Cascade Ranges in mid-June when the STS-111 crew photographed Mt. St. Helens from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. From their vantage point, the crew observed blast zone from the 1980 eruption of the volcano, the mud-choked North Fork of the Toutle River, and fallen timber that still floats in rafts of logs on Spirit Lake. Continued imagery of the region will document the slow regrowth of the forests. Today, the volcano and surrounding region comprise the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument which is dedicated to research, education and recreation. For more information visit: Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Astronaut photograph STS111-371-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  19. Post Eruption Hazards at Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Our project focused on the investigation of the post-eruption hazards at Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines) using remote sensing data, and field observations of the 1991 eruption deposits. Through the use of multiple satellite images, field work, and the 1996/2000 PacRim data sets, we conducted studies of the co- and post-eruption hazards of the volcano due to erosion and re-deposition of the extensive pyroclastic flow deposits. A major part of this project was the assembly and analysis of a database of over 50 high resolution (1 - 50 m/pixel) images that will facilitate this study. We collected Ikonos, SPOT, SIR-C/X-SAR, Landsat, ERS, RADARSAT, and ASTER images of the area around Mt. Pinatubo. An example of the changes that could be seen in these data is shown. Our investigation focused on a retrospective analysis of the erosion, redeposition, and re-vegetation of the 1991 pyroclastic flow deposits of Mt. Pinatubo. The primary geologic goal of our work was the analysis of the spatial distribution and volume change of the sources and sinks of materials associated with mudflow ('lahar') events. This included the measurement of river valley gradients and cross-sections using TOPSAR digital elevation data, as we are participating in the PacRim 2000 deployment to the Philippines specifically so that we can collect a second set of TOPSAR data that can then be used to create a topographic difference image of the volcano. The main results from this multi-sensor study have been published as Torres et al.. A discussion of the methodology that we used to assemble an appropriate database was included in Mouginis-Mark and Domergue-Schmidt. As part of an educational outreach effort, we also helped the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) in the Philippines to use NASA data to study Mt. Pinatubo and other Filipino volcanoes.

  20. Graphs for Isotopes of 109-Mt (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 109-Mt (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109).

  1. Modeling the Geologic History of Mt. Sharp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascuzzo, A.; Allen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gale is an approximately 155 km diameter crater located on the martian dichotomy boundary (5 deg S 138 deg E). Gale is estimated to have formed 3.8 - 3.5 Gya, in the late Noachian or early Hesperian. Mt. Sharp, at the center of Gale Crater, is a crescent shaped sedimentary mound that rises 5.2 km above the crater floor. Gale is one of the few craters that has a peak reaching higher than the rim of the crater wall. The Curiosity rover is currently fighting to find its way across a dune field at the northwest base of the mound searching for evidence of habitability. This study used orbital images and topographic data to refine models for the geologic history of Mt. Sharp by analyzing its morphological features. In addition, it assessed the possibility of a peak ring in Gale. The presence of a peak ring can offer important information to how Mt. Sharp was formed and eroded early in Gale's history.

  2. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  3. MT1-MMP modulates the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Bakker, Astrid D; Gruber, Elisabeth V; Chae, Thomas D; Veldkamp, Joris B B; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Everts, Vincent

    2012-01-13

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP) is expressed by mechanosensitive osteocytes and affects bone mass. The extracellular domain of MT1-MMP is connected to extracellular matrix, while its intracellular domain is a strong modulator of cell signaling. In theory MT1-MMP could thus transduce mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. We hypothesized that MT1-MMP plays a role in the osteocyte response to mechanical stimuli. MT1-MMP-positive and knockdown (siRNA) MLO-Y4 osteocytes were mechanically stimulated with a pulsating fluid flow (PFF). Focal adhesions were visualized by paxillin immunostaining. Osteocyte number, number of empty lacunae, and osteocyte morphology were measured in long bones of MT1-MMP(+/+) and MT1-MMP(-/-) mice. PFF decreased MT1-MMP mRNA and protein expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, suggesting that mechanical loading may affect pericellular matrix remodeling by osteocytes. MT1-MMP knockdown enhanced NO production and c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression in response to PFF, concomitantly with an increased number and size of focal adhesions, indicating that MT1-MMP knockdown osteocytes have an increased sensitivity to mechanical loading. Osteocytes in MT1-MMP(-/-) bone were more elongated and followed the principle loading direction, suggesting that they might sense mechanical loading. This was supported by a lower number of empty lacunae in MT1-MMP(-/-) bone, as osteocytes lacking mechanical stimuli tend to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, mechanical stimulation decreased MT1-MMP expression by MLO-Y4 osteocytes, and MT1-MMP knockdown increased the osteocyte response to mechanical stimulation, demonstrating a novel and unexpected role for MT1-MMP in mechanosensing. PMID:22202174

  4. METHYLATION OF ARSENIC BY RECOMBINANT HUMAN AS3MT/287M AND AS3MT/287T POLYMORPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). AS3MT polymorphism is, in part, responsible for interindividual differences in iAs metabolism. AS3MT/M287T polymorphism that is found in ~ 10% of C...

  5. Antioxidative enzyme profiling and biosorption ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to study their biosorption ability and their antioxidative enzymes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of C. metallidurans CH34 for Cd was found to be 30 mM, and for P. putida mt2 it was 1.25 mM. The tube dilution method revealed the heavy-metal resistance pattern of C. metallidurans CH34 as Ni(2+) (10 mM)>Zn(2+) (4 mM)>Cu(2+) (2 mM)>Hg(2+) (1 mM)>Cr(2+) (1 mM)>Pb(2+) (0 mM), whereas P. putida mt2 was only resistant to Zn(2+) (1 mM). Under Cd stress, the induction of GSH was higher in C. metallidurans CH34 (0.359 ± 0.010 mM g(-1)  FW) than in P. putida mt2 (0.286 ± 0.005 mM g(-1)  FW). Glutathione reductase was more highly expressed in the mt2 strain, in contrast to non-protein thiols and peroxidase. Unlike dead bacterial cells, live cells of both bacteria showed significant Cd biosorption, i.e. more than 80% at 48 h. C. metallidurans CH34 used only catalase, whereas P. putida mt2 used superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to combat Cd stress. This study investigated the Cd biosorption ability and enzymes involved in the Cd detoxification mechanisms of C. metallidurans CH34 and P. putida mt2. PMID:23832807

  6. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  7. Metallothionein (MT) -I and MT-II Expression Are Induced and Cause Zinc Sequestration in the Liver after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pankhurst, Michael W.; Gell, David A.; Butler, Chris W.; Kirkcaldie, Matthew T. K.; West, Adrian K.; Chung, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with transgenic over-expressing, and null mutant mice have determined that metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II) are protective after brain injury. MT-I/II is primarily a zinc-binding protein and it is not known how it provides neuroprotection to the injured brain or where MT-I/II acts to have its effects. MT-I/II is often expressed in the liver under stressful conditions but to date, measurement of MT-I/II expression after brain injury has focused primarily on the injured brain itself. In the present study we measured MT-I/II expression in the liver of mice after cryolesion brain injury by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the UC1MT antibody. Displacement curves constructed using MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II−/−) mouse tissues were used to validate the ELISA. Hepatic MT-I and MT-II mRNA levels were significantly increased within 24 hours of brain injury but hepatic MT-I/II protein levels were not significantly increased until 3 days post injury (DPI) and were maximal at the end of the experimental period, 7 DPI. Hepatic zinc content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and was found to decrease at 1 and 3 DPI but returned to normal by 7DPI. Zinc in the livers of MT-I/II−/− mice did not show a return to normal at 7 DPI which suggests that after brain injury, MT-I/II is responsible for sequestering elevated levels of zinc to the liver. Conclusion: MT-I/II is up-regulated in the liver after brain injury and modulates the amount of zinc that is sequestered to the liver. PMID:22363575

  8. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  9. Registration of "HoCP 00-950" Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoCP 00-950 sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross HoCP 93-750 x HoCP 92-676 made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 00-950 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Stati...

  10. Ferrule fabrication for the MT-type optical fiber connector using the microinjection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Jui; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2008-11-01

    This study presents a novel design to fabricate the hole array mold parts for 12 ports of the MT-type ferrule using a LIGA process. This fabrication technique can reduce the positioning error efficiently when making the mold assembly. The present design also makes replacing the mold parts convenient. The hole fabrication consists of a single x-ray exposure and development process, Ni-Co (nickel-cobalt) electroforming, and microinjection molding for a fast-curing epoxy liquid compound. Compared to conventional transfer molding technology, the present method for microinjection reduces the cycle time to about 35 s and saves on raw material. The 12 ports in the MT-type optical fiber ferrule were designed using the JIS C5981 and IEC60874-16 specifications. The diameters of the fiber holes had errors of <=1 µm, and their position was smaller than 2 µm these dimensions conform to the single-mode specifications. The proposed LIGA technique has been proven to be effective in reducing the positioning error in mold assembly construction. For the single-mode MT-type connector in the present study, the mean insertion loss (IL) was lower than that shown in the reported literature while the mean return loss (RL) was higher. The uniformities exhibited in IL and RL are much better than those previously reported.

  11. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  12. MDI and GOLF simulation and intercomparison via the Mt. Wilson 150-foot tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Scott Edward

    A 24 channel analyzer (Evans and Ulrich, 1995) was designed and built for the Mt. Wilson 150-foot solar tower. This instrument has 4 channels dedicated to the continuance of the existing dataset for the CrII and FeI solar lines. Additionally, the instrument employs 10 channels each for NaD1 and NiI. The latter two lines are those studied by the SOHO instruments GOLF and MDI respectively. Ten-point line profiles are taken for both Ni and NaD1 and analyzed using computer simulations of both the MDI and GOLF instruments. Since the data are taken simultaneously and for a resolved sun, the signal derived from the MDI simulation can be compared on a pixel by pixel basis to the GOLF single wing signal. A correlation is found between MDI Id and GOLF single wing intensity. By removing the Id contribution to the GOLF signal, we hope to achieve a purer velocity signal in GOLF and hence raise the signal to noise ratio. The roll angle of MDI has not been accurately measured due to the failure of SOHO's gyros. At present, a single guide star is being used for spacecraft pointing and the error in roll angle is unkown. Previously (Ulrich and Henney, 1994) the MDI roll angle was estimated by comparing magnetograms from MDI and Mt. Wilson. Observations derived from the new multichannel system at Mt. Wilson can measure the roll angle directly by comparing MDI proxy images to a Mt. Wilson proxy derived from the MDI data. The 38 roll angle measurements spanning selected time frames covering nearly the entire SOHO mission average -.32 degrees. This suggests that a steady, equator-crossing flow of ~-10 m/s would exist due to the error in MDI coordinates. A Southward, equator-crossing flow has been observed (Giles, et al. 1997) whose magnitude is roughly -7 m/s. Thus some or even all of such a flow may be explainable by the MDI roll angle. Sources of error in the Mt. Wilson determination of the MDI roll angle are discussed and found to be relatively small (~3-4 are minutes) when estimated

  13. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 39049). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73,381D, Helena, MT;...

  14. Presence of an HO-1 expression threshold in renal glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Detsika, Maria G; Atsaves, Vassileios; Papalois, Apostolos; Lianos, Elias A

    2015-12-01

    This article reports data describing HO-1 expression patterns of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in isolated rat glomeruli and in cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in response to its natural substrate heme. Qualitative and quantitative data are presented to support presence of a HO-1 expression threshold in glomeruli but not in GEC. Interpretation of our data and further insight into HO-1 expression pattern in glomeruli may be found in 'HO-1 expression control in the rat glomerulus' [1]. PMID:26702422

  15. Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?

    PubMed

    Sprague, Matthew K; Irikura, Karl K

    2015-07-01

    Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the atmosphere. It has been suggested (Denis, P. A.; Ornellas, F. R. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2009, 113 (2), 499-506) that the minor product hydrogen tetroxide (HO4H) may act as a reservoir of HO2. Here, we compute the thermochemistry of HO2 self-reactions to determine if either HO4H or the cyclic hydrogen-bound dimer (HO2)2 can act as reservoirs. We computed electronic energies using coupled-cluster calculations in the complete basis set limit, CCSD(T)/CBS[45]//CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. Our model chemistry includes corrections for vibrational anharmonicity in the zero-point energy and vibrational partition functions, core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic effects, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer, spin-orbit splitting, and higher-order corrections. We compute the Gibbs energy of dimerization to be (-20.1 ± 1.6) kJ/mol at 298.15 K (2σ uncertainty), and (-32.3 ± 1.5) kJ/mol at 220 K. For atmospherically relevant [HO2] = 10(8) molecules per cm(3), our thermochemistry indicates that dimerization will be negligible, and thus H2O4 species are atmospherically unimportant. Under conditions used in laboratory experiments ([HO2] > 10(12) molecules per cm(3), 220 K), H2O4 formation may be significant. We compute two absorption spectra that could be used for laboratory detection of HO4H: the OH stretch overtone (near-IR) and electronic (UV) spectra. PMID:26066551

  16. Evolution of anorthoclase phonolite, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.; Kyle, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last 1 m.y. Mt. Erebus (3794 m) has erupted mainly anorthoclase phonolite (AP) and lesser trachyte, kaersutite phonolite and intermediate differentiates. An active convecting AP lava lake, identical in composition to the older lavas, existed from 1972 until late 1984. Most of the rocks define a strongly undersaturated continuous sodic differentiation series, composed of basanite, Ne-hawaiite, Ne-mugearite, Ne-benmoreite and AP. The main phenocryst phases and their ranges are: olivine (Fo 81-43), clinopyroxene (Wo 50-44, En 42-24, Fs 11-30), opaque oxides (Usp 52-79) and feldspar. Major, trace and REE analyses exhibit smooth trends on variation diagrams. REE are strongly LREE enriched and increase from La/sub N/=220 in the basanites to 400 in AP. There are no significant Eu anomalies. Published isotopic data show derivation of the basanite parental magmas from a depleted (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=0.703) heterogeneous mantle source similar to that for oceanic island basalts. Crustal contamination is insignificant except in the trachytes. Evolution of the Erebus lineage by fractional crystallization of the above phases plus apatite is supported by mass balance models. Differentiation probably occurred in larger, hotter and lower P/sub H20/ magma chambers compared to the basanite to kaersutite phonolite DVDP lineage (Kyle, 1981) of the neighboring Hut Point Peninsula. Mt. Erebus may mark the site of a major mantle upwelling.

  17. Stereo Image of Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. This anaglyph stereo image is of Mt Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 15,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. A 3-D view can be obtained by looking through stereo glasses, with the blue film through your left eye and red film with your right eye at the same time. North is on your right hand side. For more information, see When Rivers of Rock Flow ASTER web page Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. The puzzle of Mt. Etna 2015 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavo', Flavio; Currenti, Gilda; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; La Spina, Alessandro; Palano, Mimmo; Napoli, Rosalba; Sciotto, Mariangela; Spampinato, Letizia

    2016-04-01

    During 2015, Mt. Etna volcano activity consisted of a sequence of seismic and volcanic events indicative of a complex cause-effect relationship between volcanism and tectonics. Here we analyze in details all these events in order to figure out a possible and reliable causative mechanism able to explain the measured evidences by exploiting an extensive and multi-parametric dataset, including geochemical, volcanological, magnetic, seismic, and geodetic data. The integration of the different parameters allowed us to observe a long-lasting inflation episode abruptly interrupted by two vigorous short-term deflations and an intense dynamics of the northern sector of the volcano unstable flank. This last feature was characterized by two seismic swarms (Mmax = 3.6) occurring along the central sector of the Pernicana Fault and aseismic slip with intense deformation affecting the north-eastern edge of the unstable flank. This is not the first time in which the interaction between volcanism and tectonics has been observed at Mt. Etna although poorly constrained. In our case, the used multidisciplinary approach suggested us that in 2015 the eruptive activity was mainly triggered by the tectonic framework of the volcano unstable flank.

  19. Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5′ ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

  20. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  1. Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser.

    PubMed

    Botha, L R; Bollig, C; Esser, M J D; Campbell, R N; Jacobs, C; Preussler, D R

    2009-10-26

    A Ho:YLF laser pumped HBr molecular laser was developed that produced up to 2.5 mJ of energy in the 4 micron wavelength region. The Ho:YLF laser was fiber pumped using a commercial Tm:fibre laser. The Ho:YLF laser was operated in a single longitudinal mode via injection seeding with a narrow band diode laser which in turn was locked to one of the HBr transitions. The behavior of the HBr laser was described using a rate equation mathematical model and this was solved numerically. Good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively between the model and experimental results was obtained. PMID:19997290

  2. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mtFabD, a malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadbane, Hemza; Brown, Alistair K.; Kremer, Laurent; Besra, Gurdyal S. Fütterer, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Binding of Ni{sup 2+} ions to the uncleaved affinity tag facilitated de novo phasing of the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis mtFabD to 3.0 Å resolution. Mycobacteria display a unique and unusual cell-wall architecture, central to which is the membrane-proximal mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan core (mAGP). The biosynthesis of mycolic acids, which form the outermost layer of the mAGP core, involves malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT). This essential enzyme catalyses the transfer of malonyl from coenzyme A to acyl carrier protein AcpM, thus feeding these two-carbon units into the chain-elongation cycle of the type II fatty-acid synthase. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis mtFabD, the mycobacterial MCAT, has been determined to 3.0 Å resolution by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion. Phasing was facilitated by Ni{sup 2+} ions bound to the 20-residue N-terminal affinity tag, which packed between the two independent copies of mtFabD.

  3. Magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R = Ho, Er) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Stassis, C.; Goldman, A.I.; Dervenagas, P.; Zarestky, J.; Canfield, P.C.; Cho, B.K.; Johnston, D.C.; Sternlieb, B.; Sternlieb, B.

    1994-12-31

    Single crystal neutron diffraction techniques have been employed to study the evolution of magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C compounds in an attempt to understand the relationship between magnetic ordering and superconductivity in several members of this series. For HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, below the superconducting transition (T{sub c} = 8 K), an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by two wave vectors (0.585 a* and 0.915 c*) is found in a narrow temperature range between 4.7 K and 6 K. This is the same temperature range where bulk measurements find a deep minimum in the upper critical field, H{sub c2}. Below 4.7 K, HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C is a simple collinear antiferromagnet. ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C ({Tc} = 11 K) orders in an incommensurate modulated antiferromagnetic state characterized by an ordering wave vector 0.553 a* below 7 K, which coexists with superconductivity.

  4. WPA Omnibus Award MT Wind Power Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Spangler, Manager Energy Planning and Renewables

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana’s vast wind resources for small, medium, and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community, and interested citizens. Through these efforts MT Dept Environmental Quality (DEQ) was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens, as well as to participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources. The scope of DEQ’s wind outreach effort evolved over the course of this agreement from the development of the Montana Wind Working Group and traditional outreach efforts, to the current focus on working with the state’s university system to deliver a workforce trained to enter the wind industry.

  5. Local Measurement of Tropospheric HO(x)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosley, David R.

    1994-01-01

    In March of 1992 a workshop sponsored by NASA and NSF was held at SRI International to assess the current ability to measure atmospheric OH and HO2. The measurement techniques reviewed during the workshop for detection of OH included five laser-induced fluorescence schemes, five laser-based adsorption techniques, and four non-laser methods. Six instruments or instrument concepts for HO2 detection, including chemical amplification, conversion to OH with subsequent OH detection, or direct spectroscopic detection of the HO2 were also discussed. The conclusions from the workshop identify several measurement techniques for OH and HO2 that are ready for field tests. These have the ability to measure the radicals with sufficient sensitivity and accuracy to form meaningful comparison with atmospheric model predictions. The workshop conclusions also include recommendations for informal and formal intercomparison protocols.

  6. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA{sup 4977}

    SciTech Connect

    Shenkar, R.; Navidi, W.; Tavare, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA{sup 4977} is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation rate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA{sup 4977} in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10{sup {minus}8} per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Energy levels of HoBr 63-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Peter A.

    1986-12-01

    The excitation, electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of cubic Cs 2NaHoBr 6 have been recorded at temperatures down to that of liquid helium. The detailed spectral analyses enable comparisons to be made of the crystal-field splittings of Russell—Saunders terms with those in Cs 2NaHoCl 6. Under intense 647.1 nm laser excitation, luminescence is observed in the neat material in the spectral region between 17800 and 21750 cm -1.

  8. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  9. The structure of the shower disk observed at Mt. Norikura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, N.; Horiki, T.; Sasaki, H.; Nishioka, A.; Kusumose, M.; Nakatsuka, T.; Hatano, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the EAS shower disk, the arrival time distribution of charged particles at the core of the small or middle size shower, is measured at Mt. Norikura in Japan. Four fast scintillation counters with an area of 0.25 sq m and a fast trigger system are added to the Mt. Norikura EAS array for the study.

  10. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., Dillon, MT (77 FR 15295). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... at Dillon Airport, Dillon, MT (77 FR 40834). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  11. An Evaluation Study of Community Services, Mt. San Antonio College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Sue

    A study was conducted by the Community Services Department at Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) to evaluate participant satisfaction and suggestions for future direction for the department's comprehensive program of non-credit courses. A questionnaire was administered in class to 307 participants between April 1, and June 1, 1987, focusing on…

  12. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were invited..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY:...

  13. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  14. Melatonin inhibits cholangiocyte hyperplasia in cholestatic rats by interaction with MT1 but not MT2 melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Anastasia; Glaser, Shannon; Demorrow, Sharon; Mancinelli, Romina; Meng, Fanyin; Franchitto, Antonio; Venter, Julie; White, Mellanie; Francis, Heather; Han, Yuyan; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Carpino, Guido; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Onori, Paolo; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2011-10-01

    In bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, large cholangiocytes proliferate by activation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Melatonin, which is secreted from pineal gland as well as extrapineal tissues, regulates cell mitosis by interacting with melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) modulating cAMP and clock genes. In the liver, melatonin suppresses oxidative damage and ameliorates fibrosis. No information exists regarding the role of melatonin in the regulation of biliary hyperplasia. We evaluated the mechanisms of action by which melatonin regulates the growth of cholangiocytes. In normal and BDL rats, we determined the hepatic distribution of MT1, MT2, and the clock genes, CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, and PER1. Normal and BDL (immediately after BDL) rats were treated in vivo with melatonin before evaluating 1) serum levels of melatonin, bilirubin, and transaminases; 2) intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) in liver sections; and 3) the expression of MT1 and MT2, clock genes, and PKA phosphorylation. In vitro, large cholangiocytes were stimulated with melatonin in the absence/presence of luzindole (MT1/MT2 antagonist) and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (MT2 antagonist) before evaluating cell proliferation, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation. Cholangiocytes express MT1 and MT2, CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, and PER1 that were all upregulated following BDL. Administration of melatonin to BDL rats decreased IBDM, serum bilirubin and transaminases levels, the expression of all clock genes, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation in cholangiocytes. In vitro, melatonin decreased the proliferation, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation, decreases that were blocked by luzindole. Melatonin may be important in the management of biliary hyperplasia in human cholangiopathies. PMID:21757639

  15. The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, Juliana; da Silva Santos, Magda; Guimarães, Pedro E. M.; Ferreira, Alessandro C. S.; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Prado, Vania Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs for hypervariable segment (HVS)–I and selected restriction fragment-length–polymorphism sites, to assess their ancestry in different continents. The total sample showed nearly equal amounts of Native American, African, and European matrilineal genetic contribution but with regional differences within Brazil. The mtDNA pool of present-day Brazilians clearly reflects the imprints of the early Portuguese colonization process (involving directional mating), as well as the recent immigrant waves (from Europe) of the last century. The subset of 99 mtDNAs from the southeastern region encompasses nearly all mtDNA haplogroups observed in the total Brazilian sample; for this regional subset, HVS-II was analyzed, providing, in particular, some novel details of the African mtDNA phylogeny. PMID:10873790

  16. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-09-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  17. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  18. 75 FR 52534 - Su Van Ho: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Salmonella bacteria, with verification of such exportation or destruction by FDA. Mr. Ho concealed and... with Salmonella bacteria. As a result of his conviction, on June 10, 2010, FDA sent Mr. Ho a notice...

  19. Developmental genetics of deleted mtDNA in mitochondrial oculomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, S; Berkovic, S F; Saifuddin Noer, A; Kapsa, R M; Kalnins, R M; Byrne, E; Sasmono, T; Sudoyo, H

    1997-02-12

    Heteroplasmic populations of mtDNA, consisting of normal mtDNA and mtDNA with large deletions, are found in the skeletal muscle and other tissues of certain patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies, particularly in those with the CPEO (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia) phenotype. To study the developmental genetics of this mitochondrial disorder, the distribution of the deleted mtDNA in a wide range of tissues of different embryonic origins (total 34 samples from 27 tissues obtained at autopsy) was investigated in a patient with the CPEO syndrome. Three species of partially deleted mtDNA were observed, with deletions of 2.3 kb, 5.0 kb and 6.4 kb. Their tissue distribution suggests that the mtDNA deletions have occurred very early during embryonic development, prior to the differentiation events that lead to the formation of the three primary embryonic germ layers, and that the partially deleted mtDNA species were segregated during development mainly to the skeletal muscle and to tissues of the central nervous system. PMID:9094043

  20. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  1. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  2. Viscosity controlled magma-carbonate interaction: a comparison of Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) and Mt. Merapi (Indonesia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, L. S.; Misiti, V.; Masotta, M.; Taddeucci, J.; Freda, C.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Magma-carbonate interaction is increasingly seen as a viable and extremely important cause of magma contamination, and the generation of a crustally sourced CO2 phase (Goff et al., 2001; Freda et al., 2010). Even though the process is well recognized at certain volcanoes e.g. Popocatépetl, (Mexico); Merapi, (Indonesia); and Colli Albani, (Italy) (Goff et al., 2001; Deegan et al., 2010; Freda et al., 2010), neither the kinetics of carbonate assimilation nor its consequences for controlling the explosivity of eruptions have been constrained. Here we show the results of magma-carbonate interaction experiments conducted at 1200 °C and 0.5 GPa for varying durations (0 s, 60 s, 90 s and 300 s) for the Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) volcanic systems. We performed experiments using glassy starting materials specific to each volcano (shoshonite for Mt. Vesuvius, basaltic-andesite for Mt. Merapi) with different degrees of hydration (anhydrous vs hydration with ~ 2 wt % water) and using carbonate fragments of local origin; see Deegan et al., (2010) and Jolis et al., (2011). Experimental products include a gas phase (CO2-rich) and two melt phases, one pristine (Ca-normal) and one contaminated (Ca-rich) separated by a 'contamination front' which propagates outwards from the carbonate clast. Vesicles appear to nucleate in the contaminated glass and then migrate into the pristine one. Both contamination front propagation and bubble migration away from the carbonate are slower in anhydrous basaltic-andesite (Merapi anhydrous series) than in hydrated basaltic-andesite and shoshonite (Merapi and Vesuvius hydrated series), suggesting that assimilation speed is strongly controlled by the degree of hydration and the SiO2 content, both of which influence melt viscosity and hence diffusivity. As the carbonate dissolution proceeds in our experiments, initially dissolved and eventually exsolved CO2 builds up in the contaminated Ca-rich melt phase. Once melt volatile

  3. Zinc metallothionein (MT) induction by parenteral iron and endotoxin: A temporal analysis of hepatic MT mRNA changes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to compare the temporal characteristics of iron-induced hepatic MT mRNA accumulation to that effected by endotoxin. Young chicks were given (ip) either endotoxin, ferrous gluconate or an equivalent volume of saline. At various times following injections, liver was obtained from 5 chicks per treatment for total RNA extraction. Equal amounts of total hepatic RNA from each chick were pooled and 10 {mu}g separated by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Hepatic MT mRNA and albumin mRNA were analyzed by Northern blot analysis using synthetic oligonucleotides. The results indicated little temporal difference in the accumulation of hepatic MT mRNA as affected by either endotoxin or iron. In both treatments, MT mRNA was minimally affected at 3 hours post-injection. Maximum accumulation was achieved during a 6 h period from 6 to 12 hours post-injection. At 24 hours, MT mRNA was considerably higher in liver of endotoxin-injected chicks when compared to that of iron-injection chicks. Albumin expression appeared not to be substantially affected by either treatment. The results suggest that the induction of hepatic MT by iron injection is not substantially different than that observed following endotoxin administration. It would be speculative to suggest that the processes by which MT is induced under these conditions are also similar.

  4. Site testing telescope on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromwell, R. H.; Haemmerle, V. R.; Woolf, N. J.

    1990-07-01

    A site testing telescope (STT) was placed for a period of 3 months outside the building, and for a period of 4 months inside the building of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) located on Mt. Hopkins, and measurements of the astronomical seeing were carried out with both the STT and MMT. A comparison of the simultaneous and interleaved measurements with the two telescopes reveals a tight correlation and a well-defined relationship between the seeing image sizes determined with each telescope. The STT predicts very well the size of a long-exposure image obtained with the MMT. There exists for the MMT an optical blur component of about 0.47 arcsec that is revealed in image size data obtained with only the MMT and that is also revealed and must be accounted for in comparisons between the STT and MMT. Also discovered is a downward component of seeing that is caused by a trailing downwind plume of cold turbulent air that is shed off the radiatively cooled exterior building surfaces. The interior dome component of seeing is remarkably small (upper limit about 0.2 arcsec). The median site seeing is determined to be 0.55 arcsec at an effective wavelength of 7165 A for the MMT observations, or about 0.59 arcsec at 5000 A. The 10 percentile value is about 0.28 arcsec (0.30 arcsec at 5000 A). The median seeing observed with the MMT from one and a half years of data is 0.72 arcsec (0.75 arcsec at 5000 A), and is degraded from the site value virtually entirely by the optical blur component.

  5. Eudialyte-group minerals in rocks of Lovozero layered complex at Mt. Karnasurt and Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.

    2015-12-01

    Eudialyte-bearing interbeds within layers I-4 (Mt. Karnasurt) and II-4 (Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk) in the layered complex of the Lovozero Pluton are localized symmetrically relative to the loparite-bearing ijolite-malignite layer; the content of eudialyte decreases from underlying nepheline syenite to overlying foidolite. Eudialyte-group minerals fill the interstices between nepheline, sodalite, and microcline-perthite crystals in all rock types and are partially replaced with georgechaoite and minerals of the lovozerite group as a result of hydrothermal alteration. Variations in the chemical composition of the eudialyte-group minerals are mainly controlled by block substitution NaFeZrCl ↔ LnMn(Nb,Ti)S producing eudialyte proper, manganoeudialyte (sharply predominant), kentbrooksite, alluaivite, and a phase intermediate between manganoeudialyte and alluaivite. As the total Ln2O3 content increases, the relative amounts of Ce and La oxides increases linearly in the proportion Ce2O3: La2O3 = 2.5: 1. In the phases containing lower than 3 wt % La2O3, Nd becomes the next REE after Ce. It is very likely that (mangano)eudialyte was mostly formed after parakeldyshite and other anhydrous zirconium-silicate under effect of residual fluids enriched in Ca and Mn, which took part in fenitization of basalt, tuff, and tuffite of the Lovozero Formation.

  6. Loparite-(Ce) in rocks of the Lovozero layered complex at Mt. Karnasurt and Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    Following from a mineralogical and petrographic study of loparite-bearing units I-4 at Mt. Karnasurt and II-4 at Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk, loparite-(Ce) is found to be concentrated in thin (10-40 cm) malignite-ijolite layers at the boundary between the underlying nepheline syenite and the overlying foidolite. Skeletal loparite-(Ce) metacrysts occur as inclusions in nepheline, sodalite, natrolite, aegirine, eudialyte, and lomonosovite or within the intergranular space between them. In turn, the characteristic segregations of skeletal loparite-(Ce) metacrysts contain inclusions of natrolite, lomonosovite, rhabdophane-(Ce), labuntsovite, and other relatively low-temperature minerals typical of pegmatites and hydrothermally altered rocks. The chemical composition of loparite-(Ce) varies within narrow limits (Lop59-70Per11-18Lue5-11Tsn4-7 due to an increase in Ca, Ln, Al, and Ti contents and a decrease in Na, Mn, Th, Sr, Fe, and Ta contents in the transitional zone between the underlying nepheline syenite, ore-bearing foidolite-malignite, and overlying ijoliteurtite. Variations in composition are also caused by the lateral isomorphic replacement of Na and Nb with Ln and Ti. The data obtained show that loparite mineralization is related to a pneumatolytic-hydrothermal alteration of foidolite and nepheline syenite along the contact between them.

  7. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PARKWAY (GWMP), LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  8. Presence of an HO-1 expression threshold in renal glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Detsika, Maria G; Atsaves, Vassileios; Papalois, Apostolos; Lianos, Elias A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports data describing HO-1 expression patterns of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in isolated rat glomeruli and in cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in response to its natural substrate heme. Qualitative and quantitative data are presented to support presence of a HO-1 expression threshold in glomeruli but not in GEC. Interpretation of our data and further insight into HO-1 expression pattern in glomeruli may be found in ‘HO-1 expression control in the rat glomerulus’ [1]. PMID:26702422

  9. MT1-MMP: Endosomal delivery drives breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stefan

    2015-10-26

    The membrane-tethered membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mediates proteolysis-based invasive tumor growth. In this issue, Marchesin et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506002) describe a tug-of-war mechanism regulating dynein and kinesin motors to drive endosome tubulation and MT1-MMP delivery to the surface of cancer cells, identifying a crucial regulatory axis for tumor metastasis. PMID:26504163

  10. MT1-MMP: Endosomal delivery drives breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-tethered membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mediates proteolysis-based invasive tumor growth. In this issue, Marchesin et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506002) describe a tug-of-war mechanism regulating dynein and kinesin motors to drive endosome tubulation and MT1-MMP delivery to the surface of cancer cells, identifying a crucial regulatory axis for tumor metastasis. PMID:26504163

  11. The inheritance of mtDNA in lager brewing strains.

    PubMed

    Rainieri, Sandra; Kodama, Yukiko; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-01

    In this work, we compared the mtDNA of a number of interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces bayanus) to the mtDNA of 22 lager brewing strains that are thought to be the result of a natural hybridization between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces yeast, possibly belonging to the species S. bayanus. We detected that in hybrids constructed in vitro, the mtDNA could be inherited from either parental strain. Conversely, in the lager strains tested, the mtDNA was never of the S. cerevisiae type. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of lager brewing strains COXII gene was identical to S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948 COXII gene. MtDNA restriction analysis carried out with three enzymes confirmed this finding. However, restriction analysis with a fourth enzyme (AvaI) provided restriction patterns for lager strains that differed from those of S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948. Our results raise the hypothesis that the human-driven selection carried out on existing lager yeasts has favored only those bearing optimal fermentation characteristics at low temperatures, which harbor the mtDNA of S. bayanus. PMID:18318709

  12. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  13. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  14. HO-1/CO system in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metabolism - Targeting HO-1 as an anti-tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, hmox-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation processes. Out of three by-products of HO-1 activity, biliverdin, iron ions and carbon monoxide (CO), the latter was mostly shown to mediate many beneficial HO-1 effects, including protection against oxidative injury, regulation of apoptosis, modulation of inflammation as well as contribution to angiogenesis. Mounting evidence suggests that HO-1/CO systemmay be of special benefit in protection inmany pathological conditions, like atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction. By contrast, the augmented expression of HO-1 in tumor tissues may have detrimental effect as HO-1 accelerates the formation of tumor neovasculature and provides the selective advantage for tumor cells to overcome the increased oxidative stress during tumorigenesis and during treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 has been proposed as an anti-cancer therapy, however, because of non-specific effects of known HO-1 inhibitors, the discovery of ideal drug lowering HO-1 expression/activity is still an open question. Importantly, in several types of cancer HO-1/CO system exerts opposite activities, making the possible treatment more complicated. All together indicates the complex role for HO-1/CO in various in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:26392237

  15. Kinetic evidence for different mechanisms of interaction of black mamba toxins MT alpha and MT beta with muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Jolkkonen, M; Oras, A; Toomela, T; Karlsson, E; Järv, J; Akerman, K E

    2001-01-01

    By studying the influence of two toxins from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis on the kinetics of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat cerebral cortex, it was revealed that these toxins, MT alpha and MT beta, interact with the receptors via kinetically distinct mechanisms. MT beta bound to receptors in a one-step, readily reversible process with the dissociation constant K(d)=5.3 microM. The binding mechanism of MTalpha was more complex, involving at least two consecutive steps. A fast receptor-toxin complex formation (K(T)=3.8 microM) was followed by a slow process of isomerisation of this complex (k(i)=1.8 x 10(-2) s(-1), half-time 39 s). A similar two-step interaction mechanism has been established for a related toxin, MT2 from the green mamba D. angusticeps (K(T)=1.4 microM, k(i)=8.3 x 10(-4) s(-1), half-time 840 s). The slow isomerisation process delays the effect of MT alpha and MT2, but increases their apparent potency compared to toxins unable to induce the isomerisation process. PMID:10978757

  16. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees. PMID:26821353

  17. Sunflower metallothionein family characterisation. Study of the Zn(II)- and Cd(II)-binding abilities of the HaMT1 and HaMT2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Tomas, M; Pagani, M A; Andreo, C S; Capdevila, M; Atrian, S; Bofill, R

    2015-07-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of small Cys-rich proteins capable of coordinating metal ions, significantly differing from microbial and animal MTs. They are divided into four subfamilies depending on the Cys pattern in their sequence. In this work, the MT system of the sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus) has been defined, with ten genes coding for MTs (HaMT) belonging to the four plant MT subfamilies; three HaMT1, four HaMT2, one HaMT3 and two HaMT4 isoforms. The gene expression pattern and capacity to confer metal resistance to yeast cells have been analysed for at least one member of each subfamily. The divalent metal ion-binding abilities of HaMT1-2 and HaMT2-1 (the isoforms encoded by the most abundantly expressed HaMT1 and HaMT2 isogenes) have been characterised, as HaMT3 and HaMT4 were previously studied. Those isoforms constitute an optimum material to study the effect of Cys number variability on their coordination abilities, as they exhibit additional Cys residues regarding the canonical Cys pattern of each subfamily. Our results show that the variation in the number of Cys does not drastically modify their M(II)-binding abilities, but instead modulates the degree of heterogeneity of the corresponding recombinant syntheses. Significantly, the Zn(II)-HaMT1 complexes were highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. The recombinant Cd-MT preparations of both isoforms exhibit significant acid-labile sulphide content-Cd6S8 or Cd7S7 species. Overall results suggest that HaMT2-1 is probably associated with Cd(II) detoxification, in contrast to HaMT1-2, which may be more related to physiological functions, such as metal ion transport and delivery. PMID:25770010

  18. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  19. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  20. The Formation and Erosion History of Mt. Sharp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Dapremont, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring 155 km diameter Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5 km high central mound (Fig. 1). This study addresses the formation and erosion history of Mt. Sharp. Gale lies on the topographic dichotomy between the southern highlands and the northern plains - a drop of over 2 km [1,2]. Altitude differences between the north and south rim reflect this regional slope, as do altitude differences between the deep annulus north of Mt. Sharp and the southern crater floor. Orbiter and rover images demonstrate that most exposed areas on Mt. Sharp consist of thin, sub-parallel units interpreted as sedimentary layers [3]. Gale is typical of the 50 large martian craters that have been totally or partially filled with such layers [4,5]. In many craters these sediments have been deeply eroded. Central Peak and Peak Ring: The highest point on Mt. Sharp, near the crater's center, is interpreted as a central peak [6]. The peak has a massive lower portion and a thin, smooth capping deposit (Fig. 2). Gale's size is transitional between martian craters with single central peaks and craters with peak rings approximately half the crater's diameter [2,6]. The boundaries of Mt. Sharp, as well as an arc of hills to the southeast of the mountain, closely match a circle approximately 80 km in diameter (Fig. 3). This morphology suggests that the Gale impact may have formed both a central peak and a partial peak ring, which is covered by the sediments of Mt. Sharp in the north and possibly exposed in the arc of eroded hills in the southeast quadrant (Figs. 3,4).

  1. Imaging the Alboran Domain from a marine MT survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, X.; Evans, R.; Elsenbeck, J.; Jegen, M.

    2012-04-01

    On the Western edge of the Mediterranean, the slow convergence of the Iberian and African plates is marked by very intricate tectonic activity, marked by a combination of small-scale subduction and sub-lithospheric downwelling. Delamination or convective instability has also been proposed to have occurred beneath this domain during the past 25 My. And different geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the lithospheric structure of the arc-shaped belt (Betic and Rif orogenies) and the opening of the Alboran Basin. As part of several international projects carried out in this area, magnetotelluric (MT) methods have been used to explore the crust and upper mantle. The measurements of mantle electrical conductivity are a well known complement to measurements of seismic velocity. Conductivity is sensitive to temperature, composition and hydration of the mantle, and therefore MT is widely used to provide constraints on mantle processes. We present results of electromagnetic studies in the Western Mediterranean, focusing specially in the recently work on the Alboran sea as part of a marine MT survey. Land MT studies have already imaged an area of low resistivity coincident with an area of low velocities without earthquake hypocenters, interpreted as asthenospheric material intruded by the lateral lithospheric tearing and breaking-off of the east-directed subducting Ligurian slab under the Alboran Domain. The marine data show complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and coast effect, suggesting a fairly resistive lithosphere beneath the seafloor. The marine MT data also shows an anomalous conductive slab towards the Eastern Alboran basin, suggesting a possible hydration of mantle material from an Eastward subducting slab. Both the land and marine MT data suggest that the most likely scenario for the opening of the Alboran Basin is related to the westward rollback of the Ligurian subducting slab.

  2. Influence of volume magnetostriction on the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kosogor, Anna; L'vov, Victor A.; Cesari, Eduard

    2015-10-07

    In the present article, the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys exhibiting the martensitic transformations (MTs) above and below Curie temperature are compared. It is shown that when MT goes below Curie temperature, the elastic and thermal properties of alloy noticeably depend on magnetization value due to spontaneous volume magnetostriction. However, the separation of magnetic parts from the basic characteristics of MT is a difficult task, because the volume magnetostriction does not qualitatively change the transformational behaviour of alloy. This problem is solved for several Ni-Mn-Ga alloys by means of the quantitative theoretical analysis of experimental data obtained in the course of stress-strain tests. For each alloy, the entropy change and the transformation heat evolved in the course of MT are evaluated, first, from the results of stress-strain tests and, second, from differential scanning calorimetry data. For all alloys, a quantitative agreement between the values obtained in two different ways is observed. It is shown that the magnetic part of transformation heat exceeds the non-magnetic one for the Ni-Mn-Ga alloys undergoing MTs in ferromagnetic state, while the elevated values of transformation heat measured for the alloys undergoing MTs in paramagnetic state are caused by large MT strains.

  3. The impact of clouds on radical concentrations: Observations of OH and HO2 during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; George, I. J.; Stone, D.; Heard, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds play a crucial role in the chemistry of the atmosphere, occupying, on average, ~ 15 % of the volume of the lower atmosphere (Lelieveld & Crutzen, 1990). Modelling studies have shown that aqueous phase chemistry in clouds can influence gas phase radical chemistry and in turn can cause significant reductions in the oxidative capacity (e.g. Lelieveld & Crutzen, 1991; Kreidenweis et al., 2003) and, hence, removal rate of VOCs. A number of aircraft projects have identified significantly reduced HO2 concentrations when flying through clouds that exceeds the depletion expected due to the reduction in radiation alone (Olson et al., 2004; Commane et al., 2010). These experimental observations are relatively sparse, however, and until recently a comprehensive study to validate model predictions has been lacking. Here we report preliminary measurements of OH and HO2 radicals made during the HCCT (Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia) project that took place at Mt. Schmücke, Thuringia in Germany during September/October 2010. The University of Leeds Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) instrument was located at the summit of Mt. Schmücke and made near-continuous measurements of the radicals at the top of a 22 m tower. The site was regularly influenced by clouds throughout the measurement period and co-located measurements of liquid water content were made at the site enabling the influence of this microphysical parameter on the radical budget to be determined. On average, the photolysis rate of O3 to form O(1D), the primary daytime source of HOx radicals, was ~ 65 % lower in-cloud relative to the out of cloud observations. The HO2 concentrations were significantly depleted in cloud, with concentrations ~ 90 % lower relative to the out of cloud observations; an OH signal above the noise of the instrument was not observed during cloud events. These results suggest that heterogeneous processes in clouds do perturb the gas-phase radical chemistry. Further investigations into

  4. Indian-Asian Relationship: mtDNA Reveals More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabas, S.; Joshi, B.; Suresh, C. G.

    Recent studies on human mtDNA have identified continent-specific restriction enzyme sites and resultant haplogroups among populations from different regions of the world. Such studies have helped in elaborating the models for human migrations. We have studied Indian mtDNAs to identify the recognized world ethnic elements present in it. The results presented here are based on the study of DdeI 10394 site along with the associated Asian-specific AluI 10397 site in the mtDNA sequences of the Indian samples. On examining all the related haplogroups, this study suggests that the apparent affinities of Indians and East Asians (comprising Chinese, Japanese, Southeast Asians etc.) could be due to a proto-Asiatic element present in Indians.

  5. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  6. Rheology of Crystallizing Basalts from Mt. Nyiragongo and Mt. Nyamuragira D.R.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, A. A.; Whittington, A. G.; Sehlke, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mt. Nyiragongo, located within the Virunga Volcanic Province on the western branch of the East African Rift, is known for its persistent lava lake activity as well as devastating eruptions in 1977 and 2002. The 2002 eruption caused a humanitarian crisis when channelized lava flows entered the nearby city of Goma killing 170 people and displacing ~350,000 others. These lavas have extremely low silica contents (39-42 wt.% SiO2) and are very fluid, allowing flows to move rapidly away from the source. We have measured the rheology of lavas from Nyiragongo using a concentric cylinder viscometer at temperatures of ~1220, 1205, 1190, 1175, 1165, and 1145°C. Each experiment starts with a liquid viscosity measurement at 1500˚C, followed by cooling to the desired experimental temperature. The lava spends 10-12 hours at this temperature, with constant stirring, before measurements begin. After measuring at a range of strain rates, the lava is quenched by immersion of the Pt crucible in a water bath. The viscosity is ~32 Pas at the liquidus temperature of ~1220°C, increasing gradually to ~142 Pas at 1165˚C. These viscosity measurements are much lower than most other basaltic compositions including Hawaiian lavas which have a crystal fraction of ~42% and apparent viscosity of ~2000 Pas at 1169°C. Over this temperature range, crystal fraction varies little (1-5% spinel crystals). Interpolating between measurements of the melt viscosity by concentric cylinder and parallel-plate viscometry suggests that at 1165˚C, the viscosity of the starting melt would be ~63 Pas. Consequently, the change in viscosity is due primarily to cooling rather than either the physical or chemical effects of crystallization. The data were collected at strain rates between ~1 and 46 s-1, and are well reproduced using a power-law model with exponents ~0.94 to 0.96. Below 1165˚C, crystal fraction and magma viscosity both increase rapidly. Further experiments at lower temperatures will quantify this

  7. High Energy Directly Pumped Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Ji-Rong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2000-01-01

    The most commonly used crystal architecture to produce 2 micrometer laser is co-doping Ho and Tm into a single host crystal. In this method, the stored energy transfer from the Tm (3)F4 to the Ho (5)I7 manifold is not fast enough to warrant high efficiency for short pulse applications. By separating the Ho and the Tm ions and doping the Tm in YALO3 and the Ho in YLF, we were able to directly pump the Ho (5)I7 manifold with 1.94 micrometers. The Ho:YLF laser has produced 33 mJ at 2.062 micrometers with a quantum efficiency of 0.88. The performance of each laser will be presented.

  8. Rotational bands in neutron-rich 160-162Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Escrig, D.; Jungclaus, A.; Binder, B.; Dietrich, A.; Haertlein, T.; Bauer, H.; Gund, Ch.; Pansegrau, D.; Schwalm, D.; Bazzacco, D.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D.R.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Ur, C.

    2004-02-27

    We have studied the high spin states in 160-162Ho in order to investigate the properties of the rotational bands and their dependence on the single particle orbits involved. The reaction 158,160Gd(7Li,xn) at 56 MeV were used to produce the Ho isotopes of interest. In all three Ho isotopes the known rotational bands have been significantly extended. New band-crossings have been observed for the first time in this work.

  9. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  10. Lack of mitochondrial topoisomerase I (TOP1mt) impairs liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khiati, Salim; Baechler, Simone A.; Factor, Valentina M.; Zhang, Hongliang; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Sourbier, Carole; Neckers, Leonard; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Pommier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The liver has an exceptional replicative capacity following partial hepatectomy or chemical injuries. Cellular proliferation requires increased production of energy and essential metabolites, which critically depend on the mitochondria. To determine whether Top1mt, the vertebrate mitochondrial topoisomerase, is involved in this process, we studied liver regeneration after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. TOP1mt knockout (KO) mice showed a marked reduction in regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation. The hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) failed to increase during recovery from CCl4 exposure. Reduced glutathione was also depleted, indicating increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Steady-state levels of ATP, O2 consumption, mtDNA, and mitochondrial mass were also reduced in primary hepatocytes from CCl4-treated KO mice. To further test whether Top1mt acted by enabling mtDNA regeneration, we tested TOP1mt KO fibroblasts and human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells and measured mtDNA after 3-d treatment with ethidium bromide. Both types of TOP1mt knockout cells showed defective mtDNA regeneration following mtDNA depletion. Our study demonstrates that Top1mt is required for normal mtDNA homeostasis and for linking mtDNA expansion with hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:26305952

  11. Efficient, low threshold, cryogenic Ho:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Ganija, Miftar; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Haub, John; Veitch, Peter; Munch, Jesper

    2016-05-30

    We report the development of an efficient, liquid-nitrogen conduction cooled Ho:YAG slab laser with good beam quality. Detailed measurements resolving the structure of the 1900-1911 nm absorption band in Ho:YAG at 77 K are presented. Stress-free conduction cooled mounting of the Ho:YAG slab was demonstrated and the resulting laser operated with a large mode volume of 42 mm3, a slope efficiency of 75% and a threshold of 0.84 W. To our knowledge this corresponds to the lowest reported threshold intensity for a Ho:YAG laser. PMID:27410084

  12. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Guo, H.; Blake, D. R.; Tang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2013-05-01

    The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l.), a baseline station in the northeast part of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian sub-continent. The data were compared with the TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) data to examine the inflow and outflow of air pollution over the China sub-continent. The results show that the free troposphere over China may be affected by the inflow from the Eurasian continent in spring, and the emissions in China may not have a significant influence on the free tropospheric outflow. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2) and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in-situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2), and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx(HOx = OH + HO2) radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2), followed by the photolysis of oxygenated VOCs and

  13. Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Zarro, Carlos A. D.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, a minisuperspace model for the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity without the detailed-balance condition is investigated. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is derived and its solutions are studied and discussed for some particular cases where, due to Hořava-Lifshitz gravity, there is a “potential barrier” nearby a=0. For a vanishing cosmological constant, a normalizable wave function of the Universe is found. When the cosmological constant is nonvanishing, the WKB method is used to obtain solutions for the wave function of the Universe. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, one discusses how the transition from quantum to classical regime occurs and, for the case of a positive cosmological constant, the scale factor is shown to grow exponentially, hence recovering the general relativity behavior for the late Universe.

  14. Ho Doped BixSby Nanopolycrystalline Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, K. C.; Joshi, G.; Wang, Dezhi; Ren, Z. F.; Opeil, C. P.

    2011-03-01

    Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, 02467. Bismuth-Antimony alloys have been shown to have high ZT values below room temperature, especially for single crystals. For polycrystalline samples, impurity doping and magnetic field have proven to be powerful tools in the search for understanding and improving thermoelectric performance. Nanopolycrystalline BixSby doped with 1 and 3 % Ho were prepared by ball milling and dc hot pressing technique. Electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, carrier concentration, mobility, and magnetization are measured in a temperature range of 5-350 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 Tesla. The effects of Ho doping on the thermoelectric properties of BixSby in magnetic field will be discussed. D.O.E. Energy Frontier Research Center Grant (S3TEC), at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  15. Low noise, tunable Ho:fiber soliton oscillator for Ho:YLF amplifier seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Ruehl, Axel; Bransley, Colleen; Hartl, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    We present a passively mode-locked, tunable soliton Ho:fiber ring oscillator, optimized for seeding of holmium-doped yttrium lithium flouride (Ho:YLF) amplifiers. The oscillator is independently tunable in central wavelength and spectral width from 2040 to 2070 nm and from 5 to 10 nm, respectively. At all settings the pulse energy within the soliton is around 800 pJ. The soliton oscillator was optimized to fully meet the spectral requirements for seeding Ho:YLF amplifiers. Its Kelly sidebands are located outside the amplifier gain spectrum, resulting in a train of about 1 ps long pedestal-free pulses with relative intensity noise of only 0.13% RMS when integrated from 1 Hz to Nyquist frequency.

  16. 77 FR 38474 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Livingston, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Livingston, MT (77 FR 19953). Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory...

  17. 76 FR 28308 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Poplar, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Poplar, MT (76 FR 8921). Interested... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  18. 77 FR 52219 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lewistown, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...) to modify controlled airspace at Lewistown, MT (77 FR 38226). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  19. The Mt. Currie Indian Community School: Innovation and Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, June D.

    1985-01-01

    In the 1970s, the Mt. Currie school in British Columbia was transformed into a locally controlled Native Canadian Indian institution. Using interview data, this articles reviews changing role relationships of the school board and staff. Recommendations applicable to other community education ventures across North America are made. (Author/BS)

  20. Mt. St. Helens Seen Close Up on May 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Dorothy B.; Stoffel, Keith L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes eruption steps in Mt. St. Helens' top surface deformation: constant shaking of earthquakes, minor steaming from vents, and sudden catastrophic eruption. Explosions caused black projectile-laden ash clouds, vertical white steam clouds, and vertical gray ash-laden clouds. (SK)

  1. 76 FR 45644 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster Number MT-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Montana (FEMA-1996-DR), dated 06/17/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Montana, dated 06/17/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  2. The New Remote-Controlled Telescope at Mt. Suhora Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowski, G.; Ogloza, W.; Drozdz, M.; Zakrzewski, B.

    2015-07-01

    We present technical details of the small, remote-controlled telescope we recently installed at Mt. Suhora Observatory, primarily for ground-based photometric follow-up observations of bright stars that are targets of the BRITE satellite mission, although other targets are also observed. A summary is also given of observations carried out so far.

  3. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to construct a connection between Interstate...

  4. 76 FR 56967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Glendive, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Glendive, MT (76 FR 41145). Interested parties were invited to... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  5. Mt. San Antonio College Matriculation Study: Fall 1986-Spring 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others

    In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) began a five year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, which include assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up of students by staff members. The study utilized a computerized tracking system to compare retention, grade point average (GPA),…

  6. Mt. San Antonio College Matriculation Research Update, 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others

    In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) initiated a 5-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, including assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up. The academic performance and success of students participating in one or more of these services were compared to those of degree- and…

  7. 78 FR 67298 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ennis, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Ennis, MT (78 FR 54415). Interested parties were... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  8. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (78 FR 41337). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  9. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT (78 FR 59807, September 30, 2013). The FAA... Federal Register of September 30, 2013 (78 FR 59807), Airspace Docket No. 13- ANM-17, FR Doc. 2013-23669... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME)...

  10. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  11. 76 FR 53049 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Shelby, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace...

  12. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E... received. Class E airspace designations are published in paragraph 6005, of FAA Order 7400.9V dated...

  13. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Class E airspace at... geographic coordinates for the Class D and E airspace areas, and updates the airport name. DATES:...

  14. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). ] List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television....

  15. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

  16. Mt. San Antonio Community College Information Notebook; Volume Two, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    This databook contains some of the basic information to be used in decision making and planning in the Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) District. Part I focuses on the demographic characteristics of the district population, feeder school districts, and data from other educational providers. Part II presents statewide data on potential enrollment by…

  17. 76 FR 47435 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Forsyth, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Tillitt Field Airport..., MT (76 FR 32879). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  18. 77 FR 41259 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Plentywood, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... modify controlled airspace at Plentywood, MT (77 FR 24159). Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  19. 76 FR 45179 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (76 FR 30300). Interested parties...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  20. 76 FR 59479 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00062

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster Number MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  1. Southern Hemisphere Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Clouds from Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Hudson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Manson, Peter J.; Patterson, Graeme R.

    1992-01-01

    On 19 Jul., 1991, during tests to determine the ability of the newly-modified CSIRO Ns:YAG lidar to measure signals from the stratosphere before the arrival of dust from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, a strongly scattering layer was detected at an altitude of 2 km. That evening, the spectacular sunset and twilight were typical of volcanically disturbed conditions. Lidar measurements at 532 nm were made between 1400 and 1500 EST (0400-0500 UT) on 19 Jul. through broken cloud. Approximately 3800 laser firings were averaged in 256 shot blocks. These and subsequent data have been analyzed to produce profiles of aerosol volume backscatter function and scattering ratio. Clouds again prevented a clear view of the twilights on the next two nights, although there was some evidence for an enhanced glow. The evidence suggested that the aerosol layer had disappeared. An explanation for this disappearance and the earlier than expected arrival of the layer over Melbourne was required. Nimbus 7 TOMS data for 23 Jun. showed that the SO2 from the eruption had extended at least 11000 km to the west and that the southern boundary of the cloud had reached 15 degrees S just 8 days after the climactic eruption. It can be assumed that this cloud also contained dust and sulphuric acid aerosol. It was proposed that a section had then been broken away from the main cloud and carried south by a large scale eddy between the low latitude easterlies and the strong mid-latitude westerlies which finally carried the aerosol cloud over southern Australia. Accompanying 30 mb wind data showed a counter clockwise circulation, responsible for the transport, located in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Transformation of MT Resistivity Sections into Geologically Meaningful Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Earthscope offers an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary studies of North America. In addition to a continent-wide seismic study, it includes the acquisition of magnetotelluric (MT) data at many of the Bigfoot array sites. Earthscope will thus provide a uniform 3-D MT survey over regional scales when completed. MT interpreters will be able to include 3-D regional effects in their models for the first time whether they are interpreting local studies. However, the full value of the interdisciplinary nature of Earthscope will be realized only if MT sections and maps are useful to other earth scientists. The standard final product from any 2-D or 3-D MT interpretation is a spatial distribution of electrical resistivity. Inference of the physicochemical state from bulk resistivity is complicated because a variety of factors influence the property including temperature, intrinsic conduction of silicates, and small amounts of interconnected conducting materials (e.g., graphite, metallic minerals, partial melt, fluid). Here, I use petrophysical measurements and a petrological model to transform a resistivity section into cross sections of temperature and partial melt fraction in the mantle beneath the Sierra Nevada. In this manner, I am able to separate the contributions of increasing temperature and melt fraction to the bulk resistivity. Predicted melt fractions match observations from xenoliths relatively well but temperatures are systematically 200C higher than those observed. A small amount of dissolved hydrogen (~70 ppm H/Si) lowers the predicted temperatures to match those from the xenoliths, however. I conclude that while this transformation is a simple first step based on many assumptions, initial results are promising.

  3. New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.

  4. Antinociceptive properties of selective MT(2) melatonin receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    López-Canul, Martha; Comai, Stefano; Domínguez-López, Sergio; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone involved in the regulation of both acute and chronic pain whose mechanism is still not completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists have antiallodynic properties in animal models of chronic neuropathic pain by modulating ON/OFF cells of the descending antinociceptive system. Here, we examined the antinociceptive properties of the selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists N-{2-[(3-methoxyphenyl)phenylamino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM765) and N-{2-[(3-bromophenyl)-(4-fluorophenyl)amino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM924) in two animal models of acute and inflammatory pain: the hot-plate and formalin tests. UCM765 and UCM924 (5-40 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the temperature of the first hind paw lick in the hot-plate test, and decreased the total time spent licking the injected hind paw in the formalin test. Antinociceptive effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were maximal at the dose of 20mg/kg. At this dose, the effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were similar to those produced by 200 mg/kg acetaminophen in the hot-plate test, and by 3 mg/kg ketorolac or 150 mg/kg MLT in the formalin test. Notably, antinociceptive effects of the two MT2 partial agonists were blocked by the pre-treatment with the MT2 antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT, 10 mg/kg) in both paradigms. These results demonstrate the antinociceptive properties of UCM765 and UCM924 in acute and inflammatory pain models and corroborate the concept that MT2 melatonin receptor may be a novel target for analgesic drug development. PMID:26162699

  5. Barley Metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 Are Localized in the Grain Aleurone Layer and Show Differential Zinc Binding1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations. PMID:22582132

  6. Determination of L X-ray fluorescence parameters for Ho, Lu, W, Hg and Bi.

    PubMed

    Turhan, M F; Durak, R; Akman, F

    2014-07-01

    In this work, L X-ray fluorescence cross sections, L sub-shell fluorescence yields and level widths and radiative vacancy transfer probabilities of L sub-shells to Mi, Ni and Oi sub-shells were measured for the elements Ho, Lu, W, Hg and Bi. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used to measure L X-ray photons. To obtain related parameters, we used 59.54 keV gamma photons of (241)Am radioactive point source. Emitted L X-ray photons from targets were collected by means of a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV. The present results are generally in a good agreement with theoretical calculations and the other results obtained in the literature, within their range considering experimental uncertainty. PMID:24631748

  7. Brillouin Light Scattering study of the rotatable magnetic anisotropy in exchange biased bilayers of Ni81 Fe19 Ir20 Mn80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Oliveira, Alexandre; Estrada, Francisco; Santos, Obed; Azevedo, Antonio; Rezende, Sergio

    It is known that when a ferromagnet (FM) is in atomic contact with an antiferromagnet (AF) the exchange coupling between the FM and AF spins at the interface induces a unidirectional anisotropy in the ferromagnetic film. This effect is known as exchange bias (EB). Despite the large amount of research on this topic there are still several aspects of the EB mechanism that are not well understood. One of this aspects is the origin of the rotatable anisotropy in polycrystalline AFs. By means of Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) measurements, we investigated the dependence of the rotatable anisotropy field HRA and exchange field HE with the magnitude of the external magnetic field (Ho) in FM/AM bilayers of Ni81Fe19(10nm)/Ir20Mn80(tAF) . We developed an algorithm to numerically fit the in-plane angular dependence of the magnon frequency, at a fixed value of Ho measured by BLS. From the fit parameters we were able to investigate HRA and HE dependency on Ho. The results reveal that HRA value depends on Ho, so we argue that AF grain distribution at the interface is partially modified by the applied field strength. Contrary to this, the relation between HE and Ho is not straightforward, remaining constant at high values of Ho.

  8. Effect of structural disorder on the magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Mn-Sn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arup E-mail: arup.ghosh@bose.res.in; Mandal, Kalyan

    2014-01-20

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 36.5}Sn{sub 13.5} Heusler alloy has been studied by varying the duration of annealing (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h) at 1173 K. The atomic ordering increases, martensitic transition (MT) becomes sharper and exchange bias field increases with increasing annealing time. The sample annealed for 24 h has shown a large magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) near its MT. But, the net refrigerant capacity at the MT of 12 h annealed sample is larger than the former one. We have discussed these results in the context of structural disorder and the ferro/antiferro correlations present in these alloy systems.

  9. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  10. Complex forming competition and in-vitro toxicity studies on the applicability of di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) as a metal chelator.

    PubMed

    Gaál, Anikó; Orgován, Gábor; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Mihucz, Victor G; Bősze, Szilvia; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) is a potential candidate in chelation therapy as an iron chelator. This study showed that a combined treatment with 2μM easily available Fe(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) each and 5μM Dp44mT on eight different cancer cell lines resulted in a 10-40-fold increase in the intracellular Cu content compared to control samples. The uptake of Cu and Cu-dependent cytotoxicity strictly depend on the Cu concentration of the culture medium. Even as low concentration of Dp44mT as 0.1μM can transport high amounts of copper inside the cells. The Cu accumulation and toxicity through Dp44mT can hardly be influenced by Fe. Copper uptake and toxicity triggered by 2μM extracellular Cu(II) and 5μM Dp44mT could not be influenced by Fe(II) extracellular concentrations even 50-times higher than that of Cu(II). A 50-times higher Co(II) extracellular concentration hindered the Cu(II) uptake almost completely and a 10-times higher Co(II) concentration already decreased the Dp44mT-mediated Cu toxicity. Conditional complex stability constant determinations for Dp44mT with Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) revealed that the metal-to-ligand ratio is 1:1 in [Cu(II)Dp44mT] complex, while for Co(II), Fe(II) and Ni(II) is 1:2. The highest stability constant was obtained for Cu(II) (lg β=7.08±0.05) and Co(II) (lg β2=12.47±0.07). According to our results, Dp44mT in combination with Cu is highly toxic in vitro. Therefore, the use of Dp44mT as an iron chelator is limited if biologically available Cu is also present even at low concentrations. PMID:24176919

  11. Magnetism and superconductivity in (HoxY1-x)Ni2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Karl-Hartmut; Fuchs, Günter; Handstein, Axel; Cao, Lei; Eversmann, Kathrin

    1996-02-01

    The pseudoquarternary system (HoxY1-x)Ni2B2C, has been investigated by resistance and magnetization measurements. A linear depression of the superconducting transition temperature Tc found with increasing Ho content is interpreted in the framework of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory which predicts also a linear scaling of Tc with the de Gennes factor of the rare earth elements R of the RNi2B2C family. We found that both cases follow a common linear scaling behaviour including the superconducting transition and the magnetic ordering temperature. A reentrant behaviour observed for Ho contents x≥0.5 results in maxima in the temperature dependence of the upper critical field Hc2(T), which are compared with Hc2(T) data of TmNi2B2C. In the paramagnetic range of field and temperature the sample magnetization can be described by a Brillouin function with a Ho-moment of 10.5 μ B.

  12. Superelastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Fe-Ni-Co-Ti-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titenko, Anatoliy N.; Demchenko, Lesya D.

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the deformation behavior of aged ferromagnetic alloys of Fe-Ni-Co-Ti-Cu system caused by phase transitions. The basic characteristic temperatures of martensitic transformation (MT) of the alloys were determined from temperature dependences of low-field magnetic susceptibility. The coefficients of thermal expansion of high- and low-temperature phases, as well as values of volume effect were obtained from dilatometric data. Peculiarities of deformation behavior were studied from the analysis of stress-strain curves, registered at uniaxial tension. It was found that investigated alloys have a substantial superelastic deformation and a low value of the temperature hysteresis of MT with the volume effect of 2%, which is typical for thermoelastic alloys of Fe-Ni-Co-Ti-Cu system.

  13. 2009 Louisiana "HoCP" and "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selecting in single-stools in the seedling stage, scientists in the breeding program assign “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to varieties advanced for further testing. These newly assigned varieties are planted in replicated nursery trials at three locations (Ardoyne Farm in Schriever, Iber...

  14. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dual ligands for melatonin (MT1/MT2) and serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtypes (II).

    PubMed

    Ettaoussi, Mohamed; Pérès, Basile; Errazani, Aïcha; Boutin, Jean A; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Delagrange, Philippe; Melnyk, Patricia; Berthelot, Pascal; Yous, Saïd

    2015-01-27

    In this paper we report the investigation of C-3 and β-acetamide positions of agomelatine analogues. Concomitant insertion of a hydroxymethyl in the β-acetamide position and aliphatic groups in C-3 position produced a positive effect on both melatonin (MT1, MT2) and serotonin (5-HT2C) binding affinities. In particular, the allyl 6b and ethyl 15a represented the more interesting compounds of this series. Furthermore, the introduction of methyl cycloalkyl groups (compounds 11a, 12a) exhibited no change in both MT2 and 5-HT2C binding affinities while a decrease of MT1 binding affinity occurred leading to an MT2 selectivity. Finally, the acetamide modulation has led to methyl thiourea 11h, with a weak MT2 selectivity. PMID:25528336

  15. Contrahelicase activity of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor mtDBP

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2005-01-01

    The sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop binding protein (mtDBP) is a transcription termination factor that is able to arrest bidirectionally mitochondrial RNA chain elongation. The observation that the mtDBP binding site in the main non-coding region is located in correspondence of the 3′ end of the triplex structure, where the synthesis of heavy strand mitochondrial (mt) DNA is either prematurely terminated or allowed to continue, raised the question whether mtDBP could also regulate mtDNA replication. By using a helicase assay in the presence of the replicative helicase of SV40, we show that mtDBP is able to inhibit the enzyme thus acting as a contrahelicase. The impairing activity of mtDBP is bidirectional as it is independent of the orientation of the protein binding site. The inhibition is increased by the presence of the guanosine-rich sequence that flanks mtDBP binding site. Finally, a mechanism of abrogation of mtDBP contrahelicase activity is suggested that is based on the dissociation of mtDBP from DNA caused by the passage of the RNA polymerase through the protein–DNA complex. All these findings favour the view that mtDBP, besides serving as transcription termination factor, could also act as a negative regulator of mtDNA synthesis at the level of D-loop expansion. PMID:16006625

  16. Directions toward the Year 2000. Strategic Plan, Mt. San Antonio Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    This booklet presents Mt. San Antonio College's (Mt. SAC's) long-range goals and specific action priorities in an effort to focus planning on the year 2000. Introductory comments discuss the purpose of strategic planning and Mt. SAC's planning orientation. The next sections list goals and objectives with respect to: (1) the improvement of existing…

  17. Quasi MT Inversion of Short-Offset Transient Electromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, Guo-qiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-07-01

    The short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) has been extensively used for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and hydrogeological investigations due to its ease of use and capability to generate diagnostic subsurface information. At present, the data processing methods of SOTEM are mainly focused on one dimensional inversion. To apply the proven inversion methods of frequency domain electromagnetic methods to SOTEM data, this paper presents a new transformation relation from time to frequency based on the similarity between SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) apparent resistivity. Results show that the transformation coefficients depend on the variation trend of SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity curves. Bostick inversion and conjugate gradient inversion techniques were applied to transformed SOTEM data and the results were validated by some simulated calculations and field measured data. This study provides a novel method to SOTEM data processing and a useful aid to join inversion with MT data.

  18. Microtron MT 25 as a source of neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kralik, M.; Solc, J.; Chvatil, D.; Krist, P.; Turek, K.; Granja, C.

    2012-08-15

    The objective was to describe Microtron MT25 as a source of neutrons generated by bremsstrahlung induced photonuclear reactions in U and Pb targets. Bremsstrahlung photons were produced by electrons accelerated at energy 21.6 MeV. Spectral fluence of the generated neutrons was calculated with MCNPX code and then experimentally determined at two positions by means of a Bonner spheres spectrometer in which the detector of thermal neutrons was replaced by activation Mn tablets or track detectors CR-39 with a {sup 10}B radiator. The measured neutron spectral fluence and the calculated anisotropy served for the estimation of neutron yield from the targets and for the determination of ambient dose equivalent rate at the place of measurement. Microtron MT25 is intended as one of the sources for testing neutron sensitive devices which will be sent into the space.

  19. Microtron MT 25 as a source of neutrons.

    PubMed

    Králík, M; Šolc, J; Chvátil, D; Krist, P; Turek, K; Granja, C

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to describe Microtron MT25 as a source of neutrons generated by bremsstrahlung induced photonuclear reactions in U and Pb targets. Bremsstrahlung photons were produced by electrons accelerated at energy 21.6 MeV. Spectral fluence of the generated neutrons was calculated with MCNPX code and then experimentally determined at two positions by means of a Bonner spheres spectrometer in which the detector of thermal neutrons was replaced by activation Mn tablets or track detectors CR-39 with a (10)B radiator. The measured neutron spectral fluence and the calculated anisotropy served for the estimation of neutron yield from the targets and for the determination of ambient dose equivalent rate at the place of measurement. Microtron MT25 is intended as one of the sources for testing neutron sensitive devices which will be sent into the space. PMID:22938289

  20. Quasi MT Inversion of Short-Offset Transient Electromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, Guo-qiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-03-01

    The short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) has been extensively used for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and hydrogeological investigations due to its ease of use and capability to generate diagnostic subsurface information. At present, the data processing methods of SOTEM are mainly focused on one dimensional inversion. To apply the proven inversion methods of frequency domain electromagnetic methods to SOTEM data, this paper presents a new transformation relation from time to frequency based on the similarity between SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) apparent resistivity. Results show that the transformation coefficients depend on the variation trend of SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity curves. Bostick inversion and conjugate gradient inversion techniques were applied to transformed SOTEM data and the results were validated by some simulated calculations and field measured data. This study provides a novel method to SOTEM data processing and a useful aid to join inversion with MT data.

  1. Measurement of HO2 chemical kinetics with a new detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Long C.; Suto, Masako

    1986-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of HO2+O3 were measured at various temperatures using a newly developed HO2 detection method. HO2 was detected by the OH(A-X) emission produced from photodissociative excitation of HO2 at 147 nm. In order to examine the possible interference of other emitting species with the HO2 detection, the photoexcitation processes of all the chemical species existing in the discharge flow tube were also investigated. The results are summarized.

  2. Volcanogenic origin of cenotes near Mt Gambier, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, John A.; Grimes, Ken G.; Lewis, Ian D.

    2010-07-01

    The cenotes near Mt Gambier are circular, cliffed, collapse dolines containing water-table lakes up to 125 m deep, floored by large rubble cones. They lie in a flat, coastal plain composed of mid-Tertiary limestone. Most of the deepest cenotes are concentrated in two small areas located along trends sub-parallel to the main joint direction in the limestone. The cenotes do not connect to underwater phreatic passages, and water chemistry data confirm that they are not part of an interconnected karst network. They formed by collapse into large chambers (up to > 1 million m 3) that extended 125 m or more below the land surface. Several cenotes have actively growing stromatolites on the sub-vertical walls that started growing at ˜ 8000 years BP. The caves that collapsed to form the deep Mt Gambier cenotes are much larger than shallow and deep phreatic caves in the area, and do not connect into deep phreatic systems. They were not formed by freshwater/seawater mixing, responsible for many of the well-known Yucatan cenotes, because they are not associated with locations of the mixing zone during previous high sea levels, and are much larger than caves presently forming along the mixing zone near Mt Gambier. Instead dissolution was most likely due to a process whereby acidified groundwater containing large amounts of volcanogenic CO 2 ascended up fractures from the magma chambers that fed the Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic eruptions in the area; deep reservoirs of volcanogenic CO 2 occur nearby. Cave dissolution could have been due to release of CO 2 during the Mt Gambier eruption ˜ 28,000 years ago, followed by collapse to form cenotes during the low sea levels of the Last Glacial Maximum ˜ 20,000 years ago. The cenotes then flooded ˜ 8000 years ago as sea level rose, and stromatolites began to grow on the walls.

  3. An Analysis of the Mt. Meron Seismic Array

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Ryall, F

    2008-01-10

    We have performed a quick analysis of the Mt. Meron seismic array to monitor regional seismic events in the Middle East. The Meron array is the only current array in the Levant and Arabian Peninsula and, as such, might be useful in contributing to event location, identification, and other analysis. Here, we provide a brief description of the array and a review of the travel time and array analysis done to assess its performance.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23535470

  5. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hewen; He, Yuanqing; Kang, Shichang; Lu, Xixi; Shi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shijin

    2016-03-01

    The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric circulations over Asia. During February and April 2012, surface snow samples were collected from the Baishui Glacier No. 1 at different altitudes along the eastern slope of Mt. Yulong. Two snowpits were also excavated from Mt. Yulong at altitudes of 4780 and 4730 m a.s.l. in February 2012. The concentrations of inorganic ions were higher at an elevation of 4506 m a.s.l. in the glacier with significant contribution of anthropogenic (mainly NH4+, SO4^{2-}, NO3-) and crustal (mainly Ca 2+) constituents. Concentration of HCOO - in surface snow exhibited large variability, ranging from 0.04 to 6.8 μeq L -1, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (ΔC) and Na +/Cl - calculations indicated an excess of cations (particularly higher Ca 2+ concentrations) and Cl - in snow, considering the sea-salt ratio, respectively. Monsoon season (June-September) ion concentrations in snowpit samples were generally two-fold lower than in other seasons. Principal component analysis was used to identify different sources of ions. Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the total variance, were related to different sources, including agricultural activities, biomass burning, and crustal aerosols.

  6. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  7. Origin and Diffusion of mtDNA Haplogroup X

    PubMed Central

    Reidla, Maere; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Kaldma, Katrin; Tambets, Kristiina; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Parik, Jüri; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bermisheva, Marina; Zhadanov, Sergey; Pennarun, Erwan; Gubina, Marina; Golubenko, Maria; Damba, Larisa; Fedorova, Sardana; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Mikerezi, Ilia; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventré, André; Khusnutdinova, Elsa; Osipova, Ludmila; Stepanov, Vadim; Voevoda, Mikhail; Achilli, Alessandro; Rengo, Chiara; Rickards, Olga; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Papiha, Surinder; Beckman, Lars; Janicijevic, Branka; Rudan, Pavao; Anagnou, Nicholas; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel; Koziel, Slawomir; Usanga, Esien; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Herrnstadt, Corinna; Howell, Neil; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as “X1” and “X2.” The first is restricted to the populations of North and East Africa and the Near East, whereas X2 encompasses all X mtDNAs from Europe, western and Central Asia, Siberia, and the great majority of the Near East, as well as some North African samples. Subhaplogroup X1 diversity indicates an early coalescence time, whereas X2 has apparently undergone a more recent population expansion in Eurasia, most likely around or after the last glacial maximum. It is notable that X2 includes the two complete Native American X sequences that constitute the distinctive X2a clade, a clade that lacks close relatives in the entire Old World, including Siberia. The position of X2a in the phylogenetic tree suggests an early split from the other X2 clades, likely at the very beginning of their expansion and spread from the Near East. PMID:14574647

  8. The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Ángel

    2002-01-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000–4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with ∼44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, ∼21% from either West or Central Africa, ∼30% from East Africa, and ∼5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since. PMID:12395296

  9. Study on new optimum parameters in MT repeated survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; An, Hai-Jing; Jiang, Mei; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Si, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Wu-Si

    1994-11-01

    The first MT monitoring profile with initial shape both at home and abroad has been built in the northern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on MT data observed before and after the eight earthquakes of M=5 7 from 1988 to 1992, a new parameter-mean resistivitybar ρ has been introduced. The results show thatbar ρ indicates not only the major feature of decreasing-increasing and recovering to normal value, but also synchronism of phase or the variation in a large area, “lead or delay” among different small areas and the amplitude decreasing with the increase of the distance from the epicenter. Two characters mentioned above might correspond to reginal field precursor of the tectonic generating earthquake and field precursor of the tectonic kinematics. This paper analyses the errors of observed data and the cause of ρ variation. The MT profile optimum parameter system consists of parameterbar ρ , apparent resistivity ρ, twisting degree and the principal-axis azimuth which might provide quantitative criterion for the physical proces of the great destructive earthquake and moderate and short-term earthquake prediction.

  10. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M.

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  11. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Matthews, P. S.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, together known as HOx, play a vital role in atmospheric chemistry by controlling the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. The atmospheric lifetime and concentrations of many trace reactive species, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are determined by HOx radical levels. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict atmospheric HOx concentrations from a detailed knowledge of their sources and sinks is a very useful diagnostic tool to assess our current understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Several recent field studies have observed significantly lower concentrations of HO2 radicals than predicted using box models, where HO2 loss onto aerosols was suggested as a possible missing sink [1, 2]. However, the mechanism on HO2 uptake onto aerosols and its impact on ambient HOx levels are currently not well understood. To improve our understanding of this process, we have conducted laboratory experiments to measure HO2 uptake coefficients onto submicron aerosol particles. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, a highly sensitive laser induced fluorescence based detection method, was used to monitor HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube. The application of the FAGE technique allowed for kinetic experiments to be performed under low HO2 concentrations, i.e. [HO2] < 109 molecules cm-3. HO2 radicals were produced by the photolysis of water vapour in the presence of O2 and aerosol particles were produced either by atomizing dilute salt solutions or by homogeneous nucleation. HO2 uptake coefficients (γ) have been measured for single-component solid and aqueous inorganic salt and organic aerosol particles with a wide range of hygroscopicities. HO2 uptake coefficients on solid particles were below the detection limit (γ < 0.001), whereas on aqueous aerosols uptake coefficients were somewhat larger (γ = 0.001 - 0.008). HO2 uptake coefficients were highest on aerosols

  12. Age-Related and Heteroplasmy-Related Variation in Human mtDNA Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingkun; Madea, Burkhard; Stoneking, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome is present in many copies in human cells, and intra-individual variation in mtDNA sequences is known as heteroplasmy. Recent studies found that heteroplasmies are highly tissue-specific, site-specific, and allele-specific, however the functional implications have not been explored. This study investigates variation in mtDNA copy numbers (mtCN) in 12 different tissues obtained at autopsy from 152 individuals (ranging in age from 3 days to 96 years). Three different methods to estimate mtCN were compared: shotgun sequencing (in 4 tissues), capture-enriched sequencing (in 12 tissues) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR, in 2 tissues). The highest precision in mtCN estimation was achieved using shotgun sequencing data. However, capture-enrichment data provide reliable estimates of relative (albeit not absolute) mtCNs. Comparisons of mtCN from different tissues of the same individual revealed that mtCNs in different tissues are, with few exceptions, uncorrelated. Hence, each tissue of an individual seems to regulate mtCN in a tissue-related rather than an individual-dependent manner. Skeletal muscle (SM) samples showed an age-related decrease in mtCN that was especially pronounced in males, while there was an age-related increase in mtCN for liver (LIV) samples. MtCN in SM samples was significantly negatively correlated with both the total number of heteroplasmic sites and with minor allele frequency (MAF) at two heteroplasmic sites, 408 and 16327. Heteroplasmies at both sites are highly specific for SM, accumulate with aging and are part of functional elements that regulate mtDNA replication. These data support the hypothesis that selection acting on these heteroplasmic sites is reducing mtCN in SM of older individuals. PMID:26978189

  13. Caveats for poly(methimazolyl)borate chemistry: the novel inorganic heterocycles [H2C(mt)2BR2]Cl (mt = methimazolyl; BR2 = BH2, BH(mt), 9-BBN).

    PubMed

    Crossley, Ian R; Hill, Anthony F; Humphrey, Elizabeth R; Smith, Matthew K; Tshabang, Never; Willis, Anthony C

    2004-08-21

    Whilst frequently used for reactions of poly(methimazolyl)borates, dichloromethane is not an innocent solvent, but rather slowly forms heterocyclic salts [H(2)C(mt)(2)BR(2)]Cl, three examples of which (BR(2) = BH(2), BH(mt), 9-borabicyclononyl) have been structurally characterised to confirm the unprecedented B(NCS)(2)C connectivity. PMID:15306929

  14. Optical Characterization of the Ho^3+ Complex in HEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel, III; Sardar, Dhiraj; Nash, Kelly; Yow, Raylon; Gruber, John

    2007-10-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the Ho^3+ complex embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) are investigated. The intensities of the room temperature absorption spectra of the Ho^3+(4f^10) transitions in Ho(NO3)3.5H2O:HEMA have been analyzed using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) model to obtain the phenomenological intensity parameters, φ2, φ4, and φ6. These parameters are used to calculate the spontaneous emission probabilities, radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the Ho^3+ transitions from the upper multiplet manifolds to the corresponding lower-lying multiplet manifolds of ^2S+1LJ Ho^3+(4f^10), which include ^5G4+^3K7^(2), ^5G5, ^5G6+^5F1, ^5F2+^3K8^(2), ^5F3, ^5F4+^5S2, and ^5F5. The predicted room temperature fluorescence lifetime of ^5I7 to ^5I8 is about 0.5 ms, suggesting a reasonably strong interaction between the complex and the polymer. A comparative study of Ho^3+(4f^10) ions in different host materials suggests that Ho(NO3)3.5H2O:HEMA could be an excellent candidate for certain applications such as narrow band pass filters, especially in the visible-to-near infrared region of the spectrum.

  15. Anomalous temperature dependence of the lattice parameters in HoPO{sub 4} and HoVO{sub 4}: Rare earth quadrupolar effects

    SciTech Connect

    Skanthakumar, S.; Loong, C.K.; Soderholm, L.; Nipko, J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Abraham, M.M.; Boatner, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters in tetragonal HoPO{sub 4} and HoVO{sub 4} was measured using neutron powder-diffraction techniques. Below about 100K, the lattice parameter a of HoPO{sub 4} increases with decreasing temperature while c decreases. In HoVO{sub 4}, the above behavior is reversed, that is, a decreases with decreasing temperature while c increases. Similar measurements on nonmagnetic LUP0{sub 4} and LuVO{sub 4} do not show any anomaly. This observation indicates that the unusual temperature dependence of the lattice constants is magnetic in origin. It can be explained in terms of a Ho{sup 3+} quadrupole interaction with the crystalline lattice. In particular, the calculated electronically-generated quadrupole moment of the Ho{sup 3+} in HoPO{sub 4} and HoVO{sub 4} exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that observed in the lattice parameters.

  16. Evidence for a Fourteenth mtDNA-Encoded Protein in the Female-Transmitted mtDNA of Marine Mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Sophie; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Passamonti, Marco; Milani, Liliana; Stewart, Donald T.; Hoeh, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    Background A novel feature for animal mitochondrial genomes has been recently established: i.e., the presence of additional, lineage-specific, mtDNA-encoded proteins with functional significance. This feature has been observed in freshwater mussels with doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA (DUI). The latter unique system of mtDNA transmission, which also exists in some marine mussels and marine clams, is characterized by one mt genome inherited from the female parent (F mtDNA) and one mt genome inherited from the male parent (M mtDNA). In freshwater mussels, the novel mtDNA-encoded proteins have been shown to be mt genome-specific (i.e., one novel protein for F genomes and one novel protein for M genomes). It has been hypothesized that these novel, F- and M-specific, mtDNA-encoded proteins (and/or other F- and/or M-specific mtDNA sequences) could be responsible for the different modes of mtDNA transmission in bivalves but this remains to be demonstrated. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated all complete (or nearly complete) female- and male-transmitted marine mussel mtDNAs previously sequenced for the presence of ORFs that could have functional importance in these bivalves. Our results confirm the presence of a novel F genome-specific mt ORF, of significant length (>100aa) and located in the control region, that most likely has functional significance in marine mussels. The identification of this ORF in five Mytilus species suggests that it has been maintained in the mytilid lineage (subfamily Mytilinae) for ∼13 million years. Furthermore, this ORF likely has a homologue in the F mt genome of Musculista senhousia, a DUI-containing mytilid species in the subfamily Crenellinae. We present evidence supporting the functionality of this F-specific ORF at the transcriptional, amino acid and nucleotide levels. Conclusions/Significance Our results offer support for the hypothesis that “novel F genome-specific mitochondrial genes” are involved in key

  17. Intracellular evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the tragedy of the cytoplasmic commons.

    PubMed

    Haig, David

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential services mitochondria provide to their hosts. Bottlenecks of mitochondrial numbers in female germlines increase the homogeneity of mtDNAs within cells and allow intraorganismal selection to eliminate cells with low quality mitochondria. Mechanisms of intracellular "quality control" allow direct selection on the competence of individual mtDNAs. These processes maintain the integrity of mtDNAs within the germline but are inadequate to indefinitely maintain mitochondrial function in somatic cells. PMID:27062292

  18. MT-4 Suppresses Resistant Ovarian Cancer Growth through Targeting Tubulin and HSP27

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Hui Chen; Kumar, Sunil; Shen, Chien-Chang; Liou, Jing Ping; Pan, Shiow Lin; Teng, Che Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, the anticancer mechanisms of MT-4 were examined in A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res human ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods To evaluate the activity of MT-4, we performed in vitro cell viability and cell cycle assays and in vivo xenograft assays. Immunoblotting analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of MT-4 on ovarian cancer. Tubulin polymerization was determined using a tubulin binding assay. Results MT-4 (2-Methoxy-5-[2-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-phenol), a derivative of moscatilin, can inhibit both sensitive A2780 and multidrug-resistant NCI-ADR/res cell growth and viability. MT-4 inhibited tubulin polymerization to induce G2/M arrest followed by caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further studies indicated that MT-4 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (p-gp). MT-4 also caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the upregulation of cyclin B, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), Aurora kinase B, and phospho-Ser10-histone H3 protein levels. In addition, we found that p38 MAPK pathway activation was involved in MT-4-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, MT-4 also decreased heat shock protein 27 expression and reduced its interaction with caspase-3, which inured cancer cells to chemotherapy resistance. Treatment of cells with SB203580 or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-p38 or wild-type HSP27 reduced PARP cleavage caused by MT-4. MT-4 induced apoptosis through regulation of p38 and HSP27. Our xenograft models also show the in vivo efficacy of MT-4. MT-4 inhibited both A2780 and NCI-ADR/res cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These findings indicate that MT-4 could be a potential lead compound for the treatment of multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25874627

  19. Review of Tm and Ho Materials; Spectroscopy and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of Tm and Ho materials is presented, covering some fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics in both single and co-doped systems. Following an introduction to 2- m lasers, applications and historical development, the physics of quasi-four level lasers, energy transfer and modeling are discussed in some detail. Recent developments in using Tm lasers to pump Ho lasers are discussed, and seen to offer some advantages over conventional Tm:Ho lasers. This article is not intended as a complete review, but as a primer for introducing concepts and a resource for further study.

  20. Towards Performance Portability with GungHo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Rupert; Glover, Matthew; Ham, David; Hobson, Mike; Maynard, Chris; Mitchell, Lawrence; Mullerworth, Steve; Pickles, Stephen; Rezny, Mike; Riley, Graham; Wood, Nigel; Ashworth, Mike

    2014-05-01

    The Met Office's numerical weather prediction and climate model code, the Unified Model (UM), is almost 25 years old. Up to the present day the UM has been able to be run efficiently on many of the worlds most powerful computers, helping to keep the Met Office at the forefront of climate prediction and weather forecasting. However, with performance increases from each new generation of computers now being primarily provided by an increase in the amount of parallelism rather than an increase in the clock-speed of the processors themselves, running higher resolutions of the UM now faces the double challenge of code scalability and numerical accuracy. The UM's atmospheric dynamical core makes use of a finite-difference scheme on a regular latitude-longitude grid. The regular latitude-longitude mesh results in an increasingly disparate grid resolution as the mesh resolution increases due to lines of longitude converging at the poles. For example, a 10km resolution at mid-latitudes would result in a 12m resolution at the poles. The difference in resolution leads to increased communication at the poles and load balance issues which are known to impair scalability; it also leads to issues with numerical accuracy and smaller time-steps due to the difference in scale. To address this problem the Met Office, NERC and STFC initiated the GungHo project. The primary aim of this project is to deliver a scalable, numerically accurate dynamical core. This dynamical core is scheduled to become operational around the year 2022. The project is currently investigating the use of quasi-uniform meshes, such as triangular, icosahedral and cubed-sphere meshes, using finite element methods. The associated GungHo software infrastructure is being developed to support multiple meshes and element types thus allowing for future model development. GungHo is also proposing a novel separation of concerns for the software implementation of the dynamical core. This approach distinguishes between

  1. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. PMID:26159299

  2. 1.88 Micrometers InGaAsP Pumped, Room Temperature Ho: LuAG Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George; Leisher, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A room temperature, directly diode pumped Ho:LuAG laser oscillated for the first time. Direct pumping of the Ho upper laser manifold maximizes efficiency, minimizes heating, and eliminates Ho:Tm energy sharing. Design and performance are presented.

  3. Growth and magnetic properties of Ni-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Liu, L. G.; Zhang, M.; Yang, X. S.

    2016-09-01

    Transition metal doped topological insulators NixBi2-xSe3 were grown by the modified Bridgeman method. Their phase structures, electrical and magnetic transport properties were studied. The lattice constant c decreased with the increasing Ni concentration. All samples are highly c-axis oriented and exhibit weak metallic resistivity. The resistivity increased with both the increasing applied magnetic field and Ni concentration. The resistivity data could be fitted by different formulas below and above 30 K, respectively. The magnetic changed as the Ni dopant concentrations increased, which implied the nickel entering the matrix structure. For the sample with small amount of Ni (x=0.03), a behavior in the curves of temperature dependent of magnetism closely resembled a paramagnet. Bulk ferromagnetism was observed in highly doped samples (x≥0.05) from M(T) data. The samples with (x≥0.05) showed clear hysteresis loops, which suggested the existence of ferromagnetism ordering. All Ni-doped samples are observed with similar weak diamagnetic signals. It was considered that there were three possible origins of ferromagnetism: Ni-Se compound, the interaction of the doped Ni atoms and magnetic contamination.

  4. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right.

    Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age.

    Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value.

    Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly

  5. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  6. A new family of Ni4 and Ni6 aggregates from the self-assembly of [Ni2] building units: role of carboxylate and carbonate bridges.

    PubMed

    Pait, Moumita; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Colacio, Enrique; Ray, Debashis

    2015-05-18

    Carboxylato (R = (t)Bu and Et) and carbonato bridges have been utilized for nickel(II)-based aggregates [Ni4(μ-H2L)2(μ3-OH)2(μ1,3-O2CBu(t))2](NO3)2·H2O·2DMF (1·H2O·2DMF), Ni4(μ-(hy)HL)2(μ3-OMe)2(μ1,1-N3)2(μ1,3-O2CEt)2]·4H2O (2·4H2O), and Ni6(μ4-L)(μ3-L)2(μ6-CO3)(H2O)8](ClO4)·9H2O (3·9H2O). Building blocks [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+), [Ni2(μ-(hy)HL)](3+), and [Ni2(μ-L)](+) originating from [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+) have been trapped in these complexes. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) analysis. In 1, the magnetic interactions are transmitted through the μ3-phenoxido/μ3-hydroxido/syn-syn-(t)BuCO2(-), μ3-phenoxido/μ3- hydroxido, and double μ3-phenoxido/double μ3-hydroxido bridges with J = +11.4 cm(-1), J1 = -2.1 cm(-1), and J2 = -2.8 cm(-1), respectively. In 2, the interactions are ferromagnetic, with J1 = +27.5 cm(-1), J2 = +20.62 cm(-1), and J3 = +1.52 cm(-1) describing the magnetic couplings through the μ-phenoxidoo/μ3-methoxido, μ-azido/μ3-methoxido, and μ3-methoxido/μ3-methoxido exchange pathways, respectively. Complex 3 gives J1 = -3.30 cm(-1), J2 = +1.7 cm(-1), and J3 = -12.8 cm(-1) for exchange pathways mediated by μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, μ-alkoxido/μ-alkooxido/μ-syn-syn-carbonato, and the μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, respectively. Interestingly, 1 and 3 below 20 K and 35 K, respectively, show an abrupt increase of the χMT product to reach a magnetic-field-dependent maximum, which is associated with a slightly frequency-dependent out-of-phase alternating-current peak. DFT calculations have also been performed on 1-3 to explain the exchange interaction mechanisms and to support the magnitude and sign of the magnetic coupling constants between the Ni(II) ions. PMID:25933286

  7. Multi-task guiding system of the Mt. Suhora Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesinski, J.; Wojcik, K.

    1993-12-01

    A short description of the computer controlled guiding system using images from a sensitive TV camera is presented. The system works with a 0.6/7.5 m telescope of Mt. Suhora Observatory and can accept input from any standard video camera. The IBM 286-486 or compatible personal computer equipped with a SVGA graphic card and framegrabber card is used as a control unit. The program works under a DOS operating system. An effect of guiding on the classic photoelectric photometry and CCD image quality is discussed.

  8. A VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST TOWARD MT. SAN ANTONIO FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST TOWARD MT. SAN ANTONIO FROM THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD TRACK NEAR CAJON PASS. VISIBLE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE THE SANDSTONE OUTCROPS AT SULLIVAN’S CURVE IN THE FAR LEFT DISTANCE; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 2 CURVING THROUGH THE HILLS IN THE LEFT DISTANCE; HILL 58.2 AT CENTER, MARKED BY AN ISOLATED STAND OF TREES; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 1, RUNNING STRAIGHT THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH; AND THE UNION PACIFIC TRACK AT THE FAR RIGHT. 123 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design for 13 MT Case

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    2001-01-31

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading conceptual design for the 13 Metric Ton (MT) PIP throughput case. This report includes a process block diagram, process description, and preliminary equipment specifications and documents the changes to the original can loading concept documented in previous reports.

  11. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 μm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-351 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-351 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 351).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-356 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-356 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 356).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-355 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-355 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 355).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-325 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-325 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 325).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-293 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-293 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 293).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-271 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-271 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 271).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-347 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-347 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 347).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-284 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-284 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 284).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-331 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-331 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 331).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-313 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-313 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 313).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-359 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-359 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 359).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-295 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-295 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 295).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-348 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-348 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 348).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-341 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-341 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 341).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-275 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-275 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 275).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-317 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-317 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 317).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-333 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-333 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 333).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-326 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-326 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 326).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-307 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-307 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 307).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-336 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-336 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 336).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-290 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-290 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 290).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-327 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-327 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 327).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-337 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-337 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 337).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-303 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-303 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 303).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-267 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-267 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 267).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-320 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-320 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 320).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-283 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-283 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 283).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-316 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-316 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 316).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-346 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-346 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 346).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-323 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-323 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 323).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-339 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-339 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 339).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-279 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-279 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 279).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-296 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-296 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 296).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-335 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-335 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 335).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-276 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-276 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 276).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-330 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-330 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 330).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-299 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-299 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 299).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-294 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-294 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 294).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-312 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-312 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 312).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-322 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-322 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 322).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-266 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-266 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 266).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-288 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-288 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 288).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-270 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-270 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 270).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-315 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-315 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 315).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-282 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-282 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 282).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-291 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-291 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 291).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-319 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-319 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 319).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-309 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-309 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 309).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-358 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-358 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 358).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-314 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-314 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 314).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-321 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-321 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 321).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-278 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-278 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 278).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-306 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-306 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 306).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-344 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-344 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 344).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-349 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-349 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 349).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-332 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-332 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 332).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-318 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-318 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 318).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-277 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-277 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 277).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-300 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-300 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 300).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-328 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-328 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 328).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-334 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-334 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 334).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-281 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-281 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 281).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-285 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-285 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 285).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-264 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-264 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 264).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-292 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-292 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 292).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-340 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-340 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 340).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-305 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-305 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 305).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-297 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-297 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 297).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-354 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-354 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 354).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-280 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-280 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 280).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-301 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-301 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 301).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-304 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-304 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 304).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-342 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-342 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 342).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-274 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-274 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 274).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-357 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-357 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 357).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-289 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-289 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 289).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-302 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-302 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 302).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-286 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-286 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 286).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-338 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-338 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 338).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-352 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-352 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 352).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-343 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-343 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 343).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-329 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-329 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 329).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-272 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-272 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 272).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-269 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-269 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 269).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-308 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-308 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 308).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-311 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-311 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 311).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-273 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-273 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 273).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-324 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-324 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 324).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-287 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-287 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 287).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-268 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-268 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 268).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-310 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-310 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 310).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-345 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-345 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 345).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-265 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-265 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 265).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-353 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-353 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 353).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-298 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-298 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 298).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mt-350 (Meitnerium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mt-350 (Meitnerium, atomic number Z = 109, mass number A = 350).

  8. Infrared site testing of Mt. Lemmon and Catalina Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The operation and problems involved with two sky noise meters installed in the Catalina Mountains near Tucson, Arizona are discussed. The instruments were installed at two different locations on Mt. Lemon. It was found that when photometric conditions prevailed, a positive correlation existed between the outputs of the two instruments. In particular, the strongdiurnal effect, in which the sky noise increases abruptly at sunrise and falls markedly after sunset, was reproduced by both instruments. Discrepancies in data recorded by the two instruments are analyzed and possible causes for the discrepancies are proposed.

  9. Diffuse CO2 Degassing From Devils Kitchen, Mt. Hood, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, D.; Howle, J. F.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Research to quantify diffuse CO2 emissions from volcanoes is a useful component of a monitoring program as increases in diffuse CO2 emissions have been linked to volcanic unrest. The Devils Kitchen (DK) at Mt. Hood, OR is a > 5000 m2 area of steaming ground, located near the summit of the volcano at the terminus of Coalman glacier. Numerous small, sub-boiling gas vents are scattered across the area and soil temperatures at the interior are typically elevated above background. Much of the host rock has been hydrothermally altered to clay, creating a hard packed moist surface of low permeability. At present, there are no fumaroles at DK, however many large fumaroles vent from the nearby Steel Cliffs and Crater Rock. During August 2003, we constructed a grid of 75 sites at DK using 10-m spacing, covering ≈ 5,000 m2. CO2 fluxes were measured using the accumulation chamber method. Soil temperatures were measured at 10-cm depth adjacent to each flux site. Fluxes and temperatures ranged from less than 8 to over 11,000 g m-2 d-1 and 5 to 88° C, respectively. The average flux at DK was 190 g m-2 d-1. Applying this average across the sampled area yields total CO2 emissions of 0.9 +/- 0.1 t d-1. Based on our field mapping after a snowfall, we estimate at least 37,000 m2 of thermal ground is present on Mt. Hood. If the flux over these areas is similar to the flux at DK this would indicate diffuse CO2 emissions on Mt. Hood are about 7 t d-1. This estimate may be conservative as fluxes at several sites at the edge of a large area of steaming ground above Crater Rock were much greater than the maximum flux at DK. Compared to reports of total diffuse CO2 emissions on similar volcanoes, our estimate for Mt. Hood is low and may indicate that most of the CO2 is emitted from the fumaroles.

  10. Climbing Mt. Sharp: Maximizing Curiosity's Science Over Traversable Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    As Curiosity transitions from the plains of Gale Crater to the flanks of Mt. Sharp, the rover will begin to encounter material and terrains that could present greater mobility challenges. These challenges include the presence of significantly steeper slopes and large dunes that have the potential to embed the vehicle. Strategic path planning during this phase of the mission will therefore require carefully selecting a traversable route that is both time-efficient and that will provide access to the most scientifically rewarding targets. We consider possible solutions to this optimization problem by examining multiple orbital data sets in order to locate likely mobility hazards and to select potential science waypoints for future in situ investigation. High resolution HiRISE monochromatic images and digital elevation models show filled craters, rock fields, areas with slopes too steep for the rover to traverse, and other possible mobility obstacles on the northwest flank of Mt. Sharp. Using this context, we review accessibility to scientific targets on Mt. Sharp that have been previously discussed in landing site workshop presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Additionally, we identify new targets using detailed geologic maps combined with oversampled CRISM observations that provide mineralogical information at unprecedented high spatial resolutions (up to 6 m/pixel). For example, the spatially sharpened CRISM spectral data show a localized hematite deposit that is associated with the upper-most stratum of a ridge which is located ~3km from the rover's entry point to Mt. Sharp. This deposit may represent a previously habitable environment and is therefore a high priority target for in situ investigation. In order to study the hematite and also to eventually access the phyllosilicate-bearing trough that is located directly behind the ridge, Curiosity will have to cross this ridge, but the ridge edges are often defined by regions with slopes that are too steep

  11. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA in leucocytes harbouring the 3243A→G mtDNA mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Angela; Taylor, Robert W; Durham, Steve E; Deschauer, Marcus; Schaefer, Andrew M; Samuels, David C; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2007-01-01

    Background The 3243A→G MTTL1 mutation is the most common heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation associated with disease. Previous studies have shown that the percentage of mutated mtDNA decreases in blood as patients get older, but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Objectives and method To understand the dynamics of the process and the underlying mechanisms, an accurate fluorescent assay was established for 3243A→G heteroplasmy and the amount of mtDNA in blood with real‐time polymerase chain reaction was determined. The amount of mutated and wild‐type mtDNA was measured at two time points in 11 subjects. Results The percentage of mutated mtDNA decreases exponentially during life, and peripheral blood leucocytes in patients harbouring 3243A→G are profoundly depleted of mtDNA. Conclusions A similar decrease in mtDNA has been seen in other mitochondrial disorders, and in 3243A→G cell lines in culture, indicating that depletion of mtDNA may be a common secondary phenomenon in several mitochondrial diseases. Depletion of mtDNA is not always due to mutation of a nuclear gene involved in mtDNA maintenance. PMID:16950816

  12. High-spin yrast structure of {sup 159}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Ollier, J.; Simpson, J.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Aguilar, A.; Teal, C.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Petri, M.; Rigby, S. V.; Thomson, J.; Unsworth, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Darby, I. G.; Hartley, D. J.; Kondev, F. G.

    2011-08-15

    An investigation of the yrast structure of the odd-Z {sup 159}Ho nucleus to high spin has been performed. The {sup 159}Ho nucleus was populated by the reaction {sup 116}Cd({sup 48}Ca,p4n{gamma}) at a beam energy of 215 MeV, and resulting {gamma} decays were detected by the Gammasphere spectrometer. The h{sub 11/2} yrast band has been significantly extended up to I{sup {pi}=}75/2{sup -} (tentatively 79/2{sup -}). A lower frequency limit for the second (h{sub 11/2}){sup 2} proton alignment was extracted consistent with the systematics of this alignment frequency, indicating an increased deformation with neutron number in the Ho isotopes. The energy-level splitting between the signature partners in the h{sub 11/2} structures of the Ho isotopes and the neighboring N=92 isotones is discussed.

  13. Magnetic ordering in Ho2Fe2Si2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, R. A.; Cadogan, J. M.; Cobas, R.; Hutchison, W. D.; Avdeev, M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have used neutron diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, complemented by magnetisation and specific heat measurements, to examine the magnetic ordering of Ho2Fe2Si2C. We have established that Ho2Fe2Si2C orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 16(1) K with a magnetic structure involving ordering of the Ho sublattice along the b-axis with a propagation vector k =[0 0 1/2 ] . 57Fe Mössbauer spectra collected below TN show no evidence of a magnetic splitting, demonstrating the absence of long range magnetic ordering of the Fe sublattice. A small line broadening is observed in the 57Fe spectra below TN, which is due to a transferred hyperfine field—estimated to be around 0.3 T at 10 K—from the Ho sublattice.

  14. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Gorria, Pedro; Martínez-Blanco, David; Fuertes, Antonio B.; Fernández Barquín, Luis; Puente-Orench, Inés; Blanco, Jesús A.

    2016-02-01

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm-2, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40-50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size.

  15. Flashlamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Kokta, Milan R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A room temperature solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG host material doped with a concentration of about 0.35% Ho ions, about 5.57% Tm ions and at least about 1.01% Cr ions. A broadband energizing source such as a flashlamp is disposed transversely to the laser crystal to energize the Ho ions, Tm ions and Cr ions.

  16. Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

  17. Rotational Spectroscopic Studies and Observational Searches for HO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna

    Interstellar chemistry is largely driven by reactions of unstable molecules that serve as reaction intermediates in terrestrial chemistry. One such class of compounds are weakly-bound clusters. These clusters could form in interstellar environments through radiative association reactions, but their identification and characterization in interstellar environments is limited by a lack of rotational spectral information. One such species is HO3, which could be formed in the interstellar medium from O2 and OH. HO3 has been studied extensively in the infrared, and there are a few microwave spectral studies that have also been reported. However, no millimeter or submillimeter spectral information is available to guide astronomical observations. In this talk, we will present the laboratory characterization of trans -HO3 and trans -DO3 from 70 to 450 GHz using our newly developed fast sweeping technique. The molecular constants have been significantly refined, and additional higher order centrifugal distortion constants have been determined. We will also present an initial observational search for HO3 in 32 star forming regions. Although no HO3 lines have been detected thus far, strict upper limits can be placed on the HO3 column density in these sources based on this analysis. Additional Authors: Luyao Zou, Brian M. Hays.

  18. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  19. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. PMID:26725247

  20. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  1. Hypocentral Relocations of the 2008 Mt. Carmel, Illinois Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, K.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Horton, S. P.; Withers, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 18, 2008, a moderate sized earthquake (Mw 5.2, hypocentral depth of 16 km) occurred near the Indiana-Illinois state border within 3 km of the Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault at the northern termination of the Wabash Valley Fault System. A total of 257 aftershocks were recorded over the next month by a fourteen-station temporary network deployed by Indiana University and University of Memphis/Center of Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). The number of recorded aftershocks is greater than aftershocks recorded from previous earthquakes in the WVFS of similar magnitude within the last 50 years. The number and density of local stations allowed the generation of precise hypocentral relocations with the combination of waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral techniques. The relocated hypocenters indicate a well-defined near-vertical fault plane striking east-west. The fault orientation is consistent with the focal mechanism of the main shock and nearly orthogonal with respect to the trace of the neighboring Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault. The interpreted ruptured fault orientation suggests the aftershock sequence occurred on a transfer structure at the fault termination. The structure may be related to the change in deformation styles suggested by the transition from the northeast-trending WVFS to the northwest-trending La Salle anticlinorium.

  2. Geochemical characteristics of acid fluids in Mt Pinatubo, Philipines

    SciTech Connect

    Buenviaje, Marinela M.

    1991-01-01

    The surface geochemical characteristics of Mt Pinatubo indicate widespread deep acid fluids as shown by the following: presence of solfataras or sulfur-depositing fumaroles near or at the summit, and recent or active volcanism; discharge of mixed fluids with significant chloride at middle elevations; significant amounts of sulfate found in spring discharges at almost all levels (except at lowest levels or near sea level); springs with neutral pH and have high amounts of chloride and significant amounts of magnesium and boron; low Cl/Mg values accompanied by significant amounts of Mg observed at various elevations; higher proportions of gases, especially CO{sub 2} and significant N{sub 2}; widespread occurrence of iron hydroxide deposits at almost all elevations; and all springs discharge immature waters. A new mixing model is proposed, the Cl-B-Mg ternary diagram, to differentiate the effects on well and spring water chemistry of the following processes: seawater mixing, groundwater dilution and magmatic input. Seawater mixing is not indicated for Mt Pinatubo springs as shown by crossplots of chloride versus other chemical constituents and the Cl-B-Mg ternary diagram. Neutral alkali chloride waters are present in the area. This is supported by the chemical crossplots, and the Cl-B-Mg plots. In the Cl-B-Mg plot, springs that discharge low pH waters are shown to be manifestations of acid fluids that are localized within a shallow or deep fault zone.

  3. Barometric pressures at extreme altitudes on Mt. Everest: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    West, J B; Lahiri, S; Maret, K H; Peters, R M; Pizzo, C J

    1983-05-01

    Barometric pressures were measured on Mt. Everest from altitudes of 5,400 (base camp) to 8,848 m (summit) during the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest. Measurements at 5,400 m were made with a mercury barometer, and above this most of the pressures were obtained with an accurate crystal-sensor barometer. The mean daily pressures were 400.4 +/- 2.7 (SD) Torr (n = 35) at 5,400 m, 351.0 +/- 1.0 Torr (n = 16) at 6,300 m, 283.6 +/- 1.5 Torr (n = 6) at 8,050 m, and 253.0 Torr (n = 1) at 8,848 m. All these pressures are considerably higher than those predicted from the ICAO Standard Atmosphere. The chief reason is that pressures at altitudes between 2 and 16 km are latitude dependent, being higher near the equator because of the large mass of cold air in the stratosphere of that region. Data from weather balloons show that the pressure at the altitude of the summit of Mt. Everest varies considerably with season, being about 11.5 Torr higher in midsummer than in midwinter. Although the mountain has been climbed without supplementary O2, the very low O2 partial pressure at the summit means that it is at the limit of man's tolerance, and even day-by-day variations in barometric pressure apparently affect maximal O2 uptake. PMID:6863078

  4. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  5. Formation of superconducting junctions in MT-YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, T. A.; Gawalek, W.; Novikov, N. V.; Moshchil, V. E.; Sverdun, V. B.; Sergienko, N. V.; Surzhenko, A. B.; Uspenskaya, L. S.; Viznichenko, R.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Litzkendorf, D.; Habisreuther, T.; Krachunovska, S.; Vlasenko, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The formation of superconducting junctions between MT-YBCO using TmBa2Cu3O7-δ powder as a solder has been studied. The method proposed excludes the step of a very slow cooling (at a rate of several degrees per hour) during seam formation. The heating and cooling rate for joining parts produced from single-domain material without visible cracks (macrocracks) can be rather high (500-1000 K h-1) and a holding time at the highest temperature (1010 °C) of several minutes (0.05 h) is enough to form a reliable junction. Reasonable rates of heating and cooling are however around 100 K h-1 if crack propagation is to be avoided in joined blocks used for practical application. Modelling experiments on rings and studies of the ring properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field mapping with a Hall probe and magneto-optical microscopy have shown that superconducting properties of the junction were not lower than that of the joined material (jc of about 30 kA cm-2 was observed in zero field at 77 K) and that the proposed process of joining did not adversely affect the properties of the material. The structure of the resulting junction was in good agreement with the structure of MT-YBCO.

  6. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

  7. The setting of the Mt. Carmel caves reassessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio; Stringer, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Four caves on the SW flank of Mt. Carmel, es Skhul, el Wad, el Jaml and et Tabun, were first excavated in the 1930s by a team led by Dorothy Garrod. They yielded human remains whose age and evolutionary status remain controversial partly because the complexity of the cave deposits invites conflicting interpretations. The abrasion of artefacts and pebbles in el Wad and es Skhul, which was originally ascribed to spring flow within the caves, is explained here by wave action, with the implication that during part of the Middle Palaeolithic the caves were on the shoreline rather than being separated from it—as they now are—by several kilometres of coastal plain and a height difference of some 45 m. U-series, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating suggests that this occurred about 120,000 years ago, when sea level in the eastern Mediterranean stood 5-6 m above its present position. It follows that Mt. Carmel has subsequently undergone some 40 m of uplift. During the period of maximum submergence, the coastal route between Africa and the northern Mediterranean would have been partly blocked, but the loss of the coastal plain for transit and as a source of animal food was offset by easier access from the caves to marine resources.

  8. On Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    2011-05-01

    We give a brief overview of the Hořava-Lifshitz-gravity theory, its modifications and its implications in cosmology. In particular, we discuss the various issues on the gravitational scalar mode, including its decoupling, its role as inflaton and its stability. Our analysis shows that the scalar mode could decouple naturally at λ = 1 due to the extra gauge symmetry. On the other hand, the fact that the scalar mode becomes ghost when 1/3 < λ < 1 is a real challenge to the theory. We try to overcome this problem by modifying the action such that the RG flow lies outside the problematic region. We discuss the cosmological implications of the theory.

  9. Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

  10. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria. PMID:27418514

  11. Comparison of the Pulmonary Oxidative Stress Caused by Intratracheal Instillation and Inhalation of NiO Nanoparticles when Equivalent Amounts of NiO Are Retained in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masanori; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Izumi, Hiroto; Oyabu, Takako; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Okada, Takami; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kubo, Masaru; Shimada, Manabu; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles were administered to rat lungs via intratracheal instillation or inhalation. During pulmonary toxicity caused by NiO nanoparticles, the induction of oxidative stress is a major factor. Both intratracheal instillation and inhalation of NiO nanoparticles induced pulmonary oxidative stress. The oxidative stress response protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was induced by the administration of NiO nanoparticles at both the protein and gene expression level. Additionally, certain oxidative-stress markers in the lung, such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, thioredoxin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the lung was also increased by the administration of NiO nanoparticles. When the amount of NiO in the lung is similar, the responses against pulmonary oxidative stress of intratracheal instillation and inhalation are also similar. However, the state of pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase was different between intratracheal instillation and inhalation, even if the amount of NiO in the lung was similar. Inhalation causes milder oxidative stress than that caused by intratracheal instillation. On evaluation of the nanoparticle-induced pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase, we should understand the different states of oxidative stress induced by intratracheal instillation and inhalation. PMID:26797643

  12. Crystal-field excitations and magnetic properties of Ho{sup 3+} in HoVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Skanthakumar, S.; Loong, C.; Soderholm, L.; Abraham, M.M.; Boatner, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    The magnetic excitations in HoVO{sub 4} were studied by neutron scattering and susceptibility techniques. Well-defined transitions between the crystal-field-split states of the Ho{sup 3+} ions were observed at 15, 40, and 100 K. The magnetic spectra were analyzed using a single-ion crystal-field model which includes intermediate coupling of the LS states of Ho. A quantitative comparison of the observed energies and intensities with the model was made and used to refine the five crystal-field parameters needed to calculate the Ho ionic wave functions and other magnetic properties. The nonmagnetic {Gamma}{sub 1}-singlet ground state (containing about 90% pure {vert_bar}8,0{r_angle} component) of the Ho ions, in conjunction with the next higher doublet state situated at 2.5 meV, strongly influences the low-temperature magnetic behavior. The calculated magnetic susceptibility, which exhibits an easy plane coinciding with the crystallographic {ital a}-{ital b} plane at low temperatures, agrees very well with the experimental data obtained from single-crystal measurements. The magnetic properties of HoVO{sub 4} are contrasted with those of an isostructural compound HoPO{sub 4} which has a 98% pure {vert_bar}8,7{r_angle}-doublet ground state. The difference in the crystal-field-level structure between these two compounds is reflected in a sign change of the {ital B}{sub 0}{sup 2} crystal-field parameter. Despite the overall tetragonal crystal structure of HoVO{sub 4}, which predicts double degeneracy for each {Gamma}{sub 5} state, a small splitting in the first-excited doublet was clearly observed at low temperatures.

  13. A method for mutagenesis of mouse mtDNA and a resource of mouse mtDNA mutations for modeling human pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fayzulin, Rafik Z.; Perez, Michael; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Spadafora, Domenico; Wilson, Glenn L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause mitochondrial disease and have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes and aging. Yet our progress toward delineating the precise contributions of mtDNA mutations to these conditions is impeded by the limited availability of faithful transmitochondrial animal models. Here, we report a method for the isolation of mutations in mouse mtDNA and its implementation for the generation of a collection of over 150 cell lines suitable for the production of transmitochondrial mice. This method is based on the limited mutagenesis of mtDNA by proofreading-deficient DNA-polymerase γ followed by segregation of the resulting highly heteroplasmic mtDNA population by means of intracellular cloning. Among generated cell lines, we identify nine which carry mutations affecting the same amino acid or nucleotide positions as in human disease, including a mutation in the ND4 gene responsible for 70% of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathies (LHON). Similar to their human counterparts, cybrids carrying the homoplasmic mouse LHON mutation demonstrated reduced respiration, reduced ATP content and elevated production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). The generated resource of mouse mtDNA mutants will be useful both in modeling human mitochondrial disease and in understanding the mechanisms of ROS production mediated by mutations in mtDNA. PMID:25820427

  14. Overexpression of MtCAS31 enhances drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by reducing stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Xie, Can; Zhang, Rongxue; Qu, Yueting; Miao, Zhenyan; Zhang, Yunqin; Shen, Xiaoye; Wang, Tao; Dong, Jiangli

    2012-07-01

    • Dehydrins are a type of late embryogenesis abundant protein. Some dehydrins are involved in the response to various abiotic stresses. Accumulation of dehydrins enhances the drought, cold and salt tolerances of transgenic plants, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. MtCAS31 (Medicago Truncatula cold-acclimation specific protein 31) is a Y(2)K(4)-type dehydrin that was isolated from Medicago truncatula. • We analyzed the subcellular and histochemical localization of MtCAS31, and the expression patterns of MtCAS31 under different stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis that overexpressed MtCAS31 was used to determine the function of MtCAS31. A yeast two-hybrid assay was used to screen potential proteins that could interact with MtCAS31. The interaction was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. • After a 3-h drought treatment, the expression of MtCAS31 significantly increased 600-fold. MtCAS31 overexpression dramatically reduced stomatal density and markedly enhanced the drought tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. MtCAS31 could interact with AtICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) and the AtICE1 homologous protein Mt7g083900.1, which was identified from Medicago truncatula both in vitro and in vivo. • Our findings demonstrate that a dehydrin induces decreased stomatal density. Most importantly, the interaction of MtCAS31 with AtICE1 plays a role in stomatal development. We hypothesize that the interaction of MtCAS31 and AtICE1 caused the decrease in stomatal density to enhance the drought resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis. PMID:22510066

  15. Bonding in zerovalent Ni compounds - NiN2 and Ni(N2)4 compared with NiCO and Ni(CO)4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Barnes, Leslie A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations are carried out on NiN2, which may be considered a prototypical metal surface-ligand system. A large Gaussian basis set and an MCPF treatment of electron correlation are used. Consideration is also given to the 2Sigma(+) states of NiN2(-), NiCO(-), and NiN2(+), the low-lying 2Delta and 2Pi states of NiN2(+), and the 1A1 states of Ni(CO)4 and Ni(N2)4.

  16. Reaction of HO2 with O3 and the effect of water vapor on HO2 kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of temperature and water vapor concentration on the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2(O2) to the square root of the rate constant for the reaction HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 are determined. Photolysis of H2-O2-O3 mixtures at 253.7 nm was carried out with H2O pressures in the range 0 to 15 torr at a temperature range of -42.5 to 61 C along with 184.9 nm photolysis of H2O-O2-O3 mixtures. It is shown that the rate of O3 photolysis is suppressed by the addition of water vapor and it is suggested that this effect is realized in the HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2 reaction. The calculated expression for the temperature dependence of the rate constant ratio is found to be in good agreement with that calculated from separate rate constants. Rate constants determined for the reaction OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 are found to be higher than those previously determined, presumably due to increased pressure, indicating that atmospheric models should take into account the possible pressure dependences of the reactions considered.

  17. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  18. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  19. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  20. Type 1 Metallothionein (ZjMT) Is Responsible for Heavy Metal Tolerance in Ziziphus jujuba.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Song; Meng, Yu-Ping; Cao, Qiu-Fen; Yang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Fan; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Wu, Shu-Biao; Liu, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins that are able to make cells to uptake heavy metals from the environment. Molecular and functional characterization of this gene family improves understanding of the mechanisms underlying heavy metal tolerance in higher organisms. In this study, a cDNA clone, encoding 74-a.a. metallothionein type 1 protein (ZjMT), was isolated from the cDNA library of Ziziphus jujuba. At the N- and C-terminals of the deduced amino acid sequence of ZjMT, six cysteine residues were arranged in a CXCXXXCXCXXXCXC and CXCXXXCXCXXCXC structure, respectively, indicating that ZjMT is a type 1 MT. Quantitative PCR analysis of plants subjected to cadmium stress showed enhanced expression of ZjMT gene in Z. jujuba within 24 h upon Cd exposure. Escherichia coli cells expressing ZjMT exhibited enhanced metal tolerance and higher accumulation of metal ions compared with control cells. The results indicate that ZjMT contributes to the detoxification of metal ions and provides marked tolerance against metal stresses. Therefore, ZjMT may be a potential candidate for tolerance enhancement in vulnerable plants to heavy metal stress and E. coli cells containing the ZjMT gene may be applied to adsorb heavy metals in polluted wastewater. PMID:27301284

  1. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Targa, Adriano D S; Rodrigues, Lais S; Aurich, Mariana F; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  2. MT5-MMP, just a new APP processing proteinase in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Baranger, Kévin; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) membrane-type 5-MMP (MT5-MMP) as a new player in Alzheimer's pathogenesis, which displays pro-amyloidogenic features and proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Another group has reported that MT5-MMP processing of APP may release a novel neurotoxic APP fragment. Although MT5-MMP-mediated APP processing appears to be a key pathogenic step, we hypothesize that MT5-MMP may also contribute to AD pathogenesis through complementary mechanisms that involve the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and/or APP trafficking. PMID:27349644

  3. Distinguishing Features of Atmospheric River Storms Linked to Debris Flow Initiation on Mt. Hood, Oregon and Mt. Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrochers, J.; Nolin, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Strong eastern Pacific storms characterized by tropical-sourced moisture and heat are often referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and are associated with the triggering of debris flows in the Cascade Mountain Range, USA primarily in the fall season. These storms typically feature freezing levels above 3000 m and heavy precipitation that can saturate slopes and rapidly melt shallow early season snowpack. In a study of periglacial debris flows on Mt. Hood, Oregon and Mt. Rainier, Washington, this combination of factors is proposed to initiate slope failure and subsequent debris flows. However, not all ARs trigger debris flows and other storms not associated with ARs may also lead to debris flows. The presence of these non-triggering storms has led to the question: what features distinguish the storms that trigger debris flows, and do these conditions differ between ARs and other storms? ACARS soundings are used to develop temporally detailed information about freezing levels and storm structure. Supplemental data from the SNOTEL network and NWS WSR-88D radar sites allow for better delineation of storm features and their impact on the ground. Antecedent snowpack, atmospheric temperature profiles, precipitation, and oragraphic enhancement are examined for storms associated with debris flows and those that failed to trigger events to determine what characteristics best differentiate the storms from one another. Specific features within the triggering storms, such as the presence of temperature inversions, are also examined for links to the elevation and geomorphic character of these periglacial debris flow initiation sites.

  4. Early detection of eruptive dykes revealed by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on Mt. Etna and Mt. Nyiragongo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Komorowski, J. C.; de Michele, M.; Kasereka, M.; Ciraba, H.

    2006-06-01

    Flank-fissure eruptions involve lateral injection and propagation of magma in a volcanic edifice along pre-existing fractures in the direction of the rift zones where magma intrusion and lava flow production are concentrated over time. Thus, the identification and mapping of active fractures and faults is a fundamental aspect of studies of active volcanic systems. However, gradual dyke wedge emplacement at depth in well-fractured zones on volcano flanks and in volcanic rift zones does not necessarily trigger large amplitude deformation signals susceptible to be recorded months or even years before the actual eruption. Here we show that active and potentially eruptive areas can be detected up to 2 yrs before the arrival to the surface of the final eruptive dyke and venting of lava flows by processing satellite images applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) algorithm. A posteriori analysis of satellite images indeed reveals that the surficial effects of dyke wedge injection and ascent on plant growth were apparent for Mt. Etna from 2000 to 2002 and for Mt. Nyiragongo in 2001, thus months to years before they erupted.

  5. African human mtDNA phylogeography at-a-glance.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alexandra; Brehem, António

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic system has long proven to be useful for studying the demographic history of our species, since their proposed Southeast/East African origin 200 kya. Despite the weak archaeological and anthropologic records, which render a difficult understanding of early intra- continental migrations, the phylogenetic L0-L1'6 split at about 140-160 kya is thought to represent also an early sub-structuring of small and isolated communities in South and East Africa. Regional variation accumulated over the following millennia, with L2 and L3 lineages arising in Central and East Africa 100-75 kya. Their sub-Saharan dispersal not later than 60 kya, largely overwhelmed the L0'1 distribution, nowadays limited to South African Khoisan and Central African Pygmies. Cyclic expansions and retractions of the equatorial forest between 40 kya and the "Last Glacial Aridity Maximum" were able to reduce the genetic diversity of modern humans. Surviving regional-specific lineages have emerged from the Sahelian refuge areas, repopulating the region and contributing to the overall West African genetic similarity. Particular L1- L3 lineages mirror the substantial population growth made possible by moister and warmer conditions of the Sahara's Wet Phase and the adoption of agriculture and iron smelting techniques. The diffusion of the farming expertise from a Central African source towards South Africa was mediated by the Bantu people 3 kya. The strong impact of their gene flow almost erased the pre-existent maternal pool. Non-L mtDNAs testify for Eurasian lineages that have enriched the African maternal pool at different timeframes: i) Near and Middle Eastern influences in Upper Palaeolithic, probably link to the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages; ii) particular lineages from West Eurasia around or after the glacial period; iii) post-glacial mtDNA signatures from the Franco-Cantabrian refugia, that have crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and iv) Eurasian lineages

  6. Materials Data on HoNi (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-05-16

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on HoNi4B (SG:191) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on CaNiAsHO5 (SG:19) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on HoGaNi (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on HoNi5 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on HoNi3 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Is HO{sup 2 sub +} a detectable interstellar molecule?

    SciTech Connect

    Widicus Weaver, S. L.; Woon, D. E.; Ruscic, B.; McCall, B. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Illinois

    2009-05-20

    Although molecular oxygen, O{sub 2}, has long been thought to be present in interstellar environments, it has only been tentatively detected toward one molecular cloud. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} determined from these observations is well below that predicted by astrochemical models. Given the difficulty of O{sub 2} observations from ground-based telescopes, identification of a molecule that could be used as a tracer of O{sub 2} in interstellar environments would be quite useful. To this end, we have undertaken a collaborative examination of HO{sub 2}{sup +} in an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of its detection in interstellar clouds. We have conducted high-level ab initio calculations of its structure to obtain its molecular parameters. The reaction responsible for the formation of HO{sub 2}{sup +} is nearly thermoneutral, and so a careful analysis of its thermochemistry was also required. Using the Active Thermochemical Tables approach, we have determined the most accurate values available to date for the proton affinities of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and the enthalpy, Gibbs energy, and equilibrium constant for the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +} + O{sub 2} {yields} HO{sub 2}{sup +} + H{sub 2}. We find that while this reaction is endothermic by 50 {+-} 9 cm{sup -1} at 0 K, its equilibrium is shifted toward HO{sub 2}{sup +} at the higher temperatures of hot cores. We have examined the potential formation and destruction pathways for HO{sub 2}{sup +} in interstellar environments. Combining this information, we estimate the HO{sub 2}{sup +} column density in dense clouds to be {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}, which corresponds to line brightness temperatures of {le} 0.2 mK. If our results prove correct, HO{sub 2}{sup +} is clearly not a detectable interstellar molecule.

  13. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al203 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  14. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  15. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 Column Measurements From Mauna Loa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu(sub 1) band of SO2 have been identified in high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Phillipines. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm on July 9 has been retrieved based on nonlinear least- squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total column upper limit of 0.9 x 10(esp 16) molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  16. Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Mountain, J L; Hebert, J M; Bhattacharyya, S; Underhill, P A; Ottolenghi, C; Gadgil, M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1995-01-01

    The demographic history of India was examined by comparing mtDNA sequences obtained from members of three culturally divergent Indian subpopulations (endogamous caste groups). While an inferred tree revealed some clustering according to caste affiliation, there was no clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines. Comparison of pairwise nucleotide difference distributions, however, did indicate a difference in growth patterns between two of the castes. The Brahmin population appears to have undergone either a rapid expansion or steady growth. The low-ranking Mukri caste, however, may have either maintained a roughly constant population size or undergone multiple bottlenecks during that period. Comparison of the Indian sequences to those obtained from other populations, using a tree, revealed that the Indian sequences, along with all other non-African samples, form a starlike cluster. This cluster may represent a major expansion, possibly originating in southern Asia, taking place at some point after modern humans initially left Africa. PMID:7717409

  17. The Multi-Stage History of Mt. Sharp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C.; Dapremont, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5-km high central mound. We are investigating the history of alteration and erosion of Mt. Sharp using orbital imagery, spectroscopy and rover observations. Our results suggest a significant time gap between emplacement of the upper and lower sections of the mound. Crater counts show that the lower mound was formed soon after Gale itself, and that it contains distinct units ranging in altitude from approximately -4,500 to -1,800 m. Spectral data suggest that many units contain phyllosilicates. We found that these clay-bearing rocks occur in distinct layers concentrated below -2,900 m. Parts of the lower mound exhibit a transition from clays to sulfates with increasing altitude. The lower mound shows evidence of flowing water, including canyons and inverted channels. Wind erosion produced km-scale yardangs and scalloped cliffs. Our mapping shows that many yardangs in the lower mound are clay-bearing, with a predominant orientation of around N-S. Curiosity's ground-level images show myriad fine-scale, mainly horizontal layers in the lower mound. The rover has found stream beds and conglomerates, indicating that water once flowed on the crater floor. Drilling near the deepest point in Gale produced abundant clay, providing additional evidence of aqueous alteration. Upper mound units range in altitude from -2,100 m to +500 m, and mantle the lower mound above an angular unconformity. Most upper mound units are composed of layers. The formation age of the upper mound is unknown, since few craters are preserved. Clay-bearing layers are detectable in several locations, mainly at altitudes near -2,000 m. There is no evidence of water flow, but wind erosion has scalloped the surfaces and edges of layers, and fine-scale yardangs are common. Correlations between yardangs and clay spectra are apparent only in the lowermost units of the upper mound. Yardang orientations vary, and include N-S, NW-SE, and NE

  18. Dynamic evolution of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Dan N.; Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Godfrey Fitton, J.

    2014-05-01

    The growth and destruction of a volcanic edifice reflects dynamic processes that shape the Earth, including transport of mass and heat in a cooling planet versus the mechanical and chemical degradation of igneous material driving toward equilibrium. Central to understanding the nature of volcanoes are determinations of the rates of change in the volumes of these features. Through a quantitative temporal framework it is possible to elucidate the relative importance of competing processes that govern growth and destruction of volcanoes, e.g., magma production versus mass wasting. As the energetics of constructive and destructive processes are directly linked to the hazards that they pose to human populations and because volcanoes are stochastic systems, the only means of long-term forecast is via comprehensive understanding of volcanic history. Mount Cameroon is one of Africa's largest volcanoes and is currently the only active centre on the Cameroon line. The edifice is 4 km high with a volume of at least 1200 km3. Seventeen eruptions have been reported since 1800 and a time-averaged eruption volume of 6 x 106 m3/year is calculated from 7 eruptions over the past 91 years. Eight new Ar/Ar ages have been determined for basaltic rocks distributed across Mt. Cameroon; plateau ages are 4139±19 ka, 195±2 ka, 187±5 ka, 161±2 ka, 82±4, 68±3, 14±4 and 2±4 ka (1σ). The upper age from this set defines the oldest age yet measured for the Mt. Cameroon system. The data demonstrate activity through the mid to upper Pleistocene, continuing through to modern activity. Using recent estimates for basin-wide erosion of ca. 0.05 mm/a on a similar edifice (Kauai, Hawaii, Gayer et al 2008) and extrapolating over the Mt. Cameroon edifice yields an erosion rate of 5x104 m3/a, a factor of 30 times lower than the modern magma production rate. Considering these two fluxes implies that approximately 700 ka is required to construct an edifice of 1200 km3 (the current volume of Mt

  19. Cadmium-resistance mechanism in the bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Hussain

    2014-08-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to study Cd uptake, sorption, intracellular accumulation, metallothionein (MT) induction, and bioremediation potential of both isolates. According to this research work, Cd had a stimulatory effect on the growth of CH34 cells (OD578 = 1.43) compared with mt2 cells (OD578 = 0.8). Addition of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) along with Cd resulted in more cell growth in mt2 (OD578 = 0.71) compared with CH34 (OD578 = 0.34). DCCD and DNP inhibited this active uptake only in CH34 but not in mt2. Greater Cd interaction with the cell surface was observed in mt2 cells compared with CH34 cells. Intracellular Cd accumulation was interrupted by DCCD and DNP in CH34 (only 1.81 ± 0.04 μg L(-1) at 5 h) but not in mt2 (24.41 ± 0.01 μg L(-1) at 5 h). Intracellular Cd uptake was observed in even killed mt2 cells (7.11 ± 0.05 μg L(-1) at 5 h) compared with CH34 cells (2.50 ± 0.08 μg L(-1) at 5 h). This result showed that the Cd accumulation mechanism in CH34 is ATPase-dependent, whereas in mt2 uptake mechanism is not ATPase-dependent because mt2 ATPase was not inhibited by DCCD and DNP. CH34 removed 93 mg L(-1) of Cd after 8 days from original industrial effluent, which was more than Cd removal by CH34 from distilled water (i.e. 90 mg L(-1) after 8 days). mt2 was able to remove 80 mg L(-1) of Cd after 8 days from original industrial effluent, which was more than Cd removal by mt2 from distilled water (i.e. 77 mg L(-1) after 8 days). Cd did not induce any MT in CH34, but it did so in mt2 (14 kDa), which was thought to be a Cd-resistance mechanism operative in mt2. PMID:24595738

  20. Mitochondrial comparative genomics and phylogenetic signal assessment of mtDNA among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Maryam; Daubois, Laurence; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genes, such as cytochrome C oxidase genes (cox), have been widely used for barcoding in many groups of organisms, although this approach has been less powerful in the fungal kingdom due to the rapid evolution of their mt genomes. The use of mt genes in phylogenetic studies of Dikarya has been met with success, while early diverging fungal lineages remain less studied, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Advances in next-generation sequencing have substantially increased the number of publically available mtDNA sequences for the Glomeromycota. As a result, comparison of mtDNA across key AMF taxa can now be applied to assess the phylogenetic signal of individual mt coding genes, as well as concatenated subsets of coding genes. Here we show comparative analyses of publically available mt genomes of Glomeromycota, augmented with two mtDNA genomes that were newly sequenced for this study (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM240159 and Glomus aggregatum DAOM240163), resulting in 16 complete mtDNA datasets. R. irregularis isolate DAOM240159 and G. aggregatum isolate DAOM240163 showed mt genomes measuring 72,293bp and 69,505bp with G+C contents of 37.1% and 37.3%, respectively. We assessed the phylogenies inferred from single mt genes and complete sets of coding genes, which are referred to as "supergenes" (16 concatenated coding genes), using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests, in order to identify genes that best described AMF phylogeny. We found that rnl, nad5, cox1, and nad2 genes, as well as concatenated subset of these genes, provided phylogenies that were similar to the supergene set. This mitochondrial genomic analysis was also combined with principal coordinate and partitioning analyses, which helped to unravel certain evolutionary relationships in the Rhizophagus genus and for G. aggregatum within the Glomeromycota. We showed evidence to support the position of G. aggregatum within the R. irregularis 'species complex'. PMID:26868331

  1. MT1-MMP Inhibits the Activity of Bst-2 via Their Cytoplasmic Domains Dependent Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Long; Liu, Li; Zhu, Cuicui; Zhu, Qingyi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bst-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a type II membrane protein, and it acts as a tetherin to inhibit virion releasing from infectious cells. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a protease. It plays a pivotal role in cellular growth and migration by activating proMMP-2 into active MMP2. Our results here elaborate that MT1-MMP inhibits the tetherin activity of Bst-2 by interacting with Bst-2, and the cytoplasmic domains of both Bst-2 and MT1-MMP play critical roles within this interaction. Based on our experimental data, the assays for virion release and co-immunoprecipitation have clearly demonstrated that the activity of Bst-2 is markedly inhibited by MT1-MMP via their interaction; and both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are important in the interaction. Immunostaining and Confocal Microscopy assay shows that MT1-MMP interacts with Bst-2 to form granular particles trafficking into cytoplasm from membrane and, finally, results in Bst-2 and MT1-MMP both being inhibited. In addition, mutant experiments elucidate that the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 is not only important in relating to the activity of Bst-2 itself, but is important for inhibiting the MT1-MMP/proMMP2/MMP2 pathway. These findings suggest that MT1-MMP is a novel inhibitor of Bst-2 in MT1-MMP expressed cell lines and also indicate that both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are crucial in down-regulation. PMID:27240342

  2. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  3. Spine growth and seismogenic faulting at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Hirose, Takehiro; De Angelis, Silvio; Aulock, Felix W.; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The concluding episode of activity during the recent eruption of Mt. Unzen (October 1994 to February 1995) was characterized by incremental spine extrusion, accompanied by seismicity. Analysis of the seismic record reveals the occurrence of two dominant long-period event families associated with a repeating, nondestructive source mechanism, which we attribute to magma failure and fault-controlled ascent. We obtain constraints on the slip rate and distance of faulting events within these families. That analysis is complemented by an experimental thermomechanical investigation of fault friction in Mt. Unzen dacitic dome rock using a rotary-shear apparatus at variable slip rates and normal stresses. A power density threshold is found at 0.3 MW m-2, above which frictional melt forms and controls the shear resistance to slip, inducing a deviation from Byerlee's frictional law. Homogenized experimentally generated pseudotachylytes have a similar final chemistry, thickness, and crystal content, facilitating the construction of a rheological model for particle suspensions. This is compared to the viscosity constrained from the experimental data, to assess the viscous control on fault dynamics. The onset of frictional melt formation during spine growth is constrained to depths below 300 m for an average slip event. This combination of experimental data, viscosity modeling, and seismic analysis offers a new description of material response during conduit plug flow and spine growth, showing that volcanic pseudotachylyte may commonly form and modify fault friction during faulting of dome rock. This model furthers our understanding of faulting and seismicity during lava dome formation and is applicable to other eruption modes.

  4. The control of lava flows at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa

    Because of intense urbanization, many of the historic lava flows of Mt. Etna, fed by flank eruptions, have caused significant damage to cities, villages and lifelines. The fear of legal consequences for centuries has prevented any intervention on lava flows to reduce damage until 1983, when a lava flow was dangerously approaching a village and authorization was given. In 1983, for the first time in the world, an attempt was made to stop the flow front by diverting the lava out of its natural channel, through a breach opened by blasting the levee. The technique adopted proved very complex and thermally perturbed the lava causing overflows that prevented completion of the initial plan. Only a short partial diversion was obtained, but the desired result was however achieved as most of the lava outflowed, because of the obstruction of a nearby lava tube. The technique was improved in 1992 and a total diversion of the flow was obtained. The construction of oblique earthen barriers to divert the flows towards less damaging paths was successfully employed in 1983 and 2001. In 1992 a large earthen barrier, built orthogonally to the flow direction delayed the flow advance for nearly one month. A positive experience has been therefore acquired at Mt. Etna to protect settlements from lava flows, but some legal questions have not been yet fully solved. From the Civil Protection viewpoint, it is essential that volcanologists improve their capability of reliably assessing the distance that a lava flow may travel and whether the eruption will continue long enough for lava to reach sites of relevant socioeconomic interest.

  5. Lava flows during the continuing eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows advancing lava flows on the southern flank of Mt. Etna above the town of Nicolosi, which is potentially threatened if the eruption increases in magnitude. Also visible are glowing summit craters above the main lava flows, and a small fissure eruption. The bright puffy clouds were formed from water vapor released during the eruption. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km.

    The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils

  6. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species) was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species), construction (42 species), tools (31 species), food (29 species) and ceremonial use (19 species) ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a decline of the plant

  7. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species) was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species), construction (42 species), tools (31 species), food (29 species) and ceremonial use (19 species) ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a decline of the plant

  8. Nature of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled polycrystalline NiO-Co bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Yang, David X.; Chen, P. J.; Brown, H. J.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Egelhoff, W. F.

    2000-06-01

    The nature of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled NiO-Co polycrystalline bilayers was investigated. As-deposited bilayers exhibit a moderate value of exchange bias HE (=-0.9 mT) and a significantly enhanced coercivity (HNiO-Coc=12.4 mT), which is roughly 5 times the coercivity of a reference Co single film (HCoc=2.7 mT). Real time investigation of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled NiO-Co bilayers shows that reversal is highly local and nonuniform in nature. It is preceded by the formation of precursors or embryos of reversed domains as the applied field reaches a critical value ≅8.8-9.0 mT. Once this critical applied field value is reached, numerous reversed domains are formed. Growths of such reversed domains occur primarily by the abrupt nucleation and the subsequent coalescence together of reversed domains; wall motion is not the dominant growth mode. Clear evidence is presented which shows that the strength of exchange bias varies at the microscopic scale across the sample. This manifests itself as different microscopic regions switching abruptly at different fields, and a given microscopic area switching at different fields in the positive and negative field directions. When the applied field is along the unidirectional anisotropy, reversal of a given strongly coupled microscopic region is aided by exchange bias, and such a region switches first; the same region undergoes reversal last when the polarity of the applied field is changed to oppose unidirectional anisotropy. Significantly, it was found that, locally, the measured value of exchange bias may vary by a factor of 3 or more from the macroscopically measured value of HE (=-0.9 mT) obtained from the shift of the M-H loop. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that that the local variation in HE may be explained by considering the underlying microstructure and interfacial topography of the NiO-Co interface. HRTEM results show that the NiO surface parallel to the

  9. Nature of coupling and origin of coercivity in giant magnetoresistance NiO-Co-Cu-based spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Yang, David X.; Chen, P. J.; Parks, D. C.; Egelhoff, W. F.

    2000-04-01

    The effect of various couplings on the switching field and coercivity in NiO-Co-Cu-based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) bottom spin valves is investigated. Bottom spin valves as well as different layer permutations that make up a bottom spin valve, viz., Co single films, Co/Cu/Co trilayers, and Co/NiO bilayers (deposited under similar growth conditions), were investigated for their magnetic, crystal, and interfacial structure. As-deposited bottom spin valves exhibit a large GMR of ~16.5%, and a small net ferromagnetic coupling (+0.36 mT) between the ``free'' Co layer and the NiO-pinned Co layer. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on spin valves and trilayers show that the average grain size in these films is ~20 nm and average roughness ~ 0.3 nm. Using these values, the observed ferromagnetic coupling in spin valves could largely be accounted for by Néel's so-called ``orange-peel'' coupling. Results also show that the ``free'' Co layer exhibits an enhanced coercivity (HFree-Coc=6.7 mT) with respect to Co single films of comparable thickness (HCoc=2.7 mT). The TEM studies did not reveal the presence of any pin-holes, and ``orange-peel'' or oscillatory exchange coupling mechanisms cannot adequately account for this observed coercivity enhancement in the ``free'' Co layer of spin valves. The present study shows that the often observed and undesirable coercivity enhancement in the ``free'' Co layer results from magnetostatic coupling between domain walls in the ``free'' Co layer and high coercivity NiO-pinned Co layer (HPinned-Coc~45 mT); without NiO, the coercivity of Co layers in the corresponding Co/Cu/Co trilayer remains largely unchanged (HCo/Cu/Coc=3.0 mT) with respect to Co single films. Evidence of magnetostatically coupled domain walls was confirmed by direct observation of magnetization reversal, which revealed that domain walls in the ``free'' Co layer are magnetostatically

  10. MT4-(MMP17) and MT6-MMP (MMP25), A unique set of membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinases: properties and expression in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Anjum; Sun, Qing; Zhao, Huiren; Bernardo, M. Margarida; Cho, Jin-Ah

    2014-01-01

    The process of cancer progression involves the action of multiple proteolytic systems, among which the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role. The MMPs evolved to accomplish their proteolytic tasks in multiple cellular and tissue microenvironments including lipid rafts by incorporation and deletions of specific structural domains. The membrane type-MMPs (MT-MMPs) incorporated membrane anchoring domains that display these proteases at the cell surface, and thus they are optimal pericellular proteolytic machines. Two members of the MT-MMP subfamily, MMP-17 (MT4-MMP) and MMP-25 (MT6-MMP), are anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor, which confers these enzymes a unique set of regulatory and functional mechanisms that separates them from the rest of the MMP family. Discovered almost a decade ago, the body of work on GPI-MT-MMPs today is still surprisingly limited when compared to other MT-MMPs. However, new evidence shows that the GPI-MT-MMPs are highly expressed in human cancer, where they are associated with progression. Accumulating biochemical and functional evidence also highlights their distinct properties. In this review, we summarize the structural, biochemical, and biological properties of GPI-MT-MMPs and present an overview of their expression and role in cancer. We further discuss the potential implications of GPI-anchoring for enzyme function. Finally, we comment on the new scientific challenges that lie ahead to better understand the function and role in cancer of these intriguing but yet unique MMPs. PMID:18286233

  11. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Biogenesis: Visualization and Duel Incorporation of BrdU and EdU Into Newly Synthesized mtDNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Stephen I.; Edwards, James L.; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L.; Haines, Kristine M.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse–chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:207–218, 2010) PMID:19875847

  12. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis: visualization and duel incorporation of BrdU and EdU into newly synthesized mtDNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Stephen I; Edwards, James L; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L; Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L

    2010-02-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19875847

  13. Increased negative supercoiling of mtDNA in TOP1mt knockout mice and presence of topoisomerases IIα and IIβ in vertebrate mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Khiati, Salim; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerases are critical for replication, DNA packing and repair, as well as for transcription by allowing changes in DNA topology. Cellular DNA is present both in nuclei and mitochondria, and mitochondrial topoisomerase I (Top1mt) is the only DNA topoisomerase specific for mitochondria in vertebrates. Here, we report in detail the generation of TOP1mt knockout mice, and demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displays increased negative supercoiling in TOP1mt knockout cells and murine tissues. This finding suggested imbalanced topoisomerase activity in the absence of Top1mt and the activity of other topoisomerases in mitochondria. Accordingly, we found that both Top2α and Top2β are present and active in mouse and human mitochondria. The presence of Top2α-DNA complexes in the mtDNA D-loop region, at the sites where both ends of 7S DNA are positioned, suggests a structural role for Top2 in addition to its classical topoisomerase activities. PMID:24803675

  14. Powder Neutron Diffraction Study of HoCoGa5

    SciTech Connect

    Kabayashi, Riki; Kaneko, Koji; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Chi, Songxue; Sanada, Naoyuki; Watanuki, Ryuta; Suzuki, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    We have studied successive magnetic transitions of HoCoGa5 at TN1 = 9.6 K and TN2 = 7.5 K by using powder neutron diffraction. Apparent superlattice peaks were observed at temperatures below TN1. With further decreases temperature, the patterns exhibit a substantial change at temperatures below TN2. The observed magnetic peaks at 8 K (AntiFerromagnetic InCommensurate (AFIC) phase : TN2 < T < TN1) can be represented by the propagation vector qL = (1/2 0 ) with = 0.35(2). In contrast, the magnetic structure becomes commensurate with qC = (1/2 0 1/2) at 4 K (AntiFerromagnetic Commensurate (AFC) phase : T < TN2). The temperature dependence of magnetic intensity shows an apparent temperature hysteresis at TN2, indicates a first-order transition at TN2. Analysis of the integrated intensity at 4 K reveals that the Ho moment with a size of 8.6(2) B, oriented parallel to the c-axis in the AFC phase. While the successive transitions of HoCoGa5 are different from those of TbCoGa5, the magnetic structure in the AFC phase of HoCoGa5 is the same as the AFTb I of TbCoGa5, and may indicate an additional transition at a lower temperature in HoCoGa5.

  15. Infrared spectra of products of the reaction of H atoms with O2 trapped in solid neon: HO2, HO2(+), HOHOH(-), and H2O(HO).

    PubMed

    Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E

    2013-10-01

    When a Ne/O2 mixture is codeposited at 4.3 K with a Ne/H2 mixture that has been passed through a microwave discharge, the infrared spectrum of the resulting deposit includes prominent absorptions of the three vibrational fundamentals of HO2 and seven relatively weak absorptions in the infrared and near-infrared, only one of them previously reported, that can be assigned to overtones and combination bands of that product. Similar assignments are made for DO2. A new, broad absorption at 702.9 cm(-1) appears close to the gas-phase absorption of HOHOH(-) at 697 cm(-1). Isotopic substitution experiments support that assignment. Evidence is also presented for the stabilization of HOHO(-). Absorptions near the vibrational fundamentals of H2O and an absorption at 3472.4 cm(-1) grow on exposure of the deposit to radiation of wavelength shorter than 345 nm. These absorptions are assigned to the H2O(HO) complex, in agreement with the results of an earlier argon-matrix study. In both studies, photodestruction of HO2 molecules that have H2O trapped in a nearby site results in formation of the complex. Because the discharge through Ne/H2 supports ion production, photodetachment of the resulting HOHOH(-) is an additional source of the complex. Other absorptions may be contributed by the bending fundamental of HO2(+) and by a cation complex with H2. PMID:23215001

  16. Organization of amplified metallothionein (MT) genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, C.; Grady, D.; Meincke, L.; Clark, L.; Qui, X.; Fehrenbach, S.; Brown, N.; Jones, M.; Longmire, J.; Moyzis, R.

    1987-05-01

    In the parental, cadmium-sensitive, CHO cells, two MT genes (MT-I and II) have been cloned and shown to encompass approx.9 Kb of DNA. Both genes demonstrate the canonical intron-exon organization observed for other mammalian MT genes. Chromosome walking has been employed to study the organization of the MT genes in amplified cell lines. Using DNA from a highly-amplified cell line, Cd/sup r/ 200 T1, a genomic library was constructed in lambda Ch35 by standard procedures. Recombinants containing sequences complementary to a MT-II cDNA probe were isolated and characterized. Restriction enzyme analyses of these recombinants have extended the map of the MT-I and II gene region to encompass approx.35 Kb of DNA and indicate stability of the amplified genome over this region. A single SacII restriction site has been identified at the extreme 3' end of the cloned region. Since SacII is an infrequently-cutting restriction enzyme, accelerated long-range restriction mapping of the amplified MT gene region will be possible by combining chromosome walking in the MT gene region with large fragment separation using field-in-version gel electrophoresis.

  17. 77 FR 38226 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lewistown, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Lewistown Municipal Airport, Lewistown, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Lewistown Municipal Airport, Lewistown, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at......

  18. Fungi of Mt. Babia Gora. 2: Indicative value of macromycetes in forest associations. A: Initial considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujakiewicz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The role and value of fungi in forest associations of Mt. Babia Gora massif were determined. The general physiographic characteristics of the research terrain, the distribution of the fungi sites, a list of the 618 taxons noted in the subalpine forests of Mt. Babia Gora, and the initial characteristics of the forest mycoflora of this massif are presented.

  19. Hypervariable Region Polymorphism of mtDNA of Recurrent Oral Ulceration in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Ying; Wu, Dan; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Yuanming

    2012-01-01

    Background MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU. Methodology/Principal Findings MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity. PMID:23028959

  20. Ethidium bromide as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Anna Maria; Fusi, Paola; Pastori, Valentina; Amicarelli, Giulia; Pozzi, Chiara; Adlerstein, Daniel; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in tumor cells was found to play an important role in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Using laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) in a recent work, we reported a variable fluorescence intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in mitochondria nucleoids of living carcinoma cells. Since when EB is bound to nucleic acids its fluorescence is intensified; a higher EB fluorescence intensity could reflect a higher DNA accessibility to EB, suggesting a higher mtDNA replication activity. To prove this hypothesis, in the present work we studied, by LSCFM, the EB fluorescence in mitochondria nucleoids of living neuroblastoma cells, a model system in which differentiation affects the level of mtDNA replication. A drastic decrease of fluorescence was observed after differentiation. To correlate EB fluorescence intensity to the mtDNA replication state, we evaluated the mtDNA nascent strands content by ligation-mediated real-time PCR, and we found a halved amount of replicating mtDNA molecules in differentiating cells. A similar result was obtained by BrdU incorporation. These results indicate that the low EB fluorescence of nucleoids in differentiated cells is correlated to a low content of replicating mtDNA, suggesting that EB may be used as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells.

  1. 75 FR 38129 - TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, OH; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., applicable to workers of TRW Automotive, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57340). At the request of the State agency, the Department... Employment and Training Administration TRW Automotive, Kelsey-Hayes Company, NABS Division, Mt. Vernon,...

  2. A Retrospective Study of Mt. San Antonio College Learning Assistance Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Barbara Ann

    A study was conducted at California's Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) to determine whether remedial classes had assisted students in reaching their educational goals. The study sample included all students (N=425) enrolled in Fall 1980 Learning Assistance classes which included: Reading Skills Review, Writing Skills Review, or Math Skills…

  3. The expression characteristics of mt-ND2 gene in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p < 0.05) and hepatic tissues (p < 0.05) at 42 d-old were affected by the type of dietary fats in 5% level, while not in abdominal fat tissues. The expression of mt-ND2 in hepatic tissues was down-regulated with chicken age (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of dietary fat types with chicken age (p < 0.05) was significant on mt-ND2 mRNA level. The study demonstrated that mt-ND2 gene was extensively expressed in tissues, and the expression was affected by dietary fat types and chicken age. PMID:26332376

  4. Heteroplasmy of Mouse mtDNA Is Genetically Unstable and Results in Altered Behavior and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; McManus, Meagan; Crimi, Marco; Waymire, Katrina; Lin, Chun Shi; Masubuchi, Satoru; Friend, Nicole; Koike, Maya; Chalkia, Dimitra; MacGregor, Grant; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Maternal inheritance of mtDNA is the rule in most animals, but the reasons for this pattern remain unclear. To investigate the consequence of overriding uniparental inheritance, we generated mice containing an admixture (heteroplasmy) of NZB and 129S6 mtDNAs in the presence of a congenic C57BL/6J nuclear background. Analysis of the segregation of the two mtDNAs across subsequent maternal generations revealed that proportion of NZB mtDNA was preferentially reduced. Ultimately, this segregation process produced NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice and their NZB or 129 mtDNA homo-plasmic counterparts. Phenotypic comparison of these three mtDNA lines demonstrated that the NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice, but neither homoplasmic counterpart, had reduced activity, food intake, respiratory exchange ratio; accentuated stress response; and cognitive impairment. Therefore, admixture of two normal but different mouse mtDNAs can be genetically unstable and can produce adverse physiological effects, factors that may explain the advantage of uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. PMID:23063123

  5. The melatonin-MT1 receptor axis modulates mutant huntingtin-mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Sirianni, Ana; Pei, Zhijuan; Cormier, Kerry; Smith, Karen; Jiang, Jiying; Zhou, Shuanhu; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Rong; Yano, Hiroko; Kim, Jeong Eun; Li, Wei; Kristal, Bruce S.; Ferrante, Robert J.; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin mediates neuroprotection in several experimental models of neurodegeneration. It is not yet known, however, whether melatonin provides neuroprotection in genetic models of Huntington’s disease (HD). We report that melatonin delays disease onset and mortality in a transgenic mouse model of HD. Moreover, mutant huntingtin (htt)-mediated toxicity in cells, mice, and humans is associated with loss of the type 1 melatonin receptor (MT1). We observe high levels of MT1 receptor in mitochondria from the brains of wild-type mice but much less in brains from HD mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that melatonin inhibits mutant htt-induced caspase activation and preserves MT1 receptor expression. This observation is critical, since melatonin-mediated protection is dependent upon the presence and activation of the MT1 receptor. In summary, we delineate a pathologic process whereby mutant htt-induced loss of the mitochondrial MT1 receptor enhances neuronal vulnerability and potentially accelerates the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21994366

  6. The Use of Mitochondria-Targeted Endonucleases to Manipulate mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Bacman, Sandra R.; Williams, Sion L.; Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, mitochondria-targeted nucleases have been used to promote double-strand breaks in the mitochondrial genome. This was done in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homoplasmic systems, where all mtDNA molecules can be affected, to create models of mitochondrial deficiencies. Alternatively, they were also used in a heteroplasmic model, where only a subset of the mtDNA molecules were substrates for cleavage. The latter approach showed that mitochondrial-targeted nucleases can reduce mtDNA haplotype loads in affected tissues, with clear implications for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial diseases. In the last few years, designer nucleases, such as ZFN and TALEN, have been adapted to cleave mtDNA, greatly expanding the potential therapeutic use. This chapter describes the techniques and approaches used to test these designer enzymes. PMID:25416366

  7. RABGTPases in MT1-MMP trafficking and cell invasion: Physiology versus pathology

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Stefan; Scita, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP is a central regulator of cell invasion in both physiological and pathological settings, such as tissue surveillance by immune cells and cancer cell metastasis. MT1-MMP cleaves a plethora of intra- and extracellular proteins, including extracellular matrix proteins, matrix receptors, and also other MMPs, and thus enables modification of both the cell surface proteome and the pericellular environment. Despite its importance for cell invasion, the pathways regulating MT1-MMP exposure on the cell surface are largely unknown. Recently, our groups discovered that a specific subset of RABGTPases, most notably RAB5a, is critical for MT1-MMP trafficking in primary human macrophages and carcinoma cells. Here, we discuss and contrast our findings for both cell types, pointing out common features and differences in the RABGTPase-dependent trafficking of MT1-MMP in health and disease. PMID:26107110

  8. Low frequency magneto-impedance effects in electrode-posited multilayer [Ni80Fe20/Cu]3 on Cu-wire substrates with different sample geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, B. Anggit; Nahrun, Ahmad Asrori; Nuryani, Purnama, Budi

    2016-02-01

    Magneto-impedance (MI) multilayer [Ni80Fe20 (800 nm)/Cu (300 nm)]3 in Cu wire has been modified in its geometric shapes. The Multilayer is the result of electro-deposition with Pt (platinum) as the electrode. This study shows that the MI ratio changes to the geometry of the sample. The geometry modification increases the MI ratio of 54.35% (wire shape) amounted to 70.53% (solenoid shape); it is measured at a frequency of 100 kHz. The modification also increase the sensitivity sensor magnetic from 9.05%/mT to 12.82%/mT.

  9. Seasonal and long-term rainfall and cloud dynamics in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region as observed from local and remote sensing time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Nauss, Thomas; Appelhans, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The melting glaciers of Mt. Kilimanjaro have become a synonym for global change. In contrast, the non-glaciated areas receive much less public attention. Aside from a brief examination of air-temperature, in-situ rainfall and remotely sensed cloud dynamics are analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term climate trends in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region in this study. The in-situ air-temperature is based on NOAA'S GSOD datasets, the in-situ rainfall data is obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. Both datasets span from 1973 to 2013. Rainfall data was obtained from two in-situ stations at Moshi and Kilimanjaro Airport, both situated in the Kilimanjaro area, which were considered to be representative at least for the greater region after correlation analysis with in-situ station data from the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. While a temperature increase of about 0.29 K per decade can be identified, no long-term rainfall trends are observable. However, humid and dry decades are evident with so called "short" (with a peak around December) and "long" (March to May) rains. Seasonality has changed especially during the long rains between March and May. As rainfall and cloud cover were analyzed with respect of the status of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) some seasonal dynamics could be linked to these large-scale drivers. Characteristic seasonal patterns related to ENSO and IOD teleconnections show enhanced rainfall in the onset year and in the post-ENSO year for most El Niño events. During La Niña years, rainfall increases in the following year, while for the onset year scenarios must be regarded differentiated. Positive IOD events lead to enhanced rainfall amounts, highlighting the importance of IOD events in modifying ENSO related rainfall dynamics in the Kilimanjaro area Additionally, cloud dynamics have been analyzed using daily Aqua-MODIS cloud products between 2002 and 2013. In contrast to the rainfall dynamics, cloud

  10. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang . E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping

    2006-09-22

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL.

  11. Characterization of the Dimerization Interface of Membrane Type 4 (MT4)-Matrix Metalloproteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Anjum; Marco, Marta; Zhao, Huiren; Shi, Qicun; Merriman, Scott; Mobashery, Shahriar; Fridman, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    MT4-MMP (MMP17) belongs to a unique subset of membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases that are anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol moiety. However, little is known about its biochemical properties. Here, we report that MT4-MMP is displayed on the cell surface as a mixed population of monomeric, dimeric, and oligomeric forms. Sucrose gradient fractionation demonstrated that these forms of MT4-MMP are all present in lipid rafts. Mutational and computational analyses revealed that Cys564, which is present within the stem region, mediates MT4-MMP homodimerization by forming a disulfide bond. Substitution of Cys564 results in a more rapid MT4-MMP turnover, when compared with the wild-type enzyme, consistent with a role for dimerization in protein stability. Expression of MT4-MMP in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells enhanced cell migration and invasion of Matrigel, a process that requires catalytic activity. However, a serine substitution at Cys564 did not reduce MT4-MMP-stimulated cell invasion of Matrigel suggesting that homodimerization is not required for this process. Deglycosylation studies showed that MT4-MMP is modified by N-glycosylation. Moreover, inhibition of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin diminished the extent of MT4-MMP dimerization suggesting that N-glycans may confer stability to the dimeric form. Taken together, the data presented here provide a new insight into the characteristics of MT4-MMP and highlight the common and distinct properties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases. PMID:21828052

  12. Evaluation of next generation mtGenome sequencing using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM).

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Strobl, Christina; Huber, Gabriela; Zimmermann, Bettina; Gomes, Sibylle M; Souto, Luis; Fendt, Liane; Delport, Rhena; Langit, Reina; Wootton, Sharon; Lagacé, Robert; Irwin, Jodi

    2013-09-01

    Insights into the human mitochondrial phylogeny have been primarily achieved by sequencing full mitochondrial genomes (mtGenomes). In forensic genetics (partial) mtGenome information can be used to assign haplotypes to their phylogenetic backgrounds, which may, in turn, have characteristic geographic distributions that would offer useful information in a forensic case. In addition and perhaps even more relevant in the forensic context, haplogroup-specific patterns of mutations form the basis for quality control of mtDNA sequences. The current method for establishing (partial) mtDNA haplotypes is Sanger-type sequencing (STS), which is laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With the emergence of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, the body of available mtDNA data can potentially be extended much more quickly and cost-efficiently. Customized chemistries, laboratory workflows and data analysis packages could support the community and increase the utility of mtDNA analysis in forensics. We have evaluated the performance of mtGenome sequencing using the Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and compared the resulting haplotypes directly with conventional Sanger-type sequencing. A total of 64mtGenomes (>1 million bases) were established that yielded high concordance with the corresponding STS haplotypes (<0.02% differences). About two-thirds of the differences were observed in or around homopolymeric sequence stretches. In addition, the sequence alignment algorithm employed to align NGS reads played a significant role in the analysis of the data and the resulting mtDNA haplotypes. Further development of alignment software would be desirable to facilitate the application of NGS in mtDNA forensic genetics. PMID:23948325

  13. Visualization of 2-μm radiation by BiF3:Ho3+ and BiF3:Ho3+/Yb3+ ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikin, A. P.; Egorov, A. S.; Budruev, A. V.; Grishin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    A series of ceramic samples of the compositions BiF3:1%Ho3+, BiF3:4%Ho3+, BiF3:1%Ho3+ + 1%Yb3+, and BiF3:1%Ho3+ + 3%Yb3+ is synthesized and the conversion of Tm:YLF laser radiation (λ = 1908 nm) is studied. The luminescence spectra exhibit bands in the regions of 490, 545, and 650 nm. The kinetic measurements of the afterglow of the green and red bands show that the population of the 5 S 2 and 5 F 4 states in the BiF3:1%Ho3+ samples occurs due to successive absorption of excitation photons, while the 5 F 5 level of Ho3+ is populated due to the ion-ion interaction. Codoping with Yb3+ leads to a decrease in the visualization threshold power density to 2 W/cm2.

  14. Proton Radioactivity Measurements at HRIBF: Ho, Lu, and Tm Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Davinson, T.; Ginter, T.N.; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J.H.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Kim, S.H.; MacDonald, B.D.; Mas, J.F.; McConnell, J.W.; Piechaczek, A.; Ressler, J.J.; Rykaczewski, K.; Slinger, R.C.; Szerypo, J.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1998-11-13

    Two new isotopes, {sup 145}Tm and {sup 140}Ho and three isomers in previously known isotopes, {sup 141m}Ho, {sup 150m}Lu and {sup 151m}Lu have been discovered and studied via their decay by proton emission. These proton emitters were produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) by heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions, separated in A/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer (RMS), and detected in a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). The decay energy and half-life was measured for each new emitter. An analysis in terms of a spherical shell model is applied to the Tm and Lu nuclei, but Ho is considerably deformed and requires a collective model interpretation.

  15. Spectroscopy of {sup 144}Ho using recoil-isomer tagging

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, P. J. R; Cullen, D. M.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Puurunen, A.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sorri, J.; Saren, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Xu, F. R.

    2010-02-15

    Excited states in the proton-unbound odd-odd nucleus {sup 144}Ho have been populated using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,pn){sup 144}Ho reaction and studied using the recoil-isomer-tagging technique. The alignment properties and signature splitting of the rotational band above the I{sup p}i=(8{sup +}){sup 144m}Ho isomer have been analyzed and the isomer confirmed to have a pih{sub 11/2} x nuh{sub 11/2} two-quasiparticle configuration. The configuration-constrained blocking method has been used to calculate the shapes of the ground and isomeric states, which are both predicted to have triaxial nuclear shapes with |gamma|approx =24 deg.

  16. Deep-level magma ascent rates at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Perinelli, C.; Putirka, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-level ascent rates are related to the triggering mechanisms of volcanic eruptions. Recent models and experimental studies have focused on the very shallow parts of magma plumbing systems, mostly the upper few km, and have thus far emphasized that volatile contents and volatile exsolution, are key to understanding eruption dynamics and its fingerprint in the rock texture. Massive volatile loss induces a dramatic change in the liquidus temperature, thus producing observable effects on the rates of nucleation and growth of minerals . Volatile saturation, however, may well occur at greater depths, which means that initial stages of magma ascent may be triggered by events taking place at much greater depths than those recorded by melt inclusions, likely captured at shallow levels. We present a method to evaluate ascent rates deep in a volcano plumbing system, discussing the implications for magma dehydration and using Mt. Etna as case a study. We investigate the deeper levels of magma transport by presenting detailed P-T paths for Etnean magmas, and combining these with Crystal Size Distribution (CSD)-derived cooling rates. The key to this analysis is the recognition that the slope of a P-T path, as determined from mineral-melt thermobarometry, is a result of magma cooling rate, which is in turn a function of magma ascent via the effect of pressure on volatile solubility. We also rely on a thermodynamic treatment of exsolution of non-ideal H2O-CO2 mixtures, based on the Kerric & Jacobs (1981) model, and the simplified solubility model of CO2 (Spera & Bergman, 1980) and H2O (Nicholls, 1980), recalibrated with experimental and melt inclusions data from Mt. Etna. Our modeling is able to decipher magma ascent velocity, v (dH/dt; H = depth, t = time), from ascent rate (dP/dt), and rate of cooling (dT/dt), where ρ is magma density, P is pressure, T is temperature and g is the acceleration of gravity. This equation for v provides a key to investigating the relationships

  17. HO(x) Measurements in PEM Tropics B with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of PEM Tropics B was to study the processes responsible for the production and loss of tropospheric ozone over the tropical Pacific. This region of the globe contains very clean air as well as aged, polluted air that was advected from both the Asian and American continents. Understanding ozone requires understanding of HO(x) (HO(x) = OH + HO2) chemistry, since the reaction between H02 and NO leads to ozone production and the production of OH often requires ozone loss. In addition, OH is the atmosphere's primary oxidant. Since most atmospheric oxidation is thought to occur in the tropical lower troposphere, measurements during PEM Tropics B should provide an important test of the OH abundances and distributions. Thus, understanding and thoroughly testing HO(x) processes was an important objective of PEM Tropics B. Several issues need to be tested, One is HO, production rates and sources, since HO,, production directly affects ozone production and loss. Another is HO(x) behavior in and around clouds, since HO(x) is lost to cloud particles, but convection may bring HO(x) precursors from near the surface to the upper troposphere. A third is the rise and fall of HO(x) at sunrise and sunset, since these variations give strong indications of the important sources and sinks of HO(x). Making and interpreting high-quality OH and H02 measurements from the NASA DC-8 during PEM Tropics B is the objective of this research effort.

  18. Lattice effects in HoVo 3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M. R.; Nugroho, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2007-09-01

    We report the study of lattice effects in the Mott insulator HoVO 3 performed by means of linear thermal expansion on a single crystal in the temperature range 10-290 K. The holmium orthovanadate HoVO 3 reveals gradual orbital ordering (OO) below TOO=200 K and orders antiferromagnetically at TN=113 K. A first-order structural phase transition takes place at TS˜38 K, which is probably accompanied by change of the OO type and hence the type of antiferromagnetic spin ordering.

  19. Development of forensic-quality full mtGenome haplotypes: success rates with low template specimens.

    PubMed

    Just, Rebecca S; Scheible, Melissa K; Fast, Spence A; Sturk-Andreaggi, Kimberly; Higginbotham, Jennifer L; Lyons, Elizabeth A; Bush, Jocelyn M; Peck, Michelle A; Ring, Joseph D; Diegoli, Toni M; Röck, Alexander W; Huber, Gabriela E; Nagl, Simone; Strobl, Christina; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther; Irwin, Jodi A

    2014-05-01

    Forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing requires appropriate, high quality reference population data for estimating the rarity of questioned haplotypes and, in turn, the strength of the mtDNA evidence. Available reference databases (SWGDAM, EMPOP) currently include information from the mtDNA control region; however, novel methods that quickly and easily recover mtDNA coding region data are becoming increasingly available. Though these assays promise to both facilitate the acquisition of mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data and maximize the general utility of mtDNA testing in forensics, the appropriate reference data and database tools required for their routine application in forensic casework are lacking. To address this deficiency, we have undertaken an effort to: (1) increase the large-scale availability of high-quality entire mtGenome reference population data, and (2) improve the information technology infrastructure required to access/search mtGenome data and employ them in forensic casework. Here, we describe the application of a data generation and analysis workflow to the development of more than 400 complete, forensic-quality mtGenomes from low DNA quantity blood serum specimens as part of a U.S. National Institute of Justice funded reference population databasing initiative. We discuss the minor modifications made to a published mtGenome Sanger sequencing protocol to maintain a high rate of throughput while minimizing manual reprocessing with these low template samples. The successful use of this semi-automated strategy on forensic-like samples provides practical insight into the feasibility of producing complete mtGenome data in a routine casework environment, and demonstrates that large (>2kb) mtDNA fragments can regularly be recovered from high quality but very low DNA quantity specimens. Further, the detailed empirical data we provide on the amplification success rates across a range of DNA input quantities will be useful moving forward as PCR

  20. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Snider, T N; Wimer, H F; Yamada, S S; Yang, T; Holmbeck, K; Foster, B L

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP(-/-)) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  1. Electronic transitions of Ho in Pb2Sr2HoCu3O8 observed by inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderholm, L.; Loong, C.-K.; Xue, J. S.; Hammonds, J. P.; Greedan, J. E.; Maric, M.

    1993-05-01

    The electronic behavior of the 5I8 Russell Saunders ground multiplet of Ho3+ in Pb2Sr2HoCu3O8 has been investigated using inelastic neutron scattering. We observe ten peaks in the excitation spectra that are associated with crystal field transitions. The peaks are only slightly broader than expected from instrument resolution, indicating that there are no strong interactions between the local Ho f states and the CuO conduction states. Comparing the energies and intensities of the experimental peaks with those expected from modeling convinces us that there are at least three states populated at the temperature of our experiment (15 K), making the assignments of transitions very difficult in the absence of further data.

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanocomposites synthesized by one step solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshchandra Prabhu, V.; Shajira, P. S.; Lakshmi, N.; Junaid Bushiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/NiO nanocomposites were synthesized using solution combustion method and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (CHN) analyser. The Ni or NiO content in Ni/NiO nanocomposites vary with the quantity of HNO3 used for the synthesis. Magnetic coercivity (Hc) of Ni/NiO nanocomposites is found to be 413 Oe which can be used in magnetic applications. A feeble exchange bias of 7 Oe is seen from the NiO rich Ni/NiO.

  3. Radiology in forensic identification: the Mt Erebus disaster.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C J; Foote, G A

    1998-11-01

    Although radiology has exceptional discriminatory power in the identification of individuals, it is not often used for this purpose. This under-utilization stems in part from insufficient appreciation of its potential, and in part from a lack of agreed operational protocols. Descriptions of criteria used for radiological identification are scattered in individual reports and have not been collated. The circumstances in which identification is required are various and pose different problems for which guidelines have not been established. The areas in which radiology has a high capacity for identification of age, sex or identity are reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed. A survey of the literature identified three different circumstances in which cadaver identification is needed, and a protocol is suggested to meet the differing requirements of these three situations. The use of these protocols and techniques in the identification of bodies recovered from the Mt Erebus disaster is described. Postmortem radiographs established the identity of 11 bodies not identified by other techniques. There is a need for greater awareness in police and forensic circles of the identifying power of radiology. PMID:9833369

  4. Structural controls on CO2 degassing at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M.; La Spina, A.; Salerno, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    Recent OP-FTIR studies of volcanic plume composition, together with mini-DOAS measurements of SO2 flux, have allowed CO2 gas fluxes from individual craters of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) to be determined with unprecedented detail. These studies reveal systematic differences in the amount of CO2 released from each crater, with the northeast crater (NEC) plume being impoverished in CO2, whilst the central crater (CC) is enriched with this volatile species. Here we present a quantitative model for degassing via a branched conduit system, in which gas and magma rise to a branch point where different proportions of gas and magma enter each conduit. The model has therefore only three free parameters; branch pressure, proportion of gas entering the NEC conduit and proportion of magma entering the NEC conduit. We use a model of degassing based on melt-inclusion studies, volcanic glass measurements and VolatileCalc to determine equilibrium gas compositions. Notwithstanding wide variations within the gas compositions and fluxes emitted from each crater we find a well-constrained branch pressure that successfully reproduces the observations. Relatively minor variations in the relative amounts of gas and magma entering each conduit can profoundly change the gas flux and composition from each crater. These results suggest that large variations in individual crater's gas emissions may be induced for reasons independent of global variations in magma supply rate, and therefore aid in our ability to interpret volcanic CO2 emissions.

  5. The Hercules Échelle Spectrograph at Mt. John

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, J. B.; Barnes, S. I.; Kershaw, G. M.; Frost, N.; Graham, G.; Ritchie, R.; Nankivell, G. R.

    2002-03-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Canterbury University Large Échelle Spectrograph (HERCULES) a fibre-fed échelle spectrograph that was designed and built at the University of Canterbury and has been in operation at Mt. John University Observatory since April 2001.HERCULES receives light from the f/13.5 Cassegrain focus of the 1 m McLellan telescope. Resolving powers of R = 41 000, 70 000 and 82 000 are available. An R2 200 × 400 mm échelle grating provides dispersion and cross-dispersion uses a large BK7 prism in double pass. The wavelength coverage is designed to be 380-880 nm in a single exposure. The maximum detective quantum efficiency of the fibre, spectrograph and detector system is about 18% in 2 arc second seeing. High wavelength stability (to better than 10 ms-1 in radial velocity) is achieved by installing the whole instrument in a large vacuum tank at 2-4 torr and by there being no moving parts. The tank is in a thermally isolated and insulated environment. The paper describes the design philosophy of HERCULES and its performance during the first year of operation.

  6. Polarimetric radar measurements of a forested area near Mt. Shasta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the results of an experiment using the NASA/JPL DC-8 AIRSAR (aircraft synthetic-aperture radar) over a coniferous forest near Mt. Shasta (California) in 1989. Calibration devices were deployed in clearings and under the forest canopy and passes at 20, 40, and 55 deg incidence angles were made with the AIRSAR. A total of eight images at differing incidence angles have been processed and calibrated. The multipolarization, multifrequency data were examined, and it was found that the C-band cross section averaged over like and cross polarizations is the best parameter for distinguishing between two stands with differing forest biomass. The average cross section at P- and L-bands is useful only for smaller incidence angles. Parameters describing the polarization behavior of the scattering were primarily useful in identifying the dominant scattering mechanisms for forest backscatter. It was found that both branch scattering and ground/tree interactions are important at P-band. At L-band and C-bands, the return is primarily from the canopy. Comparison with model calculations verified this conclusion.

  7. Geographical structuring in the mtDNA of Italians.

    PubMed Central

    Barbujani, G; Bertorelle, G; Capitani, G; Scozzari, R

    1995-01-01

    Geographical patterns of mtDNA variation were studied in 12 Italian samples (1072 individuals) by two different spatial autocorrelation methods. Separate analyses of the frequencies of 12 restriction morphs show North-South clines, differences between Sardinia and the mainland populations, and the effects of isolation by distance. A recently developed autocorrelation statistic summarizing molecular similarity at all sites (AIDA; autocorrelation index for DNA analysis) confirms the presence of a clinical pattern; differences between random pairs of haplotypes tend to increase with their geographical distance. The partition of gene diversity, however, reveals that most variability occurs within populations, whereas differences between populations are minor (GST = 0.057). When the data from the 12 samples are pooled, two descriptors of genetic variability (number of polymorphic sites and average sequence difference between pairs of individuals) do not behave as expected under neutrality. The presence of clinal patterns, Tajima's tests, and a simulation experiment agree in suggesting that population sizes increased rapidly in Italy and Sicily but not necessarily so in Sardinia. The distribution of pairwise sequence differences in the Italian peninsula (excluding Sardinia) permits a tentative location of the demographic increase between 8000 and 20,500 years ago. These dates are consistent with archaeological estimates of two distinct expansion processes, occurring, respectively, in the Neolithic and after the last glacial maximum in the Paleolithic. Conversely, there is no genetic evidence that such processes have had a major impact on the Sardinian population. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568095

  8. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  9. Analysis of Shublik Formation rocks from Mt. Michelson quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of 88 samples from the Shublik formation on Fire Creek, Mt. Michelson Quadrangle, Alaska, are presented in tabular form. The results include the determination of elements by semiquantitative spectrographic analysis, phosphate by X-ray fluorescence, carbon dioxide by acid decomposable carbonate, total carbon by induction furnace, carbonate carbon by conversion using the conversion factor of 0.2727 for amount of carbon in carbon dioxide, and organic carbon by difference. A seven- cycle semilogarithmic chart presents the data graphically and illustrates the range, mode, and mean for some of the elements. The chart shows, also, the approximate concentration of the same elements in rocks similar to the black shale and limestone of the Shublik Formation. Each sample represents 5 feet of section and is composed of rock chips taken at 1 - foot intervals. The samples are keyed into a stratigraphic column of the formation. Rocks of the Shublik Formation contain anomalously high concentrations of some of the elements. These same elements might be expected to be high in some of the petroleum from northern Alaska if the Shublik Formation is a source for this petroleum. Several of the stratigraphic intervals may represent, also, a low-grade phosphate deposit.

  10. Impaired osmoregulation at high altitude. Studies on Mt Everest.

    PubMed

    Blume, F D; Boyer, S J; Braverman, L E; Cohen, A; Dirkse, J; Mordes, J P

    1984-07-27

    Osmoregulation was studied in 13 mountaineers who had experienced long-term exposure to high altitude on Mt Everest. Serum osmolality rose from 290 +/- 1 mOsm/kg to 295 +/- 2 mOsm/kg at 5,400 m and finally to 302 +/- 4 mOsm/kg at 6,300 m after a mean of 26.5 days above 5,400 m. Despite this degree of osmoconcentration, plasma arginine-vasopressin concentration remained unchanged: 1.1 +/-0.1 microU/mL at sea level, 0.8 +/- 0.1 microU/mL at 5,400 m, and 0.9 +/- 0.1 microU/mL at 6,300 m. Urinary vasopressin excretion was also similar at all three altitudes. We conclude that prolonged exposure to high altitude may result in persistent impairment of osmoregulation, caused in part by an inappropriate arginine-vasopressin response to hyperosmolality. PMID:6429358

  11. Doublets and wavelets: anisotropic changes measured at Mt. Vesuvius.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F.; Gargiulo, G.; Zaccarelli, L.; Del Pezzo, E.

    2009-04-01

    Shear-wave splitting is the elastic-equivalent of the well known phenomenon of optical birefringence. A shear wave propagating through an anisotropic solid splits into two S-waves that travel with different velocities and with different directions of polarization, generating two observables: TD that is the time delay between the two split S waves, and LSPD that is the polarization direction of the faster S wave. In the upper crust this phenomenon has been interpreted to occur in zones of fluid-filled cracks, microcracks or preferentially oriented pore spaces. The time evolution of anisotropic distribution of microcracks due to a differential stress, according to the nonlinear anisotropic poroelasticity (APE ) model, is explained by the fluid migration along pressure gradients between neighbouring microcracks and pores. In this framework the shear wave splitting parameters are indicators of the state of stress in the upper crust. We obtained shear wave splitting measurements for local earthquakes occurred before the largest earthquake (M= 3.6 occurred October 9th, 1999 ) recorded at MT. Vesuvius after the last eruption ( March 1944). The arrival times of split shear waves and the polarization directions were detected by using the wavelet transform of a three-component signal. In order to avoid any spatial effects on the time behaviour of the parameters, we perfomed the analysis for a selected a dataset of doublets. Short term (of the order of the days) variation of both TD and LSPD parameters are retrieved before the occurence of the M=3. 6 event.

  12. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  13. Testing atmospheric and tidal earthquake triggering at Mt. Hochstaufen, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Cattania, C.; Wassermann, J.

    2013-10-01

    Seismicity closely related to hydrological impacts has been observed in several locations worldwide, particularly in intraplate areas where tectonic stressing rates are small. The triggering mechanism is usually explained by a poroelastic response of the seismogenic crust to surface water flux, leading to pore pressure changes at depth. To explain the earthquake triggering in response of those small stress changes, however, the crust has to be near a critical state in which other transient processes might be significant. One of the prominent examples is at Mt. Hochstaufen in SE Germany, where seismicity is known to vary seasonally. A previous analysis showed that the seismicity in 2002 was highly correlated with model forecasts based on fluid diffusion and rate- and state-dependent frictional nucleation. Here we revisit this case by accounting additionally for poroelastic effects, as well as for thermoelastic and tidal stresses. We also test whether the model can explain the observations of the subsequent 8 years between 2003 and 2010. Our analysis confirms that rainfall is the dominant driving force in this region. The model not only fits the year 2002 activity very well but also provides with the same parameters a reasonable fit to the subsequent period, with a probability gain of about 4 per event in comparison to a time-independent Poisson model.

  14. Magmatic and phreatomagmatic volcanic activity at Mt. Takahe, West Antarctica, based on tephra layers in the Byrd ice core and field observations at Mt. Takahe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Julie M.; Kyle, Philip R.; McIntosh, William C.; Seward, Diane

    1988-12-01

    The morphology, grain size characteristics and composition of ash particles in 30 ka to 150 ka tephra layers from the Byrd ice core were examined to characterize the eruptions which produced them and to test the suggestion that they were erupted from Mt. Takahe, a shield volcano in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. Volcanic deposits at Mt. Takahe were examined for evidence of recent activity which could correlate with the tephra layers in the ice core. Coarse- and fine-ash layers have been recognized in the Byrd ice core. The coarse-ash layers have a higher mass concentration than the fine-ash layers and are characterized by fresh glass shards > 50 μm diameter, many containing elongate pipe vesicles. The fine-ash layers have a lower mass concentration and contain a greater variety of particles, typically < 20 μm diameter. Many of these particles are aggregate grains composed of glass and crystal fragments showing S and Cl surface alteration. The grain-size distributions of the coarse and fine-ash layers overlap, in part because of the aggregate nature of grains in the fine-ash layers. The coarse-ash layers are interpreted as having formed by magmatic eruption whereas the fine-ash layers are believed to be hydrovolcanic in origin. Mt. Takahe is the favored source for the tephra because: (a) chemical analyses of samples from the volcano are distinctive, being peralkaline trachyte, and similar in composition to the analyzed tephra; (b) Mt. Takahe is a young volcano (< 0.3 Ma); (c) pyroclastic deposits on Mt. Takahe indicate styles of eruption similar to that inferred for the ice core tephra; and (d) Mt. Takahe is only about 350 km from the calculated site of tephra deposition. A speculative eruptive history for Mt. Takahe is established by combining observations from Mt. Takahe and the Byrd ice core tephra. Initial eruptions at Mt. Takahe were subglacial and then graded into alternating subaerial and subglacial activity. The tephra suggest alternating subaerial

  15. mtDNA Mutations and Their Role in Aging, Diseases and Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zapico, Sara C.; Ubelaker, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are independent organelles with their own DNA. As a primary function, mitochondria produce the energy for the cell through Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). One of the toxic products of this process is Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can induce oxidative damage in macromolecules like lipids, proteins and DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is less protected and has fewer reparation mechanisms than nuclear DNA (nDNA), and as such is more exposed to oxidative, mutation-inducing damage. This review analyzes the causes and consequences of mtDNA mutations and their relationship with the aging process. Neurodegenerative diseases, related with the aging, are consequences of mtDNA mutations resulting in a decrease in mitochondrial function. Also described are “mitochondrial diseases”, pathologies produced by mtDNA mutations and whose symptoms are related with mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, mtDNA haplogroups are defined in this review; these groups are important for determination of geographical origin of an individual. Additionally, different haplogroups exhibit variably longevity and risk of certain diseases. mtDNA mutations in aging and haplogroups are of special interest to forensic science research. Therefore this review will help to clarify the key role of mtDNA mutations in these processes and support further research in this area. PMID:24307969

  16. The fate of MtBE during Fenton-like treatments through laboratory scale column tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscitelli, Daniela; Zingaretti, Daniela; Verginelli, Iason; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) based on the Fenton's process is a proven technology for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by organic compounds. Nevertheless, the application of this treatment process to methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) is questioned, as there are concerns about its capacity to achieve complete mineralization. Many existing studies have focused on water contaminated by MtBE and are thus not representative of in situ treatments since they do not consider the presence of soil. In this work, the effectiveness of a Fenton-like process for MtBE treatment was proven in soil column tests performed at operating conditions (i.e., oxidant and contaminant concentration and flow rates) resembling those typically used for in situ applications. No MtBE by-products were detected in any of the tested conditions, thus suggesting that the tert-butyl group of MtBE was completely degraded. A mass balance based on the CO2 produced was used as evidence that most of the MtBE removed was actually mineralized. Finally, the obtained results show that preconditioning of soil with a chelating agent (EDTA) significantly enhanced MtBE oxidation.

  17. The fate of MtBE during Fenton-like treatments through laboratory scale column tests.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Daniela; Zingaretti, Daniela; Verginelli, Iason; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) based on the Fenton's process is a proven technology for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by organic compounds. Nevertheless, the application of this treatment process to methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) is questioned, as there are concerns about its capacity to achieve complete mineralization. Many existing studies have focused on water contaminated by MtBE and are thus not representative of in situ treatments since they do not consider the presence of soil. In this work, the effectiveness of a Fenton-like process for MtBE treatment was proven in soil column tests performed at operating conditions (i.e., oxidant and contaminant concentration and flow rates) resembling those typically used for in situ applications. No MtBE by-products were detected in any of the tested conditions, thus suggesting that the tert-butyl group of MtBE was completely degraded. A mass balance based on the CO2 produced was used as evidence that most of the MtBE removed was actually mineralized. Finally, the obtained results show that preconditioning of soil with a chelating agent (EDTA) significantly enhanced MtBE oxidation. PMID:26544517

  18. mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Wallace, D.C. ); Sukernik, R.I.; Starikovskaya, Y.B. ); Crawford, M.H.; Comuzzie, A.G. )

    1993-09-01

    The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. These findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. 61 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Digital PCR methods improve detection sensitivity and measurement precision of low abundance mtDNA deletions

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Frances R.; Martin, James L.; Frescura, Kristin; Damas, Joana; Pereira, Filipe; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Kaufman, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are a common cause of primary mitochondrial disorders, and have also been implicated in a broad collection of conditions, including aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Prevalent among these pathogenic variants are mtDNA deletions, which show a strong bias for the loss of sequence in the major arc between, but not including, the heavy and light strand origins of replication. Because individual mtDNA deletions can accumulate focally, occur with multiple mixed breakpoints, and in the presence of normal mtDNA sequences, methods that detect broad-spectrum mutations with enhanced sensitivity and limited costs have both research and clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated semi-quantitative and digital PCR-based methods of mtDNA deletion detection using double-stranded reference templates or biological samples. Our aim was to describe key experimental assay parameters that will enable the analysis of low levels or small differences in mtDNA deletion load during disease progression, with limited false-positive detection. We determined that the digital PCR method significantly improved mtDNA deletion detection sensitivity through absolute quantitation, improved precision and reduced assay standard error. PMID:27122135

  20. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  1. Distilling Artificial Recombinants from Large Sets of Complete mtDNA Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qing-Peng; Salas, Antonio; Sun, Chang; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Zhong, Li; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background Large-scale genome sequencing poses enormous problems to the logistics of laboratory work and data handling. When numerous fragments of different genomes are PCR amplified and sequenced in a laboratory, there is a high immanent risk of sample confusion. For genetic markers, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are free of natural recombination, single instances of sample mix-up involving different branches of the mtDNA phylogeny would give rise to reticulate patterns and should therefore be detectable. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a strategy for comparing new complete mtDNA genomes, one by one, to a current skeleton of the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny. The mutations distinguishing the reference sequence from a putative recombinant sequence can then be allocated to two or more different branches of this phylogenetic skeleton. Thus, one would search for two (or three) near-matches in the total mtDNA database that together best explain the variation seen in the recombinants. The evolutionary pathway from the mtDNA tree connecting this pair together with the recombinant then generate a grid-like median network, from which one can read off the exchanged segments. Conclusions We have applied this procedure to a large collection of complete human mtDNA sequences, where several recombinants could be distilled by our method. All these recombinant sequences were subsequently corrected by de novo experiments – fully concordant with the predictions from our data-analytical approach. PMID:18714389

  2. Somatic mtDNA variation is an important component of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Coxhead, Jonathan; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Hussain, Rafiqul; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick; Hudson, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction, mediated either through inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation or mitochondrial proteomic deficit, to Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet, despite this, the role of somatic mtDNA point mutations and specifically point-mutational burden in PD is poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of recent technical and methodological advances to examine the role of age-related and acquired mtDNA mutation in the largest study of mtDNA in postmortem PD tissue to date. Our data show that PD patients suffer an increase in mtDNA mutational burden in, but no limited to, the substantia nigra pars compacta when compared to matched controls. This mutational burden appears increased in genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase, supportive of previous protein studies of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Accepting experimental limitations, our study confirms the important role of age-related mtDNA point mutation in the etiology of PD, moreover, by analyzing 2 distinct brain regions, we are able to show that PD patient brains are more vulnerable to mtDNA mutation overall. PMID:26639157

  3. LIMK Regulates Tumor-Cell Invasion and Matrix Degradation Through Tyrosine Phosphorylation of MT1-MMP

    PubMed Central

    Lagoutte, Emilie; Villeneuve, Clémentine; Lafanechère, Laurence; Wells, Claire M.; Jones, Gareth E.; Chavrier, Philippe; Rossé, Carine

    2016-01-01

    During their metastatic spread, cancer cells need to remodel the extracellular matrix in order to migrate through stromal compartments adjacent to the primary tumor. Dissemination of breast carcinoma cells is mediated by membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP14), the main invadopodial matrix degradative component. Here, we identify MT1-MMP as a novel interacting partner of dual-specificity LIM Kinase-1 and -2 (LIMK1/2), and provide several evidence for phosphorylation of tyrosine Y573 in the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP by LIMK. Phosphorylation of Y573 influences association of F-actin binding protein cortactin to MT1-MMP-positive endosomes and invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. Moreover, we show that LIMK1 regulates cortactin association to MT1-MMP-positive endosomes, while LIMK2 controls invadopodia-associated cortactin. In turn, LIMK1 and LIMK2 are required for MT1-MMP-dependent matrix degradation and cell invasion in a three-dimensional type I collagen environment. This novel link between LIMK1/2 and MT1-MMP may have important consequences for therapeutic control of breast cancer cell invasion. PMID:27116935

  4. Subspace mapping of the three-dimensional spectral receptive field of macaque MT neurons.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Mikio; Sasaki, Kota S; Hashimoto, Hajime; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2016-08-01

    Neurons in the middle temporal (MT) visual area are thought to represent the velocity (direction and speed) of motion. Previous studies suggest the importance of both excitation and suppression for creating velocity representation in MT; however, details of the organization of excitation and suppression at the MT stage are not understood fully. In this article, we examine how excitatory and suppressive inputs are pooled in individual MT neurons by measuring their receptive fields in a three-dimensional (3-D) spatiotemporal frequency domain. We recorded the activity of single MT neurons from anesthetized macaque monkeys. To achieve both quality and resolution of the receptive field estimations, we applied a subspace reverse correlation technique in which a stimulus sequence of superimposed multiple drifting gratings was cross-correlated with the spiking activity of neurons. Excitatory responses tended to be organized in a manner representing a specific velocity independent of the spatial pattern of the stimuli. Conversely, suppressive responses tended to be distributed broadly over the 3-D frequency domain, supporting a hypothesis of response normalization. Despite the nonspecific distributed profile, the total summed strength of suppression was comparable to that of excitation in many MT neurons. Furthermore, suppressive responses reduced the bandwidth of velocity tuning, indicating that suppression improves the reliability of velocity representation. Our results suggest that both well-organized excitatory inputs and broad suppressive inputs contribute significantly to the invariant and reliable representation of velocity in MT. PMID:27193321

  5. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. PMID:23452233

  6. Optical transitions of Ho(3+) in oxyfluoride glasses and upconversion luminescence of Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2015-05-01

    Optical properties of Ho(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied. PMID:25703369

  7. Theoretical characterization of the minimum energy path for the reaction H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael; Melius, Carl F.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The potential energy surface for the H + O2 to HO2(asterisk) to HO + O reaction has been investigated in the region of the minimum energy path using CASSCF/contracted CI (CCI) calculations with a large basis set. The results show no barrier for the addition of an H atom to O2, in agreement with previous studies. A crossing between the surface for electrostatic (OH dipole-O quadrupole) interaction and that for the formation of an O-O chemical bond, at r(infinity) of about 5.5 a(0), results in a small (about 0.5 kcal/mol) barrier.

  8. MEMBRANE TYPE 1-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE (MT1-MMP) IDENTIFIED AS A MULTIFUNCTIONAL REGULATOR OF VASCULAR RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-01-01

    Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) functions as a signaling molecules in addition to a transmembrane metalloprotease, which degrades interstitial collagens and extracellular matrix components. This review focuses on the multifunctional roles of MT1-MMP as a signaling molecule in vascular responses to pro-atherosclerotic stimuli in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. First, the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1)-MT1-MMP signaling axis contributes to endothelial dysfunction, which is mediated via small GTP-binding protein RhoA and Rac1 activation. Second, MT1-MMP plays a crucial role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through the activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in smooth muscle cells, indicating that MT1-MMP may be a therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. Third, MT1-MMP is involved in RhoA/Rac1 activation and Ca(2+) signaling in the mechanism of thrombin-stimulated endothelial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Fourth, the inhibition of the MT1-MMP/Akt signaling pathway may be an attractive strategy for treating endothelial disordered hemostasis in the development of vascular diseases linked to TNF-α-induced inflammation. Fifth, MT1-MMP through RAGE induced RhoA/Rac1 activation and tissue factor protein upregulation through NF-κB phosphorylation in endothelial cells stimulated by high-mobility group box-1, which plays a key role in the systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the MT1-MMP-mediated signaling axis may be a promising target for treating atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26370683

  9. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial fusion provides an 'initial metabolic complementation' controlled by mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Long, Qi; Liu, Jinglei; Tang, Haite; Li, Yuxing; Bao, Feixiang; Qin, Dajiang; Pei, Duanqing; Liu, Xingguo

    2015-07-01

    Heteroplasmic cells, harboring both mutant and normal mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs), must accumulate mutations to a threshold level before respiratory activity is affected. This phenomenon has led to the hypothesis of mtDNA complementation by inter-mitochondrial content mixing. The precise mechanisms of heteroplasmic complementation are unknown, but it depends both on the mtDNA nucleoid dynamics among mitochondria as well as the mitochondrial dynamics as influenced by mtDNA. We tracked nucleoids among the mitochondria in real time to show that they are shared after complete fusion but not 'kiss-and-run'. Employing a cell hybrid model, we further show that mtDNA-less mitochondria, which have little ATP production and extensive Opa1 proteolytic cleavage, exhibit weak fusion activity among themselves, yet remain competent in fusing with healthy mitochondria in a mitofusin- and OPA1-dependent manner, resulting in restoration of metabolic function. Depletion of mtDNA by overexpression of the matrix-targeted nuclease UL12.5 resulted in heterogeneous mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at the organelle level in mitofusin-null cells but not in wild type. In this system, overexpression of mitofusins or application of the fusion-promoting drug M1 could partially rescue the metabolic damage caused by UL12.5. Interestingly, mtDNA transcription/translation is not required for normal mitochondria to restore metabolic function to mtDNA-less mitochondria by fusion. Thus, interplay between mtDNA and fusion capacity governs a novel 'initial metabolic complementation'. PMID:25708700

  11. Preparation of Fe-Si-Ni soft magnetic composites with excellent high-frequency properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2015-05-01

    Fe-Si-Ni powders were firstly prepared into soft magnetic composites (SMCs) by ball milling, surface passivation and subsequent compaction. The morphology, phase composition, and magnetic properties of the Fe-Si-Ni powders and their high-frequency performance as SMCs were investigated. The Fe-Si-Ni powders, with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 254.40 emu/g after annealing, were milled down to particle sizes ranging from 40 μm to 150 μm. Surface passivation of the powders was carried out with 0.2-1.0 wt% phosphoric acid solution prior to compaction. Evolution of the high-frequency properties for the Fe-Si-Ni SMCs with the passivator concentration and the molding pressure was studied. With optimized preparation parameters, high saturation flux density (Bs) of 1.23 T, stable permeability, and superior dc-bias property with a percentage permeability above 70% while H=50 Oe were achieved for the Fe-Si-Ni SMC. Minimum core loss (285 mW/cm3) was also measured at 50 kHz for Bm=50 mT.

  12. Nuclear spectroscopy above isomers in {sub 67}{sup 148}Ho{sub 81} and {sub 67}{sup 149}Ho{sub 82} nuclei: Search for core-excited states in {sup 149}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Zielinska, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Grodner, E.; Ruchowska, E.; Korman, A.; Czarnacki, W.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Hadynska-KlePk, K.; Mierzejewski, J.; Lieder, R. M.; Perkowski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Krol, A.

    2010-04-15

    The excited states of {sup 148}Ho and {sup 149}Ho isotopes are studied using gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy in off-beam and in-beam modes following {sup 112,114}Sn({sup 40}Ar,xnyp) reactions. Experiments include measurements of single gamma-rays and conversion electron spectra as well as gamma-gamma, electron-gamma, gamma-t, and gamma-gamma-t coincidences with the use of the OSIRIS-II 12-HPGe array and conversion electron spectrometer. Based on the present results, the level schemes of {sup 148}Ho and {sup 149}Ho are revised and significantly extended, up to about 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy, respectively. Spin and parity of 5{sup -} are assigned to the 9.59-s isomer in {sup 148}Ho based on conversion electron results. Previously unobserved gamma rays feeding the 10{sup +} isomer in {sup 148}Ho and the 27/2{sup -} isomer in {sup 149}Ho nuclei are proposed. Shell-model calculations are performed. Possible core-excited states in {sup 149}Ho are discussed.

  13. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  14. The search of 'novel' mtDNA mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: MITOMAPping as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Yao, Yong-Gang; Salas, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    MITOMAP is by far the most frequently cited Web resource that is referred to in substantiating novelty of an mtDNA mutation. This database, as is now known, has quite an incomplete coverage of the mtDNA mutations from the literature. This circumstance has seduced many scholars of medical genetics in the past to claim novelty of rather 'worn-out' mtDNA mutations. What is, however, really novel in the field is that researchers take advantage of this situation and deliberately suppress information from other sources, as it appears to have occurred in two recently published cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17482693

  15. Solubility Measurements of Crystalline NiO in Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature and pH

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Donald; Benezeth, Pascale; Xiao, Caibin {nmn}; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Results of solubility experiments involving crystalline nickel oxide (bunsenite) in aqueous solutions are reported as functions of temperature (0 to 350 C) and pH at pressures slightly exceeding (with one exception) saturation vapor pressure. These experiments were carried out in either flow-through reactors or a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell for mildly acidic to near neutral pH solutions. The results were treated successfully with a thermodynamic model incorporating only the unhydrolyzed aqueous nickel species (viz., Ni2+ ) and the neutrally charged hydrolyzed species (viz., Ni(OH)02 ). The thermodynamic quantities obtained at 25 C and infinite dilution are, with 2 uncertainties: log10Ko s0 = (12.40 0.29), rGo m = (70.8 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (105.6 1.3) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (116.6 3.2) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (0 13) J K 1 mol 1; and log10Ko s2 = (8.76 0.15); rGo m = (50.0 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (17.7 1.7) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (108 7) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (108 3) J K 1 mol 1. These results are internally consistent, but the latter set differs from those gleaned from previous studies recorded in the literature. The corresponding thermodynamic quantities for the formation of Ni2+ and Ni(OH)02 are also estimated. Moreover, the Ni(OH) 3 anion was never observed, even in relatively strong basic solutions (mOH = 0.1 mol kg 1), contrary to the conclusions drawn from all but one previous study.

  16. Octanuclear Heterobimetallic {Ni4Ln4} Assemblies Possessing Ln4 Square Grid [2 × 2] Motifs: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Goura, Joydeb; Das, Sourav; Topping, Craig V; Brambleby, Jamie; Goddard, Paul A; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-09-01

    Octanuclear heterobimetallic complexes, [Ln4Ni4(H3L)4(μ3-OH)4(μ2-OH)4]4Cl·xH2O·yCHCl3 (Dy(3+), x = 30.6, y = 2 (1); Tb(3+), x = 28, y = 0 (2) ; Gd(3+), x = 25.3, y = 0 (3); Ho(3+), x = 30.6, y = 3 (4)) (H5L = N1,N3-bis(6-formyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methylphenol)diethylenetriamine) are reported. These are assembled by the cumulative coordination action of four doubly deprotonated compartmental ligands, [H3L](2-), along with eight exogenous -OH ligands. Within the core of these complexes, four Ln(3+)'s are distributed to the four corners of a perfect square grid while four Ni(2+)'s are projected away from the plane of the Ln4 unit. Each of the four Ni(2+)'s possesses distorted octahedral geometry while all of the Ln(3+)'s are crystallographically equivalent and are present in an elongated square antiprism geometry. The magnetic properties of compound 3 are dominated by an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy of the Ni(2+) ions [DNi = 6.7(7) K] and dipolar interactions between Gd(3+) centers. Detailed ac magnetometry reveals the presence of distinct temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals for compounds 1 and 2, indicative of slow magnetic relaxation. Magnetochemical analysis of complex 1 implies the 3d and the 4f metal ions are engaged in ferromagnetic interactions with SMM behavior, while dc magnetometry of compound 2 is suggestive of an antiferromagnetic Ni-Tb spin-exchange with slow magnetic relaxation due to a field-induced level crossing. Compound 4 exhibits an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy for the Ho(3+) ions and weak interactions between spin centers. PMID:27500314

  17. Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

  18. P8 deficiency increases cellular ROS and induces HO-1.

    PubMed

    Weis, Sebastian; Bielow, Tobias; Sommerer, Ines; Iovanna, Juan; Malicet, Cédric; Mössner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    The gene p8 encodes for a small cytoprotective protein with no apparent enzymatic activity being proposed to act as co-transcription factor whose expression is increased during inflammation. Recent data from astrocytes demonstrates that p8 suppression leads to induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Here, we assessed the cross-talk between p8 and HO-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) observing an increased expression of HO-1 in p8-deficient (p8(-/-)) MEFs in non-treated and treated conditions. This effect was independent of the cell cycle. Our findings revealed that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in p8(-/-) MEFs. Mitochondria and NADPH oxidases were not the origin of ROS. This observation was not restricted to MEF as suppression of p8 gene transcription in MiaPaCa-2 cells also led to increased intracellular ROS. Additionally, p8 deficiency did not affect the Rac1 dependant NADPH oxidase complex. Our data shows that p8 deficiency increases ROS and subsequently the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as HO-1, suggesting an involvement in the anti-oxidative defense. Moreover, we suggest that the severity of AP observed in p8(-/-) mice is induced by an impaired anti oxidative capacity of the pancreas, which is caused by increased generation of ROS. PMID:25475530

  19. Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser head can amplify 80mJ/340ns probe pulses into 400mJ when the pump pulse energy is close to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold, 5.6J. For a small signal, the double-pass amplification exceeds 25.

  20. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  1. 2008 Louisiana "HoCP" Nursery and Infield Variety Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selection in single-stools at the seedling stage, scientists in the breeding program assign permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to experimental varieties advanced for further testing. These newly assigned varieties are planted in replicated nursery trials at three locations (Ardoyne ...

  2. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  3. Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Deyst, John P.; Storm, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Single-frequency lasing in monolithic crystals of holmium-thulium-doped YLF (Ho,Tm:YLF) is reported. A maximum single-frequency output power of 6 mW at a wavelength of 2.05 microns is demonstrated. Frequency tuning is also described.

  4. Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Gettemy, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two multiply doped Ho:YAG lasers has been characterized as a function of the laser rod temperature. From the experimental results, the dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold on temperature has been extracted. Threshold can be correlated with the occupation of the lower laser level. Implications on the optimum operating temperature are discussed.

  5. 2012 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selection in the seedling stage of the USDA variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at the LSU AgCenter’s Iberia Research Stati...

  6. Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi

    SciTech Connect

    Fente, A.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Nemes, N. M.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Budko, Sergei L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2013-09-04

    We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

  7. The prosecution of Taiwan sexuality researcher and activist Josephine Ho.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping

    2004-05-01

    In April 2003, following a newspaper report of a hyperlink to a website on bestiality on the Sexuality Databank website of the Center for the Study of Sexualities, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, 14 conservative NGOs filed charges against the Center's founder, Josephine Ho, for "propagating obscenities that corrupt traditional values." Ho has been researching sexuality and supporting freedom for marginalised sexual minorities for ten years. In a public statement in response to the charges, she said that the work of scholarly research must not be dictated by prejudice and that differences in sexual values should not be arbitrated by law and should be open for public discussion. As the legal process began in January 2004, Ho's supporters in Taiwan have called for the preservation of the Taiwan Constitutional decree on integrity and autonomy of academic research and freedom of expression on the internet, for the University to resist calls to dismiss Ho from her post, and for respect for freedom of speech and expression and the right to create spaces to educate people about non-normative sexualities. PMID:15242216

  8. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  9. 2010 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three years after selecting in single-stools in the seedling stage, scientists in the SRU’s sugarcane breeding program assign “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers to varieties advanced for further testing. These newly assigned varieties are planted in replicated nursery trials at the SRU’s Ardoyne Farm in Schrie...

  10. Living with ghosts in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, S.; Arroja, F.; Celoria, M.; Matarrese, S.; Pilo, L.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the branch of the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz model which exhibits ghost instabilities in the low energy limit. It turns out that, due to the Lorentz violating structure of the model and to the presence of a finite strong coupling scale, the vacuum decay rate into photons is tiny in a wide range of phenomenologically acceptable parameters. The strong coupling scale, understood as a cutoff on ghosts' spatial momenta, can be raised up to Λ ˜ 10 TeV. At lower momenta, the projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity is equivalent to General Relativity supplemented by a fluid with a small positive sound speed squared (10-42 ≲) c s 2 ≲ 10-20, that could be a promising candidate for the Dark Matter. Despite these advantages, the unavoidable presence of the strong coupling obscures the implementation of the original Hořava's proposal on quantum gravity. Apart from the Hořava-Lifshitz model, conclusions of the present work hold also for the mimetic matter scenario, where the analogue of the projectability condition is achieved by a non-invertible conformal transformation of the metric.

  11. Production and characterization of 166Ho polylactic acid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Kamal; Yeganeh, Ehsan; Abolghasemi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Microsphere and particle technology with selective transport of radiation represents a new generation of therapeutics. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microspheres loaded with holmium-166 acetylacetonate ((166)Ho-PLLA-MS) are novel microdevices. In this research, (165)HoAcAc-PLLA microparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres were irradiated at Tehran Research Reactor. The diameter and surface morphologies were characterized by particle sizer and scanning electron microscopy before and after irradiation. The complex stability, radiochemical purity, and in vivo biodistribiotion were checked in the final solution up to 3 days. In this study, (166)Ho-PLLA spherical particles with a smooth surface and diameter of 20-40 µm were obtained, which were stable in vitro and in vivo studies. Neutron irradiation did not damage the particles. The ease with which the PLLA spheres could be made in the optimal size range for later irradiation and their ability to retain the (166)Ho provided good evidence for their potential use in radioembolization. PMID:26691104

  12. 2014 Louisiana "Ho" nursery and infield variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA sugarcane variety program, superior experimental varieties are assigned permanent “HoCP” or “Ho” numbers three years after selection in the seedling stage. These varieties are then planted in replicated yield trials at the Sugarcane Research Unit's (SRU) Ardoyne Farm in Schriever and at ...

  13. Characteristics of mineral aerosol deposited on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus, Russia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutuzov, Stanislav; Shahgedanova, Maria; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Ginot, Patrick; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Popov, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Records of mineral aerosol (desert dust) stored in glaciers provide data on frequency and intensity of deposition events, source regions and atmospheric pathways of mineral dust. We present and discuss a chronology of dust deposition events recorded in the shallow firn and ice cores extracted on the Western Plateau, Mt. Elbrus (5150 m a.s.l.), Caucasus Mountains, Russia and covering the period of 2009-2013. Particle size distribution and chemical analysis (major ions, trace elements) were peformed using Coulter Counter Multisizer III, Abacus particle counter, IC and ICPMS analysis. Sampling was performed using continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. Annual average dust flux (264 μg/cm2 a-1) and average mass concentration (1.7 mg/kg) over the period 2007-2013 were calculated for the first time for this region. A combination of satellite imagery (MSG SEVIRI), trajectory models (FLEXTA, HYSPLIT) and meteorological data were used to accurately date each of the dust layers observed in shallow cores and investigate provenance of the dust and its pathways. Desert dust originating from the Middle East and Sahara was deposited on the Caucasus glaciers 3-6 times a year. Although less frequent, Saharan events are characterized by considerably higher dust loads than the more frequent Middle Eastern events. The mass median diameter of dust particles ranged between 2 and 9 μm. The deposition of dust resulted in elevated concentrations of most ions, especially Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and sulphates. Dust originated from or passing over the Middle East was characterised by the elevated concentrations of nitrates and ammonia. This may be related to dust emissions from agricultural fields which, if abandoned due to droughts, become important sources of dust. By contrast, samples of the Saharan dust originated from natural sources showed lower concentrations of ammonium. The mean values of crustal enrichment factors for the measured trace elements including metals were calculated. Overall

  14. Episodic growth of Mt. Shasta, CA, documented by argon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.; Christiansen, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mt. Shasta is the largest stratovolcano along the high Cascade arc, surpassed in volume only by the rear-arc Medicine Lake and Newberry volcanoes. Currently >4300 m high and >350 km3 in volume, it grew episodically from overlapping vents and was partially destroyed by a major debris avalanche >300 ka. The area has been a long-lived eruptive focus; prior to 700 ka a similar-sized andesite stratocone sat 15-25 km E along the arc axis, but is now deeply eroded. Approximately 700 ka, the center moved ~20 km to its current location west of the arc axis. Good preservation and minor northward migration (3-5 km) of Mount Shasta's eruptive focus enables access to the older portions of the edifice. Lavas throughout Shasta's history have been dominantly intermediate in composition, typically having 60-64%wt. SiO2, though more mafic (basaltic andesite, 53-54%wt. SiO2) and more silicic (dacite, 64-69% wt. SiO2) lavas are also present. Most units erupted from central vents, but a N-S trend of domes and lava vents bisects the summit. No flank vents lie east of that N-S line, but they are numerous to the west. The oldest (~700-600 ka) Mt. Shasta eruptive focus is partly preserved on the SW flank up to 2,000 m elevation (Sand Flat) and as blocks in the massive (~45 km3) debris avalanche deposit in Shasta Valley. The avalanche is bracketed as younger than a 696 ± 3 ka included block and older than an overlapping 318 ± 29 ka lava. Several domes erupted 475-350 ka, but don't provide age constraints on the debris avalanche. Between 300 ka and 100 ka voluminous lavas issued from an eruptive focus (Sargents Ridge cone) ~2 km south of the present summit in at least six episodes spaced 10-30 kyr apart. The core of this eruptive focus has been removed by stream and glacial erosion in and above Mud Creek. High-Mg basaltic andesites erupted high on the S flank at 131 ka and low on the NW flank at 84 ka. No lavas have been identified as erupting from the summit area between 100-50 ka. The

  15. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines - Comparison of November, 1996 and September, 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This debris consists of unconsolidated ash and boulders, and following heavy rains, it mixes with the rain run-off to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley, the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.

    These images from the NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument show two snapshots in the evolution of the lahars in the lower Pasig-Potrero River, just north of the town of Bacalor, east of the summit of the volcano. These images were collected on November 29, 1996 and September 25, 2000. The radar is particularly good at picking out spatial variations in the average particle size of the lahar deposits, which show up as a variety of different colored units at lower right. The active river channel is dark in both images, and is particularly well-defined in the September 2000 image. In the November 1996 image, the area of the flooded channel is much wider, so that the radar images are quite effective at showing where the drier surface materials are located.

    Also visible as a series of linear features in both images is a series of concrete dikes that have been constructed to protect the adjacent agricultural land from the lahar deposits. Some of this land has recently

  16. Hydrogen isotope exchange experiments with Mt Mazama ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, G. S.; Bindeman, I. N.; Palandri, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The 2H/H ratio in hydrous minerals and volcanic glass are routinely used as paleo proxies to infer ∂2H value of meteoric waters and thus paleo-climate conditions. There is a widely held assumption that once environmental water is taken up by the ash to ~3-4 wt%, hydrogen isotopes preserve original hydrologic environmental conditions through time. We report a series of 2H -H aqueous exposure experiments of 7600BP Mt Mazama ash from the Crater Lake eruption. Native Mt. Mazama ash, ~69% SiO2 contains ~3.75% H2O with ∂2H -145 %. Water exposure experiments for this ash were done at 70, 40 and 25°C, time from 0 to >7000 h, to evaluate rates of hydrogen uptake from deuterated waters (650 % to pure D2O). Measurements were performed on 1-2 mg of ash using TCEA-MAT253 GSMS. We also employ a KBr pellet technique with infrared spectroscopy to measure total water and molecular water peaks. In this fashion an estimation of the distribution of water vs. SiOH is possible. Time series experiments aided by infrared measurements demonstrate the following new results: 1) Depending on exposure time and temperature we observe 5 to >100 % 2H uptake in dried samples positively correlated with temperature. In as little as 48 hours approximately 5% ∂2H increases are seen in samples incubated at 70 °C with 650 % water. At this rate the ash at 70 °C would take ~2.9 years to fully react with 2H. Other separate samples reacted with pure D2O develop a clear infrared signal at ~ 2600 cm-1 due to OD bond stretching. 2) Step heating experiments on native ash indicate the ∂2H of the remaining water does not change until the ash is heated to past 200-220 °C. 3) A sample immersed in 650 % ∂2H water for >300 days at 70 °C degassed and sampled at increasing temperature intervals as above shows an enrichment ranging from 250 % at no water lost to 20 % at .10 % water when compared to native ash. 4) Ash dried under vacuum at ~130 °C shows mostly (~80%) loss of molecular water accompanied by

  17. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  18. Isolation of 163Ho from dysprosium target material by HPLC for neutrino mass measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mocko, Veronika; Taylor, Wayne  A.; Nortier, Francois M.; Engle, Jonathan  W.; Barnhart, Todd  E.; Nickles, Robert  J.; Pollington, Anthony  D.; Kunde, Gerd  J.; Rabin, Michael  W.; Birnbaum, Eva  R.

    2015-04-29

    The rare earth isotope 163Ho is of interest for neutrino mass measurements. This report describes the isolation of 163Ho from a proton-irradiated dysprosium target and its purification. A Dy metal target was irradiated with 16 MeV protons for 10 h. After target dissolution, 163Ho was separated from the bulk Dy via cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography using 70 mmol dm–3 α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as the mobile phase. Subsequent purification of the collected Ho fraction was performed to remove the α-hydroxyisobutyrate chelating agent and to concentrate the Ho in a low ionic strength aqueous matrix. The final solution was characterized by MC-ICP-MSmore » to determine the 163Ho/165Ho ratio, 163Ho and the residual Dy content. The HPLC purification process resulted in a decontamination factor 1.4E5 for Dy. As a result, the isolated Ho fraction contained 24.8 ±1.3 ng of 163Ho corresponding to holmium recovery of 72 ± 3%.« less

  19. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D.; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537–542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the “Out of Africa” model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  20. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Walker, Devin G. E.; Zhu, Lijun

    2011-09-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z2) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of MT2-type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  1. A Dynamic Bayesian Network for Mt. Etna Volcano State Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Cassisi, Carmelo; Aliotta, Marco; Cannata, Andrea; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the real-time monitoring of Mt. Etna volcano is mostly delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret the data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Among their duties, the evaluation of the volcano state is one of the most critical task for civil protection purposes. Unfortunately, the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the 24h control room. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano monitoring, here we present an expert system approach based on Bayesian networks to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. A Bayesian network is a static probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of random variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. We consider model variables both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano. In order to include the time in the model, we use a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) which relates variables to each other over adjacent time steps. The model output consists of an estimation of the probability distribution of the feasible volcano states. We build the model by considering the long record of data from 2011 to 2014 and we cross-validate it by considering 3 years for parameter estimation and 1 year for testing in simulated real-time mode.

  2. Lightning and electrical activity during the eruption of Mt. Augustine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.; Aulich, G.; Edens, H.; McNutt, S.; Tytgat, G.; Clark, E.

    2006-12-01

    Lightning during several of the eruptions were observed using a technique that we use to observe thunderstorms. Very high frequency radio emissions (60 MHz) emitted by electrical discharges are located by their times of arrival at several receiving stations. In a typical thunderstorm lightning flash we locate several thousand events giving a 3-D map of the lightning. In mid January we set up two stations about 100 km east of the volcano, near Homer, AK. We received and located the source of thousands of radio emissions from the vicinity of Mt Augustine during the January 28 eruption. With two stations we were able to determine the azimuthal direction to the sources, their power, the time history and relationship to other pulses. On one lightning flash we used an interferometric effect to infer altitude. We observed two distinct forms of electrical activity. The first was many short bursts (less than a milliseconds) that occurred coincident with the explosive eruption. These seemed to be short discharges (up to several hundred meters) that occur just as the material leaves the volcano. The other type was very similar to the lightning that we see in thunderstorms. Most of these lightning flashes began several minutes after the explosive eruption began. Following the largest eruption on January 28 we observed about 300 discharges in a period lasting 11 minutes. Initially these flashes lasted only a few milliseconds, but the final ones lasted more than one half second, had many branches 10's of km in length. Most or all of this lightning was in the plume. Because of the bad weather there were no visual observations. Previous detection of volcanic lightning has been visually or by low frequency radio emissions that detect only the lightning that comes to the ground. These initial observations show that this technique has great potential to detect explosive eruptions and study the details of lightning and the charge structure in the plume.

  3. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  4. An experiment of muon radiography at Mt Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; Diament, Michel; Zuccarello, Luciano; Galichet, Emmanuelle

    2014-02-01

    Interactions of conduit geometry with gas-liquid flows control volcanic activity, implying that the evaluation of volcanic hazards requires quantitative understanding of the inner structure of the volcano. The more established geophysical imaging techniques suffer from inherent ambiguity, may require spatially dense measurements in active areas and may not provide sufficient spatial resolution in the uppermost part of the conduit system. It is thus desirable to develop new imaging techniques allowing a better spatial resolution of a volcano's upper feeding system, with reduced ambiguity and a low level of risk for operators. Muon particles can be utilized to image the internal density distribution of volcanic structures. The principle of muon radiography is essentially the same as X-ray radiography, except for substituting penetrating particles in place of photons. Muons are more attenuated by higher density parts inside the target and thus information about its inner structure are obtained from the differential muon absorption. We report on a muon-imaging experiment that was conducted at Mt Etna in 2010. The target structure was one of the summit craters of the volcano. This experiment was performed using a muon telescope suitably designed to withstand the harsh conditions in the summit zone of a high volcano. We found a marked difference between synthetic and observed attenuation of muons through the target. This discrepancy is likely due to the bias on the observed flux, arising from false muon tracks. They are caused by low-energy particles that, by chance, hit simultaneously the two matrixes of the telescope, leading to detection of a false positive. We separated the useful from the unwanted signal through a first-order model of the background noise. The resulting signal is compared with the corresponding synthetic flux. Eventually, we found regions of higher- and lower-than-expected muon flux, that are possibly related to inner features of the target crater.

  5. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP) termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM) has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. Objectives 1) Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2) make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. Methods The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Results Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85). We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m) and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. Conclusion vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively. PMID:21040572

  6. Physical and chemical characteristics of Mt. St. Helens airborne debris

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Heiken, G.H.; Mroz, E.J.; Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.; Leifer, R.; Fisenne, I.; Hinchliffe, L.; Chuan, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tephra and aerosols from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens, Washington were sampled in the lower stratosphere with a WB-57F aircraft. The main body of the plume was intercepted over western Kansas on May 20, 48 hours after the eruption, at an altitude of 15.2 km. Concentrations on filter samples were 26 ng of SO/sub 4//g of air and 579 ng of ash/g of air. Angular glass pyroclasts ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 ..mu..m, with a mean grain size of 2 ..mu..m. Samples collected at altitudes of 16.7 and 12.5 km had only traces of SO/sub 4/ and ash. A second flight was flown, 72 hours after the eruption, on May 21. From north Texas to central Wyoming, at an altitude of 15.2 km, < 0.5 to 38 ng of ash/g of air and 1.0 to 2.2 ng of SO/sub 4//g of air were sampled. At an altitude of 18.3 km, from central Wyoming to NW New Mexico, the plume density and character were variable. Glassy pyroclasts similar to those sampled on the first flight range in size from 0.5 to 4 ..mu..m dia. Trace element analysis revealed some volatile element enrichment, but far less than previously observed in the plume from St. Augustine Volcano, 1976. Values of /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb were 0.7 to 1.32 comparable to the secular equilibrium value of 1.0 and far less than ratios previously reported by Lambert.

  7. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    afro-alpine vegetation on the other parts of Mt. Guna.

  8. Reversal of HO-1 related cytoprotection with increased expression is due to reactive iron.

    PubMed

    Suttner, D M; Dennery, P A

    1999-10-01

    It is often postulated that the cytoprotective nature of heme oxygenase (HO-1) explains the inducible nature of this enzyme. However, the mechanisms by which protection occurs are not verified by systematic evaluation of the physiological effects of HO. To explain how induction of HO-1 results in protection against oxygen toxicity, hamster fibroblasts (HA-1) were stably transfected with a tetracycline response plasmid containing the full-length rat HO-1 cDNA construct to allow for regulation of gene expression by varying concentrations of doxycycline (Dox). Transfected cells were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O(2)/5% CO2) for 24 h and several markers of oxidative injury were measured. With varying concentrations of Dox, HO activity was regulated between 3- and 17-fold. Despite cytoprotection with low (less than fivefold) HO activity, high levels of HO-1 expression (greater than 15-fold) were associated with significant oxygen cytotoxicity. Levels of non-heme reactive iron correlated with cellular injury in hyperoxia whereas lower levels of heme were associated with cytoprotection. Cellular levels of cyclic GMP and bilirubin were not significantly altered by modification of HO activity, precluding a substantial role for activation of guanylate cyclase by carbon monoxide or for accumulation of bile pigments in the physiological consequences of HO-1 overexpression. Inhibition of HO activity or chelation of cellular iron prior to hyperoxic exposure decreased reactive iron levels in the samples and significantly reduced oxygen toxicity. We conclude that there is a beneficial threshold of HO-1 overexpression related to the accumulation of reactive iron released in the degradation of heme. Therefore, despite the ready induction of HO-1 in oxidant stress, accumulation of reactive iron formed makes it unlikely that exaggerated expression of HO-1 is a cytoprotective response. PMID:10506583

  9. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-11-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between approx0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T{sub ig})approx300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T{sub ig}. Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19{sup '} NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi{sub 2}, and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

  11. Evaluation of gastrointestinal mtDNA depletion in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).

    PubMed

    Giordano, Carla; d'Amati, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare disease characterized by severe gastro-intestinal (GI) dysmotility caused by mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is involved in the control of the pyrimidine nucleoside pool of the cell. Reduced TP activity induces nucleotide pool imbalances that in turn affect both the rate and fidelity of mtDNA replication, leading to multiple deletions and depletion of mtDNA. By using laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction technique, we showed that depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most prominent molecular defect in the gut wall of MNGIE patients. Depletion affects severely the smooth muscle cells of muscularis propria and the skeletal muscle component of the upper esophagus, while ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus show only a milder mtDNA reduction. PMID:21761307

  12. Fine root production across a primary successional ecosystem chronosequence at Mt. Shasta, California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating changes in belowground biomass and production is essential for understanding fundamental patterns and processes during ecosystem development. We examined patterns of fine root production, aboveground litterfall, and forest floor accumulation during forest primary succession at the Mt. Sha...

  13. 2. View from the roof of the M.T. Marcello Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the roof of the M.T. Marcello Company building, facing northwest, with a detail of the refrigeration compressors. - M. T. Marcello Company Building, 105 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  14. Deep Onshore Crustal Structure of Chicxulub Impact Crater Hinted From Mt Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzate, J. A.; Campos-Enríquez, J. O.

    This detailed MT study provides information about the deep continental structure of the Chicxulub impact crater (Yucatan, Mexico). In particular MT images of the elec- trical resistivity distribution along three radial profiles confirm the presence of shallow high resistive material at the crater center. Over this resitive high the MT soundings are featured by a sharper rise in resistivity related to the basement. This uplifted base- ment material coincides with the central structural high inferred in previous gravity, magnetic and MT studies. The top to the uplifted material is about 5 km in agreement with a recent seismic study. Its diameter is about 40 km and according to our images the basement material has been uplifted from a depth of about 10 km. The cenotes ring mark the rim of a deep basin featured by low resistivities. These low resistivities are interpreted as due to the fluids filling and interconecting the fractures of this portion.

  15. Evaluation of heat flow and its geological implications on Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, T.; Adams, E.; Brown, R.L.; Sato, A.

    1982-04-01

    A study to determine the heat flux pattern in the vicinity of Mt. St. Helens was undertaken as part of a program to evaluate the effects of the eruption on future snowpack conditions in the area. Subsurface temperature and low energy refraction seismic studies were made during the early spring in 1981 to determine both the heat flux in the area of pyroclastic deposition and its potential source. In addition, samples were collected for later laboratory determination of thermal conductivity and diffusivity. Results indicate that the heat flow values in the area of pyroclastic deposition are as large as forty times greater than the heat flow values measured on Mt. Adams and Mt. Hood during the same period. The highest heat flow values appear to coincide with a pumice flow unit on the north side of the mountain.. Comparison with work done on the eruption of Mt. Komagatake indicates that the large heat flow values continue for several years.

  16. A modality-specific feedforward component of choice-related activity in MT

    PubMed Central

    Smolyanskaya, Alexandra; Haefner, Ralf M.; Lomber, Stephen G.; Born, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The activity of individual sensory neurons can be predictive of an animal's choices. These decision signals arise from network properties dependent on feedforward and feedback inputs; however, the relative contributions of these inputs are poorly understood. We determined the role of feedforward pathways to decision signals in MT by recording neuronal activity while monkeys performed motion and depth tasks. During each session, we reversibly inactivated V2 and V3, which provide feedforward input to MT that conveys more information about depth than motion. We thus monitored the choice-related activity of the same neuron both before and during V2/V3 inactivation. During inactivation, MT neurons became less predictive of decisions for the depth task but not the motion task, indicating that a feedforward pathway that gives rise to tuning preferences also contributes to decision signals. We show that our data are consistent with V2/V3 input conferring structured noise correlations onto the MT population. PMID:26139374

  17. Localization of the human cortical visual area MT based on computer aided histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Annese, J; Gazzaniga, M S; Toga, A W

    2005-07-01

    We describe human area MT histologically based on the observer independent analysis of cortical myeloarchiteture, multiple complementary staining techniques and 3-D reconstruction. The topography of an architectonic field that presented constant structural characteristics across specimens was studied in relation to the sulcal geography of the occipito-temporal region. Objective and semi-automated analysis of local microstructure revealed a distinct cortical architecture and matched topographically the localization of MT derived from functional imaging. MT was localized by the histotopographic method in relation to definite macroscopic landmarks. This study demonstrates a new set of distinguishing architectonic features of human MT that permit localization on structural grounds and suggests that the characteristic laminar structure of this area may be related to its unique pattern of connections and to its role in visual perception. PMID:15590914

  18. A Modality-Specific Feedforward Component of Choice-Related Activity in MT.

    PubMed

    Smolyanskaya, Alexandra; Haefner, Ralf M; Lomber, Stephen G; Born, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    The activity of individual sensory neurons can be predictive of an animal's choices. These decision signals arise from network properties dependent on feedforward and feedback inputs; however, the relative contributions of these inputs are poorly understood. We determined the role of feedforward pathways to decision signals in MT by recording neuronal activity while monkeys performed motion and depth tasks. During each session, we reversibly inactivated V2 and V3, which provide feedforward input to MT that conveys more information about depth than motion. We thus monitored the choice-related activity of the same neuron both before and during V2/V3 inactivation. During inactivation, MT neurons became less predictive of decisions for the depth task but not the motion task, indicating that a feedforward pathway that gives rise to tuning preferences also contributes to decision signals. We show that our data are consistent with V2/V3 input conferring structured noise correlations onto the MT population. PMID:26139374

  19. Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH, HO2, O3, and H2O - A test of modeled stratospheric HO(x) chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, P. O.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Weinstock, E. M.; Dessler, A. E.; Lloyd, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous, in situ measurements of OH, HO2, H2O, and O3 from 37-23 km are reported. The partitioning between OH and HO2 and the total HO(x) concentration are compared with expected steady-state values. The ratio of HO2 to OH varies from less than 2 at 36 km to more than 3 at 25 km; in the lower stratosphere this ratio is nearly a factor of two less than predicted. The data are used to calculate HO(x) production and loss rates. The measured HO(x) mixing ratio is consistent with production dominated by the reaction of O(1D) with H2O, and loss controlled by NOy below 28 km and HO(x) above 30 km. The steady-state concentration of H2O2 is inferred from the measured HO2 concentration and calculated photolysis rate. The maximum H2O2 mixing ratio (at 33 km) is predicted to be less than 0.2 ppb.

  20. Registration of Three High Fiber Sugar Cane Varieties, L 79-1002, HoCP 91-552 AND Ho 00-961, for Biofuels Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High fiber sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties, or energy canes, have been shown to be a viable feedstock for biofuel applications. Three high fiber sugarcane varieties, L 79-1002, HoCP 91-552 and Ho 00-961, were released in April 2007 for commercial biofuel production. L 79-1002 averaged 2...